Science.gov

Sample records for harmonic noise sources

  1. Harmonic demodulation of nonstationary shot noise.

    PubMed

    Gray, M B; Stevenson, A J; Bachor, H A; McClelland, D E

    1993-05-15

    We report on experimental demodulation of nonstationary shot noise, which is associated with strongly modulated light. For sinusoidal modulation and demodulation, measurements confirm theoretical predictions of 1.8-dB excess noise in the modulation quadrature and 3-dB noise reduction in the opposite quadrature, relative to the standard quantum limit. Demodulation with a third harmonic produces noise correlated with that which is due to the fundamental. Reducing excess noise by 0.8 dB in the modulation quadrature, by combining the fundamental and third harmonics in a 2:1 ratio, is shown to be feasible. PMID:19802263

  2. An Analysis of Shot Noise Propagation and Amplificationin Harmonic Cascade FELs

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; /SLAC

    2006-12-11

    The harmonic generation process in a harmonic cascade (HC) FEL is subject to noise degradation which is proportional to the square of the total harmonic order. In this paper, we study the shot noise evolution in the first-stage modulator and radiator of a HC FEL that produces the dominant noise contributions. We derive the effective input noise for a modulator operating in the low-gain regime, and analyze the radiator noise for a density-modulated beam. The significance of these noise sources in different harmonic cascade designs is also discussed.

  3. The Effects of Crosswind Flight on Rotor Harmonic Noise Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop recommendations for procedures for helicopter source noise characterization, the effects of crosswinds on main rotor harmonic noise radiation are assessed using a model of the Bell 430 helicopter. Crosswinds are found to have a significant effect on Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise radiation when the helicopter is trimmed with the fuselage oriented along the inertial flight path. However, the magnitude of BVI noise remains unchanged when the pilot orients the fuselage along the aerodynamic velocity vector, crabbing for zero aerodynamic sideslip. The effects of wind gradients on BVI noise are also investigated and found to be smaller in the crosswind direction than in the headwind direction. The effects of crosswinds on lower harmonic noise sources at higher flight speeds are also assessed. In all cases, the directivity of radiated noise is somewhat changed by the crosswind. The model predictions agree well with flight test data for the Bell 430 helicopter captured under various wind conditions. The results of this investigation would suggest that flight paths for future acoustic flight testing are best aligned across the prevailing wind direction to minimize the effects of winds on noise measurements when wind cannot otherwise be avoided.

  4. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  5. Community noise sources and noise control issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nihart, Gene L.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: community noise sources and noise control issues; noise components for turbine bypass turbojet engine (TBE) turbojet; engine cycle selection and noise; nozzle development schedule; NACA nozzle design; NACA nozzle test results; nearly fully mixed (NFM) nozzle design; noise versus aspiration rate; peak noise test results; nozzle test in the Low Speed Aeroacoustic Facility (LSAF); and Schlieren pictures of NACA nozzle.

  6. A LOW NOISE RF SOURCE FOR RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    HAYES,T.

    2004-07-05

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) requires a low noise rf source to ensure that beam lifetime during a store is not limited by the rf system. The beam is particularly sensitive to noise from power line harmonics. Additionally, the rf source must be flexible enough to handle the frequency jump required for rebucketing (transferring bunches from the acceleration to the storage rf systems). This paper will describe the design of a Direct Digital Synthesizer (DDS) based system that provides both the noise performance and the flexibility required.

  7. Eliminating upper harmonic noise in vibroseis data via numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Aal, Abd El-Aziz Khairy

    2010-06-01

    In conventional vibroseis signal processing, algorithms including cross-correlation and deconvolution are applied to convert the raw trace data into a seismic section. However, their performance deteriorates when the trace data are corrupted by the harmonic noise. An important issue of vibroseis data enhancement is the treatment or suppression upper harmonics. In this contribution, I present algorithm to eliminate the harmonic distortion, all at once, in both down- and up-sweep conventional vibroseis data using a simulation process for harmonic distortion in the correlated data. This technique consists of four steps: (1) cross-correlating the raw data with fundamental sweep then dividing the trace to several windows and detecting the windows contain fundamental energy for each response reflector; (2) calculating the harmonic amplitude ratio when applying the Fourier transform on the upper harmonic components and the fundamental, and dividing the upper harmonic components by the fundamental to remove the unknown convolutional effects; (3) using the harmonic amplitude ratio to simulate the upper harmonics associated with the fundamental energy in down- and up-sweep data. When the harmonic amplitude ratio is convolved with a portion of data containing the fundamental energy in the correlated data in time domain, I can get simulation for the upper harmonics existed in the original data and (4) subtracting the simulated harmonics from correlated traces using direct optimization procedure. Accordingly, I developed a procedure for attenuating upper harmonics in the positive and negative times of the correlated traces depending on accurate simulation for the correlated harmonics. The procedure was tested on both synthetic and field data sets. The correlated trace thus obtained will be freed substantially of correlation noise; that is the correlation-ghost sweeps (produced by severe harmonic distortion at positive and negative correlation times) are eliminated without

  8. Temporal Characterization of Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Current aircraft source noise prediction tools yield time-independent frequency spectra as functions of directivity angle. Realistic evaluation and human assessment of aircraft fly-over noise require the temporal characteristics of the noise signature. The purpose of the current study is to analyze empirical data from broadband jet and tonal fan noise sources and to provide the temporal information required for prediction-based synthesis. Noise sources included a one-tenth-scale engine exhaust nozzle and a one-fifth scale scale turbofan engine. A methodology was developed to characterize the low frequency fluctuations employing the Short Time Fourier Transform in a MATLAB computing environment. It was shown that a trade-off is necessary between frequency and time resolution in the acoustic spectrogram. The procedure requires careful evaluation and selection of the data analysis parameters, including the data sampling frequency, Fourier Transform window size, associated time period and frequency resolution, and time period window overlap. Low frequency fluctuations were applied to the synthesis of broadband noise with the resulting records sounding virtually indistinguishable from the measured data in initial subjective evaluations. Amplitude fluctuations of blade passage frequency (BPF) harmonics were successfully characterized for conditions equivalent to take-off and approach. Data demonstrated that the fifth harmonic of the BPF varied more in frequency than the BPF itself and exhibited larger amplitude fluctuations over the duration of the time record. Frequency fluctuations were found to be not perceptible in the current characterization of tonal components.

  9. Speech synthesis with pitch modification using harmonic plus noise model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehana, Parveen K.; Pandey, Prem C.

    2003-10-01

    In harmonic plus noise model (HNM) based speech synthesis, the input signal is modeled as two parts: the harmonic part using amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the fundamental and the noise part using an all-pole filter excited by random white Gaussian noise. This method requires relatively less number of parameters and computations, provides good quality output, and permits pitch and time scaling without explicit estimation of vocal tract parameters. Pitch scaling to synthesize the speech with interpolated original amplitudes and phases at the multiples of the scaled pitch frequency results in an unnatural quality. Our investigation for obtaining natural quality output showed that the frequency scale of the amplitudes and phases of the harmonics of the original signal needed to be modified by a speaker dependent warping function. The function was obtained by studying the relationship between pitch frequency and formant frequencies for the three cardinal vowels naturally occurring with different pitches in a passage with intonation. Listening tests showed that good quality speech was obtained by linear frequency scaling of the amplitude and phase spectra, by the same factor as the pitch-scaling.

  10. Noise cancelling of MRS signals combining model-based removal of powerline harmonics and multichannel Wiener filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Jakob Juul; Dalgaard, Esben; Auken, Esben

    2014-02-01

    The fidelity of magnetic resonance sounding signals is often severely degraded by noise, primarily electrical interference from powerline harmonics and short electromagnetic discharges. In many circumstances, the noise originates from multiple sources. We show that noise cancelling can be improved if the multiple origins of noise are taken into account. In particular, a method is developed where powerline harmonics are efficiently removed through a model-based approach. Subsequently, standard multichannel Wiener filtering can be used to provide a further noise reduction. The performance of the method depends on the distribution of noise on the particular site of measurement. Simulations on synthetic signals embedded in real noise recordings show that the combined approach can improve the signal-to-noise ratio with an accompanying improvement in retrieval of model parameters.

  11. Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise.

    PubMed

    Balikhin, Michael A; Shprits, Yuri Y; Walker, Simon N; Chen, Lunjin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole; Dandouras, Iannis; Santolik, Ondrej; Carr, Christopher; Yearby, Keith H; Weiss, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as 'equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes 'ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations. PMID:26169360

  12. Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balikhin, Michael A.; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Walker, Simon N.; Chen, Lunjin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole; Dandouras, Iannis; Santolik, Ondrej; Carr, Christopher; Yearby, Keith H.; Weiss, Benjamin

    2015-07-01

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as `equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes `ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations.

  13. Accurate tempo estimation based on harmonic + noise decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Miguel; Richard, Gael; David, Bertrand

    2006-12-01

    We present an innovative tempo estimation system that processes acoustic audio signals and does not use any high-level musical knowledge. Our proposal relies on a harmonic + noise decomposition of the audio signal by means of a subspace analysis method. Then, a technique to measure the degree of musical accentuation as a function of time is developed and separately applied to the harmonic and noise parts of the input signal. This is followed by a periodicity estimation block that calculates the salience of musical accents for a large number of potential periods. Next, a multipath dynamic programming searches among all the potential periodicities for the most consistent prospects through time, and finally the most energetic candidate is selected as tempo. Our proposal is validated using a manually annotated test-base containing 961 music signals from various musical genres. In addition, the performance of the algorithm under different configurations is compared. The robustness of the algorithm when processing signals of degraded quality is also measured.

  14. Noise Cancelling of Multichannel MRS Signals with a Time Dependent Harmonic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, J.; Dalgaard, E.; Auken, E.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a non-invasive geophysical technique applicable to groundwater investigations and provides a direct quantification of the subsurface water content from surface measurements. The technique is susceptible to electromagnetic noise and signal processing must be employed to retrieve the NMR signal from noisy measurements. The latest generation of MRS equipment is multichannel systems where a primary coil records the noisy NMR signal. Additional coils, physically displaced from the primary coil, synchronously measure the noise which is then subtracted from the primary coil with multichannel Wiener filtering. Unfortunately, this approach fails to take into account that noise can originate from several sources and as a result the noise cancelling is not always optimum. To remedy this problem it can be utilized that one of the major noise components in MRS signals is powerline harmonics, i.e. the noise is a sum of sinusoidal signals all harmonically related to the same fundamental powerline frequency. This implies that it is possible to create a model of the powerline harmonic noise that can be fitted to the MRS recordings and subtracted from these before employing multichannel Wiener filtering as we have recently demonstrated. A fundamental assumption in that work was that the powerline frequency and the amplitude and phase of each harmonic remained constant throughout a signal record of approximately 1 s duration. This assumption is often valid, but not always. In this study we present an extension of this method where the variations in the powerline signal are accounted for by a time dependent model. The signal records from each coil are divided into short overlapping segments, with a typical duration of 100 ms, and a harmonic model with time independent parameters is fitted to each segment. The fitting parameters from each segment are subsequently splined to a full harmonic model where all parameters; fundamental powerline frequency

  15. Observations of discrete harmonics emerging from equatorial noise

    PubMed Central

    Balikhin, Michael A.; Shprits, Yuri Y.; Walker, Simon N.; Chen, Lunjin; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, Nicole; Dandouras, Iannis; Santolik, Ondrej; Carr, Christopher; Yearby, Keith H.; Weiss, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A number of modes of oscillations of particles and fields can exist in space plasmas. Since the early 1970s, space missions have observed noise-like plasma waves near the geomagnetic equator known as ‘equatorial noise'. Several theories were suggested, but clear observational evidence supported by realistic modelling has not been provided. Here we report on observations by the Cluster mission that clearly show the highly structured and periodic pattern of these waves. Very narrow-banded emissions at frequencies corresponding to exact multiples of the proton gyrofrequency (frequency of gyration around the field line) from the 17th up to the 30th harmonic are observed, indicating that these waves are generated by the proton distributions. Simultaneously with these coherent periodic structures in waves, the Cluster spacecraft observes ‘ring' distributions of protons in velocity space that provide the free energy for the waves. Calculated wave growth based on ion distributions shows a very similar pattern to the observations. PMID:26169360

  16. En route noise: NASA propfan test aircraft (calculated source noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickley, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The second phase of a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude, low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft was conducted on April 3-13, 1989 at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The first phase was conducted on October 26-31, 1987 in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA (Lewis) measured the source noise of the test aircraft during both phases while NASA (Langley) measured surface noise only during the second phase. FAA/NASA designed a program to obtain noise level data from the propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at ground level, during simulated en route flights (35,000 and 20,000 feet ASL), and to test low frequency atmospheric absorption algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight into the necessity for regulatory measures. The curves of calculated source noise versus emission angle are based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak envelope of the adjusted ground data. Centerline and sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in good agreement. A comparison of the Alabama chase plane source data and the calculated source noise at centerline for both the Alabama and New Mexico data shows good agreement for the 35,000 and the 20,000 feet (ASL) overflights. With the availability of the New Mexico in-flight data, further in depth comparisons will be made.

  17. Flow noise source-resonator coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    This paper investigates the coupling mechanism between flow noise sources and acoustic resonators. Analytical solutions are developed for the classical cases of monopole and dipole types of flow noise sources. The effectiveness of the coupling between the acoustic resonator and the noise source is shown to be dependent on the type of noise source as well as its location on the acoustic pressure mode shape. For a monopole source, the maximum coupling occurs when the noise source is most intense near an acoustic pressure antinode (i.e., location of maximum acoustic pressure). A numerical study with the impedance method demonstrates this effect. A dipole source couples most effectively when located near an acoustic pressure node.

  18. Effect of harmonic noise on a Brownian particle in a ratchet periodic potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. R.; Bai, L.; Shu, C. Z.; Nie, L. R.

    2012-08-01

    A Brownian particle in a ratchet periodic potential driven by harmonic noise, which is produced through a RLC oscillation circuit with Gaussian white noise, is investigated. The mean velocity and stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) of the system are obtained by means of numerical simulations. We also used the power spectrum of the harmonic noise, the peak position and semi-height width of which can be changed by modulating the driving oscillation circuit's parameters, to analyse contributions of characteristics of the power spectrum to the mean velocity. The results indicate that: (i) appropriate peak position and semi-height width of the harmonic noise's power spectrum can maximise the particle's mean velocity; (ii) the SPDF undergoes a state transition from monostability → bistability → tristability → monostability as the Gaussian white noise intensity is increased, and the other parameters of the driving oscillation circuit can also modify the system's state.

  19. Source and processing effects on noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We quantify the effects of spatially heterogeneous noise sources and seismic processing on noise correlation measurements and their sensitivity to Earth structure. Our analysis is based on numerical wavefield simulations in heterogeneous media. This allows us to calculate inter-station correlations for arbitrarily distributed noise sources where - as in the real Earth - different frequencies are generated in different locations. Using adjoint methods, we compute the exact structural sensitivities for a given combination of source distribution, processing scheme, and measurement technique. The key results of our study are as follows: (1) Heterogeneous noise sources and subjective processing, such as the application of spectral whitening, have profound effects on noise correlation wave forms. (2) Nevertheless, narrow-band traveltime measurements are only weakly affected by heterogeneous noise sources and processing. This result is in accord with previous analytical studies, and it explains the similarity of noise and earthquake tomographies that only exploit traveltime information. (3) Spatially heterogeneous noise sources can lead to structural sensitivities that deviate strongly from the classical cigar-shaped sensitivities. Furthermore, the frequency dependence of sensitivity kernels can go far beyond the well-know dependence of the Fresnel zone width on frequency. Our results imply that a meaningful application of modern full waveform inversion methods to noise correlations is not possible unless both the noise source distribution and the processing scheme are properly taken into account. Failure to do so can lead to erroneous misfit quantifications, slow convergence of optimisation schemes, and to the appearance of tomographic artefacts that reflect the incorrect structural sensitivity. These aspects acquire special relevance in the monitoring of subtle changes of subsurface structure that may be polluted when the time dependence of heterogeneous noise sources

  20. Relationship between exposure to multiple noise sources and noise annoyance.

    PubMed

    Miedema, Henk M E

    2004-08-01

    Relationships between exposure to noise [metric: day-night level (DNL) or day-evening-night level (DENL)] from a single source (aircraft, road traffic, or railways) and annoyance based on a large international dataset have been published earlier. Also for stationary sources relationships have been assessed. Here the annoyance equivalents model concerning noise annoyance from combined sources and the underlying assumptions are presented. The model first translates the noise from the individual sources into the equally annoying sound levels of a reference source, road traffic, and then sums these levels giving total level L. The annoyance from the combined sources is found by substituting exposure L in the road traffic exposure-annoyance relationship. The most important assumption, independence of the contributions of the sources, is discussed. It appears that independence will be violated substantially only due to the effect of the presence or absence of a quiet side of building which is not incorporated in the model. For use in practice the application of the model is broken down in five steps. The step by step procedure can be used for the assessment of the total noise level and the associated total annoyance on the basis of the DNL or DENL values of the individual sources. PMID:15376661

  1. Noise sources in wind turbines. Source identification research: Noise suppression design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanschie, L. W. A.; Debruijn, A.; Vantol, F. H.

    1985-06-01

    Aerodynamic and mechanical noise measurements on medium-sized wind turbines were carried out; literature on aerodynamic noise sources at wings was reviewed. The total emission level as a function of the average wind velocity was determined. Aerodynamic wing noise was measured seperately from the nacelle noise using a microphone. A trigger unit consisting of an optical sensor and telelens was developed to measure synchronically the noise signal of the wing in horizontal position. In the nacelle, noise and vibration measurements were done at the entering axis, the gear casing, and the generator. Main sources are the gear casing, the generator, and obstacles on the wings. Noise reducing design recommendations are given.

  2. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  3. A continuous wavelet transform approach for harmonic parameters estimation in the presence of impulsive noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yu; Xue, Yuan; Zhang, Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Impulsive noise caused by some random events has the main character of short rise-time and wide frequency spectrum range, so it has the potential to degrade the performance and reliability of the harmonic estimation. This paper focuses on the harmonic estimation procedure based on continuous wavelet transform (CWT) when the analyzed signal is corrupted by the impulsive noise. The digital CWT of both the time-varying sinusoidal signal and the impulsive noise are analyzed, and there are two cross ridges in the time-frequency plane of CWT, which are generated by the signal and the noise separately. In consideration of the amplitude of the noise and the number of the spike event, two inequalities are derived to provide limitations on the wavelet parameters. Based on the amplitude distribution of the noise, the optimal wavelet parameters determined by solving these inequalities are used to suppress the contamination of the noise, as well as increase the amplitude of the ridge corresponding to the signal, so the parameters of each harmonic component can be estimated accurately. The proposed procedure is applied to a numerical simulation and a bone vibration signal test giving satisfactory results of stationary and time-varying harmonic parameter estimation.

  4. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Harmonic Noise Radiation: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric; Sim, Ben W.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ambient atmospheric conditions, air temperature and density, on rotor harmonic noise radiation are characterized using theoretical models and experimental measurements of helicopter noise collected at three different test sites at elevations ranging from sea level to 7000 ft above sea level. Significant changes in the thickness, loading, and blade-vortex interaction noise levels and radiation directions are observed across the different test sites for an AS350 helicopter flying at the same indicated airspeed and gross weight. However, the radiated noise is shown to scale with ambient pressure when the flight condition of the helicopter is defined in nondimensional terms. Although the effective tip Mach number is identified as the primary governing parameter for thickness noise, the nondimensional weight coefficient also impacts lower harmonic loading noise levels, which contribute strongly to low frequency harmonic noise radiation both in and out of the plane of the horizon. Strategies for maintaining the same nondimensional rotor operating condition under different ambient conditions are developed using an analytical model of single main rotor helicopter trim and confirmed using a CAMRAD II model of the AS350 helicopter. The ability of the Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustics Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) technique to generalize noise measurements made under one set of ambient conditions to make accurate noise predictions under other ambient conditions is also validated.

  5. A Parameter Identification Method for Helicopter Noise Source Identification and Physics-Based Semi-Empirical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric, II; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2010-01-01

    A new physics-based parameter identification method for rotor harmonic noise sources is developed using an acoustic inverse simulation technique. This new method allows for the identification of individual rotor harmonic noise sources and allows them to be characterized in terms of their individual non-dimensional governing parameters. This new method is applied to both wind tunnel measurements and ground noise measurements of two-bladed rotors. The method is shown to match the parametric trends of main rotor Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, allowing accurate estimates of BVI noise to be made for operating conditions based on a small number of measurements taken at different operating conditions.

  6. A low noise 500 MHz frequency source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcan, A.; Bloch, M.; Tanski, W.

    A low-noise signal source providing multiple 500 MHz and 400 MHz outputs is presented whose noise characteristics approach the thermal limit at frequencies spaced greater than 1 MHz from the carrier. The unit uses bulk and surface acoustic wave resonators to insure low phase noise and spurious outputs and is totally redundant for failsafe operation. The packaging concept minimizes subassembly interconnections and provides both physical and electrical independence of two redundant generators; package shielding insures minimum conducted and radiated susceptibility.

  7. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  8. Active Control of Aerodynamic Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Gregory A.

    2001-01-01

    Aerodynamic noise sources become important when propulsion noise is relatively low, as during aircraft landing. Under these conditions, aerodynamic noise from high-lift systems can be significant. The research program and accomplishments described here are directed toward reduction of this aerodynamic noise. Progress toward this objective include correction of flow quality in the Low Turbulence Water Channel flow facility, development of a test model and traversing mechanism, and improvement of the data acquisition and flow visualization capabilities in the Aero. & Fluid Dynamics Laboratory. These developments are described in this report.

  9. Perceptual sensitivity to first harmonic amplitude in the voice source.

    PubMed

    Kreiman, Jody; Gerratt, Bruce R

    2010-10-01

    Little is known about the perceptual importance of changes in the shape of the source spectrum, although many measures have been proposed and correlations with different vocal qualities (breathiness, roughness, nasality, strain...) have frequently been reported. This study investigated just-noticeable differences in the relative amplitudes of the first two harmonics (H1-H2) for speakers of Mandarin and English. Listeners heard pairs of vowels that differed only in the amplitude of the first harmonic and judged whether or not the voice tokens were identical in voice quality. Across voices and listeners, just-noticeable-differences averaged 3.18 dB. This value is small relative to the range of values across voices, indicating that H1-H2 is a perceptually valid acoustic measure of vocal quality. For both groups of listeners, differences in the amplitude of the first harmonic were easier to detect when the source spectral slope was steeply falling so that F0 dominated the spectrum. Mandarin speakers were significantly more sensitive (by about 1 dB) to differences in first harmonic amplitudes than were English speakers. Two explanations for these results are possible: Mandarin speakers may have learned to hear changes in harmonic amplitudes due to changes in voice quality that are correlated with the tones of Mandarin; or Mandarin speakers' experience with tonal contrasts may increase their sensitivity to small differences in the amplitude of F0 (which is also the first harmonic). PMID:20968379

  10. The Source of Propeller Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernsthausen, W

    1937-01-01

    A two blade propeller of 40 cm diameter and zero pitch was explored for its noise development; it could be whirled up to 17,000 rpm - i.e., a tip speed of 355 meters/second. To obtain the power loss N(sub m) of the propeller for comparison with the produced acoustical power N(sub A) the engine performance characteristics were measured with and without propeller. The result is the sought-for relation c, that is, curve c' after correction with the engine efficiency.

  11. Macaque retinal ganglion cell responses to visual patterns: harmonic composition, noise, and psychophysical detectability.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Bonnie; Lee, Barry B; Cao, Dingcai

    2016-06-01

    The goal of these experiments was to test how well cell responses to visual patterns can be predicted from the sinewave tuning curve. Magnocellular (MC) and parvocellular (PC) ganglion cell responses to different spatial waveforms (sinewave, squarewave, and ramp waveforms) were measured across a range of spatial frequencies. Sinewave spatial tuning curves were fit with standard Gaussian models. From these fits, waveforms and spatial tuning of a cell's responses to the other waveforms were predicted for different harmonics by scaling in amplitude for the power in the waveform's Fourier expansion series over spatial frequency. Since higher spatial harmonics move at a higher temporal frequency, an additional scaling for each harmonic by the MC (bandpass) or PC (lowpass) temporal response was included, together with response phase. Finally, the model included a rectifying nonlinearity. This provided a largely satisfactory estimation of MC and PC cell responses to complex waveforms. As a consequence of their transient responses, MC responses to complex waveforms were found to have significantly more energy in higher spatial harmonic components than PC responses. Response variance (noise) was also quantified as a function of harmonic component. Noise increased to some degree for the higher harmonics. The data are relevant for psychophysical detection or discrimination of visual patterns, and we discuss the results in this context. PMID:26936977

  12. 3/4-Fractional Superdiffusion in a System of Harmonic Oscillators Perturbed by a Conservative Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardin, Cédric; Gonçalves, Patrícia; Jara, Milton

    2016-05-01

    We consider a harmonic chain perturbed by an energy conserving noise and show that after a space-time rescaling the energy-energy correlation function is given by the solution of a skew-fractional heat equation with exponent 3/4.

  13. Garner Valley Vibroseis Data Processing Using Time-Frequency Filtering Techniques to Remove Unwanted Harmonics and External Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, N. E.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.; Lancelle, C.; Chalari, A.

    2015-12-01

    Time-frequency filtering techniques can greatly improve data quality when combined with frequency swept seismic sources (vibroseis) recorded by seismic arrays by removing unwanted source harmonics or external noise sources (e.g., cultural or ambient noise). A source synchronous filter (SSF) is a time-frequency filter which only passes a specified width frequency band centered on the time varying frequency of the seismic source. A source delay filter (SDF) is a time-frequency filter which only passes those frequencies from the source within a specified delay time range. Both of these time-frequency filters operate on the uncorrelated vibroseis data and allow separate analysis of the source fundamental frequency and each harmonic. In either technique, the time-frequency function of the source can be captured from the source encoder or specified using two or more time-frequency points. SSF and SDF were both used in the processing of the vibroseis data collected in the September 2013 seismic experiment conducted at the NEES@UCSB Garner Valley field site. Three vibroseis sources were used: a 45 kN shear shaker, a 450 N portable mass shaker, and a 26 kN vibroseis truck. Seismic signals from these sources were recorded by two lines of 1 and 3 component accelerometers and geophones, and the Silixa Ltd's intelligent Distributed Acoustic Sensing (iDASTM ) system connected to 762 m of trenched fiber optical cable in a larger rectangular area. SSF and SDF improved vibroseis data quality, simplified data interpretation, and allowed new analysis techniques. This research is part of the larger DOE's PoroTomo project (URL: http://geoscience.wisc.edu/feigl/porotomo).

  14. High harmonic generation by novel fiber amplifier based sources.

    PubMed

    Hädrich, S; Rothhardt, J; Krebs, M; Tavella, F; Willner, A; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2010-09-13

    Significant progress in high repetition rate ultrashort pulse sources based on fiber technology is presented. These systems enable operation at a high repetition rate of up to 500 kHz and high average power in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range via high harmonic generation in a gas jet. High average power few-cycle pulses of a fiber amplifier pumped optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier are used to produce µW level average power for the strongest harmonic at 42.9 nm at a repetition rate of 96 kHz. PMID:20940915

  15. Phase effects in masking by harmonic complexes: detection of bands of speech-shaped noise.

    PubMed

    Deroche, Mickael L D; Culling, John F; Chatterjee, Monita

    2014-11-01

    When phase relationships between partials of a complex masker produce highly modulated temporal envelopes on the basilar membrane, listeners may detect speech information from temporal dips in the within-channel masker envelopes. This source of masking release (MR) is however located in regions of unresolved masker partials and it is unclear how much of the speech information in these regions is really needed for intelligibility. Also, other sources of MR such as glimpsing in between resolved masker partials may provide sufficient information from regions that disregard phase relationships. This study simplified the problem of speech recognition to a masked detection task. Target bands of speech-shaped noise were restricted to frequency regions containing either only resolved or only unresolved masker partials, as a function of masker phase relationships (sine or random), masker fundamental frequency (F0) (50, 100, or 200 Hz), and masker spectral profile (flat-spectrum or speech-shaped). Although masker phase effects could be observed in unresolved regions at F0s of 50 and 100 Hz, it was only at 50-Hz F0 that detection thresholds were ever lower in unresolved than in resolved regions, suggesting little role of envelope modulations for harmonic complexes with F0s in the human voice range and at moderate level. PMID:25373972

  16. Harmonic Generation from Solid Targets - Optmization of Source Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zepf, Matthew; Watts, I. F.; Dangor, A. E.; Norreys, P. A.; Chambers, D. M.; Machacek, A.; Wark, J. S.; Tsakiris, G. D.

    1998-11-01

    High harmonics from solid targets have received renewed interest over the last few years. Theoretical predictions using 1 1/2 D codes suggest that very high orders (>100 ) can be generated at conversion efficiencies in excess of 10-6 [1,2] at Iλ^2 > 10^19 W/cm^2. Experiments have since been performed with pulses varying from 100 fs to 2.5 ps in duration [3-6]. The steep density gradient necessary to generate the harmonics can be generated by either ponderomotive steepening or by using ultraclean pulses which preserve the initial solid vacuum boundary. The two regimes are compared in terms of their dependence on the laser parameters and the emitted harmonic radiation. Particular emphasis will be given to measurements of the holeboring velocity, the polarisation of the harmonics and the intensity scaling in the two regimes. This comparison enables us to find the ideal parameter range for the optimization of harmonic source. [1] R. Lichters et al., Physics of Plasmas 3, 3425, (1996). [2] P. Gibbon, IEEE J. of Q. Elec. 33, 1915 (1997). [3] S. Kohlweyer, et al., Optics Comm. 177, 431 (1995). [4] P. Norreys et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 76, 1832 (1995). [5] D. von der Linde et al., Phys. Rev. A, 52, R25 (1995) [6] M. Zepf, et al., submitted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett.

  17. Noise Source for Calibrating a Microwave Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Edward J.

    2006-01-01

    A correlated-noise source has been developed for use in calibrating an airborne or spaceborne Earth-observing correlation microwave polarimeter that operates in a in a pass band that includes a nominal frequency of 10.7 GHz. Deviations from ideal behavior of the hardware of correlation polarimeters are such as to decorrelate the signals measured by such an instrument. A correlated-noise source provides known input signals, measurements of which can be processed to estimate and correct for the decorrelation effect.

  18. Reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1989-01-01

    An acoustics test using an aeroelastically scaled rotor was conducted to examine the effectiveness of higher harmonic blade pitch control for the reduction of impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. A four-bladed, 110 in. diameter, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Noise and vibration measurements were made for a range of matched flight conditions, where prescribed (open-loop) higher harmonic pitch was superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. For the inflow-microphone noise measurements, advantage was taken of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel by using a sound power determination approach. Initial findings from on-line data processing for three of the test microphones are reported for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch control for a range of input amplitudes and phases. By comparing these results to corresponding baseline (no control) conditions, significant noise reductions (4 to 5 dB) were found for low-speed descent conditions, where helicopter BVI noise is most intense. For other rotor flight conditions, the overall noise was found to increase. All cases show increased vibration levels.

  19. Reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise through higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    An acoustics test using an aeroelastically scaled rotor was conducted to examine the effectiveness of higher harmonic blade pitch control for the reduction of impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. A four-bladed, 110 in. diameter, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Noise and vibration measurements were made for a range of matched flight conditions, where prescribed (open-loop) higher harmonic pitch was superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. For the inflow-microphone noise measurements, advantage was taken of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel by using a sound power determination approach. Initial findings from on-line data processing for three of the test microphones are reported for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch control for a range of input amplitudes and phases. By comparing these results to corresponding baseline (no control) conditions, significant noise reductions (4 to 5 dB) were found for low-speed descent conditions, where helicopter BVI noise is most intense. For other rotor flight conditions, the overall noise was found to increase. All cases show increased vibration levels.

  20. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Vane Unsteady Pressure Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the nature of fan outlet guide vane pressure fluctuations and their link to rotor-stator interaction noise, time histories of vane fluctuating pressures were digitally acquired as part of the Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test. Vane unsteady pressures were measured at seven fan tip speeds for both a radial and a swept vane configuration. Using time-domain averaging and spectral analysis, the blade passing frequency (BPF) harmonic and broadband contents of the vane pressures were individually analyzed. Significant Sound Pressure Level (SPL) reductions were observed for the swept vane relative to the radial vane for the BPF harmonics of vane pressure, but vane broadband reductions due to sweep turned out to be much smaller especially on an average basis. Cross-correlation analysis was used to establish the level of spatial coherence of broadband pressures between different locations on the vane and integral length scales of pressure fluctuations were estimated from these correlations. Two main results of this work are: (1) the average broadband level on the vane (in dB) increases linearly with the fan tip speed for both the radial and swept vanes, and (2) the broadband pressure distribution on the vane is nearly homogeneous and its integral length scale is a monotonically decreasing function of fan tip speed.

  1. Consideration of some noise sources due to railway operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanworth, C. G.

    1983-03-01

    A number of railway operation noise sources other than those leading to the far field (largely wheel/rail), train pass-by noise, are identified and briefly discussed. People primarily affected by these may include railway staff and passengers on the train, railway trackside staff, and wayside residents. Both environmental pollution and hearing protection may be involved. Sources considered include the following: close proximity wheel/rail noise; locomotive noise; freight vehicle noise; warning signal noise; near field bridge noise; marshalling yard noise; flange squeal on tight curves; maintenance machine noise; and track machinery warning horn noise.

  2. Modeling helicopter near-horizon harmonic noise due to transient maneuvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sickenberger, Richard D.

    A new first principles model has been developed to estimate the external harmonic noise radiation for a helicopter performing transient maneuvers in the longitudinal plane. This model, which simulates the longitudinal fuselage dynamics, main rotor blade flapping, and far field acoustics, was validated using in-flight measurements and recordings from ground microphones during a full-scale flight test featuring a Bell 206B-3 helicopter. The flight test was specifically designed to study transient maneuvers. The validated model demonstrated that the flapping of the main rotor blades does not significantly affect the acoustics radiated by the helicopter during maneuvering flight. Furthermore, the model also demonstrated that Quasi-Static Acoustic Mapping (Q-SAM) methods can be used to reliably predict the noise radiated during transient maneuvers. The model was also used to identify and quantify the contributions of main rotor thickness noise, low frequency loading noise, and blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise during maneuvering flight for the Bell 206B-3 helicopter. Pull-up and push-over maneuvers from pure longitudinal cyclic and pure collective control inputs were investigated. The contribution of thickness noise and low frequency loading noise during maneuvering flight was found to depend on the orientation of the tip-path plane relative to the observer. The contribution of impulsive BVI noise during maneuvering flight was found to depend on the inflow through the main rotor and the orientation of the tip-path plane relative to the observer.

  3. Sub-harmonic broadband humps and tip noise in low-speed ring fans.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Stéphane; Sanjose, Marlène

    2016-01-01

    A joint experimental and numerical study has been achieved on a low-speed axial ring fan in clean inflow. Experimental evidence shows large periodic broadband humps at lower frequencies than the blade passing frequencies and harmonics even at design conditions. These sub-harmonic humps are also found to be sensitive to the fan process and consequently to its tip geometry. Softer fans yield more intense humps more shifted to lower frequencies with respect to the fan harmonics. Unsteady turbulent flow simulations of this ring fan mounted on a test plenum have been achieved by four different methods that have been validated by comparing with overall performances and detailed hot-wire velocity measurements in the wake. Noise predictions are either obtained directly or are obtained through Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings' analogy, and compared with narrowband and third-octave power spectra. All unsteady simulations correctly capture the low flow rates, the coherent vortex dynamics in the tip clearance and consequently the noise radiation dominated by the tip noise in the low- to mid-frequency range. Yet, only the scale-adaptive simulation and the lattice Boltzmann method simulations which can describe most of the turbulent structures accurately provide the proper spectral shape and levels, and consequently the overall sound power level. PMID:26827010

  4. Experimental observation of excess noise in a detuned phase-modulation harmonic mode-locking laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Shiquan; Bao Xiaoyi

    2006-09-15

    The intracavity phase-modulated laser can work in two distinct stages: 1) phase mode-locking when the applied modulation frequency is equal to the cavity's fundamental frequency or one of its harmonics, and 2) the FM laser oscillation at a moderate detuned modulation frequency. In this paper, we experimentally studied the noise buildup process in the transition from FM laser oscillation to phase mode-locking in a phase-modulated laser. We found that the relaxation oscillation frequency varies with the modulation frequency detuning and the relaxation oscillation will occur twice in the transition region. Between these two relaxation oscillations, the supermode noise can be significantly enhanced, which is evidence of excess noise in laser systems. All of these results can be explained by the theory of Floquet modes in a phase-modulated laser cavity.

  5. Jet engine noise source and noise footprint computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. G.; Peart, N. A.; Miller, D. L.; Crowley, K. C.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation procedures are presented for predicting maximum passby noise levels and contours (footprints) of conventional jet aircraft with or without noise suppression devices. The procedures have been computerized and a user's guide is presented for the computer programs to be used in predicting the noise characteristics during aircraft takeoffs, fly-over, and/or landing operations.

  6. Identifying Potential Noise Sources within Acoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Victoria; Lewalle, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    We test a new algorithm for its ability to detect sources of noise within random background. The goal of these tests is to better understand how to identify sources within acoustic signals while simultaneously determining the strengths and weaknesses of the algorithm in question. Unlike previously published algorithms, the antenna method does not pinpoint events by looking for the most energetic portions of a signal. The algorithm searches for the ideal lag combinations between three signals by taking excerpts of possible events. The excerpt with the lowest calculated minimum distance between possible events is how the algorithm identifies sources. At the minimum distance, the events are close in time and frequency. This method can be compared to the cross correlation and denoising methods to better understand its effectiveness. This work is supported in part by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL, as well as the Syracuse University MAE department.

  7. Bounds on least-squares four-parameter sine-fit errors due to harmonic distortion and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Deyst, J.P.; Souders, T.M.; Solomon, O.M.

    1994-03-01

    Least-squares sine-fit algorithms are used extensively in signal processing applications. The parameter estimates produced by such algorithms are subject to both random and systematic errors when the record of input samples consists of a fundamental sine wave corrupted by harmonic distortion or noise. The errors occur because, in general, such sine-fits will incorporate a portion of the harmonic distortion or noise into their estimate of the fundamental. Bounds are developed for these errors for least-squares four-parameter (amplitude, frequency, phase, and offset) sine-fit algorithms. The errors are functions of the number of periods in the record, the number of samples in the record, the harmonic order, and fundamental and harmonic amplitudes and phases. The bounds do not apply to cases in which harmonic components become aliased.

  8. Ultrasound harmonic imaging with reducing speckle noise by spatial-frequency compounding approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Yu, Jinhua

    2015-12-01

    Speckle noise is a phenomenon inherent in any coherent imaging process and decreases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which brings down the imaging quality. Speckle noise reduction is particularly important in the tissue harmonic imaging (THI) since it has the lower energy and the poorer SNR than the fundamental imaging (FI). Recently plane wave imaging (PWI) has been widely explored. Since the entire imaging region can be covered in one emission, the frame rate increases greatly. In PWI, speckle can be reduced by incoherently averaging images with different speckle patterns. Such images can be acquired by varying the angle from which a target is imaged (spatial compounding, SC) or by changing the spectrum of the pulse (frequency compounding, FC). In this paper we demonstrate here that each approach is only a partial solution and that combining them provides a better result than applying either approach separately. We propose a spatial-frequency compounding (SFC) method for THI. The new method brings a good speckle suppression result. To illustrate the performance of our method, experiments have been conducted on the simulated data. A nonlinear simulation platform based on the full-wave model is used in the harmonic imaging simulation. Results show that our method brings the SNR an improvement of up to 50% in comparison with the single frame HI while maintaining a far better performance in both terms of resolution and contrast than the FI. Similar results can be obtained from our further experiments.

  9. Evading surface and detector frequency noise in harmonic oscillator measurements of force gradients

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Eric W.; Lee, SangGap; Hickman, Steven A.; Harrell, Lee E.; Marohn, John A.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a method of measuring small force gradients acting on a harmonic oscillator in which the force-gradient signal of interest is used to parametrically up-convert a forced oscillation below resonance into an amplitude signal at the oscillator’s resonance frequency. The approach, which we demonstrate in a mechanically detected electron spin resonance experiment, allows the force-gradient signal to evade detector frequency noise by converting a slowly modulated frequency signal into an amplitude signal. PMID:20733934

  10. Sources of noise in magneto-optical readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The various sources of noise which are often encountered in magneto-optical readout systems are analyzed. Although the focus is on magneto-optics, most sources of noise are common among the various optical recording systems and one can easily adapt the results to other media and systems. A description of the magneto-optical readout system under consideration is given, and the standard methods and the relevant terminology of signal and noise measurement are described. The characteristics of thermal noise, which originates in the electronic circuitry of the readout system, are described. The most fundamental of all sources of noise, the shot noise, is considered, and a detailed account of its statistical properties is given. Shot noise, which is due to random fluctuations in photon arrival times, is an ever-present noise in optical detection. Since the performance of magneto-optical recording devices in use today is approaching the limit imposed by the shot noise, it is important that the reader have a good grasp of this particular source of noise. A model for the laser noise is described, and measurement results which yield numerical values for the strength of the laser power fluctuations are presented. Spatial variations of the disk reflectivity and random depolarization phenomena also contribute to the overall level of noise in readout; these and related issues are treated. Numerical simulation results describing some of the more frequently encountered sources of noise which accompany the recorded waveform itself, namely, jitter noise and signal-amplitude fluctuation noise are presented.

  11. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Ph.; Dumas, P.; Schilcher, T.; Nadji, A.; Luedeke, A.; Hubert, N.; Cassinari, L.; Boege, M.; Denard, J.-C.; Stingelin, L.; Nadolski, L.; Garvey, T.; Albert, S.; Gough, Ch.; Quack, M.; Wambach, J.; Dehler, M.; Filhol, J.-M.

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors. PMID:22186638

  12. A Robust Waveguide Millimeter-Wave Noise Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehsan, Negar; Piepmeier, Jeffrey R.; Solly, Michael; Macmurphy, Shawn; Lucey, Jared; Wollack, Edward

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a millimeter-wave noise source for the 160- 210 GHz frequency range. The noise source has been implemented in an E-split-block waveguide package and the internal circuitry was developed on a quartz substrate. The measured excess noise ratio at 200 GHz is 9.6 dB.

  13. Procedure for Separating Noise Sources in Measurements of Turbofan Engine Core Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2006-01-01

    The study of core noise from turbofan engines has become more important as noise from other sources like the fan and jet have been reduced. A multiple microphone and acoustic source modeling method to separate correlated and uncorrelated sources has been developed. The auto and cross spectrum in the frequency range below 1000 Hz is fitted with a noise propagation model based on a source couplet consisting of a single incoherent source with a single coherent source or a source triplet consisting of a single incoherent source with two coherent point sources. Examples are presented using data from a Pratt & Whitney PW4098 turbofan engine. The method works well.

  14. Duct liner optimization for turbomachinery noise sources. [aircraft noise/engine noise - numerical analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, H. C.; Posey, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    An acoustical field theory for axisymmetric, multisectioned lined ducts with uniform flow profiles was combined with a numerical minimization algorithm to predict optimal liner configurations having one, two, and three sections. Source models studied include a point source located on the axis of the duct and rotor/outlet-stator viscous wake interaction effects for a typical research compressor operating at an axial flow Mach number of about 0.4. For this latter source, optimal liners for equipartition-of energy, zero-phase, and least-attenuated-mode source variations were also calculated and compared with exact results. It is found that the potential benefits of liner segmentation for the attenuation of turbomachinery noise is greater than would be predicted from point source results. Furthermore, effective liner design requires precise knowledge of the circumferential and radial modal distributions.

  15. Teaching Doppler Effect with a passing noise source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Ivan F.; Mocellin, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    The noise pitch variation of a passing noise source allows a low cost experimental approach to calculate speed and, for the first time, distance. We adjusted the recorded noise pitch variation to the Doppler shift equation for sound. We did this by taking into account the frequency delay due to the sound source displacement and performing a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the noise signal using free software. This experimental method was successfully applied to aircraft and automobiles.

  16. Source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtner, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    We analyse the physics and geometry of trade-offs between Earth structure and noise sources in interstation noise correlations. Our approach is based on the computation of off-diagonal Hessian elements that describe the extent to which variations in noise sources can compensate for variations in Earth structure without changing the misfit beyond the measurement uncertainty. Despite the fact that all ambient noise inverse problems are special in terms of their receiver configuration and data, some general statements concerning source-structure trade-offs can be made: (i) While source-structure trade-offs may be reduced to some extent by clever measurement design, there are inherent trade-offs that can generally not be avoided. These inherent trade-offs may lead to a mispositioning of structural heterogeneities when the noise source distribution is unknown. (ii) When attenuation is weak, source-structure trade-offs in ambient noise correlations are a global phenomenon, meaning that there is no noise source perturbation that does not trade-off with some Earth structure, and vice versa. (iii) The most significant source-structure trade-offs occur within two elliptically shaped regions connecting a potential noise source perturbation to each one of the receivers. (iv) Far from these elliptical regions, only small-scale structure can trade off against changes in the noise source. (v) While source-structure trade-offs mostly decay with increasing attenuation, they are nearly unaffected by attenuation when the noise source perturbation is located near the receiver-receiver line. This work is intended to contribute to the development of joint source-structure inversions of ambient noise correlations, and in particular to an understanding of the extent to which source-structure trade-offs may be reduced. It furthermore establishes the foundation of future resolution analyses that properly quantify trade-offs between noise sources and Earth structure.

  17. Two-dimensional Raman and infrared vibrational spectroscopy for a harmonic oscillator system nonlinearly coupled with a colored noise bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional vibrational response functions of a harmonic oscillator are reconsidered by assuming nonlinear system-bath couplings. In addition to a standard linear-linear (LL) system-bath interaction, we consider a square-linear (SL) interaction. The LL interaction causes the vibrational energy relaxation, while the SL interaction is mainly responsible for the vibrational phase relaxation. The dynamics of the relevant system are investigated by the numerical integration of the Gaussian-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation under the condition of strong couplings with a colored noise bath, where the conventional perturbative approach cannot be applied. The response functions for the fifth-order nonresonant Raman and the third-order infrared (or equivalently the second-order infrared and the seventh-order nonresonant Raman) spectra are calculated under the various combinations of the LL and the SL coupling strengths. Calculated two-dimensional response functions demonstrate that those spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive to the mechanism of the system-bath couplings and the correlation time of the bath fluctuation. We discuss the primary optical transition pathways involved to elucidate the corresponding spectroscopic features and to relate them to the microscopic sources of the vibrational nonlinearity induced by the system-bath interactions. Optical pathways for the fifth-order Raman spectroscopies from an "anisotropic" medium were newly found in this study, which were not predicted by the weak system-bath coupling theory or the standard Brownian harmonic oscillator model.

  18. Two-dimensional Raman and infrared vibrational spectroscopy for a harmonic oscillator system nonlinearly coupled with a colored noise bath.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsuyoshi; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2004-01-01

    Multidimensional vibrational response functions of a harmonic oscillator are reconsidered by assuming nonlinear system-bath couplings. In addition to a standard linear-linear (LL) system-bath interaction, we consider a square-linear (SL) interaction. The LL interaction causes the vibrational energy relaxation, while the SL interaction is mainly responsible for the vibrational phase relaxation. The dynamics of the relevant system are investigated by the numerical integration of the Gaussian-Markovian Fokker-Planck equation under the condition of strong couplings with a colored noise bath, where the conventional perturbative approach cannot be applied. The response functions for the fifth-order nonresonant Raman and the third-order infrared (or equivalently the second-order infrared and the seventh-order nonresonant Raman) spectra are calculated under the various combinations of the LL and the SL coupling strengths. Calculated two-dimensional response functions demonstrate that those spectroscopic techniques are very sensitive to the mechanism of the system-bath couplings and the correlation time of the bath fluctuation. We discuss the primary optical transition pathways involved to elucidate the corresponding spectroscopic features and to relate them to the microscopic sources of the vibrational nonlinearity induced by the system-bath interactions. Optical pathways for the fifth-order Raman spectroscopies from an "anisotropic" medium were newly found in this study, which were not predicted by the weak system-bath coupling theory or the standard Brownian harmonic oscillator model. PMID:15267286

  19. Aircraft noise source and contour estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, D. G.; Peart, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    Calculation procedures are presented for predicting the noise-time histories and noise contours (footprints) of five basic types of aircraft; turbojet, turofan, turboprop, V/STOL, and helicopter. The procedures have been computerized to facilitate prediction of the noise characteristics during takeoffs, flyovers, and/or landing operations.

  20. Aeroacoustic Codes For Rotor Harmonic and BVI Noise--CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a status of non-CFD aeroacoustic codes at NASA Langley Research Center for the prediction of helicopter harmonic and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. The prediction approach incorporates three primary components: CAMRAD.Mod1 - a substantially modified version of the performance/trim/wake code CAMRAD; HIRES - a high resolution blade loads post-processor; and WOPWOP - an acoustic code. The functional capabilities and physical modeling in CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES will be summarized and illustrated. A new multi-core roll-up wake modeling approach is introduced and validated. Predictions of rotor wake and radiated noise are compared with to the results of the HART program, a model BO-105 windtunnel test at the DNW in Europe. Additional comparisons are made to results from a DNW test of a contemporary design four-bladed rotor, as well as from a Langley test of a single proprotor (tiltrotor) three-bladed model configuration. Because the method is shown to help eliminate the necessity of guesswork in setting code parameters between different rotor configurations, it should prove useful as a rotor noise design tool.

  1. Importance of engine as a source of helicopter external noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, R. D.; Smith, M. J.; Tadghighi, H.

    1989-01-01

    A turboshaft engine's importance as a source of helicopter external noise is presently evaluated experimentally and analytically on the basis of test data from an MD500E helicopter, with and without engine muffler, during level flyovers and climbing flight. A strong engine noise component is noted for helicopter positions nearly overhead and beyond observed position, especially in the 200-1000 Hz range; its strong rearward directivity suggests the noise source to be the broadband exhaust or combustion noise radiated from the exhaust duct. The engine muffler furnished estimated perceived noise level reductions of 2-3 dB for the centerline.

  2. Optimization of Extreme Ultraviolet Light Source from High Harmonic Generation for Condensed-Phase Core-Level Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ming-Fu; Verkamp, Max A.; Ryland, Elizabeth S.; Benke, Kristin; Zhang, Kaili; Carlson, Michaela; Vura-Weis, Josh

    2015-06-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source from high-order harmonic generation has been shown to be a powerful tool for core-level spectroscopy. In addition, this light source provides very high temporal resolution (10-18 s to 10-15 s) for time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. Most applications of the light source have been limited to the studies of atomic and molecular systems, with technique development focused on optimizing for shorter pulses (i.e. tens of attoseconds) or higher XUV energy (i.e. ~keV range). For the application to general molecular systems in solid and liquid forms, however, the XUV photon flux and stability are highly demanded due to the strong absorption by substrates and solvents. In this case, the main limitation is due to the stability of the high order generation process and the limited bandwidth of the XUV source that gives only discrete even/odd order peaks. Consequently, this results in harmonic artifact noise that overlaps with the resonant signal. In our current study, we utilize a semi-infinite cell for high harmonic generation from two quantum trajectories (i.e. short and long) at over-driven NIR power. This condition, produces broad XUV spectrum without using complicated optics (e.g. hollow-core fibers and double optical gating). This light source allows us to measure the static absorption spectrum of the iron M-edge from a Fe(acac)3 molecular solid film, which shows a resonant feature of 0.01 OD (~2.3% absorption). Moreover, we also investigate how sample roughness affects the static absorption spectrum. We are able to make smooth solar cell precursor materials (i.e. PbI2 and PbBr2) by spin casting and observe iodine (50 eV) and bromine (70 eV) absorption edges in the order of 0.05 OD with minimal harmonic artifact noise.

  3. The Effects of Ambient Conditions on Helicopter Rotor Source Noise Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Frederic H.; Greenwood, Eric

    2011-01-01

    A new physics-based method called Fundamental Rotorcraft Acoustic Modeling from Experiments (FRAME) is used to demonstrate the change in rotor harmonic noise of a helicopter operating at different ambient conditions. FRAME is based upon a non-dimensional representation of the governing acoustic and performance equations of a single rotor helicopter. Measured external noise is used together with parameter identification techniques to develop a model of helicopter external noise that is a hybrid between theory and experiment. The FRAME method is used to evaluate the main rotor harmonic noise of a Bell 206B3 helicopter operating at different altitudes. The variation with altitude of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise, known to be a strong function of the helicopter s advance ratio, is dependent upon which definition of airspeed is flown by the pilot. If normal flight procedures are followed and indicated airspeed (IAS) is held constant, the true airspeed (TAS) of the helicopter increases with altitude. This causes an increase in advance ratio and a decrease in the speed of sound which results in large changes to BVI noise levels. Results also show that thickness noise on this helicopter becomes more intense at high altitudes where advancing tip Mach number increases because the speed of sound is decreasing and advance ratio increasing for the same indicated airspeed. These results suggest that existing measurement-based empirically derived helicopter rotor noise source models may give incorrect noise estimates when they are used at conditions where data were not measured and may need to be corrected for mission land-use planning purposes.

  4. Lloyd’s mirror interference lithography with EUV radiation from a high-harmonic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-su; Baksh, Peter; Odstrcil, Michal; Miszczak, Magdalena; Frey, Jeremy G.; Juschkin, Larissa; Brocklesby, William S.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate interference lithography using a high-harmonic source. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is produced by high-harmonic generation with 800 nm light from a femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser (40 fs pulses, 1 kHz, 2 W average power) in argon gas. Interference patterns created using Lloyd’s mirror setup and monochromatized radiation at the 27th harmonic (29 nm) are recorded using a ZEP-520A photoresist, producing features with <200 nm pitch. The effect of the use of femtosecond pulsed EUV radiation on the recorded pattern is investigated. The capability of the high-harmonic source for high-resolution patterning is discussed.

  5. Harmonic source wavefront aberration correction for ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dianis, Scott W.; von Ramm, Olaf T.

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed which uses a lower-frequency transmit to create a known harmonic acoustical source in tissue suitable for wavefront correction without a priori assumptions of the target or requiring a transponder. The measurement and imaging steps of this method were implemented on the Duke phased array system with a two-dimensional (2-D) array. The method was tested with multiple electronic aberrators [0.39π to 1.16π radians root-mean-square (rms) at 4.17 MHz] and with a physical aberrator 0.17π radians rms at 4.17 MHz) in a variety of imaging situations. Corrections were quantified in terms of peak beam amplitude compared to the unaberrated case, with restoration between 0.6 and 36.6 dB of peak amplitude with a single correction. Standard phantom images before and after correction were obtained and showed both visible improvement and 14 dB contrast improvement after correction. This method, when combined with previous phase correction methods, may be an important step that leads to improved clinical images. PMID:21303031

  6. EUV off-axis focusing using a high harmonic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, B.; Rogers, E. T. F.; Grant-Jacob, J.; Stebbings, S. L.; Praeger, M.; de Paula, A. M.; Froud, C. A.; Chapman, R. T.; Butcher, T. J.; Brocklesby, W. S.; Frey, J. G.

    2009-05-01

    High Harmonic Generation is a well established technique for generating Extreme Ultraviolet radiation. It is a promising technique for both structure and spectroscopic imaging due to both the high flux and coherence of the source, and the existence of multiple absorption edges at the generated wavelengths. To increase the flux, a focussing device can be used. Here we present focussing results for a Mo/Si spherical mirror that has been used in an off-axis arrangement, and give extensive analysis of the resulting astigmatic focus and its consequence on diffractive imaging. The astigmatic beam exists as a vertical and horizontal focus, separated by a circle of least confusion. With the help of a theoretical model we show that the most intense part of the beam is always the second line foci and that the phase at the focus is strongly saddle-shaped. However, this phase distortion cannot explain the significant interference peak splitting that is experimentally observed in our diffraction patterns. Instead we propose that the beam quality is degraded upon reflection from the multilayer mirror and it is this asymmetric phase distortion that causes the diffraction peak splitting.

  7. Ranking of compressor station noise sources using sound intensity techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, W.D.; Porter, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    Local residential development and the introduction of more restrictive noise regulations in Canada and the United States are creating a need to improve the noise abatement systems at many existing industrial sites including pipeline compressor stations. The initial phase of any silencing program should include a study to identify and rank the noise sources. Until recently, this type of noise study is qualitative and inexact, requiring a trial and error approach which addressed only one or two sources at a time and often resulted in a prolonged and costly silencing program. The use of sound intensity techniques to determine sound power levels of all noise sources results in lower costs, improved job scheduling and greater likelihood of success of a silencing program. This paper discusses a case study which uses sound intensity techniques to rank noise sources at a natural gas compressor plant powered by a gas turbine.

  8. Noise-like pulses generated at high harmonics in a partially-mode-locked km-long Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucon, A.; Barviau, B.; Fatome, J.; Finot, C.; Sylvestre, T.; Lee, M. W.; Grelu, P.; Millot, G.

    2012-02-01

    We present a 5-km-long Raman fiber laser that delivers pulses at high harmonics of the fundamental cavity repetition rate, up to 1 GHz. The observed nanosecond pulses that propagate in an anomalous dispersion regime possess a complex noise-like structure with a coherence time of around 1 picosecond.

  9. Continuous-variable quantum key distribution with Gaussian source noise

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yujie; Peng Xiang; Yang Jian; Guo Hong

    2011-05-15

    Source noise affects the security of continuous-variable quantum key distribution (CV QKD) and is difficult to analyze. We propose a model to characterize Gaussian source noise through introducing a neutral party (Fred) who induces the noise with a general unitary transformation. Without knowing Fred's exact state, we derive the security bounds for both reverse and direct reconciliations and show that the bound for reverse reconciliation is tight.

  10. Constraints on a synthetic-noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.; Benz, S. P.

    2008-02-01

    Conventional Johnson noise thermometers based on switching correlators have conflicting matching requirements for the sensing resistance. To mitigate distortion effects in the correlator, the RT products of the two sensors must be the same, and to mitigate frequency-response errors in nominally identical input circuits, the two sensing resistances should be the same. A noise thermometer using synthetic noise for the primary reference signal overcomes this conflict because the output voltage and output resistance are independent. This paper presents the rationale and design constraints for a noise thermometer using a synthetic-noise source based on Josephson junctions. The quantized voltage noise source developed at NIST produces tunable waveforms with a spectral density composed of a comb of frequencies of equal amplitude and random phase. In addition to the conventional noise-power and impedance constraints, it has additional constraints relating to the number of tones and the tone spacing.

  11. Noise Characterization of Supercontinuum Sources for Low Coherence Interferometry Applications

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William J.; Kim, Sanghoon; Wax, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We examine the noise properties of supercontinuum light sources when used in low coherence interferometry applications. The first application is a multiple-scattering low-coherence interferometry (ms2/LCI) system where high power and long image acquisition times are required to image deep into tissue. For this system we compare the noise characteristics of two supercontinuum sources from different suppliers. Both sources have long term drift that limits the amount of time over which signal averaging is advantageous for reducing noise. The second application is a high resolution optical coherence tomography system where broadband light is needed for high axial resolution. For this system we compare the noise performance of the two supercontinuum sources and a light source based on four superluminescent diodes (SLDs) using imaging contrast as a comparative metric. We find that the NKT SuperK has superior noise performance compared to the Fianium SC-450-4 but neither meets the performance of the SLDs. PMID:25606759

  12. Analysis and Synthesis of Tonal Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Matthew P.; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Burdisso, Ricardo; Okcu, Selen

    2012-01-01

    Fixed and rotary wing aircraft operations can have a significant impact on communities in proximity to airports. Simulation of predicted aircraft flyover noise, paired with listening tests, is useful to noise reduction efforts since it allows direct annoyance evaluation of aircraft or operations currently in the design phase. This paper describes efforts to improve the realism of synthesized source noise by including short term fluctuations, specifically for inlet-radiated tones resulting from the fan stage of turbomachinery. It details analysis performed on an existing set of recorded turbofan data to isolate inlet-radiated tonal fan noise, then extract and model short term tonal fluctuations using the analytic signal. Methodologies for synthesizing time-variant tonal and broadband turbofan noise sources using measured fluctuations are also described. Finally, subjective listening test results are discussed which indicate that time-variant synthesized source noise is perceived to be very similar to recordings.

  13. Shot noise effect on noise source and noise parameter of 10-nm-scale quasi-ballistic n-/p-type MOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jongwook; Kang, Myounggon

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we investigated the noise source and noise parameters of a quasi-ballistic MOSFET at the high-frequency regime. We presented the shot noise properties in the measured drain current noise and its impact on the induced gate noise and the noise parameters of 10-nm-scale n-/p-type MOS (N/PMOS) devices for the first time. The measured noise sources and noise parameters were carefully analyzed with the shot and thermal noise models in all operation regions. On the basis of the results, new noise parameter models are proposed and the noise performance improvement in the quasi-ballistic regime is shown.

  14. Second and Third Harmonic Measurements at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, D.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Fisher, A.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Huang, Z.; Hering, P.; Iverson, R.; Krzywinski, J.; Loos, H.; Messerschmidt, M.; Nuhn, H.D.; Smith, T.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2011-01-03

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) started user commissioning in October of 2009, producing Free Electron Laser (FEL) radiation between 800 eV and 8 keV [1]. The fundamental wavelength of the FEL dominates radiation in the beamlines, but the beam also produces nonnegligible levels of radiation at higher harmonics. The harmonics may be desirable as a source of harder X-rays, but may also contribute backgrounds to user experiments. In this paper we present preliminary measurements of the second and third harmonic content in the FEL. We also measure the photon energy cutoff of the soft X-ray mirrors to determine the extent to which higher harmonics reach the experimental stations. We present preliminary second and third harmonic measurements for LCLS. At low energies (below 1 keV fundamental) we measure less than 0.1% second harmonic content. The second harmonic will be present in the soft X-ray beam line for fundamental photon energies below approximately 1.1 keV. At low and high energies, we measure third harmonic content ranging from 0.5% to 3%, which is consistent with expectations. For both second and third harmonics, experimental work is ongoing. More rigorous analysis of the data will be completed soon.

  15. Inverting seismic noise cross-correlations for noise source distribution: A step towards reducing source-induced bias in seismic noise interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermert, Laura; Afanasiev, Michael; Sager, Korbinian; Gokhberg, Alexey; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    We report on the ongoing development of a new inversion method for the space- and time-dependent power spectral density distribution of ambient seismic noise sources. The method, once complete, will mainly serve two purposes: First, it will allow us to construct more realistic forward models for noise cross-correlation waveforms, thereby opening new possibilities for waveform imaging by ambient noise tomography. Second, it may provide new insights about the properties of ambient noise sources, complementing studies based on beamforming or numerical modeling of noise based on oceanographic observations. To invert for noise sources, we consider surface wave signal energy measurements on the 'causal' (station A to B) and on the 'acausal' (station B to A) correlation branch, and the ratio between them. These and similar measurements have proven useful for locating noise sources using cross-correlations in several past studies. The inversion procedure is the following: We construct correlation forward models based on Green's functions from a spectral element wave propagation code. To construct these models efficiently, we use source-receiver reciprocity and assume spatial uncorrelation of noise sources. In such a setting, correlations can be calculated from a pre-computed set of Green's functions between the seismic receivers and sources located at the Earth's surface. We then calculate spatial sensitivity kernels for the noise source distribution with respect to the correlation signal energy measurements. These in turn allow us to construct a misfit gradient and optimize the source distribution model to fit our observed cross-correlation signal energies or energy ratios. We will present the workflow for calculation of the forward model and sensitivity kernels, as well as results for both forward modeling and kernels for an example data set of long-period noise or 'hum' at a global scale. We will also provide an outlook on the noise source inversion considering the

  16. A study of interior noise levels, noise sources and transmission paths in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The interior noise levels and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal noise levels and identify principal noise sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source levels and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for noise control design are analyzed.

  17. A study of interior noise levels, noise sources and transmission paths in light aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.

    1983-07-01

    The interior noise levels and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal noise levels and identify principal noise sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source levels and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for noise control design are analyzed.

  18. Decomposition of noise sources of synchronous belt drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang (Sheng); Zheng, Hui; Qatu, Mohamad

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the noise sources of synchronous belt are decomposed and formulated based on the analysis of the impact dynamics of belt-sprocket tooth interface. The impact/contact of belt-sprocket tooth and the vibration of belt span are modeled. The friction-vibrations interaction of belt tooth and the airflow-induced acoustic wave during belt-sprocket tooth engagement are comprehensively formulated. The structure-borne noise consists of structural impact noise and friction-induced noise. The airborne noise is due to airflow-induced acoustic wave during belt-sprocket tooth engaging. The spectral signatures of the varied noise are quantified, and the case studies are given to illustrate the influences of the tooth parameters and operation conditions on noise. The noise due to belt span vibration under impact ranges from hundreds to several thousand Hz. The impact noise, friction-induced noise and airflow-induced noise of belt tooth ranges from 3 kHz to 10 kHz.

  19. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  20. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stiffness variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by a plurality of force transmitting mechanisms which contact the noise radiating element. Each one of the force transmitting mechanisms includes an expandable element and a spring in contact with the noise radiating element so that excitation of the element varies the spring force applied to the noise radiating element. The elements are actuated by a controller which receives input of a signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the elements and causes the spring force applied to the noise radiating element to be varied. The force transmitting mechanisms can be arranged to either produce bending or linear stiffness variations in the noise radiating element.

  1. Identification of Noise Sources and Design of Noise Reduction Measures for a Pneumatic Nail Gun

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Vignesh; Zechmann, Edward

    2015-01-01

    An experimental-analytical procedure was implemented to reduce the operating noise level of a nail gun, a commonly found power tool in a construction site. The procedure is comprised of preliminary measurements, identification and ranking of major noise sources and application of noise controls. Preliminary measurements show that the impact noise transmitted through the structure and the exhaust related noise were found to be the first and second major contributors. Applying a noise absorbing foam on the outside of the nail gun body was found to be an effective noise reduction technique. One and two-volume small mufflers were designed and applied to the exhaust side of the nail gun which reduced not only the exhaust noise but also the impact noise. It was shown that the overall noise level could be reduced by as much as 3.5 dB, suggesting that significant noise reduction is possible in construction power tools without any significant increase of the cost. PMID:26366038

  2. Low-noise, low repetition rate, semiconductor-based mode-locked laser source suitable for high bandwidth photonic analog-digital conversion.

    PubMed

    Mandridis, Dimitrios; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Quinlan, Franklyn; Akbulut, Mehmetcan; Plant, Jason J; Juodawlkis, Paul W; Delfyett, Peter J

    2010-05-20

    A semiconductor-based mode-locked laser source with low repetition rate, ultralow amplitude, and phase noise is introduced. A harmonically mode-locked semiconductor-based ring laser is time demultiplexed at a frequency equal to the cavity fundamental frequency (80MHz), resulting in a low repetition rate pulse train having ultralow amplitude and phase noise, properties usually attributed to multigigahertz repetition rate lasers. The effect of time demultiplexing on the phase noise of harmonically mode-locked lasers is analyzed and experimentally verified. PMID:20490247

  3. Coexistence of harmonic soliton molecules and rectangular noise-like pulses in a figure-eight fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Qi; Hu, Zi-Ang; Cui, Hu; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    We report the coexistence of high-order harmonic soliton molecules and rectangular noise-like pulses (NLP) in a figure-eight fiber laser mode-locked by a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror. The harmonic soliton molecule has a repetition rate of 936.6 MHz, corresponding to the 466th harmonics of the fundamental cavity repetition rate, with soliton separation of 16.5 ps. Meanwhile, the rectangular NLP operates at the fundamental repetition rate. In addition, these two types of pulses could be generated independently by manipulating the polarization controllers. The experimental results demonstrate an interesting operation regime of the fiber laser and contribute to enriching the dynamics of mode-locked pulses in fiber lasers. PMID:27607971

  4. Noise source emissions, Davis Canyon site, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    This report has been prepared for the purpose of documenting the development of the data provided to the Repository Project Management (RPM) organization. The data provided encompass all phases of activity, from site preparation through the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) and repository construction and operation, and decommissioning. Noise environments expected from construction and operation of transportation corridors associated with the activity were also modeled. The data for the construction of transportation corridors were provided by Bechtel National, Inc. Use of the quietest equipment available within the proven state of the art was assumed, as was the use of acoustical enclosures to the extent practical. The programmatic assumptions are based on the noise-sensitive nature of the Canyonlands National Park. Another feature of the data is the use of 1/3-octave-band rather than 1/1-octave-band resolution of emission spectra. This was done to permit evaluation of audibility of sounds reaching the park.

  5. Aeroacoustic Codes for Rotor Harmonic and BVI Noise. CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES: Methodology and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Burley, Casey L.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    This document details the methodology and use of the CAMRAD.Mod1/HIRES codes, which were developed at NASA Langley Research Center for the prediction of helicopter harmonic and Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. CANMAD.Mod1 is a substantially modified version of the performance/trim/wake code CANMAD. High resolution blade loading is determined in post-processing by HIRES and an associated indicial aerodynamics code. Extensive capabilities of importance to noise prediction accuracy are documented, including a new multi-core tip vortex roll-up wake model, higher harmonic and individual blade control, tunnel and fuselage correction input, diagnostic blade motion input, and interfaces for acoustic and CFD aerodynamics codes. Modifications and new code capabilities are documented with examples. A users' job preparation guide and listings of variables and namelists are given.

  6. Annoyance and loudness of repetitive type noise sources: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Repetitive impulsive noises are a consistent and frequently annoying ingredient of outdoor and indoor noise environments. Examples of such noise sources are jack hammers, unmuffled two-cycle engines, and helicopter blade slap. To aid in the development of more consistent methods for quantifying annoyance from such noise sources, the Environmental Protection Agency funded a review of the literature on the topic. This is a very abbreviated summary of that review and the reader is referred to the original document for detailed references. The review specifically excluded consideration of non-repetitive high-level impulse sounds such as blast noise which has been recently addressed by CHABA Working Group 84(2). Helicopter blade slap was briefly included in the review in order to reflect some of the trends appearing in the very extensive current work in this area.

  7. An improved source model for aircraft interior noise studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahan, J. R.; Fuller, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    There is concern that advanced turboprop engines currently being developed may produce excessive aircraft cabin noise levels. This concern has stimulated renewed interest in developing aircraft interior noise reduction methods that do not significantly increase take off weight. An existing analytical model for noise transmission into aircraft cabins was utilized to investigate the behavior of an improved propeller source model for use in aircraft interior noise studies. The new source model, a virtually rotating dipole, is shown to adequately match measured fuselage sound pressure distributions, including the correct phase relationships, for published data. The virtually rotating dipole is used to study the sensitivity of synchrophasing effectiveness to the fuselage sound pressure trace velocity distribution. Results of calculations are presented which reveal the importance of correctly modeling the surface pressure phase relations in synchrophasing and other aircraft interior noise studies.

  8. Improved perception of speech in noise and Mandarin tones with acoustic simulations of harmonic coding for cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Nie, Kaibao; Imennov, Nikita S; Won, Jong Ho; Drennan, Ward R; Rubinstein, Jay T; Atlas, Les E

    2012-11-01

    Harmonic and temporal fine structure (TFS) information are important cues for speech perception in noise and music perception. However, due to the inherently coarse spectral and temporal resolution in electric hearing, the question of how to deliver harmonic and TFS information to cochlear implant (CI) users remains unresolved. A harmonic-single-sideband-encoder [(HSSE); Nie et al. (2008). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing; Lie et al., (2010). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing] strategy has been proposed that explicitly tracks the harmonics in speech and transforms them into modulators conveying both amplitude modulation and fundamental frequency information. For unvoiced speech, HSSE transforms the TFS into a slowly varying yet still noise-like signal. To investigate its potential, four- and eight-channel vocoder simulations of HSSE and the continuous-interleaved-sampling (CIS) strategy were implemented, respectively. Using these vocoders, five normal-hearing subjects' speech recognition performance was evaluated under different masking conditions; another five normal-hearing subjects' Mandarin tone identification performance was also evaluated. Additionally, the neural discharge patterns evoked by HSSE- and CIS-encoded Mandarin tone stimuli were simulated using an auditory nerve model. All subjects scored significantly higher with HSSE than with CIS vocoders. The modeling analysis demonstrated that HSSE can convey temporal pitch cues better than CIS. Overall, the results suggest that HSSE is a promising strategy to enhance speech perception with CIs. PMID:23145619

  9. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through stress variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of a noise radiating element is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating element is tuned by an expandable ring embedded in the noise radiating element. Excitation of the ring causes expansion or contraction of the ring, thereby varying the stress in the noise radiating element. The ring is actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the ring, causing the ring to expand or contract. Instead of a single ring embedded in the noise radiating panel, a first expandable ring can be bonded to one side of the noise radiating element, and a second expandable ring can be bonded to the other side.

  10. Passive synthetic aperture imaging with limited noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Josselin

    2016-09-01

    We consider a passive synthetic aperture imaging problem. A single moving receiver antenna records random signals generated by one or several distant noise sources and backscattered by one or several reflectors. The sources emit noise signals modeled by stationary random processes. The reflectors can be imaged by summing the autocorrelation functions of the received signals computed over successive time windows, corrected for Doppler factors and migrated by appropriate travel times. In particular, the Doppler effect plays an important role and it can be used for resolution enhancement. When the noise source positions are not known, the reflector can be localized with an accuracy proportional to the reciprocal of the noise bandwidth, even when only a very small number of sources are available. When the noise source positions are known, the reflector can be localized with a cross range resolution proportional to the carrier wavelength and inversely proportional to the length of the receiver trajectory (i.e. the synthetic aperture), and with a range resolution proportional to the reciprocal of the bandwidth, even with only one noise source.

  11. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  12. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  13. MEG source localization using invariance of noise space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junpeng; Raij, Tommi; Hämäläinen, Matti; Yao, Dezhong

    2013-01-01

    We propose INvariance of Noise (INN) space as a novel method for source localization of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. The method is based on the fact that modulations of source strengths across time change the energy in signal subspace but leave the noise subspace invariant. We compare INN with classical MUSIC, RAP-MUSIC, and beamformer approaches using simulated data while varying signal-to-noise ratios as well as distance and temporal correlation between two sources. We also demonstrate the utility of INN with actual auditory evoked MEG responses in eight subjects. In all cases, INN performed well, especially when the sources were closely spaced, highly correlated, or one source was considerably stronger than the other. PMID:23505502

  14. Active noise control using noise source having adaptive resonant frequency tuning through variable ring loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor); Renshaw, Anthony A. (Inventor); Hedeen, Robert A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise source for an aircraft engine active noise cancellation system in which the resonant frequency of noise radiating structure is tuned to permit noise cancellation over a wide range of frequencies. The resonant frequency of the noise radiating structure is tuned by a plurality of drivers arranged to contact the noise radiating structure. Excitation of the drivers causes expansion or contraction of the drivers, thereby varying the edge loading applied to the noise radiating structure. The drivers are actuated by a controller which receives input of a feedback signal proportional to displacement of the noise radiating element and a signal corresponding to the blade passage frequency of the engine's fan. In response, the controller determines a control signal which is sent to the drivers, causing them to expand or contract. The noise radiating structure may be either the outer shroud of the engine or a ring mounted flush with an inner wall of the shroud or disposed in the interior of the shroud.

  15. Investigation of noise sources in SQUID electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, T.R.; Goldstein, M.J.; Purpura, J.W.; Allen, L.H.; Claassen, J.H.; Gubser, D.U.; Wolf, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The performance of SQUID-based electronics outside a laboratory-controlled environment may be degraded from that found in laboratory operation. Investigations on superconducting tubes, wires, and sheets have been conducted to identify contributions to such noise. Results have been obtained for bulk and thin film samples utilizing both the conventional low temperature materials, as well as the new high temperature oxide materials. Experiments have been conducted to quantify flux redistribution and flux motion in superconducting samples subjected to temperature changes, temperature gradients, and magnetic field gradients. These investigations have been conducted at magnetic fields typical of many SQUID applications, with field intensities much smaller than the critical values H/sub cl/. Penetration depth effects, flux pinning effects, and flux motion effects have been observed. The various types of experiments conducted along with specific results are described.

  16. Development of a low noise MREIT current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Tae; Yoo, Pil Joong; In Oh, Tong; Woo, Eung Je

    2010-04-01

    In MREIT conductivity imaging experiments of animal and human subjects, we should minimize the noise level in measured magnetic flux density data induced by injection currents with low amplitude. Since noise and artifact from an MREIT current source directly affect the quality of the data, a low-noise current source is desirable. In order to be compatible with various MREIT pulse sequences, it should be also programmable. We have developed a new MREIT current source, which is controlled by a PC program for flexibility. We designed it in such a way that it is located inside the shield room of an MRI system. To minimize noise and artifact, we adopted an optical link for the connection to the PC outside the shield room. The enclosure of the new current source provides a magnetic as well as electric shielding to prevent high frequency switching noise of the current source from interfering with the scanner. It is powered by a rechargeable battery so that the entire current source is isolated from the ground. Equipped with automatic lead switching capability, it simplifies and automates MREIT imaging experiments. Our experimental results show that its performance is superior to the previous version, which is located outside the shield room.

  17. Sub-Shot Noise Power Source for Microelectronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Mansour, Kamjou

    2011-01-01

    Low-current, high-impedance microelectronic devices can be affected by electric current shot noise more than they are affected by Nyquist noise, even at room temperature. An approach to implementing a sub-shot noise current source for powering such devices is based on direct conversion of amplitude-squeezed light to photocurrent. The phenomenon of optical squeezing allows for the optical measurements below the fundamental shot noise limit, which would be impossible in the domain of classical optics. This becomes possible by affecting the statistical properties of photons in an optical mode, which can be considered as a case of information encoding. Once encoded, the information describing the photon (or any other elementary excitations) statistics can be also transmitted. In fact, it is such information transduction from optics to an electronics circuit, via photoelectric effect, that has allowed the observation of the optical squeezing. It is very difficult, if not technically impossible, to directly measure the statistical distribution of optical photons except at extremely low light level. The photoelectric current, on the other hand, can be easily analyzed using RF spectrum analyzers. Once it was observed that the photocurrent noise generated by a tested light source in question is below the shot noise limit (e.g. produced by a coherent light beam), it was concluded that the light source in question possess the property of amplitude squeezing. The main novelty of this technology is to turn this well-known information transduction approach around. Instead of studying the statistical property of an optical mode by measuring the photoelectron statistics, an amplitude-squeezed light source and a high-efficiency linear photodiode are used to generate photocurrent with sub-Poissonian electron statistics. By powering microelectronic devices with this current source, their performance can be improved, especially their noise parameters. Therefore, a room-temperature sub

  18. Source Noise Modeling Efforts for Fan Noise in NASA Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable progress made in fan noise prediction over the past 15 years. NASA has conducted and sponsored research that has improved both tone and broadband fan noise prediction methods. This presentation highlights progress in these areas with emphasis on rotor/stator interaction noise sources. Tone noise predictions are presented for an advanced prediction code called "LINFLUX". Comparisons with data are" included for individual fan duct modes. There has also been considerable work developing new fan broadband noise prediction codes and validation data from wind tunnel model tests. Results from several code validation exercises are presented that show improvement of predicted sound power levels. A summary is included with recommendations for future work.

  19. High-harmonic XUV source for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dakovski, Georgi L; Li, Yinwan; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Rodriguez, George

    2009-01-01

    We present a laser-based apparatus for visible pump/XUV probe time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TRARPES) utilizing high-harmonic generation from a noble gas. Femtosecond temporal resolution for each selected harmonic is achieved by using a time-delay-compensated monochromator (TCM). The source has been used to obtain photoemission spectra from insulators (UO{sub 2}) and ultrafast pump/probe processes in semiconductors (GaAs).

  20. Jet Noise Source Localization Using Linear Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agboola, Ferni A.; Bridges, James

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted to further clarify the interpretation and application of linear phased array microphone results, for localizing aeroacoustics sources in aircraft exhaust jet. Two model engine nozzles were tested at varying power cycles with the array setup parallel to the jet axis. The array position was varied as well to determine best location for the array. The results showed that it is possible to resolve jet noise sources with bypass and other components separation. The results also showed that a focused near field image provides more realistic noise source localization at low to mid frequencies.

  1. Size and shape of seismic noise sources and implications for ambient noise tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrebski, M. J.; Ardhuin, F.; Schimmel, M.; Stutzmann, E.

    2011-12-01

    Seismic noise has been intensively used for tomographic purpose over the past 5 years and shows promising potential for 4D imaging of the earth interior. Cross-correlation of noise samples allows reconstructing surface- and compressional-waves that carry information of the earth velocity structure comparable to that obtained from earthquakes. Nevertheless, ambient noise tomography is limited by the lack of knowledge on the distribution and lateral extent of sources. Recent numerical modeling (Kedar et al., 2008; Ardhuin et al. J. Geophys. Res. 2011; Stutzmann et al., submitted) has shown that the dominant seismic noise, with periods 3 to 10s, is generated by non linear wave-wave interactions as described by the theory proposed by Longuet-Higgins (1950) and Hasselmann (1963) for double frequency microseisms (DFM). The magnitude of the noise source is conditioned by the angular spectra of the swells and wind seas and the bathymetry. Here we use seismic records and numerical modeling to characterize the distribution of the DFM sources in time and space. Our numerical approach combines a numerical wave model based on the WAVEWATCH III° framework, in which the second-order pressure spectrum is computed, and a ray-tracing algorithm for integrating the seismic source and damping along propagation rays for the different Rayleigh modes that are contained in the microseismic wave field. Noise recorded at broadband stations generally consists of a series of high seismic noise intensity peaks (a few micrometers for the standard deviation of the vertical ground displacement) with durations of about one day. Focusing on the peaks for which the model results fit particularly well to the data, we estimate the width of the source area and use our model to map the area responsible for the DFM signal recorded at a given time and set of stations. These source centroid position and width of sources are validated using an independent estimate from a polarization analysis of the three

  2. Planets as background noise sources in free space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Background noise generated by planets is the dominant noise source in most deep space direct detection optical communications systems. Earlier approximate analyses of this problem are based on simplified blackbody calculations and can yield results that may be inaccurate by up to an order of magnitude. Various other factors that need to be taken into consideration, such as the phase angle and the actual spectral dependence of the planet albedo, in order to obtain a more accurate estimate of the noise magnitude are examined.

  3. Algorithm for astronomical, point source, signal to noise ratio calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R.; Schroeder, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to simulate the expected signal to noise ratios as a function of observation time in the charge coupled device detector plane of an optical telescope located outside the Earth's atmosphere for a signal star, and an optional secondary star, embedded in a uniform cosmic background. By choosing the appropriate input values, the expected point source signal to noise ratio can be computed for the Hubble Space Telescope using the Wide Field/Planetary Camera science instrument.

  4. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test Computation of Rotor Wake Turbulence Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nallasamy, M.; Envia, E.; Thorp, S. A.; Shabbir, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important source mechanism of fan broadband noise is the interaction of rotor wake turbulence with the fan outlet guide vanes. A broadband noise model that utilizes computed rotor flow turbulence from a RANS code is used to predict fan broadband noise spectra. The noise model is employed to examine the broadband noise characteristics of the 22-inch Source Diagnostic Test fan rig for which broadband noise data were obtained in wind tunnel tests at the NASA Glenn Research Center. A 9-case matrix of three outlet guide vane configurations at three representative fan tip speeds are considered. For all cases inlet and exhaust acoustic power spectra are computed and compared with the measured spectra where possible. In general, the acoustic power levels and shape of the predicted spectra are in good agreement with the measured data. The predicted spectra show the experimentally observed trends with fan tip speed, vane count, and vane sweep. The results also demonstrate the validity of using CFD-based turbulence information for fan broadband noise calculations.

  5. Phase noise in oscillators as differential-algebraic systems with colored noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Alper

    2004-05-01

    Oscillators are key components of many kinds of systems, particularly electronic and opto-electronic systems. Undesired perturbations, i.e. noise, in practical systems adversely affect the spectral and timing properties of the signals generated by oscillators resulting in phase noise and timing jitter, which are key performance limiting factors, being major contributors to bit-error-rate (BER) of RF and possibly optical communication systems, and creating synchronization problems in clocked and sampled-data electronic systems. In this paper, we review our work on the theory and numerical methods for nonlinear perturbation and noise analysis of oscillators described by a system of differential-algebraic equations (DAEs) with white and colored noise sources. The bulk of the work reviewed in this paper first appeared in [1], then in [2] and [3]. Prior to the work mentioned above, we developed a theory and numerical methods for nonlinear perturbation and noise analysis of oscillators described by a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with white noise sources only [4, 5]. In this paper, we also discuss some open problems and issues in the modeling and analysis of phase noise both in free running oscillators and in phase/injection-locked ones.

  6. High-order harmonic noise-like pulsing of a passively mode-locked double-clad Er/Yb fibre ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Hernández-García, J. C.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Durán-Sánchez, M.; González-García, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we study noise-like pulse generation in a km-long fibre ring laser including a double-clad erbium-ytterbium fibre and passively mode-locked through nonlinear polarization evolution. Although single noise-like pulsing is only observed at moderate pump power, pulse energies as high as 120 nJ are reached in this regime. For higher pump power, the pulse splits into several noise-like pulses, which then rearrange into a stable and periodic pulse train. Harmonic mode locking from the 2nd to the 48th orders is readily obtained. At pump powers close to the damage threshold of the setup, much denser noise-like pulse trains are demonstrated, reaching harmonic orders beyond 1200 and repetition frequencies in excess of a quarter of a GHz. The mechanisms leading to noise-like pulse breaking and stable high-order harmonic mode locking are discussed.

  7. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 1; Source/Path Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There were two primary objectives of the research effort reported herein. The first objective was to identify and evaluate noise source/path identification technology applicable to single engine propeller driven aircraft that can be used to identify interior noise sources originating from structure-borne engine/propeller vibration, airborne propeller transmission, airborne engine exhaust noise, and engine case radiation. The approach taken to identify the contributions of each of these possible sources was first to conduct a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of an in-flight noise and vibration database acquired on a Cessna Model 182E aircraft. The second objective was to develop and evaluate advanced technology for noise source ranking of interior panel groups such as the aircraft windshield, instrument panel, firewall, and door/window panels within the cabin of a single engine propeller driven aircraft. The technology employed was that of Acoustic Holography (AH). AH was applied to the test aircraft by acquiring a series of in-flight microphone array measurements within the aircraft cabin and correlating the measurements via PCA. The source contributions of the various panel groups leading to the array measurements were then synthesized by solving the inverse problem using the boundary element model.

  8. The importance of quadrupole sources in prediction of transonic tip speed propeller noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. B.; Fink, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented for the harmonic noise of high speed, open rotors. Far field acoustic radiation equations based on the Ffowcs-Williams/Hawkings theory are derived for a static rotor with thin blades and zero lift. Near the plane of rotation, the dominant sources are the volume displacement and the rho U(2) quadrupole, where u is the disturbance velocity component in the direction blade motion. These sources are compared in both the time domain and the frequency domain using two dimensional airfoil theories valid in the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speed ranges. For nonlifting parabolic arc blades, the two sources are equally important at speeds between the section critical Mach number and a Mach number of one. However, for moderately subsonic or fully supersonic flow over thin blade sections, the quadrupole term is negligible. It is concluded for thin blades that significant quadrupole noise radiation is strictly a transonic phenomenon and that it can be suppressed with blade sweep. Noise calculations are presented for two rotors, one simulating a helicopter main rotor and the other a model propeller. For the latter, agreement with test data was substantially improved by including the quadrupole source term.

  9. A ring-source model for jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.

    1978-01-01

    A model consisting of two ring sources was developed to study the direct radiation of jet noise in terms of correlation, coherence, and phase and also to aid in solving the inverse radiation problem of determining the noise source in terms of far-field measurements. The rings consist of discrete sources which are either monopoles or quadrupoles with Gaussian profiles. Only adjacent sources, both within the rings and between rings, are correlated. Results show that from the far-field information can be used to determine when the sources are compact or noncompact with respect to the acoustic wavelength and to distinguish between the types of sources. In addition, from the inverse radiation approach, the center of mass, the location and separation distance of the ring, and the diameters can be recovered.

  10. A uniform phase noise QVCO with a feedback current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chunyuan, Zhou; Lei, Zhang; He, Qian

    2012-07-01

    A novel integrated quadrature voltage controlled oscillator (QVCO) with a feedback current source is presented in this paper. Benefiting from the current adjusting function of the feedback current source, the proposed QVCO exhibits a uniform phase noise over the entire tuning range. This QVCO is implemented in 65-nm CMOS technology. The measurement results show that it draws less than 3-mA average current from a 1.2-V supply and the phase noise is less than -110 dBc/Hz @1MHz offset over the entire tuning range. The fluctuation of phase noise @1MHz offset from the center frequency of 2.84-GHz to 3.27-GHz is less than 1 dBc/Hz, which validates the correctness of the proposed current source feedback technique.

  11. An integrated technique for eliminating harmonics of multilevel inverter with unequal DC sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malarvizhi, M.; Gnanambal, I.

    2015-02-01

    For improving the alteration performance of multilevel inverter, selective harmonics elimination methods play a significant role. In this document, an incorporated method is suggested for removing the harmonics of multilevel inverter with uneven DC sources. The suggested incorporated method is the mixture of fuzzy logic intelligent system and particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. For generating the training information set in terms of switching angle, Fuzzy is one of the synthetic intelligent methods which apply harmonic voltage and harmonic distortion. PSO is one of the swarm intelligence-based optimisation algorithms which is employed for choosing optimal switching angle from the training data set. The suggested hybrid method is executed in MATLAB/Simulink platform. At dissimilar unequal input voltage levels, the performance of the suggested method is checked by cascade H-bridge multilevel inverter. The production of the suggested method is compared with the theoretical effects.

  12. Investigation of Volumetric Sources in Airframe Noise Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, Jay H.; Lockard, David P.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Streett, Craig L.

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid methods for the prediction of airframe noise involve a simulation of the near field flow that is used as input to an acoustic propagation formula. The acoustic formulations discussed herein are those based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Some questions have arisen in the published literature in regard to an apparently significant dependence of radiated noise predictions on the location of the integration surface used in the solution of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. These differences in radiated noise levels are most pronounced between solid-body surface integrals and off-body, permeable surface integrals. Such differences suggest that either a non-negligible volumetric source is contributing to the total radiation or the input flow simulation is suspect. The focus of the current work is the issue of internal consistency of the flow calculations that are currently used as input to airframe noise predictions. The case study for this research is a computer simulation for a three-element, high-lift wing profile during landing conditions. The noise radiated from this flow is predicted by a two-dimensional, frequency-domain formulation of the Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation. Radiated sound from volumetric sources is assessed by comparison of a permeable surface integration with the sum of a solid-body surface integral and a volume integral. The separate noise predictions are found in good agreement.

  13. Review of Subcritical Source-Driven Noise Analysis Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.E.

    1999-11-24

    Subcritical source-driven noise measurements are simultaneous Rossi-{alpha} and randomly pulsed neutron measurements that provide measured quantities that can be related to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. In fact, subcritical source-driven noise measurements should be performed in lieu of Rossi-{alpha} measurements because of the additional information that is obtained from noise measurements such as the spectral ratio and the coherence functions. The basic understanding of source-driven noise analysis measurements can be developed from a point reactor kinetics model to demonstrate how the measured quantities relate to the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. More elaborate models can also be developed using a generalized stochastic model. These measurements can be simulated using Monte Carlo codes to determine the subcritical neutron multiplication factor or to determine the sensitivity of calculations to nuclear cross section data. The interpretation of the measurement using a Monte Carlo method is based on a perturbation model for the relationship between the spectral ratio and the subcritical neutron multiplication factor. The subcritical source-driven noise measurement has advantages over other subcritical measurement methods in that reference measurements at delayed critical are not required for interpreting the measurements. Therefore, benchmark or in-situ subcritical measurements can be performed outside a critical experiment facility. Furthermore, a certain ratio of frequency spectra has been shown to be independent of detection efficiency thereby making the measurement more robust and unaffected by drifts or changes in instrumentation during the measurement. Criteria have been defined for application of this measurement method for benchmarks and in-situ subcritical measurements. An extension of the source-driven subcritical noise measurement has also been discussed that eliminates the few technical challenges for in-situ applications.

  14. Propeller sheet cavitation noise source modeling and inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keunhwa; Lee, Jaehyuk; Kim, Dongho; Kim, Kyungseop; Seong, Woojae

    2014-02-01

    Propeller sheet cavitation is the main contributor to high level of noise and vibration in the after body of a ship. Full measurement of the cavitation-induced hull pressure over the entire surface of the affected area is desired but not practical. Therefore, using a few measurements on the outer hull above the propeller in a cavitation tunnel, empirical or semi-empirical techniques based on physical model have been used to predict the hull-induced pressure (or hull-induced force). In this paper, with the analytic source model for sheet cavitation, a multi-parameter inversion scheme to find the positions of noise sources and their strengths is suggested. The inversion is posed as a nonlinear optimization problem, which is solved by the optimization algorithm based on the adaptive simplex simulated annealing algorithm. Then, the resulting hull pressure can be modeled with boundary element method from the inverted cavitation noise sources. The suggested approach is applied to the hull pressure data measured in a cavitation tunnel of the Samsung Heavy Industry. Two monopole sources are adequate to model the propeller sheet cavitation noise. The inverted source information is reasonable with the cavitation dynamics of the propeller and the modeled hull pressure shows good agreement with cavitation tunnel experimental data.

  15. An investigation of rotor harmonic noise by the use of small scale wind tunnel models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Schaffer, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    Noise measurements of small scale helicopter rotor models were compared with noise measurements of full scale helicopters to determine what information about the full scale helicopters could be derived from noise measurements of small scale helicopter models. Comparisons were made of the discrete frequency (rotational) noise for 4 pairs of tests. Areas covered were tip speed effects, isolated rotor, tandem rotor, and main rotor/tail rotor interaction. Results show good comparison of noise trends with configuration and test condition changes, and good comparison of absolute noise measurements with the corrections used except for the isolated rotor case. Noise measurements of the isolated rotor show a great deal of scatter reflecting the fact that the rotor in hover is basically unstable.

  16. A battery-based, low-noise voltage source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Anke; Sturm, Sven; Schabinger, Birgit; Blaum, Klaus; Quint, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    A highly stable, low-noise voltage source was designed to improve the stability of the electrode bias voltages of a Penning trap. To avoid excess noise and ground loops, the voltage source is completely independent of the public electric network and uses a 12 V car battery to generate output voltages of ±15 and ±5 V. First, the dc supply voltage is converted into ac-voltage and gets amplified. Afterwards, the signal is rectified, filtered, and regulated to the desired output value. Each channel can deliver up to 1.5 A. The current as well as the battery voltage and the output voltages can be read out via a universal serial bus (USB) connection for monitoring purposes. With the presented design, a relative voltage stability of 7×10-7 over 6.5 h and a noise level equal or smaller than 30 nV/√Hz is achieved.

  17. A battery-based, low-noise voltage source.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anke; Sturm, Sven; Schabinger, Birgit; Blaum, Klaus; Quint, Wolfgang

    2010-06-01

    A highly stable, low-noise voltage source was designed to improve the stability of the electrode bias voltages of a Penning trap. To avoid excess noise and ground loops, the voltage source is completely independent of the public electric network and uses a 12 V car battery to generate output voltages of +/-15 and +/-5 V. First, the dc supply voltage is converted into ac-voltage and gets amplified. Afterwards, the signal is rectified, filtered, and regulated to the desired output value. Each channel can deliver up to 1.5 A. The current as well as the battery voltage and the output voltages can be read out via a universal serial bus (USB) connection for monitoring purposes. With the presented design, a relative voltage stability of 7 x 10(-7) over 6.5 h and a noise level equal or smaller than 30 nV/square root(Hz) is achieved. PMID:20590260

  18. Investigation of noise sources and propagation in external gear pumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opperwall, Timothy J.

    Oil hydraulics is widely accepted as the best technology for transmitting power in many engineering applications due to its advantages in power density, control, layout flexibility, and efficiency. Due to these advantages, hydraulic systems are present in many different applications including construction, agriculture, aerospace, automotive, forestry, medical, and manufacturing, just to identify a few. Many of these applications involve the systems in close proximity to human operators and passengers where noise is one of the main constraints to the acceptance and spread of this technology. As a key component in power transfer, displacement machines can be major sources of noise in hydraulic systems. Thus, investigation into the sources of noise and discovering strategies to reduce noise is a key part of applying fluid power systems to a wider range of applications, as well as improving the performance of current hydraulic systems. The present research aims to leverage previous efforts and develop new models and experimental techniques in the topic of noise generation caused by hydrostatic units. This requires challenging and surpassing current accepted methods in the understanding of noise in fluid power systems. This research seeks to expand on the previous experimental and modeling efforts by directly considering the effect that system and component design changes apply on the total sound power and the sound frequency components emitted from displacement machines and the attached lines. The case of external gear pumps is taken as reference for a new model to understand the generation and transmission of noise from the sources out to the environment. The lumped parameter model HYGESim (HYdraulic GEar machine Simulator) was expanded to investigate the dynamic forces on the solid bodies caused by the pump operation and to predict interactions with the attached system. Vibration and sound radiation were then predicted using a combined finite element and boundary

  19. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  20. Optical Techniques for Low Noise Microwave Frequency Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    Optical techniques and mathematical models are described for low noise microwave frequency sources. The contents include: 1) Why Optical Techniques; 2) Wavemixing: Advantages and Disadvantages; 3) Wavemixing with Feedback: The OEO; 4) Feedback in both loops: COEO; and 5) State of the Art and Future Prospects.

  1. Identification and classification of noise sources in a chain conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homer, John P.; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Reeves, Efrem R.

    2002-05-01

    Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is one of the most significant disabilities of workers in the mining industry. In response, the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is conducting a study associated with mining equipment. This study outlines the analysis of a chain conveyor. Band-limited accelerometer, sound-intensity, far-field and near-field microphone measurements were taken along the conveyor section. The sound intensity measurements were used to identify areas with high noise as well as to calculate and 1/3-octave sound power levels. The total sound power results were used to classify the dominant noise sources where the 1/3-octave sound power results were used to identify the most contributive frequency bands to the overall noise of the system. Coherence analysis was performed between accelerometer and microphone measurements to identify structure-borne and air-borne noise paths of the system. Summary results from the analysis include recommendations for transmission control and damping devices and their ability to reduce noise to regulatory acceptable levels.

  2. Adaptive Selective Harmonic Minimization Based on ANNs for Cascade Multilevel Inverters With Varying DC Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Filho, Faete; Maia, Helder Z; Mateus, Tiago Henrique D; Ozpineci, Burak; Tolbert, Leon M; Pinto, Joao Onofre P

    2013-01-01

    A new approach for modulation of an 11-level cascade multilevel inverter using selective harmonic elimination is presented in this paper. The dc sources feeding the multilevel inverter are considered to be varying in time, and the switching angles are adapted to the dc source variation. This method uses genetic algorithms to obtain switching angles offline for different dc source values. Then, artificial neural networks are used to determine the switching angles that correspond to the real-time values of the dc sources for each phase. This implies that each one of the dc sources of this topology can have different values at any time, but the output fundamental voltage will stay constant and the harmonic content will still meet the specifications. The modulating switching angles are updated at each cycle of the output fundamental voltage. This paper gives details on the method in addition to simulation and experimental results.

  3. A power transformer as a source of noise.

    PubMed

    Zawieska, Wiktor Marek

    2007-01-01

    This article presents selected results of analyses and simulations carried out as part of research performed at the Central Institute of Labor Protection - the National Research Institute (CIOP-PIB) in connection with the development of a system for active reduction of noise emitted by high power electricity transformers. This analysis covers the transformer as a source of noise as well as a mathematical description of the phenomenon of radiation of vibroacoustic energy through a transformer enclosure modeled as a vibrating rectangular plate. Also described is an acoustic model of the transformer in the form of an array of loudspeakers. PMID:18082020

  4. Covariance-based approaches to aeroacoustic noise source analysis.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; Xu, Luzhou; Li, Jian; Guo, Bin; Stoica, Petre; Bahr, Chris; Cattafesta, Louis N

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, several covariance-based approaches are proposed for aeroacoustic noise source analysis under the assumptions of a single dominant source and all observers contaminated solely by uncorrelated noise. The Cramér-Rao Bounds (CRB) of the unbiased source power estimates are also derived. The proposed methods are evaluated using both simulated data as well as data acquired from an airfoil trailing edge noise experiment in an open-jet aeroacoustic facility. The numerical examples show that the covariance-based algorithms significantly outperform an existing least-squares approach and provide accurate power estimates even under low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Furthermore, the mean-squared-errors (MSEs) of the so-obtained estimates are close to the corresponding CRB especially for a large number of data samples. The experimental results show that the power estimates of the proposed approaches are consistent with one another as long as the core analysis assumptions are obeyed. PMID:21110583

  5. Empirical source noise prediction method with application to subsonic coaxial jet mixing noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.; Weir, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    A general empirical method, developed for source noise predictions, uses tensor splines to represent the dependence of the acoustic field on frequency and direction and Taylor's series to represent the dependence on source state parameters. The method is applied to prediction of mixing noise from subsonic circular and coaxial jets. A noise data base of 1/3-octave-band sound pressure levels (SPL's) from 540 tests was gathered from three countries: United States, United Kingdom, and France. The SPL's depend on seven variables: frequency, polar direction angle, and five source state parameters: inner and outer nozzle pressure ratios, inner and outer stream total temperatures, and nozzle area ratio. A least-squares seven-dimensional curve fit defines a table of constants which is used for the prediction method. The resulting prediction has a mean error of 0 dB and a standard deviation of 1.2 dB. The prediction method is used to search for a coaxial jet which has the greatest coaxial noise benefit as compared with an equivalent single jet. It is found that benefits of about 6 dB are possible.

  6. A simple-source model of military jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jessica; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne; Wall, Alan T.

    2010-10-01

    The jet plumes produced by military jet aircraft radiate significant amounts of noise. A need to better understand the characteristics of the turbulence-induced aeroacoustic sources has motivated the present study. The purpose of the study is to develop a simple-source model of jet noise that can be compared to the measured data. The study is based off of acoustic data collected near a tied-down F-22 Raptor. The simplest model consisted of adjusting the origin of a monopole above a rigid planar reflector until the locations of the predicted and measured interference nulls matched. The model has developed into an extended Rayleigh distribution of partially correlated monopoles which fits the measured data from the F-22 significantly better. The results and basis for the model match the current prevailing theory that jet noise consists of both correlated and uncorrelated sources. In addition, this simple-source model conforms to the theory that the peak source location moves upstream with increasing frequency and lower engine conditions.

  7. Mitochondrial Variability as a Source of Extrinsic Cellular Noise

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Iain G.; Gaal, Bernadett; Neves, Ricardo Pires das; Enver, Tariq; Iborra, Francisco J.; Jones, Nick S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study investigating the role of mitochondrial variability in generating noise in eukaryotic cells. Noise in cellular physiology plays an important role in many fundamental cellular processes, including transcription, translation, stem cell differentiation and response to medication, but the specific random influences that affect these processes have yet to be clearly elucidated. Here we present a mechanism by which variability in mitochondrial volume and functionality, along with cell cycle dynamics, is linked to variability in transcription rate and hence has a profound effect on downstream cellular processes. Our model mechanism is supported by an appreciable volume of recent experimental evidence, and we present the results of several new experiments with which our model is also consistent. We find that noise due to mitochondrial variability can sometimes dominate over other extrinsic noise sources (such as cell cycle asynchronicity) and can significantly affect large-scale observable properties such as cell cycle length and gene expression levels. We also explore two recent regulatory network-based models for stem cell differentiation, and find that extrinsic noise in transcription rate causes appreciable variability in the behaviour of these model systems. These results suggest that mitochondrial and transcriptional variability may be an important mechanism influencing a large variety of cellular processes and properties. PMID:22412363

  8. Jet noise source modification due to forward flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. S.; Mccolgan, C. J.; Packman, A. B.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of forward flight on the turbulence characteristics of a jet in a co-flowing stream have been determined for a 2.22 inch circular jet in a 36 inch free jet wind tunnel. The nozzle exit velocity was 400 ft/sec, and the tunnel velocity was set at 0, 40, 120 and 200 ft/sec. Measurements of flow properties including mean velocity, turbulence intensity and spectra, convection velocity, integral length scale, and convected integral time scale were carried out using two linearized hot wires. Results were used to predict changes due to flight in the jet acoustic sources. The noise reductions for a cold jet with a velocity of 1000 ft/sec, due to the change in acoustic sources in flight, agreed well at all angles with measured noise reductions.

  9. Coherent diffractive imaging microscope with a high-order harmonic source.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Khuong Ba; Le, Hoang Vu; Hannaford, Peter; Dao, Lap Van

    2015-06-10

    We report the generation of highly coherent extreme ultraviolet sources with wavelengths around 30 and 10 nm by phase-matched high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in a gas cell filled with argon and helium, respectively. We then perform coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) by using a focused narrow-bandwidth HHG source with wavelength around 30 nm as an illumination beam for two kinds of samples. The first is a transmission sample and the second is a absorption sample. In addition, we report the successful reconstruction of a complex absorption sample using a tabletop high-harmonic source. This will open the path to the realization of a compact soft x-ray microscope to investigate biological samples such as membrane proteins. PMID:26192827

  10. Generation of stable high order harmonic noise-like pulses in a passively mode-locked double clad fiber ring laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Kuzin, E.; Muñoz-Lopez, A.; Filoteo-Razo, J. D.

    2015-03-01

    We study a passively mode-locked double-clad Erbium-Ytterbium fiber ring laser producing noise-like pulse through nonlinear polarization evolution and polarization selection. Single noise-like pulsing is only observed at moderate pump power. As pump power is increased, and through polarization controllers adjustments, harmonic mode-locking of growing order were successively appearing. For pump powers close to the damage threshold of the setup, we reach harmonic orders beyond 1200 and repetition frequencies in excess of a quarter of a GHz. Finally, these experimental results could be useful in the quest for higher pulse energies and higher repetition rates in passively mode-locked fiber lasers.

  11. Estimating the Distribution of Noise Sources in Ambient Noise Derived Green’s Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, N.; Gerstoft, P.; Rychert, C. A.

    2009-12-01

    Estimation of surface wave Green’s functions from ambient seismic noise cross correlation requires an accurate model of the source distribution. We compare and contrast the results from three different methods for estimating the distribution of sources using vertical component data from the 190 stations of the Southern California Seismic Network for 1 year of data (2008). The methods include: 1) stacked beamformer output of short time period noise cross correlations, 2) a least-squares inversion of year long stacked noise correlation functions (NCF) assuming a 2-dimensional plane wave source density model, and 3) a least-squares inversion of NCF assuming a 3-dimensional plane wave source density model. The beamforming method and 3D plane wave source density model both indicate a strong surface wave component in the NCF, with weaker signals from near vertical incidence body waves. All three methods recover similar azimuthal surface wave source density functions, with maxima in the density functions between the methods within ±4° azimuth in the 7-25 s period range. Although there is a difference in the power between the beamforming method and the 2D and 3D plane wave inversions. This is expected as the peak from beamforming on several stations tends to be narrower than the two stations used in cross-correlations. Using the 2D and 3D distribution of plane wave models, we demonstrate how phase corrections for non-homogenous sources can be calculated to improve the accuracy of ambient noise tomographic studies. We also estimate that without correcting for the source effect, the isotropic phase velocity estimate is < 1% different from the observed teleseismic velocity estimates, but that there is up to a 1-3% peak-to-peak azimuthal variation in phase velocity predicted by these source distribution models which could be mapped into azimuthal anisotropy at 7-25 s period. Furthermore, sampling bias in station-to-station distance and azimuth could lead to spurious

  12. Identifying the principal noise sources of fixed-wing combat aircraft in high-speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, W. D.; Pinker, R. A.; Strange, P. J. R.

    1992-04-01

    Before considering means for alleviating the noise from modern military combat aircraft operating in high-speed low-level flight, it is important to identify the principal noise sources. To this end, a carefully-controlled flight test program has been carried out using a Tornado aircraft (in standard training configuration) operating at flight speeds from 0.5M to 0.8M. The major sources of the aircraft noise, airframe noise, installed jet mixing noise and jet shock noise, have been successfully identified, quantified and correlated. Although the jet mixing noise tends to be the major source at low flight speeds, and the shock noise at high flight speeds, all three sources are comparable in magnitude during the rapid rise-time of the noise signal and at its peak. Indeed, were it possible to reduce greatly both the jet mixing and shock noise, the peak noise levels would only reduce by about 5 dBA.

  13. A Numerical Investigation of Turbine Noise Source Hierarchy and Its Acoustic Transmission Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale; Envia, Edmane

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the relative importance of the various turbine noise generation mechanisms and the characteristics of the turbine acoustic transmission loss are essential ingredients in developing robust reduced-order models for predicting the turbine noise signature. A computationally based investigation has been undertaken to help guide the development of a turbine noise prediction capability that does not rely on empiricism. The investigation relies on highly detailed numerical simulations of the unsteady flowfield inside a modern high-pressure turbine (HPT). The simulations are developed using TURBO, which is an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) code capable of multi-stage simulations. The purpose of this study is twofold. First, to determine an estimate of the relative importance of the contributions to the coherent part of the acoustic signature of a turbine from the three potential sources of turbine noise generation, namely, blade-row viscous interaction, potential field interaction, and entropic source associated with the interaction of the blade rows with the temperature nonuniformities caused by the incomplete mixing of the hot fluid and the cooling flow. Second, to develop an understanding of the turbine acoustic transmission characteristics and to assess the applicability of existing empirical and analytical transmission loss models to realistic geometries and flow conditions for modern turbine designs. The investigation so far has concentrated on two simulations: (1) a single-stage HPT and (2) a two-stage HPT and the associated inter-turbine duct/strut segment. The simulations are designed to resolve up to the second harmonic of the blade passing frequency tone in accordance with accepted rules for second order solvers like TURBO. The calculations include blade and vane cooling flows and a radial profile of pressure and temperature at the turbine inlet. The calculation can be modified later to include the combustor pattern factor at the

  14. Microseism Source Direction from Noise Cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao; Gerstoft, Peter; Bromirski, Peter D.

    2016-02-01

    Inhomogeneous noise sources surrounding stations produce asymmetric amplitudes in cross-correlation functions that yield preferential source directions. Here we show that preprocessing biases the dominant source direction estimate towards the source producing long-duration signals by down-weighting high-amplitude signals. Tests with both synthetic data and observations show that conventional preprocessing, where only earthquakes and local transients (e.g. trawling, fish impacts) are removed, is more sensitive to coherent energy, while one-bit preprocessing and running-absolute-mean (RAM) preprocessing are more influenced by signal duration. Comparisons between different preprocessing methods are made on data from the Cascadia Initiative (CI) ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) array, where we find that the total energy arriving from pelagic and coastal areas is similar. Moreover, pelagic-generated signals tend to be weaker but have longer duration, in contrast to coastal-generated signals that tend to be stronger but have shorter duration.

  15. Microseism source direction from noise cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao; Gerstoft, Peter; Bromirski, Peter D.

    2016-05-01

    Inhomogeneous noise sources surrounding stations produce asymmetric amplitudes in cross-correlation functions that yield preferential source directions. Here we show that preprocessing biases the dominant source direction estimate towards the source producing long-duration signals by down-weighting high-amplitude signals. Tests with both synthetic data and observations show that conventional preprocessing, where only earthquakes and local transients (e.g. trawling, fish impacts) are removed, is more sensitive to coherent energy, while one-bit preprocessing and running-absolute-mean preprocessing are more influenced by signal duration. Comparisons between different preprocessing methods are made on data from the Cascadia Initiative ocean bottom seismometer array, where we find that the total energy arriving from pelagic and coastal areas is similar. Moreover, pelagic-generated signals tend to be weaker but have longer duration, in contrast to coastal-generated signals that tend to be stronger but have shorter duration.

  16. Optimization of structures undergoing harmonic or stochastic excitation. Ph.D. Thesis; [atmospheric turbulence and white noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The optimal design was investigated of simple structures subjected to dynamic loads, with constraints on the structures' responses. Optimal designs were examined for one dimensional structures excited by harmonically oscillating loads, similar structures excited by white noise, and a wing in the presence of continuous atmospheric turbulence. The first has constraints on the maximum allowable stress while the last two place bounds on the probability of failure of the structure. Approximations were made to replace the time parameter with a frequency parameter. For the first problem, this involved the steady state response, and in the remaining cases, power spectral techniques were employed to find the root mean square values of the responses. Optimal solutions were found by using computer algorithms which combined finite elements methods with optimization techniques based on mathematical programming. It was found that the inertial loads for these dynamic problems result in optimal structures that are radically different from those obtained for structures loaded statically by forces of comparable magnitude.

  17. Advanced Control Strategy for Single-Phase Voltage-Source Active Rectifier with Low Harmonic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahník, Vojtĕch; Peroutka, Zdenĕk; Talla, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the advanced control of single-phase voltage-source active rectifier. This control provide direct control of trolley-wire current and active damping of low-frequency disturbances at the converter ac side. Our proposed control strategy combines PR controller with feed-forward model and low-frequency harmonic compensator based on resonant controllers. Achieved experimental results show excellent converter behavior, where converter is fed by strongly distorted supply voltage.

  18. Mapping the source distribution of microseisms using noise covariogram envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Roberts, Roland; Tryggvason, Ari

    2016-06-01

    We introduce a method for mapping the noise-source distribution of microseisms which uses information from the full length of covariograms (cross-correlations). We derive a forward calculation based on the plane-wave assumption in 2-D, to formulate an iterative, linearized inversion of covariogram envelopes in the time domain. The forward calculation involves bandpass filtering of the covariograms. The inversion exploits the well-known feature of noise cross-correlation, that is, an anomaly in the noise field that is oblique to the interstation direction appears as cross-correlation amplitude at a smaller time lag than the in-line, surface wave arrival. Therefore, the inversion extracts more information from the covariograms than that contained at the expected surface wave arrival, and this allows us to work with few stations to find the propagation directions of incoming energy. The inversion is naturally applied to data that retain physical units that are not amplitude normalized in any way. By dividing a network into groups of stations, we can constrain the source location by triangulation. We demonstrate results of the method with synthetic data and one year (2012) of data from the Swedish National Seismic Network and also look at the seasonal variation of source distribution around Scandinavia. After preprocessing and cross-correlation, the stations are divided into five groups of 9-12 stations. We invert the envelopes of each group in eight period ranges between 2 and 25 s. Results show that the noise sources at short periods (less than 12 s) lie predominantly in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and at longer periods the energy appears to have a broader distribution. The strongly anisotropic source distribution in this area is estimated to cause significant biases of velocity measurements compared to the level of heterogeneity in the region. The amplitude of the primary microseisms varies little over the year, but secondary microseisms are much

  19. Mapping the source distribution of microseisms using noise covariogram envelopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Roberts, Roland; Tryggvason, Ari

    2016-03-01

    We introduce a method for mapping the noise-source distribution of microseisms which uses information from the full length of covariograms (cross-correlations). We derive a forward calculation based on the plane-wave assumption in 2D, to formulate an iterative, linearized inversion of covariogram envelopes in the time domain. The forward calculation involves bandpass filtering of the covariograms. The inversion exploits the well-known feature of noise cross-correlation, i.e., that an anomaly in the noise field that is oblique to the inter-station direction appears as cross-correlation amplitude at a smaller time lag than the in-line, surface-wave arrival. Therefore, the inversion extracts more information from the covariograms than that contained at the expected surface-wave arrival, and this allows us to work with few stations to find the propagation directions of incoming energy. The inversion is naturally applied to data that retain physical units, i.e., that are not amplitude normalized in any way. By dividing a network into groups of stations, we can constrain the source location by triangulation. We demonstrate results of the method with synthetic data and one year (2012) of data from the Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) and also look at the seasonal variation of source distribution around Scandinavia. After preprocessing and cross-correlation, the stations are divided into 5 groups of 9 to 12 stations. We invert the envelopes of each group in 8 period ranges between 2 to 25 sec. Results show that the noise sources at short periods (less than 12 sec) lie predominantly in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and at longer periods the energy appears to have a broader distribution. The strongly anisotropic source distribution in this area is estimated to cause significant biases of velocity measurements compared to the level of heterogeneity in the region. The amplitude of the primary microseisms varies little over the year, but secondary

  20. Noise source identification and control of a contractor grade table saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleedorn, Kristin; McKee, Matthew; Yarbough, Dale; Yu, Chen; Zechmann, Edward L.; Mann, J. Adin

    2002-05-01

    Sponsored by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) as part of their initiative to explore noise reduction strategies for construction equipment, a team of engineering students at Iowa State University studied a contractor grade table saw. Based on standards, published work, and preliminary tests, a repeatable noise measurement procedure was developed for the table saw operation. The wood-feed rate and force were measured. With the saw operating in a standard and consistent manner, noise sources on the saw were identified using sound intensity measurement techniques and through the application of noise control strategies to individual sources. At this stage, noise control strategies, such as enclosing the motor, are effective for noise source identification but not practical. The effectiveness of both approaches to identifying the noise sources will be discussed. Based on rank ordering the contribution of each noise source to the overall sound levels, permanent noise control strategies are suggested.

  1. Spectral decomposition of the aerodynamic noise generated by rotating sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiovì, Alessandro; Cattanei, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    A method is posed for separating the noise emitted by an aerodynamic source from propagation effects using spectral decomposition. This technique is applied to the power spectra of a fan measured at several rotational speeds. Although it has been conceived for rotating sources as turbomachinery rotors, the method may be easily applied to low speed stationary sources such as jets and flows in stators and about isolated airfoils. Based on the similarity theory, a clear description of the structure of the power spectrum of the received noise is given and the effect of rotational speed variations is considered as a means to obtain a data set suitable to perform the spectral decomposition. The problem is analyzed in order to clarify possibilities and limitations of the method and then an algorithm is presented which is based on the solution of the derived equations. Particular care is devoted to both the numerical details and the operative aspects. The validation of the algorithm is performed by means of numerically generated input data. Next, in order to verify the ability of the method in separating scattered from emitted sound, an automotive cooling fan has been tested in the DIMSET hemi-anechoic room in a free-field configuration and with a shielded microphone. These two apparently distinct spectra collapse to within less than 2 dB after the spectral decomposition has been performed. The tests prove the ability of the method despite the modest quantity of input data.

  2. Limits on the prediction of helicopter rotor noise using thickness and loading sources: Validation of helicopter noise prediction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Succi, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    The techniques of helicopter rotor noise prediction attempt to describe precisely the details of the noise field and remove the empiricisms and restrictions inherent in previous methods. These techniques require detailed inputs of the rotor geometry, operating conditions, and blade surface pressure distribution. The Farassat noise prediction techniques was studied, and high speed helicopter noise prediction using more detailed representations of the thickness and loading noise sources was investigated. These predictions were based on the measured blade surface pressures on an AH-1G rotor and compared to the measured sound field. Although refinements in the representation of the thickness and loading noise sources improve the calculation, there are still discrepancies between the measured and predicted sound field. Analysis of the blade surface pressure data indicates shocks on the blades, which are probably responsible for these discrepancies.

  3. Auroral kilometric radiation: Wave modes, harmonic and source region electron density structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    A change from extraordinary (X) mode to ordinary (0) mode dominance is observed in the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) detected on ISIS 1 topside sounder ionograms as the source region plasma to gyrofrequency ratio fN/fH varies from 0.1 to 1.3. The X and 0 mode AKR, Z (the slow branch of the X mode) and whistler (W) mode are also observed. The Z mode is typically slightly less intense than the 0-mode. Thw W-mode is confined to frequencies less than fH/2, suggesting that it is the result of field aligned ducted signals reaching the satellite from a source at lower altitudes. Harmonic AKR bands are commonly observed and the 2nd harmonic appears to be due to propagating signals. The deduced (fN/fH) at the bottom of the AKR source region is always less than 0.4 and is typically less than 0.2 during the generation of X-mode AKR, but approaches 0.9 for 0-mode AKR. No large density enhancements were observed within AKR source region density cavities. It is suggested that the observed INTENSE AKR IS cyclotron X-mode radiation rather than plasma frequency 0-mode radiation.

  4. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Rotor Alone Aerodynamic Performance Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Woodward, Richard P.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of an isolated fan or rotor alone model was measured in the NASA Glenn Research Center 9- by 15- Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel as part of the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test conducted at NASA Glenn. The Source Diagnostic Test was conducted to identify the noise sources within a wind tunnel scale model of a turbofan engine and quantify their contribution to the overall system noise level. The fan was part of a 1/5th scale model representation of the bypass stage of a current technology turbofan engine. For the rotor alone testing, the fan and nacelle, including the inlet, external cowl, and fixed area fan exit nozzle, were modeled in the test hardware; the internal outlet guide vanes located behind the fan were removed. Without the outlet guide vanes, the velocity at the nozzle exit changes significantly, thereby affecting the fan performance. As part of the investigation, variations in the fan nozzle area were tested in order to match as closely as possible the rotor alone performance with the fan performance obtained with the outlet guide vanes installed. The fan operating performance was determined using fixed pressure/temperature combination rakes and the corrected weight flow. The performance results indicate that a suitable nozzle exit was achieved to be able to closely match the rotor alone and fan/outlet guide vane configuration performance on the sea level operating line. A small shift in the slope of the sea level operating line was measured, which resulted in a slightly higher rotor alone fan pressure ratio at take-off conditions, matched fan performance at cutback conditions, and a slightly lower rotor alone fan pressure ratio at approach conditions. However, the small differences in fan performance at all fan conditions were considered too small to affect the fan acoustic performance.

  5. Source Methodology for Turbofan Noise Prediction (SOURCE3D Technical Documentation)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Harold D.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides the analytical documentation for the SOURCE3D Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. It derives the equations for the rotor scattering coefficients and stator source vector and scattering coefficients that are needed for use in the TFANS (Theoretical Fan Noise Design/Prediction System). SOURCE3D treats the rotor and stator as isolated source elements. TFANS uses this information, along with scattering coefficients for inlet and exit elements, and provides complete noise solutions for turbofan engines. SOURCE3D is composed of a collection of FORTRAN programs that have been obtained by extending the approach of the earlier V072 Rotor Wake/Stator Interaction Code. Similar to V072, it treats the rotor and stator as a collection of blades and vanes having zero thickness and camber contained in an infinite, hardwall annular duct. SOURCE3D adds important features to the V072 capability-a rotor element, swirl flow and vorticity waves, actuator disks for flow turning, and combined rotor/actuator disk and stator/actuator disk elements. These items allow reflections from the rotor, frequency scattering, and mode trapping, thus providing more complete noise predictions than previously. The code has been thoroughly verified through comparison with D.B. Hanson's CUP2D two- dimensional code using a narrow annulus test case.

  6. Axonal Noise as a Source of Synaptic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A. Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Post-synaptic potential (PSP) variability is typically attributed to mechanisms inside synapses, yet recent advances in experimental methods and biophysical understanding have led us to reconsider the role of axons as highly reliable transmission channels. We show that in many thin axons of our brain, the action potential (AP) waveform and thus the Ca++ signal controlling vesicle release at synapses will be significantly affected by the inherent variability of ion channel gating. We investigate how and to what extent fluctuations in the AP waveform explain observed PSP variability. Using both biophysical theory and stochastic simulations of central and peripheral nervous system axons from vertebrates and invertebrates, we show that channel noise in thin axons (<1 µm diameter) causes random fluctuations in AP waveforms. AP height and width, both experimentally characterised parameters of post-synaptic response amplitude, vary e.g. by up to 20 mV and 0.5 ms while a single AP propagates in C-fibre axons. We show how AP height and width variabilities increase with a ¾ power-law as diameter decreases and translate these fluctuations into post-synaptic response variability using biophysical data and models of synaptic transmission. We find for example that for mammalian unmyelinated axons with 0.2 µm diameter (matching cerebellar parallel fibres) axonal noise alone can explain half of the PSP variability in cerebellar synapses. We conclude that axonal variability may have considerable impact on synaptic response variability. Thus, in many experimental frameworks investigating synaptic transmission through paired-cell recordings or extracellular stimulation of presynaptic neurons, causes of variability may have been confounded. We thereby show how bottom-up aggregation of molecular noise sources contributes to our understanding of variability observed at higher levels of biological organisation. PMID:24809823

  7. Combining harmonic generation and laser chirping to achieve high spectral density in Compton sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzić, Balša; Reeves, Cody; Krafft, Geoffrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Recently various laser-chirping schemes have been investigated with the goal of reducing or eliminating ponderomotive line broadening in Compton or Thomson scattering occurring at high laser intensities. As a next level of detail in the spectrum calculations, we have calculated the line smoothing and broadening expected due to incident beam energy spread within a one-dimensional plane wave model for the incident laser pulse, both for compensated (chirped) and unchirped cases. The scattered compensated distributions are treatable analytically within three models for the envelope of the incident laser pulses: Gaussian, Lorentzian, or hyperbolic secant. We use the new results to demonstrate that the laser chirping in Compton sources at high laser intensities: (i) enables the use of higher order harmonics, thereby reducing the required electron beam energies; and (ii) increases the photon yield in a small frequency band beyond that possible with the fundamental without chirping. This combination of chirping and higher harmonics can lead to substantial savings in the design, construction and operational costs of the new Compton sources. This is of particular importance to the widely popular laser-plasma accelerator based Compton sources, as the improvement in their beam quality enters the regime where chirping is most effective.

  8. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: LDV Measured Flow Field Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary C.; Krupar, Martin J.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Woodward, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted to investigate potential sources of noise in the flow developed by two 22-in. diameter turbofan models. The R4 and M5 rotors that were tested were designed to operate at nominal take-off speeds of 12,657 and 14,064 RPMC, respectively. Both fans were tested with a common set of swept stators installed downstream of the rotors. Detailed measurements of the flows generated by the two were made using a laser Doppler velocimeter system. The wake flows generated by the two rotors are illustrated through a series of contour plots. These show that the two wake flows are quite different, especially in the tip region. These data are used to explain some of the differences in the rotor/stator interaction noise generated by the two fan stages. In addition to these wake data, measurements were also made in the R4 rotor blade passages. These results illustrate the tip flow development within the blade passages, its migration downstream, and (at high rotor speeds) its merging with the blade wake of the adjacent (following) blade. Data also depict the variation of this tip flow with tip clearance. Data obtained within the rotor blade passages at high rotational speeds illustrate the variation of the mean shock position across the different blade passages.

  9. Double simple-harmonic-oscillator formulation of the thermal equilibrium of a fluid interacting with a coherent source of phonons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Defacio, B.; Vannevel, Alan; Brander, O.

    1993-01-01

    A formulation is given for a collection of phonons (sound) in a fluid at a non-zero temperature which uses the simple harmonic oscillator twice; one to give a stochastic thermal 'noise' process and the other which generates a coherent Glauber state of phonons. Simple thermodynamic observables are calculated and the acoustic two point function, 'contrast' is presented. The role of 'coherence' in an equilibrium system is clarified by these results and the simple harmonic oscillator is a key structure in both the formulation and the calculations.

  10. Waves produced from a harmonic point source in a supersonic boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.; Malik, M. R.

    1991-01-01

    The disturbance wave pattern produced by a harmonic point source in a compressible flat-plate boundary layer is computed using linear stability theory and direct numerical integration approach. Receptivity coefficients are computed for the spectrum of spanwise modes generated at the source. The effect of boundary layer growth on the development of linear waves is determined by using the method of multiple scales. Results are presented for Mach numbers of 0, 2, 4.5, and 7. It is found that disturbances spread in wedge-shaped regions behind the source and the wedge angle decreases with Mach number. The lateral spreading angle for the instability waves turns out to be quite close to the angle found experimentally for turbulence lateral contamination.

  11. Instantaneous Io flux tube as the source of Jovian DAM - Possible second harmonic emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menietti, J. D.; Curran, D. B.

    1990-01-01

    To determine if the source of the Jovian Io-dependent DAM (decametric) emission is along the instantaneous Io flux tube (IIFT), the results of ray-tracing calculations are compared with radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy instruments on Voyager 1 and 2. RX mode gyroemission at frequencies near the local gyrofrequency and sources along field lines within the active sector between 150 and 270 deg longitude are assumed. The results indicate good agreement with the observations if the source is within 20 deg of the IIFT, but the maximum gyrofrequency of the model magnetic field is smaller than the observed maximum frequency of the DAM for the assumed active field line. While errors in the magnetic-field model coupled with emission at large Doppler shift might explain this discrepancy, a more natural explanation is that the higher-frequency component of the DAM is due to second-harmonic gyroemission.

  12. High-order harmonics as a continuously tunable coherent femtosecond x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Chang Hee; Kim, Hyung Taek; Hong, Kyung-Han; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2002-11-01

    With the application of appropriately chirped laser pulses, harmonic chirp can be coherently controlled so that sharp harmonics be produced. Using the strong blueshift property and coherently controlling harmonic generation process, we demonstrated a continuously tunable high-order harmonic generation, without losing spectral sharpness.

  13. General Aviation Interior Noise. Part 2; In-Flight Source/Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.; Till, Paul D.; Palumbo, Daniel L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The technical approach made use of the Cessna Model 182E aircraft used in the previous effort as a test bed for noise control application. The present phase of the project reports on flight test results during application of various passive noise treatments in an attempt to verify the noise sources and paths for the aircraft. The data presented establishes the level of interior noise control that can be expected for various passive noise control applications within the aircraft cabin. Subsequent testing will address specific testing to demonstrate the technology available to meet a specified level of noise control by application of passive and/or active noise control technology.

  14. Influence of the noise sources motion on the estimated Green's functions from ambient noise cross-correlations.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Karim G

    2010-06-01

    It has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally that an estimate of the Green's function between two receivers can be obtained by cross-correlating acoustic (or elastic) ambient noise recorded at these two receivers. Coherent wavefronts emerge from the noise cross-correlation time function due to the accumulated contributions over time from noise sources whose propagation path pass through both receivers. Previous theoretical studies of the performance of this passive imaging technique have assumed that no relative motion between noise sources and receivers occurs. In this article, the influence of noise sources motion (e.g., aircraft or ship) on this passive imaging technique was investigated theoretically in free space, using a stationary phase approximation, for stationary receivers. The theoretical results were extended to more complex environments, in the high-frequency regime, using first-order expansions of the Green's function. Although sources motion typically degrades the performance of wideband coherent processing schemes, such as time-delay beamforming, it was found that the Green's function estimated from ambient noise cross-correlations are not expected to be significantly affected by the Doppler effect, even for supersonic sources. Numerical Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to confirm these theoretical predictions for both cases of subsonic and supersonic moving sources. PMID:20550258

  15. Separating Turbofan Engine Noise Sources Using Auto and Cross Spectra from Four Microphones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2008-01-01

    The study of core noise from turbofan engines has become more important as noise from other sources such as the fan and jet were reduced. A multiple-microphone and acoustic-source modeling method to separate correlated and uncorrelated sources is discussed. The auto- and cross spectra in the frequency range below 1000 Hz are fitted with a noise propagation model based on a source couplet consisting of a single incoherent monopole source with a single coherent monopole source or a source triplet consisting of a single incoherent monopole source with two coherent monopole point sources. Examples are presented using data from a Pratt& Whitney PW4098 turbofan engine. The method separates the low-frequency jet noise from the core noise at the nozzle exit. It is shown that at low power settings, the core noise is a major contributor to the noise. Even at higher power settings, it can be more important than jet noise. However, at low frequencies, uncorrelated broadband noise and jet noise become the important factors as the engine power setting is increased.

  16. Aircraft noise source and computer programs - User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowley, K. C.; Jaeger, M. A.; Meldrum, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The application of computer programs for predicting the noise-time histories and noise contours for five types of aircraft is reported. The aircraft considered are: (1) turbojet, (2) turbofan, (3) turboprop, (4) V/STOL, and (5) helicopter. Three principle considerations incorporated in the design of the noise prediction program are core effectiveness, limited input, and variable output reporting.

  17. Sources and levels of background noise in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderman, Paul T.

    1988-01-01

    Background noise levels are measured in the NASA Ames Research Center 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel following installation of a sound-absorbent lining on the test-section walls. Results show that the fan-drive noise dominated the empty test-section background noise at airspeeds below 120 knots. Above 120 knots, the test-section broadband background noise was dominated by wind-induced dipole noise (except at lower harmonics of fan blade-passage tones) most likely generated at the microphone or microphone support strut. Third-octave band and narrow-band spectra are presented for several fan operating conditions and test-section airspeeds. The background noise levels can be reduced by making improvements to the microphone wind screen or support strut. Empirical equations are presented relating variations of fan noise with fan speed or blade-pitch angle. An empirical expression for typical fan noise spectra is also presented. Fan motor electric power consumption is related to the noise generation. Preliminary measurements of sound absorption by the test-section lining indicate that the 152 mm thick lining will adequately absorb test-section model noise at frequencies above 300 Hz.

  18. Noise characteristics of CT perfusion imaging: how does noise propagate from source images to final perfusion maps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Cerebral CT perfusion (CTP) imaging is playing an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of acute ischemic strokes. Meanwhile, the reliability of CTP-based ischemic lesion detection has been challenged due to the noisy appearance and low signal-to-noise ratio of CTP maps. To reduce noise and improve image quality, a rigorous study on the noise transfer properties of CTP systems is highly desirable to provide the needed scientific guidance. This paper concerns how noise in the CTP source images propagates to the final CTP maps. Both theoretical deviations and subsequent validation experiments demonstrated that, the noise level of background frames plays a dominant role in the noise of the cerebral blood volume (CBV) maps. This is in direct contradiction with the general belief that noise of non-background image frames is of greater importance in CTP imaging. The study found that when radiation doses delivered to the background frames and to all non-background frames are equal, lowest noise variance is achieved in the final CBV maps. This novel equality condition provides a practical means to optimize radiation dose delivery in CTP data acquisition: radiation exposures should be modulated between background frames and non-background frames so that the above equality condition is satisïnAed. For several typical CTP acquisition protocols, numerical simulations and in vivo canine experiment demonstrated that noise of CBV can be effectively reduced using the proposed exposure modulation method.

  19. Noise-induced annoyance from transportation noise: short-term responses to a single noise source in a laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lim, Changwoo; Hong, Jiyoung; Lee, Soogab

    2010-02-01

    An experimental study was performed to compare the annoyances from civil-aircraft noise, military-aircraft noise, railway noise, and road-traffic noise. Two-way within-subjects designs were applied in this research. Fifty-two subjects, who were naive listeners, were given various stimuli with varying levels through a headphone in an anechoic chamber. Regardless of the frequency weighting network, even under the same average energy level, civil-aircraft noise was the most annoying, followed by military-aircraft noise, railway noise, and road-traffic noise. In particular, penalties in the time-averaged, A-weighted sound level (TAL) of about 8, 5, and 5 dB, respectively, were found in the civil-aircraft, military-aircraft, and railway noises. The reason could be clarified through the high-frequency component and the variability in the level. When people were exposed to sounds with the same maximum A-weighted level, a railway bonus of about 3 dB was found. However, transportation noise has been evaluated by the time-averaged A-weighted level in most countries. Therefore, in the present situation, the railway bonus is not acceptable for railway vehicles with diesel-electric engines. PMID:20136203

  20. Analytic derivation of pinhole collimation sensitivity for a general source model using spherical harmonics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Sheng; Oldendick, James E; Chang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Pinhole collimators are widely used for SPECT imaging of small organs and animals. There also has been renewed interest in using pinhole arrays for clinical cardiac SPECT imaging to achieve high sensitivity and complete data sampling. Overall sensitivity of a pinhole array is critical in determining a system’s performance. Conventionally, a point source model has been used to evaluate the sensitivity and optimize the system design. This model is simple but far from realistic. This work addresses the use of more realistic source models to assess the sensitivity performance of pinhole collimation. We have derived an analytical formula for pinhole collimation sensitivity with a general source distribution model using spherical harmonics. As special cases of this general model, we provided the pinhole sensitivity formulae for line, disk and sphere sources. These results show that the point source model is just the zeroth-order approximation of the other source models. The point source model overestimates or underestimates the sensitivity relative to the more realistic model. The sphere source model yields the same sensitivity as a point source located at the center of the sphere when attenuation is not taken into account. In the presence of attenuation, the average path length of emitted gamma-rays is 3/4 of the radius of the sphere source. The calculated sensitivities based on these formulae show good agreement with separate Monte Carlo simulations in simple cases. The general and special sensitivity formulae derived here can be useful for the design and optimization of SPECT systems that utilize pinhole collimators. PMID:20400812

  1. Intensity noise in long-wavelength superluminescent sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chung E.; Taylor, Henry F.

    1991-05-01

    Noise in broadband 1.3-micron superluminescent diodes (SLDs) is investigated experimentally, using a balanced detector arrangement to determine the excess noise factor as a function of photodetector current. Measurements were made in both the low-frequency 1/f regime (below 500 kHz) and the high-frequency quantum noise spectral region. The data at higher frequencies are in agreement with predictions of the quantum amplifier model, with values of the spontaneous emission coupling factor ranging from 1.2 to 1.9. It is also found that noise for one polarization of the light is uncorrelated with the noise for the orthogonal polarization over the 0-1 MHz frequency range. This implies that the 1/f noise is not related to carrier density (gain) fluctuations in the active region of the device. An integrated optic chip design to compensate for the excess intensity noise in fiber gyroscopes is proposed.

  2. Farfield filtering and source imaging of subsonic jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kœnig, Maxime; Cavalieri, André V. G.; Jordan, Peter; Delville, Joël; Gervais, Yves; Papamoschou, Dimitri

    2013-09-01

    Jet noise is analysed using data-processing tools adapted to two particular structural traits of the far field: the strong polar dependence and the temporal intermittency. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition is used to probe the polar structure of the sound field, wavelet transform being used to interrogate the temporal signature. The far field is decomposed, using each of these approaches independently, into a component attributed to 'coherent structures', denoted CS, and a residuum, R. The criteria for the decomposition being different, spatial on one hand and temporal on the other, comparison of the resulting CS components is of considerable interest; both decompositions lead, for instance, to CS components that compare favourably with a wavepacket source Ansatz. Using the two techniques, an analysis methodology is established and applied to data from a Mach 0.9, isothermal jet; a series of metrics are thereby proposed by which to evaluate the data. The methodology and associated metrics are then used to explore the effect of varying Mach number on isothermal and heated jets. The following main results are obtained. Both the unfiltered low-angle sound spectrum and that of the CS component of the isothermal jets are found to scale best with Helmholtz number, indicating that the associated sound source is noncompact. In the heated jet, on the other hand, a Strouhal number scaling is observed, again for both the unfiltered low-angle spectrum and the CS spectrum, suggesting that the associated sources are in this case more compact. Where the intermittency of the farfield signature is concerned it is found that increasing the Mach number of isothermal jets has no discernible impact, whereas in the case of the heated jet this increase is accompanied by a decrease in the intermittency, indicating some kind of associated stabilisation of wavepacket source dynamics. Finally, the unfiltered data is used to perform source imaging, using a wavepacket Ansatz. This allows a more

  3. Determination of Jet Noise Radiation Source Locations using a Dual Sideline Cross-Correlation/Spectrum Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. S.; Jaeger, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    The goal of our efforts is to extrapolate nearfield jet noise measurements to the geometric far field where the jet noise sources appear to radiate from a single point. To accomplish this, information about the location of noise sources in the jet plume, the radiation patterns of the noise sources and the sound pressure level distribution of the radiated field must be obtained. Since source locations and radiation patterns can not be found with simple single microphone measurements, a more complicated method must be used.

  4. A temporal and spatial analysis of anthropogenic noise sources affecting SNMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, E.; Christiansen, P.; Larsen, J. J.; Auken, E.

    2014-11-01

    One of the biggest challenges when using the surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) method in urban areas is a relatively low signal level compared to a high level of background noise. To understand the temporal and spatial behavior of anthropogenic noise sources like powerlines and electric fences, we have developed a multichannel instrument, noiseCollector (nC), which measures the full noise spectrum up to 10 kHz. Combined with advanced signal processing we can interpret the noise as seen by a SNMR instrument and also obtain insight into the more fundamental behavior of the noise. To obtain a specified acceptable noise level for a SNMR sounding the stack size can be determined by quantifying the different noise sources. Two common noise sources, electromagnetic fields stemming from powerlines and fences are analyzed and show a 1/r2 dependency in agreement with theoretical relations. A typical noise map, obtained with the nC instrument prior to a SNMR field campaign, clearly shows the location of noise sources, and thus we can efficiently determine the optimal location for the SNMR sounding from a noise perspective.

  5. Source localization analysis using seismic noise data acquired in exploration geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, P.; Corciulo, M.; Campillo, M.; Dubuq, D.

    2011-12-01

    Passive monitoring using seismic noise data shows a growing interest at exploration scale. Recent studies demonstrated source localization capability using seismic noise cross-correlation at observation scales ranging from hundreds of kilometers to meters. In the context of exploration geophysics, classical localization methods using travel-time picking fail when no evident first arrivals can be detected. Likewise, methods based on the intensity decrease as a function of distance to the source also fail when the noise intensity decay gets more complicated than the power-law expected from geometrical spreading. We propose here an automatic procedure developed in ocean acoustics that permits to iteratively locate the dominant and secondary noise sources. The Matched-Field Processing (MFP) technique is based on the spatial coherence of raw noise signals acquired on a dense array of receivers in order to produce high-resolution source localizations. Standard MFP algorithms permits to locate the dominant noise source by matching the seismic noise Cross-Spectral Density Matrix (CSDM) with the equivalent CSDM calculated from a model and a surrogate source position that scans each position of a 3D grid below the array of seismic sensors. However, at exploration scale, the background noise is mostly dominated by surface noise sources related to human activities (roads, industrial platforms,..), which localization is of no interest for the monitoring of the hydrocarbon reservoir. In other words, the dominant noise sources mask lower-amplitude noise sources associated to the extraction process (in the volume). Their location is therefore difficult through standard MFP technique. The Multi-Rate Adaptative Beamforming (MRABF) is a further improvement of the MFP technique that permits to locate low-amplitude secondary noise sources using a projector matrix calculated from the eigen-value decomposition of the CSDM matrix. The MRABF approach aims at cancelling the contributions of

  6. Vehicle noise source heights and sub-source spectra. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Coulson, R.K.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes a turn-key system that was developed and implemented to collect the vehicle source height database for incorporation into the new Traffic Noise Model; `TNM.` A total of 2500 individual vehicle pass-byes were measured with this system at 16 different sites around Florida and this data is presented in the form of averaged curves for each vehicle type. The dependence of source height on speed, pavement type, road grade and acceleration state is also shown for 10 different types of vehicles. The effect of these roadway conditions on the vehicle source heights is small compared to the typical variation in the whole data set. A recommendation is therefore made that the overall average of the date for each vehicle type be used in the TNM model and that variations with speed, pavement, grade and acceleration can be neglected. The data collection system and algorithm used to obtain the source heights is described and the accuracty is demonstrated experimentally with know sources. The measured vehicle source heights are further verified using an alternative Matched Field Processing algorithm which produced very similar results. It is also shown that the single equivalent source height model for a distribution of sources is more accurate that the two sub-source model when used in barrier attenuation calculations.

  7. Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Tone Modal Structure Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidelberg, Laurence J.

    2002-01-01

    This investigation is part of a test series that was extremely comprehensive and included aerodynamic and acoustic testing of a fan stage using two different fan rotors and three different stator designs. The test series is known as the Source Diagnostic Test (SDT) and was conducted by NASA Glenn as part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Tone mode measurements of one of the rotors with three different stators were made. The stator designs involve changes in vane count and sweep at constant solidity. The results of both inlet and exhaust tone mode measurements are presented in terms of mode power for both circumferential and radial mode orders. The results show benefits of vane sweep to be large, up to 13 dB in total tone power. At many conditions, the increase in power due to cutting on the rotor/stator interaction is more than offset by vane sweep. The rotor locked mode is shown as an important contributor to tone power when the blade tip speed is near and above Mach one. This is most evident in the inlet when the direct rotor field starts to cut on.

  8. Analysis of Error Sources in On-Wafer Noise Characterization of RF CMOS Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Wiatr, Wojciech

    2005-08-25

    This paper analyzes how erroneous source impedance measurement due to residual errors within a VNA affect the four-noise parameter determination based on the cold-source noise measurement procedure and the eight-term linear model. It shows that although the errors disturb the complex noise characterization of a CMOS transistor at RF, mismatch and finite bandwidth errors seem to be more significant.

  9. Deconvolution for three-dimensional acoustic source identification based on spherical harmonics beamforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Zhigang; Yang, Yang; He, Yansong

    2015-05-01

    Spherical Harmonics Beamforming (SHB) with solid spherical arrays has become a particularly attractive tool for doing acoustic sources identification in cabin environments. However, it presents some intrinsic limitations, specifically poor spatial resolution and severe sidelobe contaminations. This paper focuses on overcoming these limitations effectively by deconvolution. First and foremost, a new formulation is proposed, which expresses SHB's output as a convolution of the true source strength distribution and the point spread function (PSF) defined as SHB's response to a unit-strength point source. Additionally, the typical deconvolution methods initially suggested for planar arrays, deconvolution approach for the mapping of acoustic sources (DAMAS), nonnegative least-squares (NNLS), Richardson-Lucy (RL) and CLEAN, are adapted to SHB successfully, which are capable of giving rise to highly resolved and deblurred maps. Finally, the merits of the deconvolution methods are validated and the relationships of source strength and pressure contribution reconstructed by the deconvolution methods vs. focus distance are explored both with computer simulations and experimentally. Several interesting results have emerged from this study: (1) compared with SHB, DAMAS, NNLS, RL and CLEAN all can not only improve the spatial resolution dramatically but also reduce or even eliminate the sidelobes effectively, allowing clear and unambiguous identification of single source or incoherent sources. (2) The availability of RL for coherent sources is highest, then DAMAS and NNLS, and that of CLEAN is lowest due to its failure in suppressing sidelobes. (3) Whether or not the real distance from the source to the array center equals the assumed one that is referred to as focus distance, the previous two results hold. (4) The true source strength can be recovered by dividing the reconstructed one by a coefficient that is the square of the focus distance divided by the real distance from

  10. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Ulonska, Stefan; Robinson, Joseph S.; Ranitovic, Predrag; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2015-06-11

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. In this article, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s-1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10-5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Finally, spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications.

  11. Bright high-repetition-rate source of narrowband extreme-ultraviolet harmonics beyond 22 eV

    PubMed Central

    Wang, He; Xu, Yiming; Ulonska, Stefan; Robinson, Joseph S.; Ranitovic, Predrag; Kaindl, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Novel table-top sources of extreme-ultraviolet light based on high-harmonic generation yield unique insight into the fundamental properties of molecules, nanomaterials or correlated solids, and enable advanced applications in imaging or metrology. Extending high-harmonic generation to high repetition rates portends great experimental benefits, yet efficient extreme-ultraviolet conversion of correspondingly weak driving pulses is challenging. Here, we demonstrate a highly-efficient source of femtosecond extreme-ultraviolet pulses at 50-kHz repetition rate, utilizing the ultraviolet second-harmonic focused tightly into Kr gas. In this cascaded scheme, a photon flux beyond ≈3 × 1013 s−1 is generated at 22.3 eV, with 5 × 10−5 conversion efficiency that surpasses similar harmonics directly driven by the fundamental by two orders-of-magnitude. The enhancement arises from both wavelength scaling of the atomic dipole and improved spatio-temporal phase matching, confirmed by simulations. Spectral isolation of a single 72-meV-wide harmonic renders this bright, 50-kHz extreme-ultraviolet source a powerful tool for ultrafast photoemission, nanoscale imaging and other applications. PMID:26067922

  12. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Subsonic jets are relatively simple. The peak noise source location gradually moves upstream toward the nozzle as frequency increases. 2) Supersonic jets are more complicated. The peak noise source location moves downstream as frequency increases through a BBSN hump. 3) In both subsonic and supersonic jets the peak noise source location corresponding to a given frequency of noise moves downstream as jet Mach number increases. 4) The noise generated at a given frequency in a BBSN hump is generated by a small number of shocks, not from all the shocks at the same time. 5) Single microphone spectrum levels decrease when the noise source locations measured with the phased array are blocked by a shielding surface. This consistency validates the phased array data and the stationary monopole source model used to process it. 6) Reflecting surface data illustrate that the law of reflection must be satisfied for noise to reflect off a surface toward an observer. Depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface and the observer only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement. 7) The low frequency noise created when a jet flow impinges on a surface comes primarily from the trailing edge regardless of the axial extent impacted by the flow.

  13. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  14. Noise from high speed maglev systems: Noise sources, noise criteria, preliminary design guidelines for noise control, recommendations for acoustical test facility for maglev research. Final report, July 1991-October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, C.E.; Abbot, P.; Dyer, I.

    1993-01-01

    Noise levels from magnetically-levitated trains (maglev) at very high speed may be high enough to cause environmental noise impact in residential areas. Aeroacoustic sources dominate the sound at high speeds and guideway vibrations generate noticeable sound at low speed. In addition to high noise levels, the startle effect as a result of sudden onset of sound from a rapidly moving nearby maglev vehicle may lead to increased annoyance to neighbors of a maglev system. The report provides a base for determining the noise consequences and potential mitigation for a high speed maglev system in populated areas of the United States. Four areas are included in the study: (1) definition of noise sources; (2) development of noise criteria; (3) development of design guidelines; and (4) recommendations for a noise testing facility.

  15. Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises. PMID:20329835

  16. Advanced techniques for noise source identification on a large generator unit

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.D. ); Yang, S.J. )

    1993-03-01

    Power station acoustic noise assessment, which has experienced increased environmental awareness and subsequently more stringent legislation for a number of years, has received and added stimulus due to the recent advent of powerful measurement and analysis techniques including sound intensity and coherence. These experimental techniques are explained and results, for a generator unit, illustrate their value in providing a unique, correlated insight into noise problems. This includes noise quantification, full explanation of site sound pressure level in terms of the various influences and major noise source identification. These techniques are widely applicable and an invaluable aid to any industrial noise problem.

  17. Candidate Source of Flux Noise in SQUIDs: Adsorbed Oxygen Molecules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shi, Chuntai; Hu, Jun; Han, Sungho; Yu, Clare C; Wu, R Q

    2015-08-14

    A major obstacle to using superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) as qubits is flux noise. We propose that the heretofore mysterious spins producing flux noise could be O_{2} molecules adsorbed on the surface. Using density functional theory calculations, we find that an O_{2} molecule adsorbed on an α-alumina surface has a magnetic moment of ~1.8 μ_{B}. The spin is oriented perpendicular to the axis of the O-O bond, the barrier to spin rotations is about 10 mK. Monte Carlo simulations of ferromagnetically coupled, anisotropic XY spins on a square lattice find 1/f magnetization noise, consistent with flux noise in Al SQUIDs. PMID:26317742

  18. Noise

    MedlinePlus

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  19. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  20. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-06-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  1. Source Processes Revealed at Two Guatemalan Volcanoes: Insights from Multidisciplinary Observations of Harmonic Tremor and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brill, K. A.; Waite, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    Tremor signals at volcanoes are typically attributed to fluid movement within the system. Characteristics of harmonic tremor (i.e. duration, frequency content, polarization) can convey detailed information about source processes from which they emanate, but decoding these signals poses great challenges due to the complexity of volcanic environments. We recorded instances of harmonic tremor at both Santiaguito and Fuego volcanoes Guatemala, Central America. The instances of harmonic tremor occur both independent from and contemporaneous with explosions, and last anywhere from 30 seconds to tens of minutes. The signals have fundamental frequencies between 0.3 and 2.5 Hz, with as many as 20 overtones, and exhibit spectral gliding of up to 0.75 Hz over the course of an event, changing as quickly as 0.1 Hz/second. Field observations; video recordings; and time-lapse, ultraviolet, and thermal imagery; collected simultaneously with acoustic and seismic recordings allow us to constrain source locations and processes beyond what would otherwise be possible just acoustic and seismic recordings. We propose that the harmonic tremor signals are generated by nonlinear excitation of fracture walls as gas vents out of the systems. Additionally, we investigate the complex wavefield generated by harmonic tremor and the heterogeneous volcanic media. Particle motions at both volcanoes are typically elliptical, but vary dramatically over time as the fundamental frequency glides up and down (see figure). In addition, the particle motions of harmonics often have different polarities from each other and the fundamental frequency. Through finite difference modeling, we isolate the effects of near-field terms, topography, and source mechanism to explore each of these factors' contribution to the unexpected behavior.

  2. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect that a planar surface located near a jet flow has on the noise radiated to the far-field. Two different configurations were tested: 1) a shielding configuration in which the surface was located between the jet and the far-field microphones, and 2) a reflecting configuration in which the surface was mounted on the opposite side of the jet, and thus the jet noise was free to reflect off the surface toward the microphones. Both conventional far-field microphone and phased array noise source localization measurements were obtained. This paper discusses phased array results, while a companion paper discusses far-field results. The phased array data show that the axial distribution of noise sources in a jet can vary greatly depending on the jet operating condition and suggests that it would first be necessary to know or be able to predict this distribution in order to be able to predict the amount of noise reduction to expect from a given shielding configuration. The data obtained on both subsonic and supersonic jets show that the noise sources associated with a given frequency of noise tend to move downstream, and therefore, would become more difficult to shield, as jet Mach number increases. The noise source localization data obtained on cold, shock-containing jets suggests that the constructive interference of sound waves that produces noise at a given frequency within a broadband shock noise hump comes primarily from a small number of shocks, rather than from all the shocks at the same time. The reflecting configuration data illustrates that the law of reflection must be satisfied in order for jet noise to reflect off of a surface to an observer, and depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface, and the observer, only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement.

  3. Nanoscale direct mapping of localized and induced noise sources on conducting polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Cho, Duckhyung; Lee, Hyungwoo; Cho, Dong-Guk; Hong, Seunghun

    2015-12-01

    The localized noise-sources and those induced by external-stimuli were directly mapped by using a conducting-AFM integrated with a custom-designed noise measurement set-up. In this method, current and noise images of a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-polymer-film on a conducting-substrate were recorded simultaneously, enabling the mapping of the resistivity and noise source density (NT). The polymer-films exhibited separate regions with high or low resistivities, which were attributed to the ordered or disordered phases, respectively. A larger number of noise-sources were observed in the disordered-phase-regions than in the ordered-phase regions, due to structural disordering. Increased bias-voltages on the disordered-phase-regions resulted in increased NT, which is explained by the structural deformation at high bias-voltages. On photo-illumination, the ordered-phase-regions exhibited a rather large increase in the conductivity and NT. Presumably, the illumination released carriers from deep-traps which should work as additional noise-sources. These results show that our methods provide valuable insights into noise-sources and, thus, can be powerful tools for basic research and practical applications of conducting polymer films.The localized noise-sources and those induced by external-stimuli were directly mapped by using a conducting-AFM integrated with a custom-designed noise measurement set-up. In this method, current and noise images of a poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene)-polymer-film on a conducting-substrate were recorded simultaneously, enabling the mapping of the resistivity and noise source density (NT). The polymer-films exhibited separate regions with high or low resistivities, which were attributed to the ordered or disordered phases, respectively. A larger number of noise-sources were observed in the disordered-phase-regions than in the ordered-phase regions, due to structural disordering. Increased bias-voltages on the disordered-phase-regions resulted in

  4. The 8.4-GHz low-noise maser pump source assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, R.

    1987-01-01

    Improved pump source assemblies and new 8.4-GHz low noise traveling-wave masers (TWMs) were installed at the same time at Deep Space Stations 14 and 43 as part of the Mark IVA DSCC Antenna Microwave Subsystems upgrade. The pump source assemblies are part of the new 8.4-GHz TWMs, which are identified as Block IIA Low-Noise TWMs. Improved reliability of the pump source assemblies was required to meet stress analysis criteria.

  5. Aeroacoustics of Turbulent Jets: Flow Structure, Noise Sources, and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmark, Ephraim Jeff; Callender, Bryan William; Martens, Steve

    The paper reviews research performed to advance the understanding of state-of-the-art technologies capable of reducing coaxial jet noise simulating the exhaust flow of turbofan engines. The review focuses on an emerging jet noise passive control technology known as chevron nozzles. The fundamental physical mechanisms responsible for the acoustic benefits provided by these nozzles are discussed. Additionally, the relationship between these physical mechanisms and some of the primary chevron geometric parameters are highlighted. Far-field acoustic measurements over a wide range of nozzle operating conditions illustrated the ability of the chevron nozzles to provide acoustic benefits. Detailed mappings of the acoustic near-field provided more insight into the chevron noise suppression mechanisms by successfully identifying two primary chevron effects consistent with the results of the far-field measurements: chevrons penetration and shear velocity across them. Mean and turbulence data identified the physical flow mechanisms responsible for the effects documented in the far- and near-field studies.

  6. Experiments on the aerodynamic noise sources in centrifugal turbomachinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, Dennis K.; Thompson, Donald E.; Choi, Jong-Soo

    1990-10-01

    Flow induced noise generation mechanisms in a centrifugal turbomachine are investigated in this study. To isolate the noise generation mechanisms of interest, a simplified discharge configuration was selected. The unsteady flowfield discharging from the rotating impeller has been measured with stationary hot-wire sensors. A space and time cross-correlation technique using two stationary hot-wire sensors was developed to simulate a rotating hot-wire measurement. The simulated auto-spectrum of the discharged velocity shows a similar pattern to that observed in the spectrum from an impeller mounted rotating pressure sensor. Experimental results demonstrate how the unsteady flow in the impeller passages, modulated by a mild rotating stall pattern, interacts with the trailing edge of the impeller blades, and generates noise.

  7. Natural noise above 50 MHZ from terrestrial and extraterrestrial sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E. K.; Flock, W. L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper offers a brief overview of natural radio noise for frequencies above 50 MHz in terms of brightness temperature as observed from two vantage points. The first is from an Earth station located at 40 degrees north latitude and observing at elevation angles from 0 to 90 degrees with an ideal antenna. The second is a satellite in geostationary orbit communicating with the Earth. Earth station noise at VHF and UHF is dominated by galactic and solar noise. Emission from the atmosphere, gases and hydrometeors, are dominant at EHF and SHF. Radiative transfer theory is invoked in the calculation of brightness temperature from the atmosphere. The situation is not vastly different from geostationary orbit if communications is with the Earth. Emission from the land and sea, even under idealized conditions, enters significantly. Land is a much more effective emitter than sea water, but at frequencies above 30 GHz the differential becomes much less due to the increasing significance of atmospheric emission.

  8. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    The design and test results of a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler for a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source are presented. The coupler separates the second harmonic power from the fundamental output power of a traveling-wave tube amplifier. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37 to 42 GHz) and VW-band (71 to 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  9. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source, based on the second harmonic from a traveling-wave tube amplifier and utilizes a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37-42 GHz) and V/W-band (71- 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  10. Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier Second Harmonic as Millimeter-Wave Beacon Source for Atmospheric Propagation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Wintucky, Edwin G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design and test results of a CW millimeter-wave satellite beacon source, based on the second harmonic from a traveling-wave tube amplifier and utilizes a novel waveguide multimode directional coupler. A potential application of the beacon source is for investigating the atmospheric effects on Q-band (37 to 42 GHz) and V/W-band (71 to 76 GHz) satellite-to-ground signals.

  11. (Investigation of subcooled hydrothermal boiling in ground water flow channels as a source of harmonic tremors)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    As a first step toward assessing the ability of hydrothermal boiling to explain geothermal ground noise and volcanic tremor observations, we are investigating the acoustic power spectrum of boiling (the source'' spectrum in the above model). We simulate boiling in the lab by injecting high pressure steam from a boiler into a pressure vessel filled with water. The water pressure fluctuations that result from the repeated formation and collapse of steam bubbles at the steam inlet vents are recorded by a hydrophone whose output is digitized at 2 {times} 10{sup 4} samples/second by a computer. The range of pressure and temperature conditions attainable within the pressure vessel is limited to <3.5 bars, <139{degree}C, due to the finite strength of observation windows affixed to the pressure vessel. Therefore, dimensional analysis will be used to correlate the experimental results with the pertinent experimental variables. Besides the overall shape of the boiling power spectrum, we are investigating the absolute spectral levels in frequency bands typical of geothermal ground noise and volcanic tremor (0.5 Hz-10 Hz), and the ratio of acoustic power liberated to total available power. The values of these parameters are critical to hydrothermal boiling's ability to generate ground motion amplitudes in accordance with observation. If it can be shown that the range of observed ground noise/tremor amplitudes can be accounted for by hydrothermal boiling at reasonable heat transfer rates, this knowledge would be invaluable to designers of seismic monitoring experiments who are interested in geothermal resource exploration/evaluation and volcanic eruption prediction.

  12. Multi-MW 22.8 GHz Harmonic Multiplier - RF Power Source for High-Gradient Accelerator R&D

    SciTech Connect

    Jay L. Hirshfield

    2012-07-26

    Electrodynamic and particle simulation studies have been carried out to optimize design of a two-cavity harmonic frequency multiplier, in which a linear electron beam is energized by rotating fields near cyclotron resonance in a TE111 cavity in a uniform magnetic field, and in which the beam then radiates coherently at the nth harmonic into a TEn11 output cavity. Examples are worked out in detail for 7th and 2nd harmonic converters, showing RF-to-RF conversion efficiencies of 45% and 88%, respectively at 19.992 GHz (K-band) and 5.712 GHz (C-band), for a drive frequency of 2.856 GHz. Details are shown of RF infrastructure (S-band klystron, modulator) and harmonic converter components (drive cavity, output cavities, electron beam source and modulator, beam collector) for the two harmonic converters to be tested. Details are also given for the two-frequency (S- and C-band) coherent multi-MW test stand for RF breakdown and RF gun studies.

  13. A summation and inhibition model of annoyance response to multiple community noise sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.

    1979-01-01

    A model of annoyance due to combined noise sources was developed. The model provides for the summation of the subjective magnitudes of annoyance due to the separate noise sources and for the inhibition of the subjective magnitudes of each source by the presence of the other noise sources. The inhibition process is assumed to mathematically obey a power-group transformation. The results of an experiment in which subjects judged the annoyance of 15 minute sessions of combined aircraft and with several other models of combined source annoyance. These comparisons indicated that the model developed herein provides better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental responses than the other models. The application of the model to multiple community noises is discussed.

  14. Biological Sources of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Noise in cI Expression of Lysogenic Phage Lambda.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xue; Tian, Wei; Zhu, Hongyuan; Chen, Tianqi; Ao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to homogeneous environment can show remarkable phenotypic difference. To predict how phenotype is shaped, understanding of how each factor contributes is required. During gene expression processes, noise could arise either intrinsically in biochemical processes of gene expression or extrinsically from other cellular processes such as cell growth. In this work, important noise sources in gene expression of phage λ lysogen are quantified using models described by stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Results show that DNA looping has sophisticated impacts on gene expression noise: When DNA looping provides autorepression, like in wild type, it reduces noise in the system; When the autorepression is defected as it is in certain mutants, DNA looping increases expression noise. We also study how each gene operator affects the expression noise by changing the binding affinity between the gene and the transcription factor systematically. We find that the system shows extraordinarily large noise when the binding affinity is in certain range, which changes the system from monostable to bistable. In addition, we find that cell growth causes non-negligible noise, which increases with gene expression level. Quantification of noise and identification of new noise sources will provide deeper understanding on how stochasticity impacts phenotype. PMID:26329725

  15. Sources, control, and effects of noise from aircraft propellers and rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Greene, G. C.; Dempsey, T. K.

    1981-01-01

    Recent NASA and NASA sponsored research on the prediction and control of propeller and rotor source noise, on the analysis and design of fuselage sidewall noise control treatments, and on the measurement and quantification of the response of passengers to aircraft noise is described. Source noise predictions are compared with measurements for conventional low speed propellers, for new high speed propellers (propfans), and for a helicopter. Results from a light aircraft demonstration program are considered which indicates that about 5 dB reduction of flyover noise can be obtained without significant performance penalty. Sidewall design studies are examined for interior noise control in light general aviation aircraft and in large transports using propfan propulsion. The weight of the added acoustic treatment is estimated and tradeoffs between weight and noise reduction are discussed. A laboratory study of passenger response to combined broadband and tonal propeller-like noise is described. Subject discomfort ratings of combined tone broadband noises are compared with ratings of broadband (boundary layer) noise alone and the relative importance of the propeller tones is examined.

  16. Biological Sources of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Noise in cI Expression of Lysogenic Phage Lambda

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xue; Tian, Wei; Zhu, Hongyuan; Chen, Tianqi; Ao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Genetically identical cells exposed to homogeneous environment can show remarkable phenotypic difference. To predict how phenotype is shaped, understanding of how each factor contributes is required. During gene expression processes, noise could arise either intrinsically in biochemical processes of gene expression or extrinsically from other cellular processes such as cell growth. In this work, important noise sources in gene expression of phage λ lysogen are quantified using models described by stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Results show that DNA looping has sophisticated impacts on gene expression noise: When DNA looping provides autorepression, like in wild type, it reduces noise in the system; When the autorepression is defected as it is in certain mutants, DNA looping increases expression noise. We also study how each gene operator affects the expression noise by changing the binding affinity between the gene and the transcription factor systematically. We find that the system shows extraordinarily large noise when the binding affinity is in certain range, which changes the system from monostable to bistable. In addition, we find that cell growth causes non-negligible noise, which increases with gene expression level. Quantification of noise and identification of new noise sources will provide deeper understanding on how stochasticity impacts phenotype. PMID:26329725

  17. High-speed helicopter rotor noise - Shock waves as a potent source of sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Lee, Yung-Jang; Tadghighi, H.; Holz, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the problem of high speed rotor noise prediction. In particular, we propose that from the point of view of the acoustic analogy, shocks around rotating blades are sources of sound. We show that, although for a wing at uniform steady rectilinear motion with shocks the volume quadrupole and shock sources cancel in the far field to the order of 1/r, this cannot happen for rotating blades. In this case, some cancellation between volume quadrupoles and shock sources occurs, yet the remaining shock noise contribution is still potent. A formula for shock noise prediction is presented based on mapping the deformable shock surface to a time independent region. The resulting equation is similar to Formulation 1A of Langley. Shock noise prediction for a hovering model rotor for which experimental noise data exist is presented. The comparison of measured and predicted acoustic data shows good agreement.

  18. Removing the Influence of Shimmer in the Calculation of Harmonics-To-Noise Ratios Using Ensemble-Averages in Voice Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Carlos; González, Eduardo; Hernández-Díaz, María E.; Torres, Diana; del Toro, Anesto

    2009-12-01

    Harmonics-to-noise ratios (HNRs) are affected by general aperiodicity in voiced speech signals. To specifically reflect a signal-to-additive-noise ratio, the measurement should be insensitive to other periodicity perturbations, like jitter, shimmer, and waveform variability. The ensemble averaging technique is a time-domain method which has been gradually refined in terms of its sensitivity to jitter and waveform variability and required number of pulses. In this paper, shimmer is introduced in the model of the ensemble average, and a formula is derived which allows the reduction of shimmer effects in HNR calculation. The validity of the technique is evaluated using synthetically shimmered signals, and the prerequisites (glottal pulse positions and amplitudes) are obtained by means of fully automated methods. The results demonstrate the feasibility and usefulness of the correction.

  19. Identification and proposed control of helicopter transmission noise at the source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Huff, Ronald G.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Karchmer, Allan M.; Coy, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter cabin interiors require noise treatment which is expensive and adds weight. The gears inside the main power transmission are major sources of cabin noise. Work conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center in measuring cabin interior noise and in relating the noise spectrum to the gear vibration of the Army OH-58 helicopter is described. Flight test data indicate that the planetary gear train is a major source of cabin noise and that other low frequency sources are present that could dominate the cabin noise. Companion vibration measurements were made in a transmission test stand, revealing that the single largest contributor to the transmission vibration was the spiral bevel gear mesh. The current understanding of the nature and causes of gear and transmission noise is discussed. It is believed that the kinematical errors of the gear mesh have a strong influence on that noise. The completed NASA/Army sponsored research that applies to transmission noise reduction is summarized. The continuing research program is also reviewed.

  20. Identification and proposed control of helicopter transmission noise at the source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, John J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Huff, Ronald G.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Karchmer, Allan M.

    1987-01-01

    Helicopter cabin interiors require noise treatment which is expensive and adds weight. The gears inside the main power transmission are major sources of cabin noise. Work conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center in measuring cabin interior noise and in relating the noise spectrum to the gear vibration of the Army OH-58 helicopter is described. Flight test data indicate that the planetary gear train is a major source of cabin noise and that other low frequency sources are present that could dominate the cabin noise. Companion vibration measurements were made in a transmission test stand, revealing that the single largest contributor to the transmission vibration was the spiral bevel gear mesh. The current understanding of the nature and causes of gear and transmission noise is discussed. It is believed that the kinematical errors of the gear mesh have a strong influence on that noise. The completed NASA/Army sponsored research that applies to transmission noise reduction is summarized. The continuing research program is also reviewed.

  1. Analysis of jet-airfoil interaction noise sources by using a microphone array technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Vincent; Davy, Renaud

    2016-03-01

    The paper is concerned with the characterization of jet noise sources and jet-airfoil interaction sources by using microphone array data. The measurements were carried-out in the anechoic open test section wind tunnel of Onera, Cepra19. The microphone array technique relies on the convected, Lighthill's and Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings' acoustic analogy equation. The cross-spectrum of the source term of the analogy equation is sought. It is defined as the optimal solution to a minimal error equation using the measured microphone cross-spectra as reference. This inverse problem is ill-posed yet. A penalty term based on a localization operator is therefore added to improve the recovery of jet noise sources. The analysis of isolated jet noise data in subsonic regime shows the contribution of the conventional mixing noise source in the low frequency range, as expected, and of uniformly distributed, uncorrelated noise sources in the jet flow at higher frequencies. In underexpanded supersonic regime, a shock-associated noise source is clearly identified, too. An additional source is detected in the vicinity of the nozzle exit both in supersonic and subsonic regimes. In the presence of the airfoil, the distribution of the noise sources is deeply modified. In particular, a strong noise source is localized on the flap. For high Strouhal numbers, higher than about 2 (based on the jet mixing velocity and diameter), a significant contribution from the shear-layer near the flap is observed, too. Indications of acoustic reflections on the airfoil are also discerned.

  2. Helicopter cabin noise: Methods of source and path identification and characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, B. S.; Wilby, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    Internal noise sources in a helicopter are considered. These include propulsion machinery, comprising engine and transmission, and turbulent boundary layer effects. It is shown that by using relatively simple concepts together with careful experimental work it is possible to generate reliable data on which to base the design of high performance noise control treatments.

  3. Effects of noise radiated from convected ring sources in coaxial dual flow. Part 1: The noise from unheated jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of flight on sound radiated from embedded, uncorrelated ring sources convecting along the midst of the primary and the secondary streams of a coaxial dual flow which emerges from a moving nozzle into the ambience are studied. Cold jets are examined. The problem is posed as a double vortex-sheet flow model which involves deliberate suppression of inherent instabilities of the flow and is formulated, as a linear problem, in terms of the combined contributions of two independent uncorrelated quadrupole-type ring sources, the one convecting in the primary flow representing the sources generated due to the interaction at the primary/secondary interface and the other convecting in the secondary flow representing the sources generated due to the interaction at the secondary/ambient interface. The analysis shows that the effects of flight induce (1) amplication of noise in the forward quadrant, (2) reduction of noise in the aft quadrant and (3) absolutely no impact on radiation of noise at Theta = 90 deg to the jet axis.

  4. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals. PMID:22087938

  5. Detecting vocal fatigue in student singers using acoustic measures of mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sisakun, Siphan

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the ability of four acoustic parameters, mean fundamental frequency, jitter, shimmer, and harmonics-to-noise ratio, to detect vocal fatigue in student singers. The participants are 15 voice students, who perform two distinct tasks, data collection task and vocal fatiguing task. The data collection task includes the sustained vowel /a/, reading a standard passage, and self-rate on a vocal fatigue form. The vocal fatiguing task is the vocal practice of musical scores for a total of 45 minutes. The four acoustic parameters are extracted using the software EZVoicePlus. The data analyses are performed to answer eight research questions. The first four questions relate to correlations of the self-rating scale and each of the four parameters. The next four research questions relate to differences in the parameters over time using one-factor repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result yields a proposed acoustic profile of vocal fatigue in student singers. This profile is characterized by increased fundamental frequency; slightly decreased jitter; slightly decreased shimmer; and slightly increased harmonics-to-noise ratio. The proposed profile requires further investigation.

  6. Study of Harmonics-to-Noise Ratio and Critical-Band Energy Spectrum of Speech as Acoustic Indicators of Laryngeal and Voice Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Kumara; krishna, Anantha; Cholayya, Niranjan U.

    2006-12-01

    Acoustic analysis of speech signals is a noninvasive technique that has been proved to be an effective tool for the objective support of vocal and voice disease screening. In the present study acoustic analysis of sustained vowels is considered. A simple[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-means nearest neighbor classifier is designed to test the efficacy of a harmonics-to-noise ratio (HNR) measure and the critical-band energy spectrum of the voiced speech signal as tools for the detection of laryngeal pathologies. It groups the given voice signal sample into pathologic and normal. The voiced speech signal is decomposed into harmonic and noise components using an iterative signal extrapolation algorithm. The HNRs at four different frequency bands are estimated and used as features. Voiced speech is also filtered with 21 critical-bandpass filters that mimic the human auditory neurons. Normalized energies of these filter outputs are used as another set of features. The results obtained have shown that the HNR and the critical-band energy spectrum can be used to correlate laryngeal pathology and voice alteration, using previously classified voice samples. This method could be an additional acoustic indicator that supplements the clinical diagnostic features for voice evaluation.

  7. Determination of Jet Noise Radiation Patterns and Source Locations using 2-Dimensional Intensity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeger, S. M.; Allen, C. S.

    1999-01-01

    Contents include the following: (1) Outline Jet Noise extrapolation to far field. (2) Two dimensional sound intensity. (3) Anechoic chamber cold jet test. (4) Results: Intensity levels. Vector maps. Source location centroids. Directivity. and (5) Conclusions.

  8. GIS-Based Noise Simulation Open Source Software: N-GNOIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sharma, A.; Kumar, M.; Shende, V.; Chakrabarti, T.; Gupta, Rajesh

    2015-12-01

    Geographical information system (GIS)-based noise simulation software (N-GNOIS) has been developed to simulate the noise scenario due to point and mobile sources considering the impact of geographical features and meteorological parameters. These have been addressed in the software through attenuation modules of atmosphere, vegetation and barrier. N-GNOIS is a user friendly, platform-independent and open geospatial consortia (OGC) compliant software. It has been developed using open source technology (QGIS) and open source language (Python). N-GNOIS has unique features like cumulative impact of point and mobile sources, building structure and honking due to traffic. Honking is the most common phenomenon in developing countries and is frequently observed on any type of roads. N-GNOIS also helps in designing physical barrier and vegetation cover to check the propagation of noise and acts as a decision making tool for planning and management of noise component in environmental impact assessment (EIA) studies.

  9. Phased Array Radiometer Calibration Using a Radiated Noise Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, Karthik; Limaye, Ashutoch S.; Laymon, Charles A.; Meyer, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Electronic beam steering capability of phased array antenna systems offer significant advantages when used in real aperture imaging radiometers. The sensitivity of such systems is limited by the ability to accurately calibrate variations in the antenna circuit characteristics. Passive antenna systems, which require mechanical rotation to scan the beam, have stable characteristics and the noise figure of the antenna can be characterized with knowledge of its physical temperature [1],[2]. Phased array antenna systems provide the ability to electronically steer the beam in any desired direction. Such antennas make use of active components (amplifiers, phase shifters) to provide electronic scanning capability while maintaining a low antenna noise figure. The gain fluctuations in the active components can be significant, resulting in substantial calibration difficulties [3]. In this paper, we introduce two novel calibration techniques that provide an end-to-end calibration of a real-aperture, phased array radiometer system. Empirical data will be shown to illustrate the performance of both methods.

  10. A study of noise source location on a model scale augmentor wing using correlation techniques. [noise measurement of far field noise by wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilby, J. F.; Scharton, T. D.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental investigation, conducted on a model-scale augmentor wing to identify the sources of far-field noise, is examined. The measurement procedure followed in the investigation involved the cross-correlation of far field sound pressures with fluctuating pressures on the surface of the augmentor flap and shroud. In addition pressures on the surfaces of the augmentor were cross-correlated. The results are interpreted as showing that the surface pressure fluctuations are mainly aerodynamic in character and are convected in the downstream direction with a velocity which is dependent on the jet exhaust velocity. However the far field sound levels in the mid and high frequency ranges are dominated by jet noise. There is an indication that in the low frequency range trailing edge noise, associated with interaction of the jet flow and the flap trailing edge, plays a significant role in the radiated sound field.

  11. Algorithm for astronomical, extended source, signal-to-noise radio calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jayroe, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm was developed to simulate the expected signal-to-noise ratio as a function of observation time in the charge coupled device detector plane of an optical telescope located outside the Earth's atmosphere for an extended, uniform astronomical source embedded in a uniform cosmic background. By choosing the appropriate input values, the expected extended source signal-to-noise ratios can be computed for the Hubble Space Telescope using the Wide Field/Planetary Camera science instrument.

  12. Diesel engine noise source identification based on EEMD, coherent power spectrum analysis and improved AHP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Wang, Jian; Lin, Jiewei; Bi, Fengrong; Guo, Qian; Chen, Kongwu; Ma, Liang

    2015-09-01

    As the essential foundation of noise reduction, many noise source identification methods have been developed and applied to engineering practice. To identify the noise source in the board-band frequency of different engine parts at various typical speeds, this paper presents an integrated noise source identification method based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), the coherent power spectrum analysis, and the improved analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The measured noise is decomposed into several IMFs with physical meaning, which ensures the coherence analysis of the IMFs and the vibration signals are meaningful. An improved AHP is developed by introducing an objective weighting function to replace the traditional subjective evaluation, which makes the results no longer dependent on the subject performances and provides a better consistency in the meantime. The proposed noise identification model is applied to identifying a diesel engine surface radiated noise. As a result, the frequency-dependent contributions of different engine parts to different test points at different speeds are obtained, and an overall weight order is obtained as oil pan  >  left body  >  valve chamber cover  >  gear chamber casing  >  right body  >  flywheel housing, which provides an effectual guidance for the noise reduction.

  13. Experimental and analytical studies of shielding concepts for point sources and jet noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, R. L. M.

    1983-05-01

    Concepts for jet noise shielding were explored. Model experiments center on solid planar shields, simulating engine-over-wing installations and sugar scoop shields. Tradeoff on effective shielding length is set by interference "edge noise' as the shield trailing edge approaches the spreading jet. In general, shielding attentuation increases steadily with frequency, following low frequency enhancement by edge noise. Although broadband attenuation is typically only several decibels, the reduction of the subjectively weighted perceived noise levels is higher. Calculated ground contours of peak PN dB (perceived noise level) show a substantial contraction due to shielding: this reaches 66% for one of the sugar scoop shields for the 90 PN dB contour. The experiments are complemented by analytical predictions. They are divided into an engineering scheme for jet noise shielding and more rigorous analysis for point source shielding.

  14. How Common are Noise Sources on the Crash Arc of Malaysian Flight 370

    SciTech Connect

    Fenimore, Edward E.; Kunkle, Thomas David; Stead, Richard J.

    2014-10-21

    Malaysian Flight 370 disappeared nearly without a trace. Besides some communication handshakes to the INMASAT satellite, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty monitoring system could have heard the aircraft crash into the southern Indian Ocean. One noise event from Cape Leeuwin has been suggested by Stead as the crash and occurs within the crash location suggested by Kunkle at el. We analyze the hydrophone data from Cape Leeuwin to understand how common such noise events are on the arc of possible locations where Malaysian Flight 370 might have crashed. Few other noise sources were found on the arc. The noise event found by Stead is the strongest. No noise events are seen within the Australian Transportation Safety Board (ATSB) new search location until the 10th strongest event, an event which is very close to the noise level.

  15. Can lightning be a noise source for a spherical gravitational wave antenna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magalhães, Nadja Simão; de Marinho, Rubens; de Aguiar, Odylio Denys; Frajuca, Carlos

    2005-11-01

    The detection of gravitational waves is a very active research field at the moment. In Brazil the gravitational wave detector is called Mario SCHENBERG. Because of its high sensitivity it is necessary to model mathematically all known noise sources so that digital filters can be developed that maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. One of the noise sources that must be considered are the disturbances caused by electromagnetic pulses due to lightnings close to the experiment. Such disturbances may influence the vibrations of the antenna’s normal modes and mask possible gravitational wave signals. In this work we model the interaction between lightnings and SCHENBERG antenna and calculate the intensity of the noise due to a close lightning stroke in the detected signal. We find that the noise generated does not disturb the experiment significantly.

  16. Relaxation dynamics in the presence of pulse multiplicative noise sources with different correlation properties.

    PubMed

    Kargovsky, A V; Chichigina, O A; Anashkina, E I; Valenti, D; Spagnolo, B

    2015-10-01

    The relaxation dynamics of a system described by a Langevin equation with pulse multiplicative noise sources with different correlation properties is considered. The solution of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived for Gaussian white noise. Moreover, two pulse processes with regulated periodicity are considered as a noise source: the dead-time-distorted Poisson process and the process with fixed time intervals, which is characterized by an infinite correlation time. We find that the steady state of the system is dependent on the correlation properties of the pulse noise. An increase of the noise correlation causes the decrease of the mean value of the solution at the steady state. The analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical ones. PMID:26565201

  17. Can lightning be a noise source for a spherical gravitational wave antenna?

    SciTech Connect

    Magalhaes, Nadja Simao; Marinho, Rubens de Melo Jr.; Aguiar, Odylio Denys de; Frajuca, Carlos

    2005-11-15

    The detection of gravitational waves is a very active research field at the moment. In Brazil the gravitational wave detector is called Mario SCHENBERG. Because of its high sensitivity it is necessary to model mathematically all known noise sources so that digital filters can be developed that maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. One of the noise sources that must be considered are the disturbances caused by electromagnetic pulses due to lightnings close to the experiment. Such disturbances may influence the vibrations of the antenna's normal modes and mask possible gravitational wave signals. In this work we model the interaction between lightnings and SCHENBERG antenna and calculate the intensity of the noise due to a close lightning stroke in the detected signal. We find that the noise generated does not disturb the experiment significantly.

  18. Analytic treatment of source photon emission times to reduce noise in implicit Monte Carlo calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, Travis J.; Gentile, Nicholas A.

    2012-09-10

    Statistical uncertainty is inherent to any Monte Carlo simulation of radiation transport problems. In space-angle-frequency independent radiative transfer calculations, the uncertainty in the solution is entirely due to random sampling of source photon emission times. We have developed a modification to the Implicit Monte Carlo algorithm that eliminates noise due to sampling of the emission time of source photons. In problems that are independent of space, angle, and energy, the new algorithm generates a smooth solution, while a standard implicit Monte Carlo solution is noisy. For space- and angle-dependent problems, the new algorithm exhibits reduced noise relative to standard implicit Monte Carlo in some cases, and comparable noise in all other cases. In conclusion, the improvements are limited to short time scales; over long time scales, noise due to random sampling of spatial and angular variables tends to dominate the noise reduction from the new algorithm.

  19. Security of two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianyi; Yu, Song; Zhang, Yi-Chen; Gu, Wanyi; Guo, Hong

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the security of reverse reconciliation two-way continuous-variable quantum key distribution with source noise at both legitimate sides. Because the source noise originates from imperfect devices, we ascribe it to the legitimate sides rather than the eavesdropper. The trusted model consists of a thermal noise injected into a beam splitter. The expressions of secret key rate are derived against collective entangling cloner attacks for homodyne and heterodyne detections. Simulation results show that by applying the trusted model, the security bound of the reverse reconciliation two-way protocols can be tightened, while the advantage over one-way protocols still maintains.

  20. Limitations of Phased Array Beamforming in Open Rotor Noise Source Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane; Podboy, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    Phased array beamforming results of the F31/A31 historical baseline counter-rotating open rotor blade set were investigated for measurement data taken on the NASA Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Propulsion Rig in the 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel of NASA Glenn Research Center as well as data produced using the LINPROP open rotor tone noise code. The planar microphone array was positioned broadside and parallel to the axis of the open rotor, roughly 2.3 rotor diameters away. The results provide insight as to why the apparent noise sources of the blade passing frequency tones and interaction tones appear at their nominal Mach radii instead of at the actual noise sources, even if those locations are not on the blades. Contour maps corresponding to the sound fields produced by the radiating sound waves, taken from the simulations, are used to illustrate how the interaction patterns of circumferential spinning modes of rotating coherent noise sources interact with the phased array, often giving misleading results, as the apparent sources do not always show where the actual noise sources are located. This suggests that a more sophisticated source model would be required to accurately locate the sources of each tone. The results of this study also have implications with regard to the shielding of open rotor sources by airframe empennages.

  1. Erratum: Sources of Image Degradation in Fundamental and Harmonic Ultrasound Imaging: A Nonlinear, Full-Wave, Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Dahl, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain. This numerical method is used to simulate propagation of a diagnostic ultrasound pulse through a measured representation of the human abdomen with heterogeneities in speed of sound, attenuation, density, and nonlinearity. Conventional delay-and-sum beamforming is used to generate point spread functions (PSFs) that display the effects of these heterogeneities. For the particular imaging configuration that is modeled, these PSFs reveal that the primary source of degradation in fundamental imaging is due to reverberation from near-field structures. Compared with fundamental imaging, reverberation clutter in harmonic imaging is 27.1 dB lower. Simulated tissue with uniform velocity but unchanged impedance characteristics indicates that for harmonic imaging, the primary source of degradation is phase aberration. PMID:21693410

  2. Effect of higher harmonic control on helicopter rotor blade-vortex interaction noise: Prediction and initial validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaumier, P.; Prieur, J.; Rahier, G.; Spiegel, P.; Demargne, A.; Tung, C.; Gallman, J. M.; Yu, Y. H.; Kube, R.; Vanderwall, B. G.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presents a status of theoretical tools of AFDD, DLR, NASA and ONERA for prediction of the effect of HHC on helicopter main rotor BVI noise. Aeroacoustic predictions from the four research centers, concerning a wind tunnel simulation of a typical descent flight case without and with HHC are presented and compared. The results include blade deformation, geometry of interacting vortices, sectional loads and noise. Acoustic predictions are compared to experimental data. An analysis of the results provides a first insight of the mechanisms by which HHC may affect BVI noise.

  3. Volterra dendritic stimulus processors and biophysical spike generators with intrinsic noise sources

    PubMed Central

    Lazar, Aurel A.; Zhou, Yiyin

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of neural circuit models with internal noise sources arising in sensory systems. The basic neuron model in these circuits consists of a dendritic stimulus processor (DSP) cascaded with a biophysical spike generator (BSG). The dendritic stimulus processor is modeled as a set of nonlinear operators that are assumed to have a Volterra series representation. Biophysical point neuron models, such as the Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, are used to model the spike generator. We address the question of how intrinsic noise sources affect the precision in encoding and decoding of sensory stimuli and the functional identification of its sensory circuits. We investigate two intrinsic noise sources arising (i) in the active dendritic trees underlying the DSPs, and (ii) in the ion channels of the BSGs. Noise in dendritic stimulus processing arises from a combined effect of variability in synaptic transmission and dendritic interactions. Channel noise arises in the BSGs due to the fluctuation of the number of the active ion channels. Using a stochastic differential equations formalism we show that encoding with a neuron model consisting of a nonlinear DSP cascaded with a BSG with intrinsic noise sources can be treated as generalized sampling with noisy measurements. For single-input multi-output neural circuit models with feedforward, feedback and cross-feedback DSPs cascaded with BSGs we theoretically analyze the effect of noise sources on stimulus decoding. Building on a key duality property, the effect of noise parameters on the precision of the functional identification of the complete neural circuit with DSP/BSG neuron models is given. We demonstrate through extensive simulations the effects of noise on encoding stimuli with circuits that include neuron models that are akin to those commonly seen in sensory systems, e.g., complex cells in V1. PMID:25225477

  4. Suppression of Fiber Modal Noise Induced Radial Velocity Errors for Bright Emission-line Calibration Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Venditti, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Modal noise in optical fibers imposes limits on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and velocity precision achievable with the next generation of astronomical spectrographs. This is an increasingly pressing problem for precision radial velocity spectrographs in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical that require both high stability of the observed line profiles and high S/N. Many of these spectrographs plan to use highly coherent emission-line calibration sources like laser frequency combs and Fabry-Perot etalons to achieve precision sufficient to detect terrestrial-mass planets. These high-precision calibration sources often use single-mode fibers or highly coherent sources. Coupling light from single-mode fibers to multi-mode fibers leads to only a very low number of modes being excited, thereby exacerbating the modal noise measured by the spectrograph. We present a commercial off-the-shelf solution that significantly mitigates modal noise at all optical and NIR wavelengths, and which can be applied to spectrograph calibration systems. Our solution uses an integrating sphere in conjunction with a diffuser that is moved rapidly using electrostrictive polymers, and is generally superior to most tested forms of mechanical fiber agitation. We demonstrate a high level of modal noise reduction with a narrow bandwidth 1550 nm laser. Our relatively inexpensive solution immediately enables spectrographs to take advantage of the innate precision of bright state-of-the art calibration sources by removing a major source of systematic noise.

  5. Suppression of fiber modal noise induced radial velocity errors for bright emission-line calibration sources

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevan, Suvrath; Halverson, Samuel; Ramsey, Lawrence; Venditti, Nick

    2014-05-01

    Modal noise in optical fibers imposes limits on the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and velocity precision achievable with the next generation of astronomical spectrographs. This is an increasingly pressing problem for precision radial velocity spectrographs in the near-infrared (NIR) and optical that require both high stability of the observed line profiles and high S/N. Many of these spectrographs plan to use highly coherent emission-line calibration sources like laser frequency combs and Fabry-Perot etalons to achieve precision sufficient to detect terrestrial-mass planets. These high-precision calibration sources often use single-mode fibers or highly coherent sources. Coupling light from single-mode fibers to multi-mode fibers leads to only a very low number of modes being excited, thereby exacerbating the modal noise measured by the spectrograph. We present a commercial off-the-shelf solution that significantly mitigates modal noise at all optical and NIR wavelengths, and which can be applied to spectrograph calibration systems. Our solution uses an integrating sphere in conjunction with a diffuser that is moved rapidly using electrostrictive polymers, and is generally superior to most tested forms of mechanical fiber agitation. We demonstrate a high level of modal noise reduction with a narrow bandwidth 1550 nm laser. Our relatively inexpensive solution immediately enables spectrographs to take advantage of the innate precision of bright state-of-the art calibration sources by removing a major source of systematic noise.

  6. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in five southern European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Gianelle, Vorne L.; Colombi, Cristina; Alves, Celia; Custódio, Danilo; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mario; Pio, Casimiro; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos; Diapouli, Evangelia; Reche, Cristina; Cruz Minguillón, María; Manousakas, Manousos-Ioannis; Maggos, Thomas; Vratolis, Stergios; Harrison, Roy M.; Querol, Xavier

    2016-03-01

    The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterizing similarities and heterogeneities in particulate matter (PM) sources and contributions in urban areas from southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB and MLN-UB), one suburban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB) and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR). After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples during 12 months (from January 2013 on) simultaneously at the five cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these data sets in a harmonized way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust (VEX) and non-exhaust (NEX) contributes between 3.9 and 10.8 µg m-3 (16-32 %) to PM10 and 2.3 and 9.4 µg m-3 (15-36 %) to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulfate and organics) in PM2.5 (37-82 %) but also in PM10 (40-71 %), mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB) contributions vary widely, from 14-24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB, to < 2 % in BCN-UB. In PM2.5, BB is the second most important source in MLN-UB (21 %) and in POR-TR (18 %), the third one in FI-UB (21 %) and ATH-SUB (11 %), but is again negligible (< 2 %) in BCN-UB. This large variability among cities is mostly due to the degree of penetration of biomass for residential heating. In Barcelona natural gas is very well supplied across the city and is used as fuel in 96 % of homes, while in other cities, PM levels

  7. Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Phased Array Noise Source Localization Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect that a planar surface located near a jet flow has on the noise radiated to the far-field. Two different configurations were tested: 1) a shielding configuration in which the surface was located between the jet and the far-field microphones, and 2) a reflecting configuration in which the surface was mounted on the opposite side of the jet, and thus the jet noise was free to reflect off the surface toward the microphones. Both conventional far-field microphone and phased array noise source localization measurements were obtained. This paper discusses phased array results, while a companion paper (Brown, C.A., "Jet-Surface Interaction Test: Far-Field Noise Results," ASME paper GT2012-69639, June 2012.) discusses far-field results. The phased array data show that the axial distribution of noise sources in a jet can vary greatly depending on the jet operating condition and suggests that it would first be necessary to know or be able to predict this distribution in order to be able to predict the amount of noise reduction to expect from a given shielding configuration. The data obtained on both subsonic and supersonic jets show that the noise sources associated with a given frequency of noise tend to move downstream, and therefore, would become more difficult to shield, as jet Mach number increases. The noise source localization data obtained on cold, shock-containing jets suggests that the constructive interference of sound waves that produces noise at a given frequency within a broadband shock noise hump comes primarily from a small number of shocks, rather than from all the shocks at the same time. The reflecting configuration data illustrates that the law of reflection must be satisfied in order for jet noise to reflect off of a surface to an observer, and depending on the relative locations of the jet, the surface, and the observer, only some of the jet noise sources may satisfy this requirement.

  8. Numerical and experimental investigation of noise from small scale axial fans focusing on inflow condition and acoustic source type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Yoon Shik

    The objective of this work was to conduct an experimental and numerical investigation of the noise radiated by a small-scale axial fan from two different points-of-view: the development of an inflow treatment to compensate for unfavorable inflow conditions that result in excessive noise, and a consideration of installation effects for the acoustic source type of small axial fans. The effect of disturbed inflow on axial fans was experimentally investigated by intentionally placing a blockage plate at four different locations upstream of a fan. The blocked inflow made the axial fan perform very poorly; the severely decreased pressure performance introduced an overly strong dependence of flow performance on pressure load condition. An inflow diffuser made from aluminum foam was suggested to improve the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the axial fan under such unfavorable inflow conditions. The inflow diffuser improved the stability of flow performance and reduced the blade passing tone by a small amount, but the levels of the high frequency harmonics of the blade passing tone were increased. A corresponding numerical model was built to model the flow change due to the inflow foam treatment. The inflow foam diffuser was approximated as a homogeneous porous zone to make the computational cost affordable, and it was shown that the model can predict the foam's influence on the pressure and flow performance of the fan. The aeroacoustic analogy model was applied to the solid surfaces of the fan and its housing to simulate the tonal noise at the blade passing frequency. The validity of the homogeneous foam model in terms of aeroacoustic predictions was also confirmed. As for the second aspect of the axial fan noise source, the dipole-like source behavior of an axial fan at the blade passing frequency was verified by directivity measurements. Thus, dipole modeling of an axial fan was justified. This result is associated with the problem of overestimated fan source

  9. Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1988-08-01

    Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.

  10. Helicopter main-rotor noise: Determination of source contributions using scaled model data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Marcolini, Michael A.

    1988-01-01

    Acoustic data from a test of a 40 percent model MBB BO-105 helicopter main rotor are scaled to equivalent full-scale flyover cases. The test was conducted in the anechoic open test section of the German-Dutch Windtunnel (DNW). The measured data are in the form of acoustic pressure time histories and spectra from two out-of-flow microphones underneath and foward of the model. These are scaled to correspond to measurements made at locations 150 m below the flight path of a full-scale rotor. For the scaled data, a detailed analysis is given for the identification in the data of the noise contributions from different rotor noise sources. Key results include a component breakdown of the noise contributions, in terms of noise criteria calculations of a weighted sound pressure level (dBA) and perceived noise level (PNL), as functions of rotor advance ratio and descent angle. It is shown for the scaled rotor that, during descent, impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is the dominant contributor to the noise. In level flight and mild climb, broadband blade-turbulent wake interaction (BWI) noise is dominant due to the absence of BVI activity. At high climb angles, BWI is reduced and self-noise from blade boundary-layer turbulence becomes the most prominent.

  11. Quantitative Measurement of the Proportions of High-Order Harmonics for the 4B7B Soft-X-Ray Source at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Tuo; Shang, Wanli; Zhang, Wenhai; Yang, Jiamin; Xiong, Gang; Zhao, Yang; Kuang, Longyu; Zhao, Yidong; Zheng, Lei; Cui, Mingqi; Tang, Kun; Ma, Chenyan

    2013-12-01

    A transmission grating coupled with an X-ray charge coupled device (CCD) is used to quantitatively measure the proportion of high-order harmonics of the soft-X-ray source of beam line 4B7B. The results show that the monochromatic X-ray has third-order and second-order harmonics. The proportion of second-order harmonic of 4B7B is less than 9.0% and the third-order harmonic is below 0.7% when no suppressing method is applied. When suppression methods are used, the proportion of second-order harmonic is less than 1.7% and the third-order harmonic is ignorable.

  12. Simulation of 100-300 GHz solid-state harmonic sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zybura, Michael F.; Jones, J. Robert; Jones, Stephen H.; Tait, Gregory B.

    1995-01-01

    Accurate and efficient simulations of the large-signal time-dependent characteristics of second-harmonic Transferred Electron Oscillators (TEO's) and Heterostructure Barrier Varactor (HBV) frequency triplers have been obtained. This is accomplished by using a novel and efficient harmonic-balance circuit analysis technique which facilitates the integration of physics-based hydrodynamic device simulators. The integrated hydrodynamic device/harmonic-balance circuit simulators allow TEO and HBV circuits to be co-designed from both a device and a circuit point of view. Comparisons have been made with published experimental data for both TEO's and HBV's. For TEO's, excellent correlation has been obtained at 140 GHz and 188 GHz in second-harmonic operation. Excellent correlation has also been obtained for HBV frequency triplers operating near 200 GHz. For HBV's, both a lumped quasi-static equivalent circuit model and the hydrodynamic device simulator have been linked to the harmonic-balance circuit simulator. This comparison illustrates the importance of representing active devices with physics-based numerical device models rather than analytical device models.

  13. Characteristics of Love and Rayleigh waves in ambient noise: wavetype ratio, source location and seasonal behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juretzek, C.; Perleth, M.; Hadziioannou, C.

    2015-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has become an important source of signal for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about the common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism bands is still limited. This applies in particular to constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the differently polarized wave types present in the noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. The focus lies on frequencies around the primary and secondary microseismic bands. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured at each array, and a dependence on direction is observed. We constrain the corresponding source regions of both wave types by backprojection. By using a full year of data in 2013, we are able to track the seasonal changes in our observations of Love-to-Rayleigh ratio and source locations.

  14. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in 87Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Thompson, James K.

    2012-04-01

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of 87Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 × 105 87Rb atoms.

  15. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in {sup 87}Rb

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Thompson, James K.

    2012-04-15

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of {sup 87}Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 x 10{sup 5} {sup 87}Rb atoms.

  16. Exposures to Transit and Other Sources of Noise among New York City Residents

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard L.; Gershon, Robyn R. M.; McAlexander, Tara P.; Magda, Lori A.; Pearson, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the contributions of common noise sources to total annual noise exposures among urban residents and workers, we estimated exposures associated with five common sources (use of mass transit, occupational and non-occupational activities, MP3 player and stereo use, and time at home and doing other miscellaneous activities) among a sample of over 4500 individuals in New York City (NYC). We then evaluated the contributions of each source to total noise exposure and also compared our estimated exposures to the recommended 70 dBA annual exposure limit. We found that one in ten transit users had noise exposures in excess of the recommended exposure limit from their transit use alone. When we estimated total annual exposures, 90% of NYC transit users and 87% of nonusers exceeded the recommended limit. MP3 player and stereo use, which represented a small fraction of the total annual hours for each subject on average, was the primary source of exposure among the majority of urban dwellers we evaluated. Our results suggest that the vast majority of urban mass transit riders may be at risk of permanent, irreversible noise-induced hearing loss and that, for many individuals, this risk is driven primarily by exposures other than occupational noise. PMID:22088203

  17. A low phase noise microwave source for atomic spin squeezing experiments in 87Rb.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G; Weiner, Joshua M; Thompson, James K

    2012-04-01

    We describe and characterize a simple, low cost, low phase noise microwave source that operates near 6.800 GHz for agile, coherent manipulation of ensembles of (87)Rb. Low phase noise is achieved by directly multiplying a low phase noise 100 MHz crystal to 6.8 GHz using a nonlinear transmission line and filtering the output with custom band-pass filters. The fixed frequency signal is single sideband modulated with a direct digital synthesis frequency source to provide the desired phase, amplitude, and frequency control. Before modulation, the source has a single sideband phase noise near -140 dBc/Hz in the range of 10 kHz-1 MHz offset from the carrier frequency and -130 dBc/Hz after modulation. The resulting source is estimated to contribute added spin-noise variance 16 dB below the quantum projection noise level during quantum nondemolition measurements of the clock transition in an ensemble 7 × 10(5) (87)Rb atoms. PMID:22559559

  18. A SOUND SOURCE LOCALIZATION TECHNIQUE TO SUPPORT SEARCH AND RESCUE IN LOUD NOISE ENVIRONMENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Hiroshi; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto

    At some sites of earthquakes and other disasters, rescuers search for people buried under rubble by listening for the sounds which they make. Thus developing a technique to localize sound sources amidst loud noise will support such search and rescue operations. In this paper, we discuss an experiment performed to test an array signal processing technique which searches for unperceivable sound in loud noise environments. Two speakers simultaneously played a noise of a generator and a voice decreased by 20 dB (= 1/100 of power) from the generator noise at an outdoor space where cicadas were making noise. The sound signal was received by a horizontally set linear microphone array 1.05 m in length and consisting of 15 microphones. The direction and the distance of the voice were computed and the sound of the voice was extracted and played back as an audible sound by array signal processing.

  19. A study of the distribution of the noise source strengths in coaxial double jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazono, Y.

    1983-05-01

    The apparent noise source distributions in a coaxial double jet at subsonic speed were determined using a reflector-type directional microphone system which has an elliptical concave mirror with a diameter of 40 cm. It was found that the 1/3 octave band sound pressure spectrum in the far-field which was calculated with the sound source distribution agreed with the results obtained by an omnidirectional microphone at each velocity ratio of the bypass jet to the core jet. These results indicate that the directional microphone system will be a highly effective tool for the measurement of the sound source strength distribution of a coaxial double jet as well as that of a single jet. In addition, the overall pressure fluctuations in the jet flow were measured at each velocity ratio, and the influence of the correlation upon the far-field noise was examined based on the pressure fluctuations and the noise source distribution.

  20. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez Comesaña, D.; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez-Grande, E.

    2016-08-01

    One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially in the acoustic near-field.

  1. Experimental determination of the tonal noise sources in a centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde-Suárez, Sandra; Ballesteros-Tajadura, Rafael; Pablo Hurtado-Cruz, Juan; Santolaria-Morros, Carlos

    2006-08-01

    In this work, an experimental study about the aerodynamic tonal noise sources in a centrifugal fan with backward-curved blades has been carried out. Acoustic pressure measurements at the fan exit duct and pressure fluctuation measurements on the volute surface have been made for different flow rates. A correlation study of both pressure signals has been made in order to explain some of the features of the aerodynamic tonal noise generation. A strong source of noise caused by the interaction between the fluctuating flow leaving the impeller and the volute tongue is appreciated. The unsteady forces exerted on the fan blades constitute another noise generation mechanism, which affects the whole extension of the impeller, thus transmitting pressure fluctuations to the entire volute casing. The relative importance of this mechanism compared to the impeller-tongue interaction depends on the flow rate.

  2. Modified jet noise source model for twin-jet shielding analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, C. H.; Kim, C.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical method to estimate the influence that a jet of heated flow has on the noise emission from a parallel jet is presented. The shielding jet is modelled as a cylinder of constant cross-section in which the flow speed and temperature are uniform throughout. The jet noise emission is modelled by a point source with directivity imposed. The directivity term consists of: a self-noise term, a shear-noise term, and a convection factor. The self- and shear-noise terms each contain a basic directivity factor multiplying a spectral shape function. The various components are evaluated based on comparison with isothermal jet radiation experimental data. The modified source term is incorporated into the jet shielding model and compared to heated twin jet shielding data. The estimated spectra agree well except further downstream of the nozzle where peak of the noise spectrum estimated by the model lies approximately one octave below the experimental peak. The noise reduction estimated by the model agrees favorably with experiment in the near downstream region. This discrepancy is explained in terms of the shielding mechanism which is dominant far downstream.

  3. Dynamics of two competing species in the presence of Lévy noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Cognata, A.; Valenti, D.; Dubkov, A. A.; Spagnolo, B.

    2010-07-01

    We consider a Lotka-Volterra system of two competing species subject to multiplicative α -stable Lévy noise. The interaction parameter between the species is a random process which obeys a stochastic differential equation with a generalized bistable potential in the presence both of a periodic driving term and an additive α -stable Lévy noise. We study the species dynamics, which is characterized by two different regimes, exclusion of one species and coexistence of both. We find quasiperiodic oscillations and stochastic resonance phenomenon in the dynamics of the competing species, analyzing the role of the Lévy noise sources.

  4. High frequency direct drive generation using white noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, S.; Sebacher, K.; Lawry, D.; Prather, W.; Hoffer, G.

    1994-12-01

    Damped sinusoid direct drive injection on interconnecting cable bundles between subsystems has long been used as a technique for determining susceptibility to electromagnetic transients in military weapon systems. Questions arise, however, about the adequacy of this method of individually injected, single sinusoids in assuring subsystem strength against broad band threats. This issue has recently been raised in the latest revision of MIL-STD-461 that requires subsystems exhibit no malfunctions when subjected to a repetitive square wave pulse with fast rise and fall time (CS115). An extension to this approach would be to test subsystems using arbitrary waveforms. In recent years arbitrary waveform generators (AWG's) have been used to duplicate, with a high degree of fidelity, the waveforms measured on cable bundles in a system illuminated by fields in a system-level EMP simulator. However, the operating speeds of present AWG's do not allow the extension of this approach to meet new threats such as MIL-STD-2169A. A novel alternative approach for generation of the required signals, being developed in a cooperative effort between the Naval Air Warfare Center and Phillips Laboratory, is the use of white noise signals conditioned in such a manner to produce the desired direct drive waveforms.

  5. Separation of Main and Tail Rotor Noise Sources from Ground-Based Acoustic Measurements Using Time-Domain De-Dopplerization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, Eric II; Schmitz, Fredric H.

    2009-01-01

    A new method of separating the contributions of helicopter main and tail rotor noise sources is presented, making use of ground-based acoustic measurements. The method employs time-domain de-Dopplerization to transform the acoustic pressure time-history data collected from an array of ground-based microphones to the equivalent time-history signals observed by an array of virtual inflight microphones traveling with the helicopter. The now-stationary signals observed by the virtual microphones are then periodically averaged with the main and tail rotor once per revolution triggers. The averaging process suppresses noise which is not periodic with the respective rotor, allowing for the separation of main and tail rotor pressure time-histories. The averaged measurements are then interpolated across the range of directivity angles captured by the microphone array in order to generate separate acoustic hemispheres for the main and tail rotor noise sources. The new method is successfully applied to ground-based microphone measurements of a Bell 206B3 helicopter and demonstrates the strong directivity characteristics of harmonic noise radiation from both the main and tail rotors of that helicopter.

  6. Source localization for active control of turbofan rotor-stator broadband noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Bruce E.

    2005-09-01

    In order to identify a reference signal source for an active noise cancellation system, cross-correlation techniques were used to localize broadband noise source regions on exit guide vanes of the NASA Glenn Research Center Advance Noise Control Fan (ANCF). Arrays of surface pressure sensors were imbedded in one guide vane and in the wall of the fan. Synchronous sampling was used with a multichannel data acquisition system to allow removal of periodic components from the signals. The signals were then cross-correlated to assess radiation directivity and the relationship between vane surface pressure and in-duct acoustic noise. The results of these measurements indicated that broadband unsteady pressures near the leading edge tip of the guide vane were well enough correlated with acoustic radiation that 2-3 dB active noise cancellation could be achieved using a simple gain-delay control algorithm and actuator array. After successful simulation in a wind tunnel environment the concept was incorporated on 15 guide vanes and tested in ANCF. Cross-correlation measurements were further used to evaluate system performance and to identify competing noises from rotating and stationary sources within the fan.

  7. Sources of noise during accumulation of evidence in unrestrained and voluntarily head-restrained rats.

    PubMed

    Scott, Benjamin B; Constantinople, Christine M; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Tank, David W; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is often characterized by substantial variability, but its source remains unclear. We developed a visual accumulation of evidence task designed to quantify sources of noise and to be performed during voluntary head restraint, enabling cellular resolution imaging in future studies. Rats accumulated discrete numbers of flashes presented to the left and right visual hemifields and indicated the side that had the greater number of flashes. Using a signal-detection theory-based model, we found that the standard deviation in their internal estimate of flash number scaled linearly with the number of flashes. This indicates a major source of noise that, surprisingly, is not consistent with the widely used 'drift-diffusion modeling' (DDM) approach but is instead closely related to proposed models of numerical cognition and counting. We speculate that this form of noise could be important in accumulation of evidence tasks generally. PMID:26673896

  8. An improved assessment approach for noise impacts from stationary point and traffic sources on humans and wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Young-Soo; Chun, K.C.

    1994-04-01

    This paper presents an improved, efficient approach for assessing noise impacts associated with a complex set of noise sources at multiple receptor locations; noise impacts form typical remedial activities at a contaminated industrial site are used as an example. The noise sources associated with remedial activities at the site and surrounding areas are described, the noise-propagation modeling methods and results are presented, and an impact assessment of the contaminated site is discussed with regard to applicable regulatory standards and individual and community responses. Also discussed is the improved noise assessment approach. The improved features demonstrated are automate approaches for (1) inputting long-term hourly meterorological data (e.g., 8,760 hours for a one-year period) into a long-range noise-propagation model for computing noise-level increases at receptor locations and (2) analyzing potential individual and community responses to intrusive noises using the IAP and modified CNR.

  9. Spontaneous dynamics and response properties of a Hodgkin-Huxley-type neuron model driven by harmonic synaptic noise

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Hoai; Neiman, Alexander B.

    2010-01-01

    We study statistical properties, response dynamics, and information transmission in a Hodgkin-Huxley–type neuron system, modeling peripheral electroreceptors in paddlefish. In addition to sodium and potassium currents, the neuron model includes fast calcium and slow afterhyperpolarization (AHP) potassium currents. The synaptic transmission from sensory epithelium is modeled by a Poission process with a rate modulated by narrow-band noise, mimicking stochastic epithelial oscillations observed experimentally. We study how the interplay of parameters of AHP current and synaptic noise affects the statistics of spontaneous dynamics and response properties of the system. In particular, we confirm predictions made earlier with perfect integrate and fire and phase neuron models that epithelial oscillations enhance stimulus–response coherence and thus information transmission in electroreceptor system. In addition, we consider a strong stimulus regime and show that coherent epithelial oscillations may reduce variability of electroreceptor responses to time-varying stimuli. PMID:20975925

  10. Multi-MW K-Band Harmonic Multiplier: RF Source For High-Gradient Accelerator R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Solyak, N. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2009-01-22

    A preliminary design is presented for a two-cavity harmonic multiplier, intended as a high-power RF source for use in experiments aimed at developing high-gradient structures for a future collider. The harmonic multiplier is to produce power at selected frequencies in K-band (18-26.5 GHz) using as an RF driver an XK-5 S-band klystron (2.856 GHz). The device is to be built with a TE{sub 111} rotating mode input cavity and interchangeable output cavities running in the TE{sub n11} rotating mode, with n = 7,8,9 at 19.992, 22.848, and 25.704 GHz. An example for a 7{sup th} harmonic multiplier is described, using a 250 kV, 20 A injected laminar electron beam; with 10 MW of S-band drive power, 4.7 MW of 20-GHz output power is predicted. Details are described of the magnetic circuit, cavities, and output coupler.

  11. Optical system design of a speckle-free ultrafast Red-Green-Blue (RGB) source based on angularly multiplexed second harmonic generation from a TZDW source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuhong; Knox, Wayne H.

    2015-03-01

    We report the optical system design of a novel speckle-free ultrafast Red-Green-Blue (RGB) source based on angularly multiplexed simultaneous second harmonic generation from the efficiently generated Stokes and anti-Stokes pulses from a commercially available photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with two zero dispersion wavelengths (TZDW). We describe the optimized configuration of the TZDW fiber source which supports excitations of dual narrow-band pulses with peak wavelengths at 850 nm, 1260 nm and spectral bandwidths of 23 nm, 26 nm, respectively within 12 cm of commercially available TZDW PCF. The conversion efficiencies are as high as 44% and 33% from the pump source (a custom-built Yb:fiber master-oscillator-power-amplifier). As a result of the nonlinear dynamics of propagation, the dual pulses preserve their ultrashort pulse width (with measured autocorrelation traces of 200 fs and 227 fs,) which eliminates the need for dispersion compensation before harmonic generation. With proper optical design of the free-space harmonic generation system, we achieve milli-Watt power level red, green and blue pulses at 630 nm, 517 nm and 425 nm. Having much broader spectral bandwidths compared to picosecond RGB laser sources, the source is inherently speckle-free due to the ultra-short coherence length (<37 μm) while still maintaining an excellent color rendering capability with >99.4% excitation purities of the three primaries, leading to the coverage of 192% NTSC color gamut (CIE 1976). The reported RGB source features a very simple system geometry, its potential for power scaling is discussed with currently available technologies.

  12. Active Control of a Moving Noise SOURCE—EFFECT of Off-Axis Source Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GUO, J.; PAN, J.; HODGSON, M.

    2002-03-01

    An optimally arranged multiple-channel active-control system is known to be able to create a large quiet zone in free space for a stationary primary noise source. When the primary noise source moves, the active control of the noise becomes much more difficult, as the primary noise field changes with time in space. In this case, the controller of the control system must respond fast enough to compensate for the change; much research has been focused on this issue. In this paper, it is shown that a moving source also causes difficulties from an acoustical perspective. A moving source not only changes continuously the strengths and phases of the sound field in the space, but also changes the wavefront of the primary sound field continuously. It is known that the efficiency of active noise control is determined mainly by the wavefront matching between the primary and control fields. To keep the control system effective in the case of a moving source, the wavefront of the control field needs to change, in order to continuously match the primary-wavefront change. This paper shows that there are limitations to the control-wavefront change. An optimally pre-arranged, multiple-channel control system is not able to construct a matching wavefront when the primary source moves outside a certain range. In other words, the control system is still able to create a large quiet zone only when the primary source moves within a range around the central axis of the control system. Both the location and the size of the quiet zone change with the location of the primary source.

  13. Numerical spatial marching techniques in duct acoustics. [noise source calculation from far field pressure measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1979-01-01

    Direct calculation of the internal structure of a ducted noise source from farfield pressure measurements is regarded as an initial value problem, where the pressure and pressure gradient (farfield impedance) are assumed to be known along a line in the farfield. If pressure and impedance are known at the boundary of the farfield, the pressure can be uniquely determined in the vicinity of the inlet and inside the inlet ducting. A marching procedure is developed which, with this information obtained from measurements, enables a description of a ducted noise source. The technique uses a finite difference representation of the homogeneous Helmholtz equation.

  14. CW, single-frequency 229nm laser source for Cd-cooling by harmonic conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yushi; Yarborough, J. M.; Merzlyak, Yevgeny

    2015-02-01

    More than 200mW of CW 229nm for Cd atom cooling application was generated by the 4th harmonic of a single frequency optically pumped semiconductor laser using a 10-mm long, Brewster-cut BBO crystal in an external cavity. With 650mW of 458nm input, 216mW of 229nm power was observed. Conversion efficiency from 458nm to 229nm was more than 33%.

  15. Quantification of noise sources for amperometric measurement of quantal exocytosis using microelectrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical microelectrodes are commonly used to record amperometric spikes of current that result from oxidation of transmitter released from individual vesicles during exocytosis. Whereas the exquisite sensitivity of these measurements is well appreciated, a better understanding of the noise sources that limit the resolution of the technique is needed to guide the design of next-generation devices. We measured the current power spectral density (SI) of electrochemical microelectrodes to understand the physical basis of dominant noise sources and to determine how noise varies with the electrode material and geometry. We find that the current noise is thermal in origin in that SI is proportional to the real part of the admittance of the electrode. The admittance of microelectrodes is well described by a constant phase element model such that both the real and imaginary admittance increase with frequency raised to a power of 0.84 – 0.96. Our results demonstrate that the current standard deviation is proportional to the square root of the area of the working electrode, increases ~linearly with the bandwidth of the recording, and varies with the choice of the electrode material with Au ≈ carbon fiber > nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon > indium-tin-oxide. Contact between a cell and a microelectrode does not appreciably increase noise. Surface-patterned microchip electrodes can have a noise performance that is superior to that of carbon-fiber microelectrodes of the same area. PMID:22540116

  16. Qubit dephasing due to photon shot noise from coherent and thermal sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, S.; Yan, F.; Kamal, A.; Orlando, T. P.; Oliver, W. D.; Birenbaum, J.; Sears, A.; Hover, D.; Gudmundsen, T.; Yoder, J.

    We investigate qubit dephasing due to photon shot noise in a superconducting flux qubit transversally coupled to a coplanar microwave resonator. Due to the AC Stark effect, photon fluctuations in the resonator cause frequency shifts of the qubit, which in turn lead to dephasing. While this is universally understood, we have made the first quantitative spectroscopy of this noise for both thermal (i.e., residual photons from higher temperature stages) and coherent photons (residual photons from the readout and control pulses). We find that the bandwidth of the shot noise from thermal and coherent photons differ by approximately a factor of two, which we attribute to differences in the correlation time for the two noise sources. By comparing the results with noise spectra measured without any externally applied photons, we conclude that the qubit coherence times in our setup were limited by photon shot noise from thermal radiation, with an average resonator photon population of 0.006. Equipped with this knowledge, we improved the filtering for thermal noise and thereby improved the qubit coherence times by more than a factor of two, with T2 echo times approaching 100 us. From the measured T2 decay, we determine an upper bound on the residual photon population of 0.0004. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT LL under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  17. Powerline noise elimination in biomedical signals via blind source separation and wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Akwei-Sekyere, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The distortion of biomedical signals by powerline noise from recording biomedical devices has the potential to reduce the quality and convolute the interpretations of the data. Usually, powerline noise in biomedical recordings are extinguished via band-stop filters. However, due to the instability of biomedical signals, the distribution of signals filtered out may not be centered at 50/60 Hz. As a result, self-correction methods are needed to optimize the performance of these filters. Since powerline noise is additive in nature, it is intuitive to model powerline noise in a raw recording and subtract it from the raw data in order to obtain a relatively clean signal. This paper proposes a method that utilizes this approach by decomposing the recorded signal and extracting powerline noise via blind source separation and wavelet analysis. The performance of this algorithm was compared with that of a 4th order band-stop Butterworth filter, empirical mode decomposition, independent component analysis and, a combination of empirical mode decomposition with independent component analysis. The proposed method was able to expel sinusoidal signals within powerline noise frequency range with higher fidelity in comparison with the mentioned techniques, especially at low signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:26157639

  18. Powerline noise elimination in biomedical signals via blind source separation and wavelet analysis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The distortion of biomedical signals by powerline noise from recording biomedical devices has the potential to reduce the quality and convolute the interpretations of the data. Usually, powerline noise in biomedical recordings are extinguished via band-stop filters. However, due to the instability of biomedical signals, the distribution of signals filtered out may not be centered at 50/60 Hz. As a result, self-correction methods are needed to optimize the performance of these filters. Since powerline noise is additive in nature, it is intuitive to model powerline noise in a raw recording and subtract it from the raw data in order to obtain a relatively clean signal. This paper proposes a method that utilizes this approach by decomposing the recorded signal and extracting powerline noise via blind source separation and wavelet analysis. The performance of this algorithm was compared with that of a 4th order band-stop Butterworth filter, empirical mode decomposition, independent component analysis and, a combination of empirical mode decomposition with independent component analysis. The proposed method was able to expel sinusoidal signals within powerline noise frequency range with higher fidelity in comparison with the mentioned techniques, especially at low signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:26157639

  19. Source-based subjective responses to sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

    PubMed

    Douglas, O; Murphy, E

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that the use of subjective responses to questions concerning night-time environmental noise exposure is a robust method of assessing sleep disturbance from road traffic noise. However, there have only been a few studies exploring this issue in a real world context beyond controlled laboratory settings. This paper presents results from such a study. It utilises 208 household questionnaire surveys to assess subjective responses to levels of night-time sleep disturbance and annoyance from four different residential sites. Each residential site is characterised by a dominant noise source - road, light rail, and aircraft - and these sites are compared to a control site that is relatively free from transportation noise. The results demonstrate the inadequacy of continuous equivalent noise level measures as indicators of night-time disturbance. Furthermore, they suggest that the use of these measures alone is likely to result in inaccurate appraisals of night-time sleep disturbance from transportation noise. Ultimately, the research implies that measurement data should be used in conjunction with subjective response data to accurately gauge the level of night-time disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27164553

  20. Further development of low noise MEVVA ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Oks, Efim; Yushkov, George; Litovko, Irina; Anders, Andre; Brown, Ian

    2001-08-28

    Based on the idea of a space-charge-limited mode of operation, the influence of a pair of electrostatic meshes on the beam parameters of the LBNL MEVVA-5 ion source was investigated. The meshes were placed in the expansion zone of the vacuum arc plasma. Apart from reducing the level of beam current fluctuations, this mode of operation provides significant control over the ion charge state distribution of the extracted beam. These effects can be understood taking not only space charge but also the high-directed ion drift velocities into account that are the same for different ion charge states of a material. The results of simulations of the processes involved are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Prospects for laser spectroscopy of highly charged ions with high-harmonic XUV and soft x-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothhardt, J.; Hädrich, S.; Demmler, S.; Krebs, M.; Winters, D. F. A.; Kühl, Th; Stöhlker, Th; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2015-11-01

    We present novel high photon flux XUV and soft x-ray sources based on high harmonic generation (HHG). The sources employ femtosecond fiber lasers, which can be operated at very high (MHz) repetition rate and average power (>100 W). HHG with such lasers results in ˜1013 photons s-1 within a single harmonic line at ˜40 nm (˜30 eV) wavelength, a photon flux comparable to what is typically available at synchrotron beam lines. In addition, resonant enhancement of HHG can result in narrow-band harmonics with high spectral purity—well suited for precision spectroscopy. These novel light sources will enable seminal studies on electronic transitions in highly-charged ions. For example, at the experimental storage ring 2s1/2-2p1/2 transitions in Li-like ions can be excited up to Z = 47 (˜100 eV transition energy), which provides unique sensitivity to quantum electro-dynamical effects and nuclear corrections. We estimate fluorescence count rates of the order of tens per second, which would enable studies on short-lived isotopes as well. In combination with the Doppler up-shift available in head-on excitation at future heavy-ion storage rings, such as the high energy storage ring, even multi-keV transitions can potentially be excited. Pump-probe experiments with femtosecond resolution could also be feasible and access the lifetime of short-lived excited states, thus providing novel benchmarks for atomic structure theory.

  2. Noise power spectral density of a fibre scattered-light interferometer with a semiconductor laser source

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T

    2013-10-31

    Spectral characteristics of the noise intensity fluctuations at the output of a scattered-light interferometer, caused by phase fluctuations of semiconductor laser radiation are considered. This kind of noise is one of the main factors limiting sensitivity of interferometric sensors. For the first time, to our knowledge, the expression is obtained for the average noise power spectral density at the interferometer output versus the degree of a light source coherence and length of the scattering segment. Also, the approximate expressions are considered which determine the power spectral density in the low-frequency range (up to 200 kHz) and in the limiting case of extended scattering segments. The expression obtained for the noise power spectral density agrees with experimental normalised power spectra with a high accuracy. (interferometry of radiation)

  3. Study of the intensity noise and intensity modulation in a of hybrid soliton pulsed source

    SciTech Connect

    Dogru, Nuran; Oziazisi, M Sadetin

    2005-10-31

    The relative intensity noise (RIN) and small-signal intensity modulation (IM) of a hybrid soliton pulsed source (HSPS) with a linearly chirped Gaussian apodised fibre Bragg grating (FBG) are considered in the electric-field approximation. The HSPS is described by solving the dynamic coupled-mode equations. It is shown that consideration of the carrier density noise in the HSPS in addition to the spontaneous noise is necessary to analyse accurately noise in the mode-locked HSPS. It is also shown that the resonance peak spectral splitting (RPSS) of the IM near the frequency inverse to the round-trip time of light in the external cavity can be eliminated by selecting an appropriate linear chirp rate in the Gaussian apodised FBG. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Adsorbed Oxygen Molecules as a Possible Source of Flux Noise in SQUIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Chuntai; Wang, Hui; Hu, Jun; Yu, Clare; Wu, Ruqian

    2015-03-01

    One of the dominant source of flux noise in SQUIDs is flux noise which has been attributed to mysterious fluctuating magnetic spins on the surface. We propose that the spins producing flux noise could be adsorbed O2 molecules that have a magnetic moment of about 2 μB. Using density functional calculations, we studied O2 molecules adsorbed on a sapphire surface. We find that the barrier for spin rotation is small enough to allow almost free spin reorientation due to thermal excitations at low temperatures. Monte Carlo simulations of a 2D XY spin model yields 1 / f noise where f is frequency. This work was supported by 1000 Talent Program of China through Fudan University. Work at UCI was supported by DOE-BES (Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46237) and the Army Research Office (Grant No. W911NF-10-1-0494).

  5. Analysis of the Low-Frequency Radio Noise Environment at Satellite Heights from Terrestrial Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. F.; Basart, J. P.; McCoy, M.; Rios, E.

    1996-05-01

    We have investigated the propagation of terrestrial radio sources from 1 to 30 MHz (HF spectral region) through the ionosphere for the purpose of characterizing the interference spectrum on potential space-based, low-frequency-radio telescopes. A recent survey of the HF noise environment at satellite heights from 1 to 14 MHz has been conducted using the WIND spacecraft. Radio frequencies for which the interference appears to be sufficiently low for radio telescopes are 1.3, 2.9, 3.1, 8.2, and 11.4 MHz. A model was developed to predict the HF noise environment. Our current model includes a source model, an ionospheric model, and a ray tracing model. The source model was developed using known commercial broadcast stations found in the World Radio TV Handbook. The ICED ionospheric model was used to generate a model ionosphere. By ray tracing a terrestrially based broadcast source through the model ionosphere, an ionospheric transfer function (ITF) was developed. By modifying the source model using the ITF, we were able to simulate the expected noise environment at satellite heights. Comparison of modeled and measured spectra show the majority of the noise environment is due to known commercial broadcasters. Improved modeling is necessary because the slopes of the simulated spectra above the plasma frequency are too shallow, and the plasma cutoff frequencies are too high compared to the measured data.

  6. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements Made on a Williams International FJ44 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Horvath, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire noise source localization data on a full-scale Williams International FJ44 turbofan engine. Data were acquired with the array at three different locations relative to the engine, two on the side and one in front of the engine. At the two side locations the planar microphone array was parallel to the engine centerline; at the front location the array was perpendicular to the engine centerline. At each of the three locations, data were acquired at eleven different engine operating conditions ranging from engine idle to maximum (take off) speed. Data obtained with the array off to the side of the engine were spatially filtered to separate the inlet and nozzle noise. Tones occurring in the inlet and nozzle spectra were traced to the low and high speed spools within the engine. The phased array data indicate that the Inflow Control Device (ICD) used during this test was not acoustically transparent; instead, some of the noise emanating from the inlet reflected off of the inlet lip of the ICD. This reflection is a source of error for far field noise measurements made during the test. The data also indicate that a total temperature rake in the inlet of the engine is a source of fan noise.

  7. Identification of Noise Sources in High Speed Jets via Correlation Measurements: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James (Technical Monitor); Panda, Jayanta

    2005-01-01

    Significant advancement has been made in the last few years to identify noise sources in high speed jets via direct correlation measurements. In this technique turbulent fluctuations in the flow are correlated with far field acoustics signatures. In the 1970 s there was a surge of work using mostly intrusive probes, and a few using Laser Doppler Velocimetry, to measure turbulent fluctuations. The later experiments established "shear noise" as the primary source for the shallow angle noise. Various interpretations and criticisms from this time are described in the review. Recent progress in the molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique has provided a completely non-intrusive means of measuring density and velocity fluctuations. This has brought a renewed interest on correlation measurements. We have performed five different sets of experiments in single stream jets of different Mach number, temperature ratio and nozzle configurations. The present paper tries to summarize the correlation data from these works.

  8. A directional array approach for the measurement of rotor noise source distributions with controlled spatial resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, T. F.; Marcolini, M. A.; Pope, D. S.

    1987-01-01

    A special array system has been designed to examine noise source distributions over a helicopter rotor model. The particular measurement environment is for a rotor operating in the open jet of an anechoic wind tunnel. An out-of-flow directional microphone element array is used with a directivity pattern whose major directional lobe projects on the rotor disk. If significant contributions from extraneous tunnel noise sources in the direction of the side lobes are excluded, the dominant output from the array would be that noise emitted from the projected area on the rotor disk. The design incorporates an array element signal blending features which serves to control the spatial resolution of the size of the directional lobes. (Without blending, the resolution and side lobe size are very strong functions of frequency, which severely limits the array's usefulness).

  9. Methodology of selecting the reference source for an active noise control system in a car.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowski, Zbigniew; Stankiewicz, Bartosz

    2013-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, a significant development in digital technologies of signal processing made it possible to apply active noise control methods in new domains. A proper selection of the reference signal source is a main problem in implementing such systems. This paper presents an estimation method based on an indicator of the coherent power level. It also presents a simple system of active noise control in a car, operating according to the proposed method of optimising the positioning of reference sources. This system makes it possible to considerably increase the comfort of work of drivers in various kinds of road transport without a great increase in cost. This is especially significant in the case of trucks and vans. Passive barriers are considerably more expensive in them, which results in a higher level of noise than in passenger cars. PMID:23498706

  10. On Acoustic Source Specification for Rotor-Stator Interaction Noise Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Caesy L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of measured source data to assess the effects of acoustic source specification on rotor-stator interaction noise predictions. Specifically, the acoustic propagation and radiation portions of a recently developed coupled computational approach are used to predict tonal rotor-stator interaction noise from a benchmark configuration. In addition to the use of full measured data, randomization of source mode relative phases is also considered for specification of the acoustic source within the computational approach. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to investigate the effects of various source descriptions on both inlet and exhaust predictions. The inclusion of additional modal source content is shown to have a much greater influence on the inlet results. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured levels is achieved for the inlet, as well as the exhaust when shear layer effects are taken into account. For the number of trials considered, phase randomized predictions follow statistical distributions similar to those found in previous statistical source investigations. The shape of the predicted directivity pattern relative to measurements also improved with phase randomization, having predicted levels generally within one standard deviation of the measured levels.

  11. Luminescence-induced noise in single photon sources based on BBO crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machulka, Radek; Lemr, Karel; Haderka, Ondřej; Lamperti, Marco; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2014-11-01

    Single-photon sources based on the process of spontaneous parametric down-conversion play a key role in various applied disciplines of quantum optics. We characterize the intrinsic luminescence of BBO crystals as a source of non-removable noise in quantum-optics experiments. By analysing its spectral and temporal properties together with its intensity, we evaluate the impact of luminescence on single-photon state preparation using spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

  12. Experimental and Analytical Studies of Shielding Concepts for Point Sources and Jet Noises.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Raymond Lee Man

    This analytical and experimental study explores concepts for jet noise shielding. Model experiments centre on solid planar shields, simulating engine-over-wing installations, and 'sugar scoop' shields. Tradeoff on effective shielding length is set by interference 'edge noise' as the shield trailing edge approaches the spreading jet. Edge noise is minimized by (i) hyperbolic cutouts which trim off the portions of most intense interference between the jet flow and the barrier and (ii) hybrid shields--a thermal refractive extension (a flame); for (ii) the tradeoff is combustion noise. In general, shielding attenuation increases steadily with frequency, following low frequency enhancement by edge noise. Although broadband attenuation is typically only several dB, the reduction of the subjectively weighted perceived noise levels is higher. In addition, calculated ground contours of peak PN dB show a substantial contraction due to shielding: this reaches 66% for one of the 'sugar scoop' shields for the 90 PN dB contour. The experiments are complemented by analytical predictions. They are divided into an engineering scheme for jet noise shielding and more rigorous analysis for point source shielding. The former approach combines point source shielding with a suitable jet source distribution. The results are synthesized into a predictive algorithm for jet noise shielding: the jet is modelled as a line distribution of incoherent sources with narrow band frequency (TURN)(axial distance)('-1). The predictive version agrees well with experiment (1 to 1.5 dB) up to moderate frequencies. The insertion loss deduced from the point source measurements for semi-infinite as well as finite rectangular shields agrees rather well with theoretical calculation based on the exact half plane solution and the superposition of asymptotic closed-form solutions. An approximate theory, the Maggi-Rubinowicz line integral, is found to yield reasonable predictions for thin barriers including

  13. Use of a Microphone Phased Array to Determine Noise Sources in a Rocket Plume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Mosher, R.

    2010-01-01

    A 70-element microphone phased array was used to identify noise sources in the plume of a solid rocket motor. An environment chamber was built and other precautions were taken to protect the sensitive condenser microphones from rain, thunderstorms and other environmental elements during prolonged stay in the outdoor test stand. A camera mounted at the center of the array was used to photograph the plume. In the first phase of the study the array was placed in an anechoic chamber for calibration, and validation of the indigenous Matlab(R) based beamform software. It was found that the "advanced" beamform methods, such as CLEAN-SC was partially successful in identifying speaker sources placed closer than the Rayleigh criteria. To participate in the field test all equipments were shipped to NASA Marshal Space Flight Center, where the elements of the array hardware were rebuilt around the test stand. The sensitive amplifiers and the data acquisition hardware were placed in a safe basement, and 100m long cables were used to connect the microphones, Kulites and the camera. The array chamber and the microphones were found to withstand the environmental elements as well as the shaking from the rocket plume generated noise. The beamform map was superimposed on a photo of the rocket plume to readily identify the source distribution. It was found that the plume made an exceptionally long, >30 diameter, noise source over a large frequency range. The shock pattern created spatial modulation of the noise source. Interestingly, the concrete pad of the horizontal test stand was found to be a good acoustic reflector: the beamform map showed two distinct source distributions- the plume and its reflection on the pad. The array was found to be most effective in the frequency range of 2kHz to 10kHz. As expected, the classical beamform method excessively smeared the noise sources at lower frequencies and produced excessive side-lobes at higher frequencies. The "advanced" beamform

  14. Objective approach for analysis of noise source characteristics and acoustic conditions in noisy computerized embroidery workrooms.

    PubMed

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Mansoorizadeh, Muharram

    2014-03-01

    It is highly important to analyze the acoustic properties of workrooms in order to identify best noise control measures from the standpoint of noise exposure limits. Due to the fact that sound pressure is dependent upon environments, it cannot be a suitable parameter for determining the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise pollution. This paper aims to empirically analyze noise source characteristics and acoustic properties of noisy embroidery workrooms based on special parameters. In this regard, reverberation time as the special room acoustic parameter in 30 workrooms was measured based on ISO 3382-2. Sound power quantity of embroidery machines was also determined based on ISO 9614-3. Multiple linear regression was employed for predicting reverberation time based on acoustic features of the workrooms using MATLAB software. The results showed that the measured reverberation times in most of the workrooms were approximately within the ranges recommended by ISO 11690-1. Similarity between reverberation time values calculated by the Sabine formula and measured values was relatively poor (R (2) = 0.39). This can be due to the inaccurate estimation of the acoustic influence of furniture and formula preconditions. Therefore, this value cannot be considered representative of an actual acoustic room. However, the prediction performance of the regression method with root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.23 s and R (2) = 0.69 is relatively acceptable. Because the sound power of the embroidery machines was relatively high, these sources get the highest priority when it comes to applying noise controls. Finally, an objective approach for the determination of the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise could facilitate the identification of cost-effective noise controls. PMID:24214295

  15. Tunable coherent soft X-ray source based on the generation of high-order harmonic of femtosecond laser radiation in gas-filled capillaries

    SciTech Connect

    Malkov, Yu A; Yashunin, D A; Kiselev, A M; Stepanov, A N; Andreev, N E

    2014-05-30

    We have carried out experimental and theoretical investigations of a tunable coherent soft X-ray radiation source in the 30 – 52 nm wavelength range based on the generation of high-order harmonics of femtosecond laser radiation propagating in a dielectric xenon-filled capillary. The long path of laser pulse propagation through the capillary permits tuning the generated harmonic wavelengths to almost completely span the range under consideration. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  16. Noise Sources in a Low-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Jet at Mach 0.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freund, Jonathan B.

    2001-01-01

    The mechanisms of sound generation in a Mach 0.9, Reynolds number 3600 turbulent jet are investigated by direct numerical simulation. Details of the numerical method are briefly outlined and results are validated against an experiment at the same flow conditions. Lighthill's theory is used to define a nominal acoustic source in the jet, and a numerical solution of Lighthill's equation is compared to the simulation to verify the computational procedures. The acoustic source is Fourier transformed in the axial coordinate and time and then filtered in order to identify and separate components capable of radiating to the far field. This procedure indicates that the peak radiating component of the source is coincident with neither the peak of the full unfiltered source nor that of the turbulent kinetic energy. The phase velocities of significant components range from approximately 5% to 50% of the ambient sound speed which calls into question the commonly made assumption that the noise sources convect at a single velocity. Space-time correlations demonstrate that the sources are not acoustically compact in the streamwise direction and that the portion of the source that radiates at angles greater than 45 deg. is stationary. Filtering non-radiating wavenumber components of the source at single frequencies reveals that a simple modulated wave forms for the source, as might be predicted by linear stability analysis. At small angles from the jet axis the noise from these modes is highly directional, better described by an exponential than a standard Doppler factor.

  17. Sources of Image Degradation in Fundamental and Harmonic Ultrasound Imaging: A Nonlinear, Full-Wave, Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Pinton, Gianmarco F.; Trahey, Gregg E.; Dahl, Jeremy J.

    2011-01-01

    A full-wave equation that describes nonlinear propagation in a heterogeneous attenuating medium is solved numerically with finite differences in the time domain (FDTD). This numerical method is used to simulate propagation of a diagnostic ultrasound pulse through a measured representation of the human abdomen with heterogeneities in speed of sound, attenuation, density, and nonlinearity. Conventional delay-and-sum beamforming is used to generate point spread functions (PSF) that display the effects of these heterogeneities. For the particular imaging configuration that is modeled, these PSFs reveal that the primary source of degradation in fundamental imaging is due to reverberation from near-field structures. Compared to fundamental imaging, reverberation clutter in harmonic imaging is 27.1 dB lower. Simulated tissue with uniform velocity but unchanged impedance characteristics indicates that for fundamental imaging, the primary source of degradation is phase aberration. PMID:21507753

  18. Internal frequency conversion extreme ultraviolet interferometer using mutual coherence properties of two high-order-harmonic sources.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, S; Stabile, H; Tortora, A; Monot, P; Réau, F; Bougeard, M; Merdji, H; Carré, B; Martin, Ph; Joyeux, D; Phalippou, D; Delmotte, F; Gautier, J; Mercier, R

    2009-11-01

    We report on an innovative two-dimensional imaging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer operating at 32 nm based on the mutual coherence of two laser high order harmonics (HOH) sources, separately generated in gas. We give the first evidence that the two mutually coherent HOH sources can be produced in two independent spatially separated gas jets, allowing for probing centimeter-sized objects. A magnification factor of 10 leads to a micron resolution associated with a subpicosecond temporal resolution. Single shot interferograms with a fringe visibility better than 30% are routinely produced. As a test of the XUV interferometer, we measure a maximum electronic density of 3x10(20) cm(-3) 1.1 ns after the creation of a plasma on aluminum target. PMID:19947712

  19. Internal frequency conversion extreme ultraviolet interferometer using mutual coherence properties of two high-order-harmonic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Dobosz, S.; Stabile, H.; Tortora, A.; Monot, P.; Reau, F.; Bougeard, M.; Merdji, H.; Carre, B.; Martin, Ph.; Joyeux, D.; Phalippou, D.; Delmotte, F.; Gautier, J.; Mercier, R.

    2009-11-15

    We report on an innovative two-dimensional imaging extreme ultraviolet (XUV) interferometer operating at 32 nm based on the mutual coherence of two laser high order harmonics (HOH) sources, separately generated in gas. We give the first evidence that the two mutually coherent HOH sources can be produced in two independent spatially separated gas jets, allowing for probing centimeter-sized objects. A magnification factor of 10 leads to a micron resolution associated with a subpicosecond temporal resolution. Single shot interferograms with a fringe visibility better than 30% are routinely produced. As a test of the XUV interferometer, we measure a maximum electronic density of 3x10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} 1.1 ns after the creation of a plasma on aluminum target.

  20. Turbulence spectra in the noise source regions of the flow around complex surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    The complex turbulent flow around three complex surfaces was measured in detail with a hot wire. The measured data include extensive spatial surveys of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity and measurements of the turbulence spectra and scale length at many locations. The publication of the turbulence data is completed by reporting a summary of the turbulence spectra that were measured within the noise source locations of the flow. The results suggest some useful simplifications in modeling the very complex turbulent flow around complex surfaces for aeroacoustic predictive models. The turbulence spectra also show that noise data from scale models of moderate size can be accurately scaled up to full size.

  1. Active control of noise on the source side of a partition to increase its sound isolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarabini, Marco; Roure, Alain; Pinhede, Cedric

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes a local active noise control system that virtually increases the sound isolation of a dividing wall by means of a secondary source array. With the proposed method, sound pressure on the source side of the partition is reduced using an array of loudspeakers that generates destructive interference on the wall surface, where an array of error microphones is placed. The reduction of sound pressure on the incident side of the wall is expected to decrease the sound radiated into the contiguous room. The method efficiency was experimentally verified by checking the insertion loss of the active noise control system; in order to investigate the possibility of using a large number of actuators, a decentralized FXLMS control algorithm was used. Active control performances and stability were tested with different array configurations, loudspeaker directivities and enclosure characteristics (sound source position and absorption coefficient). The influence of all these parameters was investigated with the factorial design of experiments. The main outcome of the experimental campaign was that the insertion loss produced by the secondary source array, in the 50-300 Hz frequency range, was close to 10 dB. In addition, the analysis of variance showed that the active noise control performance can be optimized with a proper choice of the directional characteristics of the secondary source and the distance between loudspeakers and error microphones.

  2. Supersonic jet noise prediction and noise source investigation for realistic baseline and chevron nozzles based on hybrid RANS/LES simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongle

    Jet noise simulations have been performed for a military-style baseline nozzle and a chevron nozzle with design Mach numbers of Md = 1:5 operating at several off-design conditions. The objective of the current numerical study is to provide insight into the noise generation mechanisms of shock-containing supersonic hot jets and the noise reduction mechanisms of chevron nozzles. A hybrid methodology combining advanced CFD technologies and the acoustic analogy is used for supersonic jet noise simulations. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved to predict the turbulent noise sources in the jet flows. A modified version of the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) approach is used to avoid excessive damping of fine scale turbulent fluctuations. A multiblock structured mesh topology is used to represent complex nozzle geometries, including the faceted inner contours and finite nozzle thickness. A block interface condition is optimized for the complex multiblock mesh topology to avoid the centerline singularity. A fourth-order Dispersion-Relation-Preserving (DRP) scheme is used for spatial discretization. To enable efficient calculations, a dual time-stepping method is used in addition to parallel computation using MPI. Both multigrid and implicit residual smoothing are used to accelerate the convergence rate of sub-iterations in the fictitious time domain. Noise predictions are made with the permeable surface Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings (FWH) solution. All the numerical methods have been implemented in the jet flow simulation code "CHOPA" and the noise prediction code "PSJFWH". The computer codes have been validated with several benchmark cases. A preliminary study has been performed for an under-expanded baseline nozzle jet with Mj = 1:56 to validate the accuracy of the jet noise simulations. The results show that grid refinement around the jet potential core and the use of a lower artificial dissipation improve the resolution of the predicted

  3. Required distribution of noise sources for Green's function recovery in diffusive fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsalsadati, S.; Weiss, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    In the most general sense, noise is the part of the signal of little or no interest, due to a multitude of reasons such as operator error, imperfect instrumentation, experiment design, or inescapable background interference. Considering the latter, it has been shown that Green's function can be extracted from cross-correlation of the ambient, diffusive wavefields arising from background random noise sources. Pore pressure and low-frequency electromagnetic induction are two such examples of diffusive fields. In theory, applying Green's function method in geophysical exploration requires infinity of volumetrically distributed sources; however, in the real world the number of noise sources in an area is limited, and furthermore, unevenly distributed in time, space and spectral content. Hence, quantification of the requisite noise sources that enable us to calculate Green's function acceptably well remains an open research question. The purpose of this study is to find the area of noise sources that contribute most to the Green's function estimation in diffusive systems. We call such a region the Volume of Relevance (VoR). Our analysis builds upon recent work in 1D homogeneous system where it was shown that sources located between two receivers positions are the most important ones for the purpose of Green's function recovery. Our results confirm the previous finding but we also examine the effect of heterogeneity, dimensionality and receiver location in both 1D and 2D at a fixed frequency. We demonstrate that for receivers located symmetrically across an interface between regions of contrasting diffusivity, the VoR rapidly shifts from one side of the interface to the other, and back again, as receiver separation increases. We also demonstrate that where the receiver pair is located on the interface itself, the shifting is less rapid, and for moderate to high diffusivity contrasts, the VoR remains entirely on the more diffusive side. In addition, because classical

  4. Analysis of Different Harmonic and Intermodulation Distortions for CATV Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sandeep; Kamaljit, Singh Bhatia; Anurag, Sharma; Kaur, Harsimrat

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, after examining all the basic design issues of CATV systems, prominent distortions like harmonic and intermodulation distortions are taken into account for different order. Besides outer distortions for CATV sources, inner distortion of relative intensity to noise is disabled for current analysis.

  5. Rotating Blade Flow Instability as a Source of Noise in Axial Turbomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameier, F.; Neise, W.

    1997-06-01

    An experimental study is presented to investigate the aeroacoustic generation mechanism of the tip clearance noise in axial turbomachines. In addition to the increased broadband levels reported in the literature when the tip clearance is enlarged, significant level increases were observed within narrow frequency bands below the blade passing frequency. Measurements of the pressure fluctuations at the casing wall just upstream of the entrance plane of the impeller and on the rotating blades reveal that the tip clearance noise is associated with a rotating blade flow instability at the blade tip which in turn is only present under reversed flow conditions in the tip clearance gap. The rotating instability is interpreted as a rotating source or vortex mechanism which moves relative to the blade row at a fraction of the impeller shaft speed, similar to the cell(s) of rotating stall. A model for the generation of the narrow-band tip clearance noise is presented.

  6. Phase noise analysis of injected gain switched comb source for coherent communications.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Huynh, Tam N; Vujicic, Vidak; Anandarajah, Prince M; Barry, Liam P

    2014-04-01

    We present experimentally and analytically the phase noise characterization of an externally injected gain switched comb source. The results reveal the residual high frequency FM noise in the comb lines, which stays unnoticed in the optical linewidth value but leads to an increased phase-error variance. The potential impact of the residual phase noise is investigated in a 10.7 GBaud optical DQPSK system where a 2 dB power penalty is recorded at BER of 10(-9). In a 10.7 GBaud digital coherent QPSK system no penalty is observed but with 5 GBaud 16-QAM format a 3 dBpenalty exists at the FEC limit of 4.4e-3. PMID:24718188

  7. Further Progress in Noise Source Identification in High Speed Jets via Causality Principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.; Elam, K. A.

    2004-01-01

    To locate noise sources in high-speed jets, the sound pressure fluctuations p/, measured at far field locations, were correlated with each of density p, axial velocity u, radial velocity v, puu and pvv fluctuations measured from various points in fully expanded, unheated plumes of Mach number 0.95, 1.4 and 1.8. The velocity and density fluctuations were measured simultaneously using a recently developed, non-intrusive, point measurement technique based on molecular Rayleigh scattering (Seasholtz, Panda, and Elam, AIAA Paper 2002-0827). The technique uses a continuous wave, narrow line-width laser, Fabry-Perot interferometer and photon counting electronics. The far field sound pressure fluctuations at 30 to the jet axis provided the highest correlation coefficients with all flow variables. The correlation coefficients decreased sharply with increased microphone polar angle, and beyond about 60 all correlation mostly fell below the experimental noise floor. Among all correlations < puu; p/> showed the highest values. Interestingly, , in all respects, were very similar to . The and correlations with 90deg microphone fell below the noise floor. By moving the laser probe at various locations in the jet it was found that the strongest noise source lies downstream of the end of the potential core and extends many diameters beyond. Correlation measurement from the lip shear layer showed a Mach number dependency. While significant correlations were measured in Mach 1.8 jet, values were mostly below the noise floor for subsonic Mach 0.95 jet. Various additional analyses showed that fluctuations from large organized structures mostly contributed to the measured correlation, while that from small scale structures fell below the noise floor.

  8. RF dynamic and noise performance of Metallic Source/Drain SOI n-MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Maria J.; Pascual, Elena; Rengel, Raúl

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a detailed study of the RF and noise performance of n-type Schottky barrier (SB) MOSFETs with a particular focus on the influence of the Schottky barrier height (SBH) on the main dynamic and noise figures of merit. With this aim, a 2D Monte Carlo simulator including tunnelling transport across Schottky interfaces has been developed, with special care to consider quantum transmission coefficients and the influence of image charge effects at the Schottky junctions. Particular attention is paid to the microscopic transport features, including carrier mean free paths or number of scattering events along the channel for investigating the optimization of the device topology and the strategic concepts related to the noise performance of this new architecture. A more effective control of the gate electrode over drain current for low SBH (discussed in terms of internal physical quantities) is translated into an enhanced transconductance gm, cut-off frequency fT, and non-quasistatic dynamic parameters. The drain and gate intrinsic noise sources show a noteworthy degradation with the SBH reduction due to the increased current, influence of hot carriers and reduced number of phonon scatterings. However, the results evidence that this effect is counterbalanced by the extremely improved dynamic performance in terms of gm and fT. Therefore, the deterioration of the intrinsic noise performance of the SB-MOSFET has no significant impact on high-frequency noise FoMs as NFmin, Rn and Gass for low SBH and large gate overdrive conditions. The role of the SBH on Γopt, optimum noise reactance and susceptance has been also analyzed.

  9. Methods for designing treatments to reduce interior noise of predominant sources and paths in a single engine light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Richard E.; Remington, Paul J.; Theobald, Mark A.; Wilby, John F.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and paths by which noise enters the cabin of a small single engine aircraft were determined through a combination of flight and laboratory tests. The primary sources of noise were found to be airborne noise from the propeller and engine casing, airborne noise from the engine exhaust, structureborne noise from the engine/propeller combination and noise associated with air flow over the fuselage. For the propeller, the primary airborne paths were through the firewall, windshield and roof. For the engine, the most important airborne path was through the firewall. Exhaust noise was found to enter the cabin primarily through the panels in the vicinity of the exhaust outlet although exhaust noise entering the cabin through the firewall is a distinct possibility. A number of noise control techniques were tried, including firewall stiffening to reduce engine and propeller airborne noise, to stage isolators and engine mounting spider stiffening to reduce structure-borne noise, and wheel well covers to reduce air flow noise.

  10. Green's function retrieval from the CCF of random waves and energy conservation for an obstacle of arbitrary shape: noise source distribution on a large surrounding shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Haruo

    2013-05-01

    For imaging the earth structure, the cross-correlation function (CCF) of random waves as ambient noise or coda waves has been widely used for the estimation of the Green's function. We precisely study the condition for the Green's function retrieval in relation to the energy conservation for a single obstacle of arbitrary shape. When an obstacle is placed in a 2-D homogeneous medium, the Green's function is written by a double series expansion using Hankel functions of the first kind which represent outgoing waves. When two receivers and the scattering obstacle are illuminated by uncorrelated noise sources randomly and uniformly distributed on a closed circle of a large radius surrounding them, the lag-time derivative of the CCF of random waves at the two receivers can be written by a convolution of the antisymmetrized Green's function and the autocorrelation function of the noise source time function. We explicitly derive the constraint for the Hankel function expansion coefficients as the sufficient condition for the Green's function retrieval. We show that the constraint is equal to the generalized optical theorem derived from the energy conservation principle. Physical meaning of the generalized optical theorem becomes clear when the Hankel function expansion coefficients are transformed into scattering amplitudes in the framework of the conventional scattering theory. In the 3-D case, the Green's function is written by a double series expansion using spherical Hankel functions of the first kind and spherical harmonic functions. When two receivers and the scattering obstacle are illuminated by noise sources randomly and uniformly distributed on a closed spherical shell of a large radius surrounding them, we explicitly derive the constraint for the spherical Hankel function expansion coefficients for the Green's function retrieval and the energy conservation. We note that the derivation of the constraint does not assume that two receivers are in the far field of

  11. Application of sound intensity and partial coherence to identify interior noise sources on the high speed train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rongping; Su, Zhongqing; Meng, Guang; He, Caichun

    2014-06-01

    In order to provide a quieter riding environment for passengers, sound quality refinement of rail vehicle is a hot issue. Identification of interior noise sources is the prerequisite condition to reduce the interior noise on high speed train. By considering contribution of noise sources such as rolling noise, mechanical equipment noise, structure-borne noise radiated by car body vibration to the interior noise, the synthesized measurement of sound intensity, sound pressure levels and vibration have been carried out in four different carriages on high speed train. The sound intensity and partial coherence methods have been used to identify the most significant interior noise sources. The statistical analysis results of sound intensity near window and floor on four carriages indicate that sound intensity near floor is higher than that near window at three traveling speeds. Ordinary and partial coherent analysis of vibro-acoustical signals show that the major internal noise source is structural-borne sound radiated by floor vibration. These findings can be utilized to facilitate the reduction of interior noise in the future.

  12. Phase noise measurement of wideband microwave sources based on a microwave photonic frequency down-converter.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dengjian; Zhang, Fangzheng; Zhou, Pei; Pan, Shilong

    2015-04-01

    An approach for phase noise measurement of microwave signal sources based on a microwave photonic frequency down-converter is proposed. Using the same optical carrier, the microwave signal under test is applied to generate two +1st-order optical sidebands by two stages of electro-optical modulations. A time delay is introduced between the two sidebands through a span of fiber. By beating the two +1st-order sidebands at a photodetector, frequency down-conversion is implemented, and phase noise of the signal under test can be calculated thereafter. The system has a very large operation bandwidth thanks to the frequency conversion in the optical domain, and good phase noise measurement sensitivity can be achieved since the signal degradation caused by electrical amplifiers is avoided. An experiment is carried out. The phase noise measured by the proposed system agrees well with that measured by a commercial spectrum analyzer or provided by the datasheet. A large operation bandwidth of 5-40 GHz is demonstrated using the proposed system. Moreover, good phase noise floor is achieved (-123  dBc/Hz at 1 kHz and -137  dBc/Hz at 10 kHz at 10 GHz), which is nearly constant over the full measurement range. PMID:25831324

  13. Windmill Noise Annoyance, Visual Aesthetics, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources.

    PubMed

    Klæboe, Ronny; Sundfør, Hanne Beate

    2016-01-01

    A small focused socio-acoustic after-study of annoyance from a windmill park was undertaken after local health officials demanded a health impact study to look into neighborhood complaints. The windmill park consists of 31 turbines and is located in the South of Norway where it affects 179 dwellings. Simple exposure-effect relationships indicate stronger reactions to windmills and wind turbine noise than shown internationally, with the caveat that the sample size is small (n = 90) and responses are colored by the existing local conflict. Pulsating swishing sounds and turbine engine hum are the main causes of noise annoyance. About 60 per cent of those who participated in the survey were of the opinion that windmills degrade the landscape aesthetically, and were far from convinced that land-based windmills are desirable as a renewable energy source (hydropower is an important alternative source of renewables in Norway). Attitudes play an important role in addition to visual aesthetics in determining the acceptance of windmills and the resulting noise annoyance. To compare results from different wind turbine noise studies it seems necessary to assess the impact of important modifying factors. PMID:27455301

  14. Windmill Noise Annoyance, Visual Aesthetics, and Attitudes towards Renewable Energy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Klæboe, Ronny; Sundfør, Hanne Beate

    2016-01-01

    A small focused socio-acoustic after-study of annoyance from a windmill park was undertaken after local health officials demanded a health impact study to look into neighborhood complaints. The windmill park consists of 31 turbines and is located in the South of Norway where it affects 179 dwellings. Simple exposure-effect relationships indicate stronger reactions to windmills and wind turbine noise than shown internationally, with the caveat that the sample size is small (n = 90) and responses are colored by the existing local conflict. Pulsating swishing sounds and turbine engine hum are the main causes of noise annoyance. About 60 per cent of those who participated in the survey were of the opinion that windmills degrade the landscape aesthetically, and were far from convinced that land-based windmills are desirable as a renewable energy source (hydropower is an important alternative source of renewables in Norway). Attitudes play an important role in addition to visual aesthetics in determining the acceptance of windmills and the resulting noise annoyance. To compare results from different wind turbine noise studies it seems necessary to assess the impact of important modifying factors. PMID:27455301

  15. Noise-Source Separation Using Internal and Far-Field Sensors for a Full-Scale Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Miles, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-source separation techniques for the extraction of the sub-dominant combustion noise from the total noise signatures obtained in static-engine tests are described. Three methods are applied to data from a static, full-scale engine test. Both 1/3-octave and narrow-band results are discussed. The results are used to assess the combustion-noise prediction capability of the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP). A new additional phase-angle-based discriminator for the three-signal method is also introduced.

  16. Source localization of turboshaft engine broadband noise using a three-sensor coherence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacodon, Daniel; Lewy, Serge

    2015-03-01

    Turboshaft engines can become the main source of helicopter noise at takeoff. Inlet radiation mainly comes from the compressor tones, but aft radiation is more intricate: turbine tones usually are above the audible frequency range and do not contribute to the weighted sound levels; jet is secondary and radiates low noise levels. A broadband component is the most annoying but its sources are not well known (it is called internal or core noise). Present study was made in the framework of the European project TEENI (Turboshaft Engine Exhaust Noise Identification). Its main objective was to localize the broadband sources in order to better reduce them. Several diagnostic techniques were implemented by the various TEENI partners. As regards ONERA, a first attempt at separating sources was made in the past with Turbomeca using a three-signal coherence method (TSM) to reject background non-acoustic noise. The main difficulty when using TSM is the assessment of the frequency range where the results are valid. This drawback has been circumvented in the TSM implemented in TEENI. Measurements were made on a highly instrumented Ardiden turboshaft engine in the Turbomeca open-air test bench. Two engine powers (approach and takeoff) were selected to apply TSM. Two internal pressure probes were located in various cross-sections, either behind the combustion chamber (CC), the high-pressure turbine (HPT), the free-turbine first stage (TL), or in four nozzle sections. The third transducer was a far-field microphone located around the maximum of radiation, at 120° from the intake centerline. The key result is that coherence increases from CC to HPT and TL, then decreases in the nozzle up to the exit. Pressure fluctuations from HPT and TL are very coherent with the far-field acoustic spectra up to 700 Hz. They are thus the main acoustic source and can be attributed to indirect combustion noise (accuracy decreases above 700 Hz because coherence is lower, but far-field sound spectra

  17. Determining the depth of a sound source in shallow water against intense background noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedina, T. N.; Kuznetsov, G. N.; Kuz'kin, V. M.; Pereselkov, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    We consider a method for estimating the depth of a sound source in a shallow water acoustic waveguide for a weak signal, based on information on the ratio of the amplitude of neighboring modes of the wave field. Results of a numerical experiment using a single receiver and a horizontal linear array in the lowfrequency region are given. We demonstrate the stability of the method to errors in measuring the amplitudes of filtered modes and variations of the waveguide model, as well as high noise immunity. It is established that the error in reconstructing the depth of a source with increasing noise tends to the established value. We give a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the simulation results.

  18. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: One and two interacting units.

    PubMed

    Franović, Igor; Todorović, Kristina; Perc, Matjaž; Vasović, Nebojša; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We consider the coaction of two distinct noise sources on the activation process of a single excitable unit and two interacting excitable units, which are mathematically described by the Fitzhugh-Nagumo equations. We determine the most probable activation paths around which the corresponding stochastic trajectories are clustered. The key point lies in introducing appropriate boundary conditions that are relevant for a class II excitable unit, which can be immediately generalized also to scenarios involving two coupled units. We analyze the effects of the two noise sources on the statistical features of the activation process, in particular demonstrating how these are modified due to the linear or nonlinear form of interactions. Universal properties of the activation process are qualitatively discussed in the light of a stochastic bifurcation that underlies the transition from a stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. PMID:26764778

  19. Evaluation of online information sources on alien species in Europe: the need of harmonization and integration.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites. PMID:23609303

  20. Evaluation of Online Information Sources on Alien Species in Europe: The Need of Harmonization and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatto, Francesca; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Vandekerkhove, Jochen; Zenetos, Argyro; Cardoso, Ana Cristina

    2013-06-01

    Europe is severely affected by alien invasions, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem services, economy, and human health. A large number of national, regional, and global online databases provide information on the distribution, pathways of introduction, and impacts of alien species. The sufficiency and efficiency of the current online information systems to assist the European policy on alien species was investigated by a comparative analysis of occurrence data across 43 online databases. Large differences among databases were found which are partially explained by variations in their taxonomical, environmental, and geographical scopes but also by the variable efforts for continuous updates and by inconsistencies on the definition of "alien" or "invasive" species. No single database covered all European environments, countries, and taxonomic groups. In many European countries national databases do not exist, which greatly affects the quality of reported information. To be operational and useful to scientists, managers, and policy makers, online information systems need to be regularly updated through continuous monitoring on a country or regional level. We propose the creation of a network of online interoperable web services through which information in distributed resources can be accessed, aggregated and then used for reporting and further analysis at different geographical and political scales, as an efficient approach to increase the accessibility of information. Harmonization, standardization, conformity on international standards for nomenclature, and agreement on common definitions of alien and invasive species are among the necessary prerequisites.

  1. Skew harmonics suppression in electromagnets with application to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring corrector magnet design

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.D.; Halbach, K.

    1994-07-01

    An analytical expression for prediction of skew harmonics in an iron core combined function regular/skew dipole magnet due to arbitrarily positioned electromagnet coils is developed. A structured approach is presented for the suppression of an arbitrary number of harmonic components to arbitrarily low values. Application of the analytical harmonic strength calculations coupled to the structured harmonic suppression approach is presented in the context of the design of the ALS storage ring corrector magnets, where quadrupole, sextupole, and octupole skew harmonics were reduced to less than 1.0% of the skew dipole at the beam aperture radius r = 3.0 cm.

  2. Skew harmonics suppression in electromagnets with application to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring corrector magnet design

    SciTech Connect

    Schlueter, R.; Halbach, K.

    1993-09-01

    An analytical expression for prediction of skew harmonics in an iron core combined function regular/skew dipole magnet due to arbitrarily positioned electromagnet coils is developed. A structured approach is presented for the suppression of an arbitrary number of harmonic components to arbitrarily low values. Application of the analytical harmonic strength calculations coupled to the structured harmonic suppression approach is presented in the context of the design of the ALS storage ring corrector magnets, where quadrupole, sextupole, and octupole skew harmonics were reduced to less than 1.0% of the skew dipole at the beam aperture radius r = 3.0 cm.

  3. Three-Dimensional Application of DAMAS Methodology for Aeroacoustic Noise Source Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    At the 2004 AIAA/CEAS Aeroacoustic Conference, a breakthrough in acoustic microphone array technology was reported by the authors. A Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) was developed which decouples the array design and processing influence from the noise being measured, using a simple and robust algorithm. For several prior airframe noise studies, it was shown to permit an unambiguous and accurate determination of acoustic source position and strength. As a follow-on effort, this paper examines the technique for three-dimensional (3D) applications. First, the beamforming ability for arrays, of different size and design, to focus longitudinally and laterally is examined for a range of source positions and frequency. Advantage is found for larger array designs with higher density microphone distributions towards the center. After defining a 3D grid generalized with respect to the array s beamforming characteristics, DAMAS is employed in simulated and experimental noise test cases. It is found that spatial resolution is much less sharp in the longitudinal direction in front of the array compared to side-to-side lateral resolution. 3D DAMAS becomes useful for sufficiently large arrays at sufficiently high frequency. But, such can be a challenge to computational capabilities, with regard to the required expanse and number of grid points. Also, larger arrays can strain basic physical modeling assumptions that DAMAS and all traditional array methodologies use. An important experimental result is that turbulent shear layers can negatively impact attainable beamforming resolution. Still, the usefulness of 3D DAMAS is demonstrated by the measurement of landing gear noise source distributions in a difficult hard-wall wind tunnel environment.

  4. Sound Source Identification Through Flow Density Measurement and Correlation With Far Field Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.

    2001-01-01

    Sound sources in the plumes of unheated round jets, in the Mach number range 0.6 to 1.8, were investigated experimentally using "casuality" approach, where air density fluctuations in the plumes were correlated with the far field noise. The air density was measured using a newly developed Molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique, which did not require any seeding. The reference at the end provides a detailed description of the measurement technique.

  5. Closely Spaced MEG Source Localization and Functional Connectivity Analysis Using a New Prewhitening Invariance of Noise Space Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junpeng; Cui, Yuan; Deng, Lihua; He, Ling; Zhang, Junran; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Qun; Liu, Qi; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed a prewhitening invariance of noise space (PW-INN) as a new magnetoencephalography (MEG) source analysis method, which is particularly suitable for localizing closely spaced and highly correlated cortical sources under real MEG noise. Conventional source localization methods, such as sLORETA and beamformer, cannot distinguish closely spaced cortical sources, especially under strong intersource correlation. Our previous work proposed an invariance of noise space (INN) method to resolve closely spaced sources, but its performance is seriously degraded under correlated noise between MEG sensors. The proposed PW-INN method largely mitigates the adverse influence of correlated MEG noise by projecting MEG data to a new space defined by the orthogonal complement of dominant eigenvectors of correlated MEG noise. Simulation results showed that PW-INN is superior to INN, sLORETA, and beamformer in terms of localization accuracy for closely spaced and highly correlated sources. Lastly, source connectivity between closely spaced sources can be satisfactorily constructed from source time courses estimated by PW-INN but not from results of other conventional methods. Therefore, the proposed PW-INN method is a promising MEG source analysis to provide a high spatial-temporal characterization of cortical activity and connectivity, which is crucial for basic and clinical research of neural plasticity. PMID:26819768

  6. Sources of noise during accumulation of evidence in unrestrained and voluntarily head-restrained rats

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Benjamin B; Constantinople, Christine M; Erlich, Jeffrey C; Tank, David W; Brody, Carlos D

    2015-01-01

    Decision-making behavior is often characterized by substantial variability, but its source remains unclear. We developed a visual accumulation of evidence task designed to quantify sources of noise and to be performed during voluntary head restraint, enabling cellular resolution imaging in future studies. Rats accumulated discrete numbers of flashes presented to the left and right visual hemifields and indicated the side that had the greater number of flashes. Using a signal-detection theory-based model, we found that the standard deviation in their internal estimate of flash number scaled linearly with the number of flashes. This indicates a major source of noise that, surprisingly, is not consistent with the widely used 'drift-diffusion modeling' (DDM) approach but is instead closely related to proposed models of numerical cognition and counting. We speculate that this form of noise could be important in accumulation of evidence tasks generally. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11308.001 PMID:26673896

  7. Improved PHIP polarization using a precision, low noise, voltage controlled current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agraz, Jose; Grunfeld, Alexander; Cunningham, Karl; Li, Debiao; Wagner, Shawn

    2013-10-01

    Existing para-hydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) instrumentation relies on magnetic fields to hyperpolarize substances. These hyperpolarized substances have enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals over 10,000 fold, allowing for MRI at the molecular level. Required magnetic fields are generated by energizing a solenoid coil with current produced by a voltage controlled voltage source (VCVS), also known as a power supply. A VCVS lacks the current regulation necessary to keep magnetic field fluctuations to a minimum, which results in low PHIP polarization. A voltage controlled current source (VCCS) is an electric circuit that generates a steady flow of electrons proportional to an input voltage. A low noise VCCS provides the solenoid current flow regulation necessary to generate a stable static magnetic field (Bo). We discuss the design and implementation of a low noise, high stability, VCCS for magnetic field generation with minimum variations. We show that a precision, low noise, voltage reference driving a metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) based current sink, results in the current flow control necessary for generating a low noise and high stability Bo. In addition, this work: (1) compares current stability for ideal VCVS and VCCS models using transfer functions (TF), (2) develops our VCCS design's TF, (3) measures our VCCS design's thermal & 1/f noise, and (4) measures and compares hydroxyethyl-propionate (HEP) polarization obtained using a VCVS and our VCCS. The hyperpolarization of HEP was done using a PHIP instrument developed in our lab. Using our VCCS design, HEP polarization magnitude data show a statistically significant increase in polarization over using a VCVS. Circuit schematic, bill of materials, board layout, TF derivation, and Matlab simulations code are included as supplemental files.

  8. Icequakes and ambient noise sources detected by a geophone array at the Kaskawulsh glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Tsai, V. C.; Schoof, C.; Whiteford, A.; Flowers, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    Both sliding and meltwater drainage processes of glaciers are expected to generate seismic signals. The confluence of the North and Central arms of the Kaskawulsh glacier in the Yukon Territory is an especially attractive place to study such phenomena not only because of the confluence but also because a nearby ice-dammed lake fills and drains rapidly every summer. We analyzed geophone data from nine stations at the Kaskawulsh glacier during the summer of 2014 to detect and locate icequakes and ambient noise sources. We first detected icequakes automatically by picking arrivals. Then we located events using differential arrival times between stations obtained precisely by cross-correlations, and also applied a double-difference relocation technique. During the 1-month observation period, we found 183 events that clustered near the medial moraine. More icequakes are observed from midnight to noon, potentially due to lower noise levels. These events are distributed on a dipping plane sub-parallel to the glacier flow direction. The depths below the surface range from 200m on the shallower side to 500m on the deeper side. This structure may correspond to the basal slope of the medial moraine and implies that these icequake signals come from either shear basal sliding or an englacial splay fault. We also determined ambient noise source locations for each 1-hour record sequence using the same process as for the icequakes. We located 31 sequences, among which more sequences were observed in the afternoon, possibly related to melting of the glacier. Most of the ambient noise sequences were located in two vertical clusters, with each cluster potentially corresponding to a crevasse or a moulin. We interpret this ambient noise as being produced by meltwater drainage. In both analyses, we find that inter-station differential arrival times obtained by cross-correlations provide effective information to locate sliding or meltwater drainage processes.

  9. Correction of phase velocity bias caused by strong directional noise sources in high-frequency ambient noise tomography: a case study in Karamay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Luo, Yinhe; Yang, Yingjie

    2016-05-01

    We collect two months of ambient noise data recorded by 35 broad-band seismic stations in a 9 × 11 km area (1-3 km station interval) near Karamay, China, and do cross-correlation of noise data between all station pairs. Array beamforming analysis of the ambient noise data shows that ambient noise sources are unevenly distributed and the most energetic ambient noise mainly comes from azimuths of 40°-70°. As a consequence of the strong directional noise sources, surface wave components of the cross-correlations at 1-5 Hz show clearly azimuthal dependence, and direct dispersion measurements from cross-correlations are strongly biased by the dominant noise energy. This bias renders that the dispersion measurements from cross-correlations do not accurately reflect the interstation velocities of surface waves propagating directly from one station to the other, that is, the cross-correlation functions do not retrieve empirical Green's functions accurately. To correct the bias caused by unevenly distributed noise sources, we adopt an iterative inversion procedure. The iterative inversion procedure, based on plane-wave modeling, includes three steps: (1) surface wave tomography, (2) estimation of ambient noise energy and biases and (3) phase velocities correction. First, we use synthesized data to test the efficiency and stability of the iterative procedure for both homogeneous and heterogeneous media. The testing results show that: (1) the amplitudes of phase velocity bias caused by directional noise sources are significant, reaching ˜2 and ˜10 per cent for homogeneous and heterogeneous media, respectively; (2) phase velocity bias can be corrected by the iterative inversion procedure and the convergence of inversion depends on the starting phase velocity map and the complexity of the media. By applying the iterative approach to the real data in Karamay, we further show that phase velocity maps converge after 10 iterations and the phase velocity maps obtained using

  10. Non-Uniform Contrast and Noise Correction for Coded Source Neutron Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J; Bingham, Philip R

    2012-01-01

    Since the first application of neutron radiography in the 1930s, the field of neutron radiography has matured enough to develop several applications. However, advances in the technology are far from concluded. In general, the resolution of scintillator-based detection systems is limited to the $10\\mu m$ range, and the relatively low neutron count rate of neutron sources compared to other illumination sources restricts time resolved measurement. One path toward improved resolution is the use of magnification; however, to date neutron optics are inefficient, expensive, and difficult to develop. There is a clear demand for cost-effective scintillator-based neutron imaging systems that achieve resolutions of $1 \\mu m$ or less. Such imaging system would dramatically extend the application of neutron imaging. For such purposes a coded source imaging system is under development. The current challenge is to reduce artifacts in the reconstructed coded source images. Artifacts are generated by non-uniform illumination of the source, gamma rays, dark current at the imaging sensor, and system noise from the reconstruction kernel. In this paper, we describe how to pre-process the coded signal to reduce noise and non-uniform illumination, and how to reconstruct the coded signal with three reconstruction methods correlation, maximum likelihood estimation, and algebraic reconstruction technique. We illustrates our results with experimental examples.

  11. Distribution system harmonic filter planning

    SciTech Connect

    Ortmeyer, T.H.; Hiyama, Takashi

    1996-10-01

    A planning methodology for distribution system harmonic filtering is proposed. The method is intended for use on radial distribution systems with no large harmonic sources. It is proposed that 60 hertz var planning be done first to allocate the var resources. Following this process, the harmonic filter planning can be readily accomplished. Characteristics of the distribution systems and the harmonic sources are exploited to provide a practical filter planning technique which is effective and efficient.

  12. Comparison of Noise Source Localization Data with Flow Field Data Obtained in Cold Supersonic Jets and Implications Regarding Broadband Shock Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Wernet, Mark; Clem, Michelle; Fagan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Phased array noise source localization have been compared with 2 types of flow field data (BOS and PIV). The data show that: 1) the higher frequency noise in a BBSN hump is generated further downstream than the lower frequency noise. This is due to a) the shock spacing decreasing and b) the turbulent structure size increasing with distance downstream. 2) BBSN can be created by very weak shocks. 3) BBSN is not created by the strong shocks just downstream of the nozzle because the turbulent structures have not grown large enough to match the shock spacing. 4) The point in the flow where the shock spacing equals the average size of the turbulent structures is a hot spot for shock noise. 5) Some of the shocks responsible for producing the first hump also produce the second hump.

  13. A perspective on 30 years of progress in ambient noise: Source mechanisms and the characteristics of the sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cato, Douglas H.

    2012-11-01

    The last 30 years has seen substantial progress in ocean ambient noise research, particularly in understanding the mechanisms of sound generation by the sources of ambient noise, the way in which the noise field is affected by sound propagation, and improvements in quantifying the relationship between noise and environmental parameters. This has led to significant improvements in noise prediction. Activity was probably strongest in the 1980s and 1990s, as evident, for example, in the Sea Surface Sound conferences and their published proceedings (four over 10 years). Although much of the application has been to sonar, there has also been interest in using ambient noise to measure properties of the environment and in its significance to marine life. There have been significant changes in the ambient noise itself over the last 30 years. The contribution from human activities appears to have increased, particularly that due to increases in shipping numbers. Biological noise has also increased with the significant increases in populations of some whale species following the cessation of broad scale whaling in the 1960s and early 1970s. Concern about the effects of noise on marine animals as well as the way they exploit the noise has led to renewed interest in ambient noise.

  14. In-situ source path contribution analysis of structure borne road noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, A. S.; Moorhouse, A. T.; Huntley, T.; Tate, S.

    2013-11-01

    Source-path-contribution (SPC) analysis, also known as transfer path analysis (TPA), is a technique widely used in the automotive industry for rank ordering noise and vibration sources. The SPC approach is known to provide reliable diagnostic information but is time consuming to apply. In this paper, a faster SPC approach that allows all measurements to be performed in-situ is outlined and tested. For validation purposes a classic example consisting of a vehicle's suspension system (considered a vibration source) attached to a vehicle body (receiver) is analysed. It is found that structure borne noise inside the vehicle can be predicted well by either the conventional or the novel in-situ SPC approaches and that both methods give the same diagnostic information in terms of the rank ordering of path contributions. Thus, the new in-situ approach provides results at least as reliable as the conventional inverse SPC approach but has significant practical advantages in terms of reduced test time, transferability of data and flexibility in the location of the source-receiver interface. An additional investigation also demonstrates the feasibility of including rotational motions and moments in the analysis and it is shown that improved accuracy can be achieved as a result.

  15. A study of rotor broadband noise mechanisms and helicopter tail rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shau-Tak Rudy

    1990-01-01

    The rotor broadband noise mechanisms considered are the following: (1) lift fluctuation due to turbulence ingestion; (2) boundary layer/trailing edge interaction; (3) tip vortex formation; and (4) turbulent vortex shedding from blunt trailing edge. Predictions show good agreement with available experimental data. The study shows that inflow turbulence is the most important broadband noise source for typical helicopters' main rotors at low- and mid-frequencies. Due to the size difference, isolated helicopter tail rotor broadband noise is not important compared to the much louder main rotor broadband noise. However, the inflow turbulence noise from a tail rotor can be very significant because it is operating in a highly turbulent environment, ingesting wakes from upstream components of the helicopter. The study indicates that the main rotor turbulent wake is the most important source of tail rotor broadband noise. The harmonic noise due to ingestion of main rotor tip vortices is studied.

  16. Identification and Control of Noise Source Mechanisms in a Transonic Axisymmetric Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Andre; Pinier, Jeremy; Glauser, Mark

    2006-11-01

    An experimental examination aimed at characterizing the aeroacoustic effect linked to the turbulent mixing of the exhausted jet plume with the ambient air in high-speed jets is comprised of a 50.8mm nozzle at Mach 0.85, operated under both heated (260oC) and room temperature (0oC) conditions. Both the hydrodynamic near- field and acoustic far-field pressure regions are examined. The near- field using an azimuthal array of fifteen (15) dynamic response pressure transducers positioned near the jet’s lip, and the far- field using a boom array of six (6) acoustic microphones (6.35mm in diameter). Instantaneous 3 component velocity measurements are acquired, simultaneously, in the r, theta plane at several streamwise positions between z/D=3:8 (the region where the sound producing events are found to be dominant) using a stereo PIV system. This data set is utilized in conjunction with multi-point low-dimensional techniques to characterize a low-dimensional description of the velocity field, with minimal effect on far-field acoustics. The low- dimensional description of the velocity field is examined to identify the dominant noise source mechanism in both jets. Calculation of a modified Lighthill source term, and azimuthal modal forcing, are used as a measure of source intensity and a gauge for noise reduction schemes, respectively. Where control of noise sources is concerned, a modal analysis of the near-field region has shown that modal forcing may prove a promising method. We greatly acknowledge the support of the AFOSR and the CNY-PR AGEP Alliance.

  17. AIRUSE-LIFE+: a harmonized PM speciation and source apportionment in 5 Southern European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Alastuey, A.; Karanasiou, A.; Lucarelli, F.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Severi, M.; Becagli, S.; Gianelle, V. L.; Colombi, C.; Alves, C.; Custódio, D.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Pio, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Diapouli, E.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Manousakas, M.; Maggos, T.; Vratolis, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Querol, X.

    2015-09-01

    The AIRUSE-LIFE+ project aims at characterising similarities and heterogeneities in PM sources and contributions in urban areas from the Southern Europe. Once the main PMx sources are identified, AIRUSE aims at developing and testing the efficiency of specific and non-specific measures to improve urban air quality. This article reports the results of the source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 conducted at three urban background sites (Barcelona, Florence and Milan, BCN-UB, FI-UB, MLN-UB) one sub-urban background site (Athens, ATH-SUB) and one traffic site (Porto, POR-TR). After collecting 1047 PM10 and 1116 PM2.5 24 h samples from January 2013 to February 2014 simultaneously at the 5 cities, these were analysed for the contents of OC, EC, anions, cations, major and trace elements and levoglucosan. The USEPA PMF5 receptor model was applied to these datasets in a harmonised way for each city. The sum of vehicle exhaust and non-exhaust contributes within 3.9-10.8 μg m-3 (16-32 %) to PM10 and 2.3-9.4 μg m-3 (15-36 %) to PM2.5, although a fraction of secondary nitrate is also traffic-related but could not be estimated. Important contributions arise from secondary particles (nitrate, sulphate and organics) in PM2.5 (37-82 %) but also in PM10 (40-71 %) mostly at background sites, revealing the importance of abating gaseous precursors in designing air quality plans. Biomass burning (BB) contributions vary widely, from 14-24 % of PM10 in POR-TR, MLN-UB and FI-UB, 7 % in ATH-SUB to < 2 % in BCN-UB. In PM2.5, BB is the second most important source in MLN-UB (21 %) and in POR-TR (18 %), the third one in FI-UB (21 %) and ATH-SUB (11 %), but again negligible (< 2 %) in BCN-UB. This large variability among cities is mostly due to the degree of penetration of biomass for residential heating. In Barcelona natural gas is very well supplied across the city and used as fuel in 96 % of homes, while, in other cities, PM levels increase on an annual basis by 1-9 μg m-3 due to this

  18. Low Speed, 2-D Rotor/Stator Active Noise Control at the Source Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, John C.; Kousen, Ken A.; Zander, Anthony C.; Bak, Michael; Topol, David A.

    1997-01-01

    Wake/blade-row interaction noise produced by the Annular Cascade Facility at Purdue University has been modeled using the LINFLO analysis. Actuator displacements needed for complete cancellation of the propagating acoustic response modes have been determined, along with the associated actuator power requirements. As an alternative, weighted least squares minimization of the total far-field sound power using individual actuators has also been examined. Attempts were made to translate the two-dimensional aerodynamic results into three-dimensional actuator requirements. The results lie near the limit of present actuator technology. In order to investigate the concept of noise control at the source for active rotor/stator noise control at the source, various techniques for embedding miniature actuators into vanes were examined. Numerous miniature speaker arrangements were tested and analyzed to determine their suitability as actuators for a demonstration test in the Annular Cascade Facility at Purdue. The best candidates demonstrated marginal performance. An alternative concept to using vane mounted speakers as control actuators was developed and tested. The concept uses compression drivers which are mounted externally to the stator vanes. Each compression driver is connected via a tube to an air cavity in the stator vane, from which the driver signal radiates into the working section of the experimental rig. The actual locations and dimensions of the actuators were used as input parameters for a LINFLO computational analysis of the actuator displacements required for complete cancellation of tones in the Purdue experimental rig. The actuators were designed and an arrangement determined which is compatible with the Purdue experimental rig and instrumentation. Experimental tests indicate that the actuators are capable of producing equivalent displacements greater than the requirements predicted by the LINFLO analysis. The acoustic output of the actuators was also found

  19. Method for experimental determination of the contribution of individual sources to total noise. [using bandpass filter for signal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubichev, N. A.

    1973-01-01

    Multiple noise sources generating signals in a mechanical device are analyzed by considering the medium transmitting the sound as linear, and by using a band filter with bandpass for synchronous detection and signal transformation.

  20. Research In Helicopter Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Schmitz, Frederic H.; Morse, Andrew H.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in aeroacoustical theory and experiments reviewed. Report summarizes continuing U.S. Army programs of research into causes of noise generated by helicopters. Topics of study include high-speed impulsive noise, blade/vortex-interaction noise, and low-frequency harmonic noise.

  1. Proposed second harmonic acceleration system for the intense pulsed neutron source rapid cycling synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Brandeberry, F.; Rauchas, A.

    1983-01-01

    The Rapid Cycling Synchrotron (RCS) of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) operating at Argonne National Laboratory is presently producing intensities of 2 to 2.5 x 10/sup 12/ protons per pulse (ppp) with the addition of a new ion source. This intensity is close to the space charge limit of the machine, estimated at approx.3 x 10/sup 12/ ppp, depending somewhat on the available aperture. With the present good performance in mind, accelerator improvements are being directed at: (1) increasing beam intensities for neutron science; (2) lowering acceleration losses to minimize activation; and (3) gaining better control of the beam so that losses can be made to occur when and where they can be most easily controlled. On the basis of preliminary measurements, we are now proposing a third cavity for the RF systems which would provide control of the longitudinal bunch shape during the cycle which would permit raising the effective space charge limit of the accelerator and reducing losses.

  2. Quantifying noise sources in the KSTAR 2014 Thomson Scattering system from the measured variation on electron temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, T.-S.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, S. H.; Scannell, R.; Field, A. R.; Cho, K.; Bawa'aneh, M. S.; Ghim, Y.-c.

    2016-03-01

    With the Thomson scattering (TS) system in KSTAR, temporal evolution of electron temperature (Te) is estimated using a weighted look-up table method with fast sampling (1.25 or 2.5 GS/s) digitizers during the 2014 KSTAR campaign. Background noise level is used as a weighting parameter without considering the photon noise due to the absence of information on absolute photon counts detected by the TS system. Estimated electron temperature during a relatively quiescent discharge are scattered, i.e., 15% variation on Te with respect to its mean value. We find that this 15% variation on Te cannot be explained solely by the background noise level which leads us to include photon noise effects in our analysis. Using synthetic data, we have estimated the required photon noise level consistent with the observation and determined the dominant noise source in KSTAR TS system.

  3. Effects of shallow trench isolation on low frequency noise characteristics of source-follower transistors in CMOS image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Sung-Kyu; Kwon, Hyuk-Min; Choi, Woon-Il; Song, Hyeong-Sub; Lee, Hi-Deok

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the shallow trench isolation (STI) edge on low frequency noise characteristics of source-follower (SF) transistors in CMOS image sensors (CIS) were investigated. Random telegraph signal (RTS) noise and 1/f noise were measured in a CIS operating voltage region for a realistic assessment. SF transistor with STI edge in contact with channel shows a lower probability of generating RTS noise but greater RTS amplitude due to the enhanced trap density induced by STI-induced damage. SF MOSFETs without STI exhibit a much lower 1/f noise power spectral density in spite of the greater RTS generation probability, which is due to the decreased trap density. Therefore, SF transistors without STI edge in contact with channel are promising candidates for low noise CIS applications.

  4. Sensitivity of earthquake source inversions to atmospheric noise and corrections of InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Chelsea Phipps; Lohman, Rowena Benfer

    2016-05-01

    Tropospheric phase delays pose a major challenge to InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar)-based studies of tectonic deformation. One approach to the mitigation of effects from tropospheric noise is the application of elevation-dependent corrections based on empirical fits between elevation and interferometric phase. We quantify the effects of corrections with a range of complexity on inferred earthquake source parameters using synthetic interferograms with known atmospheric characteristics. We infer statistical properties of the stratified component of the atmosphere using pressure, temperature, and water vapor data from the North America Regional Reanalysis model over our region of interest in the Basin and Range province of the western United States. The statistics of the simulated atmospheric turbulence are estimated from InSAR and Global Positioning System data. We demonstrate potentially significant improvements in the precision of earthquake magnitude, depth, and dip estimates for several synthetic earthquake focal mechanisms following a correction for spatially variable atmospheric characteristics, relative to cases where the correction is based on a uniform delay versus elevation relationship or where no correction is applied. We apply our approach to the 1992 M5.6 Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, earthquake and demonstrate that the earthquake source parameter error bounds decrease in size after applying the atmospheric corrections. Our approach for evaluating the impact of atmospheric noise on inferred fault parameters is easily adaptable to other regions and source mechanisms.

  5. Noise control of dipole source by using micro-perforated panel housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Q.; Choy, Y. S.; Cheng, L.; Tang, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    Mitigating low-frequency noise in a small ducted fan system such as hairdryer is still a technical challenge. Traditional duct lining with porous materials work ineffectively due to the limitation of its thickness and length of small domestic product with ducted fans. This study presents a passive approach to directly suppress the sound radiation from the fan housed by a short microperforated panel covered with a shallow cavity backing. The noise suppression is achieved by the sound cancellation between sound fields from a fan of a dipole nature and sound radiation from a vibrating panel via vibro-acoustic coupling and by sound absorption in micro-perforations to widen the stopband. A two-dimensional theoretical model, capable of dealing with strong coupling among the vibrating micro-perforated panel, sound radiation from the dipole source, sound fields inside the cavity and the duct is developed. Through modal analysis, it is found that the even modes of the panel vibration are very important to cancel the sound radiation from the dipole source. Experimental validation is conducted with a loudspeaker to simulate the dipole source, and good agreement between the predicted and measured insertion loss (IL) is achieved.

  6. Aeroacoustics of Flight Vehicles: Theory and Practice. Volume 1: Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, Harvey H. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Methodology recommended to evaluate aeroacoustic related problems is provided, and approaches to their solutions are suggested without extensive tables, nomographs, and derivations. Orientation is toward flight vehicles and emphasis is on underlying physical concepts. Theoretical, experimental, and applied aspects are covered, including the main formulations and comparisons of theory and experiment. The topics covered include: propeller and propfan noise, rotor noise, turbomachinery noise, jet noise classical theory and experiments, noise from turbulent shear flows, jet noise generated by large-scale coherent motion, airframe noise, propulsive lift noise, combustion and core noise, and sonic booms.

  7. On noise sources in hot electron-degraded bipolar junction transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinares, P.; Ghibaudo, G.; Chroboczek, J. A.

    1997-09-01

    The effects of electrical stress on static characteristics and power spectral density, SIb, of base current, Ib, fluctuations at low frequencies, f<1 kHz, have been studied in quasiself-aligned bipolar n-p-n junction. In as-fabricated devices SIb∝1/AE, where AE is the transistor emitter area, whereas in strongly degraded transistors Sib∝1/PE, where PE is the transistor perimeter. The latter demonstrates directly that hot carrier-induced noise sources are generated at the periphery of the transistors, in agreement with former work on hot electron-induced aging of bipolar junction transistors.

  8. Control of Environmental Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Paul

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the physical properties, sources, physiological effects, and legislation pertaining to noise, especially noise characteristics in the community. Indicates that noise reduction steps can be taken more intelligently after determination of the true noise sources and paths. (CC)

  9. Time Delay Analysis of Turbofan Engine Direct and Indirect Combustion Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Jeffrey Hilton

    2008-01-01

    The core noise components of a dual spool turbofan engine were separated by the use of a coherence function. A source location technique based on adjusting the time delay between the combustor pressure sensor signal and the far-field microphone signal to maximize the coherence and remove as much variation of the phase angle with frequency as possible was used. The discovery was made that for the 130o microphone a 90.027 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 0 to 200 Hz while a 86.975 ms time shift worked best for the frequency band from 200 to 400 Hz. Hence, the 0 to 200 Hz band signal took more time than the 200 to 400 Hz band signal to travel the same distance. This suggests the 0 to 200 Hz coherent cross spectral density band is partly due to indirect combustion noise attributed to entropy fluctuations, which travel at the flow velocity, interacting with the turbine. The signal in the 200 to 400 Hz frequency band is attributed mostly to direct combustion noise. Results are presented herein for engine power settings of 48, 54, and 60 percent of the maximum power setting

  10. Interferometric coherence measurement and radio frequency noise characterization of the 1.3 μm femtosecond intense Stokes continuum from a TZDW source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yuhong; Knox, Wayne H.

    2015-02-01

    Photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with two closely spaced zero dispersion wavelengths (TZDW) offers a unique route to efficient energy transfer to two spectrally localized continua beyond either side of the ZDWs, which we have employed in previous work for mid-IR difference frequency generation and speckle-free red-green-blue generation. In this manuscript, we report the interferometric coherence characterization and radio frequency (RF) noise measurements of the Stokes side TZDW component. With a custom-built 1.3 W, 1035 nm, 40 MHz, 240 fs Yb:fiber chirped pulse amplifier as the pump source, we use 12 cm of commercially available TZDW PCF to excite the dual narrow-band continua from which the Stokes pulse is filtered out with a 1180 nm long wave pass filter. We achieve 0.8 to 3 nJ of narrow-band pulses within the spectral range of 1200 - 1315 nm at an average power conversion efficiency of 33%. Employing an un-balanced Michelson interferometer, measured mutual spectral coherence of the Stokes pulse is in excess of 0.76 with pump Soliton order as high as N ~70. Its measured RF noise spectrum at the first harmonic of the laser repetition rate shows less than 8 dBc/Hz increase in relative intensity noise (RIN) compared to that of the power amplifier, which is consistent with reported studies employing sub-100 fs pulses from relatively low noise oscillators. In contrast to the broadband continuum from a single ZDW PCF wherein severe de-coherence is found with pumping at high soliton order and longer pump pulse width, the reported TZDW fiber source shows preservation of intensity stability and phase coherence against variation in pump pulse parameters, which not only attests to the stability of our reported method for mid-IR generation, but also shows promising potential towards an all-fiber, efficient and low noise ultrafast source that can be helpful for applications such as biomedical deep-tissue imaging.

  11. Military jet noise source imaging using multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Wall, Alan T; Gee, Kent L; Neilsen, Tracianne B; McKinley, Richard L; James, Michael M

    2016-04-01

    The identification of acoustic sources is critical to targeted noise reduction efforts for jets on high-performance tactical aircraft. This paper describes the imaging of acoustic sources from a tactical jet using near-field acoustical holography techniques. The measurement consists of a series of scans over the hologram with a dense microphone array. Partial field decomposition methods are performed to generate coherent holograms. Numerical extrapolation of data beyond the measurement aperture mitigates artifacts near the aperture edges. A multisource equivalent wave model is used that includes the effects of the ground reflection on the measurement. Multisource statistically optimized near-field acoustical holography (M-SONAH) is used to reconstruct apparent source distributions between 20 and 1250 Hz at four engine powers. It is shown that M-SONAH produces accurate field reconstructions for both inward and outward propagation in the region spanned by the physical hologram measurement. Reconstructions across the set of engine powers and frequencies suggests that directivity depends mainly on estimated source location; sources farther downstream radiate at a higher angle relative to the inlet axis. At some frequencies and engine powers, reconstructed fields exhibit multiple radiation lobes originating from overlapped source regions, which is a phenomenon relatively recently reported for full-scale jets. PMID:27106340

  12. Differential near-edge coherent diffractive imaging using a femtosecond high-harmonic XUV light source.

    PubMed

    Weise, Fabian; Neumark, Daniel M; Leone, Stephen R; Gessner, Oliver

    2012-11-19

    Element-specific contrast enhancement in tabletop coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is demonstrated by employing an ultrafast extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source with tunable photon energy. By combining two measurements performed at energies below and above the Al L(2,3) absorption edge, the spatial autocorrelation function of a micron-scale double pinhole in a 300 nm thick aluminum foil is retrieved despite a dominant background signal from directly transmitted light across the entire range of detectable diffraction angles. The fringe visibility in the diffraction patterns is 0 below the Al L(2,3) edge, 0.53 ± 0.06 above the edge, and 0.73 ± 0.08 in the differential image that combines the two measurements. The proof-of-principle experiment demonstrates that the variations of XUV optical constants in the vicinity of an inner-shell absorption edge can be utilized to improve the chemical sensitivity and image reconstruction quality of laboratory-based ultrafast imaging experiments. PMID:23187472

  13. A miniaturized electron source based on dielectric laser accelerator operation at higher spatial harmonics and a nanotip photoemitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeur, Joshua; Kozak, Martin; Ehberger, Dominik; Schönenberger, Norbert; Tafel, Alexander; Li, Ang; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Here we propose a miniaturized electron source driven by recent experimental results of laser-triggered electron emission from tungsten nanotips and dielectric laser acceleration of sub relativistic electrons with velocities as low as 5.7× {10}7 {{m}} {{{s}}}-1 or energies as low as 9.6 keV, less than 20% of the speed of light. The recently observed laser-triggered emission of coherent low-emittance electron pulses from tungsten nanotips naturally lends itself towards incorporation with subrelativistic dielectric laser accelerators (DLAs). These structures have previously been shown to accelerate 28 keV electrons and here we report on the utilization of the 4th and 5th spatial harmonics of near fields in the single grating DLA to achieve acceleration of electrons with kinetic energies of 15.2 and 9.6 keV. We then propose the combination of needle tip emitters with subrelativistic accelerators to form a mm-scale device capable of producing electrons with arbitrary energies.

  14. Identifying seismic noise sources and their amplitude from P wave microseisms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neale, Jennifer; Harmon, Nicholas; Srokosz, Meric

    2016-04-01

    Understanding sources of seismic noise is important for a range of applications including seismic imagery, time-lapse, and climate studies. For locating sources from seismic data, body waves offer an advantage over surface waves because they can reveal the distance to the source as well as direction. Studies have found that body waves do originate from regions predicted by models (Obrebski et al., 2013), where wave interaction intensity and site effect combine to produce the source (Ardhuin & Herbers, 2013). Here, we undertake a quantitative comparison between observed body wave microseisms and modelled sources- in terms of location, amplitude, and spectral shape- with the aim of understanding how well sources are observed and potentially what they reveal about the underlying ocean wavefield. We used seismic stations from the Southern California Seismic Network, and computed beamformer output as a function of time, frequency, slowness and azimuth. During winter months (October - mid March) the dominant arrivals at frequencies 0.18-0.22 Hz were P waves that originated from the North Pacific, whilst arrivals from the North Atlantic dominated at slightly lower frequencies of 0.16-0.18 Hz. Based on this, we chose to focus on P waves during winter, and back-projected the beamformer energy onto a global grid using P wave travel timetables (following Gerstoft et al., 2008). We modelled the seismic sources using Wavewatch III and site effect coefficients calculated following Ardhuin and Herbers (2013). We output the beamformer and the modelled sources on a 2° global grid averaged over 6 hour periods from September 2012 to September 2014, at seismic frequencies of 0.06 to 0.3 Hz. We then integrated the spectra over the full frequency range. Here we focus on results from the first winter in the North Pacific. Preliminary results indicate that the logarithm of the modelled source and the logarithm of the beamformer output are well described by a two-term exponential model

  15. Identification of Noise Sources During Rocket Engine Test Firings and a Rocket Launch Using a Microphone Phased-Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Mosher, Robert N.; Porter, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    A 70 microphone, 10-foot by 10-foot, microphone phased array was built for use in the harsh environment of rocket launches. The array was setup at NASA Wallops launch pad 0A during a static test firing of Orbital Sciences' Antares engines, and again during the first launch of the Antares vehicle. It was placed 400 feet away from the pad, and was hoisted on a scissor lift 40 feet above ground. The data sets provided unprecedented insight into rocket noise sources. The duct exit was found to be the primary source during the static test firing; the large amount of water injected beneath the nozzle exit and inside the plume duct quenched all other sources. The maps of the noise sources during launch were found to be time-dependent. As the engines came to full power and became louder, the primary source switched from the duct inlet to the duct exit. Further elevation of the vehicle caused spilling of the hot plume, resulting in a distributed noise map covering most of the pad. As the entire plume emerged from the duct, and the ondeck water system came to full power, the plume itself became the loudest noise source. These maps of the noise sources provide vital insight for optimization of sound suppression systems for future Antares launches.

  16. Flight test of a pure-tone acoustic source. [aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. W.; Preisser, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Static and flight testing of a pure-tone acoustic source were conducted in order to: (1) determine if a 4-KHz tone radiated by a source in flight and mixed with broadband aircraft flyover noise could be measured on the ground with a high degree of statistical confidence; (2) determine how well a comparison could be made of flight-to-static tone radiation pattern and a static radiation pattern; and (3) determine if there were any installation effects on the radiation pattern due to the flight vehicle. Narrow-band acoustic data were measured and averaged over eight microphones to obtain a high statistical confidence. The flight data were adjusted to an equivalent static condition by applying corrections for retarded time, spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, ground impedance, instrumentation constraints, convective amplification, and the Doppler shift. The flight-to-static results are in excellent agreement with the measured static data. No installation effects were observed on the radiation pattern.

  17. Inflight source noise of an advanced full-scale single-rotation propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1991-01-01

    Flight tests to define the far field tone source at cruise conditions were completed on the full scale SR-7L advanced turboprop which was installed on the left wing of a Gulfstream II aircraft. This program, designated Propfan Test Assessment (PTA), involved aeroacoustic testing of the propeller over a range of test conditions. These measurements defined source levels for input into long distance propagation models to predict en route noise. Inflight data were taken for 7 test cases. The sideline directivities measured by the Learjet showed expected maximum levels near 105 degrees from the propeller upstream axis. However, azimuthal directivities based on the maximum observed sideline tone levels showed highest levels below the aircraft. An investigation of the effect of propeller tip speed showed that the tone level of reduction associated with reductions in propeller tip speed is more significant in the horizontal plane than below the aircraft.

  18. Source impedance, transient response, and noise characterization of the TOPAZ 2 reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kusnierkiewicz, D.Y.

    1995-01-20

    Electrical measurements have been performed on the TOPAZ 2 V-71 and Ya-21 Reactors, in order to characterize the source impedance as a function of DC operating point and frequency. The response of the reactor to step changes in load current, as well as the frequency content of the electrical noise generated by the reactor have also been measured. These parameters are important to know in order to design power regulation circuitry which maintains a constant load on the reactor during spacecraft operations for any flight application of the TOPAZ 2 reactors. Voltage spikes at the reactor interface induced by load transients must be limited; the power regulation circuitry must have adequate bandwidth to compensate for spacecraft load dynamics. The methods used to make these measurements will be discussed. Results of the measurements on the Ya-21 reactor indicate the source impedance is dominated by a series resistance and inductance. The equivalent DC leakage resistance from the reactor output to structure was also measured. The self generated noise of the reactor is benign; load induced transients will be sufficiently controlled with capacitive filtering and active regulation circuitry external to the reactor/power distribution system. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  19. Turbulence and heat excited noise sources in single and coaxial jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Seong Ryong; Schröder, Wolfgang; Meinke, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The generation of noise in subsonic high Reynolds number single and coaxial turbulent jets is analyzed by a hybrid method. The computational approach is based on large-eddy simulations (LES) and solutions of the acoustic perturbation equations (APE). The method is used to investigate the acoustic fields of one isothermal single stream jet at a Mach number 0.9 and a Reynolds number 400,000 based on the nozzle diameter and two coaxial jets whose Mach number and Reynolds number based on the secondary jet match the values of the single jet. One coaxial jet configuration possesses a cold primary flow, whereas the other configuration has a hot primary jet. Thus, the configurations allow in a first step the analysis of the relationship of the flow and acoustic fields of a single and a cold coaxial jet and in a second step the investigation of the differences of the fluid mechanics and aeroacoustics of cold and hot coaxial jets. For the isothermal single jet the present hybrid acoustic computation shows convincing agreement with the direct acoustic simulation based on large-eddy simulations. The analysis of the acoustic field of the coaxial jets focuses on two noise sources, the Lamb vector fluctuations and the entropy sources of the APE equations. The power spectral density (PSD) distributions evidence the Lamb vector fluctuations to represent the major acoustic sources of the isothermal jet. Especially the typical downstream and sideline acoustic generations occur on a cone-like surface being wrapped around the end of the potential core. Furthermore, when the coaxial jet possesses a hot primary jet, the acoustic core being characterized by the entropy source terms increases the low frequency acoustics by up to 5 dB, i.e., the sideline acoustics is enhanced by the pronounced temperature gradient.

  20. Empirical sensitivity kernels of noise correlations with respect to virtual sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boué, P.; Stehly, L.; Nakata, N.; Beroza, G. C.

    2014-12-01

    Cross-correlation of time-series, or interferometry, applied to the ambient seismic field is an established method to observe the propagation of waves between pairs of sensors without involving transient sources. These reconstructed waves are routinely used to develop high-resolution images of the crust and upper mantle, or in mapping the time-dependent velocity changes associated with tectonic events. Using similar methods, recent work have highlighted more challenging observations, such as higher mode surface wave propagation and body wave reconstruction at various scales of the Earth: from the industrial surveys at the reservoir scale to the global scale. Furthermore, the reconstruction of the correct amplitude information can be used to image the anelastic attenuation of the medium and has led to a new type of ground motion prediction using virtual earthquakes method. The dependability of such amplitude retrieval had been debated and represents a difficult challenge due to uneven source distribution. In this study, we discuss the possibility to use the correlation of ambient noise correlation (similar to C3 method) to map the contribution of different source locations for Rayleigh wave reconstruction between receiver pairs. These maps constructed in terms of traveltime or amplitude perturbations of the Green's function, can be considered as empirical sensitivity kernels with respect to the contribution of each virtual source. We propose for the first time to map these kernels using a dataset of continuous records from a dense array of about 2600 sensors deployed at the local-scale in Long Beach (CA, USA). Finally, these maps are used to analyze the impact of the original ambient noise directivity on the recovered Green's functions and discuss the effects of the velocity lateral heterogeneity within the array. We aim at understanding, and thereby reducing, the bias in ambient field measurements.

  1. Multi-gamma-source CT imaging system: a feasibility study with the Poisson noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Sunhee; Cho, Seungryong

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to test the feasibility of multi-gamma-source CT imaging system. Gamma-source CT employs radioisotopes that emit monochromatic energy gamma-rays. The advantages of gamma-source CT include its immunity to beam hardening artifacts, its capacity of quantitative CT imaging, and its higher performance in low contrast imaging compared to the conventional x-ray CT. Radioisotope should be shielded by use of a pin-hole collimator so as to make a fine focal spot. Due to its low gamma-ray flux in general, the reconstructed image from a single gamma-source CT would suffer from high noise in data. To address this problem, we proposed a multi-gamma source CT imaging system and developed an iterative image reconstruction algorithm accordingly in this work. Conventional imaging model assumes a single linear imaging system typically represented by Mf = g. In a multi-gamma-source CT system however, the inversion problem is not any more based on a single linear system since one cannot separate a detector pixel value into multiple ones that are corresponding to each rays from the sources. Instead, the imaging model can be constructed by a set of linear system models each of which assumes an estimated measurement g. Based on this model, the proposed algorithm has a weighting step which distributes each projection data into multiple estimated measurements. We used two gamma sources at various positions and with varying intensities in this numerical study to demonstrate its feasibility. Therefore, the measured projection data(g) is separated into each estimated projection data(g1, g2) in this study. The proposed imaging protocol is believed to contribute to both medical and industrial applications.

  2. Extraction of the local phase velocity and the group velocity from surface noise source in microseismic monitoring.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmiel, Malgorzata; Roux, Philippe; Bardainne, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the extraction of the local phase velocity and the group velocity from surface noise source in microseismic monitoring. One of the biggest challenges in microseismic monitoring is surface seismic noise. Microseismic surface studies are often contaminated with instrumental and ambient seismic noise, originating from both natural (wind, rain) and anthropogenic sources (injection, pumps, infrastructure, traffic). The two primary ways to attenuate the undesired surface noise sources are via processing and acquisition strategies. At the acquisition stage, one solution is through the use of patch array. One patch is a group of 48 vertical sensors densely distributed on the area of~150m*150m, and one trace is the array of 12 vertical geophones. In the present work, 44 patches were sparsely distributed on a 41 square kilometer area. Benefitting from continuous recording, we used Matched Field Processing (MFP) methods to extract local phase and group velocities over the whole area. The aim of this technique is to detect and locate uncoherent noise sources while using array-processing methods. The method is based on the comparison between a recorded wave field per patch (the data vector) and a theoretical (or modeled) wave-field (the replica vector) in the frequency domain. The replica vector is a Green's function at a given frequency, which depends on the following parameters: position (x,y) in 2D-grid and a phase velocity. The noise source location is obtained by matching the data vector with the replica vector using a linear "low-resolution" algorithm or a nonlinear "high-resolution" adaptive processor. These algorithms are defined for each point in the 2D - grid and for each phase velocity. The phase velocity per patch is optimal if it maximizes the processor output. As a result, an ambiguity surface is produced which shows the probability of presence of primary noise sources per patch. The combination of all the maps per patch

  3. Two-Microphone Spatial Filtering Improves Speech Reception for Cochlear-Implant Users in Reverberant Conditions With Multiple Noise Sources

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates a spatial-filtering algorithm as a method to improve speech reception for cochlear-implant (CI) users in reverberant environments with multiple noise sources. The algorithm was designed to filter sounds using phase differences between two microphones situated 1 cm apart in a behind-the-ear hearing-aid capsule. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured using a Coordinate Response Measure for six CI users in 27 listening conditions including each combination of reverberation level (T60 = 0, 270, and 540 ms), number of noise sources (1, 4, and 11), and signal-processing algorithm (omnidirectional response, dipole-directional response, and spatial-filtering algorithm). Noise sources were time-reversed speech segments randomly drawn from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers sentence recordings. Target speech and noise sources were processed using a room simulation method allowing precise control over reverberation times and sound-source locations. The spatial-filtering algorithm was found to provide improvements in SRTs on the order of 6.5 to 11.0 dB across listening conditions compared with the omnidirectional response. This result indicates that such phase-based spatial filtering can improve speech reception for CI users even in highly reverberant conditions with multiple noise sources. PMID:25330772

  4. Two-microphone spatial filtering improves speech reception for cochlear-implant users in reverberant conditions with multiple noise sources.

    PubMed

    Goldsworthy, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates a spatial-filtering algorithm as a method to improve speech reception for cochlear-implant (CI) users in reverberant environments with multiple noise sources. The algorithm was designed to filter sounds using phase differences between two microphones situated 1 cm apart in a behind-the-ear hearing-aid capsule. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured using a Coordinate Response Measure for six CI users in 27 listening conditions including each combination of reverberation level (T60=0, 270, and 540 ms), number of noise sources (1, 4, and 11), and signal-processing algorithm (omnidirectional response, dipole-directional response, and spatial-filtering algorithm). Noise sources were time-reversed speech segments randomly drawn from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers sentence recordings. Target speech and noise sources were processed using a room simulation method allowing precise control over reverberation times and sound-source locations. The spatial-filtering algorithm was found to provide improvements in SRTs on the order of 6.5 to 11.0 dB across listening conditions compared with the omnidirectional response. This result indicates that such phase-based spatial filtering can improve speech reception for CI users even in highly reverberant conditions with multiple noise sources. PMID:25330772

  5. High-repetition-rate and high-photon-flux 70 eV high-harmonic source for coincidence ion imaging of gas-phase molecules.

    PubMed

    Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Shamir, Yariv; Tschnernajew, Maxim; Klas, Robert; Hoffmann, Armin; Tadesse, Getnet K; Klenke, Arno; Gottschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas; Boll, Rebecca; Bomme, Cedric; Dachraoui, Hatem; Erk, Benjamin; Di Fraia, Michele; Horke, Daniel A; Kierspel, Thomas; Mullins, Terence; Przystawik, Andreas; Savelyev, Evgeny; Wiese, Joss; Laarmann, Tim; Küpper, Jochen; Rolles, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Unraveling and controlling chemical dynamics requires techniques to image structural changes of molecules with femtosecond temporal and picometer spatial resolution. Ultrashort-pulse x-ray free-electron lasers have significantly advanced the field by enabling advanced pump-probe schemes. There is an increasing interest in using table-top photon sources enabled by high-harmonic generation of ultrashort-pulse lasers for such studies. We present a novel high-harmonic source driven by a 100 kHz fiber laser system, which delivers 1011 photons/s in a single 1.3 eV bandwidth harmonic at 68.6 eV. The combination of record-high photon flux and high repetition rate paves the way for time-resolved studies of the dissociation dynamics of inner-shell ionized molecules in a coincidence detection scheme. First coincidence measurements on CH3I are shown and it is outlined how the anticipated advancement of fiber laser technology and improved sample delivery will, in the next step, allow pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular dynamics with table-top XUV-photon sources. These table-top sources can provide significantly higher repetition rates than the currently operating free-electron lasers and they offer very high temporal resolution due to the intrinsically small timing jitter between pump and probe pulses. PMID:27505779

  6. Effects of noise from non-traffic-related ambient sources on sleep: review of the literature of 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Omlin, Sarah; Bauer, Georg F; Brink, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature about the effects of specific non-traffic-related ambient noise sources on sleep that appeared in the last two decades. Although everybody is faced with noise of non-traffic and non-industry origin (e.g. sounds made by neighbors, talk, laughter, music, slamming doors, structural equipment, ventilation, heat pumps, noise from animals, barking dogs, outdoor events etc.), little scientific knowledge exists about its effects on sleep. The findings of the present extensive literature search and review are as follows: Only a small number of surveys, laboratory and field studies about mainly neighborhood, leisure and animal noise have been carried out. Most of them indicate that ambient noise has some effect on human sleep. However, a quantitative meta-analysis and comparison is not possible due to the small number of studies available and at times large differences in quality. PMID:21768734

  7. Experimental investigation of the sources of propeller noise due to the ingestion of turbulence at low speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharpf, D. F.; Mueller, T. J.

    1995-02-01

    Noise radiation from a four bladed, 10 in. diameter propeller operating in air at a rotational speed of 3000 RPM and a freestream velocity of 33 ft/s was experimentally analyzed using hot-wire and microphone measurements in an anechoic wind tunnel. Turbulence levels from 0.2 to 5.5% at the propeller location were generated by square-mesh grids upstream of the propeller. Autobicoherence measurements behind the blade trailing edges near the hub and tip showed regions of high phase-coherence between the blade-passage harmonics and the broadband frequencies. Inflow turbulence reduced this coherence. By relating the fluctuation velocities in the propeller wake to the unsteady blade forces, the primary regions of tonal noise generation have been identified as the hub and tip regions, while the midspan has been identified as a region responsible for broadband noise generation. These measurements were complimented by cross-spectra between the propeller wake-flow and the measured sound. The effect of turbulence on the radiated noise level showed an overall increase of 2 dB in the broadband levels for every 1% increase in turbulence. This effect varied for different frequency bands in the acoustic spectrum.

  8. The differential Howland current source with high signal to noise ratio for bioimpedance measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jinzhen; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mengjun; Zhang, Weibo

    2014-05-15

    The stability and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the current source circuit are the important factors contributing to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in bioimpedance measurement system. In this paper we propose a new differential Howland topology current source and evaluate its output characters by simulation and actual measurement. The results include (1) the output current and impedance in high frequencies are stabilized after compensation methods. And the stability of output current in the differential current source circuit (DCSC) is 0.2%. (2) The output impedance of two current circuits below the frequency of 200 KHz is above 1 MΩ, and below 1 MHz the output impedance can arrive to 200 KΩ. Then in total the output impedance of the DCSC is higher than that of the Howland current source circuit (HCSC). (3) The SNR of the DCSC are 85.64 dB and 65 dB in the simulation and actual measurement with 10 KHz, which illustrates that the DCSC effectively eliminates the common mode interference. (4) The maximum load in the DCSC is twice as much as that of the HCSC. Lastly a two-dimensional phantom electrical impedance tomography is well reconstructed with the proposed HCSC. Therefore, the measured performance shows that the DCSC can significantly improve the output impedance, the stability, the maximum load, and the SNR of the measurement system.

  9. The differential Howland current source with high signal to noise ratio for bioimpedance measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinzhen; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Wang, Mengjun; Zhang, Weibo; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2014-05-01

    The stability and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the current source circuit are the important factors contributing to enhance the accuracy and sensitivity in bioimpedance measurement system. In this paper we propose a new differential Howland topology current source and evaluate its output characters by simulation and actual measurement. The results include (1) the output current and impedance in high frequencies are stabilized after compensation methods. And the stability of output current in the differential current source circuit (DCSC) is 0.2%. (2) The output impedance of two current circuits below the frequency of 200 KHz is above 1 MΩ, and below 1 MHz the output impedance can arrive to 200 KΩ. Then in total the output impedance of the DCSC is higher than that of the Howland current source circuit (HCSC). (3) The SNR of the DCSC are 85.64 dB and 65 dB in the simulation and actual measurement with 10 KHz, which illustrates that the DCSC effectively eliminates the common mode interference. (4) The maximum load in the DCSC is twice as much as that of the HCSC. Lastly a two-dimensional phantom electrical impedance tomography is well reconstructed with the proposed HCSC. Therefore, the measured performance shows that the DCSC can significantly improve the output impedance, the stability, the maximum load, and the SNR of the measurement system.

  10. Combustion noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the subject of combustion generated noise is presented. Combustion noise is an important noise source in industrial furnaces and process heaters, turbopropulsion and gas turbine systems, flaring operations, Diesel engines, and rocket engines. The state-of-the-art in combustion noise importance, understanding, prediction and scaling is presented for these systems. The fundamentals and available theories of combustion noise are given. Controversies in the field are discussed and recommendations for future research are made.

  11. Discriminating non-seismic long-period pulses and noise to improve earthquake source inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Takahide; Kumagai, Hiroyuki; Pulido, Nelson; Bonita, Jun; Nakano, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Broadband seismometers produce artifacts resembling long-period pulses (non-seismic pulses) that degrade centroid moment tensor (CMT) estimations based on waveform inversion of broadband seismic records in long-period bands (50-200 s). We propose a method to discriminate non-seismic pulses and long-period noise from seismic signals, which can be applied to automatic CMT inversion analysis. In this method, we calculate source amplitudes as peak-to-peak displacement amplitudes in individual long-period seismic records after each event has been corrected for medium attenuation and geometric spreading and then estimate the ratios of individual source amplitudes to the minimum source amplitude. Because source amplitude ratios for non-seismic pulses tend to be greater than those of the seismic signals, we use seismic records in CMT estimations only if their source amplitude ratios are lower than a threshold value ( R). We tested this method using broadband seismic data from the Philippines and found that reprocessed inversion solutions using this method showed a clear improvement when using R = 11, although focal mechanism estimations were not entirely stable. To investigate the general applicability of this method, we analyzed broadband seismic data from F-net in Japan. Our analysis indicated that source amplitude ratios in F-net data ranged up to about 20, indicating that the threshold value may be dependent on station density. Given that F-net is one of the highest density networks in the world, we may assume that a threshold value between 10 and 20 is appropriate for application of our method for most regional broadband networks. Our synthetic tests indicated that source amplitude ratios can be as high as 103, although observed ratios are only within the range 10-20. This suggests that we happened to observe only events having focal mechanisms with source amplitude ratios of 10-20. Alternatively, these high source amplitude ratios can be explained by distortion of

  12. Comparison of Methods for Identifying Noise Sources in Far-Field Acoustic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Andrew; Lewalle, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Three different methods of extracting intermittent wave packets from unstructured background within complex time series signals were analyzed and compared. The algorithms are denoted ``cross correlation,'' ``denoising,'' and ``TFLE (Time-Frequency-Lag event)'' methods respectively. All three methods utilize Mexican Hat or Morlet wavelets for the transformation of time domain signals into time-frequency domain signals. Within the denoising and cross correlation algorithms, events are identified through comparison of high energy excerpts of each signal captured by individual far-field microphones, while the TFLE algorithm simply defines events by their contributions to positive correlation values. The goal of this analysis is to quantify the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods. The results lend themselves to determining the validity of these methods as noise source identification algorithms to be used in jet noise characterization. This work is supported in part by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL; and by the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering REU Program at SU.

  13. Surface Carrier Dynamics on Semiconductor Studied with Femtosecond Core-Level Photoelectron Spectroscopy Using Extreme Ultraviolet High-Order Harmonic Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, K.; Tsunoi, T.; Kato, K.; Nakano, H.; Nishikawa, T.; Gotoh, H.; Tateno, K.; Sogawa, T.

    2013-03-01

    We have used a femtosecond time-resolved core-level surface PES system based on the 92-eV harmonic source to study the surface carrier dynamics that induces the transient SPV on semiconductor surfaces. We clarified the temporal evolution of the transient SPV characterized by the time of the photo-generated carrier separation and recombination. This result demonstrates the potential of this technique for clarifying the initial stage of the surface carrier dynamics after photoexcitation.

  14. Ambient noise as the new source for urban engineering seismology and earthquake engineering: a case study from Beijing metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lanbo; Chen, Qi-fu; Wang, Weijun; Rohrbach, Eric

    2014-02-01

    In highly populated urban centers, traditional seismic survey sources can no longer be properly applied due to restrictions in modern civilian life styles. The ambient vibration noise, including both microseisms and microtremor, though are generally weak but available anywhere and anytime, can be an ideal supplementary source for conducting seismic surveys for engineering seismology and earthquake engineering. This is fundamentally supported by advanced digital signal processing techniques for effectively extracting the useful information out from the noise. Thus, it can be essentially regarded as a passive seismic method. In this paper we first make a brief survey of the ambient vibration noise, followed by a quick summary of digital signal processing for passive seismic surveys. Then the applications of ambient noise in engineering seismology and earthquake engineering for urban settings are illustrated with examples from Beijing metropolitan area. For engineering seismology the example is the assessment of site effect in a large area via microtremor observations. For earthquake engineering the example is for structural characterization of a typical reinforced concrete high-rise building using background vibration noise. By showing these examples we argue that the ambient noise can be treated as a new source that is economical, practical, and particularly valuable to engineering seismology and earthquake engineering projects for seismic hazard mitigation in urban areas.

  15. Exploiting continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (CSLDV) in time domain correlation methods for noise source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiariotti, Paolo; Martarelli, Milena; Revel, Gian Marco

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposes the use of continuous scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (CSLDV) in time domain correlation techniques that aim at characterizing the structure-borne contributions of the noise emission of a mechanical system. The time domain correlation technique presented in this paper is based on the use of FIR (finite impulse response) filters obtained from the vibro-acoustic transfer matrix when vibration data are collected by laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV) exploited in continuous scan mode (CSLDV). The advantages, especially in terms of source decorrelation capabilities, related to the use of CSLDV for such purpose, with respect to standard discrete scan (SLDV), are discussed throughout the paper. To validate this approach, vibro-acoustic measurements were performed on a planetary gear motor for home appliances. The analysis of results is also supported by a simulation.

  16. Physics of the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Perez, R.B.; Mattingly, J.K.

    1997-02-01

    The {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis method is a versatile measurements tool that has been applied to measurements for initial loading of reactors, quality assurance of reactor fuel elements, fuel processing facilities, fuel reprocessing facilities, fuel storage facilities, zero-power testing of reactors, verification of calculational methods, process monitoring, characterization of storage vaults, and nuclear weapons identification. This method`s broad range of application is due to the wide variety of time- and frequency domain signatures, each with unique properties, obtained from the measurement. The following parameters are obtained from this measurement: average detector count rates, detector multiplicities, detector autocorrelations, cross-correlation between detectors, detector autopower spectral densities, cross-power spectral densities between detectors, coherences, and ratios of spectral densities. All of these measured parameters can also be calculated using the MCNP-DSP Monte Carlo code. This paper presents a review of the time-domain signatures obtained from this measurement.

  17. Reduction of beam current noise in the FNAL magnetron ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, D. S. Karns, P. R. Tan, C. Y.

    2015-04-08

    The new FNAL Injector Line with a circular dimple magnetron ion source has been operational since December of 2012. Since the new injector came on line there have been variations in the H- beam current flattop observed near the downstream end of the Linac. Several different cathode geometries including a hollow cathode suggested by Dudnikov [1] were tried. Previous studies also showed that different mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen had an effect on beam current noise [2]. We expanded on those studies by trying mixtures ranging from (0.25% nitrogen, 99.75% hydrogen) to (3% nitrogen, 97% hydrogen). The results of these studies in our test stand will be presented in this paper.

  18. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  19. Current Background Noise Sources and Levels in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel: A Status Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Christopher S.; Jaeger, Stephen; Soderman, Paul; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Background noise measurements were made of the acoustic environment in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel (40x80) at NASA Ames Research Center. The measurements were acquired subsequent to the 40x80 Aeroacoustic Modernization Project, which was undertaken to improve the anechoic characteristics of the 40x80's closed test section as well as reduce the levels of background noise in the facility. The resulting 40x80 anechoic environment was described by Soderman et. al., and the current paper describes the resulting 40x80 background noise, discusses the sources of the noise, and draws comparisons to previous 40x80 background noise levels measurements. At low wind speeds or low frequencies, the 40x80 background noise is dominated by the fan drive system. To obtain the lowest fan drive noise for a given tunnel condition, it is possible in the 40x80 to reduce the fans' rotational speed and adjust the fans' blade pitch, as described by Schmidtz et. al. This idea is not new, but has now been operationally implemented with modifications for increased power at low rotational speeds. At low to mid-frequencies and at higher wind speeds, the dominant noise mechanism was thought to be caused by the surface interface of the previous test section floor acoustic lining. In order to reduce this noise mechanism, the new test section floor lining was designed to resist the pumping of flow in and out of the space between the grating slats required to support heavy equipment. In addition, the lining/flow interface over the entire test section was designed to be smoother and quieter than the previous design. At high wind speeds or high frequencies, the dominant source of background noise in the 40x80 is believed to be caused by the response of the in-flow microphone probes (required by the nature of the closed test section) to the fluctuations in the freestream flow. The resulting background noise levels are also different for probes of various

  20. CaF{sub 2} ablation plumes as a source of CaF molecules for harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Oujja, M.; Nalda, R. de; Castillejo, M.; Lopez-Arias, M.; Torres, R.; Marangos, J. P.

    2010-04-15

    Generation of low-order harmonics (third and fifth) of the fundamental radiation of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, pulse 15 ns) was observed in a CaF{sub 2} laser ablation plume. The ablation process is triggered by a second Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 or 266 nm. In the scheme employed, the fundamental laser beam propagates parallel to the target surface at controllable distance and temporal delay, allowing to the probing of different regions of the freely expanding plume. The intensity of the harmonics is shown to decrease rapidly as the distance to the target is increased, and for each distance, an optimum time delay between the ablating laser pulse and the fundamental beam is found. In situ diagnosis of the plume by optical emission spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence serves to correlate the observed harmonic behavior with the temporally and spatially resolved composition and velocity of flight of species in the plume. It is concluded that harmonics are selectively generated by CaF species through a two-photon resonantly enhanced sum-mixing process exploiting the (B {sup 2{Sigma}+}-X {sup 2{Sigma}+}, {Delta}{nu}=0) transition of the molecule in the region of 530 nm. In this work polar molecules have been shown to be the dominating species for harmonic generation in an ablation plume. Implications of these results for the generation of high harmonics in strongly polar molecules which can be aligned in the ablation plasma are discussed.

  1. Rotor noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.

    1991-01-01

    The physical characteristics and sources of rotorcraft noise as they exist today are presented. Emphasis is on helicopter-like vehicles, that is, on rotorcraft in nonaxial flight. The mechanisms of rotor noise are reviewed in a simple physical manner for the most dominant sources of rotorcraft noise. With simple models, the characteristic time- and frequency-domain features of these noise sources are presented for idealized cases. Full-scale data on several rotorcraft are then reviewed to allow for the easy identification of the type and extent of the radiating noise. Methods and limitations of using scaled models to test for several noise sources are subsequently presented. Theoretical prediction methods are then discussed and compared with experimental data taken under very controlled conditions. Finally, some promising noise reduction technology is reviewed.

  2. Further studies of static to flight effects on fan tone noise using inlet distortion control for source identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodder, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Current experimental investigations have linked static inflow distortion phenomena such as the ground vortex, atmospheric turbulence, and teststand structure interference to the generation of fan tone noise at the blade passing frequency. Since such distortions do not exist in flight, it is important to remove them from the static test environment and thereby improve the static-to-flight tone-noise correlation. In the course of providing evidence for this position, a recent investigation used a distortion control inlet with a modern day turbofan engine to assess atmospheric turbulence effects. Although the initial results were encouraging, they were incomplete. The present investigation continues this work and shows more completely the effect of atmospheric turbulence on tone-noise generation. Further, use is made of the distortion control inlet to identify other competing tone-noise sources in the test engine such as a rotor-core stator interaction which was confirmed by engine modifications.

  3. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Simple Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel, L.; Brown, Clifford, A.; Walker, Bruce, E.

    2012-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the Langley Research Center s 14- by 22-Foot wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full three-dimensional 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of candidate engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft and to provide a database for shielding code validation. A range of frequencies, and a parametric study of modes were generated from exhaust and inlet nacelle configurations. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular to the axis of the nacelle (in its 0 orientation) and three planes parallel were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed five sweeps, for a total span of 160 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Level, and integrated Power Levels are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct modal structure.

  4. Ground motion in the presence of complex topography: Earthquake and ambient noise sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartzell, Stephen; Meremonte, Mark; Ramírez-Guzmán, Leonardo; McNamara, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of topography on ground motion, eight seismic recorders were deployed for a period of one year over Poverty Ridge on the east side of the San Francisco Bay Area, California. This location is desirable because of its proximity to local earthquake sources and the significant topographic relief of the array (439 m). Topographic amplification is evaluated as a function of frequency using a variety of methods, including reference‐site‐based spectral ratios and single‐station horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios using both shear waves from earthquakes and ambient noise. Field observations are compared with the predicted ground motion from an accurate digital model of the topography and a 3D local velocity model. Amplification factors from the theoretical calculations are consistent with observations. The fundamental resonance of the ridge is prominently observed in the spectra of data and synthetics; however, higher‐frequency peaks are also seen primarily for sources in line with the major axis of the ridge, perhaps indicating higher resonant modes. Excitations of lateral ribs off of the main ridge are also seen at frequencies consistent with their dimensions. The favored directions of resonance are shown to be transverse to the major axes of the topographic features.

  5. Detailed study of an efficient blue laser source by second-harmonic generation in a semimonolithic cavity for the cooling of strontium atoms.

    PubMed

    Klappauf, Bruce G; Bidel, Yannick; Wilkowski, David; Chanelière, Thierry; Kaiser, Robin

    2004-04-20

    We have constructed a blue laser source consisting of an amplified, grating tuned diode laser that is frequency doubled by a KNbO3 crystal in a compact standing wave cavity and produces as much as 200 mW of internal second-harmonic power. We have analyzed the unusual characteristics of this standing wave cavity to clarify the advantages and disadvantages of this configuration as an alternative to a ring cavity for second-harmonic generation. We emphasize its efficiency and stability and the fact that it has an inherent walk-off compensation, similar to twin crystal configurations. We demonstrate its utility for laser cooling and trapping of earth alkalis by stabilizing the laser to the 461-nm transition of strontium, using a heat pipe, and then forming a magneto-optic trap of strontium from a Zeeman-slowed atomic beam. PMID:15119621

  6. Potential Uses of Anthropogenic Noise as a Source of Information in Animal Sensory and Communication Systems.

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda; Deecke, Volker; Götz, Thomas; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Although current research on the impact of anthropogenic noise has focused on the detrimental effects, there is a range of ways by which animals could benefit from increased noise levels. Here we discuss two potential uses of anthropogenic noise. First, local variations in the ambient-noise field could be used to perceive objects and navigate within an environment. Second, introduced sound cues could be used as a signal for prey detection or orientation and navigation. Although the disadvantages of noise pollution will likely outweigh any positive effects, it is important to acknowledge that such changes may benefit some species. PMID:26611074

  7. Estimating attenuation and propagation of noise bands from a distant source using the lookup program and data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Michael J.

    1994-10-01

    Unavoidable noise generated by military activities can disturb the surrounding community and become a source of complaint. Military planners must quickly and accurately predict noise levels at distant points from various sound sources to manage noisy operations on a daily basis. This study developed the Lookup computer program and data base to provide rapid estimates of outdoor noise levels from a variety of sound sources. Lookup accesses a data base of archived results (requiring about 5 MB disk space) from typical situations rather than performing fresh calculations for each consultation. Initial timing tests show that Lookup can predict the sound levels from a noise source at distances up to 20 km in 1 second on a DOS-compatible personal computer (PC). This report includes the Lookup program source code, and describes the required input for the program, the contents of the archival data base, and the program output. Lookup was written to compile with MS-Fortran, and will run under DOS on any IBM compatible with 640k random access memory. Lookup also conforms to ANSI 1978 standard Fortran and will run under the Unix operating system.

  8. Noise sources and improved performance of a mid-wave infrared uncooled silicon carbide optical photodetector.

    PubMed

    Lim, Geunsik; Manzur, Tariq; Kar, Aravinda

    2014-12-20

    An uncooled photon detector is fabricated for the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) wavelength of 4.21 μm by doping an n-type 4H-SiC substrate with gallium using a laser doping technique. The dopant creates a p-type energy level of 0.3 eV, which is the energy of a photon corresponding to the MWIR wavelength 4.21 μm. This energy level was confirmed by optical absorption spectroscopy. The detection mechanism involves photoexcitation of carriers by the photons of this wavelength absorbed in the semiconductor. The resulting changes in the carrier densities at different energy levels modify the refractive index and, therefore, the reflectance of the semiconductor. This change in the reflectance constitutes the optical response of the detector, which can be probed remotely with a laser beam such as a He-Ne laser and the power of the reflected probe beam can be measured with a conventional laser power meter. The noise mechanisms in the probe laser, silicon carbide MWIR detector, and laser power meter affect the performance of the detector in regards to aspects such as the responsivity, noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD), and detectivity. For the MWIR wavelengths of 4.21 and 4.63 μm, the experimental detectivity of the optical photodetector of this study was found to be 1.07×10(10)  cm·Hz(1/2)/W, while the theoretical value was 1.11×10(10)  cm·Hz(1/2)/W. The values of NETD are 404 and 15.5 mK based on experimental data for an MWIR radiation source with a temperature of 25°C and theoretical calculations, respectively. PMID:25608189

  9. Noise emission of civil and military aero-engines. Sources of generation and measures for attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieb, H.; Heinig, K.

    1986-09-01

    It is shown that noise reduction on high bypass ratio turbofans for civil airliners is well established. The noise levels achieved meet the internationally agreed regulations (FAR 36). The same holds true for large military transport aircraft. Helicopter noise is caused essentially by the main and tail rotors. Noise reduction on afterburner and dry engines for combat and strike aircraft, which represent the major noise annoyance to the public, is very difficult because: high specific thrust is mandatory for aircraft performance and effectiveness; jet noise with and without afterburning is predominant; and the design of the reheat section and final (variable) nozzle in practice precludes the application of known concepts for jet noise attenuation in dry and reheated operation.

  10. Characterization of noise sources for two generations of computed radiography systems using powder and crystalline photostimulable phosphors.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Honey, Ian D

    2007-08-01

    The performances of two generations of computed radiography (CR) were tested and compared in terms of resolution and noise characteristics. The main aim was to characterize and quantify the noise sources in the images. The systems tested were (1) Agfa CR 25.0, a flying spot reader with powder phosphor image plates (MD 40.0); and (2) the Agfa DX-S, a line-scanning CR reader with needle crystal phosphor image plates (HD 5.0). For both systems, the standard metrics of presampled modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured using standard radiation quality RQA5 as defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission. The various noise sources contributing to the NNPS were separated by using knowledge of their relationship with air kerma, MTF, absorption efficiency and antialiasing filters. The DX-S MTF was superior compared with the CR 25.0. The maximum difference in MTF between the DX-S scan and CR 25.0 subscan directions was 0.13 at 1.3 mm(-1). For a nominal detector air kerma of 4 microGy, the peak DQE of the DX-S was 43 (+/-3)%, which was over double that of the CR 25.0 of 18 (+/-2)%. The additive electronic noise was negligible on the CR 25.0 but calculated to be constant 3.4 x 10(-7) (+/-0.4 x 10(-7)) mm2 at 3.9 microGy on the DX-S. The DX-S has improved image quality compared with a traditional flying spot reader. The separation of the noise sources indicates that the improvements in DQE of the DX-S are due not only to the higher quantum, efficiency and MTF, but also the lower structure, secondary quantum, and excess noise. PMID:17879798

  11. Characterization of noise sources for two generations of computed radiography systems using powder and crystalline photostimulable phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, Alistair; Honey, Ian D.

    2007-08-15

    The performances of two generations of computed radiography (CR) were tested and compared in terms of resolution and noise characteristics. The main aim was to characterize and quantify the noise sources in the images. The systems tested were (1) Agfa CR 25.0, a flying spot reader with powder phosphor image plates (MD 40.0); and (2) the Agfa DX-S, a line-scanning CR reader with needle crystal phosphor image plates (HD 5.0). For both systems, the standard metrics of presampled modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectra (NNPS) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were measured using standard radiation quality RQA5 as defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission. The various noise sources contributing to the NNPS were separated by using knowledge of their relationship with air kerma, MTF, absorption efficiency and antialiasing filters. The DX-S MTF was superior compared with the CR 25.0. The maximum difference in MTF between the DX-S scan and CR 25.0 subscan directions was 0.13 at 1.3 mm{sup -1}. For a nominal detector air kerma of 4 {mu}Gy, the peak DQE of the DX-S was 43({+-}3)%, which was over double that of the CR 25.0 of 18({+-}2)%. The additive electronic noise was negligible on the CR 25.0 but calculated to be constant 3.4x10{sup -7} ({+-}0.4x10{sup -7}) mm{sup 2} at 3.9 {mu}Gy on the DX-S. The DX-S has improved image quality compared with a traditional flying spot reader. The separation of the noise sources indicates that the improvements in DQE of the DX-S are due not only to the higher quantum, efficiency and MTF, but also the lower structure, secondary quantum, and excess noise.

  12. Sources, paths, and concepts for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Wilby, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is investigating the feasibility of modifying the 4x7m Wind Tunnel at the Langley Research Center to make it suitable for a variety of aeroacoustic testing applications, most notably model helicopter rotors. The amount of noise reduction required to meet NASA's goal for test section background noise was determined, the predominant sources and paths causing the background noise were quantified, and trade-off studies between schemes to reduce fan noise at the source and those to attenuate the sound generated in the circuit between the sources and the test section were carried out. An extensive data base is also presented on circuit sources and paths.

  13. A synthesis procedure for pass-by noise of automotive vehicles employing numerically evaluated source-receiver transfer functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijssen, Jacobus; Hallez, Raphael; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim

    2013-07-01

    A synthesis procedure is presented for the prediction of the sound pressure level (SPL) of passenger vehicles in a pass-by noise test. The proposed synthesis procedure translates the noise from the sources in the moving vehicle to the receivers in two steps. Firstly, the steady-state receiver contributions of the sources are computed as they would arise from a number of static vehicle positions along the drive path. Secondly, these contributions are then combined into a single transient signal from a moving vehicle for each source-receiver pair by means of a travel time correction. The multiple source-receiver transfer functions are numerically evaluated by employing the Fast Multipole Boundary Element Method (FMBEM), which allows for pass-by noise SPL estimation on the basis of the CAD/CAE computer models that are available early in the design stage. Results are presented that show the accuracy of the synthesis procedure and that show the ability of the combination of the synthesis procedure and numerically evaluated transfer functions to predict pass-by noise SPL for a realistic case in an evaluation time of less than a day.

  14. Application of the Baseline Rotonet system to the prediction of helicopter tone noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Weir, D. S.; Tracy, M. B.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of the baseline Rotonet system designed to predict helicopter noise are analyzed. The modules of the system utilized for main and tail rotor geometry and blade section aerodynamic characteristics, for analyses, and for source-to-observer geometry, and atmospheric and ground effects calculations are described; a diagram of the system is provided. The Rotonet system produces axial force, tone noise, and sound pressure level information and a one third octave spectrum related to rotor tone noise and broadband noise sources. Main rotor noise predictions are compared with flight data. It is observed that both sets of data reveal increase loading on the advancing side and decrease loading on the retreating side. The tone noise and sound pressure levels for the first and second harmonics correlate well with the flight data; however, there is only fair agreement for the third harmonics of the sound pressure level. Analysis of the spectra display lower noise levels for higher altitudes and lower speeds. It is noted that the baseline Rotonet system is applicable for predicting performance and noise signatures for the lower harmonics. A phase II Rotonet system for evaluating higher harmonics is being developed.

  15. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation.

    PubMed

    Ware, Heidi E; McClure, Christopher J W; Carlisle, Jay D; Barber, Jesse R

    2015-09-29

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a "phantom road" using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  16. A phantom road experiment reveals traffic noise is an invisible source of habitat degradation

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Heidi E.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Carlisle, Jay D.; Barber, Jesse R.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research demonstrate that roads impact wildlife and suggest traffic noise as a primary cause of population declines near roads. We created a “phantom road” using an array of speakers to apply traffic noise to a roadless landscape, directly testing the effect of noise alone on an entire songbird community during autumn migration. Thirty-one percent of the bird community avoided the phantom road. For individuals that stayed despite the noise, overall body condition decreased by a full SD and some species showed a change in ability to gain body condition when exposed to traffic noise during migratory stopover. We conducted complementary laboratory experiments that implicate foraging-vigilance behavior as one mechanism driving this pattern. Our results suggest that noise degrades habitat that is otherwise suitable, and that the presence of a species does not indicate the absence of an impact. PMID:26324924

  17. Seismicity at Old Faithful Geyser: an isolated source of geothermal noise and possible analogue of volcanic seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    1984-09-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., is a relatively isolated source of seismic noise and exhibits seismic behavior similar to that observed at many volcanoes, including "bubblequakes" that resemble B-type "earthquakes", harmonic tremor before and during eruptions, and periods of seismic quiet prior to eruptions. Although Old Faithful differs from volcanoes in that the conduit is continuously open, that rock-fracturing is not a process responsible for seismicity, and that the erupting fluid is inviscid H 2O rather than viscous magma, there are also remarkable similarities in the problems of heat and mass recharge to the system, in the eruption dynamics, and in the seismicity. Water rises irregularly into the immediate reservoir of Old Faithful as recharge occurs, a fact that suggests that there are two enlarged storage regions: one between 18 and 22 m (the base of the immediate reservoir) and one between about 10 and 12 m depth. Transport of heat from hot water or steam entering at the base of the recharging water column into cooler overlying water occurs by migration of steam bubbles upward and their collapse in the cooler water, and by episodes of convective overturn. An eruption occurs when the temperature of the near-surface water exceeds the boiling point if the entire water column is sufficiently close to the boiling curve that the propagation of pressure-release waves (rarefactions) down the column can bring the liquid water onto the boiling curve. The process of conversion of the liquid water in the conduit at the onset of an eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture takes on the order of 30 s. The seismicity is directly related to the sequence of filling and heating during the recharge cycle, and to the fluid mechanics of the eruption. Short (0.2-0.3 s), monochromatic, high-frequency events (20-60 Hz) resembling unsustained harmonic tremor and, in some instances, B-type volcanic earthquakes, occur when exploding or imploding

  18. Seismicity at Old Faithful Geyser: an isolated source of geothermal noise and possible analogue of volcanic seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kieffer, S.W.

    1984-01-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., is a relatively isolated source of seismic noise and exhibits seismic behavior similar to that observed at many volcanoes, including "bubblequakes" that resemble B-type "earthquakes", harmonic tremor before and during eruptions, and periods of seismic quiet prior to eruptions. Although Old Faithful differs from volcanoes in that the conduit is continuously open, that rock-fracturing is not a process responsible for seismicity, and that the erupting fluid is inviscid H2O rather than viscous magma, there are also remarkable similarities in the problems of heat and mass recharge to the system, in the eruption dynamics, and in the seismicity. Water rises irregularly into the immediate reservoir of Old Faithful as recharge occurs, a fact that suggests that there are two enlarged storage regions: one between 18 and 22 m (the base of the immediate reservoir) and one between about 10 and 12 m depth. Transport of heat from hot water or steam entering at the base of the recharging water column into cooler overlying water occurs by migration of steam bubbles upward and their collapse in the cooler water, and by episodes of convective overturn. An eruption occurs when the temperature of the near-surface water exceeds the boiling point if the entire water column is sufficiently close to the boiling curve that the propagation of pressure-release waves (rarefactions) down the column can bring the liquid water onto the boiling curve. The process of conversion of the liquid water in the conduit at the onset of an eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture takes on the order of 30 s. The seismicity is directly related to the sequence of filling and heating during the recharge cycle, and to the fluid mechanics of the eruption. Short (0.2-0.3 s), monochromatic, high-frequency events (20-60 Hz) resembling unsustained harmonic tremor and, in some instances, B-type volcanic earthquakes, occur when exploding or imploding

  19. Effects of flight on noise radiated from convected ring sources in coaxial dual flow. Part 2: The noise from heated jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, R.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of flight on noise from heated jets are discussed. The effects of the additionally, extraneously-generated dipole and simple source terms which arise as a result of the density gradients across the fluid interfaces were incorporated. The coaxial flows with inverted profiles are shown to be quieter than the conventional profiles; however, the benefit of noise reduction at higher outer-to-inner area ratios is totally offset as the inverted profile incurs a significant massloss and thrust-loss. Amongst all the possible coaxial configurations when on of the coaxial streams is heated-conventional profile (CP), inverted profile (IP) and the variable stream control engine (VSCE) cycle-and at constant massflow and thrust, a VSCE-cycle is the most desirable and the best possible engine cycle inasmuch as it provides over more than 18.0 dB reduction in SPL (as compared against noise from a CP-cycle) at all angles, both statically and in flight, for area ratios Sigma 0.25.

  20. Improved configuration and reduction of phase noise in a narrow linewidth ultrawideband optical RF source.

    PubMed

    Grund, David W; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J; Murakowski, Janusz; Prather, Dennis W

    2014-08-15

    In this Letter, we report on the improved configuration of a widely tunable optical RF generation system, particularly for the generation of low-frequency RF, as well as the reduction of phase noise in that same system. Using an amplitude modulator, a simplified system design was demonstrated with fewer components and improved phase noise performance, especially at RF frequencies below ∼36 GHz. Excess phase noise due to acoustic vibrations of the optical fibers was also successfully eliminated by mechanical isolation. A minimum phase noise of -124 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset was demonstrated at 4 GHz. PMID:25121844

  1. Active Control of Fan Noise: Feasibility Study. Volume 6; Theoretical Analysis for Coupling of Active Noise Control Actuator Ring Sources to an Annular Duct with Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an analytical model for the coupling of active noise control (ANC) piston-type actuators that are mounted flush to the inner and outer walls of an annular duct to the modes in the duct generated by the actuator motion. The analysis will be used to couple the ANC actuators to the modal analysis propagation computer program for the annular duct, to predict the effects of active suppression of fan-generated engine noise sources. This combined program will then be available to assist in the design or evaluation of ANC systems in fan engine annular exhaust ducts. An analysis has been developed to predict the modes generated in an annular duct due to the coupling of flush-mounted ring actuators on the inner and outer walls of the duct. The analysis has been combined with a previous analysis for the coupling of modes to a cylindrical duct in a FORTRAN computer program to perform the computations. The method includes the effects of uniform mean flow in the duct. The program can be used for design or evaluation purposes for active noise control hardware for turbofan engines. Predictions for some sample cases modeled after the geometry of the NASA Lewis ANC Fan indicate very efficient coupling in both the inlet and exhaust ducts for the m = 6 spinning mode at frequencies where only a single radial mode is cut-on. Radial mode content in higher order cut-off modes at the source plane and the required actuator displacement amplitude to achieve 110 dB SPL levels in the desired mode were predicted. Equivalent cases with and without flow were examined for the cylindrical and annular geometry, and little difference was found for a duct flow Mach number of 0.1. The actuator ring coupling program will be adapted as a subroutine to the cylindrical duct modal analysis and the exhaust duct modal analysis. This will allow the fan source to be defined in terms of characteristic modes at the fan source plane and predict the propagation to the

  2. Nonidentifiability of the Source of Intrinsic Noise in Gene Expression from Single-Burst Data

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Piers J.; Stumpf, Michael P. H.; Stark, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, experimental data on the fluctuations in gene activity between individual cells and within the same cell over time have confirmed that gene expression is a “noisy” process. This variation is in part due to the small number of molecules taking part in some of the key reactions that are involved in gene expression. One of the consequences of this is that protein production often occurs in bursts, each due to a single promoter or transcription factor binding event. Recently, the distribution of the number of proteins produced in such bursts has been experimentally measured, offering a unique opportunity to study the relative importance of different sources of noise in gene expression. Here, we provide a derivation of the theoretical probability distribution of these bursts for a wide variety of different models of gene expression. We show that there is a good fit between our theoretical distribution and that obtained from two different published experimental datasets. We then prove that, irrespective of the details of the model, the burst size distribution is always geometric and hence determined by a single parameter. Many different combinations of the biochemical rates for the constituent reactions of both transcription and translation will therefore lead to the same experimentally observed burst size distribution. It is thus impossible to identify different sources of fluctuations purely from protein burst size data or to use such data to estimate all of the model parameters. We explore methods of inferring these values when additional types of experimental data are available. PMID:18846201

  3. Static and wind tunnel near-field/far-field jet noise measurements from model scale single-flow baseline and suppressor nozzles. Volume 1: Noise source locations and extrapolation of static free-field jet noise data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaeck, C. L.

    1976-01-01

    A test was conducted in the Boeing Large Anechoic Chamber to determine static jet noise source locations of six baseline and suppressor nozzle models, and establish a technique for extrapolating near field data into the far field. The test covered nozzle pressure ratios from 1.44 to 2.25 and jet velocities from 412 to 594 m/s at a total temperature of 844 K.

  4. 1% rms amplitude noise from a 30 fs continuum based source tunable from 800 to 1250 nm.

    PubMed

    Resan, Bojan; Kurmulis, Sarah; Markovic, Vesna; Weingarten, Kurt J

    2016-06-27

    We present amplitude noise characterization of a low-cost continuum source tunable from 800 to 1250 nm, with the pulse duration of 30 fs, and average output power up to 140 mW at 80 MHz pulse repetition rate. The system is based on a SESAM-modelocked, solid-state Yb tungstate laser plus spectral broadening via a microstructured fiber followed by pulse compression with a simple prism compressor. The measured RMS amplitude noise of 1.2 to 2.5% in the whole tunable range is comparable to the modelocked oscillators. Additionally, we show an excellent agreement between simulated and the experimentally measured spectra. PMID:27410646

  5. Sound Sources Identified in High-Speed Jets by Correlating Flow Density Fluctuations With Far-Field Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panda, Jayanta; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Noise sources in high-speed jets were identified by directly correlating flow density fluctuation (cause) to far-field sound pressure fluctuation (effect). The experimental study was performed in a nozzle facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in support of NASA s initiative to reduce the noise emitted by commercial airplanes. Previous efforts to use this correlation method have failed because the tools for measuring jet turbulence were intrusive. In the present experiment, a molecular Rayleigh-scattering technique was used that depended on laser light scattering by gas molecules in air. The technique allowed accurate measurement of air density fluctuations from different points in the plume. The study was conducted in shock-free, unheated jets of Mach numbers 0.95, 1.4, and 1.8. The turbulent motion, as evident from density fluctuation spectra was remarkably similar in all three jets, whereas the noise sources were significantly different. The correlation study was conducted by keeping a microphone at a fixed location (at the peak noise emission angle of 30 to the jet axis and 50 nozzle diameters away) while moving the laser probe volume from point to point in the flow. The following figure shows maps of the nondimensional coherence value measured at different Strouhal frequencies ([frequency diameter]/jet speed) in the supersonic Mach 1.8 and subsonic Mach 0.95 jets. The higher the coherence, the stronger the source was.

  6. A de-noising algorithm based on wavelet threshold-exponential adaptive window width-fitting for ground electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yanju; Li, Dongsheng; Yu, Mingmei; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Qiong; Lin, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The ground electrical source airborne transient electromagnetic system (GREATEM) on an unmanned aircraft enjoys considerable prospecting depth, lateral resolution and detection efficiency, etc. In recent years it has become an important technical means of rapid resources exploration. However, GREATEM data are extremely vulnerable to stationary white noise and non-stationary electromagnetic noise (sferics noise, aircraft engine noise and other human electromagnetic noises). These noises will cause degradation of the imaging quality for data interpretation. Based on the characteristics of the GREATEM data and major noises, we propose a de-noising algorithm utilizing wavelet threshold method and exponential adaptive window width-fitting. Firstly, the white noise is filtered in the measured data using the wavelet threshold method. Then, the data are segmented using data window whose step length is even logarithmic intervals. The data polluted by electromagnetic noise are identified within each window based on the discriminating principle of energy detection, and the attenuation characteristics of the data slope are extracted. Eventually, an exponential fitting algorithm is adopted to fit the attenuation curve of each window, and the data polluted by non-stationary electromagnetic noise are replaced with their fitting results. Thus the non-stationary electromagnetic noise can be effectively removed. The proposed algorithm is verified by the synthetic and real GREATEM signals. The results show that in GREATEM signal, stationary white noise and non-stationary electromagnetic noise can be effectively filtered using the wavelet threshold-exponential adaptive window width-fitting algorithm, which enhances the imaging quality.

  7. The 154 MHz radio sky observed by the Murchison Widefield Array: noise, confusion, and first source count analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, T. M. O.; Jackson, C. A.; Offringa, A. R.; Ekers, R. D.; Wayth, R. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Seymour, N.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-07-01

    We analyse a 154 MHz image made from a 12 h observation with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) to determine the noise contribution and behaviour of the source counts down to 30 mJy. The MWA image has a bandwidth of 30.72 MHz, a field-of-view within the half-power contour of the primary beam of 570 deg2, a resolution of 2.3 arcmin and contains 13 458 sources above 5σ. The rms noise in the centre of the image is 4-5 mJy beam-1. The MWA counts are in excellent agreement with counts from other instruments and are the most precise ever derived in the flux density range 30-200 mJy due to the sky area covered. Using the deepest available source count data, we find that the MWA image is affected by sidelobe confusion noise at the ≈3.5 mJy beam-1 level, due to incompletely peeled and out-of-image sources, and classical confusion becomes apparent at ≈1.7 mJy beam-1. This work highlights that (i) further improvements in ionospheric calibration and deconvolution imaging techniques would be required to probe to the classical confusion limit and (ii) the shape of low-frequency source counts, including any flattening towards lower flux densities, must be determined from deeper ≈150 MHz surveys as it cannot be directly inferred from higher frequency data.

  8. The 154 MHz radio sky observed by the Murchison Widefield Array: noise, confusion and first source count analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzen, T. M. O.; Jackson, C. A.; Offringa, A. R.; Ekers, R. D.; Wayth, R. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bowman, J. D.; Briggs, F.; Cappallo, R. J.; Deshpande, A. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Hazelton, B. J.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; McWhirter, S. R.; Mitchell, D. A.; Morales, M. F.; Morgan, E.; Morgan, J.; Oberoi, D.; Ord, S. M.; Prabu, T.; Seymour, N.; Shankar, N. Udaya; Srivani, K. S.; Subrahmanyan, R.; Tingay, S. J.; Trott, C. M.; Webster, R. L.; Williams, A.; Williams, C. L.

    2016-04-01

    We analyse a 154 MHz image made from a 12 h observation with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) to determine the noise contribution and behaviour of the source counts down to 30 mJy. The MWA image has a bandwidth of 30.72 MHz, a field-of-view within the half-power contour of the primary beam of 570deg2, a resolution of 2.3 arcmin and contains 13,458 sources above 5σ. The rms noise in the centre of the image is 4 - 5mJy/beam. The MWA counts are in excellent agreement with counts from other instruments and are the most precise ever derived in the flux density range 30-200 mJy due to the sky area covered. Using the deepest available source count data, we find that the MWA image is affected by sidelobe confusion noise at the ≈3.5 mJy/beam level, due to incompletely-peeled and out-of-image sources, and classical confusion becomes apparent at ≈1.7 mJy/beam. This work highlights that (i) further improvements in ionospheric calibration and deconvolution imaging techniques would be required to probe to the classical confusion limit and (ii) the shape of low-frequency source counts, including any flattening towards lower flux densities, must be determined from deeper ≈150 MHz surveys as it cannot be directly inferred from higher frequency data.

  9. Resonance of a fluid-driven crack: radiation properties and implications for the source of long-period events and harmonic tremor.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chouet, B.

    1988-01-01

    A dynamic source model is presented, in which a 3-D crack containing a viscous compressible fluid is excited into resonance by an impulsive pressure transient applied over a small area DELTA S of the crack surface. The crack excitation depends critically on two dimensionless parameters called the crack stiffness and viscous damping loss. According to the model, the long-period event and harmonic tremor share the same source but differ in the boundary conditions for fluid flow and in the triggering mechanism setting up the resonance of the source, the former being viewed as the impulse response of the tremor generating system and the later representing the excitation due to more complex forcing functions.-from Author

  10. Analytic models of ducted turbomachinery tone noise sources. Volume 1: Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. L.; Ganz, U. W.; Graf, G. A.; Westall, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    The analytic models developed for computing the periodic sound pressure of subsonic fans and compressors in an infinite, hardwall annular duct with uniform flow are described. The basic sound-generating mechanism is the scattering into sound waves of velocity disturbances appearing to the rotor or stator blades as a series of harmonic gusts. The models include component interactions and rotor alone.

  11. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  12. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  13. Dislocations as a Noise Source in LWIR HgCdTe Photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwikowski, Krzysztof; Jóźwikowska, Alina; Martyniuk, Andrzej

    2016-02-01

    The effect of dislocation on the 1/f noise current in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) reverse biased HgCdTe photodiodes working at liquid nitrogen (LN) temperature was analyzed theoretically by using a phenomenological model of dislocations as an additional Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) generation-recombination (G-R) channel in heterostructure. Numerical analysis was involved to solve the set of transport equations in order to find a steady state values of physical parameters of the heterostructure. Next, the set of transport equations for fluctuations (TEFF) was formulated and solved to obtain the spectral densities (SD) of the fluctuations of electrical potential, quasi-Fermi levels, and temperature. The SD of mobility fluctuations, shot G-R noise, and thermal noise were also taken into account in TEFF. Additional expressions for SD of 1/f fluctuations of the G-R processes were derived. Numerical values of the SD of noise current were compared with the experimental results of Johnson et al. Theoretical analysis has shown that the dislocations increase the G-R processes and this way cause the growth of G-R dark current. Despite the fact that dislocations increase both shot G-R noise and 1/f G-R noise, the main cause of 1/f current noise in LN cooled LWIR photodiodes are fluctuations of the carriers mobility determined by 1/f fluctuations of relaxation times. As the noise current is proportional to the total diode current, growth of G-R dark current caused by dislocations leads to the growth of noise current.

  14. Applying the seismic interferometry method to vertical seismic profile data using tunnel excavation noise as source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, Maria Jose; Teixido, Teresa; Martin, Elena; Segarra, Miguel; Segura, Carlos

    2013-04-01

    In the frame of the research conducted to develop efficient strategies for investigation of rock properties and fluids ahead of tunnel excavations the seismic interferometry method was applied to analyze the data acquired in boreholes instrumented with geophone strings. The results obtained confirmed that seismic interferometry provided an improved resolution of petrophysical properties to identify heterogeneities and geological structures ahead of the excavation. These features are beyond the resolution of other conventional geophysical methods but can be the cause severe problems in the excavation of tunnels. Geophone strings were used to record different types of seismic noise generated at the tunnel head during excavation with a tunnelling machine and also during the placement of the rings covering the tunnel excavation. In this study we show how tunnel construction activities have been characterized as source of seismic signal and used in our research as the seismic source signal for generating a 3D reflection seismic survey. The data was recorded in vertical water filled borehole with a borehole seismic string at a distance of 60 m from the tunnel trace. A reference pilot signal was obtained from seismograms acquired close the tunnel face excavation in order to obtain best signal-to-noise ratio to be used in the interferometry processing (Poletto et al., 2010). The seismic interferometry method (Claerbout 1968) was successfully applied to image the subsurface geological structure using the seismic wave field generated by tunneling (tunnelling machine and construction activities) recorded with geophone strings. This technique was applied simulating virtual shot records related to the number of receivers in the borehole with the seismic transmitted events, and processing the data as a reflection seismic survey. The pseudo reflective wave field was obtained by cross-correlation of the transmitted wave data. We applied the relationship between the transmission

  15. Phased Array Noise Source Localization Measurements of an F404 Nozzle Plume at Both Full and Model Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary G.; Bridges, James E.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2010-01-01

    A 48-microphone planar phased array system was used to acquire jet noise source localization data on both a full-scale F404-GE-F400 engine and on a 1/4th scale model of a F400 series nozzle. The full-scale engine test data show the location of the dominant noise sources in the jet plume as a function of frequency for the engine in both baseline (no chevron) and chevron configurations. Data are presented for the engine operating both with and without afterburners. Based on lessons learned during this test, a set of recommendations are provided regarding how the phased array measurement system could be modified in order to obtain more useful acoustic source localization data on high-performance military engines in the future. The data obtained on the 1/4th scale F400 series nozzle provide useful insights regarding the full-scale engine jet noise source mechanisms, and document some of the differences associated with testing at model-scale versus fullscale.

  16. Can shock waves on helicopter rotors generate noise? - A study of the quadrupole source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Tadghighi, H.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis has previously established that local shock surfaces attached to helicopter rotor blades moving at high subsonic speeds are potent noise generators; in pursuit of this insight, a novel formulation is presented for the prediction of the noise of a deformable shock, whose area changes as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade. The derivation of this formulation has its basis in a mapping of the moving shock to a time-independent region. In virtue of this mapping, the implementation of the main result on a computer becomes straightforward enough for incorporation into the available rotor-noise prediction code. A problem illustrating the importance of rotor shocks in the generation of high-intensity noise is presented.

  17. Noise sources and competition between stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering: A one-dimensional steady-state approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Tao; Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 ; Li, Zhichao; Zhao, Bin; Hu, Guang-yue; Zheng, Jian

    2013-09-15

    A 1D steady-state model is developed to deal with stimulated scattering processes. The volume and boundary noise sources for scattered light are discussed in detail. Our results indicate that the boundary noise sources may play a significant role in estimating the reflectivity of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). With the capability of our model to deal with broadband scattered light, we find that pump depletion could be the main reason to the anti-correlation between SBS and SRS versus electron density observed in experiments. A simple method is proposed to phenomenologically include the effect of nonlinear saturation mechanisms in our model and reasonable results are obtained.

  18. An experimental investigation of low-dimensional techniques for large scale noise source characterization in a heated jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Andre M.

    An investigation of the aeroacoustic sources of an 'acoustically matched' Mach 0.6 jet, at temperature ratio of Tr=0.93 and Tr=1.7, is conducted to identify the distinctions in contribution to the acoustic far-field spectrum. The fluctuating pressure sampled near the exit of the jet (x/D=2, r/D≃1), is shown to sense the dominant flow features of the velocity field. The core region in the hot jet is seen to collapse at a more rapid rate, resulting in a shorter potential core length and larger 'high-speed' shear layer thickness. The turbulence level of the hot jet are also shown to increase. The hot jet exhibits an increase in OASPL at nearly all observer angles from φ=15°-75°, largest increase of 2dB seen at φ=15°. There is a decease of nearly a half dB seen at φ=90°, consistent with the increase in the acoustic spectrum at low frequency, and decrease at high frequency seen at all locations. Directional dependency of the acoustic spectrum with frequency is highlighted. A snapshot POD analysis reveals the presence of larger scaled, more energetic structures in the hot jet, as well as a dominant Fourier-column mode-like structure in the hot jet, and a Fourier-helical mode-like structure in the cold jet. Fourth order correlations of the self noise contributions are shown to be dominant in both jets, with the hot jet exhibiting a greater shear noise efficiency, and cold, a greater self noise contribution. The low frequency emission of the shear noise terms is linked to the increase in the acoustic spectrum at these frequency, where as the decrease at high frequency is characteristic of the self noise weighting. The pronounced effect of increased low frequency noise is not deemed likely as solely resulting from the changes in the contribution of the shear noise sources, and as such, points to the contribution of the second entropy source term.

  19. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 2: Canceling Noise Source-Design of an Acoustic Plate Radiator Using Piezoceramic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pla, F. G.; Rajiyah, H.

    1995-01-01

    The feasibility of using acoustic plate radiators powered by piezoceramic thin sheets as canceling sources for active control of aircraft engine fan noise is demonstrated. Analytical and numerical models of actuated beams and plates are developed and validated. An optimization study is performed to identify the optimum combination of design parameters that maximizes the plate volume velocity for a given resonance frequency. Fifteen plates with various plate and actuator sizes, thicknesses, and bonding layers were fabricated and tested using results from the optimization study. A maximum equivalent piston displacement of 0.39 mm was achieved with the optimized plate samples tested with only one actuator powered, corresponding to a plate deflection at the center of over 1 millimeter. This is very close to the deflection required for a full size engine application and represents a 160-fold improvement over previous work. Experimental results further show that performance is limited by the critical stress of the piezoceramic actuator and bonding layer rather than by the maximum moment available from the actuator. Design enhancements are described in detail that will lead to a flight-worthy acoustic plate radiator by minimizing actuator tensile stresses and reducing nonlinear effects. Finally, several adaptive tuning methods designed to increase the bandwidth of acoustic plate radiators are analyzed including passive, active, and semi-active approaches. The back chamber pressurization and volume variation methods are investigated experimentally and shown to be simple and effective ways to obtain substantial control over the resonance frequency of a plate radiator. This study shows that piezoceramic-based plate radiators can be a viable acoustic source for active control of aircraft engine fan noise.

  20. Multi-Harmonic Cavities for Increasing RF Breakdown Threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Y.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Kuzikov, S. V.; Hirshfield, J. L.

    2010-11-04

    A multi-harmonic asymmetric cavity is predicted to sustain higher acceleration gradients than a conventional pillbox cavity, 55% higher in one example, when driven by external RF harmonic sources. Simulations of multi-harmonic excitation in such a cavity are described, either by a charged drive beam or by external RF sources. An accelerator structure based on multi-harmonic cavity is proposed.

  1. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  2. Noise measurements in shunted, shorted, and fully electroded quartz gauges in the Saturn plasma radiation source x-ray simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, W.H.; Greenwoll, J.I.; Smith, C.W.; Johnson, D.E.; De La Cruz, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes recent work to improve the measurement of the stress response of materials to intense, short pulses of radiation. When Saturn fires, large prompt electrical noise pulses are induced in stress measurement circuits. The conventional wisdom has been that the shorted guard ring quartz gauge was the only configuration with acceptable prompt signal-to-noise characteristics for stress measurements in this pulsed radiation environment. However, because of abnormal signal distortion, the shorted guard ring gauge is restricted to a maximum stress of about 8 kbars. Below this level, the normal, quantified signal distortion is correctable with analytical deconvolution techniques. The shunted guard ring gauge is acceptable for Egli fidelity measurements to about 25 kbars with negligible signal distortion. Experiments were conducted on the Saturn soft x-ray source which show that higher fidelity shunted guard ring gauges can successfully measure stress with acceptable induced noise. We also found that a 50-ohm impedance matching resistor at the gauge reduced the prompt noise amplitude and improved the baseline quality of the measurement prior to shock wave arrival.

  3. Adaptive noise cancelling of multichannel magnetic resonance sounding signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, E.; Auken, E.; Larsen, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive noise cancelling of multichannel magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) signals is investigated. An analysis of the noise sources affecting MRS signals show that the applicability of adaptive noise cancelling is primarily limited to cancel powerline harmonics. The problems of handling spikes in MRS signals are discussed and an efficient algorithm for spike detection is presented. The optimum parameters for multichannel adaptive noise cancelling are identified through simulations with synthetic signals added to noise-only recordings from an MRS instrument. We discuss the design and the efficiency of different stacking methods. The results from multichannel adaptive noise cancelling are compared to time-domain multichannel Wiener filtering. Our results show that within the experimental uncertainty the two methods give identical results.

  4. Source of statistical noises in the Monte Carlo sampling techniques for coherently scattered photons

    PubMed Central

    Muhammad, Wazir; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Detailed comparisons of the predictions of the Relativistic Form Factors (RFFs) and Modified Form Factors (MFFs) and their advantages and shortcomings in calculating elastic scattering cross sections can be found in the literature. However, the issues related to their implementation in the Monte Carlo (MC) sampling for coherently scattered photons is still under discussion. Secondly, the linear interpolation technique (LIT) is a popular method to draw the integrated values of squared RFFs/MFFs (i.e. ) over squared momentum transfer (). In the current study, the role/issues of RFFs/MFFs and LIT in the MC sampling for the coherent scattering were analyzed. The results showed that the relative probability density curves sampled on the basis of MFFs are unable to reveal any extra scientific information as both the RFFs and MFFs produced the same MC sampled curves. Furthermore, no relationship was established between the multiple small peaks and irregular step shapes (i.e. statistical noise) in the PDFs and either RFFs or MFFs. In fact, the noise in the PDFs appeared due to the use of LIT. The density of the noise depends upon the interval length between two consecutive points in the input data table of and has no scientific background. The probability density function curves became smoother as the interval lengths were decreased. In conclusion, these statistical noises can be efficiently removed by introducing more data points in the data tables. PMID:22984278

  5. Harmonic generation at high intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Atomic electrons subject to intense laser fields can absorb many photons, leading either to multiphoton ionization or the emission of a single, energetic photon which can be a high multiple of the laser frequency. The latter process, high-order harmonic generation, has been observed experimentally using a range of laser wavelengths and intensities over the past several years. Harmonic generation spectra have a generic form: a steep decline for the low order harmonics, followed by a plateau extending to high harmonic order, and finally an abrupt cutoff beyond which no harmonics are discernible. During the plateau the harmonic production is a very weak function of the process order. Harmonic generation is a promising source of coherent, tunable radiation in the XUV to soft X-ray range which could have a variety of scientific and possibly technological applications. Its conversion from an interesting multiphoton phenomenon to a useful laboratory radiation source requires a complete understanding of both its microscopic and macroscopic aspects. We present some recent results on the response of single atoms at intensities relevant to the short pulse experiments. The calculations employ time-dependent methods, which we briefly review in the next section. Following that we discuss the behavior of the harmonics as a function of laser intensity. Two features are notable: the slow scaling of the harmonic intensities with laser intensity, and the rapid variation in the phase of the individual harmonics with respect to harmonic order. We then give a simple empirical formula that predicts the extent of the plateau for a given ionization potential, wavelength and intensity.

  6. Generalized wave envelope analysis of sound propagation in ducts with stepped noise source profiles and variable axial impedance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1975-01-01

    A finite difference formulation is presented for sound propagation in a rectangular two-dimensional duct without steady flow. Before the difference equations are formulated, the governing Helmholtz equation is first transformed to a form whose solution tends not to oscillate along the length of the duct. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude. Example solutions indicate that stepped noise source profiles have much higher attenuation than plane waves in a uniform impedance liner. Also, multiple stepped impedance liners are shown to have higher attenuation than uniform ducts if the impedances are chosen properly. For optimum noise reduction with axial variations in impedance, the numerical analysis indicates that for a plane wave input the resistance should be near zero at the entrance of a suppressor duct, while the reactance should be near the optimum value associated with the least-attenuated mode in a uniform duct.

  7. Performance of a ruthenium beam separator used to separate soft x rays from light generated by a high-order harmonic light source.

    PubMed

    Ichimaru, Satoshi; Hatayama, Masatoshi; Ohchi, Tadayuki; Gullikson, Eric M; Oku, Satoshi

    2016-02-10

    We describe the design and fabrication of a ruthenium beam separator used to simultaneously attenuate infrared light and reflect soft x rays. Measurements in the infrared and soft x-ray regions showed the beam separator to have a reflectivity of 50%-85% in the wavelength region from 6 to 10 nm at a grazing incidence angle of 7.5 deg and 4.3% at 800 nm and the same angle of grazing incidence, indicating that the amount of attenuation is 0.05-0.09. These results show that this beam separator could provide an effective means for separating IR light from soft x rays in light generated by high-order harmonic generation sources. PMID:26906363

  8. Community Response to Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidell, Sandy

    The primary effects of community noise on residential populations are speech interference, sleep disturbance, and annoyance. This chapter focuses on transportation noise in general and on aircraft noise in particular because aircraft noise is one of the most prominent community noise sources, because airport/community controversies are often the most contentious and widespread, and because industrial and other specialized formsofcommunitynoise generally posemorelocalized problems.

  9. [Perception of approaching and withdrawing sound sources following exposure to broadband noise. The effect of spatial domain].

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    The spatial specificity of auditory aftereffect was studied after a short-time adaptation (5 s) to the broadband noise (20-20000 Hz). Adapting stimuli were sequences of noise impulses with the constant amplitude, test stimuli--with the constant and changing amplitude: an increase of amplitude of impulses in sequence was perceived by listeners as approach of the sound source, while a decrease of amplitude--as its withdrawal. The experiments were performed in an anechoic chamber. The auditory aftereffect was estimated under the following conditions: the adapting and test stimuli were presented from the loudspeaker located at a distance of 1.1 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively far spatial domain); the adapting and test stimuli were presented from different distances. The obtained data showed that perception of the imitated movement of the sound source in both spatial domains had the common characteristic peculiarities that manifested themselves both under control conditions without adaptation and after adaptation to noise. In the absence of adaptation for both distances, an asymmetry of psychophysical curves was observed: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as approaching. The overestimation by listeners of test stimuli as the approaching ones was more pronounced at their presentation from the distance of 1.1 m, i. e., from the subjectively near spatial domain. After adaptation to noise the aftereffects showed spatial specificity in both spatial domains: they were observed only at the spatial coincidence of adapting and test stimuli and were absent at their separation. The aftereffects observed in two spatial domains were similar in direction and value: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as withdrawing as compared to control. The result of such aftereffect was restoration of the symmetry of

  10. [Perception of approaching and withdrawing sound sources following exposure to broadband noise. The effect of spatial domain].

    PubMed

    Malinina, E S

    2014-01-01

    The spatial specificity of auditory aftereffect was studied after a short-time adaptation (5 s) to the broadband noise (20-20000 Hz). Adapting stimuli were sequences of noise impulses with the constant amplitude, test stimuli--with the constant and changing amplitude: an increase of amplitude of impulses in sequence was perceived by listeners as approach of the sound source, while a decrease of amplitude--as its withdrawal. The experiments were performed in an anechoic chamber. The auditory aftereffect was estimated under the following conditions: the adapting and test stimuli were presented from the loudspeaker located at a distance of 1.1 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively near spatial domain) or 4.5 m from the listeners (the subjectively far spatial domain); the adapting and test stimuli were presented from different distances. The obtained data showed that perception of the imitated movement of the sound source in both spatial domains had the common characteristic peculiarities that manifested themselves both under control conditions without adaptation and after adaptation to noise. In the absence of adaptation for both distances, an asymmetry of psychophysical curves was observed: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as approaching. The overestimation by listeners of test stimuli as the approaching ones was more pronounced at their presentation from the distance of 1.1 m, i. e., from the subjectively near spatial domain. After adaptation to noise the aftereffects showed spatial specificity in both spatial domains: they were observed only at the spatial coincidence of adapting and test stimuli and were absent at their separation. The aftereffects observed in two spatial domains were similar in direction and value: the listeners estimated the test stimuli more often as withdrawing as compared to control. The result of such aftereffect was restoration of the symmetry of

  11. Polarisation analysis of magnetotelluric time series using a wavelet-based scheme: A method for detection and characterisation of cultural noise sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalas, M.; Queralt, P.; Ledo, J.; Marcuello, A.

    2013-05-01

    The identification and elimination of cultural noise that affects magnetotelluric (MT) time series presents a challenge in the vicinity of industrialised, urban or farming areas. Most noise sources are fixed in space and create a signal with certain polarisation properties. In this paper, we propose a new method for detection and characterisation of cultural noise sources in magnetotelluric time series based on polarisation analysis of the electromagnetic signal in the time-frequency domain using a wavelet scheme. We tested the proposed method with synthetic polarised signals and experimental time series corresponding to a field experiment with a controlled EM source and several MT real cases. The results demonstrated the difference between the polarisation properties of the natural MT signal and the signal contaminated by a controlled source or by cultural noise.

  12. Airframe noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crighton, David G.

    1991-08-01

    Current understanding of airframe noise was reviewed as represented by experiment at model and full scale, by theoretical modeling, and by empirical correlation models. The principal component sources are associated with the trailing edges of wing and tail, deflected trailing edge flaps, flap side edges, leading edge flaps or slats, undercarriage gear elements, gear wheel wells, fuselage and wing boundary layers, and panel vibration, together with many minor protrusions like radio antennas and air conditioning intakes which may contribute significantly to perceived noise. There are also possibilities for interactions between the various mechanisms. With current engine technology, the principal airframe noise mechanisms dominate only at low frequencies, typically less than 1 kHz and often much lower, but further reduction of turbomachinery noise in particular may make airframe noise the principal element of approach noise at frequencies in the sensitive range.

  13. Fan Noise Prediction System Development: Source/Radiation Field Coupling and Workstation Conversion for the Acoustic Radiation Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, H. D.

    1993-01-01

    The Acoustic Radiation Code (ARC) is a finite element program used on the IBM mainframe to predict far-field acoustic radiation from a turbofan engine inlet. In this report, requirements for developers of internal aerodynamic codes regarding use of their program output an input for the ARC are discussed. More specifically, the particular input needed from the Bolt, Beranek and Newman/Pratt and Whitney (turbofan source noise generation) Code (BBN/PWC) is described. In a separate analysis, a method of coupling the source and radiation models, that recognizes waves crossing the interface in both directions, has been derived. A preliminary version of the coupled code has been developed and used for initial evaluation of coupling issues. Results thus far have shown that reflection from the inlet is sufficient to indicate that full coupling of the source and radiation fields is needed for accurate noise predictions ' Also, for this contract, the ARC has been modified for use on the Sun and Silicon Graphics Iris UNIX workstations. Changes and additions involved in this effort are described in an appendix.

  14. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  15. Search for non-Gaussianity in pixel, harmonic, and wavelet space: Compared and combined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabella, Paolo; Hansen, Frode; Marinucci, Domenico; Pagano, Daniele; Vittorio, Nicola

    2004-03-01

    We present a comparison between three approaches to test the non-Gaussianity of cosmic microwave background data. The Minkowski functionals, the empirical process method, and the skewness of wavelet coefficients are applied to maps generated from nonstandard inflationary models and to Gaussian maps with point sources included. We discuss the different power of the pixel, harmonic, and wavelet space methods on these simulated almost full-sky data (with Planck-like noise). We also suggest a new procedure consisting of a combination of statistics in pixel, harmonic, and wavelet space.

  16. The Alternative Low Noise Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Elliott, David M.; Jeracki, Robert J.; Moore, Royce D.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2000-01-01

    A 106 bladed fan with a design takeoff tip speed of 1100 ft/sec was hypothesized as reducing perceived noise because of the shift of the blade passing harmonics to frequencies beyond the perceived noise rating range. A 22 in. model of this Alternative Low Noise Fan, ALNF, was tested in the NASA Glenn 9x 15 Wind Tunnel. 'Me fan was tested with a 7 vane long chord stator assembly and a 70 vane conventional stator assembly in both hard and acoustically treated configurations. In addition a partially treated 7 vane configuration was tested wherein the acoustic material between the 7 long chord stators was made inactive. The noise data from the 106 bladed fan with 7 long chord stators in a hard configuration was shown to be around 4 EPNdB quieter than a low tip speed Allison fan at takeoff and around 5 EPNdB quieter at approach. Although the tone noise behaved as hypothesized, the majority of this noise reduction was from reduced broadband noise related to the large number of rotor blades. This 106 bladed ALNF is a research fan designed to push the technology limits and as such is probably not a practical device with present materials technology. However, a low tip speed fan with around 50 blades would be a practical device and calculations indicate that it could be 2 to 3 EPNdB quieter at takeoff and 3 to 4 EPNdB quieter at approach than the Allison fan. 7 vane data compared with 70 vane data indicated that the tone noise was controlled by rotor wake-stator interaction but that the broadband noise is probably controlled by the interaction of the rotor with incoming flows. A possible multiple pure tone noise reduction technique for a fan/acoustic treatment system was identified. The data from the fully treated configuration showed significant noise reductions over a large frequency range thereby providing a real tribute to this bulk absorber treatment design. The tone noise data with the partially treated 7 vane configuration indicated that acoustic material in the

  17. Concurrent identification of aero-acoustic scattering and noise sources at a flow duct singularity in low Mach number flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sovardi, Carlo; Jaensch, Stefan; Polifke, Wolfgang

    2016-09-01

    A numerical method to concurrently characterize both aeroacoustic scattering and noise sources at a duct singularity is presented. This approach combines Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with techniques of System Identification (SI): In a first step, a highly resolved LES with external broadband acoustic excitation is carried out. Subsequently, time series data extracted from the LES are post-processed by means of SI to model both acoustic propagation and noise generation. The present work studies the aero-acoustic characteristics of an orifice placed in a duct at low flow Mach numbers with the "LES-SI" method. Parametric SI based on the Box-Jenkins mathematical structure is employed, with a prediction error approach that utilizes correlation analysis of the output residuals to avoid overfitting. Uncertainties of model parameters due to the finite length of times series are quantified in terms of confidence intervals. Numerical results for acoustic scattering matrices and power spectral densities of broad-band noise are validated against experimental measurements over a wide range of frequencies below the cut-off frequency of the duct.

  18. MCNP-DSP calculations of the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements of highly enriched uranium metal cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents calculations of the {sup 252}Cf-source-driven noise analysis measurements for subcritical highly enriched uranium metal cylinders using the Monte Carlo code MCNP-DSP. This code directly calculates the noise analysis data from the {sup 252}Cf- source-driven noise analysis method for both neutron and gamma ray detectors. Direct calculation of experimental observables by the Monte Carlo method allows for the benchmarking of the calculational model and the cross sections and for determining the bias in the calculation.

  19. Complete Vector Spherical Harmonic Expansion for Maxwell's Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    Conventional expansions of solutions to Maxwell's equations in vector spherical harmonics apply only outside the sources. The complete solution, applying both inside and outside the sources, is given here. Harmonic time dependence is assumed. (Author/GA)

  20. Next generation data harmonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Chandler; Brown, Ryan M.; Chaves, Jillian; Czerniejewski, Adam; Del Vecchio, Justin; Perkins, Timothy K.; Rudnicki, Ron; Tauer, Greg

    2015-05-01

    Analysts are presented with a never ending stream of data sources. Often, subsets of data sources to solve problems are easily identified but the process to align data sets is time consuming. However, many semantic technologies do allow for fast harmonization of data to overcome these problems. These include ontologies that serve as alignment targets, visual tools and natural language processing that generate semantic graphs in terms of the ontologies, and analytics that leverage these graphs. This research reviews a developed prototype that employs all these approaches to perform analysis across disparate data sources documenting violent, extremist events.

  1. Noise characterization of broadband fiber Cherenkov radiation as a visible-wavelength source for optical coherence tomography and two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Haohua; Zhao, Youbo; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Yuan-Zhi; Boppart, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Optical sources in the visible region immediately adjacent to the near-infrared biological optical window are preferred in imaging techniques such as spectroscopic optical coherence tomography of endogenous absorptive molecules and two-photon fluorescence microscopy of intrinsic fluorophores. However, existing sources based on fiber supercontinuum generation are known to have high relative intensity noise and low spectral coherence, which may degrade imaging performance. Here we compare the optical noise and pulse compressibility of three high-power fiber Cherenkov radiation sources developed recently, and evaluate their potential to replace the existing supercontinuum sources in these imaging techniques. PMID:25321223

  2. Demonstration of short-haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8) diameter fan, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Aft fan noise reduction techniques were investigated. The 1/3 octave band sound data were plotted with the following plots included: perceived noise level vs acoustic angle at 2 fan speeds; PWL vs frequency at 2 fan speeds; and sound pressure level vs frequency at 2 aft angles and 2 fan speeds. The source noise plots included: band pass filter sound pressure level vs acoustic angle at 2 fan speeds; and 2nd harmonic SPL acoustic angle at 2 fan speeds.

  3. Spontaneous brain activity as a source of ideal 1/f noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Bedini, Remo; Fronzoni, Leone; Gemignani, Angelo; Grigolini, Paolo; West, Bruce J.; Paradisi, Paolo

    2009-12-01

    We study the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 30 closed-eye awake subjects with a technique of analysis recently proposed to detect punctual events signaling rapid transitions between different metastable states. After single-EEG-channel event detection, we study global properties of events simultaneously occurring among two or more electrodes termed coincidences. We convert the coincidences into a diffusion process with three distinct rules that can yield the same μ only in the case where the coincidences are driven by a renewal process. We establish that the time interval between two consecutive renewal events driving the coincidences has a waiting-time distribution with inverse power-law index μ≈2 corresponding to ideal 1/f noise. We argue that this discovery, shared by all subjects of our study, supports the conviction that 1/f noise is an optimal communication channel for complex networks as in art or language and may therefore be the channel through which the brain influences complex processes and is influenced by them.

  4. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units.

    PubMed

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaž; Todorović, Kristina; Kostić, Srdjan; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We study the activation process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly activation process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local activation processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse. PMID:26764779

  5. Effects of seasonal changes in ambient noise sources on monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Meng; Shen, Yang; Li, Hongyi; Li, Xinfu; Jia, Jinsheng

    2015-07-01

    Continuous data recorded at 39 broadband stations near the Longmen Shan Fault operated by the China Earthquake Administration from 1 January 2008 to 30 September 2010 are used to study temporal variability in direct surface wave arrivals extracted from ambient noise. We use a cross-correlation technique to compute Empirical green functions (EGFs) for all available station pairs at the frequency range of 0.1 to 0.5Hz. Delay times are measured by cross-correlating reference empirical green functions and moving 60-day stacks of EGFs. By comparing the temporal changes with and without the correction for seasonal variations, our results show that for some station pairs temporal variations were strongly affected by the seasonal variation. After correction for seasonal variations, we measure a 0.5-% maximum velocity drop after the 2008 Ms8.0 earthquake in Sichuan, China. We find that the Sichuan Basin exhibited a larger relative velocity drop than the Tibetan plateau area. Our results suggest that correction for seasonal variation is an important procedure for monitoring temporal variations in crustal properties using the direct arrival surface waves extracted from ambient noise.

  6. Activation process in excitable systems with multiple noise sources: Large number of units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franović, Igor; Perc, Matjaž; Todorović, Kristina; Kostić, Srdjan; Burić, Nikola

    2015-12-01

    We study the activation process in large assemblies of type II excitable units whose dynamics is influenced by two independent noise terms. The mean-field approach is applied to explicitly demonstrate that the assembly of excitable units can itself exhibit macroscopic excitable behavior. In order to facilitate the comparison between the excitable dynamics of a single unit and an assembly, we introduce three distinct formulations of the assembly activation event. Each formulation treats different aspects of the relevant phenomena, including the thresholdlike behavior and the role of coherence of individual spikes. Statistical properties of the assembly activation process, such as the mean time-to-first pulse and the associated coefficient of variation, are found to be qualitatively analogous for all three formulations, as well as to resemble the results for a single unit. These analogies are shown to derive from the fact that global variables undergo a stochastic bifurcation from the stochastically stable fixed point to continuous oscillations. Local activation processes are analyzed in the light of the competition between the noise-led and the relaxation-driven dynamics. We also briefly report on a system-size antiresonant effect displayed by the mean time-to-first pulse.

  7. Using ambient noise and sources of opportunity to estimate environment parameters and improve matched field source detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hursky, Paul

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation describes matched field source localization methods in a shallow water ocean waveguide which overcome lack of knowledge of the waveguide properties, whose measurement would otherwise be essential for conventional matched field methods to succeed. Such measurements are typically obtained only at great cost by dedicated measurement platforms, separate and distinct from the sensors used to localize sources. We demonstrate MFP using modes derived from data, the sound speed profile, but no a priori bottom information. We show how mode shapes can be estimated directly from vertical line array data, without a priori knowledge of the environment and without using numerical wavefield models. However, it is difficult to make much headway with modes derived from data, without wave numbers, since only a few modes at a few frequencies may be captured, and only at depths sampled by the array. Using a measured sound speed profile, we derive self-consistent, complete sets of modes, wave numbers and bottom parameters from incomplete modes derived from data. Bottom parameters enable us to calculate modes at all frequencies, not just those at which we derived modes from data. This process is applied to SWellEx-96 experiment data. Modes, wave numbers and bottom parameters are derived from source tow data along one track and MFP based on this information is performed on source tow data along another track.

  8. Nanograting-based compact VUV spectrometer and beam profiler for in-situ characterization of high-order harmonic generation light sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kornilov, Oleg; Wilcox, Russell; Gessner, Oliver

    2010-07-09

    A compact, versatile device for VUV beam characterization is presented. It combines the functionalities of a VUV spectrometer and a VUV beam profiler in one unit and is entirely supported by a standard DN200 CF flange. The spectrometer employs a silicon nitride transmission nanograting in combination with a micro-channel plate based imaging detector. This enables the simultaneous recording of wavelengths ranging from 10 nm to 80 nm with a resolution of 0.25 nm to 0.13 nm. Spatial beam profiles with diameters up to 10 mm are imaged with 0.1 mm resolution. The setup is equipped with an in-vacuum translation stage that allows for in situ switching between the spectrometer and beam profiler modes and for moving the setup out of the beam. The simple, robust design of the device is well suited for non-intrusive routine characterization of emerging laboratory- and accelerator-based VUV light sources. Operation of the device is demonstrated by characterizing the output of a femtosecond high-order harmonic generation light source.

  9. An experimental investigation of the sources of propeller noise due to turbulence ingestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharpf, Daniel Francis

    Experimental measurements were performed on a four-bladed, 10-inch diameter marine propeller operating in a new open-jet, anechoic wind tunnel. A significant portion of the work consisted of the design, construction, and calibration of the wind tunnel facility. The wind tunnel could be operated from 5-100 ft/s with open-jet lengths from 2-7 feet. When the wind tunnel was installed the majority of the chamber had a low-frequency cut-off of 150 Hz. The freestream velocity and propeller rotational speed were 33 ft/s and 3000 RPM, respectively. Turbulence was generated at the exit plane of the wind tunnel inlet by square-mesh grids composed of cylindrical rods which resulted in turbulence levels at the propeller location from 0.2-5.5 percent. Measurements included steady thrust and torque, detailed hot wire surveys of the incoming flow and propeller wake, and sound pressure levels detailing the acoustic spectra and directivity. Bicoherence measurements in the propeller wake showed high coherence between the blade passage harmonics and the broadband frequencies near the hub and tip regions of the blades which indicated that the wake interactions were primarily non-linear. Inflow turbulence reduced this coherence. The integrated broad-band sound pressure level increased by approximately 2 dB for every 1 percent increase in the turbulence. These increases were decomposed into smaller frequency bandwidths and related to the inflow turbulence spectrum.

  10. Numerical evaluation of the performance of active noise control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo, C. G.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a generalized numerical technique for evaluating the optimal performance of active noise controllers. In this technique, the indirect BEM numerical procedures are used to derive the active noise controllers for optimal control of enclosed harmonic sound fields where the strength of the noise sources or the description of the enclosure boundary may not be known. The performance prediction for a single-input single-output system is presented, together with the analysis of the stability and observability of an active noise-control system employing detectors. The numerical procedures presented can be used for the design of both the physical configuration and the electronic components of the optimal active noise controller.

  11. The low frequency sound from multipole sources in axisymmetric shear flows, with applications to jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, M. E.

    1975-01-01

    A closed-form solution for the sound radiation from multipole sources imbedded in an infinite cylindrical jet with an arbitrary velocity profile is obtained. It is valid in the limit where the wavelength is large compared with the jet radius. Simple formulae for the acoustic pressure field due to convected point sources are also obtained. The results show (in a simple way) how the mean flow affects the radiation pattern from the sources. For convected lateral quadrupoles it causes the exponent of the Doppler factor multiplying the far-field pressure signal to be increased from the value of 3 used by Lighthill to 5.

  12. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-05-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  13. Helicopter rotor noise due to ingestion of atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonich, J. C.; Amiet, R. K.; Schlinker, R. H.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A theoretical study was conducted to develop an analytical prediction method for helicopter main rotor noise due to the ingestion of atmospheric turbulence. This study incorporates an atmospheric turbulence model, a rotor mean flow contraction model and a rapid distortion turbulence model which together determine the statistics of the non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor plane. Inputs to the combined mean inflow and turbulence models are controlled by atmospheric wind characteristics and helicopter operating conditions. A generalized acoustic source model was used to predict the far field noise generated by the non-isotropic flow incident on the rotor. Absolute levels for acoustic spectra and directivity patterns were calculated for full scale helicopters, without the use of empirical or adjustable constants. Comparisons between isotropic and non-isotropic turbulence at the rotor face demonstrated pronounced differences in acoustic spectra. Turning and contraction of the flow for hover and low speed vertical ascent cases result in a 3 dB increase in the acoustic spectrum energy and a 10 dB increase in tone levels. Compared to trailing edge noise, turbulence ingestion noise is the dominant noise mechanism below approximately 30 rotor harmonics, while above 100 harmonics, trailing edge noise levels exceed turbulence ingestion noise by 25 dB.

  14. Numerical evaluation of the jet noise source distribution from far-field cross correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, L.; Liu, C.-H.

    1976-01-01

    This paper contains the development of techniques to determine the relationship between the unknown source correlation function to the correlation of scattered amplitudes in a jet. This study has application to the determination of forward motion effects. The technique has been developed and tested on a model jet of high subsonic flow. Numerical solution was obtained by solving the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Interpretation of the apparent source distribution and its application to flight testing are provided.

  15. Harmonic engine

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.; Sewall, Noel; Boroa, Carl

    2014-08-19

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a harmonic oscillator inlet valve capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into of the engine. In particular, the inlet valve includes an inlet valve head and a spring arranged together as a harmonic oscillator so that the inlet valve head is moveable from an unbiased equilibrium position to a biased closed position occluding an inlet. Upon releasing the inlet valve the inlet valve head undergoes a single oscillation past the equilibrium positio to a maximum open position and returns to a biased return position close to the closed position to choke the flow and produce a pressure drop across the inlet valve causing the inlet valve to close. Protrusions carried either by the inlet valve head or piston head are used to bump open the inlet valve from the closed position and initiate the single oscillation of the inlet valve head, and protrusions carried either by the outlet valve head or piston head are used to close the outlet valve ahead of the bump opening of the inlet valve.

  16. Noise Amplification in HGHG Seeding

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    An essential element of seeded FEL based on high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) or echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) is an undulator-modulator, in which interaction with a laser beam modulates the beam energy. We study how the interaction of electrons in this undulator-modulator changes the noise properties of the beam.

  17. Acoustic Database for Turbofan Engine Core-Noise Sources. I; Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Grant

    2015-01-01

    In this program, a database of dynamic temperature and dynamic pressure measurements were acquired inside the core of a TECH977 turbofan engine to support investigations of indirect combustion noise. Dynamic temperature and pressure measurements were recorded for engine gas dynamics up to temperatures of 3100 degrees Fahrenheit and transient responses as high as 1000 hertz. These measurements were made at the entrance of the high pressure turbine (HPT) and at the entrance and exit of the low pressure turbine (LPT). Measurements were made at two circumferential clocking positions. In the combustor and inter-turbine duct (ITD), measurements were made at two axial locations to enable the exploration of time delays. The dynamic temperature measurements were made using dual thin-wire thermocouple probes. The dynamic pressure measurements were made using semi-infinite probes. Prior to the engine test, a series of bench, oven, and combustor rig tests were conducted to characterize the performance of the dual wire temperature probes and to define and characterize the data acquisition systems. A measurement solution for acquiring dynamic temperature and pressure data on the engine was defined. A suite of hardware modifications were designed to incorporate the dynamic temperature and pressure instrumentation into the TECH977 engine. In particular, a probe actuation system was developed to protect the delicate temperature probes during engine startup and transients in order to maximize sensor life. A set of temperature probes was procured and the TECH977 engine was assembled with the suite of new and modified hardware. The engine was tested at four steady state operating speeds, with repeats. Dynamic pressure and temperature data were acquired at each condition for at least one minute. At the two highest power settings, temperature data could not be obtained at the forward probe locations since the mean temperatures exceeded the capability of the probes. The temperature data

  18. Second harmonic FEL oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, George R.; Benson, S. V.; Biallas, G.; Freund, H. P.; Gubeli, J.; Jordan, K.; Myers, S.; Shinn, M. D.

    2002-05-01

    We have produced and measured for the first time second harmonic oscillation in the infrared region by the high-average-power Jefferson Lab Infrared Free Electron Laser. The finite geometry and beam emittance allows sufficient gain for lasing to occur. We were able to lase at pulse rates up to 74.85 MHz and could produce over 4.5 W average and 40 kW peak of IR power in a 40 nm FWHM bandwidth at 2925 nm. In agreement with predictions, the source preferentially lased in a TEM 01 mode. We present results of initial source performance measurements and comparisons with theory and simulation.

  19. Imaging diffusive media using time-independent and time-harmonic sources: dependence of image quality on imaging algorithms, target volume, weight matrix, and view angles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jenghwa; Aronson, Raphael; Graber, Harry L.; Barbour, Randall L.

    1995-05-01

    We present results examining the dependence of image quality for imaging in dense scattering media as influenced by the choice of parameters pertaining to the physical measurement and factors influencing the efficiency of the computation. The former includes the density of the weight matrix as affected by the target volume, view angle, and source condition. The latter includes the density of the weight matrix and type of algorithm used. These were examined by solving a one-step linear perturbation equation derived from the transport equation using three different algorithms: POCS, CGD, and SART algorithms with contraints. THe above were explored by evaluating four different 3D cylindrical phantom media: a homogeneous medium, an media containing a single black rod on the axis, a single black rod parallel to the axis, and thirteen black rods arrayed in the shape of an 'X'. Solutions to the forward problem were computed using Monte Carlo methods for an impulse source, from which was calculated time- independent and time harmonic detector responses. The influence of target volume on image quality and computational efficiency was studied by computing solution to three types of reconstructions: 1) 3D reconstruction, which considered each voxel individually, 2) 2D reconstruction, which assumed that symmetry along the cylinder axis was know a proiri, 3) 2D limited reconstruction, which assumed that only those voxels in the plane of the detectors contribute information to the detecot readings. The effect of view angle was explored by comparing computed images obtained from a single source, whose position was varied, as well as for the type of tomographic measurement scheme used (i.e., radial scan versus transaxial scan). The former condition was also examined for the dependence of the above on choice of source condition [ i.e., cw (2D reconstructions) versus time-harmonic (2D limited reconstructions) source]. The efficiency of the computational effort was explored

  20. Core noise source diagnostics on a turbofan engine using correlation and coherence techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A. M.; Reshotko, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure measurements at several locations within the core of a turbofan engine were made simultaneously with far field acoustic measurements. Correlation and coherence techniques were used to determine the relative amplitude and phase relationships between core pressures at these various locations and between the core pressures and far field acoustic pressure. The combustor is a low frequency source region for acoustic propagation through the core nozzle and out to the far field. The relation between source pressure and the resulting sound pressure involves a 180 degree phase shift and an amplitude transfer function which varies approximately as frequency squared. This is consistent with a simplified model using fluctuating entropy as a source term.

  1. Core noise source diagnostics on a turbofan engine using correlation and coherence techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karchmer, A.; Reshotko, M.

    1976-01-01

    Fluctuating pressure measurements at several locations within the core of a turbofan engine were made simultaneously with far-field acoustic measurements. Correlation and coherence techniques were used to determine the relative amplitude and phase relationships between core pressures at these various locations and between the core pressures and far-field acoustic pressure. The results indicate that the combustor is a low-frequency source region for acoustic propagation through the core nozzle and out to the far-field. Specifically, it was found that the relation between source pressure and the resulting sound pressure involves a 180 deg phase shift and an amplitude transfer function which varies approximately as frequency squared. This is shown to be consistent with a simplified model using fluctuating entropy as a source term.

  2. Exploring the source of the mid-level hump for intensity discrimination in quiet and the effects of noise.

    PubMed

    Roverud, Elin; Strickland, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    Intensity discrimination Weber fractions (WFs) measured for short, high-frequency tones in quiet are larger at mid levels than at lower or higher levels. The source of this "mid-level hump" is a matter of debate. One theory is that the mid-level hump reflects basilar-membrane compression, and that WFs decrease at higher levels due to spread-of-excitation cues. To test this theory, Experiment 1 measured the mid-level hump and growth-of-masking functions to estimate the basilar membrane input/output (I/O) function in the same listeners. Results showed the initial rise in WFs could be accounted for by the change in I/O function slope, but there was additional unexplained variability in WFs. Previously, Plack [(1998). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103(5), 2530-2538] showed that long-duration notched noise (NN) presented with the tone reduced the mid-level hump even with a temporal gap in the NN. Plack concluded the results were consistent with central profile analysis. However, simultaneous, forward, and backward NN were not examined separately, which may independently test peripheral and central mechanisms of the NN. Experiment 2 measured WFs at the mid-level hump in the presence of NN and narrowband noise of different durations and temporal positions relative to the tone. Results varied across subjects, but were consistent with more peripheral mechanisms. PMID:25786945

  3. Feedback-based mitigation of torque harmonics in interior permanent magnet synchronous machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaks, Nir

    Harmonics in the electromagnetic torque are a source of concern in permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) drives. The harmonics are created by non-idealities in the electromagnetic fields produced by the magnets and the stator excitation. They lead to vibration that can cause premature wear of the drivetrain components as well as acoustic noise that may be bothersome to users. In this research, current- and voltage-based control schemes have been developed to mitigate the harmonics in a class of PMSMs in which the magnets are placed interior to the rotor iron. Interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSMs) have recently gained popularity for applications including hybrid electric vehicles and robot joint control. In the current-based control, a low-cost piezoelectric sensor is used to measure torque harmonics. A conjugate gradient algorithm is then applied to search for harmonics in the stator current that produce a commanded average torque while eliminating the measured torque harmonics. The algorithm is based upon analytical closed-form expressions for the average and harmonic components of torque that have been derived for IPMSMS with arbitrary back-emf waveforms. In the voltage-based control, a time-domain model of the machine is used to map the outputs of the conjugate gradient algorithm to commanded stator voltages. Since both utilize feedback, the controls are insensitive to changes in machine parameters that result from magnetic saturation, temperature, or parameter drift. In addition, the user has flexibility to select the harmonic(s) of torque to be eliminated.

  4. Organizational Communication in Emergencies: Using Multiple Channels and Sources to Combat Noise and Capture Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Keri K.; Barrett, Ashley K.; Mahometa, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This study relies on information theory, social presence, and source credibility to uncover what best helps people grasp the urgency of an emergency. We surveyed a random sample of 1,318 organizational members who received multiple notifications about a large-scale emergency. We found that people who received 3 redundant messages coming through at…

  5. Harmonic auroral kilometric radiation of natural origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1982-09-01

    When the ISIS 1 satellite passes through the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) source region the sounder receiver often detects harmonic bands of radiation associated with the fundamental AKR band. These harmonic components were earlier attributed to a nonlinear instrumental response to the strong wide-band bursty AKR fundamental signal. Evidence is here presented that indicates that these harmonics are of natural origin, namely: (1) all the harmonic signals are sometimes observed to have nearly the same bandwidth, (2) when the fundamental signal has two components the harmonic signal sometimes corresponds to the weaker rather than the stronger component, (3) a weak harmonic can be observed to be associated with a weak fundamental, and (4) a 'harmonic' signal can be observed when there is no fundamental.

  6. Harmonic auroral kilometric radiation of natural origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    When the ISIS 1 satellite passes through the auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) source region the sounder receiver often detects harmonic bands of radiation associated with the fundamental AKR band. These harmonic components were earlier attributed to a nonlinear instrumental response to the strong wide-band bursty AKR fundamental signal. Evidence is here presented that indicates that these harmonics are of natural origin, namely: (1) all the harmonic signals are sometimes observed to have nearly the same bandwidth, (2) when the fundamental signal has two components the harmonic signal sometimes corresponds to the weaker rather than the stronger component, (3) a weak harmonic can be observed to be associated with a weak fundamental, and (4) a 'harmonic' signal can be observed when there is no fundamental.

  7. Low-noise, high-brightness, tunable source of picosecond pulsed light in the near-infrared and visible.

    PubMed

    Mosley, Peter J; Bateman, Samuel A; Lavoute, Laure; Wadsworth, William J

    2011-12-01

    We have built a flexible source of picosecond pulsed light in both the near-infrared and visible spectral regions. A photonic crystal fiber (PCF) was pumped with a pulsed 1064 nm fiber laser to generate four-wave mixing (FWM) sidebands at 947 nm and 1213 nm. This process was seeded at the idler wavelength with a tunable diode laser to limit the spectral width of the sidebands to less than 0.5 nm. Subsequently the idler was mixed efficiently with the residual pump in a nonlinear crystal to yield their sum frequency at 567 nm. All three outputs were tunable by adjusting the seed wavelength and all had very low pulse-to-pulse amplitude noise. This technique could be extended to different wavelength ranges by selecting different seed lasers and PCF. PMID:22273925

  8. Study into sources of wagon noise: Measurement of sound energy generated by vehicle bodies and running gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent de Curzon, E.; Beguet, B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes a series of measurements carried out to identify and quantify the sources of sound connected with the bodywork and running gear of railway wagons. Tests were conducted by the S.N.C.F. with the assistance of the METRAVIB Company, in conjunction with the programme of research of ORE Committee C 163 on Noise in the Railway Environment (Office for Research and Experiments of the International Union of Railways). Of the two methods adopted for test purposes, one was a conventional technique using a set of omnidirectional microphones placed vertically at vehicle gauge limit, and the other involved near-field interferometry based on the use of a flat acoustic antenna also placed at the edge of the track. The results of the measurements showed that for the 18 wagons of six different types studied, most of the sound energy radiated came from the running gear.

  9. Shot noise cross-correlation functions and cross spectra - Implications for models of QPO X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibazaki, N.; Elsner, R. F.; Bussard, R. W.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    The cross-correlation functions (CCFs) and cross spectra expected for quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) shot noise models are calculated under various assumptions, and the results are compared to observations. Effects due to possible coherence of the QPO oscillations are included. General formulas for the cross spectrum, the cross-phase spectrum, and the time-delay spectrum for QPO shot models are calculated and discussed. It is shown that the CCFs, cross spectra, and power spectra observed for Cyg X-e2 imply that the spectrum of the shots evolves with time, with important implications for the interpretation of these functions as well as of observed average energy spectra. The possible origins for the observed hard lags are discussed, and some physical difficulties for the Comptonization model are described. Classes of physical models for QPO sources are briefly addressed, and it is concluded that models involving shot formation at the surface of neutron stars are favored by observation.

  10. Velocity analysis of simultaneous-source data using high-resolution semblance—coping with the strong noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Shuwei; Wang, Shoudong; Chen, Yangkang; Qu, Shan; Zu, Shaohuan

    2016-02-01

    Direct imaging of simultaneous-source (or blended) data, without the need of deblending, requires a precise subsurface velocity model. In this paper, we focus on the velocity analysis of simultaneous-source data using the normal moveout-based velocity picking approach.We demonstrate that it is possible to obtain a precise velocity model directly from the blended data in the common-midpoint domain. The similarity-weighted semblance can help us obtain much better velocity spectrum with higher resolution and higher reliability compared with the traditional semblance. The similarity-weighted semblance enforces an inherent noise attenuation solely in the semblance calculation stage, thus it is not sensitive to the intense interference. We use both simulated synthetic and field data examples to demonstrate the performance of the similarity-weighted semblance in obtaining reliable subsurface velocity model for direct migration of simultaneous-source data. The migrated image of blended field data using prestack Kirchhoff time migration approach based on the picked velocity from the similarity-weighted semblance is very close to the migrated image of unblended data.

  11. Shielding Characteristics Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source to Generate Modes - Experimental Measurements and Analytical Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the program was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting an engine on the upper surface of a wing; a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface. Simple analytical simulations were used to preview the radiation patterns - Fresnel knife-edge diffraction was coupled with a dense phased array of point sources to compute shielded and unshielded sound pressure distributions for potential test geometries and excitation modes. Contour plots of sound pressure levels, and integrated power levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations for both the experimental measurements and the analytical predictions are presented in this paper.

  12. Computation of Large-Scale Structure Jet Noise Sources With Weak Nonlinear Effects Using Linear Euler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Hixon, Ray; Mankbadi, Reda R.

    2003-01-01

    An approximate technique is presented for the prediction of the large-scale turbulent structure sound source in a supersonic jet. A linearized Euler equations code is used to solve for the flow disturbances within and near a jet with a given mean flow. Assuming a normal mode composition for the wave-like disturbances, the linear radial profiles are used in an integration of the Navier-Stokes equations. This results in a set of ordinary differential equations representing the weakly nonlinear self-interactions of the modes along with their interaction with the mean flow. Solutions are then used to correct the amplitude of the disturbances that represent the source of large-scale turbulent structure sound in the jet.

  13. Analysis of handling noises on wound strings.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, J; Penttinen, H; Bank, B

    2007-12-01

    This study analyzes the handling noises that occur when a finger is slid along a wound string. The resulting noise has a harmonic structure due to the periodic texture of the wound string. The frequency of the harmonics and the root-mean-square amplitude of the noise were found to be linearly proportional to the sliding speed. In addition, the sliding excites the longitudinal modes of the string, thus resulting in a set of static harmonics in the noise spectrum. The sliding excites different longitudinal modes depending on the sliding location. PMID:18247641

  14. Photon noise from chaotic and coherent millimeter-wave sources measured with horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanigan, D.; McCarrick, H.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Abitbol, M. H.; Ade, P.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K.; Cantor, R.; Che, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Kjellstrand, C. B.; Leduc, H.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Tucker, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2016-02-01

    We report photon-noise limited performance of horn-coupled, aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors at millimeter wavelengths. The detectors are illuminated by a millimeter-wave source that uses an active multiplier chain to produce radiation between 140 and 160 GHz. We feed the multiplier with either amplified broadband noise or a continuous-wave tone from a microwave signal generator. We demonstrate that the detector response over a 40 dB range of source power is well-described by a simple model that considers the number of quasiparticles. The detector noise-equivalent power (NEP) is dominated by photon noise when the absorbed power is greater than approximately 1 pW, which corresponds to NEP≈2 ×10-17 W Hz-1 /2 , referenced to absorbed power. At higher source power levels, we observe the relationships between noise and power expected from the photon statistics of the source signal: NEP∝P for broadband (chaotic) illumination and NEP∝P1 /2 for continuous-wave (coherent) illumination.

  15. Harmonics and Resonance Issues with Wind Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bradt, M.; Badrzadeh, Babak; Camm, E H; Castillo, Nestor; Mueller, David; Siebert, T.; Schoene, Jens; Smith, Travis M; Starke, Michael R; Walling, R.

    2011-01-01

    Wind plants are susceptible to lightly-damped resonances which can attract and amplify ambient grid harmonic distortion and magnify wind turbine harmonic generation. Long-accepted harmonic modeling assumptions and practices are not appropriate for wind plants. VSCs are not ideal current sources and grid impedance is important. Attention to modeling detail and thorough evaluation over range of conditions is critical to meaningful analysis. In general, wind turbines are very slight sources of harmonics. Most harmonic issues are a result of resonance, caused by capacitor banks (for reactive power compensation) or from the extensive underground cabling in a collector system. Converter controls instability can be exacerbated by power system resonances. In some cases this has caused severe voltage distorDon and other problems. The IEEE 519 recommended guidelines are very restrictive. I recommend that they are used to resolve serious harmonic issues, and not to create petty problems.

  16. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  17. Acoustic noise associated with the MOD-1 wind turbine: its source, impact, and control

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E.; Hemphill, R.R.; Etter, C.L.; Garrelts, R.L.; Linn, N.C.

    1985-02-01

    This report summarizes extensive research by staff of the Solar Energy Research Institute and its subcontractors conducted to establish the origin and possible amelioration of acoustic disturbances associated with the operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine installed in 1979 near Boone, North Carolina. Results have shown that the source of this acoustic annoyance was the transient, unsteady aerodynamic lift imparted to the turbine blades as they passed through the lee wakes of the large, cylindrical tower supports. Nearby residents were annoyed by the low-frequency, acoustic impulses propagated into the structures in which the complainants lived. The situation was aggravated further by a complex sound propagation process controlled by terrain and atmospheric focusing. Several techniques for reducing the abrupt, unsteady blade load transients were researched and are discussed in the report.

  18. Strongly Dispersive Transient Bragg Grating for High Harmonics

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, J.; Spector, L.S.; Gaarde, M.B.; McFarland, B.K.; Bucksbaum, P.H.; Guhr, Markus; /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-04

    We create a transient Bragg grating in a high harmonic generation medium using two counterpropagating pulses. The Bragg grating disperses the harmonics in angle and can diffract a large bandwidth with temporal resolution limited only by the source size.

  19. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  20. Reduction of propeller noise by a reflecting rubber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soederqvist, R.; Soederqvist, S.

    1983-08-01

    The pressure pulses from ship propeller blades were reflected by a soft layer of cellrubber coating applied on the underwater part of the stern. The ship treated was a 5000 ton dwt asphalt tanker. The soft layer works in the near field of the propeller blades, which are assumed to be simple acoustic sources with harmonics. Because of the mechanical nonlinearity of the rubber material, useful reflection is obtained only from the second harmonic and upwards. Measured noise reduction is 15 dB at 100 Hz, 5 dB at 45 Hz, and the damping of motor vibrations is 3.5 dB. The first harmonic, at 20 Hz, increases by 5 dB.

  1. Directionality of ambient noise on the Juan de Fuca plate: implications for source locations of the primary and secondary microseisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Ritzwoller, Michael H.

    2015-04-01

    Based on cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise computed using 61 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) within the Juan de Fuca (JdF) plate from the Cascadia Initiative experiment and 42 continental stations near the coast of the western United States, we investigate the locations of generation of the primary (11-20 s period) and secondary (5-10 s period) microseisms in the northern Pacific Ocean by analysing the directionality and seasonality of the microseism (Rayleigh wave) signals received in this region. We conclude that (1) the ambient noise observed across the array is much different in the primary and secondary microseism bands, both in its azimuthal content and seasonal variation. (2) The principal secondary microseism signals propagate towards the east, consistent with their generation in deep waters of the North Pacific, perhaps coincident both with the region of observed body wave excitation and the predicted wave-wave interaction region from recent studies. (3) The primary microseism, as indicated by observations of the azimuthal dependence of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave as well as observations of precursory arrivals, derives significantly from the shallow waters of the eastern Pacific near to the JdF plate but also has a component generated at greater distance of unknown origin. (4) These observations suggest different physical mechanisms for generating the two microseisms: the secondary microseisms are likely to be generated by non-linear wave-wave interaction over the deep Pacific Ocean, while the primary microseism may couple directly into the solid earth locally in shallow waters from ocean gravity waves. (5) Above 5 s period, high quality empirical Green's functions are observed from cross-correlations between deep water OBSs and continental stations, which illustrates that microseisms propagate efficiently from either deep or shallow water source regions onto the continent and are well recorded by continental seismic stations.

  2. Second Harmonic FEL Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neil, George R.; Benson, S. V.; Biallas, G.; Gubeli, J.; Jordan, K.; Myers, S.; Shinn, M. D.

    2001-08-01

    We have produced and measured for the first time second harmonic oscillation in the infrared region by a free electron laser. Although such lasing is ideally forbidden, since the gain of a plane wave is zero on axis for an electron beam perfectly aligned with a wiggler, a transverse mode antisymmetry allows sufficient gain in this experiment for lasing to occur. We lased at pulse rates up to 74.85 MHz and could produce over 4.5 W average and 40 kW peak of IR power in a 40 nm FWHM bandwidth at 2925 nm. In agreement with predictions, the source preferentially lased in a TEM01 mode.

  3. Impact of noise in holography with extended references in the low signal regime.

    PubMed

    Boutu, W; Gauthier, D; Ge, X; Cassin, R; Ducousso, M; Gonzalez, A I; Iwan, B; Samaan, J; Wang, F; Kovačev, M; Merdji, H

    2016-03-21

    Signal-to-noise ratio is a key factor in lensless imaging, particularly for low diffraction signal experiments in the single shot regime. We present our recent study of the noise impact on holography with extended references. Experimental data have been measured in single shot acquisition using an intense coherent soft X-ray high harmonic source. The impact of hardware and software noise under various detection conditions is discussed. A final comparison between single shot and multi-shot regimes is given. PMID:27136823

  4. A compact, narrow-band, and low-noise 800-mW laser source at 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliska, Tomas; Matuschek, Nicolai; Troger, Joerg; Schmidt, Berthold; Mohrdiek, Stefan; Harder, Christoph

    2005-04-01

    We report on the development of a new cost-effective, small form-factor laser source at a wavelength of 980 nm. The laser module is based on proven technology commonly used for pump laser modules deployed in fiber amplifiers of telecommunication networks. The package uses a state-of-the-art 14-pin butterfly housing with a footprint of 30x15 mm2 with a Fabry-Perot AlGaAs-InGaAs pump laser diode mounted inside having an anti-reflection coating on its front facet. The light is coupled into a single-mode polarization-maintaining fiber with a mode-field diameter of 6.6 micrometer. The spectral properties of the source are defined by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) that provides feedback in a narrow reflection band. The laser back facet and the FBG form a long resonant cavity of 1.7 m length in which laser light with a low coherence length of a few cm is generated. This configuration with the laser being operated in the coherence-collapse regime has the advantage of being robust against variations in the optical path, thus enabling stable and mode-hop free emission. The laser module has the following properties: a continuous-wave fiber output power exceeding 800 mW, a spectral bandwidth of less than 50 pm, a root-mean square power variation of less than 0.2 % from DC to 2 MHz over the entire power operating range, and a polarization extinction ratio of more than 20 dB. This is a compact, low noise, high power source for frequency conversion with nonlinear optical materials, such as blue light generation.

  5. Time-lapse imaging of fault properties at seismogenic depth using repeating earthquakes, active sources and seismic ambient noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xin

    2009-12-01

    The time-varying stress field of fault systems at seismogenic depths plays the mort important role in controlling the sequencing and nucleation of seismic events. Using seismic observations from repeating earthquakes, controlled active sources and seismic ambient noise, five studies at four different fault systems across North America, Central Japan, North and mid-West China are presented to describe our efforts to measure such time dependent structural properties. Repeating and similar earthquakes are hunted and analyzed to study the post-seismic fault relaxation at the aftershock zone of the 1984 M 6.8 western Nagano and the 1976 M 7.8 Tangshan earthquakes. The lack of observed repeating earthquakes at western Nagano is attributed to the absence of a well developed weak fault zone, suggesting that the fault damage zone has been almost completely healed. In contrast, the high percentage of similar and repeating events found at Tangshan suggest the existence of mature fault zones characterized by stable creep under steady tectonic loading. At the Parkfield region of the San Andreas Fault, repeating earthquake clusters and chemical explosions are used to construct a scatterer migration image based on the observation of systematic temporal variations in the seismic waveforms across the occurrence time of the 2004 M 6 Parkfield earthquake. Coseismic fluid charge or discharge in fractures caused by the Parkfield earthquake is used to explain the observed seismic scattering properties change at depth. In the same region, a controlled source cross-well experiment conducted at SAFOD pilot and main holes documents two large excursions in the travel time required for a shear wave to travel through the rock along a fixed pathway shortly before two rupture events, suggesting that they may be related to pre-rupture stress induced changes in crack properties. At central China, a tomographic inversion based on the theory of seismic ambient noise and coda wave interferometry

  6. Proceedings of Noise-con 81: Applied noise control technology

    SciTech Connect

    Royster, L.H.; Hart, F.D.; Stewart, N.D.

    1981-01-01

    The conference was divided into sessions covering noise control regulations and benefits; noise source identification; barriers and enclosures; mufflers; hearing protection devices; textile and fibre industries; metal fabrication industry; transportation and aircraft noise control; punch-press noise control and miscellaneous topics; woodworking industry; tobacco and packaging industries; community noise; and applications of damping materials. One paper has been abstracted separately.

  7. Ultrafast demagnetization dynamics at the M edges of magnetic elements observed using a tabletop high-harmonic soft x-ray source.

    PubMed

    La-O-Vorakiat, Chan; Siemens, Mark; Murnane, Margaret M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Mathias, Stefan; Aeschlimann, Martin; Grychtol, Patrik; Adam, Roman; Schneider, Claus M; Shaw, Justin M; Nembach, Hans; Silva, T J

    2009-12-18

    We use few-femtosecond soft x-ray pulses from high-harmonic generation to extract element-specific demagnetization dynamics and hysteresis loops of a compound material for the first time. Using a geometry where high-harmonic beams are reflected from a magnetized Permalloy grating, large changes in the reflected intensity of up to 6% at the M absorption edges of Fe and Ni are observed when the magnetization is reversed. A short pump pulse is used to destroy the magnetic alignment, which allows us to measure the fastest, elementally specific demagnetization dynamics, with 55 fs time resolution. The use of high harmonics for probing magnetic materials promises to combine nanometer spatial resolution, elemental specificity, and femtosecond-to-attosecond time resolution, making it possible to address important fundamental questions in magnetism. PMID:20366281

  8. Infrared sky noise study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The hardware and techniques to measure and compare sky noise at several sites were studied, and a device was developed that would maximize its output and minimize its output for modulation. The instrument and its functions are described. The nature of sky emissions and the fluctuation, gaseous sources of sky noise, and aerosol sources are discussed. It is concluded that sky noise really exists, and the spatial distribution of the sky noise sources are such that observed noise values are linear functions of chopping stroke.

  9. Effect of external pressure environment on the internal noise level due to a source inside a cylindrical tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Roussos, L. A.

    1984-01-01

    A small cylindrical tank was used to study the effect on the noise environment within a tank of conditions of atmospheric (sea level) pressure or vacuum environments on the exterior. Experimentally determined absorption coefficients were used to calculate transmission loss, transmissibility coefficients and the sound pressure (noise) level differences in the interior. The noise level differences were also measured directly for the two exterior environments and compared to various analytical approximations with limited agreement. Trend study curves indicated that if the tank transmission loss is above 25 dB, the difference in interior noise level between the vacuum and ambient pressure conditions are less than 2 dB.

  10. Harmonic Electromagnetic Forces in Induction Motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Fuminori; Matsushita, Makoto; Noda, Shinichi

    Recently, there has been increasing demand for quiet motors, and the same trend has been observed in the case of induction motors. In induction motors, electromagnetic noise is sometimes the predominant acoustic noise. In small motors, the major cause of vibration and noise is electromagnetic forces resulting from the combination of harmonic fluxes in the air gap. In this study, the spatial distribution of fundamental and harmonic time electromagnetic forces was studied by using search coils, by performing FEM analysis, and by using conventional equations. In a four-pole 2.2kW motor, harmonic electromagnetic forces were measured using 36 search coils on the inner surface of the stator teeth, and the spatial distribution of electromagnetic forces was obtained at each time harmonic frequency. Spatial distribution was also analyzed by FEM, and the results were analytically validated by using conventional equations. On the basis of these analyses, the spatial distribution of electromagnetic forces for various time harmonics was confirmed. These results can be used in the design and development of quiet motors.

  11. Impact of Source/Drain Junction and Cell Shape on Random Telegraph Noise in NAND Flash Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fu-Hai; Shirota, Riichiro

    2013-07-01

    A comprehensive numerical study of threshold voltage fluctuation (ΔVT) in scaled NAND flash memory caused by random telegraph noise (RTN) and discrete dopant fluctuation (RDF) in both the channel and the cell-to-cell space [source/drain (S/D)] region was carried out. Following a three-dimensional (3D) Monte Carlo (MC) procedure, the statistical distribution of ΔVT is estimated, considering the effects of both the random placement of discrete doping atoms and a discrete single trap at the tunnel oxide/substrate interface. The result demonstrates the significant influence of the doping in the S/D regions. For the cells with and without an S/D junction, the electron concentration in the S/D region is determined by the pass voltage of the unselected cell (Vpass) and the neighboring cell VT (VT(n)), owing to the fringing fields of neighboring floating gates (FGs). As a result, ΔVT increases in the S/D region as Vpass - VT(n) decreases. The fluctuation amplitude strongly depends on the [single-trap RTN] position along the cell length (L) and width (W) directions. For the cell shape with rounding of the active area (AA) at the shallow trench isolation (STI) edge, the results indicate that the high ΔVT area moves from the AA edge towards the center area along the W-direction.

  12. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel l.; Brown, Clifford A.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14- by 22-ft wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8 percent scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8 percent rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations--a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 in. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed four sweeps, for a total span of 168 in. acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels

  13. Hybrid Wing Body Shielding Studies Using an Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source Generating Typical Turbofan Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Brown, Cliff; Walker, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    An Ultrasonic Configurable Fan Artificial Noise Source (UCFANS) was designed, built, and tested in support of the NASA Langley Research Center's 14x22 wind tunnel test of the Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) full 3-D 5.8% scale model. The UCFANS is a 5.8% rapid prototype scale model of a high-bypass turbofan engine that can generate the tonal signature of proposed engines using artificial sources (no flow). The purpose of the test was to provide an estimate of the acoustic shielding benefits possible from mounting the engine on the upper surface of an HWB aircraft using the projected signature of the engine currently proposed for the HWB. The modal structures at the rating points were generated from inlet and exhaust nacelle configurations - a flat plate model was used as the shielding surface and vertical control surfaces with correct plan form shapes were also tested to determine their additional impact on shielding. Radiated acoustic data were acquired from a traversing linear array of 13 microphones, spanning 36 inches. Two planes perpendicular, and two planes parallel, to the axis of the nacelle were acquired from the array sweep. In each plane the linear array traversed 4 sweeps, for a total span of 168 inches acquired. The resolution of the sweep is variable, so that points closer to the model are taken at a higher resolution. Contour plots of Sound Pressure Levels, and integrated Power Levels, from nacelle alone and shielded configurations are presented in this paper; as well as the in-duct mode power levels.

  14. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  15. Phase noise optimization in temporal phase-shifting digital holography with partial coherence light sources and its application in quantitative cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Remmersmann, Christian; Stürwald, Stephan; Kemper, Björn; Langehanenberg, Patrik; von Bally, Gert

    2009-03-10

    In temporal phase-shifting-based digital holographic microscopy, high-resolution phase contrast imaging requires optimized conditions for hologram recording and phase retrieval. To optimize the phase resolution, for the example of a variable three-step algorithm, a theoretical analysis on statistical errors, digitalization errors, uncorrelated errors, and errors due to a misaligned temporal phase shift is carried out. In a second step the theoretically predicted results are compared to the measured phase noise obtained from comparative experimental investigations with several coherent and partially coherent light sources. Finally, the applicability for noise reduction is demonstrated by quantitative phase contrast imaging of pancreas tumor cells. PMID:19277078

  16. Degradation in finite-harmonic subcarrier demodulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feria, Y.; Townes, S.; Pham, T.

    1995-01-01

    Previous estimates on the degradations due to a subcarrier loop assume a square-wave subcarrier. This article provides a closed-form expression for the degradations due to the subcarrier loop when a finite number of harmonics are used to demodulate the subcarrier, as in the case of the buffered telemetry demodulator. We compared the degradations using a square wave and using finite harmonics in the subcarrier demodulation and found that, for a low loop signal-to-noise ratio, using finite harmonics leads to a lower degradation. The analysis is under the assumption that the phase noise in the subcarrier (SC) loop has a Tikhonov distribution. This assumption is valid for first-order loops.

  17. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sergio; Barcons, Victor; Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity. PMID:24778948

  18. Unlocking higher harmonics in atomic force microscopy with gentle interactions

    PubMed Central

    Font, Josep; Verdaguer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Summary In dynamic atomic force microscopy, nanoscale properties are encoded in the higher harmonics. Nevertheless, when gentle interactions and minimal invasiveness are required, these harmonics are typically undetectable. Here, we propose to externally drive an arbitrary number of exact higher harmonics above the noise level. In this way, multiple contrast channels that are sensitive to compositional variations are made accessible. Numerical integration of the equation of motion shows that the external introduction of exact harmonic frequencies does not compromise the fundamental frequency. Thermal fluctuations are also considered within the detection bandwidth of interest and discussed in terms of higher-harmonic phase contrast in the presence and absence of an external excitation of higher harmonics. Higher harmonic phase shifts further provide the means to directly decouple the true topography from that induced by compositional heterogeneity. PMID:24778948

  19. Laboratory study of the effects of sidewall treatment, source directivity and temperature on the interior noise of a light aircraft fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K. E.; Mixson, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory study of add-on {coustic treatments for a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft fuselage. The sound source was a pneumatic-driver, with attached horn to simulate propeller noise distribution, powered by a white noise signal. Treatments included a double-wall, production-line treatment and various fiberglass and lead-vinyl treatments. Insertion losses, space-averaged across six interior microphone positions, were used to evaluate the treatments. In addition, the effects of sound source angle and ambient temperature on interior sound pressure level are presented. The sound source angle is shown to have a significant effect on one-third octave band localized sound pressure level. While changes in ambient temperature are shown to have little effect on one-third octave band localized sound pressure level, the change in narrowband localized sound pressure level may be dramatic.

  20. Transcriptional Bursting from the HIV-1 Promoter is a Significant Source of Stochastic Noise in HIV-1 Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A; Razooky, B; Cox, Chris D.; Simpson, Michael L; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of noise in gene expression has proven a powerful approach for analyzing gene regulatory architecture. To probe the regulatory mechanisms controlling expression of HIV-1, we analyze noise in gene-expression from HIV-1 s long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter at different HIV-1 integration sites across the human genome. Flow cytometry analysis of GFP expression from the HIV-1 LTR shows high variability (noise) at each integration site. Notably, the measured noise levels are inconsistent with constitutive gene expression models. Instead, quantification of expression noise indicates that HIV-1 gene expression occurs through randomly timed bursts of activity from the LTR and that each burst generates an average of 2 10 mRNA transcripts before the promoter returns to an inactive state. These data indicate that transcriptional bursting can generate high variability in HIV-1 early gene products, which may critically influence the viral fate-decision between active replication and proviral latency.

  1. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Ramachandaramurthy, V. K.

    2015-04-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented.

  2. Simple Harmonic Motion in Harmonic Plane Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benumof, Reuben

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the distribution of kinetic and potential energy in transverse and longitudinal waves and examines the transmission of power and momentum. This discussion is intended to aid in understanding the simple harmonic motion of a particle involved in the propagation of a harmonic mechanical plane wave. (HM)

  3. Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry: Noise characteristics of aerosols, application of generalized standard additions method, and Mach disk as an emission source

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Luan

    1995-10-06

    This dissertation is focused on three problem areas in the performance of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. The noise characteristics of aerosols produced by ICP nebulizers are investigated. A laser beam is scattered by aerosol and detected by a photomultiplier tube and the noise amplitude spectrum of the scattered radiation is measured by a spectrum analyzer. Discrete frequency noise in the aerosol generated by a Meinhard nebulizer or a direct injection nebulizer is primarily caused by pulsation in the liquid flow from the pump. A Scott-type spray chamber suppresses white noise, while a conical, straight-pass spray chamber enhances white noise, relative to the noise seen from the primary aerosol. Simultaneous correction for both spectral interferences and matrix effects in ICP atomic emission spectrometry (AES) can be accomplished by using the generalized standard additions method (GSAM). Results obtained with the application of the GSAM to the Perkin-Elmer Optima 3000 ICP atomic emission spectrometer are presented. The echelle-based polychromator with segmented-array charge-coupled device detectors enables the direct, visual examination of the overlapping lines Cd (1) 228.802 nm and As (1) 228.812 nm. The slit translation capability allows a large number of data points to be sampled, therefore, the advantage of noise averaging is gained. An ICP is extracted into a small quartz vacuum chamber through a sampling orifice in a water-cooled copper plate. Optical emission from the Mach disk region is measured with a new type of echelle spectrometer equipped with two segmented-array charge-coupled-device detectors, with an effort to improve the detection limits for simultaneous multielement analysis by ICP-AES.

  4. On Observer Internal Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Arthur E.

    1986-06-01

    Human observers behave as if they have two sources of intrinsic variability, commonly referred to as internal noise. One component (here referred to as "constant") is independent of the external noise level but does depend on mean display luminance. The other component (referred to as "induced") is directly proportional to the external noise level and dominates when the display noise is easily visible. The induced internal noise is predicted by two models - one based on intrinsic signal parameter jitter and the other on a zone of indecision. Spectral density is the appropriate measure for internal noise.

  5. Continuous miner noise

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.

    1981-08-01

    Noise generated by continuous miners in underground coal production is an important health hazard. Laboratory tests of simulated cutting operations and in-mine noise measurements have been made. These show that coal cutting noise and conveyor noise are the dominant sources of miner operational noise. Typical noise levels for cutting and conveying operations are 97 dBA. For full operation of all machine systems, the overall sound pressure level is approximately 101 dBA. In-mine and laboratory test results show excellent agreement in both A-weighted overall levels as well as A-weighted one-third octave band spectra.

  6. Normal metal-superconductor decoupling as a source of thermal fluctuation noise in transition-edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, K. M.; Palosaari, M. R. J.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2012-08-01

    We have studied the origin of excess noise in superconducting transition-edge sensors (TES) with several different detector designs. We show that most of the observed noise and complex impedance features can be explained by a thermal model consisting of three bodies. We suggest that one of the thermal blocks and the corresponding thermal fluctuation noise arise due to the high-frequency thermal decoupling of the normal and superconducting phase regions inside the TES film. Our results are also consistent with the prediction that in thin bilayer proximitized superconductors, the jump in heat capacity at the critical temperature is smaller than the universal BCS theory result.

  7. A portable measurement system for subcriticality measurements by the CF-source-driven neutron noise analysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Ragan, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    A portable system has been assembled that is capable of measuring the subcriticality of fissile materials using the /sup 252/CF-source-driven neutron noise analysis method. The measurement system consists of a parallel-plate ionization chamber containing /sup 252/CF, two /sup 3/He proportional counters with their associated electronics, and a small computer containing anti-aliasing filters and A/D convertors. The system Fourier analyzes the digitized data and forms the appropriate auto and cross-power spectral densities. These spectra are used to form a ratio of spectral densities, G/sub 12/G/sub 13//G/sub 11/G/sub 23/, where 1 refers to the ionization chamber, and 2 and 3 refer to the /sup 3/He counters, from which subcriticality can be determined. The chamber and detectors are located appropriately near the fissile material. The system is capable of sampling signals at rates of up to 80 kHz and processing these data at rates of 2 kHz to form the appropriate spectra. The presently configured system is a two-channel system, hence the measurement of G/sub 12/, G/sub 13/, and G/sub 23/ must be done sequentially before the ratio of spectral densities is obtained. Future improvements of the system will allow simultaneous measurement of all spectra and will further reduce size, thereby enhancing portability. This measurement system can provide reliable, cost effective, and convenient determination of the subcriticality of a wide variety of fissile materials and moderators.

  8. Phobos mass estimations from MEX and Viking 1 data: influence of different noise sources and estimation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashova, M.; Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The mass of Phobos is an important parameter which, together with second-order gravity field coefficients and libration amplitude, constrains internal structure and nature of the moon. And thus, it needs to be known with high precision. Nevertheless, Phobos mass (GM, more precisely) estimated by different authors based on diverse data-sets and methods, varies by more than their 1-sigma error. The most complete lists of GM values are presented in the works of R. Jacobson (2010) and M. Paetzold et al. (2014) and include the estimations in the interval from (5.39 ± 0:03).10^5 (Smith et al., 1995) till (8.5 ± 0.7).10^5[m^3/s^2] (Williams et al., 1988). Furthermore, even the comparison of the estimations coming from the same estimation procedure applied to the consecutive flybys of the same spacecraft (s/c) shows big variations in GMs. The indicated behavior is very pronounced in the GM estimations stemming from the Viking1 flybys in February 1977 (as well as from MEX flybys, though in a smaller amplitude) and in this work we made an attempt to figure out its roots. The errors of Phobos GM estimations depend on the precision of the model (e.g. accuracy of Phobos a priori ephemeris and its a priori GM value) as well as on the radio-tracking measurements quality (noise, coverage, flyby distance). In the present work we are testing the impact of mentioned above error sources by means of simulations. We also consider the effect of the uncertainties in a priori Phobos positions on the GM estimations from real observations. Apparently, the strategy (i.e. splitting real observations in data-arcs, whether they stem from the close approaches of Phobos by spacecraft or from analysis of the s/c orbit evolution around Mars) of the estimations has an impact on the Phobos GM estimation.

  9. Underwater noise of small personal watercraft (jet skis).

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Personal watercraft (water scooters, jet skis) were recorded under water in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia. Underwater noise emissions consisted of broadband energy between 100 Hz and 10 kHz due to the vibrating bubble cloud generated by the jet stream, overlain with frequency-modulated tonals corresponding to impeller blade rates and harmonics. Broadband monopole source levels were 149, 137, and 122 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m (5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles). Even though these are lower than those of small propeller-driven boats, it is not necessarily the broadband source level that correlates with the bioacoustic impact on marine fauna. PMID:23556699

  10. A Low-Noise CMOS THz Imager Based on Source Modulation and an In-Pixel High-Q Passive Switched-Capacitor N-Path Filter.

    PubMed

    Boukhayma, Assim; Dupret, Antoine; Rostaing, Jean-Pierre; Enz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first low noise complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) deletedCMOS terahertz (THz) imager based on source modulation and in-pixel high-Q filtering. The 31 × 31 focal plane array has been fully integrated in a 0 . 13 μ m standard CMOS process. The sensitivity has been improved significantly by modulating the active THz source that lights the scene and performing on-chip high-Q filtering. Each pixel encompass a broadband bow tie antenna coupled to an N-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (NMOS) detector that shifts the THz radiation, a low noise adjustable gain amplifier and a high-Q filter centered at the modulation frequency. The filter is based on a passive switched-capacitor (SC) N-path filter combined with a continuous-time broad-band Gm-C filter. A simplified analysis that helps in designing and tuning the passive SC N-path filter is provided. The characterization of the readout chain shows that a Q factor of 100 has been achieved for the filter with a good matching between the analytical calculation and the measurement results. An input-referred noise of 0 . 2 μ V RMS has been measured. Characterization of the chip with different THz wavelengths confirms the broadband feature of the antenna and shows that this THz imager reaches a total noise equivalent power of 0 . 6 nW at 270 GHz and 0 . 8 nW at 600 GHz. PMID:26950131

  11. Quasi-optical harmonic gyrotron and gyroklystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manheimer, W.; Levush, B.

    1985-12-01

    This patent discloses a method and apparatus for suppressing lower order cyclotron harmonics in order to permit resonance within a quasi-optical gyrotron/gyroklystron configuration of a desired high order harmonic. In the gyrotron/gyroklystron configuration at least one open resonator defined by at least two mirrors is positioned downstream from an electron beam source for receiving therethrough the beam of electrons and for exchanging energy therewith. This method includes the steps for choosing a mirror radius size large enough relative to the spot size of a desired radiation cyclotron harmonic so that the harmonic oscillates within the at least one resonator, but small enough so that the spot size for the next lower cyclotron harmonic is larger than the mirror so that harmonic does not oscillate due to diffraction losses. This method further includes the step of generating an electron beam bias the electron beam source with a beam current which is greater than or equal to the starting current for the desired nth cyclotron harmonic, but less than the starting current for the nth cyclotron harmonic.

  12. Harmonization of Biodiesel Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Alleman, T. L.

    2008-02-01

    Worldwide biodiesel production has grown dramatically over the last several years. Biodiesel standards vary across countries and regions, and there is a call for harmonization. For harmonization to become a reality, standards have to be adapted to cover all feedstocks. Additionally, all feedstocks cannot meet all specifications, so harmonization will require standards to either tighten or relax. For harmonization to succeed, the biodiesel market must be expanded with the alignment of test methods and specification limits, not contracted.

  13. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    SciTech Connect

    Budil, K.S.

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I {approximately}10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}) is focused into a dense ({approximately}10{sup l7} particles/cm{sup 3}) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic {open_quotes}source{close_quotes}. A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  14. Reduction of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise by active rotor control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean; Brooks, Thomas F.

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations.

  15. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  17. Higher-Order Harmonic Generation from Fullerene by Means of the Plasma Harmonic Method

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Bom, L. B. Elouga; Abdul-Hadi, J.; Ozaki, T.; Wong, M. C. H.; Brichta, J. P.; Bhardwaj, V. R.

    2009-01-09

    We demonstrate, for the first time, high-order harmonic generation from C{sub 60} by an intense femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser. Laser-produced plasmas from C{sub 60}-rich epoxy and C{sub 60} films were used as the nonlinear media. Harmonics up to the 19th order were observed. The harmonic yield from fullerene-rich plasma is about 25 times larger compared with those produced from a bulk carbon target. Structural studies of plasma debris confirm the presence and integrity of fullerenes within the plasma plume, indicating fullerenes as the source of high-order harmonics.

  18. Acoustic analysis of aft noise reduction techniques measured on a subsonic tip speed 50.8 cm (twenty inch) diameter fan. [quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Clemons, A.

    1977-01-01

    Sound data which were obtained during tests of a 50.8 cm diameter, subsonic tip speed, low pressure ratio fan were analyzed. The test matrix was divided into two major investigations: (1) source noise reduction techniques; and (2) aft duct noise reduction with acoustic treatment. Source noise reduction techniques were investigated which include minimizing second harmonic noise by varying vane/blade ratio, variation in spacing, and lowering the Mach number through the vane row to lower fan broadband noise. Treatment in the aft duct which includes flow noise effects, faceplate porosity, rotor OGV treatment, slant cell treatment, and splitter simulation with variable depth on the outer wall and constant thickness treatment on the inner wall was investigated. Variable boundary conditions such as variation in treatment panel thickness and orientation, and mixed porosity combined with variable thickness were examined. Significant results are reported.

  19. Shanghai alleviates noise pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Runling

    1983-07-14

    ''Environmental noise is now under control in Shanghai, the level of environmental noise is basically holding steady, and in some areas industrial and traffic noise has decreased.'' These were the conclusions of research by Hong Zonghui (3163 1350 6540) and Wang Shixian (3769 6164 6343) of Tongji University's Acoustics Laboratory, as put forward at a recent public academic lecture at Tongji University. In order to eliminate noise from the environment, Tongji University in the early 1970's began conducting investigations and research on noise pollution and its control together with concerned units in this city. After tests in a network of 2,117 points throughout the city, they determined that the most common form of noise pollution is traffic, which accounts for 50 percent of all noise. Since 1979, this city has adopted successive measures in the area of traffic control in order to eliminate the source of noise. Traffic noise has now dropped about 3 decibels in the city. This research report also pointed out that according to the results of regional environmental noise tests, this city does not meet the noise pollution standards set by the state. Tugboats on the Suzhou He blow their whistles late at night, and the noise at riverside homes can reach 82 decibels; the Fangua Lane residential district is close to a railroad where engine noise can reach 89 decibels and affect the residents' health. In addition, rather serious noise pollution is produced by more than 300 handicraft, light industry, textile, and electrical machinery plants.

  20. Proceedings, inter-noise 84 - international cooperation for noise control. 2 Vols

    SciTech Connect

    Maling, G.C. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A total of 199 papers were presented on noise control engineering, especially in the areas of community noise control, sound intensity, noise emission sources, active sound attenuation and noise reduction by barriers. 4 papers have been abstracted separately.