Science.gov

Sample records for harness test based

  1. NCCS Regression Test Harness

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-09-09

    The NCCS Regression Test Harness is a software package that provides a framework to perform regression and acceptance testing on NCCS High Performance Computers. The package is written in Python and has only the dependency of a Subversion repository to store the regression tests.

  2. A TCP-Over-UDP Test Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Dunigan, TH

    2002-10-31

    This report describes an implementation of a TCP-like protocol that runs over UDP. This TCP-like implementation, which does not require kernel modifications, provides a test harness for evaluating variations of the TCP transport protocol over the Internet. The test harness provides a tunable and instrumented version of TCP that supports Reno, NewReno, and SACK/FACK. The test harness can also be used to characterize the TCP-performance of a network path. Several case studies illustrate how one can tune the transport protocol to improve performance.

  3. Can the emotion of disgust be harnessed to promote hand hygiene? Experimental and field-based tests.

    PubMed

    Porzig-Drummond, Renata; Stevenson, Richard; Case, Trevor; Oaten, Megan

    2009-03-01

    Two studies carried out in Sydney, Australia explored whether inducing disgust may be a useful addition to hand-hygiene interventions. Experiment 1 employed a novel laboratory measure of hand hygiene, and tested whether a brief (3-min) video-based intervention using disgust/education, improved hand hygiene relative to education alone and a control condition. On test, a week later, the disgust intervention significantly exceeded the education and control condition combined, although the effect size was modest. Experiment 2 examined the generality of this effect in a field study. During a baseline period, soap and paper towel use in a series of washrooms were covertly monitored. This was followed by an intervention period, in which two washrooms received disgust/education-based posters and a further two, educational posters, exhorting participants to wash their hands. A follow-up period, after the posters were removed, was also monitored. The disgust-based intervention was significantly better at promoting hand hygiene. These findings suggest that even brief disgust-based interventions may be successful and that these can be tested and developed under laboratory conditions. PMID:19181428

  4. Evaluation of Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing. Part B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, M. S.; Iannello, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Cable Harness Post-Installation Testing Report was written in response to an action issued by the Ares Project Control Board (PCB). The action for the Ares I Avionics & Software Chief Engineer and the Avionics Integration and Vehicle Systems Test Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Manager in the Vehicle Integration Office was to develop a set of guidelines for electrical cable harnesses. Research showed that post-installation tests have been done since the Apollo era. For Ares I-X, the requirement for post-installation testing was removed to make it consistent with the avionics processes used on the Atlas V expendable launch vehicle. Further research for the report involved surveying government and private sector launch vehicle developers, military and commercial aircraft, spacecraft developers, and harness vendors. Responses indicated crewed launch vehicles and military aircraft perform post-installation tests. Key findings in the report were as follows: Test requirements identify damage, human-rated vehicles should be tested despite the identification of statistically few failures, data does not support the claim that post-installation testing damages the harness insulation system, and proper planning can reduce overhead associated with testing. The primary recommendation of the report is for the Ares projects to retain the practice of post-fabrication and post-installation cable harness testing.

  5. High-Density Terminal Box for Testing Wire Harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, W. B.; Collins, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Compact terminal box provides access to complex wiring harnesses for testing. Box accommodates more than twice as many wires as previous boxes. Box takes in wires via cable connectors and distributes them to contacts on box face. Instead of separate insulated jacks in metal face panel, box uses pairs of small military-standard metal sockets in precision-drilled plastic panel. Shorting plug provides continuity for wires when not being tested.

  6. 42 CFR 84.151 - Harness test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... concrete floor without disarranging the harness or exerting a pull on the facepiece. (5) The arrangement... manner that prevents a pull equivalent to dragging the maximum length of the hose over a concrete...

  7. 42 CFR 84.151 - Harness test; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... concrete floor without disarranging the harness or exerting a pull on the facepiece. (5) The arrangement... manner that prevents a pull equivalent to dragging the maximum length of the hose over a concrete...

  8. Determining Damping Trends from a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies on a Launch Vehicle Panel from Test Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.

  9. The effects of a harness safety system during maximal treadmill run testing in collegiate middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mermier, Christine M; Zuhl, Micah N; Wilmerding, M Virginia; Beam, Jason R; White, Ailish C; Salgado, Roy M; Beverly, J Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study compared the results of graded maximal treadmill testing with and without a safety harness (SH) spotting system among collegiate middle- and long-distance runners. Thirteen (n = 8 men, n = 5 women) collegiate runners completed 2 randomly selected maximal treadmill tests. One trial used an SH, and one trial used no harness. All tests were separated by at least 48 hours. The subjects began the test at a velocity of 14.5 or 12 km · h with 1% grade for men and women, respectively, and increased 0.80 kilometers/hr per stage. During each trial, metabolic data and running speed values were recorded along with the completion of a safety questionnaire. No significant difference was found for maximal oxygen consumption (60.84 ± 8.89 vs. 60.733 ± 9.38 ml · kg · min) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (5.33 ± 0.62 vs. 5.24 ± 0.57 m · s) between the no harness and harness trials, respectively. Test time was found to be significantly longer in the no harness trial (611.06 ± 119.34 vs. 537.38 ± 91.83 seconds, p < 0.05). The results of the safety questionnaire demonstrated that the runners felt significantly more comfortable during the SH trial (p < 0.05). PMID:23442275

  10. Safety harness

    DOEpatents

    Gunter, Larry W.

    1993-01-01

    A safety harness to be worn by a worker, especially a worker wearing a plastic suit thereunder for protection in a radioactive or chemically hostile environment, which safety harness comprises a torso surrounding portion with at least one horizontal strap for adjustably securing the harness about the torso, two vertical shoulder straps with rings just forward of the of the peak of the shoulders for attaching a life-line and a pair of adjustable leg supporting straps releasibly attachable to the torso surrounding portion. In the event of a fall, the weight of the worker, when his fall is broken and he is suspended from the rings with his body angled slightly back and chest up, will be borne by the portion of the leg straps behind his buttocks rather than between his legs. Furthermore, the supporting straps do not restrict the air supplied through hoses into his suit when so suspended.

  11. Environmental Control Unit Harness Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Testing four new Environmental Control Unit Harnesses for improved user comfort during SCAPE operations. Phase I, testing in a lab environment, Phase II will continue testing the best candidates in a field environment.

  12. JWST ISIM Harness Thermal Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobel, Mark; Glazer, Stuart; Tuttle, Jim; Martins, Mario; Ruppel, Sean

    2008-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be a large infrared telescope with a 6.5-meter primary mirror. Launch is planned for 2013. JWST wl1 be the premier observatory of the next decade serving thousands of astronomers worldwide. The Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) is the unit that will house thc four main JWST instruments. The ISIM enclosure passively cooled to 37 Kelvin and has a tightly managed thermal budget. A significant portion of the ISIM heat load is due to parasitic heat gains from the instrument harnesses. These harnesses provide a thermal path from the Instrument Electronics Control (IEC) to the ISIM. Because of the impact of this load to the ISIM thermal design, understanding the harness parasitic heat gains is critical. To this effect, a thermal test program has been conducted in order to characterize these parasitic loads and verify harness thermal models. Recent parasitic heat loads tests resulted in the addition of a dedicated multiple stage harness radiator. In order for the radiator to efficiently reject heat from the harness, effective thermal contact conductance values for multiple harnesses had to be determined. This presentation will describe the details and the results of this test program.

  13. Harnessing DNA intercalation.

    PubMed

    Persil, Ozgül; Hud, Nicholas V

    2007-10-01

    Numerous small molecules are known to bind to DNA through base pair intercalation. Fluorescent dyes commonly used for nucleic acid staining, such as ethidium, are familiar examples. Biological and physical studies of DNA intercalation have historically been motivated by mutation and drug discovery research. However, this same mode of binding is now being harnessed for the creation of novel molecular assemblies. Recent studies have used DNA scaffolds and intercalators to construct supramolecular assemblies that function as fluorescent 'nanotags' for cell labeling. Other studies have demonstrated how intercalators can be used to promote the formation of otherwise unstable nucleic acid assemblies. These applications illustrate how intercalators can be used to facilitate and expand DNA-based nanotechnology. PMID:17825446

  14. Harnessing RNAi-based nanomedicines for therapeutic gene silencing in B-cell malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Shiri; Toker, Itai A.; Emmanuel, Rafi; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Rosenblum, Daniel; Goldsmith, Meir; Abraham, Avigdor; Benjamini, Ohad; Bairey, Osnat; Raanani, Pia; Nagler, Arnon; Lieberman, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in systemic small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the liver and to solid tumors, systemic siRNA delivery to leukocytes remains challenging. The ability to silence gene expression in leukocytes has great potential for identifying drug targets and for RNAi-based therapy for leukocyte diseases. However, both normal and malignant leukocytes are among the most difficult targets for siRNA delivery as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed in the body. We used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a prototypic blood cancer for validating a novel siRNA delivery strategy. MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that overexpresses cyclin D1 with relatively poor prognosis. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 using RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential therapeutic approach to this malignancy. Here, we designed lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) coated with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies that are specifically taken up by human MCL cells in the bone marrow of xenografted mice. When loaded with siRNAs against cyclin D1, CD38-targeted LNPs induced gene silencing in MCL cells and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice with no observed adverse effects. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cyclin D1 therapy in MCL and present a novel RNAi delivery system that opens new therapeutic opportunities for treating MCL and other B-cell malignancies. PMID:26699502

  15. Harnessing RNAi-based nanomedicines for therapeutic gene silencing in B-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Shiri; Toker, Itai A; Emmanuel, Rafi; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Rosenblum, Daniel; Goldsmith, Meir; Abraham, Avigdor; Benjamini, Ohad; Bairey, Osnat; Raanani, Pia; Nagler, Arnon; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in systemic small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery to the liver and to solid tumors, systemic siRNA delivery to leukocytes remains challenging. The ability to silence gene expression in leukocytes has great potential for identifying drug targets and for RNAi-based therapy for leukocyte diseases. However, both normal and malignant leukocytes are among the most difficult targets for siRNA delivery as they are resistant to conventional transfection reagents and are dispersed in the body. We used mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) as a prototypic blood cancer for validating a novel siRNA delivery strategy. MCL is an aggressive B-cell lymphoma that overexpresses cyclin D1 with relatively poor prognosis. Down-regulation of cyclin D1 using RNA interference (RNAi) is a potential therapeutic approach to this malignancy. Here, we designed lipid-based nanoparticles (LNPs) coated with anti-CD38 monoclonal antibodies that are specifically taken up by human MCL cells in the bone marrow of xenografted mice. When loaded with siRNAs against cyclin D1, CD38-targeted LNPs induced gene silencing in MCL cells and prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice with no observed adverse effects. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cyclin D1 therapy in MCL and present a novel RNAi delivery system that opens new therapeutic opportunities for treating MCL and other B-cell malignancies. PMID:26699502

  16. Bio-based Wrinkled Surfaces Harnessed from Biological Design Principles of Wood and Peroxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Hironori; Okuda, Noriko; Ifuku, Shinsuke; Morimoto, Minoru; Saimoto, Hiroyuki; Rojas, Orlando J

    2015-11-01

    A new and simple approach for surface wrinkling inspired by polymer assemblies in wood fibers is introduced. A hard skin is synthesized on a linear polysaccharide support that resembles the structural units of the cell wall. This skin, a wood mimetic layer, is produced through immersion in a solution containing phenolic precursor and subsequent surface reaction by horseradish peroxidase. A patterned surface with micron-scale wrinkles is formed upon drying and as a result of inhomogeneous shrinkage. We demonstrate that the design of the wrinkled surfaces can be controlled by the molecular structure of the phenolic precursor, temperature, and drying stress. It is noteworthy that this is a totally bio-based system involving green materials and processes. PMID:26489384

  17. Harnessing cellular differentiation to improve ALA-based photodynamic therapy in an artificial skin model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maytin, Edward; Anand, Sanjay; Sato, Nobuyuki; Mack, Judith; Ortel, Bernhard

    2005-04-01

    During ALA-based photodynamic therapy (PDT), a pro-drug (aminolevulinic acid; ALA) is taken up by tumor cells and metabolically converted to a photosensitizing intermediate (protoporphyrin IX; PpIX). ALA-based PDT, while an emerging treatment modality, remains suboptimal for most cancers (e.g. squamous cell carcinoma of the skin). Many treatment failures may be largely due to insufficient conversion of ALA to PpIX within cells. We discovered a novel way to increase the conversion of ALA to PpIX, by administering agents that can drive terminal differentiation (i.e., accelerate cellular maturation). Terminally-differentiated epithelial cells show higher levels of intracellular PpIX, apparently via increased levels of a rate-limiting enzyme, coproporphyrinogen oxidase (CPO). To study these mechanisms in a three-dimensional tissue, we developed an organotypic model that mimics true epidermal physiology in a majority of respects. A line of rat epidermal keratinocytes (REKs), when grown in raft cultures, displays all the features of a fully-differentiated epidermis. Addition of ALA to the culture medium results in ALA uptake and PpIX synthesis, with subsequent death of keratinocytes upon exposure to blue light. Using this model, we can manipulate cellular differentiation via three different approaches. (1) Vitamin D, a hormone that enhances keratinocyte differentiation; (2) Hoxb13, a nuclear transcription factor that affects the genetically-controlled differentiation program of stratifying cells (3) Hyaluronan, an abundant extracellular matrix molecule that regulates epidermal differentiation. Because the raft cultures contain only a single cell type (no blood, fibroblasts, etc.) the effects of terminal differentiation upon CPO, PpIX, and keratinocyte cell death can be specifically defined.

  18. Acidogenic fermentation of vegetable based market waste to harness biohydrogen with simultaneous stabilization.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Mohanakrishna, G; Goud, R Kannaiah; Sarma, P N

    2009-06-01

    Vegetable based market waste was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H(2)) production with simultaneous stabilization by dark-fermentation process using selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under acidophilic microenvironment. Experiments were performed at different substrate/organic loading conditions in concurrence with two types of feed compositions (with and without pulp). Study depicted the feasibility of H(2) production from vegetable waste stabilization process. H(2) production was found to be dependent on the concentration of the substrate and composition. Higher H(2) production and substrate degradation were observed in experiments performed without pulp (23.96 mmol/day (30.0 kg COD/m(3)); 13.96 mol/kg COD(R) (4.8 kg COD/m(3))) than with pulp (22.46 mmol/day (32.0 kg COD/m(3)); 12.24 mol/kg COD(R) (4.4 kg COD/m(3))). Generation of higher concentrations of acetic acid and butyric acid was observed in experiments performed without pulp. Data enveloping analysis (DEA) was employed to study the combined process efficiency of system by integrating H(2) production and substrate degradation. PMID:19230653

  19. Intelligent electrical harness connector assembly using Bell Helicopter Textron's 'Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, D. W.

    Bell Helicopter Textron, Incorporated (BHTI) installed two Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-11 computers and an American Can Inc. Ink Jet printer in 1980 as the cornerstone of the Wire Harness Automated Manufacturing System (WHAMS). WHAMS is based upon the electrical assembly philosophy of continuous filament harness forming. This installation provided BHTI with a 3 to 1 return-on-investment by reducing wire and cable identification cycle time by 80 percent and harness forming, on dedicated layout tooling, by 40 percent. Yet, this improvement in harness forming created a bottle neck in connector assembly. To remove this bottle neck, BHTI has installed a prototype connector assembly cell that integrates the WHAMS' data base and innovative computer technologies to cut harness connector assembly cycle time. This novel connector assembly cell uses voice recognition, laser identification, and animated computer graphics to help the electrician in the correct assembly of harness connectors.

  20. PROPOSED BIOACCUMULATION TESTING EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING THE SUITABILITY OF DREDGED MATERIAL TO BE PLACED AT THE HISTORIC AREA REMEDIATION SITE (HARS) - PHASE 1 HUMAN HEALTH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The August 29, 1997 Final Rule, Simultaneous De-designation and Termination of the Mud Dump Site and Designation of the HARS, specifies that the HARS will be remediated by covering it with uncontaminated dredged material (i.e., dredged material that meets current Category I stand...

  1. Behavior of sandhill cranes harnessed with different satellite transmitters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Ellis, D.H.; Landfried, S.E.; Miller, L.H.; Klugman, S.S.; Fuller, M.R.; Vermillion, C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of various attachment methods and designs of platform transmitting terminals (PTT's) was tested on captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, during 1989-91. Combinations of attachment and transmitter designs included neoprene cord harness with batteries separate from the transmitter (2 harness designs), Teflon ribbon harness with batteries incorporated into the transmitter package (4 transmitter models), and a package attached directly to the bird with epoxy glue only. Physical effects seen on cranes wearing PTT's ranged from skin lacerations (caused by rubbing of harness material) to no observed effects (other than feather wear). The most successful harness material and design utilized a Teflon ribbon harness with the 4 ribbon ends from the transmitter forming a neck loop and a body loop joined at the sternum. Time spent by sandhill cranes performing most activities did not change after transmitter attachment using this harness method.

  2. Distributed Real-Time Computing with Harness

    SciTech Connect

    Di Saverio, Emanuele; Cesati, Marco; Di Biagio, Christian; Pennella, Guido; Engelmann, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Modern parallel and distributed computing solutions are often built onto a ''middleware'' software layer providing a higher and common level of service between computational nodes. Harness is an adaptable, plugin-based middleware framework for parallel and distributed computing. This paper reports recent research and development results of using Harness for real-time distributed computing applications in the context of an industrial environment with the needs to perform several safety critical tasks. The presented work exploits the modular architecture of Harness in conjunction with a lightweight threaded implementation to resolve several real-time issues by adding three new Harness plug-ins to provide a prioritized lightweight execution environment, low latency communication facilities, and local timestamped event logging.

  3. Quick-donning backpack harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, D. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Harness device permits user to quickly put on or take off load carried in backpack arrangement. It can be attached with one hand; has controlled deformation belt that automatically encircles user upon application of pressure; has rigid shoulder harness elements which move automatically into place; and primary attachment components cannot be displaced while harness is in place.

  4. Har Crater on Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image shows a heavily cratered region near Callisto's equator. It was taken by the Galileo spacecraft Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on its ninth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image. The 50 kilometer (30 mile) double ring crater in the center of the image is named Har. Har displays an unusual rounded mound on its floor. The origin of the mound is unclear but probably involves uplift of ice-rich materials from below, either as a 'rebound' immediately following the impact that formed the crater or as a later process. Har is older than the prominent 20 kilometer (12 mile) crater superposed on its western rim. The large crater partially visible in the northeast corner of the image is called Tindr. Chains of secondary craters (craters formed from the impact of materials thrown out of the main crater during an impact) originating from Tindr crosscut the eastern rim of Har.

    The image, centered at 3.3 degrees south latitude and 357.9 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 120 kilometers by 115 kilometers (75 miles by 70 miles). The sun illuminates the scene from the west (left). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 294 meters (973 feet) across. This image was obtained on June 25, 1997, when Galileo was 14,080 kilometers (8,590 miles) from Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov.

  5. Manufacturing and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses, Volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 8, flat conductor cable. Volume breadth covers installations of groups of harnesses in a major assembly and the associated post installation inspections and electrical tests. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated into this document.

  6. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  7. Harnessing our very life.

    PubMed

    Wills, Peter R; Williams, David L F; Trussell, Denys; Mann, L R B

    2013-01-01

    The Aristotelian ideas of nature (physis) and technology (techné) are taken as a starting point for understanding what it would mean for technology to be truly living. Heidegger's critique of the conflation of scientific and technological thinking in the current era is accepted as demonstrating that humanity does not have a deep enough appreciation of the nature of life to harness its essence safely. Could the vision of harnessing life be realized, which we strongly doubt, living technology would give selected humans transforming powers that could be expected to exacerbate, rather than solve, current global problems. The source of human purposefulness, and hence of both technology and ethics, is identified in nature's emergent capability to instantiate informational representations in material forms. Ethics that are properly grounded in an appreciation of intrinsic value, especially that of life, demand that proposals to give humanity the capabilities of living technology address the social, political, economic, and environmental problems inherent in its development and potential deployment. Before any development is embarked on, steps must be taken to avoid living technology, whatever the term eventually designates, becoming available for destructive or antisocial purposes such as those that might devastate humanity or irrevocably damage the natural world. PMID:23889745

  8. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  9. Atlas-based neuroinformatics via MRI: harnessing information from past clinical cases and quantitative image analysis for patient care.

    PubMed

    Mori, Susumu; Oishi, Kenichi; Faria, Andreia V; Miller, Michael I

    2013-01-01

    With the ever-increasing amount of anatomical information radiologists have to evaluate for routine diagnoses, computational support that facilitates more efficient education and clinical decision making is highly desired. Despite the rapid progress of image analysis technologies for magnetic resonance imaging of the human brain, these methods have not been widely adopted for clinical diagnoses. To bring computational support into the clinical arena, we need to understand the decision-making process employed by well-trained clinicians and develop tools to simulate that process. In this review, we discuss the potential of atlas-based clinical neuroinformatics, which consists of annotated databases of anatomical measurements grouped according to their morphometric phenotypes and coupled with the clinical informatics upon which their diagnostic groupings are based. As these are indexed via parametric representations, we can use image retrieval tools to search for phenotypes along with their clinical metadata. The review covers the current technology, preliminary data, and future directions of this field. PMID:23642246

  10. Targeting Rapamycin to Podocytes Using a Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-Harnessed SAINT-Based Lipid Carrier System

    PubMed Central

    Visweswaran, Ganesh Ram R.; Gholizadeh, Shima; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Molema, Grietje; Kok, Robbert J.; Kamps, Jan. A. A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with mesangial cells, glomerular endothelial cells and the basement membrane, podocytes constitute the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) of the kidney. Podocytes play a pivotal role in the progression of various kidney-related diseases such as glomerular sclerosis and glomerulonephritis that finally lead to chronic end-stage renal disease. During podocytopathies, the slit-diaphragm connecting the adjacent podocytes are detached leading to severe loss of proteins in the urine. The pathophysiology of podocytopathies makes podocytes a potential and challenging target for nanomedicine development, though there is a lack of known molecular targets for cell selective drug delivery. To identify VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor that is suitable for binding and internalization of nanomedicine carrier systems by podocytes, we investigated its expression in the immortalized podocyte cell lines AB8/13 and MPC-5, and in primary podocytes. Gene and protein expression analyses revealed that VCAM-1 expression is increased by podocytes upon TNFα-activation for up to 24 h. This was paralleled by anti-VCAM-1 antibody binding to the TNFα-activated cells, which can be employed as a ligand to facilitate the uptake of nanocarriers under inflammatory conditions. Hence, we next explored the possibilities of using VCAM-1 as a cell-surface receptor to deliver the potent immunosuppressant rapamycin to TNFα-activated podocytes using the lipid-based nanocarrier system Saint-O-Somes. Anti-VCAM-1-rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes more effectively inhibited the cell migration of AB8/13 cells than free rapamycin and non-targeted rapamycin-SAINT-O-Somes indicating the potential of VCAM-1 targeted drug delivery to podocytes. PMID:26407295

  11. High Performance Computing with Harness over InfiniBand

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Alessandro; Di Biagio, Christian; Batino, Fabrizio; Pennella, Guido; Palma, Fabrizio; Engelmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Harness is an adaptable and plug-in-based middleware framework able to support distributed parallel computing. By now, it is based on the Ethernet protocol which cannot guarantee high performance throughput and real time (determinism) performance. During last years, both, the research and industry environments have developed new network architectures (InfiniBand, Myrinet, iWARP, etc.) to avoid those limits. This paper concerns the integration between Harness and InfiniBand focusing on two solutions: IP over InfiniBand (IPoIB) and Socket Direct Protocol (SDP) technology. They allow the Harness middleware to take advantage of the enhanced features provided by the InfiniBand Architecture.

  12. SU-F-BRE-16: VMAT Commissioning and Quality Assurance (QA) of An Elekta Synergy-STM Linac Using ICOM Test HarnessTM

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, A; Rajaguru, P; He, R; Yang, C; Kaurin, D; Paul, T; Plowman, A

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To establish a set of tests based on the iCOM software that can be used to commission and perform periodic QA of VMAT delivery on the Elekta Synergy-S, commonly known as the Beam Modulator (BM). Methods: iCOM is used to create and deliver customized treatment fields to characterize the system in terms of 1) MLC positioning accuracy under static and dynamic delivery with full gantry rotation, 2) MLC positioning with known errors, 3) Maximum dose rate, 4) Maximum MLC speed, 5) Maximum gantry speed, 6) Synchronization: gantry speed versus dose rate, and 7) Synchronization: MLC speed versus dose rate. The resulting images were captured on the iView GT and exported in DICOM format to Dosimetry Check™ system for visual and quantitative analysis. For the initial commissioning phase, the system tests described should be supplemented with extensive patient QAs covering all clinically relevant treatment sites. Results: The system performance test suite showed that on our Synergy-S, MLC positioning was accurate under both static and dynamic deliveries. Intentional errors of 1 mm were also easily identified on both static and dynamic picket fence tests. Maximum dose rate was verified with stop watch to be consistently between 475-480 MU/min. Maximum gantry speed and MLC speed were 5.5 degree/s and 2.5 cm/s respectively. After accounting for beam flatness, both synchronization tests, gantry versus dose rate and MLC speed versus dose rate, were successful as the fields were uniform across the strips and there were no obvious cold/hot spots. Conclusion: VMAT commissioning and quality assurance should include machine characterization tests in addition to patient QAs. Elekta iCOM is a valuable tool for the design of customized VMAT field with specific MU, MLC leaf positions, dose rate, and indirect control of MLC and gantry speed at each of its control points.

  13. Ambulatory purchasing: harnessing supply costs.

    PubMed

    Jager, P A

    1997-04-01

    The healthcare system remains in a dynamic state of flux. We have all heard the story: the changing healthcare market brings reduced reimbursement for services, increased competition, and steadily increasing supply, maintenance, and equipment costs. Ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) must keep in sync with this change or fail to survive the current market forces. However, because they represent a small contract to various vendors, many ASCs pay premium prices for inventory while receiving less from Managed Care Plans (MCPs) and Health Maintenance Organizations (HMOs). This dilemma makes control of supply costs a top priority for ASCs. In reality, purchasing is becoming more strategically connected to the ASC balance sheet than ever before. Apart from personnel costs, supply and pharmaceutical purchasing represents the greatest expense category on our financial statement. Harnessing these costs directly relates to bottom line profitability. In addition, while performing cost savings magic, ASCs must maintain patient and surgeon satisfaction with the superior outcomes and state-of-the-art technology their reputations are based upon. Sound impossible? This article details how Surgery Center Plus, Inc. (SCP) implemented a cost containment project. PMID:10167012

  14. Sea floor topography and backscatter intensity of the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS), offshore of New York, based on multibeam surveys conducted in 1996, 1998, and 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Danforth, W.W.; Knowles, S.C.; May, Brian; Serrett, Laurie

    2000-01-01

    An area offshore of Sandy Hook, New Jersey, has been used extensively for disposal of dredged and other materials, derived from the New York/New Jersey Harbor and surrounding areas, since the late 1800's (Figure 1). Between 1976 and 1995, the New York Bight Dredged Material Disposal Site, also known as the Mud Dump Site (Figure 2), received on average about 6 million cubic yards of material each year from federal and private maintenance dredging and from harbor deepening activities (Massa and others, 1996). In September 1997 the Mud Dump Site (MDS) was closed as an official ocean disposal site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (http://www.epa.gov/), and the MDS and surrounding areas were designated as the Historic Area Remediation Site (HARS). The HARS is subdivided into a Primary Remediation Area (PRA, subdivided into 9 cells), a Buffer Zone, and a No-Discharge Zone (Figure 2). The sea floor of the HARS, approximately 9 square nautical miles in area, is being remediated by placing at least a one-meter cap of Category I (clean) dredged material on top of the existing surface sediments that exhibit varying degrees of degradation. (See http://www.nan.usace.army.mil/business/prjlinks/dmmp/benefic/hars.htm)(Category I sediments have no potential short or long-term impacts and are acceptable for unrestricted ocean disposal (EPA, 1996)). About 1.1 million cubic yards of dredged material for remediation was placed in the HARS in 1999, and 2.5 million cubic yards in 2000. Three multibeam echosounder surveys were carried out to map the topography and surficial geology of the HARS. The surveys were conducted November 23 - December 3, 1996, October 26 - November 11, 1998, and April 6 - 30, 2000. The surveys were carried out as part of a larger survey of the Hudson Shelf Valley and adjacent shelf (Butman and others, 1998, (http://pubs.usgs.gov/openfile/of98-616/). This report presents maps showing topography, shaded relief, and backscatter intensity (a measure of sea

  15. Flight performance energetics and water turnovers of Tippler Pigeons with a harness and doorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, James A.; Workman, Gar W.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a birda??s mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Plight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO, production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measurements precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  16. Flight performance, energetics and water turnover of tippler pigeons with a harness and dorsal load

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gessaman, J.A.; Workman, G.W.; Fuller, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    We measured carbon dioxide production and water efflux of 12 tippler pigeons (Columba spp.) during seven experimental flights using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Prior to the experiment birds were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group flew as controls (no load or harness) on all seven flights. The other group wore a harness on two flights, a dorsal load/harness package (weighing about 5% of a bird's mass) on two flights, and they were without a load in three flights. Flight duration of pigeons with only a harness and with a dorsal load/harness package was 21 and 26% less, respectively, than the controls. Pigeons wearing a harness, or wearing a dorsal load/harness package lost water 50-90%, and 57-100% faster, respectively, than control pigeons. The mean CO2 production of pigeons wearing a harness or a load/harness package was not significantly different than pigeons without a harness or load. The small sample sizes and large variability in DLW measuremets precluded a good test of the energetic cost of flying with a harness and dorsal load.

  17. Harness the Power of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Today, U.S. educators are teaching in the midst of a technological revolution. Technology promises to provide innovative solutions in the nation's classrooms, just as it has transformed the way people communicate, socialize, and conduct business. In this article, the author argues that now is the time to harness technology to revolutionize the way…

  18. Harnessing the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Robert R.; And Others

    The Willow Creek School Division in southern Alberta (Canada) invited leaders of various community agencies to serve on a task force to examine how changes in the local society were affecting children. The division serves approximately 2,700 rural-based students in several small rural communities. The task force was composed of the leaders of a…

  19. Which is the better forecasting model? A comparison between HAR-RV and multifractality volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Feng; Wei, Yu; Huang, Dengshi; Chen, Yixiang

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, by taking the 5-min high frequency data of the Shanghai Composite Index as example, we compare the forecasting performance of HAR-RV and Multifractal volatility, Realized volatility, Realized Bipower Variation and their corresponding short memory model with rolling windows forecasting method and the Model Confidence Set which is proved superior to SPA test. The empirical results show that, for six loss functions, HAR-RV outperforms other models. Moreover, to make the conclusions more precise and robust, we use the MCS test to compare the performance of their logarithms form models, and find that the HAR-log(RV) has a better performance in predicting future volatility. Furthermore, by comparing the two models of HAR-RV and HAR-log(RV), we conclude that, in terms of performance forecasting, the HAR-log(RV) model is the best model among models we have discussed in this paper.

  20. Harnessing the Microbiome to Enhance Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Michelle H.; Diven, Marshall A.; Huff, Logan W.; Paulos, Chrystal M.

    2015-01-01

    The microbiota plays a key role in regulating the innate and adaptive immune system. Herein, we review the immunological aspects of the microbiota in tumor immunity in mice and man, with a focus on toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, vaccines, checkpoint modulators, chemotherapy, and adoptive T cell transfer (ACT) therapies. We propose innovative treatments that may safely harness the microbiota to enhance T cell-based therapies in cancer patients. Finally, we highlight recent developments in tumor immunotherapy, particularly novel ways to modulate the microbiome and memory T cell responses to human malignancies. PMID:26101781

  1. On-Orbit Evaluation of a New Treadmill Harness for Improved Crewmember Comfort and Load Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusek, G. P.; Sheehan, C. C.; Savina, M. C.; Owings, T. M.; Davis, B. L.; Ryder, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    The current design of the International Space Station (ISS) Treadmill Harness has been reported to cause pain and discomfort to crewmembers during exercise. The Harness Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) provided participating crewmembers (n = 6) with a new harness design, the "Glenn Harness," to evaluate for comfort and loading as compared to the current Treadmill Harness. A novel suite of load-sensing instrumentation was developed to noninvasively measure load distribution and provided a first-ever quantification of actual dynamic loads during treadmill exercise. In addition, crew debriefs provided feedback on harness preference and overall impressions. Conclusions: Post-flight analysis in returned Glenn Harnesses (n = 3) showed minimal wear and tear. Four of the six subjects found the Glenn Harness to be more comfortable in this on-orbit, side-by-side comparison as measured by the crew comfort questionnaire and crew debriefs. Specific areas for improvement have been identified, and forward recommendations will be provided to the Human Research Program. The protocol developed for the SDTO provided valuable insight into crew comfort issues, design improvements, and loading preferences for exercise harnessing, which lays the groundwork for better harnessing systems and training protocols.

  2. Design, development, manufacture, testing, and delivery of devices for connection of solar cell panel circuitry to flat conductor cable solar cell array harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillard, P. A.; Waddington, D.

    1971-01-01

    The technology status and problem areas which exist for the application of flat conductor cabling to solar cell arrays are summarized. Details covering the design, connector manufacture, and prototype test results are also summarized.

  3. Ground-based IRCM testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Derek; Owen, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Recent advances in the ability to perform comprehensive ground based Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) testing have the capability to fill the Test and Evaluation (T&E) gaps for existing and future weapons system acquisition. IRCM testing has historically been dominated and in a manner limited by expensive live fire testing requirements. While live fire testing is a vital part of IRCM T&E, next generation technological developments now enable closed-loop, ground-based IRCM testing to provide valuable complementary test data at a much lower cost. The high cost and limited assets that have prevented live fire and flight testing from providing a thorough hardware based data set required for previous T&E analysis is no longer an issue. In the past, traditional physics based digital system model (DSM) analysis has been utilized to augment the IRCM data sets to make them statistically significant. While DSM is a useful tool in the development of IRCM systems, the newly developed installed system testing utilizing a hardware-in-the-loop construct provides for an enhanced level of fidelity and assurance that the systems will meet the warfighter's needs. The goal of the newly developed test technologies is to develop a statistical significant data set utilizing hardware-in-the-loop at a significantly lower cost than historical methods.

  4. Harnessing spin precession with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A. D.; Datta, S.; Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors.

  5. Harnessing spin precession with dissipation

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, A. D.; Datta, S.; Viennot, J. J.; Delbecq, M. R.; Cottet, A.; Kontos, T.

    2016-01-01

    Non-collinear spin transport is at the heart of spin or magnetization control in spintronics devices. The use of nanoscale conductors exhibiting quantum effects in transport could provide new paths for that purpose. Here we study non-collinear spin transport in a quantum dot. We use a device made out of a single-wall carbon nanotube connected to orthogonal ferromagnetic electrodes. In the spin transport signals, we observe signatures of out of equilibrium spin precession that are electrically tunable through dissipation. This could provide a new path to harness spin precession in nanoscale conductors. PMID:26816050

  6. Harnessing microtubule dynamic instability for nanostructure assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann Marie; Osbourn, Gordon Cecil

    2004-06-01

    Intracellular molecular machines synthesize molecules, tear apart others, transport materials, transform energy into different forms, and carry out a host of other coordinated processes. Many molecular processes have been shown to work outside of cells, and the idea of harnessing these molecular machines to build nanostructures is attractive. Two examples are microtubules and motor proteins, which aid cell movement, help determine cell shape and internal structure, and transport vesicles and organelles within the cell. These molecular machines work in a stochastic, noisy fashion: microtubules switch randomly between growing and shrinking in a process known as dynamic instability; motor protein movement along microtubules is randomly interrupted by the motor proteins falling off. A common strategy in attempting to gain control over these highly dynamic, stochastic processes is to eliminate some processes (e.g., work with stabilized microtubules) in order to focus on others (interaction of microtubules with motor proteins). In this paper, we illustrate a different strategy for building nanostructures, which, rather than attempting to control or eliminate some dynamic processes, uses them to advantage in building nanostructures. Specifically, using stochastic agent-based simulations, we show how the natural dynamic instability of microtubules can be harnessed in building nanostructures, and discuss strategies for ensuring that 'unreliable' stochastic processes yield a robust outcome.

  7. Simultaneous all-optical half-adder, half-subtracter, comparator, and decoder based on nonlinear effects harnessing in highly nonlinear fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Karamdeep; Kaur, Gurmeet; Singh, Maninder Lal

    2016-07-01

    A multifunctional combinational logic module capable of performing several signal manipulation tasks all-optically, such as half-addition/subtraction, single-bit comparison, and 2-to-4 decoding simultaneously is proposed. Several logic functions (A+B¯, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B) between two input signals A and B are implemented by harnessing a number of nonlinear effects, such as cross-phase modulation (XPM), cross-gain modulation (XGM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) inside only two highly nonlinear fibers (HNLF) arranged in a parallel structure. The NOR gate (A+B¯) is realized by the means of XPM effect in the first HNLF, whereas, A‾.B, A.B¯, and A.B logics have relied on utilization of XGM and FWM processes, respectively, in parametric medium made up of the second HNLF of parallel arrangement. The remaining A⊕B and A⊙B logics required for successful implementation of the proposed simultaneous scheme are attained by temporally combining previously achieved (A‾.B and A.B‾) and (A.B and A+B‾) logics. Quality-factor ≥7.4 and extinction ratio ≥12.30 dB have been achieved at repetition rates of 100 Gbps for all logic functions (A+B‾, A.B, A¯.B, A.B¯, A⊕B, and A⊙B), suggesting successful simultaneous implementation.

  8. Harness cavitation to improve processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pandit, A.G.; Moholkar, V.S.

    1996-07-01

    Mention cavitation to most chemical engineers, and they undoubtedly think of it as an operational problem. Indeed, the rapid creation and then collapse of bubbles, which is after all what cavitation involves, can destroy pumps and erode other equipment. Cavitation, however, also can have a positive side--presuming it is designed for and not unplanned. In this article, the authors look at how cavitation can be harnessed to improve processes, and the mechanisms for inducing cavitation--ultrasonics and hydrodynamics--and their likely roles. Sonication, that is, the use of ultrasound, is the conventional approach for creating cavitation, and so they turn to it first. Over the past few years, a number of groups have attempted to solve the problem of scale-up and design of ultrasonic reactors. The authors review the systems that already exist and also explore a simpler and efficient alternative to the ultrasonic reactor, the hydrodynamic cavitation reactor.

  9. Cell-Based Genotoxicity Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifferscheid, Georg; Buchinger, Sebastian

    Genotoxicity test systems that are based on bacteria display an important role in the detection and assessment of DNA damaging chemicals. They belong to the basic line of test systems due to their easy realization, rapidness, broad applicability, high sensitivity and good reproducibility. Since the development of the Salmonella microsomal mutagenicity assay by Ames and coworkers in the early 1970s, significant development in bacterial genotoxicity assays was achieved and is still a subject matter of research. The basic principle of the mutagenicity assay is a reversion of a growth inhibited bacterial strain, e.g., due to auxotrophy, back to a fast growing phenotype (regain of prototrophy). Deeper knowledge of the ­mutation events allows a mechanistic understanding of the induced DNA-damage by the utilization of base specific tester strains. Collections of such specific tester strains were extended by genetic engineering. Beside the reversion assays, test systems utilizing the bacterial SOS-response were invented. These methods are based on the fusion of various SOS-responsive promoters with a broad variety of reporter genes facilitating numerous methods of signal detection. A very important aspect of genotoxicity testing is the bioactivation of ­xenobiotics to DNA-damaging compounds. Most widely used is the extracellular metabolic activation by making use of rodent liver homogenates. Again, genetic engineering allows the construction of highly sophisticated bacterial tester strains with significantly enhanced sensitivity due to overexpression of enzymes that are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. This provides mechanistic insights into the toxification and detoxification pathways of xenobiotics and helps explaining the chemical nature of hazardous substances in unknown mixtures. In summary, beginning with "natural" tester strains the rational design of bacteria led to highly specific and sensitive tools for a rapid, reliable and cost effective

  10. 14 CFR 91.521 - Shoulder harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inertia load factors established under the certification basis of the airplane. (b) No person may operate... used; and (2) Safety belt and shoulder harness restraint systems may be designed to the inertia...

  11. 14 CFR 91.521 - Shoulder harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inertia load factors established under the certification basis of the airplane. (b) No person may operate... used; and (2) Safety belt and shoulder harness restraint systems may be designed to the inertia...

  12. 14 CFR 91.521 - Shoulder harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertia load factors established under the certification basis of the airplane. (b) No person may operate... used; and (2) Safety belt and shoulder harness restraint systems may be designed to the inertia...

  13. 14 CFR 91.521 - Shoulder harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inertia load factors established under the certification basis of the airplane. (b) No person may operate... used; and (2) Safety belt and shoulder harness restraint systems may be designed to the inertia...

  14. 14 CFR 91.521 - Shoulder harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertia load factors established under the certification basis of the airplane. (b) No person may operate... used; and (2) Safety belt and shoulder harness restraint systems may be designed to the inertia...

  15. Application of a modified harness design for attachment of radio transmitters to shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sanzenbacher, Peter; Haig, Susan M.; Oring, L.W.

    2000-01-01

    Radio transmitter attachment methodology is important to the design of radio telemetry studies. In 1998, we attached 5 transmitters to a captive population of Western Sandpipers(Calidris mauri) and 7 transmitters to wild Killdeer (Charadriusv ociferus) using a modified version of the Rappolea nd Tipton (1991) figure-8 leg-loop harness. Captive birds fitted with harnesses did not exhibit quantifiable differences in behavior relative to control birds. Based on initial success in using the leg-loop harnesses, we used harnesses to attach transmitters in the wild to 30 Killdeer and 49 Dunlin (Calidris alpina) during the winters of 1998-1999 and 1999-2000. This was part of a study on movements of wintering shorebirds in the Willamette Valley of Oregon,USA. Wild birds showed no adverse effects of the harnesses.Thus, the described harness is a practical method for attachment of transmitters to shorebirds. Advantages of this harness method include a reduction in handling time at capture, elimination of the need to clip feathers for attachment, and increased transmitter retention time.

  16. Testing Strategies for Model-Based Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heimdahl, Mats P. E.; Whalen, Mike; Rajan, Ajitha; Miller, Steven P.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents an approach for testing artifacts generated in a model-based development process. This approach divides the traditional testing process into two parts: requirements-based testing (validation testing) which determines whether the model implements the high-level requirements and model-based testing (conformance testing) which determines whether the code generated from a model is behaviorally equivalent to the model. The goals of the two processes differ significantly and this report explores suitable testing metrics and automation strategies for each. To support requirements-based testing, we define novel objective requirements coverage metrics similar to existing specification and code coverage metrics. For model-based testing, we briefly describe automation strategies and examine the fault-finding capability of different structural coverage metrics using tests automatically generated from the model.

  17. Risk-Based Object Oriented Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Stapko, Ruth; Gallo, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Software testing is a well-defined phase of the software development life cycle. Functional ("black box") testing and structural ("white box") testing are two methods of test case design commonly used by software developers. A lesser known testing method is risk-based testing, which takes into account the probability of failure of a portion of code as determined by its complexity. For object oriented programs, a methodology is proposed for identification of risk-prone classes. Risk-based testing is a highly effective testing technique that can be used to find and fix the most important problems as quickly as possible.

  18. Harnessing Disorder in Compression Based Nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Clifford John

    The future of nanotechnologies depends on the successful development of versatile, low-cost techniques for patterning micro- and nanoarchitectures. While most approaches to nanofabrication have focused primarily on making periodic structures at ever smaller length scales with an ultimate goal of massively scaling their production, I have focused on introducing control into relatively disordered nanofabrication systems. Well-ordered patterns are increasingly unnecessary for a growing range of applications, from anti-biofouling coatings to light trapping to omniphobic surfaces. The ability to manipulate disorder, at will and over multiple length scales, starting with the nanoscale, can open new prospects for textured substrates and unconventional applications. Taking advantage of previously considered defects; I have been able to develop nanofabrication techniques with potential for massive scalability and the incorporation into a wide range of potential application. This thesis first describes the manipulation of the non-Newtonian properties of liquid Ga and Ga alloys to confine the metal and metal alloys in gratings with sub-wavelength periodicities. Through a solid to liquid phase change, I was able to access the superior plasmonic properties of liquid Ga for the generation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP). The switching contract between solid and liquid Ga confine in the nanogratings allowed for reversible manipulation of SPP properties through heating and cooling around the relatively low melting temperature of Ga (29.8 °C). The remaining chapters focus on the development and characterization of an all polymer wrinkle material system. Wrinkles, spontaneous disordered features that are produced in response to compressive force, are an ideal for a growing number of applications where fine feature control is no longer the main motivation. However the mechanical limitations of many wrinkle systems have restricted the potential applications of wrinkled surfaces. We developed a wrinkle material system that could be both tuned in feature size from as small as 30 nm up 10 ?m while maximizing the wrinkle amplitude at all wavelengths. By charactering the material properties of both the skin and substrate, we were able to generate wrinkle patterns with fine control over periodicity, amplitude, and orientation. The final chapters of this thesis focuses on the transfer of the wrinkle structure into functional materials aimed at manipulating biological adhesion of cells, optical absorption of solar cells, and sensor sensitivity of Raman substrates. The success of these applications was directly relative to the capabilities of our wrinkle system in controlling the surface chemistry, tuning the periodicity, and maximizing the amplitude for each application.

  19. Bare PCB test method based on AI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Aihua; Zhou, Huiyang; Wan, Nianhong; Qu, Liangsheng

    1995-08-01

    The shortcomings of conventional methods used for developing test sets on current automated printed circuit board (PCB) test machines consist of overlooking the information from CAD, historical test data, and the experts' knowledge. Thus, the generated test sets and proposed test sequence may be sub-optimal and inefficient. This paper presents a weighting bare PCB test method based on analysis and utilization of the CAD information. AI technique is applied for faults statistics and faults identification. Also, the generation of test sets and the planning of test procedure are discussed. A faster and more efficient test system is achieved.

  20. SRB Altitude Switch Assembly Wire Harness Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanche, Jim

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of two wire harness failures that had occurred in Solid Rocket Booster Altitude Switch Assemblies S/N 200001 and S/N 20002. A list of modifications to EDU #4 and modification of qualification units 2000001 and 2000002 are also presented.

  1. Seizing the Moment: Harnessing the Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankes, Steve; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the Information Revolution, considers initiatives for harnessing information technology, and proposes a research agenda. Seven appendices detail specific initiatives relating to a global communication network, a Council for North American Information, the news media, a pan-European security information agency, multinational…

  2. Harnessing Collaborative Annotations on Online Formative Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper harnesses collaborative annotations by students as learning feedback on online formative assessments to improve the learning achievements of students. Through the developed Web platform, students can conduct formative assessments, collaboratively annotate, and review historical records in a convenient way, while teachers can generate…

  3. Harnessing the Power of Interactivity for Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsook, Terry K.

    Arguing that what sets the computer apart from all other teaching devices is its potential for interactivity, this paper examines the concept of interactivity and explores ways in which its power can be harnessed and put to work. A discussion of interactivity in human-to-human communication sets a context within which to view human/computer…

  4. Harnessing quantum transport by transient chaos.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso; Pecora, Louis M

    2013-03-01

    Chaos has long been recognized to be generally advantageous from the perspective of control. In particular, the infinite number of unstable periodic orbits embedded in a chaotic set and the intrinsically sensitive dependence on initial conditions imply that a chaotic system can be controlled to a desirable state by using small perturbations. Investigation of chaos control, however, was largely limited to nonlinear dynamical systems in the classical realm. In this paper, we show that chaos may be used to modulate or harness quantum mechanical systems. To be concrete, we focus on quantum transport through nanostructures, a problem of considerable interest in nanoscience, where a key feature is conductance fluctuations. We articulate and demonstrate that chaos, more specifically transient chaos, can be effective in modulating the conductance-fluctuation patterns. Experimentally, this can be achieved by applying an external gate voltage in a device of suitable geometry to generate classically inaccessible potential barriers. Adjusting the gate voltage allows the characteristics of the dynamical invariant set responsible for transient chaos to be varied in a desirable manner which, in turn, can induce continuous changes in the statistical characteristics of the quantum conductance-fluctuation pattern. To understand the physical mechanism of our scheme, we develop a theory based on analyzing the spectrum of the generalized non-Hermitian Hamiltonian that includes the effect of leads, or electronic waveguides, as self-energy terms. As the escape rate of the underlying non-attracting chaotic set is increased, the imaginary part of the complex eigenenergy becomes increasingly large so that pointer states are more difficult to form, making smoother the conductance-fluctuation pattern. PMID:23556962

  5. Harnessing science to improve safety.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Examining the effectiveness of various wet surface cleaning methods in combating harmful microorganisms in a hospital ward, understanding different healthcare cleaning regimes' impact on reducing slips and trips, evaluating the protection offered by surgical masks against influenza bioaerosols, and independently testing tower crane safety following a number of fatal incidents, are among the broad spectrum of recent projects undertaken by the Buxton-headquartered Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL). As HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discovered from the organisation's healthcare and patient safety lead, Darren Whitehouse, with around 350 scientists skilled in everything from microbiology to occupational psychology, the range of scientific guidance, expertise, advice, testing, training, and investigation, that the HSL can offer to the healthcare sector is perhaps unrivalled throughout Europe. PMID:22053356

  6. Team-Based Testing Improves Individual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogler, Jane S.; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, 90 undergraduates took six tests as part of an educational psychology course. Using a crossover design, students took three tests individually without feedback and then took the same test again, following the process of team-based testing (TBT), in teams in which the members reached consensus for each question and answered…

  7. Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS): Novel Method for Controlling the Transection Plane During Laparoscopic Hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Itano, Osamu; Oshima, Go; Kitago, Minoru; Suzuki, Keiichi; Hayatsu, Shigeo; Shinoda, Masahiro; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ikoma, Naruhiko; Aiko, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We present our experience using a novel method for controlling the transection plane, which we termed as the Harness Traction Technique (HARNESS) and evaluate its usefulness. From May 2009 to March 2012, laparoscopic hepatectomies using HARNESS were performed on 35 patients. After the superficial hepatic parenchyma on the line was transected at 1 to 2 cm depth, 5 mm tape was placed along the groove of the line and tied to prevent it from slipping off. Tape was tied and pulled using a forceps toward the best direction for minimizing the bleeding, moving the transection point to the appropriate position and creating good tension for parenchymal transection at the transection point. There were no conversions to laparotomy or intraoperative complications. HARNESS is useful for controlling the dissection line during laparoscopic hepatectomy, leading to precise and safe laparoscopic liver parenchymal dissection. PMID:26121541

  8. Harness the Energy of Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Ann; Miller, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    As they write about the Learning Communities standard in "Reach the Highest Standard in Professional Learning: Learning Communities," authors Ann Lieberman and Lynne Miller consider why communities have gained widespread attention and support and summarize the established research base about them. They also describe three contexts in…

  9. Solar Radiation: Harnessing the Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Teri; Chambers, Lin; Holzer, Missy; Moore, Susan

    2009-01-01

    My NASA Data (Chambers et al. 2008) is a teaching tool available on NASA's website that offers microsets of real data in an easily accessible, user-friendly format. In this article, the authors describe a lesson plan based on an activity from My NASA Data, in which students explore parts of the United States where they would want to live if they…

  10. Harnessing nanoparticles for immune modulation

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R.; Shea, Lonnie D; Miller, Stephen D.; King, Nicholas J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent approaches using nanoparticles engineered for immune regulation have yielded promising results in preclinical models of disease. The number of nanoparticle therapies is growing, fueled by innovations in nanotechnology and advances in understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases. In particular, recent mechanistic insight into the ways in which nanoparticles interact with the mononuclear phagocyte system and impact its function during homeostasis and inflammation have highlighted the potential of nanoparticle-based therapies for controlling severe inflammation while concurrently restoring peripheral immune tolerance in autoimmune disease. Here we review recent advances in nanoparticle-based approaches aimed at immune-modulation, and discuss these in the context of concepts in polymeric nanoparticle development, including particle modification, delivery and the factors associated with successful clinical deployment. PMID:26088391

  11. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  12. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  13. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  14. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  15. 46 CFR 197.324 - Diver's safety harness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.324 Diver's safety harness. Each safety harness used in surface-supplied diving must have— (a) A positive buckling device; and (b) An...

  16. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  17. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  18. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  19. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  1. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  2. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  3. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  4. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  5. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  7. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  8. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  9. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  10. 42 CFR 84.178 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.178... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.178 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension...

  11. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  12. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  14. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.1138... Gas Masks § 84.1138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) All facepieces shall be equipped with head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an even...

  16. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  17. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  18. 42 CFR 84.138 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.138... Respirators § 84.138 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses which are designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use, and...

  19. 42 CFR 84.78 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.78 Section...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.78 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses designed and constructed to provide adequate...

  20. 42 CFR 84.121 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head harnesses; minimum requirements. 84.121... § 84.121 Head harnesses; minimum requirements. (a) Facepieces shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable head harnesses, designed and constructed to provide adequate tension during use and an...

  1. A Survey of UML Based Regression Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahad, Muhammad; Nadeem, Aamer

    Regression testing is the process of ensuring software quality by analyzing whether changed parts behave as intended, and unchanged parts are not affected by the modifications. Since it is a costly process, a lot of techniques are proposed in the research literature that suggest testers how to build regression test suite from existing test suite with minimum cost. In this paper, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of using UML diagrams for regression testing and analyze that UML model helps in identifying changes for regression test selection effectively. We survey the existing UML based regression testing techniques and provide an analysis matrix to give a quick insight into prominent features of the literature work. We discuss the open research issues like managing and reducing the size of regression test suite, prioritization of the test cases that would be helpful during strict schedule and resources that remain to be addressed for UML based regression testing.

  2. Non Test-Based Assessment: Trainer Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, James A.

    The manual presents information for school psychologists on non-test-based assessment for children with suspected handicapping conditions. The information is provided in a workshop format, with instructions for presenters (objectives, content outlines, and lesson plans). It is explained that non-test-based assessment is meant to complement…

  3. Comparability of a Paper-Based Language Test and a Computer-Based Language Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Inn-Chull; Kim, Kyoung Sung; Boo, Jaeyool

    2003-01-01

    Utilizing the Test of English Proficiency, developed by Seoul National University (TEPS), examined comparability between the paper-based language test and the computer-based language test based on content and construct validation employing content analyses based on corpus linguistic techniques in addition to such statistical analyses as…

  4. How can developing countries harness biotechnology to improve health?

    PubMed Central

    Daar, Abdallah S; Berndtson, Kathryn; Persad, Deepa L; Singer, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    Background The benefits of genomics and biotechnology are concentrated primarily in the industrialized world, while their potential to combat neglected diseases in the developing world has been largely untapped. Without building developing world biotechnology capacity to address local health needs, this disparity will only intensify. To assess the potential of genomics to address health needs in the developing world, the McLaughlin-Rotman Centre for Global Health, along with local partners, organized five courses on Genomics and Public Health Policy in the developing world. The overall objective of the courses was to collectively explore how to best harness genomics to improve health in each region. This article presents and analyzes the recommendations from all five courses. Discussion In this paper we analyze recommendations from 232 developing world experts from 58 countries who sought to answer how best to harness biotechnology to improve health in their regions. We divide their recommendations into four categories: science; finance; ethics, society and culture; and politics. Summary The Courses' recommendations can be summarized across the four categories listed above: Science - Collaborate through national, regional, and international networks - Survey and build capacity based on proven models through education, training, and needs assessments Finance - Develop regulatory and intellectual property frameworks for commercialization of biotechnology - Enhance funding and affordability of biotechnology - Improve the academic-industry interface and the role of small and medium enterprise Ethics, Society, Culture - Develop public engagement strategies to inform and educate the public about developments in genomics and biotechnology - Develop capacity to address ethical, social and cultural issues - Improve accessibility and equity Politics - Strengthen understanding, leadership and support at the political level for biotechnology - Develop policies outlining

  5. Methodology for testing and validating knowledge bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurthy, C.; Padalkar, S.; Sztipanovits, J.; Purves, B. R.

    1987-01-01

    A test and validation toolset developed for artificial intelligence programs is described. The basic premises of this method are: (1) knowledge bases have a strongly declarative character and represent mostly structural information about different domains, (2) the conditions for integrity, consistency, and correctness can be transformed into structural properties of knowledge bases, and (3) structural information and structural properties can be uniformly represented by graphs and checked by graph algorithms. The interactive test and validation environment have been implemented on a SUN workstation.

  6. Security for Web-Based Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; Averitt, Jason

    The purpose of this paper is to enumerate a series of security steps that might be taken by those researchers or organizations that are contemplating Web-based tests and performance assessments. From a security viewpoint, much of what goes on with Web-based transactions is similar to other general computer activity, but the recommendations here…

  7. Trunk Muscle Activation and Estimating Spinal Compressive Force in Rope and Harness Vertical Dance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Margaret; Dai, Boyi; Zhu, Qin; Humphrey, Neil

    2015-12-01

    Rope and harness vertical dance takes place off the floor with the dancer suspended from his or her center of mass in a harness attached to a rope from a point overhead. Vertical dance represents a novel environment for training and performing in which expected stresses on the dancer's body are different from those that take place during dance on the floor. Two male and eleven female dancers with training in vertical dance performed six typical vertical dance movements with electromyography (EMG) electrodes placed bilaterally on rectus abdominus, external oblique, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi. EMG data were expressed as a percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). A simplified musculoskeletal model based on muscle activation for these four muscle groups was used to estimate the compressive force on the spine. The greatest muscle activation for erector spinae and latissimus dorsi and the greatest trunk compressive forces were seen in vertical axis positions where the dancer was moving the trunk into a hyper-extended position. The greatest muscle activation for rectus abdominus and external oblique and the second highest compressive force were seen in a supine position with the arms and legs extended away from the center of mass (COM). The least muscle activation occurred in positions where the limbs were hanging below the torso. These movements also showed relatively low muscle activation compression forces. Post-test survey results revealed that dancers felt comfortable in these positions; however, observation of some positions indicated insufficient muscular control. Computing the relative contribution of muscles, expressed as muscle activation and estimated spinal compression, provided a measure of how much the muscle groups were working to support the spine and the rest of the dancer's body in the different movements tested. Additionally, identifying typical muscle recruitment patterns in each movement will help identify key exercises

  8. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  9. EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base (iGTKB) Development

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The gap between a large growing number of genetic tests and a suboptimal clinical workflow of incorporating these tests into regular clinical practice poses barriers to effective reliance on advanced genetic technologies to improve quality of healthcare. A promising solution to fill this gap is to develop an intelligent genetic test recommendation system that not only can provide a comprehensive view of genetic tests as education resources, but also can recommend the most appropriate genetic tests to patients based on clinical evidence. In this study, we developed an EHR based Genetic Testing Knowledge Base for Individualized Medicine (iGTKB). Methods We extracted genetic testing information and patient medical records from EHR systems at Mayo Clinic. Clinical features have been semi-automatically annotated from the clinical notes by applying a Natural Language Processing (NLP) tool, MedTagger suite. To prioritize clinical features for each genetic test, we compared odds ratio across four population groups. Genetic tests, genetic disorders and clinical features with their odds ratios have been applied to establish iGTKB, which is to be integrated into the Genetic Testing Ontology (GTO). Results Overall, there are five genetic tests operated with sample size greater than 100 in 2013 at Mayo Clinic. A total of 1,450 patients who was tested by one of the five genetic tests have been selected. We assembled 243 clinical features from the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) for these five genetic tests. There are 60 clinical features with at least one mention in clinical notes of patients taking the test. Twenty-eight clinical features with high odds ratio (greater than 1) have been selected as dominant features and deposited into iGTKB with their associated information about genetic tests and genetic disorders. Conclusions In this study, we developed an EHR based genetic testing knowledge base, iGTKB. iGTKB will be integrated into the GTO by providing relevant

  10. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  11. Modelling the effect of electrical harness on microvibration response of structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remedia, Marcello; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Richardson, Guy

    2015-04-01

    The term "microvibrations" generally refers to accelerations in the region of micro-g, occurring over a wide frequency range, up to say 500-1000 Hz. The main issues related to microvibrations are their control and minimisation, which requires their modelling and analysis. A particular challenge is posed in the mid-frequency range, where many of the micro-vibration sources on board a spacecraft tend to act. In this case, in addition to the typical issues related to predicting responses in the mid-frequency, the low amplitude of the inputs can produce further non-linear behaviour which can manifest as uncertainties. A typical example is the behaviour of cables secured onto panels; when very low forces are applied, the presence of harness can influence the characteristics of the panel in terms of stiffness and damping values. In these circumstances, the cables themselves couple with the panel, hence become paths for vibration transmission. The common practise is to model such cables as Non-Structural Mass; however, this paper illustrates that this method does not yield accurate results. In order to demonstrate this, an experimental campaign was conducted investigating a honeycomb panel, which was tested bare and with different configurations of harness secured to it. The results of this experimental campaign showed significantly different behaviour of the structure depending on the amplitude of the loads and the frequency. In particular, it was found that the effects the addition of the cables had on the panel were different depending on the frequency range considered. Based on this observation, a general methodology to deal with the whole frequency range is presented here and the basis to extend it to the case of more complex structures is also proposed.

  12. Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.; Brown, Barbara L.

    1991-01-01

    Mathematical models of system components have long been used to allow simulators to predict system behavior to various stimuli. Recent efforts to monitor, diagnose, and control real-time systems using component models have experienced similar success. NASA Kennedy is continuing the development of a tool for implementing real-time knowledge-based diagnostic and control systems called KATE (Knowledge based Autonomous Test Engineer). KATE is a model-based reasoning shell designed to provide autonomous control, monitoring, fault detection, and diagnostics for complex engineering systems by applying its reasoning techniques to an exchangeable quantitative model describing the structure and function of the various system components and their systemic behavior.

  13. Space-based Tests of Relativistic Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turyshev, Vyacheslav G.

    Since its initial publication, Einstein's general theory of relativity had been tested to a very high precision and presently is considered to be the standard theory of gravitation, especially when the phenomena in astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. As such, this theory has many practically important applications including spacecraft navigation, relativistic geodesy, time transfer, etc. Here we discuss the foundations of general relativity, present its current empirical status, and highlight the need for the new generation of high-accuracy tests. We present some space-based gravitational experiments and discuss anticipated advances in our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature.

  14. Registration of two double rust resistant germplasms, HA-R12 and HA-R13 for confection sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasms HA-R12 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673104) and HA-R13 (Reg. No. ______, PI 673105) were developed by the USDA-ARS, Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station, and released in Jul...

  15. Registration of two confection sunflower germplasm Lines, HA-R10 and HA-R11, Resistant to sunflower rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) germplasm lines, HA-R10 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670043) and HA-R11 (Reg. No.xxx, PI670044) were developed by the USDA-ARS Sunflower and Plant Biology Research Unit in collaboration with the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station and released December, 20...

  16. FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.; Jones, Robert E.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "FPGA Based Reconfigurable ATM Switch Test Bed" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Network performance evaluation; 2) traditional approaches; 3) software simulation; 4) hardware emulation; 5) test bed highlights; 6) design environment; 7) test bed architecture; 8) abstract sheared-memory switch; 9) detailed switch diagram; 10) traffic generator; 11) data collection circuit and user interface; 12) initial results; and 13) the following conclusions: Advances in FPGA make hardware emulation feasible for performance evaluation, hardware emulation can provide several orders of magnitude speed-up over software simulation; due to the complexity of hardware synthesis process, development in emulation is much more difficult than simulation and requires knowledge in both networks and digital design.

  17. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  18. Harnessing Listeria monocytogenes to target tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Paterson, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Because of its cytosolic localization, Listeria monocytogenes (LM) has long been considered an attractive tool for delivering tumor-associated antigens (TAA) antigens in vivoto combat cancer. LM directly infects antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DC), thereby delivering the TAA into their cytoplasm, resulting in processing, and presentation of the antigen to the immune system. This activates adaptive and innate immune responses to the TAA, mediating tumor cell cytolysis. Recently we discovered additional pathways by which Listeria can be harnessedto induce tumor cell death, which suggest new directions in the development of vaccines or therapies against cancer. In one approach, we have used Listeria to induce immune responses that destroy tumor vasculature. Another new pathway involves selective infection of cancer cells with Listeria, followed by tumor cell death through the production of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and through Listeria-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). This review will focus on the most recent studies on the multiple pathways of LM and how they can be harnessed in the battle against cancer. PMID:20139702

  19. Technical bases for the DWPF testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-09-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be the first production facility in the United States for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. Production of DWPF canistered wasteforms will begin prior to repository licensing, so decisions on facility startup will have to be made before the final decisions on repository design are made. The Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has addressed this discrepancy by defining a Waste Acceptance Process. This process provides assurance that the borosilicate-glass wasteform, in a stainless-steel canister, produced by the DWPF will be acceptable for permanent storage in a federal repository. As part of this process, detailed technical specifications have been developed for the DWPF product. SRS has developed detailed strategies for demonstrating compliance with each of the Waste Acceptance Process specifications. An important part of the compliance is the testing which will be carried out in the DWPF. In this paper, the bases for each of the tests to be performed in the DWPF to establish compliance with the specifications are described, and the tests are detailed. The results of initial tests relating to characterization of sealed canisters are reported.

  20. Technical bases for the DWPF testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1990-09-17

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be the first production facility in the United States for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste. Production of DWPF canistered wasteforms will begin prior to repository licensing, so decisions on facility startup will have to be made before the final decisions on repository design are made. The Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (RW) has addressed this discrepancy by defining a Waste Acceptance Process. This process provides assurance that the borosilicate-glass wasteform, in a stainless-steel canister, produced by the DWPF will be acceptable for permanent storage in a federal repository. As part of this process, detailed technical specifications have been developed for the DWPF product. SRS has developed detailed strategies for demonstrating compliance with each of the Waste Acceptance Process specifications. An important part of the compliance is the testing which will be carried out in the DWPF. In this paper, the bases for each of the tests to be performed in the DWPF to establish compliance with the specifications are described, and the tests are detailed. The results of initial tests relating to characterization of sealed canisters are reported.

  1. SSME Electrical Harness and Cable Development and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Russ; Heflin, Johnny; Burns, Bob; Camper, Scott J.; Hill, Arthur J.

    2010-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) electrical harness and cable system consists of the various interconnecting devices necessary for operation of complex rocket engine functions. Thirty seven harnesses incorporate unique connectors, backshell adapters, conductors, insulation, shielding, and physical barriers for a long maintenance-free life while providing the means to satisfy performance requirements and to mitigate adverse environmental influences. The objective of this paper is to provide a description of the SSME electrical harness and cable designs as well as the development history and lessons learned.

  2. Superparamagnetic nanoparticle-based viscosity test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Liu, Jinming; Wang, Yi; Ye, Clark; Feng, Yinglong; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Hyperviscosity syndrome is triggered by high blood viscosity in the human body. This syndrome can result in retinopathy, vertigo, coma, and other unanticipated complications. Serum viscosity is one of the important factors affecting whole blood viscosity, which is regarded as an indicator of general health. In this letter, we propose and demonstrate a Brownian relaxation-based mixing frequency method to test human serum viscosity. This method uses excitatory and detection coils and Brownian relaxation-dominated superparamagnetic nanoparticles, which are sensitive to variables of the liquid environment such as viscosity and temperature. We collect the harmonic signals produced by magnetic nanoparticles and estimate the viscosity of unknown solutions by comparison to the calibration curves. An in vitro human serum viscosity test is performed in less than 1.5 min.

  3. Harnessing Earth Observations for Disaster Application Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    Earth observations have made substantive contributions to the understanding of natural hazards, answering key science questions on the mechanisms, processes and dynamics of changes in the land, air and water. This has been achieved through the ability to advance models and interpret the results through maps and assessments. Disaster application science is focused on the two-way flow of data and information between hazard understanding and the knowledge required for disaster response, relief and recovery. This presentation will examine the integration of results from mature science and technology development in areas including optical imagery, synthetic-aperture radar and geodetic sensors, which together provide new levels of situational awareness. Specific examples will be highlighted from the recent Nepal "Gorkha" earthquake. Optical imagery from a host of satellite missions was used to create a comprehensive mosaic across the region, which when analyzed by a global network of volunteer scientists yielded insight into the extent of induced hazards and impacts. In some cases unique day/night band images provided guidance on areas where energy-dependent infrastructure of livelihoods were disrupted. Earthquake modeling and historical trend analysis revealed areas of potential vulnerability and combined with aftershock analysis to guide areas for urgent analysis and action. The combination of SAR and GPS data, innovative integration and processing approaches and nontraditional data integration approaches resulted in damage proxy maps or where combination with airborne photography, field sightings and crowd sourced reports to assess susceptibility to induced hazards (floods and landslides). Opportunities and challenges to build the science and community relationships, harness the earth observations from multiple agencies and institutions and co-develop timely applications to users will be areas for ongoing collaboration and study.Earth observations have made

  4. Model-Based Software Testing for Object-Oriented Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biju, Soly Mathew

    2008-01-01

    Model-based testing is one of the best solutions for testing object-oriented software. It has a better test coverage than other testing styles. Model-based testing takes into consideration behavioural aspects of a class, which are usually unchecked in other testing methods. An increase in the complexity of software has forced the software industry…

  5. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Nocera

    2013-07-19

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  6. Harnessing Power from Tides: State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Paul R.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the current, world-wide status of tidal energy as a potential power source. Potential sites and global tidal power prospects are identified. New engineering concepts relevant to the harnessing of tidal power are identified and described. (BT)

  7. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Nocera

    2011-09-12

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  8. Manufacturing and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses, Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard are considered, including type 4, open bundle (not enclosed). Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated into the document.

  9. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. PMID:23910482

  10. An archetype-based testing framework.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Garde, Sebastian; Beale, Thomas; Nyström, Mikael; Karlsson, Daniel; Klein, Gunnar O; Ahlfeldt, Hans

    2008-01-01

    With the introduction of EHR two-level modelling and archetype methodologies pioneered by openEHR and standardized by CEN/ISO, we are one step closer to semantic interoperability and future-proof adaptive healthcare information systems. Along with the opportunities, there are also challenges. Archetypes provide the full semantics of EHR data explicitly to surrounding systems in a platform-independent way, yet it is up to the receiving system to interpret the semantics and process the data accordingly. In this paper we propose a design of an archetype-based platform-independent testing framework for validating implementations of the openEHR archetype formalism as a means of improving quality and interoperability of EHRs. PMID:18487764

  11. Abasic pivot substitution harnesses target specificity of RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Sook; Seok, Heeyoung; Lee, Dong Ha; Ham, Juyoung; Lee, Wooje; Youm, Emilia Moonkyung; Yoo, Jin Seon; Lee, Yong-Seung; Jang, Eun-Sook; Chi, Sung Wook

    2015-01-01

    Gene silencing via RNA interference inadvertently represses hundreds of off-target transcripts. Because small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can function as microRNAs, avoiding miRNA-like off-target repression is a major challenge. Functional miRNA–target interactions are known to pre-require transitional nucleation, base pairs from position 2 to the pivot (position 6). Here, by substituting nucleotide in pivot with abasic spacers, which prevent base pairing and alleviate steric hindrance, we eliminate miRNA-like off-target repression while preserving on-target activity at ∼80–100%. Specifically, miR-124 containing dSpacer pivot substitution (6pi) loses seed-mediated transcriptome-wide target interactions, repression activity and biological function, whereas other conventional modifications are ineffective. Application of 6pi allows PCSK9 siRNA to efficiently lower plasma cholesterol concentration in vivo, and abolish potentially deleterious off-target phenotypes. The smallest spacer, C3, also shows the same improvement in target specificity. Abasic pivot substitution serves as a general means to harness the specificity of siRNA experiments and therapeutic applications. PMID:26679372

  12. Harnessing the electromagnetic absorptions of metamaterials for positive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yuanjiang; Zou, Yanhong; Luo, Hailu; Dai, Xiaoyu; Wen, Shuangchun; Fan, Dianyuan

    2010-08-01

    Absorption or loss is inevitable for the metal-based metamaterials (MMs) due to the intrinsic loss of the metal, and constitutes a major hurdle to the practical realization of most applications such as a sub-wavelength lens. Thus, to reduce the losses becomes one of the major challenges in the MM field. However, the inevitable loss can also be harnessed to take a positive role in the applications of MMs such as stealth technology or other types of cloaking devices. In this presentation, after a brief review of the advances in MMs-based absorbers, we present several schemes to fulfill the desired electromagnetic absorption properties, both linear and nonlinear. For linear absorption, we have experimentally demonstrated that the absorption performance of an ordinary microwave absorbing material can be evidently improved by using the electric resonance resulting from an array of subwavelength metallic circuit elements. For nonlinear absorption, we show theoretically that the active linear magnetic permeability induces a nonlinear absorption, similar to the two-photon absorption (TPA), of electric field in a lossy MM with a Kerr-type nonlinear polarization.

  13. Demystifying the GMAT: Computer-Based Testing Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    Computer-based testing can be a powerful means to make all aspects of test administration not only faster and more efficient, but also more accurate and more secure. While the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) exam is a computer adaptive test, there are other approaches. This installment presents a primer of computer-based testing terms.

  14. Practical Considerations in Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Choosing whether to test via computer is the most difficult and consequential decision the designers of a testing program can make. The decision is difficult because of the wide range of choices available. Designers can choose where and how often the test is made available, how the test items look and function, how those items are combined into…

  15. Web-Based Testing: Exploring the Relationship between Hardware Usability and Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huff, Kyle; Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.

    2012-01-01

    Web-based testing has recently become common in both academic and professional settings. A web-based test is administered through a web browser. Individuals may complete a web-based test at nearly any time and at any place. In addition, almost any computer lab can become a testing center. It is important to understand the environmental issues that…

  16. Harnessing non-Markovian quantum memory by environmental coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-07-01

    Controlling the non-Markovian dynamics of open quantum systems is essential in quantum information technology since it plays a crucial role in preserving quantum memory. Albeit in many realistic scenarios the quantum system can simultaneously interact with composite environments, this condition remains little understood, particularly regarding the effect of the coupling between environmental parts. We analyze the non-Markovian behavior of a qubit interacting at the same time with two coupled single-mode cavities which in turn dissipate into memoryless or memory-keeping reservoirs. We show that increasing the control parameter, that is the two-mode coupling, allows for triggering and enhancing a non-Markovian dynamics for the qubit starting from a Markovian one in the absence of coupling. Surprisingly, if the qubit dynamics is non-Markovian for the zero control parameter, increasing the latter enables multiple transitions from non-Markovian to Markovian regimes. These results hold independently on the nature of the reservoirs. This work highlights that suitably engineering the coupling between parts of a compound environment can efficiently harness the quantum memory, stored in a qubit, based on non-Markovianity.

  17. A semistatic microplate-based phytotoxicity test

    SciTech Connect

    Radetski, C.M.; Ferard, J.F. . Centre des Sciences de l'Environnement); Blaise, C. )

    1995-02-01

    A novel phytotoxicity test is described herein that employs a microplate equipped with membrane-bottomed wells. This MultiScreen[trademark] (Millipore Corp., Bedford, MA) microplate allows performance of a semistatic algal test, in which test medium is renewed periodically. With such a design, the algal test becomes comparable to other short-term tests used to evaluate chronic toxicity of chemicals and effluents. The EC50s obtained for Cu[sup 2+], Cd[sup 2+], Cr[sup 6+], atrazine, and one leachate sample (municipal sludge incinerator residue) with static and semistatic algal microplate tests were compared in this study. The semistatic microplate test revealed greater sensitivity than did the static microplate test.

  18. School-Based Intervention for Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Lay See; Goh, Valerie Grace; Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: With children today being tested at younger ages, test anxiety has an earlier onset age. There is relatively limited research on test anxiety management programs with elementary school children. The theoretical basis for this nonrandomized pre-post intervention study is grounded in cognitive and behavioral interventions for test…

  19. Environmental testing of CIS based modules

    SciTech Connect

    Willett, D.

    1995-11-01

    This report describes environmental testing of Siemen`s CIS modules. Charts and diagrams are presented on data concerning: temporary power loss of laminated mini-modules; the 50 thermal cycle test; the 10 humidity freeze cycle test; results after 1000 hours of exposure to damp heat; and interconnect test structures in damp heat testing. It is concluded that moisture ingress causes permanent increases in the series resistance of modules, and that improved packaging is needed for better high humidity reliability. Also, dry dark heat caused temporary power losses which were recovered in sunlight.

  20. Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of east side of Test Sand 'A' base, showing flame deflector at bottom of stand. Stairs and handrails were added after test stand was converted to test propellant flow in components as opposed to firing rocket engines. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. Toxic but Drank: Gustatory Aversive Compounds Induce Post-ingestional Malaise in Harnessed Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Ayestaran, Ainara

    2010-01-01

    Background Deterrent substances produced by plants are relevant due to their potential toxicity. The fact that most of these substances have an unpalatable taste for humans and other mammals contrasts with the fact that honeybees do not reject them in the range of concentrations in which these compounds are present in flower nectars. Here we asked whether honeybees detect and ingest deterrent substances and whether these substances are really toxic to them. Results We show that pairing aversive substances with an odor retards learning of this odor when it is subsequently paired with sucrose. Harnessed honeybees in the laboratory ingest without reluctance a considerable volume (20 µl) of various aversive substances, even if some of them induce significant post-ingestional mortality. These substances do not seem, therefore, to be unpalatable to harnessed bees but induce a malaise-like state that in some cases results in death. Consistently with this finding, bees learning that one odor is associated with sugar, and experiencing in a subsequent phase that the sugar was paired with 20 µl of an aversive substance (devaluation phase), respond less than control bees to the odor and the sugar. Such stimulus devaluation can be accounted for by the malaise-like state induced by the aversive substances. Conclusion Our results indicate that substances that taste bitter to humans as well as concentrated saline solutions base their aversive effect on the physiological consequences that their ingestion generates in harnessed bees rather than on an unpalatable taste. This conclusion is only valid for harnessed bees in the laboratory as freely-moving bees might react differently to aversive compounds could actively reject aversive substances. Our results open a new possibility to study conditioned taste aversion based on post-ingestional malaise and thus broaden the spectrum of aversive learning protocols available in honeybees. PMID:21060877

  2. Neutron Sources for Standard-Based Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Radev, Radoslav; McLean, Thomas

    2014-11-10

    The DHS TC Standards and the consensus ANSI Standards use 252Cf as the neutron source for performance testing because its energy spectrum is similar to the 235U and 239Pu fission sources used in nuclear weapons. An emission rate of 20,000 ± 20% neutrons per second is used for testing of the radiological requirements both in the ANSI standards and the TCS. Determination of the accurate neutron emission rate of the test source is important for maintaining consistency and agreement between testing results obtained at different testing facilities. Several characteristics in the manufacture and the decay of the source need to be understood and accounted for in order to make an accurate measurement of the performance of the neutron detection instrument. Additionally, neutron response characteristics of the particular instrument need to be known and taken into account as well as neutron scattering in the testing environment.

  3. Spectrally formulated modeling of a cable-harnessed structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jiduck; Inman, Daniel J.

    2014-07-01

    To obtain predictive modeling of the spacecraft, we investigate the effects of adding cables to a simple structure with the goal of developing an understanding of the effects of cables interacting with a structure. In this paper, we present modeling of a cable-harnessed structure by means of the Spectral Element Method (SEM). A double beam model is used to emulate a cable-harnessed structure. SEM modeling can define the location and the number of connections between the two beams in a convenient fashion. The presented modeling is applied and compared with the conventional FEM. The modeling approach was compared and validated with experimental measurements. The validated modeling was implemented to investigate the effect of the number of connections and of the spring stiffness of interconnections. The results show that the proposed modeling can be used as an accurate and efficient solution methodology for a cable-harnessed structure.

  4. A rule-based software test data generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deason, William H.; Brown, David B.; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Cross, James H., II

    1991-01-01

    Rule-based software test data generation is proposed as an alternative to either path/predicate analysis or random data generation. A prototype rule-based test data generator for Ada programs is constructed and compared to a random test data generator. Four Ada procedures are used in the comparison. Approximately 2000 rule-based test cases and 100,000 randomly generated test cases are automatically generated and executed. The success of the two methods is compared using standard coverage metrics. Simple statistical tests showing that even the primitive rule-based test data generation prototype is significantly better than random data generation are performed. This result demonstrates that rule-based test data generation is feasible and shows great promise in assisting test engineers, especially when the rule base is developed further.

  5. Optimal Test Design with Rule-Based Item Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geerlings, Hanneke; van der Linden, Wim J.; Glas, Cees A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal test-design methods are applied to rule-based item generation. Three different cases of automated test design are presented: (a) test assembly from a pool of pregenerated, calibrated items; (b) test generation on the fly from a pool of calibrated item families; and (c) test generation on the fly directly from calibrated features defining…

  6. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Michal; Nagy, Roman; Fisch, Dominik

    2014-12-01

    The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework) - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  7. A Comparison of Testlet-Based Test Designs for Computerized Adaptive Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnipke, Deborah L.; Reese, Lynda M.

    Two-stage and multistage test designs provide a way of roughly adapting item difficulty to test-taker ability. All test takers take a parallel stage-one test, and, based on their scores, they are routed to tests of different difficulty levels in subsequent stages. These designs provide some of the benefits of standard computerized adaptive testing…

  8. Goal Based Testing: A Risk Informed Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, Chester; Smith, Clayton; Distefano, Sal; Goldin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    A process for life demonstration testing is developed, which can reduce the number of resources required by conventional sampling theory while still maintaining the same degree of rigor and confidence level. This process incorporates state-of-the-art probabilistic thinking and is consistent with existing NASA guidance documentation. This view of life testing changes the paradigm of testing a system for many hours to show confidence that a system will last for the required number of years to one that focuses efforts and resources on exploring how the system can fail at end-of-life and building confidence that the failure mechanisms are understood and well mitigated.

  9. Cancer vaccines: harnessing the potential of anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Suckow, Mark A

    2013-10-01

    Although the presence of cancer suggests failure of the immune system to protect against development of tumors, the possibility that immunity can be redirected and focused to generate an anti-tumor response offers great translational possibility. The key to this is identifying antigens likely to be present in any given tumor and functionally critical to tumor survival and growth. Such tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are varied and optimally should be absent from normal tissue. Of particular interest are TAAs associated with the tumor stroma, as immunity directed against the stroma may restrict the ability of the tumor to grow and metastasize. Important to directing the immune system toward an effect anti-tumor response is the understanding of how TAAs are processed and how the tumor is able to evade immune elimination. The process of immunoediting happens in response to the selective pressure that the immune system places upon tumor cell populations and allows for emergence of tumor cells capable of escaping immune destruction. Efforts to harness the immune system for clinical application has been aided by vaccines based on purified recombinant protein or nucleic acid TAAs. For example, a vaccine for canine melanoma has been developed and approved based on immunization with DNA components of tyrosinase, a glycoprotein essential to melanin synthesis. The performance of cancer vaccines has been aided in some cases when supplemented with immunostimulatory molecules such as interleukin 2 or a novel extracellular matrix vaccine adjuvant. Vaccines with the broadest menu of antigenic targets may be those most likely to succeed against cancer. For this reason, tissue vaccines produced from harvested tumor material may offer significant benefit. With several cancer vaccines on the veterinary and human markets, efforts to understand basic tumor immunology are soon to yield great dividends. PMID:23850019

  10. Harnessing DNA-induced immune responses for improving cancer vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Herrada, Andrés A.; Rojas-Colonelli, Nicole; González-Figueroa, Paula; Roco, Jonathan; Oyarce, César; Ligtenberg, Maarten A.; Lladser, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    DNA vaccines have emerged as an attractive strategy to promote protective cellular and humoral immunity against the encoded antigen. DNA vaccines are easy to generate, inexpensive to produce and purify at large-scale, highly stable and safe. In addition, plasmids used for DNA vaccines act as powerful “danger signals” by stimulating several DNA-sensing innate immune receptors that promote the induction of protective adaptive immunity. The induction of tumor-specific immune responses represents a major challenge for DNA vaccines because most of tumor-associated antigens are normal non-mutated self-antigens. As a consequence, induction of potentially self-reactive T cell responses against such poorly immunogenic antigens is controlled by mechanisms of central and peripheral tolerance as well as tumor-induced immunosuppression. Although several DNA vaccines against cancer have reached clinical testing, disappointing results have been observed. Therefore, the development of new adjuvants that strongly stimulate the induction of antitumor T cell immunity and counteract immune-suppressive regulation is an attractive approach to enhance the potency of DNA vaccines and overcome tumor-associated tolerance. Understanding the DNA-sensing signaling pathways of innate immunity that mediate the induction of T cell responses elicited by DNA vaccines represents a unique opportunity to develop novel adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency. The advance of DNA adjuvants needs to be complemented with the development of potent delivery systems, in order to step toward successful clinical application. Here, we briefly discuss recent evidence showing how to harness DNA-induced immune response to improve the potency of cancer vaccines and counteract tumor-associated tolerance. PMID:23111166

  11. Nuffield Secondary Science, Theme 4, Harnessing Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Edgar

    Nuffield Secondary Science is a set of tested materials from which teachers can prepare courses for students in grades 9-11 (approximately) who do not intend to major in science. The materials are designed for British secondary schools but are adaptable to other countries. The Teachers' Guide to the entire set of Themes is described in SE 015 440…

  12. Google glass based immunochromatographic diagnostic test analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Steve; Caire, Romain; Cortazar, Bingen; Turan, Mehmet; Wong, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-03-01

    Integration of optical imagers and sensors into recently emerging wearable computational devices allows for simpler and more intuitive methods of integrating biomedical imaging and medical diagnostics tasks into existing infrastructures. Here we demonstrate the ability of one such device, the Google Glass, to perform qualitative and quantitative analysis of immunochromatographic rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) using a voice-commandable hands-free software-only interface, as an alternative to larger and more bulky desktop or handheld units. Using the built-in camera of Glass to image one or more RDTs (labeled with Quick Response (QR) codes), our Glass software application uploads the captured image and related information (e.g., user name, GPS, etc.) to our servers for remote analysis and storage. After digital analysis of the RDT images, the results are transmitted back to the originating Glass device, and made available through a website in geospatial and tabular representations. We tested this system on qualitative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and quantitative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) RDTs. For qualitative HIV tests, we demonstrate successful detection and labeling (i.e., yes/no decisions) for up to 6-fold dilution of HIV samples. For quantitative measurements, we activated and imaged PSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 200 ng/mL and generated calibration curves relating the RDT line intensity values to PSA concentration. By providing automated digitization of both qualitative and quantitative test results, this wearable colorimetric diagnostic test reader platform on Google Glass can reduce operator errors caused by poor training, provide real-time spatiotemporal mapping of test results, and assist with remote monitoring of various biomedical conditions.

  13. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cartridge respirators other than single-use vinyl chloride shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable... of pressure over the entire area in contact with the face. (2) Facepieces for single-use vinyl chloride respirators shall be equipped with adjustable head harnesses designed and constructed to...

  14. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cartridge respirators other than single-use vinyl chloride shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable... of pressure over the entire area in contact with the face. (2) Facepieces for single-use vinyl chloride respirators shall be equipped with adjustable head harnesses designed and constructed to...

  15. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cartridge respirators other than single-use vinyl chloride shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable... of pressure over the entire area in contact with the face. (2) Facepieces for single-use vinyl chloride respirators shall be equipped with adjustable head harnesses designed and constructed to...

  16. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cartridge respirators other than single-use vinyl chloride shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable... of pressure over the entire area in contact with the face. (2) Facepieces for single-use vinyl chloride respirators shall be equipped with adjustable head harnesses designed and constructed to...

  17. 42 CFR 84.201 - Head harnesses; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cartridge respirators other than single-use vinyl chloride shall be equipped with adjustable and replaceable... of pressure over the entire area in contact with the face. (2) Facepieces for single-use vinyl chloride respirators shall be equipped with adjustable head harnesses designed and constructed to...

  18. Harnessing the crowd to accelerate molecular medicine research.

    PubMed

    Smith, Robert J; Merchant, Raina M

    2015-07-01

    Crowdsourcing presents a novel approach to solving complex problems within molecular medicine. By leveraging the expertise of fellow scientists across the globe, broadcasting to and engaging the public for idea generation, harnessing a scalable workforce for quick data management, and fundraising for research endeavors, crowdsourcing creates novel opportunities for accelerating scientific progress. PMID:26141797

  19. Residual dysplasia after successful Pavlik harness treatment: early ultrasound predictors.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Venelin Alexandrov; Harcke, H Theodore; Kumar, S Jay

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a group of children treated with Pavlik harness for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) to determine early ultrasound characteristics that predict poor acetabular development after walking age. From a group of 487 infants with DDH, 55 met inclusion criteria of (1) ultrasound documentation of major neonatal hip instability, (2) treatment with Pavlik harness, and (3) a minimum of 4 years of follow-up. These 55 infants had 100 abnormal hips. Harness treatment alone was successful in treating 87 of 100 hips. Persistent or late acetabular dysplasia was defined from serial radiographs. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, 5 of the 87 (6%) were found to have sequelae (late acetabular dysplasia, avascular necrosis of the femoral head, or both). Three sonographic findings present on the initial ultrasound predicted late sequelae: (1) dynamic coverage index of 22% or less, (2) alpha angle less than 43 degrees, and (3) abnormal echogenicity of the cartilaginous roof on initial ultrasound. Abnormal echogenicity was the most specific single predictor of residual dysplasia (sensitivity 100% and specificity 88%). The structurally normal cartilaginous roof is non-echogenic except for a short triangular fibrous tip (the labrum). Pathologic cartilage becomes echogenic beyond the tip as hyaline cartilage becomes fibrous and deformed. In unstable hips that respond well to Pavlik harness treatment, it would appear that midterm acetabular development can be affected when early transformation of roof cartilage accompanies displacement and instability. PMID:16439895

  20. Harnessing Linguistic Variation to Improve Education. Rethinking Education. Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiakoumetti, Androula, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This volume brings together research carried out in a variety of geographic and linguistic contexts including Africa, Asia, Australia, Canada, the Caribbean, Europe and the United States and explores efforts to incorporate linguistic diversity into education and to "harness" this diversity for learners' benefit. It challenges the largely…

  1. Using Discussion Methods to Inspire Diversity: Harnessing Social & Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raison, Brian; Gordon, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    How can you better harness the powerful social capital that exists within diverse individuals, families, businesses, and schools to make positive impacts in your community? What could you add to your next meeting--a Chamber strategic planning session, an employee wellness program, a non-profit board development--to better connect participants with…

  2. Manufacture and quality control of interconnecting wire harnesses, Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The document covers interconnecting wire harnesses defined in the design standard, including type 6, enclosed in TFE heat shrink tubing; and type 7, flexible armored. Knowledge gained through experience on the Saturn 5 program coupled with recent advances in techniques, materials, and processes was incorporated into this document.

  3. Moving ahead on harnessing synthetic lethality to fight cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jerby-Arnon, Livnat; Ruppin, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed a data-mining pipeline that comprehensively identifies cancer unique susceptibilities, following the concept of Synthetic Lethality (SL). The approach enables, for the first time, to identify and harness genome-scale SL-networks to accurately predict gene essentiality, drug response, and clinical prognosis in cancer. PMID:27308440

  4. Study of risk based on web software testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin

    2013-03-01

    Web-based test systems that have particular difficulties and challenges, The article points out a Web application system security risk, through the analysis of the implementation issues involved Web-based testing, proposed workflow based on Web test, And how to choose the risk of the process by adding a detailed study, Discussed the security, performance, accuracy, compatibility, reliability and other details of the risk factors. These risks need for Web application testing program be established in order to make better Web-based test plan.

  5. Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north side of Test Stand 'A' base, showing tanks for distilled water (left), fuel (center), and gaseous nitrogen (right). Other tanks present for tests were removed before this image was taken. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand A, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Computer-Based Arithmetic Test Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocchi, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    The computer can be a welcome partner in the instructional process, but only if there is man-machine interaction. Man should not compromise system design because of available hardware; the computer must fit the system design for the result to represent an acceptable solution to instructional technology. The Arithmetic Test Generator system fits…

  7. TREAT (TREe-based Association Test)

    Cancer.gov

    TREAT is an R package for detecting complex joint effects in case-control studies. The test statistic is derived from a tree-structure model by recursive partitioning the data. Ultra-fast algorithm is designed to evaluate the significance of association be

  8. Applying Motion Constraints Based on Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlone, Michael

    2014-01-01

    MSC ADAMS is a simulation software that is used to analyze multibody dynamics. Using user subroutines, it is possible to apply motion constraints to the rigid bodies so that they match the motion profile collected from test data. This presentation describes the process of taking test data and passing it to ADAMS using user subroutines, and uses the Morpheus free-flight 4 test as an example of motion data used for this purpose. Morpheus is the name of a prototype lander vehicle built by NASA that serves as a test bed for various experimental technologies (see backup slides for details) MSC.ADAMS"TM" is used to play back telemetry data (vehicle orientation and position) from each test as the inputs to a 6-DoF general motion constraint (details in backup slides) The MSC.ADAMS"TM" playback simulations allow engineers to examine and analyze flight trajectory as well as observe vehicle motion from any angle and at any playback speed. This facilitates the development of robust and stable control algorithms, increasing reliability and reducing development costs of this developmental engine The simulation also incorporates a 3D model of the artificial hazard field, allowing engineers to visualize and measure performance of the developmental autonomous landing and hazard avoidance technology ADAMS is a multibody dynamics solver. It uses forces, constraints, and mass properties to numerically integrate equations of motion. The ADAMS solver will ask the motion subroutine for position, velocity, and acceleration values at various time steps. Those values must be continuous over the whole time domain. Each degree of freedom in the telemetry data can be examined separately; however, linear interpolation of the telemetry data is invalid, since there will be discontinuities in velocity and acceleration.

  9. A Proposed Framework for Conducting Data-Based Test Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaney, Kathleen L.; Maraun, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors argue that the current state of applied data-based test analytic practice is unstructured and unmethodical due in large part to the fact that there is no clearly specified, widely accepted test analytic framework for judging the performances of particular tests in particular contexts. Drawing from the extant test theory literature,…

  10. Dynamic test of radio altimeter based on IQ modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hongfei; Tian, Yu; Li, Miao

    2010-08-01

    This paper based on the analysis and research of radio altimeter and its basic principles, it introduces a design for I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system. Further, data got from the test had been analyzed. Combined with the testing data of the altimeter, a construction of the I/Q modulator's radio altimeter testing system is built.

  11. Test Review: Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM]--Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT[R])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author reviews the TOEFL iBT which is the latest version of the TOEFL, whose history stretches back to 1961. The TOEFL iBT was introduced in the USA, Canada, France, Germany and Italy in late 2005. Currently the TOEFL test is offered in two testing formats: (1) Internet-based testing (iBT); and (2) paper-based testing (PBT).…

  12. CHEMICAL SPOT TEST KITS FOR TESTING FOR LEAD-BASED PAINT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The product is a series of three reports on the evaluation of the use of chemical spot test kits for testing for lead-based paint. The first report provides guidelines for conducting an evaluation of chemical test kits for testing for lead in paint. The second provides an analy...

  13. Protein-Based Urine Test Predicts Kidney Transplant Outcomes

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Releases News Release Thursday, August 22, 2013 Protein-based urine test predicts kidney transplant outcomes NIH- ... supporting development of noninvasive tests. Levels of a protein in the urine of kidney transplant recipients can ...

  14. Large-Scale Multiobjective Static Test Generation for Web-Based Testing with Integer Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, M. L.; Hui, Siu Cheung; Fong, A. C. M.

    2013-01-01

    Web-based testing has become a ubiquitous self-assessment method for online learning. One useful feature that is missing from today's web-based testing systems is the reliable capability to fulfill different assessment requirements of students based on a large-scale question data set. A promising approach for supporting large-scale web-based…

  15. The Comparison of Accuracy Scores on the Paper and Pencil Testing vs. Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retnawati, Heri

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the accuracy of the test scores as results of Test of English Proficiency (TOEP) based on paper and pencil test (PPT) versus computer-based test (CBT). Using the participants' responses to the PPT documented from 2008-2010 and data of CBT TOEP documented in 2013-2014 on the sets of 1A, 2A, and 3A for the Listening and…

  16. Harnessing the power of neuroplasticity for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Bryan; Muhammad, Arif

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental property of the brain is its capacity to change with a wide variety of experiences, including injury. Although there are spontaneous reparative changes following injury, these changes are rarely sufficient to support significant functional recovery. Research on the basic principles of brain plasticity is leading to new approaches to treating the injured brain. We review factors that affect synaptic organization in the normal brain, evidence of spontaneous neuroplasticity after injury, and the evidence that factors including postinjury experience, pharmacotherapy, and cell-based therapies, can form the basis of rehabilitation strategies after brain injuries early in life and in adulthood. PMID:25018713

  17. Harnessing aptamers for electrochemical detection of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Su, Wenqiong; Cho, MiSuk; Lee, Youngkwan; Choe, Woo-Seok

    2012-05-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, triggers a fatal septic shock; therefore, fast and accurate detection of LPS from a complex milieu is of primary importance. Several LPS affinity binders have been reported so far but few of them have proved their efficacy in developing electrochemical sensors capable of selectively detecting LPS from crude biological liquors. In this study, we identified 10 different single-stranded DNA aptamers showing specific affinity to LPS with dissociation constants (K(d)) in the nanomolar range using a NECEEM-based non-SELEX method. Based on the sequence and secondary structure analysis of the LPS binding aptamers, an aptamer exhibiting the highest affinity to LPS (i.e., B2) was selected to construct an impedance biosensor on a gold surface. The developed electrochemical aptasensor showed excellent sensitivity and specificity in the linear detection range from 0.01 to 1 ng/mL of LPS with significantly reduced detection time compared with the traditional Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. PMID:22370280

  18. Wind turbine blade testing system using base excitation

    DOEpatents

    Cotrell, Jason; Thresher, Robert; Lambert, Scott; Hughes, Scott; Johnson, Jay

    2014-03-25

    An apparatus (500) for fatigue testing elongate test articles (404) including wind turbine blades through forced or resonant excitation of the base (406) of the test articles (404). The apparatus (500) includes a testing platform or foundation (402). A blade support (410) is provided for retaining or supporting a base (406) of an elongate test article (404), and the blade support (410) is pivotally mounted on the testing platform (402) with at least two degrees of freedom of motion relative to the testing platform (402). An excitation input assembly (540) is interconnected with the blade support (410) and includes first and second actuators (444, 446, 541) that act to concurrently apply forces or loads to the blade support (410). The actuator forces are cyclically applied in first and second transverse directions. The test article (404) responds to shaking of its base (406) by oscillating in two, transverse directions (505, 507).

  19. Harnessing the power of microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Santero, Eduardo; Floriano, Belén; Govantes, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Microorganisms are rich repositories of genetic material encoding many activities of potential interest. Recent advances make identifying and exploiting the metabolic treasures of uncultured microbes an easier proposition. Improved expression vectors and metagenomic screening techniques make it easier to identify activities of interest. Synthetic biology and efficient genome editing techniques allow microbial genomes to be modified almost without restriction. Computational approaches based on organism-wide analysis of transcription, protein synthesis and metabolic fluxes make it possible to accurately predict the outcome of the metabolic processes and modifications required for optimization. Together these advances represent a major breakthrough in microbial biotechnology that is expected to yield new generations of tailor-made biocatalysts suitable for multiple biotechnological applications. PMID:27022715

  20. Harnessing multicores: Strategies and implementations in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binet, S.; Calafiura, P.; Snyder, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Winklmeier, F.

    2010-04-01

    Computers are no longer getting faster: instead, they are growing more and more CPUs, each of which is no faster than the previous generation. This increase in the number of cores evidently calls for more parallelism in HENP software. If end-users' stand-alone analysis applications are relatively easy to modify, LHC experiments frameworks, being mostly written with a single 'thread' of execution in mind and consequent code bases, are on the other hand more challenging to parallelize. Widespread and inconsiderate changes so close to data taking are out of the equation: we need clear strategies and guidelines to reap the benefits out of the multicore/manycore era while minimizing the code changes.

  1. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No... belt and shoulder harness properly secured about that person except that the shoulder harness need...

  2. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  3. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No... belt and shoulder harness properly secured about that person except that the shoulder harness need...

  4. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No... belt and shoulder harness properly secured about that person except that the shoulder harness need...

  5. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No... belt and shoulder harness properly secured about that person except that the shoulder harness need...

  6. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  7. 14 CFR 137.42 - Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fastening of safety belts and shoulder... AGRICULTURAL AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.42 Fastening of safety belts and shoulder harnesses. No... belt and shoulder harness properly secured about that person except that the shoulder harness need...

  8. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap held... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  9. Harnessing biomechanics to develop cartilage regeneration strategies.

    PubMed

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos A; Responte, Donald J; Brown, Wendy E; Hu, Jerry C

    2015-02-01

    As this review was prepared specifically for the American Society of Mechanical Engineers H.R. Lissner Medal, it primarily discusses work toward cartilage regeneration performed in Dr. Kyriacos A. Athanasiou's laboratory over the past 25 years. The prevalence and severity of degeneration of articular cartilage, a tissue whose main function is largely biomechanical, have motivated the development of cartilage tissue engineering approaches informed by biomechanics. This article provides a review of important steps toward regeneration of articular cartilage with suitable biomechanical properties. As a first step, biomechanical and biochemical characterization studies at the tissue level were used to provide design criteria for engineering neotissues. Extending this work to the single cell and subcellular levels has helped to develop biochemical and mechanical stimuli for tissue engineering studies. This strong mechanobiological foundation guided studies on regenerating hyaline articular cartilage, the knee meniscus, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) fibrocartilage. Initial tissue engineering efforts centered on developing biodegradable scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. After many years of studying scaffold-based cartilage engineering, scaffoldless approaches were developed to address deficiencies of scaffold-based systems, resulting in the self-assembling process. This process was further improved by employing exogenous stimuli, such as hydrostatic pressure, growth factors, and matrix-modifying and catabolic agents, both singly and in synergistic combination to enhance neocartilage functional properties. Due to the high cell needs for tissue engineering and the limited supply of native articular chondrocytes, costochondral cells are emerging as a suitable cell source. Looking forward, additional cell sources are investigated to render these technologies more translatable. For example, dermis isolated adult stem (DIAS) cells show potential as a source of

  10. HARNESSING THE CHEMISTRY OF CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, Janis

    2010-05-11

    Our research program is broadly focused on activating CO{sub 2} through the use of organic and organometallic based catalysts. Some of our methods have centered on annulation reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons (and carbonyl substrates) to provide a diverse array of carbocycles and heterocycles. We use a combination of catalyst discovery and optimization in conjunction with classical physical organic chemistry to elucidate the key mechanistic features of the cycloaddition reactions such that the next big advances in catalyst development can be made. Key to all of our cycloaddition reactions is the use of a sterically hindered, electron donating N heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, namely IPr (or SIPr), in conjunction with a low valent nickel pre-catalyst. The efficacy of this ligand is two-fold: (1) the high {delta}-donating ability of the NHC increases the nucleophilicity of the metal center which thereby facilitates interaction with the electrophilic carbonyl and (2) the steric hindrance prevents an otherwise competitive side reaction involving only the alkyne substrate. Such a system has allowed for the facile cycloaddition to prepare highly functionalized pyrones, pyridones, pyrans, as well as novel carbocycles. Importantly, all reactions proceed under extremely mild conditions (room temperature, atmospheric pressures, and short reaction times), require only catalytic amounts of Ni/NHC and readily available starting materials, and afford annulated products in excellent yields. Our current focus revolves around understanding the fundamental processes that govern these cycloadditions such that the next big advance in the cyclization chemistry of CO{sub 2} can be made. Concurrent to our annulation chemistry is our investigation of the potential for imidazolylidenes to function as thermally-actuated CO{sub 2} sequestering and delivery agents.

  11. Design of a Microcomputer-Based Adaptive Testing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, C. David

    This paper explores the feasibility of developing a single-user microcomputer-based testing system. Testing literature was surveyed to discover types of test items that might be used in the system and to compile a list of strategies that such a system might use. Potential users were surveyed. Several were interviewed, and a questionnaire was…

  12. Factor Structure of the TOEFL Internet-Based Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Stricker, Lawrence J.; Oranje, Andreas H.

    2009-01-01

    This construct validation study investigated the factor structure of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based test (TOEFL[R] iBT). An item-level confirmatory factor analysis was conducted for a test form completed by participants in a field study. A higher-order factor model was identified, with a higher-order general factor…

  13. Marking Strategies in Metacognition-Evaluated Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Ju; Ho, Rong-Guey; Yen, Yung-Chin

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of marking and metacognition-evaluated feedback (MEF) in computer-based testing (CBT) on student performance and review behavior. Marking is a strategy, in which students place a question mark next to a test item to indicate an uncertain answer. The MEF provided students with feedback on test results…

  14. Model-Based Practice Analysis and Test Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Licensure and certification decisions are usually based on a chain of inference from results of a practice analysis to test specifications, the test, examinee performance, and a pass-fail decision. This article focuses on the design of practice analyses and translation of practice analyses results into test specifications. (SLD)

  15. HARNESS: Heterogeneous Adaptable Reconfigurable Networked Systems. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fagg, G. E.

    2004-01-20

    HARNESS was proposed as a system that combined the best of emerging technologies found in current distributed computing research and commercial products into a very flexible, dynamically adaptable framework that could be used by applications to allow them to evolve and better handle their execution environment. The HARNESS system was designed using the considerable experience from previous projects such as PVM, MPI, IceT and Cumulvs. As such, the system was designed to avoid any of the common problems found with using these current systems, such as no single point of failure, ability to survive machine, node and software failures. Additional features included improved intercomponent connectivity, with full support for dynamic down loading of addition components at run-time thus reducing the stress on application developers to build in all the libraries they need in advance.

  16. Uncovering Listeria monocytogenes hypervirulence by harnessing its biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Maury, Mylène M; Tsai, Yu-Huan; Charlier, Caroline; Touchon, Marie; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Criscuolo, Alexis; Gaultier, Charlotte; Roussel, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Disson, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P C; Brisse, Sylvain; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-03-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies are typically performed with reference strains, thereby overlooking within-species heterogeneity in microbial virulence. Here we integrated human epidemiological and clinical data with bacterial population genomics to harness the biodiversity of the model foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and decipher the basis of its neural and placental tropisms. Taking advantage of the clonal structure of this bacterial species, we identify clones epidemiologically associated either with food or with human central nervous system (CNS) or maternal-neonatal (MN) listeriosis. The latter clones are also most prevalent in patients without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Strikingly, CNS- and MN-associated clones are hypervirulent in a humanized mouse model of listeriosis. By integrating epidemiological data and comparative genomics, we have uncovered multiple new putative virulence factors and demonstrate experimentally the contribution of the first gene cluster mediating L. monocytogenes neural and placental tropisms. This study illustrates the exceptional power in harnessing microbial biodiversity to identify clinically relevant microbial virulence attributes. PMID:26829754

  17. Uncovering Listeria monocytogenes hypervirulence by harnessing its biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Touchon, Marie; Chenal-Francisque, Viviane; Leclercq, Alexandre; Criscuolo, Alexis; Gaultier, Charlotte; Roussel, Sophie; Brisabois, Anne; Disson, Olivier; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Brisse, Sylvain; Lecuit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Microbial pathogenesis studies are typically performed with reference strains, thereby overlooking microbial intra-species virulence heterogeneity. Here we integrated human epidemiological and clinical data with bacterial population genomics to harness the biodiversity of the model foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes and decipher the basis of its neural and placental tropisms. Taking advantage of the clonal structure of this bacterial species, we identify clones epidemiologically associated with either food or human central nervous system (CNS) and maternal-neonatal (MN) listeriosis. The latter are also most prevalent in patients without immunosuppressive comorbidities. Strikingly, CNS and MN clones are hypervirulent in a humanized mouse model of listeriosis. By integrating epidemiological data and comparative genomics, we uncovered multiple novel putative virulence factors and demonstrated experimentally the contribution of the first gene cluster mediating Listeria monocytogenes neural and placental tropisms. This study illustrates the exceptional power of harnessing microbial biodiversity to identify clinically relevant microbial virulence attributes. PMID:26829754

  18. Technology-Based Classroom Assessments: Alternatives to Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2009-01-01

    Although many teachers are using new technologies to differentiate instruction and administer tests, educators are also employing a range of technology-based resources and strategies to implement a variety of classroom assessments as alternatives to standardized and teacher-made testing. Technology-based classroom assessments focus on the use of…

  19. Incentives and Test-Based Accountability in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hout, Michael, Ed.; Elliott, Stuart W., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been increasing efforts to use accountability systems based on large-scale tests of students as a mechanism for improving student achievement. The federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is a prominent example of such an effort, but it is only the continuation of a steady trend toward greater test-based accountability in…

  20. Theory-Based University Admissions Testing for a New Millennium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes two projects based on Robert J. Sternberg's theory of successful intelligence and designed to provide theory-based testing for university admissions. The first, Rainbow Project, provided a supplementary test of analytical, practical, and creative skills to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. The Rainbow…

  1. Security Considerations and Recommendations in Computer-Based Testing

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleem, Saleh M.

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee. PMID:25254250

  2. Security considerations and recommendations in computer-based testing.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleem, Saleh M; Ullah, Hanif

    2014-01-01

    Many organizations and institutions around the globe are moving or planning to move their paper-and-pencil based testing to computer-based testing (CBT). However, this conversion will not be the best option for all kinds of exams and it will require significant resources. These resources may include the preparation of item banks, methods for test delivery, procedures for test administration, and last but not least test security. Security aspects may include but are not limited to the identification and authentication of examinee, the risks that are associated with cheating on the exam, and the procedures related to test delivery to the examinee. This paper will mainly investigate the security considerations associated with CBT and will provide some recommendations for the security of these kinds of tests. We will also propose a palm-based biometric authentication system incorporated with basic authentication system (username/password) in order to check the identity and authenticity of the examinee. PMID:25254250

  3. Hello World: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Homfeld, A.-M.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented space adventure as the spacecraft reached its destination ten years later, a wide range of new audiences were reached and could follow this once-in-a-lifetime mission.

  4. DLP™-based dichoptic vision test system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Russell L.; Apfelbaum, Henry L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    It can be useful to present a different image to each of the two eyes while they cooperatively view the world. Such dichoptic presentation can occur in investigations of stereoscopic and binocular vision (e.g., strabismus, amblyopia) and vision rehabilitation in clinical and research settings. Various techniques have been used to construct dichoptic displays. The most common and most flexible modern technique uses liquid-crystal (LC) shutters. When used in combination with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, there is often leakage of light from the image intended for one eye into the view of the other eye. Such interocular crosstalk is 14% even in our state of the art CRT-based dichoptic system. While such crosstalk may have minimal impact on stereo movie or video game experiences, it can defeat clinical and research investigations. We use micromirror digital light processing (DLP™) technology to create a novel dichoptic visual display system with substantially lower interocular crosstalk (0.3% remaining crosstalk comes from the LC shutters). The DLP system normally uses a color wheel to display color images. Our approach is to disable the color wheel, synchronize the display directly to the computer's sync signal, allocate each of the three (former) color presentations to one or both eyes, and open and close the LC shutters in synchrony with those color events.

  5. DLP™-based dichoptic vision test system

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Russell L.; Apfelbaum, Henry L.; Peli, Eli

    2010-01-01

    It can be useful to present a different image to each of the two eyes while they cooperatively view the world. Such dichoptic presentation can occur in investigations of stereoscopic and binocular vision (e.g., strabismus, amblyopia) and vision rehabilitation in clinical and research settings. Various techniques have been used to construct dichoptic displays. The most common and most flexible modern technique uses liquid-crystal (LC) shutters. When used in combination with cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, there is often leakage of light from the image intended for one eye into the view of the other eye. Such interocular crosstalk is 14% even in our state of the art CRT-based dichoptic system. While such crosstalk may have minimal impact on stereo movie or video game experiences, it can defeat clinical and research investigations. We use micromirror digital light processing (DLP™) technology to create a novel dichoptic visual display system with substantially lower interocular crosstalk (0.3%; remaining crosstalk comes from the LC shutters). The DLP system normally uses a color wheel to display color images. Our approach is to disable the color wheel, synchronize the display directly to the computer’s sync signal, allocate each of the three (former) color presentations to one or both eyes, and open and close the LC shutters in synchrony with those color events. PMID:20210457

  6. Network harness: bundles of routes in public transport networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berche, B.; von Ferber, C.; Holovatch, T.

    2009-12-01

    Public transport routes sharing the same grid of streets and tracks are often found to proceed in parallel along shorter or longer sequences of stations. Similar phenomena are observed in other networks built with space consuming links such as cables, vessels, pipes, neurons, etc. In the case of public transport networks (PTNs) this behavior may be easily worked out on the basis of sequences of stations serviced by each route. To quantify this behavior we use the recently introduced notion of network harness. It is described by the harness distribution P(r, s): the number of sequences of s consecutive stations that are serviced by r parallel routes. For certain PTNs that we have analyzed we observe that the harness distribution may be described by power laws. These power laws indicate a certain level of organization and planning which may be driven by the need to minimize the costs of infrastructure and secondly by the fact that points of interest tend to be clustered in certain locations of a city. This effect may be seen as a result of the strong interdependence of the evolutions of both the city and its PTN. To further investigate the significance of the empirical results we have studied one- and two-dimensional models of randomly placed routes modeled by different types of walks. While in one dimension an analytic treatment was successful, the two dimensional case was studied by simulations showing that the empirical results for real PTNs deviate significantly from those expected for randomly placed routes.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus testing for patient-based and population-based diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Albritton, W L; Vittinghoff, E; Padian, N S

    1996-10-01

    Laboratory testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been introduced for individual patient-based diagnosis as well as high-risk and low-risk population-based screening. The choice of test, confirmatory algorithm, and interpretative criteria used depend on the clinical setting. In the context of general population-based testing, factors affecting test performance will have to be considered carefully in the development of testing policy. PMID:8843247

  8. Counselor-Based Rapid HIV Testing in Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Ethan; Rhee, John Y.; Brusalis, Christopher; Leider, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine the results of implementing a rapid counselor-based HIV testing program in community pharmacies. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on a convenience sample of clients at five community pharmacies in New York City (NYC). In 294 days of pharmacy testing, 2805 clients were eligible to receive testing, and 2030 individuals agreed to test. The average age was 33±15 years, 41% were male, 59% were Hispanic, 77% had been previously tested for HIV, and 34% were uninsured. HIV incidence was 0.3%, median CD4 cell count was 622.0, and the average age of the newly diagnosed positives was 36.0±13.9 years. Participants were satisfied with a counselor-based rapid HIV testing program in community-based pharmacies. PMID:23883320

  9. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, R S; Baltzley, D R; Turnage, J J; Jones, M B

    1989-12-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment. PMID:2622715

  10. Factor analysis and predictive validity of microcomputer-based tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Turnage, J. J.; Jones, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    11 tests were selected from two microcomputer-based performance test batteries because previously these tests exhibited rapid stability (less than 10 min, of practice) and high retest reliability efficiencies (r greater than 0.707 for each 3 min. of testing). The battery was administered three times to each of 108 college students (48 men and 60 women) and a factor analysis was performed. Two of the three identified factors appear to be related to information processing ("encoding" and "throughput/decoding"), and the third named an "output/speed" factor. The spatial, memory, and verbal tests loaded on the "encoding" factor and included Grammatical Reasoning, Pattern Comparison, Continuous Recall, and Matrix Rotation. The "throughput/decoding" tests included perceptual/numerical tests like Math Processing, Code Substitution, and Pattern Comparison. The output speed factor was identified by Tapping and Reaction Time tests. The Wonderlic Personnel Test was group administered before the first and after the last administration of the performance tests. The multiple Rs in the total sample between combined Wonderlic as a criterion and less than 5 min. of microcomputer testing on Grammatical Reasoning and Math Processing as predictors ranged between 0.41 and 0.52 on the three test administrations. Based on these results, the authors recommend a core battery which, if time permits, would consist of two tests from each factor. Such a battery is now known to permit stable, reliable, and efficient assessment.

  11. Ring Counter Based ATPG for Low Transition Test Pattern Generation

    PubMed Central

    Begam, V. M. Thoulath; Baulkani, S.

    2015-01-01

    In test mode test patterns are applied in random fashion to the circuit under circuit. This increases switching transition between the consecutive test patterns and thereby increases dynamic power dissipation. The proposed ring counter based ATPG reduces vertical switching transitions by inserting test vectors only between the less correlative test patterns. This paper presents the RC-ATPG with an external circuit. The external circuit consists of XOR gates, full adders, and multiplexers. First the total number of transitions between the consecutive test patterns is determined. If it is more, then the external circuit generates and inserts test vectors in between the two test patterns. Test vector insertion increases the correlation between the test patterns and reduces dynamic power dissipation. The results prove that the test patterns generated by the proposed ATPG have fewer transitions than the conventional ATPG. Experimental results based on ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits show 38.5% reduction in the average power and 50% reduction in the peak power attained during testing with a small size decoding logic. PMID:26075295

  12. Model Based Analysis and Test Generation for Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasareanu, Corina S.; Schumann, Johann M.; Mehlitz, Peter C.; Lowry, Mike R.; Karsai, Gabor; Nine, Harmon; Neema, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We describe a framework for model-based analysis and test case generation in the context of a heterogeneous model-based development paradigm that uses and combines Math- Works and UML 2.0 models and the associated code generation tools. This paradigm poses novel challenges to analysis and test case generation that, to the best of our knowledge, have not been addressed before. The framework is based on a common intermediate representation for different modeling formalisms and leverages and extends model checking and symbolic execution tools for model analysis and test case generation, respectively. We discuss the application of our framework to software models for a NASA flight mission.

  13. High-affinity binding of the staphylococcal HarA protein to haptoglobin and hemoglobin involves a domain with an antiparallel eight-stranded beta-barrel fold.

    PubMed

    Dryla, Agnieszka; Hoffmann, Bernd; Gelbmann, Dieter; Giefing, Carmen; Hanner, Markus; Meinke, Andreas; Anderson, Annaliesa S; Koppensteiner, Walter; Konrat, Robert; von Gabain, Alexander; Nagy, Eszter

    2007-01-01

    Iron scavenging from the host is essential for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we further characterized two staphylococcal cell wall proteins previously shown to bind hemoproteins. HarA and IsdB harbor homologous ligand binding domains, the so called NEAT domain (for "near transporter") present in several surface proteins of gram-positive pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance measurements using glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged HarAD1, one of the ligand binding domains of HarA, and GST-tagged full-length IsdB proteins confirmed high-affinity binding to hemoglobin and haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes with equilibrium dissociation constants (K(D)) of 5 to 50 nM. Haptoglobin binding could be detected only with HarA and was in the low micromolar range. In order to determine the fold of this evolutionarily conserved ligand binding domain, the untagged HarAD1 protein was subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which revealed an eight-stranded, purely antiparallel beta-barrel with the strand order (-beta1 -beta2 -beta3 -beta6 -beta5 -beta4 -beta7 -beta8), forming two Greek key motifs. Based on structural-homology searches, the topology of the HarAD1 domain resembles that of the immunoglobulin (Ig) fold family, whose members are involved in protein-protein interactions, but with distinct structural features. Therefore, we consider that the HarAD1/NEAT domain fold is a novel variant of the Ig fold that has not yet been observed in other proteins. PMID:17041047

  14. Harnessing large deformation and instabilities of soft dielectrics: Theory, experiment, and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuanhe; Wang, Qiming

    2014-06-01

    Widely used as insulators, capacitors, and transducers in daily life, soft dielectrics based on polymers and polymeric gels play important roles in modern electrified society. Owning to their mechanical compliance, soft dielectrics subject to voltages frequently undergo large deformation and mechanical instabilities. The deformation and instabilities can lead to detrimental failures in some applications of soft dielectrics such as polymer capacitors and insulating gels but can also be rationally harnessed to enable novel functions such as artificial muscle, dynamic surface patterning, and energy harvesting. According to mechanical constraints on soft dielectrics, we classify their deformation and instabilities into three generic modes: (i) thinning and pull-in, (ii) electro-creasing to cratering, and (iii) electro-cavitation. We then provide a systematic understanding of different modes of deformation and instabilities of soft dielectrics by integrating state-of-the-art experimental methods and observations, theoretical models, and applications. Based on the understanding, a systematic set of strategies to prevent or harness the deformation and instabilities of soft dielectrics for diverse applications are discussed. The review is concluded with perspectives on future directions of research in this rapidly evolving field.

  15. Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_158388.html Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test Cologuard may help ... 2016 TUESDAY, April 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new, but small, study finds more evidence that a ...

  16. Credit USAF. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit USAF. Original housed in the Muroc Flight Test Base, Unit History, 1 September 1942 - 30 June 1945. Alfred F. Simpson Historical Research Agency. United States Air Force. Maxwell AFB, Alabama. View captioned as "7 Sept 1945, BH-5 Base Ordinance Motor Repair Shop" with gas station and gasoline pump. View looks roughly northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Motor Repair Shop T-16, Third & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. Effects of harness transmitters on behavior and reproduction of wild mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pietz, Pamela J.; Krapu, Gary L.; Greenwood, Raymond J.; Lokemoen, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Radio telemetry has been an important research tool in waterfowl studies for >20 years, yet little effort has been made to evaluate potential effects of transmitters on the birds that carry them. As part of a 4-year mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) study in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota and Minnesota, we compared radio-marked and unmarked female mallards in terms of percent time observed feeding, resting, and preening; nest initiation date; and clutch size and egg volume. Radio-marked females carried a 23-g back-mounted transmitter attached with a 2-loop harness (Dwyer 1972). On average, radio-marked females tended to feed less, rest and preen more, initiate nests later, and lay smaller clutches and eggs than unmarked females. Thus, behavioral and reproductive data from ducks marked with back-mounted harness-attached transmitters may be biased. We recommend that new designs of radio packages be field tested and caution that effects may be masked under extreme environmental conditions.

  18. Microcomputer based test system for charge coupled devices

    SciTech Connect

    Sidman, S.

    1981-02-01

    A microcomputer based system for testing analog charge coupled integrated circuits has been developed. It measures device performance for three parameters: dynamic range, baseline shift due to leakage current, and transfer efficiency. A companion board tester has also been developed. The software consists of a collection of BASIC and assembly language routines developed on the test system microcomputer.

  19. Testing and Computer-Based Instruction: Psychometric Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; Noonan, John V.

    1988-01-01

    Describes measurement problems associated with computer based testing (CBT) programs when they are part of a computer assisted instruction curriculum. Topics discussed include CBT standards; selection of item types; the contamination of items that arise from test design strategies; and the non-equivalence of comparison groups in item analyses. (8…

  20. Conceptualizing Teaching to the Test under Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Megan E.; Eastwood, Melissa; D'Agostino, Jerome V.

    2014-01-01

    Teacher and school accountability systems based on high-stakes tests are ubiquitous throughout the United States and appear to be growing as a catalyst for reform. As a result, educators have increased the proportion of instructional time devoted to test preparation. Although guidelines for what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate test…

  1. Fixed-time life tests based on fuzzy life characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanagawa, Akihiro; Ohta, Hiroshi

    1992-06-01

    This paper deals with a reliability demonstration test with type-I censoring and presents a formulation based on fuzzy-set theory. Acceptable and rejectable MTBFs are represented in terms of a fuzzy concept, and Bayes' theorem plays an important role in the formulation. The proposed life test is useful when it is difficult to specify acceptable and rejectable MTBFs strictly.

  2. Computer-Based Testing: Practices and Considerations. Synthesis Report 78

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Albus, Debra; Hodgson, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) has emerged as one of the recent "innovative" approaches to assessments most pursued by states. CBT is lauded as the answer to having cheaper and speedier test delivery for state and district-wide assessments. It is also seen by some as an avenue toward greater accessibility for students with disabilities. In this…

  3. Harnessing natural product assembly lines: structure, promiscuity, and engineering.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Christopher C; Williams, Gavin J

    2016-03-01

    Many therapeutically relevant natural products are biosynthesized by the action of giant mega-enzyme assembly lines. By leveraging the specificity, promiscuity, and modularity of assembly lines, a variety of strategies has been developed that enables the biosynthesis of modified natural products. This review briefly summarizes recent structural advances related to natural product assembly lines, discusses chemical approaches to probing assembly line structures in the absence of traditional biophysical data, and surveys efforts that harness the inherent or engineered promiscuity of assembly lines for the synthesis of non-natural polyketides and non-ribosomal peptide analogues. PMID:26527577

  4. "Hello, World!" Harnessing Social Media for the Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; Scuka, D.; Homfeld, A. M.; Ranero, K.; Rolfe, E.; Bennett, M.; Schepers, A.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency's comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. As it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and inspired by this once-in-a-lifetime event by harnessing a range of outlets for communicating the key messages. These included traditional online platforms, such as news websites, blogs, and Livestream, as well as Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, Flickr, YouTube, Google+ and SoundCloud. In this article, we outline the role social media channels played in making Rosetta one of the European Space Agency's biggest communication and public engagement successes.

  5. Harnessing geometric and magnetic nonlinearities in phononic meta-plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilal, Osama; Foehr, Andre; Daraio, Chiara

    Owing to their physical realization, locally resonant metamaterials retain narrow subwavelength band gaps. Moreover, the fixed geometry and dimensions of the unit cell set a hardbound on the central frequency of the operational bandwidth. Real-time tunable metamaterials extend the range of applications and further enable the realization of new sensors, filters, and switches. Our work harnesses the interaction between geometric nonlinearity and nonlinear magnetic potentials to engineer frequency-agile subwavelength band gaps. The concept is general and applicable to various metamaterials systems. Both numerical simulations and experimental realization of the proposed concept will be presented.

  6. Understanding and Harnessing Placebo Effects: Clearing Away the Underbrush

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Franklin G.; Brody, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Despite strong growth in scientific investigation of the placebo effect, understanding of this phenomenon remains deeply confused. We investigate critically seven common conceptual distinctions that impede clear understanding of the placebo effect: (1) verum/placebo, (2) active/inactive, (3) signal/noise, (4) specific/nonspecific, (5) objective/subjective, (6) disease/illness, and (7) intervention/context. We argue that some of these should be eliminated entirely, whereas others must be used with caution to avoid bias. Clearing away the conceptual underbrush is needed to lay down a path to understanding and harnessing placebo effects in clinical medicine. PMID:21220523

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Experimental Operations & Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish; MacLean, Matthew; Seaford, Mark; Holden, Michael

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) uses four clustered liquid rocket engines along with two solid rocket boosters. The interaction between all six rocket exhaust plumes will produce a complex and severe thermal environment in the base of the vehicle. This work focuses on a recent 2% scale, hot-fire SLS base heating test. These base heating tests are short-duration tests executed with chamber pressures near the full-scale values with gaseous hydrogen/oxygen engines and RSRMV analogous solid propellant motors. The LENS II shock tunnel/Ludwieg tube tunnel was used at or near flight duplicated conditions up to Mach 5. Model development was based on the Space Shuttle base heating tests with several improvements including doubling of the maximum chamber pressures and duplication of freestream conditions. Test methodology and conditions are presented, and base heating results from 76 runs are reported in non-dimensional form. Regions of high heating are identified and comparisons of various configuration and conditions are highlighted. Base pressure and radiometer results are also reported.

  8. Some attributes of a language for property-based testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Neagoe, Vicentiu; Bishop, Matt

    2004-11-01

    Property-based testing is a testing technique that evaluates executions of a program. The method checks that specifications, called properties, hold throughout the execution of the program. TASpec is a language used to specify these properties. This paper compares some attributes of the language with the specification patterns used for model-checking languages, and then presents some descriptions of properties that can be used to detect common security flaws in programs. This report describes the results of a one year research project at the University of California, Davis, which was funded by a University Collaboration LDRD entitled ''Property-based Testing for Cyber Security Assurance''.

  9. Informatics-based, highly accurate, noninvasive prenatal paternity testing

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Allison; Baner, Johan; Demko, Zachary; Hill, Matthew; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Baird, Michael L.; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an informatics-based, noninvasive, prenatal paternity test using array-based single-nucleotide polymorphism measurements of cell-free DNA isolated from maternal plasma. Methods: Blood samples were taken from 21 adult pregnant women (with gestational ages between 6 and 21 weeks), and a genetic sample was taken from the corresponding biological fathers. Paternity was confirmed by genetic testing of the infant, products of conception, control of fertilization, and/or preimplantation genetic diagnosis during in vitro fertilization. Parental DNA samples and maternal plasma cell-free DNA were amplified and analyzed using a HumanCytoSNP-12 array. An informatics-based method measured single-nucleotide polymorphism data, confirming or rejecting paternity. Each plasma sample with a sufficient fetal cell-free DNA fraction was independently tested against the confirmed father and 1,820 random, unrelated males. Results: One of the 21 samples had insufficient fetal cell-free DNA. The test correctly confirmed paternity for the remaining 20 samples (100%) when tested against the biological father, with P values of <10−4. For the 36,400 tests using an unrelated male as the alleged father, 99.95% (36,382) correctly excluded paternity and 0.05% (18) were indeterminate. There were no miscalls. Conclusion: A noninvasive paternity test using informatics-based analysis of single-nucleotide polymorphism array measurements accurately determined paternity early in pregnancy. PMID:23258349

  10. Comparison of Earth Science Achievement between Animation-Based and Graphic-Based Testing Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Huang-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yen; Chen, Chia-Li D.; Yeh, Ting-Kuang; Liu, Cheng-Chueh

    2010-01-01

    This study developed two testing devices, namely the animation-based test (ABT) and the graphic-based test (GBT) in the area of earth sciences covering four domains that ranged from astronomy, meteorology, oceanography to geology. Both the students' achievements of and their attitudes toward ABT compared to GBT were investigated. The purposes of…

  11. Web based aphasia test using service oriented architecture (SOA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voos, J. A.; Vigliecca, N. S.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2007-11-01

    Based on an aphasia test for Spanish speakers which analyze the patient's basic resources of verbal communication, a web-enabled software was developed to automate its execution. A clinical database was designed as a complement, in order to evaluate the antecedents (risk factors, pharmacological and medical backgrounds, neurological or psychiatric symptoms, brain injury -anatomical and physiological characteristics, etc) which are necessary to carry out a multi-factor statistical analysis in different samples of patients. The automated test was developed following service oriented architecture and implemented in a web site which contains a tests suite, which would allow both integrating the aphasia test with other neuropsychological instruments and increasing the available site information for scientific research. The test design, the database and the study of its psychometric properties (validity, reliability and objectivity) were made in conjunction with neuropsychological researchers, who participate actively in the software design, based on the patients or other subjects of investigation feedback.

  12. Inertia Parameter Identification from Base Excitation Test Dat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuellekrug, U.; Schedlinski, C.

    2004-08-01

    With the purpose to further investigate and improve a method for the identification of inertia parameters, tests with flexible test structures have been carried out. Reference data for the inertia parameters were obtained from a Finite Element model and from conventional weighing and pendulum measurements. For the realization of the base excitation a six-axis vibration simulator was utilized. The base forces were recorded with a special Force Measurement Device (FMD), and the base accelerations of the test structures were measured by accelerometers. Each of the 3 translational and 3 rotational axes of the multi-axial test facility was driven by a sine sweep signal with an appropriate base acceleration input. The application of the identification algorithm to the measured data showed that an acceptable identification of mass and mass moments of inertia is possible. However, a highly accurate identification of the center of gravity location could not be achieved. The results of the analyses are discussed and the advantages and limits of the present method are pointed out. Recommendations for the practical application and improved center of gravity identification are given. Keywords: Inertia parameters, base excitation, multi- axial test facilities, vibration testing.

  13. STATUS OF EPA'S BIORESPONSE-BASED TESTING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports the status of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) bioresponse-based testing program. esearch and development has been supported by EPA since 1990 to investigate the feasibility of using biological methods based on human, animal, or in vitro respon...

  14. Evolution of a Computer-Based Testing Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskal, Patrick; Caldwell, Richard; Ellis, Taylor

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, faced with increasing growth in technology-based and large-enrollment courses, the College of Business Administration at the University of Central Florida opened a computer-based testing lab to facilitate administration of course examinations. Patrick Moskal, Richard Caldwell, and Taylor Ellis describe the development and evolution of the…

  15. Frequency of Testing for Dyslipidemia: An Evidence-Based Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemias include high levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, which is a major contributor to mortality in Canada. Approximately 23% of the 2009/11 Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) participants had a high level of LDL cholesterol, with prevalence increasing with age, and approximately 15% had a total cholesterol to HDL ratio above the threshold. Objectives To evaluate the frequency of lipid testing in adults not diagnosed with dyslipidemia and in adults on treatment for dyslipidemia. Research Methods A systematic review of the literature set out to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews, health technology assessments (HTAs), and observational studies published between January 1, 2000, and November 29, 2012, that evaluated the frequency of testing for dyslipidemia in the 2 populations. Results Two observational studies assessed the frequency of lipid testing, 1 in individuals not on lipid-lowering medications and 1 in treated individuals. Both studies were based on previously collected data intended for a different objective and, therefore, no conclusions could be reached about the frequency of testing at intervals other than the ones used in the original studies. Given this limitation and generalizability issues, the quality of evidence was considered very low. No evidence for the frequency of lipid testing was identified in the 2 HTAs included. Canadian and international guidelines recommend testing for dyslipidemia in individuals at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The frequency of testing recommended is based on expert consensus. Conclusions Conclusions on the frequency of lipid testing could not be made based on the 2 observational studies. Current guidelines recommend lipid testing in adults with increased cardiovascular risk, with

  16. Engineering in software testing: statistical testing based on a usage model applied to medical device development.

    PubMed

    Jones, P L; Swain, W T; Trammell, C J

    1999-01-01

    When a population is too large for exhaustive study, as is the case for all possible uses of a software system, a statistically correct sample must be drawn as a basis for inferences about the population. A Markov chain usage model is an engineering formalism that represents the population of possible uses for which a product is to be tested. In statistical testing of software based on a Markov chain usage model, the rich body of analytical results available for Markov chains provides numerous insights that can be used in both product development and test planing. A usage model is based on specifications rather than code, so insights that result from model building can inform product decisions in the early stages of a project when the opportunity to prevent problems is the greatest. Statistical testing based on a usage model provides a sound scientific basis for quantifying the reliability of software. PMID:10459417

  17. Name-based reporting of HIV-positive test results as a deterrent to testing.

    PubMed Central

    Woods, W J; Dilley, J W; Lihatsh, T; Sabatino, J; Adler, B; Rinaldi, J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated attitudes toward name-based reporting of HIV. METHODS: One hundred thirty high-risk, male repeat testers received information on the public health benefits of name-based reporting and reported their intentions to test. RESULTS: Of the 67 men who were randomly selected and asked their intentions before hearing the benefits, 63% said they would not test if reporting were required. After hearing the benefits, 19% changed their minds (P < .014). Of the 63 men who were asked only after hearing the benefits, 44% would not test. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing name-based reporting without working before-hand to change attitudes could undermine the benefits of both testing and HIV surveillance. PMID:10394324

  18. Entropy Based Genetic Association Tests and Gene-Gene Interaction Tests

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Mariza; Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, several entropy-based tests have been proposed for testing either single SNP association or gene-gene interaction. These tests are mainly based on Shannon entropy and have higher statistical power when compared to standard χ2 tests. In this paper, we extend some of these tests using a more generalized entropy definition, Rényi entropy, where Shannon entropy is a special case of order 1. The order λ (>0) of Rényi entropy weights the events (genotype/haplotype) according to their probabilities (frequencies). Higher λ places more emphasis on higher probability events while smaller λ (close to 0) tends to assign weights more equally. Thus, by properly choosing the λ, one can potentially increase the power of the tests or the p-value level of significance. We conducted simulation as well as real data analyses to assess the impact of the order λ and the performance of these generalized tests. The results showed that for dominant model the order 2 test was more powerful and for multiplicative model the order 1 or 2 had similar power. The analyses indicate that the choice of λ depends on the underlying genetic model and Shannon entropy is not necessarily the most powerful entropy measure for constructing genetic association or interaction tests. PMID:23089811

  19. Entropy based genetic association tests and gene-gene interaction tests.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Mariza; Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, several entropy-based tests have been proposed for testing either single SNP association or gene-gene interaction. These tests are mainly based on Shannon entropy and have higher statistical power when compared to standard χ2 tests. In this paper, we extend some of these tests using a more generalized entropy definition, Rényi entropy, where Shannon entropy is a special case of order 1. The order λ (>0) of Rényi entropy weights the events (genotype/haplotype) according to their probabilities (frequencies). Higher λ places more emphasis on higher probability events while smaller λ (close to 0) tends to assign weights more equally. Thus, by properly choosing the λ, one can potentially increase the power of the tests or the p-value level of significance. We conducted simulation as well as real data analyses to assess the impact of the order λ and the performance of these generalized tests. The results showed that for dominant model the order 2 test was more powerful and for multiplicative model the order 1 or 2 had similar power. The analyses indicate that the choice of λ depends on the underlying genetic model and Shannon entropy is not necessarily the most powerful entropy measure for constructing genetic association or interaction tests. PMID:23089811

  20. Exploring pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection testing

    PubMed Central

    Habel, Melissa A.; Scheinmann, Roberta; Verdesoto, Elizabeth; Gaydos, Charlotte; Bertisch, Maggie; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of pharmacy and home-based sexually transmissible infection (STI) screening as alternate testing venues among emergency contraception (EC) users. Methods The study included two phases in February 2011–July 2012. In Phase I, customers purchasing EC from eight pharmacies in Manhattan received vouchers for free STI testing at onsite medical clinics. In Phase II, three Facebook ads targeted EC users to connect them with free home-based STI test kits ordered online. Participants completed a self-administered survey. Results Only 38 participants enrolled in Phase I: 90% female, ≤29 years (74%), 45% White non-Hispanic and 75% college graduates; 71% were not tested for STIs in the past year and 68% reported a new partner in the past 3 months. None tested positive for STIs. In Phase II, ads led to >45 000 click-throughs, 382 completed the survey and 290 requested kits; 28% were returned. Phase II participants were younger and less educated than Phase I participants; six tested positive for STIs. Challenges included recruitment, pharmacy staff participation, advertising with discretion and cost. Conclusions This study found low uptake of pharmacy and home-based testing among EC users; however, STI testing in these settings is feasible and the acceptability findings indicate an appeal among younger women for testing in non-traditional settings. Collaborating with and training pharmacy and medical staff are key elements of service provision. Future research should explore how different permutations of expanding screening in non-traditional settings could improve testing uptake and detect additional STI cases. PMID:26409484

  1. Worldwide Research, Worldwide Participation: Web-Based Test Logger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the World Wide Web, a new paradigm has been born. ESCORT (steady state data system) facilities can now be configured to use a Web-based test logger, enabling worldwide participation in tests. NASA Lewis Research Center's new Web-based test logger for ESCORT automatically writes selected test and facility parameters to a browser and allows researchers to insert comments. All data can be viewed in real time via Internet connections, so anyone with a Web browser and the correct URL (universal resource locator, or Web address) can interactively participate. As the test proceeds and ESCORT data are taken, Web browsers connected to the logger are updated automatically. The use of this logger has demonstrated several benefits. First, researchers are free from manual data entry and are able to focus more on the tests. Second, research logs can be printed in report format immediately after (or during) a test. And finally, all test information is readily available to an international public.

  2. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1989-08-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the strength of the structure and stinger attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use high force shaker-tables to provide a driven-base input. Some of the issues of concern are: properly simulating the fixed boundary conditions, applying modal estimation algorithms to motion-to-motion frequency response functions vs. motion-to-force frequency response functions, non-linearity effects and testing at very low input levels vs. levels equal to those of the field environment, complications involved with shaker resonances, exciting the ''response-critical'' modes of the structure, and consistency of the modal parameters using driven-base tests vs. fixed-base modal tests. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 42 CFR 84.173 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE... body. (b) Harnesses shall be designed and constructed to permit easy removal and replacement...

  4. 42 CFR 84.1133 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE... hold the components of the respirator in position against the wearer's body. (b) Harnesses shall...

  5. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation. PMID:25105163

  6. Overheating Anomalies during Flight Test Due to the Base Bleeding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luchinsky, Dmitry; Hafiychuck, Halyna; Osipov, Slava; Ponizhovskaya, Ekaterina; Smelyanskiy, Vadim; Dagostino, Mark; Canabal, Francisco; Mobley, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of the analytical and numerical studies of the plume interaction with the base flow in the presence of base out-gassing. The physics-based analysis and CFD modeling of the base heating for single solid rocket motor performed in this research addressed the following questions: what are the key factors making base flow so different from that in the Shuttle [1]; why CFD analysis of this problem reveals small plume recirculation; what major factors influence base temperature; and why overheating was initiated at a given time in the flight. To answer these questions topological analysis of the base flow was performed and Korst theory was used to estimate relative contributions of radiation, plume recirculation, and chemically reactive out-gassing to the base heating. It was shown that base bleeding and small base volume are the key factors contributing to the overheating, while plume recirculation is effectively suppressed by asymmetric configuration of the flow formed earlier in the flight. These findings are further verified using CFD simulations that include multi-species gas environment both in the plume and in the base. Solid particles in the exhaust plume (Al2O3) and char particles in the base bleeding were also included into the simulations and their relative contributions into the base temperature rise were estimated. The results of simulations are in good agreement with the temperature and pressure in the base measured during the test.

  7. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    SciTech Connect

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C.

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  8. Study on automatic testing network based on LXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin; Xu, Xing

    2006-11-01

    LXI (LAN eXtensions for Instrumentation), which is an extension of the widely used Ethernet technology in the automatic testing field, is the next generation instrumental platform. LXI standard is based on the industry standard Ethernet technolog, using the standard PC interface as the primary communication bus between devices. It implements the IEEE802.3 standard and supports TCP/IP protocol. LXI takes the advantage of the ease of use of GPIB-based instruments, the high performance and compact size of VXI/PXI instruments, and the flexibility and high throughput of Ethernet all at the same time. The paper firstly introduces the specification of LXI standard. Then, an automatic testing network architecture which is based on LXI platform is proposed. The automatic testing network is composed of several sets of LXI-based instruments, which are connected via an Ethernet switch or router. The network is computer-centric, and all the LXI-based instruments in the network are configured and initialized in computer. The computer controls the data acquisition, and displays the data on the screen. The instruments are using Ethernet connection as I/O interface, and can be triggered over a wired trigger interface, over LAN or over IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol running over the LAN interface. A hybrid automatic testing network comprised of LXI compliant devices and legacy instruments including LAN instruments as well as GPIB, VXI and PXI products connected via internal or external adaptors is also discussed at the end of the paper.

  9. Harnessing Technology and Collaboration for an Online Ethnogeriatric Educational Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Melen R.; Napiertibere, Bonnie

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development and testing of a Web-based educational resource for usability and acceptability by health care providers who care for ethnic older adults. The work was undertaken as a dissertation project. The purpose of the Website is to provide on-demand ethnogeriatric information to enhance provider-patient interaction.…

  10. Bispecific antibodies and CARs: generalized immunotherapeutics harnessing T cell redirection.

    PubMed

    Zhukovsky, Eugene A; Morse, Richard J; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-06-01

    To realize the full potential of cancer immunotherapy, the latest generation immunotherapeutics are designed to harness the potent tumor-killing capacity of T cells. Thus, to mobilize T cells, new optimized bispecific antibody (BsAb) designs, enabling efficient polyclonal redirection of cytotoxic activity through binding to CD3 and a Tumor Associated Antigen (TAA) and refined genetically modified T cells have recently expanded the arsenal of available options for cancer treatment. This review presents the current understanding of the parameters crucial to the design of optimal T cell redirecting BsAb and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells. However, there are additional questions that require thorough elucidation. Both modalities will benefit from design changes that may increase the therapeutic window. One such approach could employ the discrimination afforded by multiple TAA to significantly increase selectivity. PMID:26963133

  11. Harnessing plant-microbe interactions for enhancing farm productivity.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Catriona; Singh, Brajesh

    2014-01-01

    Declining soil fertility and farm productivity is a major global concern in order to achieve food security for a burgeoning world population. It is reported that improving soil health alone can increase productivity by 10-15% and in combination with efficient plant traits, farm productivity can be increased up to 50-60%. In this article we explore the emerging microbial and bioengineering technologies, which can be employed to achieve the transformational increase in farm productivity and can simultaneously enhance environmental outcomes i.e., low green house gas (GHG) emissions. We argue that metagenomics, meta-transcriptomics and metabolomics have potential to provide fundamental knowledge on plant-microbes interactions necessary for new innovations to increase farm productivity. Further, these approaches provide tools to identify and select novel microbial/gene resources which can be harnessed in transgenic and designer plant technologies for enhanced resource use efficiencies. PMID:23799872

  12. A low-cost float method of harnessing wave energy

    SciTech Connect

    George, M.P.

    1983-12-01

    The author proposes in this paper a low-cost and simple method of harnessing wave energy that should enable coastal regions to be self-sufficient in electric power. The method is eminently applicable to India and such developing countries, being simple and involving a small capital investment. The method was evolved after study of the Indian West Coast fronting the Arabian Sea, and can harness about 50% of the wave energy. A log of wood about 5 metres long and 50 cm. in diameter, having a specific gravity of 0.8 to 0.9, is made to float parallel to the beach and about 50 metres away from it. Its movement is restricted to the vertical plane by means of poles. Two roller chains are attached to the ends of the log which pass over two sprocket free-wheels. When the log is lifted with the crest of the wave, the roller chain moves over the free-wheel. When the trough of the wave reaches the log, its weight is applied to the sprocket wheels through the roller chains. Each sprocket wheel rotates and the rotation is multiplied with a gear wheel. The torque from the high speed spindle of the gear is applied to a small alternating current generator. The AC output from the generator is rectified and used either for charging a battery bank, or connected to the lighting system, or supplied to electrolytic tank for producing hydrogen and other chemicals at the site. A chain of such systems along the coast can supply enough power to light the fishermen's hamlets stretching along the coast.

  13. Reliability based design including future tests and multiagent approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Diane

    The initial stages of reliability-based design optimization involve the formulation of objective functions and constraints, and building a model to estimate the reliability of the design with quantified uncertainties. However, even experienced hands often overlook important objective functions and constraints that affect the design. In addition, uncertainty reduction measures, such as tests and redesign, are often not considered in reliability calculations during the initial stages. This research considers two areas that concern the design of engineering systems: 1) the trade-off of the effect of a test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost and 2) the search for multiple candidate designs as insurance against unforeseen faults in some designs. In this research, a methodology was developed to estimate the effect of a single future test and post-test redesign on reliability and cost. The methodology uses assumed distributions of computational and experimental errors with re-design rules to simulate alternative future test and redesign outcomes to form a probabilistic estimate of the reliability and cost for a given design. Further, it was explored how modeling a future test and redesign provides a company an opportunity to balance development costs versus performance by simultaneously designing the design and the post-test redesign rules during the initial design stage. The second area of this research considers the use of dynamic local surrogates, or surrogate-based agents, to locate multiple candidate designs. Surrogate-based global optimization algorithms often require search in multiple candidate regions of design space, expending most of the computation needed to define multiple alternate designs. Thus, focusing on solely locating the best design may be wasteful. We extended adaptive sampling surrogate techniques to locate multiple optima by building local surrogates in sub-regions of the design space to identify optima. The efficiency of this method

  14. On School Choice and Test-Based Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betebenner, Damian W.; Howe, Kenneth R.; Foster, Samara S.

    2005-01-01

    Among the two most prominent school reform measures currently being implemented in The United States are school choice and test-based accountability. Until recently, the two policy initiatives remained relatively distinct from one another. With the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a mutualism between choice and…

  15. Using Computer-Based Testing with Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Susan Kubic

    2010-01-01

    In this era of increased accountability in education, there is a need for tools to use in assessing the abilities and instructional levels of young children. Computers have been used successfully to assess older children and adults. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to provide evidence that computer-based testing (CBT) is…

  16. Test-Based Teacher Evaluations: Accountability vs. Responsibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolyard, Chloé

    2015-01-01

    Gert Biesta contends that managerial accountability, which focuses on efficiency and competition, dominates the current political arena in education. Such accountability has influenced states' developments of test-based teacher evaluations in an attempt to quantify teachers' efficacy on student learning. With numerous state policies requiring the…

  17. Validation of a Web-Based Test of ESL Pragmalinguistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carsten

    2006-01-01

    Despite increasing interest in interlanguage pragmatics research, research on assessment of this crucial area of second language competence still lags behind assessment of other aspects of learners' developing second language (L2) competence. This study describes the development and validation of a 36-item web-based test of ESL pragmalinguistics,…

  18. Conditional Covariance-based Representation of Multidimensional Test Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolt, Daniel M.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new nonparametric method for constructing a spatial representation of multidimensional test structure, the Conditional Covariance-based SCALing (CCSCAL) method. Describes an index to measure the accuracy of the representation. Uses simulation and real-life data analyses to show that the method provides a suitable approximation to…

  19. Introduction to Permutation and Resampling-Based Hypothesis Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Bonnie J.; Greevy, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    A resampling-based method of inference--permutation tests--is often used when distributional assumptions are questionable or unmet. Not only are these methods useful for obvious departures from parametric assumptions (e.g., normality) and small sample sizes, but they are also more robust than their parametric counterparts in the presences of…

  20. Computer-Based Test Interpretation and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James V., Jr.

    Computer-based test interpretation (CBTI) is discussed in terms of its potential dangers to the public interest, problems with professional review of CBTI systems, and needed policies for these systems. Several problems with CBTI systems are outlined: (1) they may be nicely packaged, but it is difficult to establish their value; (2) they do not…

  1. Unit testing-based approach for reconfigurable logic controllers verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doligalski, Michał; Tkacz, Jacek; Bukowiec, Arkadiusz; Gratkowski, Tomasz

    2015-09-01

    The paper presents unit testing-based approach to FPGA design in-circuit verification. Presented methodology is dedicated to modular reconfigurable logic controllers, but other ip-cores and systems can be verified as well. The speed and reproducibility of tests is key for rapid system prototyping, where the quality and reliability of the system is significance. Typically FPGA are programmed by means single (full) bitstream. Specific devices are able to be reconfigured partially. Usually the partial reconfiguration is a part of the design functionality. It enables the minimization of used resources or provides specific functionality like system adaptation. The paper presents the use of the partial reconfiguration as a toll for the designer. The unit testing approach well know form software engineering was adopted to modular logic controllers development. The simulation process results waveform files, the waveform can be used for synthesizable test bench generation.

  2. An Approach to Model Based Testing of Multiagent Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nadeem, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    Autonomous agents perform on behalf of the user to achieve defined goals or objectives. They are situated in dynamic environment and are able to operate autonomously to achieve their goals. In a multiagent system, agents cooperate with each other to achieve a common goal. Testing of multiagent systems is a challenging task due to the autonomous and proactive behavior of agents. However, testing is required to build confidence into the working of a multiagent system. Prometheus methodology is a commonly used approach to design multiagents systems. Systematic and thorough testing of each interaction is necessary. This paper proposes a novel approach to testing of multiagent systems based on Prometheus design artifacts. In the proposed approach, different interactions between the agent and actors are considered to test the multiagent system. These interactions include percepts and actions along with messages between the agents which can be modeled in a protocol diagram. The protocol diagram is converted into a protocol graph, on which different coverage criteria are applied to generate test paths that cover interactions between the agents. A prototype tool has been developed to generate test paths from protocol graph according to the specified coverage criterion. PMID:25874263

  3. Patch testing with components of water-based metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Geier, Johannes; Lessmann, Holger; Frosch, Peter J; Pirker, Claudia; Koch, Patrick; Aschoff, Roland; Richter, Gerhard; Becker, Detlef; Eckert, Christian; Uter, Wolfgang; Schnuch, Axel; Fuchs, Thomas

    2003-08-01

    Water-based metalworking fluids (MWFs) may cause both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Several well-known MWF allergens are available for patch testing, but considering the wide variety of possible components used in MWF, our diagnostic arsenal covers only a small part of potential allergens. We therefore selected 13 frequently used MWF components that might be sensitizers and had not yet been tested routinely. In 5 centres, 233 dermatitis patients with present or past occupational exposure to MWF were patch tested with this and other panels. Only 7 patients showed positive reactions to the study panel. Allergic reactions to the emulsifier diglycolamine [syn. 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol] were seen in 5 patients, and 1 patient each reacted positively to 2-amino-2-ethyl-1,3-propanediol (AEPD) and methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). Clinical relevance of the reactions to diglycolamine was unequivocally proven by its presence in the MWF from the patients' workplace in 3 cases. Diglycolamine seems to be an important MWF allergen, independently from monoethanolamine and diethanolamine. A test concentration of 1% petrolatum (pet.) appears to be appropriate. The importance of AEPD and MDEA as MWF allergens still remains to be established. The lack of positive test reactions to the other MWF components tested may be due to their low-sensitizing potential or too low a patch test concentration being used. PMID:14641356

  4. Failing Tests: Commentary on "Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thissen, David

    2015-01-01

    In "Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability" Koretz takes the time-honored engineering approach to educational measurement, identifying specific problems with current practice and proposing minimal modifications of the system to alleviate those problems. In response to that article, David Thissen…

  5. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience…

  6. Substantial influence on solar energy harnessing ability by geometries of ordered Si nanowire array

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The reflectance of the controlled periodic Si nanowire (NW) arrays is systematically explored, which characterizes the influence on the solar energy harnessing ability by the geometries of the NW. A unique dependence of the reflectance of the Si NW array on the diameter, the height, and the bending of the NW are disclosed. The solar energy loss caused by the reflection of the Si NW array exhibits the minimum for the NW with intermediate diameter and length. A plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method (TMM) simulation is performed, which is well consistent with the experimental results. Our results demonstrate the design principle to optimize the Si NW arrays for high-efficiency solar cells. PACS 81.07.-b; 78.67.-n; 81.16.-c PMID:25258613

  7. 14 CFR 27.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and... Cargo Accommodations § 27.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat, safety belt, harness, and adjacent part of the rotorcraft at each station designated for occupancy...

  8. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), booster-type child restraint systems (as defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and...

  9. 14 CFR 29.785 - Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and... and Cargo Accommodations § 29.785 Seats, berths, litters, safety belts, and harnesses. (a) Each seat, safety belt, harness, and adjacent part of the rotorcraft at each station designated for occupancy...

  10. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... components of the gas mask in position against the wearer's body. (b) Harnesses shall be designed and constructed to permit easy removal and replacement of gas mask parts, and where applicable, provide for... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.116 Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (a) Each...

  11. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... components of the gas mask in position against the wearer's body. (b) Harnesses shall be designed and constructed to permit easy removal and replacement of gas mask parts, and where applicable, provide for... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.116 Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (a) Each...

  12. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... components of the gas mask in position against the wearer's body. (b) Harnesses shall be designed and constructed to permit easy removal and replacement of gas mask parts, and where applicable, provide for... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.116 Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (a) Each...

  13. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... components of the gas mask in position against the wearer's body. (b) Harnesses shall be designed and constructed to permit easy removal and replacement of gas mask parts, and where applicable, provide for... DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.116 Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (a) Each...

  14. Harnessing the Power of Information Technology: Open Business Models in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheets, Robert G.; Crawford, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Higher education is under enormous pressure to improve outcomes and reduce costs. Information technology can help achieve these goals, but only if it is properly harnessed. This article argues that one key to harnessing information technology is business model innovation that results in more "open" and "unbundled" operations in learning and…

  15. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  16. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  17. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  18. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  19. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  20. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.43 Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. No person may conduct a...

  1. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.43 Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. No person may conduct a...

  2. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.43 Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. No person may conduct a...

  3. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.43 Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. No person may conduct a...

  4. 14 CFR 105.43 - Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of single-harness, dual-parachute... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS Parachute Equipment and Packing § 105.43 Use of single-harness, dual-parachute systems. No person may conduct a...

  5. Optical testing of progressive ophthalmic glasses based on galvo mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuerwald, S.; Schmitt, R.

    2014-03-01

    In production of ophthalmic freeform optics like progressive eyeglasses, the specimens are tested according to a standardized method which is based on the measurement of the vertex power on usually less than 10 points. For a better quality management and thus to ensure more reliable and valid tests, a more comprehensive measurement approach is required. For Shack Hartmann Sensors (SHS) the dynamic range is defined by the number of micro-lenses and the resolution of the imaging sensor. Here, we present an approach for measuring wavefronts with increased dynamic range and lateral resolution by the use of a scanning procedure. Therefore, the proposed innovative setup is based on galvo mirrors that are capable of measuring the vertex power with a lateral resolution below one millimeter since this is sufficient for a functional test of progressive eyeglasses. Expressed in a more abstract way, the concept is based on a selection and thereby encoding of single sub-apertures of the wave front under test. This allows measuring the wave fronts slope consecutively in a scanning procedure. The use of high precision galvo systems allows a lateral resolution below one millimeter as well as a significant fast scanning ability. The measurement concept and performance of this method will be demonstrated for different spherical and freeformed specimens like progressive eye glasses. Furthermore, approaches for calibration of the measurement system will be characterized and the optical design of the detector will be discussed.

  6. TR-EDB: Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base, Version 1

    SciTech Connect

    Stallmann, F.W.; Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1994-01-01

    The Test Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (TR-EDB) is a collection of results from irradiation in materials test reactors. It complements the Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB), whose data are restricted to the results from the analysis of surveillance capsules in commercial power reactors. The rationale behind their restriction was the assumption that the results of test reactor experiments may not be applicable to power reactors and could, therefore, be challenged if such data were included. For this very reason the embrittlement predictions in the Reg. Guide 1.99, Rev. 2, were based exclusively on power reactor data. However, test reactor experiments are able to cover a much wider range of materials and irradiation conditions that are needed to explore more fully a variety of models for the prediction of irradiation embrittlement. These data are also needed for the study of effects of annealing for life extension of reactor pressure vessels that are difficult to obtain from surveillance capsule results.

  7. Lateral flow-based antibody testing for Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Gwyn, Sarah; Mitchell, Alexandria; Dean, Deborah; Mkocha, Harran; Handali, Sukwan; Martin, Diana L

    2016-08-01

    We describe here a lateral flow-based assay (LFA) for the detection of antibodies against immunodominant antigen Pgp3 from Chlamydia trachomatis, the causative agent of urogenital chlamydia infection and ocular trachoma. Optimal signal detection was achieved when the gold-conjugate and test line contained Pgp3, creating a dual sandwich capture assay. The LFA yielded positive signals with serum and whole blood but not with eluted dried blood spots. For serum, the agreement of the LFA with the non-reference multiplex assay was 96%, the specificity using nonendemic pediatric sera was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.961. For whole blood, the agreement of LFA with multiplex was 81.5%, the specificity was 100%, and the inter-rater agreement was κ=0.940. The LFA was tested in a field environment and yielded similar results to those from laboratory-based testing. These data show the successful development of a lateral flow assay for detection of antibodies against Pgp3 with reliable use in field settings, which would make antibody-based testing for trachoma surveillance highly practical, especially after cessation of trachoma elimination programs. PMID:27208400

  8. Prescriptive vs. performance based cook-off fire testing.

    SciTech Connect

    Nakos, James Thomas; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Erikson, William Wilding; Gill, Walter; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2010-07-01

    In the fire safety community, the trend is toward implementing performance-based standards in place of existing prescriptive ones. Prescriptive standards can be difficult to adapt to changing design methods, materials, and application situations of systems that ultimately must perform well in unwanted fire situations. In general, this trend has produced positive results and is embraced by the fire protection community. The question arises as to whether this approach could be used to advantage in cook-off testing. Prescribed fuel fire cook-off tests have been instigated because of historical incidents that led to extensive damage to structures and loss of life. They are designed to evaluate the propensity for a violent response. The prescribed protocol has several advantages: it can be defined in terms of controllable parameters (wind speed, fuel type, pool size, etc.); and it may be conservative for a particular scenario. However, fires are inherently variable and prescribed tests are not necessarily representative of a particular accident scenario. Moreover, prescribed protocols are not necessarily adaptable and may not be conservative. We also consider performance-based testing. This requires more knowledge and thought regarding not only the fire environment, but the behavior of the munitions themselves. Sandia uses a performance based approach in assuring the safe behavior of systems of interest that contain energetic materials. Sandia also conducts prescriptive fire testing for the IAEA, NRC and the DOT. Here we comment on the strengths and weakness of both approaches and suggest a path forward should it be desirable to pursue a performance based cook-off standard.

  9. Universal Verification Methodology Based Register Test Automation Flow.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jae Hun; Cho, Yong Kwan; Park, Sun Kyu

    2016-05-01

    In today's SoC design, the number of registers has been increased along with complexity of hardware blocks. Register validation is a time-consuming and error-pron task. Therefore, we need an efficient way to perform verification with less effort in shorter time. In this work, we suggest register test automation flow based UVM (Universal Verification Methodology). UVM provides a standard methodology, called a register model, to facilitate stimulus generation and functional checking of registers. However, it is not easy for designers to create register models for their functional blocks or integrate models in test-bench environment because it requires knowledge of SystemVerilog and UVM libraries. For the creation of register models, many commercial tools support a register model generation from register specification described in IP-XACT, but it is time-consuming to describe register specification in IP-XACT format. For easy creation of register model, we propose spreadsheet-based register template which is translated to IP-XACT description, from which register models can be easily generated using commercial tools. On the other hand, we also automate all the steps involved integrating test-bench and generating test-cases, so that designers may use register model without detailed knowledge of UVM or SystemVerilog. This automation flow involves generating and connecting test-bench components (e.g., driver, checker, bus adaptor, etc.) and writing test sequence for each type of register test-case. With the proposed flow, designers can save considerable amount of time to verify functionality of registers. PMID:27483924

  10. Disturbance Rejection Based Test Rocket Control System Design and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, T.; Zhang, Y.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel design and validation for the three-channel attitude controller of a STT test rocket based on the extended state observer approach. The uniform second order integral-chain state space model is firstly established for the control variable of the angle of attack, angle of sideslip and roll angle. Combined with the pole placement, the extended state observer is applied to the disturbance rejection design of the attitude controller. Through numerical and hardware-in-the-loop simulation with uncertainties considered, the effectiveness and robustness of the controller are illustrated and verified. Finally, the performance of the controller is validated by flight-test with satisfactory results.

  11. FFBSKAT: fast family-based sequence kernel association test.

    PubMed

    Svishcheva, Gulnara R; Belonogova, Nadezhda M; Axenovich, Tatiana I

    2014-01-01

    The kernel machine-based regression is an efficient approach to region-based association analysis aimed at identification of rare genetic variants. However, this method is computationally complex. The running time of kernel-based association analysis becomes especially long for samples with genetic (sub) structures, thus increasing the need to develop new and effective methods, algorithms, and software packages. We have developed a new R-package called fast family-based sequence kernel association test (FFBSKAT) for analysis of quantitative traits in samples of related individuals. This software implements a score-based variance component test to assess the association of a given set of single nucleotide polymorphisms with a continuous phenotype. We compared the performance of our software with that of two existing software for family-based sequence kernel association testing, namely, ASKAT and famSKAT, using the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 family sample. Results demonstrate that FFBSKAT is several times faster than other available programs. In addition, the calculations of the three-compared software were similarly accurate. With respect to the available analysis modes, we combined the advantages of both ASKAT and famSKAT and added new options to empower FFBSKAT users. The FFBSKAT package is fast, user-friendly, and provides an easy-to-use method to perform whole-exome kernel machine-based regression association analysis of quantitative traits in samples of related individuals. The FFBSKAT package, along with its manual, is available for free download at http://mga.bionet.nsc.ru/soft/FFBSKAT/. PMID:24905468

  12. A Physics-Based Temperature Stabilization Criterion for Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Steven L.; Ungar, Eugene K.

    2009-01-01

    Spacecraft testing specifications differ greatly in the criteria they specify for stability in thermal balance tests. Some specify a required temperature stabilization rate (the change in temperature per unit time, dT/dt), some specify that the final steady-state temperature be approached to within a specified difference, delta T , and some specify a combination of the two. The particular values for temperature stabilization rate and final temperature difference also vary greatly between specification documents. A one-size-fits-all temperature stabilization rate requirement does not yield consistent results for all test configurations because of differences in thermal mass and heat transfer to the environment. Applying a steady-state temperature difference requirement is problematic because the final test temperature is not accurately known a priori, especially for powered configurations. In the present work, a simplified, lumped-mass analysis has been used to explore the applicability of these criteria. A new, user-friendly, physics-based approach is developed that allows the thermal engineer to determine when an acceptable level of temperature stabilization has been achieved. The stabilization criterion can be predicted pre-test but must be refined during test to allow verification that the defined level of temperature stabilization has been achieved.

  13. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen-hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during flight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced flows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle configuration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot-fire test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate flight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This paper discusses the various trends of base convective heat flux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base flow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi-empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the flight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  14. A comparison of fixed-base and driven-base modal testing of an electronics package

    SciTech Connect

    Carne, T.G.; Martinez, D.R.; Nord, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares results for a fixed-base and a driven-base modal test of an electronics package. A fixed-base modal test uses the common testing procedure of attaching the structure to a large inertial mass which is freely suspended. The problem with this approach is that the input levels are typically limited by the size of the shakers and the strength of the attachment. An attractive alternative to fixed-base modal testing is to use stationary vibration shaker tables to provide a driven-base input. The modes can be obtained at much higher excitation levels than fixed-base excitation modes using portable shakers and flexible attachments. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the adequacy of using vibration shake tables to excite the fixed-based modes of the system. A direct comparison of the modes acquired using fixed-base and driven-base excitation for the electronics package shows very close agreement. A discussion of the theory for driven-base testing is given, as well as a brief presentation of analytical (finite element) predictions for the structure. 4 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Salt Fog Testing Iron-Based Amorphous Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, Raul B.; Aprigliano, Louis F.; Day, S. Daniel; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2007-07-01

    Iron-based amorphous alloys are hard and highly corrosion resistant, which make them desirable for salt water and other applications. These alloys can be produced as powder and can be deposited as coatings on any surface that needs to be protected from the environment. It was of interest to examine the behavior of these amorphous alloys in the standard salt-fog testing ASTM B 117. Three different amorphous coating compositions were deposited on 316L SS coupons and exposed for many cycles of the salt fog test. Other common engineering alloys such as 1018 carbon steel, 316L SS and Hastelloy C-22 were also tested together with the amorphous coatings. Results show that amorphous coatings are resistant to rusting in salt fog. Partial devitrification may be responsible for isolated rust spots in one of the coatings. (authors)

  16. Integer aperture ambiguity resolution based on difference test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Wu, Meiping; Li, Tao; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-07-01

    Carrier-phase integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) is the key to highly precise, fast positioning and attitude determination with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). It can be seen as the process of estimating the unknown cycle ambiguities of the carrier-phase observations as integers. Once the ambiguities are fixed, carrier phase data will act as the very precise range data. Integer aperture (IA) ambiguity resolution is the combination of acceptance testing and integer ambiguity resolution, which can realize better quality control of IAR. Difference test (DT) is one of the most popular acceptance tests. This contribution will give a detailed analysis about the following properties of IA ambiguity resolution based on DT: 1. The sharpest and loose upper bounds of DT are derived from the perspective of geometry. These bounds are very simple and easy to be computed, which give the range for the critical values of DT.

  17. Three-flat test solutions based on simple mirror symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmann, Ulf

    2006-08-10

    In interferometric surface and wavefront metrology, three-flat tests are the archetypes of measurement procedures to separate errors in the interferometer reference wavefront from errors due to the test part surface, so-called absolute tests. What is believed to be a new class of solutions of the three-flat problem for circular flats is described in terms of functions that are symmetric or antisymmetric with respect to reflections at a single line passing through the center of the flat surfaces. The new solutions are simpler and easier to calculate than the known solutions based on twofold mirror symmetry or rotation symmetry.Strategies for effective azimuthal averaging and a method for determining the averaging error are also discussed.

  18. Self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šupić, I.; Augusiak, R.; Salavrakos, A.; Acín, A.

    2016-03-01

    Self-testing is a device-independent technique based on non-local correlations whose aim is to certify the effective uniqueness of the quantum state and measurements needed to produce these correlations. It is known that the maximal violation of some Bell inequalities suffices for this purpose. However, most of the existing self-testing protocols for two devices exploit the well-known Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt Bell inequality or modifications of it, and always with two measurements per party. Here, we generalize the previous results by demonstrating that one can construct self-testing protocols based on the chained Bell inequalities, defined for two devices implementing an arbitrary number of two-output measurements. On the one hand, this proves that the quantum state and measurements leading to the maximal violation of the chained Bell inequality are unique. On the other hand, in the limit of a large number of measurements, our approach allows one to self-test the entire plane of measurements spanned by the Pauli matrices X and Z. Our results also imply that the chained Bell inequalities can be used to certify two bits of perfect randomness.

  19. F-1 Engine Test Firing at Edwards Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    This photograph depicts the Rocketdyne static firing of the F-1 engine at the towering 76-meter Test Stand 1-C in Area 1-125 of the Edwards Air Force Base in California. The Saturn V S-IC (first) stage utilized five F-1 engines for its thrust. Each engine provided 1,500,000 pounds, for a combined thrust of 7,500,000 pounds with liquid oxygen and kerosene as its propellants.

  20. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  1. Inquiry-Based Instruction and High Stakes Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cothern, Rebecca L.

    Science education is a key to economic success for a country in terms of promoting advances in national industry and technology and maximizing competitive advantage in a global marketplace. The December 2010 Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) ranked the United States 23rd of 65 countries in science. That dismal standing in science proficiency impedes the ability of American school graduates to compete in the global market place. Furthermore, the implementation of high stakes testing in science mandated by the 2007 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act has created an additional need for educators to find effective science pedagogy. Research has shown that inquiry-based science instruction is one of the predominant science instructional methods. Inquiry-based instruction is a multifaceted teaching method with its theoretical foundation in constructivism. A correlational survey research design was used to determine the relationship between levels of inquiry-based science instruction and student performance on a standardized state science test. A self-report survey, using a Likert-type scale, was completed by 26 fifth grade teachers. Participants' responses were analyzed and grouped as high, medium, or low level inquiry instruction. The unit of analysis for the achievement variable was the student scale score average from the state science test. Spearman's Rho correlation data showed a positive relationship between the level of inquiry-based instruction and student achievement on the state assessment. The findings can assist teachers and administrators by providing additional research on the benefits of the inquiry-based instructional method. Implications for positive social change include increases in student proficiency and decision-making skills related to science policy issues which can help make them more competitive in the global marketplace.

  2. Test Scheduling for Core-Based SOCs Using Genetic Algorithm Based Heuristic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, Chandan; Sarkar, Soumojit; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    This paper presents a Genetic algorithm (GA) based solution to co-optimize test scheduling and wrapper design for core based SOCs. Core testing solutions are generated as a set of wrapper configurations, represented as rectangles with width equal to the number of TAM (Test Access Mechanism) channels and height equal to the corresponding testing time. A locally optimal best-fit heuristic based bin packing algorithm has been used to determine placement of rectangles minimizing the overall test times, whereas, GA has been utilized to generate the sequence of rectangles to be considered for placement. Experimental result on ITC'02 benchmark SOCs shows that the proposed method provides better solutions compared to the recent works reported in the literature.

  3. Harnessing click detectors for the genuine characterization of light states

    PubMed Central

    Heilmann, René; Sperling, Jan; Perez-Leija, Armando; Gräfe, Markus; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Vogel, Werner; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The key requirement for harnessing the quantum properties of light is the capability to detect and count individual photons. Of particular interest are photon-number-resolving detectors, which allow one to determine whether a state of light is classical or genuinely quantum. Existing schemes for addressing this challenge rely on a proportional conversion of photons to electrons. As such, they are capable of correctly characterizing small photon fluxes, yet are limited by uncertainties in the conversion rate. In this work, we employ a divide-and-conquer approach to infallibly discerning non-classicality of states of light. This is achieved by transforming the incident fields into uniform spatial distributions that readily lend themselves for characterization by standard on-off detectors. Since the exact statistics of the light stream in multiplexed on-off detectors are click statistics, our technique is freely scalable to accommodate–in principle–arbitrarily large photon fluxes. Our experiments pave the way towards genuine integrated photon-number-resolving detection for advanced on-chip photonic quantum networks. PMID:26771053

  4. Harnessing click detectors for the genuine characterization of light states.

    PubMed

    Heilmann, René; Sperling, Jan; Perez-Leija, Armando; Gräfe, Markus; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Vogel, Werner; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The key requirement for harnessing the quantum properties of light is the capability to detect and count individual photons. Of particular interest are photon-number-resolving detectors, which allow one to determine whether a state of light is classical or genuinely quantum. Existing schemes for addressing this challenge rely on a proportional conversion of photons to electrons. As such, they are capable of correctly characterizing small photon fluxes, yet are limited by uncertainties in the conversion rate. In this work, we employ a divide-and-conquer approach to infallibly discerning non-classicality of states of light. This is achieved by transforming the incident fields into uniform spatial distributions that readily lend themselves for characterization by standard on-off detectors. Since the exact statistics of the light stream in multiplexed on-off detectors are click statistics, our technique is freely scalable to accommodate-in principle-arbitrarily large photon fluxes. Our experiments pave the way towards genuine integrated photon-number-resolving detection for advanced on-chip photonic quantum networks. PMID:26771053

  5. Harnessing the protective potential of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S Abigail; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    Recent biological, structural, and technical advances are converging within the HIV-1 vaccine field to harness the power of antibodies for prevention and therapy. Numerous monoclonal antibodies with broad neutralizing activity against diverse HIV-1 isolates have now been identified, revealing at least five sites of vulnerability on the envelope (Env) glycoproteins. While there are practical and technological barriers blocking a clear path from broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb) to a protective vaccine, this is not a dead end. Scientists are revisiting old approaches with new technology, cutting new trails through unexplored territory, and paving new roads in the hopes of preventing HIV-1 infection. Other promising avenues to capitalize on the power of bNAbs are also being pursued, such as passive antibody immunotherapy and gene therapy approaches. Moreover, non-neutralizing antibodies have inhibitory activities that could have protective potential, alone or in combination with bNAbs. With a new generation of bNAbs, and a clinical trial that associated antibodies with reduced acquisition, the field is closer than ever to developing strategies to use antibodies against HIV-1. PMID:26918160

  6. Harnessing click detectors for the genuine characterization of light states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann, René; Sperling, Jan; Perez-Leija, Armando; Gräfe, Markus; Heinrich, Matthias; Nolte, Stefan; Vogel, Werner; Szameit, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The key requirement for harnessing the quantum properties of light is the capability to detect and count individual photons. Of particular interest are photon-number-resolving detectors, which allow one to determine whether a state of light is classical or genuinely quantum. Existing schemes for addressing this challenge rely on a proportional conversion of photons to electrons. As such, they are capable of correctly characterizing small photon fluxes, yet are limited by uncertainties in the conversion rate. In this work, we employ a divide-and-conquer approach to infallibly discerning non-classicality of states of light. This is achieved by transforming the incident fields into uniform spatial distributions that readily lend themselves for characterization by standard on-off detectors. Since the exact statistics of the light stream in multiplexed on-off detectors are click statistics, our technique is freely scalable to accommodate-in principle-arbitrarily large photon fluxes. Our experiments pave the way towards genuine integrated photon-number-resolving detection for advanced on-chip photonic quantum networks.

  7. Harnessing and understanding feedback technology in applied settings.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Elissa; Farrow, Damian; Ball, Kevin; Helmer, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Research on the influence of augmented feedback effects on both skill learning and performance has been examined from two differing positions, generally reflective of two core movement science disciplines: motor learning and biomechanics. The motor learning approach has been to examine the content and timing of feedback under tightly controlled laboratory settings, with a focus on simple tasks and the influence of movement outcome feedback. At the other end of the spectrum are biomechanical approaches, which have been primarily devoted to demonstrating the capacity of measurement technology to quantify and report on movement pattern effectiveness. This review highlights the gap left by these two approaches and argues that advancement of our understanding of feedback application in practical settings requires a shift towards a multi-disciplinary focus. A particular focus of the review is on how researchers and practitioners need to harness our understanding and subsequent application of the emergent feedback technologies most prevalent in elite sport settings and clinical sports medicine. We highlight important considerations for future applied multidisciplinary research driven by relevant theory and methodological design to more comprehensively capture how feedback systems can be used to facilitate the development of skilled performance. PMID:23828029

  8. Harnessing high-dimensional hyperentanglement through a biphoton frequency comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhenda; Zhong, Tian; Shrestha, Sajan; Xu, Xinan; Liang, Junlin; Gong, Yan-Xiao; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Restelli, Alessandro; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Wei Wong, Chee

    2015-08-01

    Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource for secure information processing and communications, and hyperentanglement or high-dimensional entanglement has been separately proposed for its high data capacity and error resilience. The continuous-variable nature of the energy-time entanglement makes it an ideal candidate for efficient high-dimensional coding with minimal limitations. Here, we demonstrate the first simultaneous high-dimensional hyperentanglement using a biphoton frequency comb to harness the full potential in both the energy and time domain. Long-postulated Hong-Ou-Mandel quantum revival is exhibited, with up to 19 time-bins and 96.5% visibilities. We further witness the high-dimensional energy-time entanglement through Franson revivals, observed periodically at integer time-bins, with 97.8% visibility. This qudit state is observed to simultaneously violate the generalized Bell inequality by up to 10.95 standard deviations while observing recurrent Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt S-parameters up to 2.76. Our biphoton frequency comb provides a platform for photon-efficient quantum communications towards the ultimate channel capacity through energy-time-polarization high-dimensional encoding.

  9. Mic Flocks in the Cloud: Harnessing Mobile Ubiquitous Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2015-12-01

    Smartphones provide a commercial, off-the-shelf solution to capture, store, analyze, and distribute infrasound using on-board or external microphones (mics) as well as on-board barometers. Free iOS infrasound apps can be readily downloaded from the Apple App Store, and Android versions are in progress. Infrasound propagates for great distances, has low sample rates, and provides a tractable pilot study scenario for open distributed sensor networks at regional and global scales using one of the most ubiquitous sensors on Earth - microphones. Data collection is no longer limited to selected vendors at exclusive prices: anybody on Earth can record and stream infrasound, and the diversity of recording systems and environments is rapidly expanding. Global deployment may be fast and easy (www.redvox.io), but comes with the cost of increasing data volume, velocity, variety, and complexity. Flocking - the collective motion of mobile agents - is a natural human response to threats or events of interest. Anticipating, modeling and harnessing flocking sensor topologies will be necessary for adaptive array and network processing. The increasing data quantity and complexity will exceed the processing capacity of human analysts and most research servers. We anticipate practical real-time applications will require the on-demand adaptive scalability and resources of the Cloud. Cloud architectures for such heterogeneous sensor networks will consider eventual integration into the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  10. Harnessing the Therapeutic Potential of Th17 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bystrom, Jonas; Taher, Taher E.; Muhyaddin, M. Sherwan; Clanchy, Felix I.; Mangat, Pamela; Jawad, Ali S.; Williams, Richard O.; Mageed, Rizgar A.

    2015-01-01

    Th17 cells provide protective immunity to infections by fungi and extracellular bacteria as well as cancer but are also involved in chronic inflammation. The cells were first identified by their ability to produce interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and, subsequently, associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Th17 cells have some gene profile similarity with stem cells and can remain dormant in mucosal tissues for long periods. Indeed, recent studies suggest that functionally distinct subsets of pro- and anti-inflammatory Th17 cells can interchange phenotype and functions. For development, Th17 cells require activation of the transcription factors STAT3 and RORγt while RUNX1, c-Maf, and Aiolos are involved in changes of phenotype/functions. Attempts to harness Th17 cells against pathogens and cancer using vaccination strategies are being explored. The cells gain protective abilities when induced to produce interferon γ (IFNγ). In addition, treatment with antibodies to IL-17 is effective in treating patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and refectory rheumatoid arthritis. Moreover, since RORγt is a nuclear receptor, it is likely to be a potential future drug target for modulating Th17 functions. This review explores pathways through which Th17 subsets are induced, the molecular basis of their plasticity, and potential therapeutic strategies for their modulation in diseases. PMID:26101460

  11. Development of traveling wave resonator based test bed for high power transmission line component testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Akhil; Harikrishna, JVS; Ajesh, P.; Anand, Rohit; Trivedi, Rajesh; Mukherjee, Aparajita

    2015-12-01

    India is responsible for delivery of 8+1(prototype) RF sources to ITER Organization. Each RF source will provide 2.5MW of RF power at 2 VSWR in the frequency range of 35 to 65MHz. Eight such RF sources will generate total 20MW of RF power. A large number of high power transmission line components are required for connecting various stages of RF source. To test these passive transmission line components at high power, prior to connecting with RF source system, a test facility is required. India is developing a 3MW test facility based on the concept of Traveling Wave Resonator (TWR) for testing of transmission line components. TWR is basically a ring resonator which will build high power under certain operation condition at resonant frequency (˜55MHz in this case). In TWR, power is fed to the ring via a directional coupler continuously which leads to development of high circulating power in the ring. The voltage and current magnitude inside the ring increases with the increasing circulating power. Detailed RF simulation and design of the TWR test bed has been done using high frequency simulator Microwave Studio (MWS). Calculations done for the ring gain, transmission loss, resonance frequency etc. and are verified with the simulation results. Concept validated using 3-1/8 inch prototype TWR test bed, where experiments were carried out with a ˜10dB (λ/4 coupled) coupler to feed the ring. Ring gain of ˜13.24dB (˜21times) was achieved with ˜0.17 dB of ring loss. Around 9.2 kW ring power is achieved with an input power of 440W. At present, the 3-1/8inch TWR test bed is being upgraded with a ˜15dB coupler to achieve ring gain ˜19-20dB (˜80-100 times). This concept will be finally adopted for 12inch TWR test bed to achieve 3MW ring power with ˜30-40kW of input power. In this paper, detailed design, simulation, test results out of prototype activity and future plan for establishing MW level transmission line test bed is described.

  12. Lumbar spine disc heights and curvature: upright posture vs. supine compression harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shi-Uk; Hargens, Alan R.; Fredericson, Michael; Lang, Philipp K.

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spinal lengthening in microgravity is thought to cause back pain in astronauts. A spinal compression harness can compress the spine to eliminate lengthening but the loading condition with harness is different than physiologic conditions. Our purpose was to compare the effect of spine compression with a harness in supine position on disk height and spinal curvature in the lumbar spine to that of upright position as measured using a vertically open magnetic resonance imaging system. METHODS: Fifteen healthy subjects volunteered. On day 1, each subject lay supine for an hour and a baseline scan of the lumbar spine was performed. After applying a load of fifty percent of body weight with the harness for thirty minutes, the lumbar spine was scanned again. On day 2, after a baseline scan, a follow up scan was performed after kneeling for thirty minutes within the gap between two vertically oriented magnetic coils. Anterior and posterior disk heights, posterior disk bulging, and spinal curvature were measured from the baseline and follow up scans. RESULTS: Anterior disk heights increased and posterior disk heights decreased compared with baseline scans both after spinal compression with harness and upright posture. The spinal curvature increased by both loading conditions of the spine. DISCUSSION: The spinal compression with specially designed harness has the same effect as the physiologic loading of the spine in the kneeling upright position. The harness shows some promise as a tool to increase the diagnostic capabilities of a conventional MR system.

  13. Countermeasure mechanisms in a P300-based concealed information test.

    PubMed

    Meixner, John B; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2010-01-01

    We recently introduced an accurate and countermeasure (CM)-resistant P300-based deception detection test (J.P. Rosenfeld et al., 2008). When subjects use CMs to all irrelevant items in the test, the probe P300 is increased rather than reduced, as in previous P300-based deception protocols, allowing detection of CM users. Evidence herein suggests this is partly due to an omit effect; the probe was the only uncountered item. Three groups were tested: a guilty omit probe group performed an explicit response to each irrelevant item but not to the probe, an innocent omit irrelevant group saw only irrelevant items and omitted a response to one item, and a guilty no omit group had a concealed information item as probe and performed an explicit response to each. We found a greater P300 amplitude to probes in the guilty omit probe condition as compared with the other two conditions, indicating a P300 enhancing effect of omitting a response to a single stimulus. PMID:19761523

  14. Impact of Harness Attachment Point on Kinetics and Kinematics During Sled Towing.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Ian; Atkins, Steve J; Edmundson, Christopher J; Metcalfe, John; Sinclair, Jonathan K

    2016-03-01

    Resisted sprint training is performed in a horizontal direction and involves similar muscles, velocities, and ranges of motion (ROM) to those of normal sprinting. Generally, sleds are attached to the athletes through a lead (3 m) and harness; the most common attachment points are the shoulder or waist. At present, it is not known how the different harness point's impact on the kinematics and kinetics associated with sled towing (ST). The aim of the current investigation was to examine the kinetics and kinematics of shoulder and waist harness attachment points in relation to the acceleration phase of ST. Fourteen trained men completed normal and ST trials, loaded at 10% reduction of sprint velocity. Sagittal plane kinematics from the trunk, hip, knee, and ankle were measured, together with stance phase kinetics (third footstrike). Kinetic and kinematic parameters were compared between harness attachments using one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance. The results indicated that various kinetic differences were present between the normal and ST conditions. Significantly greater net horizontal mean force, net horizontal impulses, propulsive mean force, and propulsive impulses were measured (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the waist harness also led to greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder attachment (p < 0.001). In kinematic terms, ST conditions significantly increased peak flexion in hip, knee, and ankle joints compared with the normal trials (p < 0.05). Results highlighted that the shoulder harness had a greater impact on trunk and knee joint kinematics when compared with the waist harness (p < 0.05). In summary, waist harnesses seem to be the most suitable attachment point for the acceleration phase of sprinting. Sled towing with these attachments resulted in fewer kinematic alterations and greater net horizontal impulse when compared with the shoulder harness. Future research is necessary in order to explore the long-term adaptations of

  15. Research on technique of wavefront retrieval based on Foucault test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Lvjun; Wu, Zhonghua

    2010-05-01

    During finely grinding the best fit sphere and initial stage of polishing, surface error of large aperture aspheric mirrors is too big to test using common interferometer. Foucault test is widely used in fabricating large aperture mirrors. However, the optical path is disturbed seriously by air turbulence, and changes of light and dark zones can not be identified, which often lowers people's judging ability and results in making mistake to diagnose surface error of the whole mirror. To solve the problem, the research presents wavefront retrieval based on Foucault test through digital image processing and quantitative calculation. Firstly, real Foucault image can be gained through collecting a variety of images by CCD, and then average these image to eliminate air turbulence. Secondly, gray values are converted into surface error values through principle derivation, mathematical modeling, and software programming. Thirdly, linear deviation brought by defocus should be removed by least-square method to get real surface error. At last, according to real surface error, plot wavefront map, gray contour map and corresponding pseudo color contour map. The experimental results indicates that the three-dimensional wavefront map and two-dimensional contour map are able to accurately and intuitively show surface error on the whole mirrors under test, and they are beneficial to grasp surface error as a whole. The technique can be used to guide the fabrication of large aperture and long focal mirrors during grinding and initial stage of polishing the aspheric surface, which improves fabricating efficiency and precision greatly.

  16. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle; Seaford, Mark; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    NASA MSFC and CUBRC designed and developed a 2% scale SLS propulsive wind tunnel test program to investigate base flow effects during flight from lift-off to MECO. This type of test program has not been conducted in 40+ years during the NASA Shuttle Program. Dufrene et al paper described the operation, instrumentation type and layout, facility and propulsion performance, test matrix and conditions and some raw results. This paper will focus on the SLS base flow physics and the generation and results of the design environments being used to design the thermal protection system.

  17. Transcending Competency Testing in Hospital-Based Simulation.

    PubMed

    Lassche, Madeline; Wilson, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Simulation is a frequently used method for training students in health care professions and has recently gained acceptance in acute care hospital settings for use in educational programs and competency testing. Although hospital-based simulation is currently limited primarily to use in skills acquisition, expansion of the use of simulation via a modified Quality Health Outcomes Model to address systems factors such as the physical environment and human factors such as fatigue, reliance on memory, and reliance on vigilance could drive system-wide changes. Simulation is an expensive resource and should not be limited to use for education and competency testing. Well-developed, peer-reviewed simulations can be used for environmental factors, human factors, and interprofessional education to improve patients' outcomes and drive system-wide change for quality improvement initiatives. PMID:26909459

  18. Friction Laws Based on Monotonic and Cyclic Rotary Shear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C. J.; Dong, J. J.; Togo, T.; Yang, C. M.; Lee, C. T.; Shimamoto, T.

    2014-12-01

    Rotary-shear friction experiments have been successfully used to study the earthquake dynamics and catastrophic landslides in the past two decades. Recent studies indicated that the friction behaviors of fault gouge materials under oscillatory shear are different from those under monotonic shear. Experimental results revealed that the accelerating and decelerating motion caused weakening and strengthening, while undergoing overall slip weakening. In this study, we try to approximate the temporal variation of friction coefficient during accelerating/decelerating slip based on a velocity-displacement dependent friction law derived from monotonic rotary shear tests. The approximated results show a full strength recovery behavior when the slip velocity equals to zero, which cannot depict the experimental results. A frequency dependent factor was introduced into the friction law to improve the approximation. The mechanisms behind the differences of friction behaviors between the oscillatory and monotonic rotary shear tests will be explored.

  19. Aptamer-based 'point-of-care testing'.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Subash C B; Lakshmipriya, Thangavel; Chen, Yeng; Phang, Wai-Mei; Hashim, Uda

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides that can be artificially generated by a method called Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). The generated aptamers have been assessed for high-performance sensing applications due to their appealing characteristics. With either aptamers alone or complementing with antibodies, several high sensitive and portable sensors have been demonstrated for use in 'point-of-care testing'. Due to their high suitability and flexibility, aptamers are conjugated with nanostructures and utilized in field applications. Moreover, aptamers are more amenable to chemical modifications, making them capable of utilization with most developed sensors. In this overview, we discuss novel, portable, and aptamer-based sensing strategies that are suitable for 'point-of-care testing'. PMID:26876017

  20. Development Testing of 1-Newton ADN-Based Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anflo, K.; Gronland, T.-A.; Bergman, G.; Nedar, R.; Thormählen, P.

    2004-10-01

    With the objective to reduce operational hazards and improve specific and density impulse as compared with hydrazine, the Research and Development (R&D) of a new monopropellant for space applications based on AmmoniumDiNitramide (ADN), was first proposed in 1997. This pioneering work has been described in previous papers1,2,3,4 . From the discussion above, it is clear that cost savings as well as risk reduction are the main drivers to develop a new generation of reduced hazard propellants. However, this alone is not enough to convince a spacecraft builder to choose a new technology. Cost, risk and schedule reduction are good incentives, but a spacecraft supplier will ask for evidence that this new propulsion system meets a number of requirements within the following areas: This paper describes the ongoing effort to develop a storable liquid monopropellant blend, based on AND, and its specific rocket engines. After building and testing more than 20 experimental rocket engines, the first Engineering Model (EM-1) has now accumulated more than 1 hour of firing-time. The results from test firings have validated the design. Specific impulse, combustion stability, blow-down capability and short pulse capability are amongst the requirements that have been demonstrated. The LMP-103x propellant candidate has been stored for more than 1 year and initial material compatibility screening and testing has started. 1. Performance &life 2. Impact on spacecraft design &operation 3. Flight heritage Hereafter, the essential requirements for some of these areas are outlined. These issues are discussed in detail in a previous paper1 . The use of "Commercial Of The Shelf" (COTS) propulsion system components as much as possible is essential to minimize the overall cost, risk and schedule. This leads to the conclusion that the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 5 has been reached for the thruster and propellant. Furthermore, that the concept of ADN-based propulsion is feasible.

  1. Beam-based alignment of the final focus test beam

    SciTech Connect

    Tenenbaum, P.; Burke, D.; Helm, R.; Irwin, J.; Raimondi, P.; Oide, K.; Floettmann, K.

    1995-12-01

    Beam-based alignment of quadrupole and sextupole magnets is crucial for the overall performance of linear collider final focus systems, especially for elimination of backgrounds and higher-order aberrations. At the Final Focus Test Beam (FFTB), alignment tolerances required for achieving the desired spot size are 100 microns in the horizontal and 30 microns in the vertical. Using a combination of independent magnet power supplies, hi-h-resolution stripline beam position monitors and precision magnet movers, the FFTB can be aligned to these tolerances in about 8 hours. Description of the algorithm, presentation of alignment results, and possible improvements to the system are discussed.

  2. Test Security and Item Exposure Control for Computer-Based Examinations: Performance of a Computerized Classification Test for Professional Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalohn, John C.; Spray, Judith A.

    A client of American College Testing, Inc. (ACT) decided to implement a computer-based testing program to replace their paper-pencil format for professional certification. This paper reports on the results of the developed test after 1 year's use, especially as the results relate to test security issues. ACT research shows that a variable length…

  3. Defect characterisation based on heat diffusion using induction thermography testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) thermography (a.k.a. induction thermography) has been successfully applied to detect defects (corrosion, cracks, impact, and delamination) in metal alloy and carbon fiber reinforced plastic. During these applications, the defect detection mechanism is mainly investigated based on the eddy current interaction with defect. In this paper, defect characterisation for wall thinning defect and inner defect in steel is investigated based on heat diffusion. The paper presents the PEC thermography testing, which integrates the reflection mode and transmission mode by means of configuring two cameras on both sides of sample. The defect characterisation methods under transmission mode and reflection mode are investigated and compared through 1D analytical analysis, 3D numerical studies, and experimental studies. The suitable detection mode for wall thinning and inner defects quantification is concluded.

  4. Quantification of ecotoxicological tests based on bioluminescence using Polaroid film.

    PubMed

    Tamminen, Manu V; Virta, Marko P J

    2007-01-01

    Assays based on the measurement of bacterial luminescence are widely used in ecotoxicology. Bacterial strains responding either to general toxicity or specific pollutants are rapid, cost-effective and easy to use. However, quantification of the signal requires relatively expensive instrumentation. We show here that the detection of luminescence of BioTox, a Vibrio fischeri-based toxicity test, and of a specific recombinant bacterial strain for arsenic determination, is possible using common Polaroid film. The exposed films can be used for visual or computer-assisted quantification of the signal. Qualitative visual comparison to standards can be used in the rapid and relatively accurate estimation of toxicity or pollutant concentration. The computer-assisted method significantly improves the accuracy and quantification of the results. The results obtained by computer-assisted quantification were in good agreement with the values obtained with a luminometer. PMID:16949132

  5. Probabilistic liquefaction triggering based on the cone penetration test

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moss, R.E.S.; Seed, R.B.; Kayen, R.E.; Stewart, J.P.; Tokimatsu, K.

    2005-01-01

    Performance-based earthquake engineering requires a probabilistic treatment of potential failure modes in order to accurately quantify the overall stability of the system. This paper is a summary of the application portions of the probabilistic liquefaction triggering correlations proposed recently proposed by Moss and co-workers. To enable probabilistic treatment of liquefaction triggering, the variables comprising the seismic load and the liquefaction resistance were treated as inherently uncertain. Supporting data from an extensive Cone Penetration Test (CPT)-based liquefaction case history database were used to develop a probabilistic correlation. The methods used to measure the uncertainty of the load and resistance variables, how the interactions of these variables were treated using Bayesian updating, and how reliability analysis was applied to produce curves of equal probability of liquefaction are presented. The normalization for effective overburden stress, the magnitude correlated duration weighting factor, and the non-linear shear mass participation factor used are also discussed.

  6. Defect characterisation based on heat diffusion using induction thermography testing.

    PubMed

    He, Yunze; Pan, Mengchun; Luo, Feilu

    2012-10-01

    Pulsed eddy current (PEC) thermography (a.k.a. induction thermography) has been successfully applied to detect defects (corrosion, cracks, impact, and delamination) in metal alloy and carbon fiber reinforced plastic. During these applications, the defect detection mechanism is mainly investigated based on the eddy current interaction with defect. In this paper, defect characterisation for wall thinning defect and inner defect in steel is investigated based on heat diffusion. The paper presents the PEC thermography testing, which integrates the reflection mode and transmission mode by means of configuring two cameras on both sides of sample. The defect characterisation methods under transmission mode and reflection mode are investigated and compared through 1D analytical analysis, 3D numerical studies, and experimental studies. The suitable detection mode for wall thinning and inner defects quantification is concluded. PMID:23126785

  7. LncRNAWiki: harnessing community knowledge in collaborative curation of human long non-coding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Li, Ang; Zou, Dong; Xu, Xingjian; Xia, Lin; Yu, Jun; Bajic, Vladimir B; Zhang, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) perform a diversity of functions in numerous important biological processes and are implicated in many human diseases. In this report we present lncRNAWiki (http://lncrna.big.ac.cn), a wiki-based platform that is open-content and publicly editable and aimed at community-based curation and collection of information on human lncRNAs. Current related databases are dependent primarily on curation by experts, making it laborious to annotate the exponentially accumulated information on lncRNAs, which inevitably requires collective efforts in community-based curation of lncRNAs. Unlike existing databases, lncRNAWiki features comprehensive integration of information on human lncRNAs obtained from multiple different resources and allows not only existing lncRNAs to be edited, updated and curated by different users but also the addition of newly identified lncRNAs by any user. It harnesses community collective knowledge in collecting, editing and annotating human lncRNAs and rewards community-curated efforts by providing explicit authorship based on quantified contributions. LncRNAWiki relies on the underling knowledge of scientific community for collective and collaborative curation of human lncRNAs and thus has the potential to serve as an up-to-date and comprehensive knowledgebase for human lncRNAs. PMID:25399417

  8. Pedigree-based random effect tests to screen gene pathways.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Marcio; Peralta, Juan M; Farook, Vidya; Puppala, Sobha; Kent, John W; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Blangero, John

    2014-01-01

    The new generation of sequencing platforms opens new horizons in the genetics field. It is possible to exhaustively assay all genetic variants in an individual and search for phenotypic associations. The whole genome sequencing approach, when applied to a large human sample like the San Antonio Family Study, detects a very large number (>25 million) of single nucleotide variants along with other more complex variants. The analytical challenges imposed by this number of variants are formidable, suggesting that methods are needed to reduce the overall number of statistical tests. In this study, we develop a single degree-of-freedom test of variants in a gene pathway employing a random effect model that uses an empirical pathway-specific genetic relationship matrix as the focal covariance kernel. The empirical pathway-specific genetic relationship uses all variants (or a chosen subset) from gene members of a given biological pathway. Using SOLAR's pedigree-based variance components modeling, which also allows for arbitrary fixed effects, such as principal components, to deal with latent population structure, we employ a likelihood ratio test of the pathway-specific genetic relationship matrix model. We examine all gene pathways in KEGG database gene pathways using our method in the first replicate of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 18 simulation of systolic blood pressure. Our random effect approach was able to detect true association signals in causal gene pathways. Those pathways could be easily be further dissected by the independent analysis of all markers. PMID:25519354

  9. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-01

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements. Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken. This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  10. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-28

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  11. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self... hold the components of the apparatus in position against the wearer's body. (b) Harnesses shall...

  12. Harness: Heterogeneous Adaptable Reconfigurable Networked Systems -- U.S. Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-99ER25379 Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidy Sunderam

    2003-07-02

    Issues in reconfigurability and adaptability in heterogeneous distributed systems for high-performance computing are the focus of the work funded by this grant. Our efforts are part of an ongoing research project in metacomputing and are a follow on to the DOE funded PVM system that has witnessed over a decade of use at numerous institutions worldwide. The current project, termed Harness, investigates novel methodologies and tools for distributed metacomputing, focusing on dynamically reconfigurable software frameworks. During the first phase, we defined the metacomputing architecture embodied in Harness and developed prototype subsystems as proof of concept exercises. Subsequently, we designed and developed a complete software framework manifesting the Harness architecture, and also developed several tools and subsystems that demonstrated the viability and effectiveness of our proposed model for next generation metacomputing. We then used this substrate to emulate multiple programming environments on Harness, and conducted performance evaluation and tuning exercises. The main research results from these efforts include the establishment of software metacomputing systems as viable and cost-effective alternatives to MPPs; the demonstration of dynamic and reconfigurable platforms as effective methods of tailoring parallel computing environments; the development of methodologies to construct plugin modules for component-based distributed systems; contributions to performance modeling and optimization in emulated software environments; and software architectures for multi- and mixed-paradigm parallel distributed computing. Details and specifics on these and other results have been reported in numerous publications, and are manifested in software systems, all of which may be accessed at or via the website http://www.mathcs.emory.edu/harness/

  13. Black-Box System Testing of Real-Time Embedded Systems Using Random and Search-Based Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcuri, Andrea; Iqbal, Muhammad Zohaib; Briand, Lionel

    Testing real-time embedded systems (RTES) is in many ways challenging. Thousands of test cases can be potentially executed on an industrial RTES. Given the magnitude of testing at the system level, only a fully automated approach can really scale up to test industrial RTES. In this paper we take a black-box approach and model the RTES environment using the UML/MARTE international standard. Our main motivation is to provide a more practical approach to the model-based testing of RTES by allowing system testers, who are often not familiar with the system design but know the application domain well-enough, to model the environment to enable test automation. Environment models can support the automation of three tasks: the code generation of an environment simulator, the selection of test cases, and the evaluation of their expected results (oracles). In this paper, we focus on the second task (test case selection) and investigate three test automation strategies using inputs from UML/MARTE environment models: Random Testing (baseline), Adaptive Random Testing, and Search-Based Testing (using Genetic Algorithms). Based on one industrial case study and three artificial systems, we show how, in general, no technique is better than the others. Which test selection technique to use is determined by the failure rate (testing stage) and the execution time of test cases. Finally, we propose a practical process to combine the use of all three test strategies.

  14. Testing the performance of technical trading rules in the Chinese markets based on superior predictive test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shan; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Technical trading rules have a long history of being used by practitioners in financial markets. The profitable ability and efficiency of technical trading rules are yet controversial. In this paper, we test the performance of more than seven thousand traditional technical trading rules on the Shanghai Securities Composite Index (SSCI) from May 21, 1992 through June 30, 2013 and China Securities Index 300 (CSI 300) from April 8, 2005 through June 30, 2013 to check whether an effective trading strategy could be found by using the performance measurements based on the return and Sharpe ratio. To correct for the influence of the data-snooping effect, we adopt the Superior Predictive Ability test to evaluate if there exists a trading rule that can significantly outperform the benchmark. The result shows that for SSCI, technical trading rules offer significant profitability, while for CSI 300, this ability is lost. We further partition the SSCI into two sub-series and find that the efficiency of technical trading in sub-series, which have exactly the same spanning period as that of CSI 300, is severely weakened. By testing the trading rules on both indexes with a five-year moving window, we find that during the financial bubble from 2005 to 2007, the effectiveness of technical trading rules is greatly improved. This is consistent with the predictive ability of technical trading rules which appears when the market is less efficient.

  15. Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations: Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrading, J. Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The Knowledge-Based Autonomous Test Engineer (KATE) program has a long history at KSC. Now a part of the Autonomous Cryogenic Load Operations (ACLO) mission, this software system has been sporadically developed over the past 20 years. Originally designed to provide health and status monitoring for a simple water-based fluid system, it was proven to be a capable autonomous test engineer for determining sources of failure in the system. As part of a new goal to provide this same anomaly-detection capability for a complicated cryogenic fluid system, software engineers, physicists, interns and KATE experts are working to upgrade the software capabilities and graphical user interface. Much progress was made during this effort to improve KATE. A display of the entire cryogenic system's graph, with nodes for components and edges for their connections, was added to the KATE software. A searching functionality was added to the new graph display, so that users could easily center their screen on specific components. The GUI was also modified so that it displayed information relevant to the new project goals. In addition, work began on adding new pneumatic and electronic subsystems into the KATE knowledge base, so that it could provide health and status monitoring for those systems. Finally, many fixes for bugs, memory leaks, and memory errors were implemented and the system was moved into a state in which it could be presented to stakeholders. Overall, the KATE system was improved and necessary additional features were added so that a presentation of the program and its functionality in the next few months would be a success.

  16. STS-39 MS Hieb is suspended over JSC's WETF Bldg 29 pool via harness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-39 Mission Specialist (MS) Richard J. Hieb, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and launch and entry helmet (LEH), is hoisted above JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool via his parachute harness. Hieb will be dropped from the harness into the WETF's 25 ft deep pool to simulate an emergency egress bailout from the Space Shuttle into the ocean. Divers in the pool will ensure Hieb's safety during the exercise.

  17. Harnessing Protocolized Adaptation in Dissemination: Successful Implementation and Sustainment of the Veterans Affairs Coordinated-Transitional Care Program in a Non-Veterans Affairs Hospital.

    PubMed

    Kind, Amy J H; Brenny-Fitzpatrick, Maria; Leahy-Gross, Kris; Mirr, Jacquelyn; Chapman, Elizabeth; Frey, Brooke; Houlahan, Beth

    2016-02-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Coordinated-Transitional Care (C-TraC) program is a low-cost transitional care program that uses hospital-based nurse case managers, inpatient team integration, and in-depth posthospital telephone contacts to support high-risk patients and their caregivers as they transition from hospital to community. The low-cost, primarily telephone-based C-TraC program reduced 30-day rehospitalizations by one-third, leading to significant cost savings at one VA hospital. Non-VA hospitals have expressed interest in launching C-TraC, but non-VA hospitals differ in important ways from VA hospitals, particularly in terms of context, culture, and resources. The objective of this project was to adapt C-TraC to the specific context of one non-VA setting using a modified Replicating Effective Programs (REP) implementation theory model and to test the feasibility of this protocolized implementation approach. The modified REP model uses a mentored phased-based implementation with intensive preimplementation activities and harnesses key local stakeholders to adapt processes and goals to local context. Using this protocolized implementation approach, an adapted C-TraC protocol was created and launched at the non-VA hospital in July 2013. In its first 16 months, C-TraC successfully enrolled 1,247 individuals with 3.2 full-time nurse case managers, achieving good fidelity for core protocol steps. C-TraC participants experienced a 30-day rehospitalization rate of 10.8%, compared with 16.6% for a contemporary comparison group of similar individuals for whom C-TraC was not available (n = 1,307) (P < .001). The new C-TraC program continues in operation. Use of a modified REP model to guide protocolized adaptation to local context resulted in a C-TraC program that was feasible and sustained in a real-world non-VA setting. A modified REP implementation framework may be an appropriate foundational step for other clinical programs seeking to harness

  18. Development of a diagnostic test based on multiple continuous biomarkers with an imperfect reference test.

    PubMed

    García Barrado, Leandro; Coart, Els; Burzykowski, Tomasz

    2016-02-20

    Ignoring the fact that the reference test used to establish the discriminative properties of a combination of diagnostic biomarkers is imperfect can lead to a biased estimate of the diagnostic accuracy of the combination. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian latent-class mixture model to select a combination of biomarkers that maximizes the area under the ROC curve (AUC), while taking into account the imperfect nature of the reference test. In particular, a method for specification of the prior for the mixture component parameters is developed that allows controlling the amount of prior information provided for the AUC. The properties of the model are evaluated by using a simulation study and an application to real data from Alzheimer's disease research. In the simulation study, 100 data sets are simulated for sample sizes ranging from 100 to 600 observations, with a varying correlation between biomarkers. The inclusion of an informative as well as a flat prior for the diagnostic accuracy of the reference test is investigated. In the real-data application, the proposed model was compared with the generally used logistic-regression model that ignores the imperfectness of the reference test. Conditional on the selected sample size and prior distributions, the simulation study results indicate satisfactory performance of the model-based estimates. In particular, the obtained average estimates for all parameters are close to the true values. For the real-data application, AUC estimates for the proposed model are substantially higher than those from the 'traditional' logistic-regression model. PMID:26388206

  19. Management of dislocated hips with Pavlik harness treatment and ultrasound monitoring.

    PubMed

    Harding, M G; Harcke, H T; Bowen, J R; Guille, J T; Glutting, J

    1997-01-01

    We studied the outcome of ultrasound-monitored Pavlik harness treatment of 47 infants (nine boys and 38 girls) with 55 frankly dislocated hips documented by dynamic ultrasonography. The success and failure groups were of similar ultrasound status (hip-status score) at the time of initial examination, but a significant difference emerged at the 7- and 14-day examinations. Detection of frank dislocation and institution of treatment with the Pavlik harness within 3 weeks of birth increased the probability of a successful result. Of 33 infants (27 girls and six boys) with 41 dislocated hips who were seen before the age of 21 days, 26 (63%) hips were reducible in the Pavlik harness alone, and 15 (37%) hips were irreducible and required a subsequent procedure to achieve reduction. Fourteen infants (three boys and 11 girls) with 14 dislocated hips were first seen after the age of 21 days. Three (20%) were successfully treated in the Pavlik harness alone, and 11 (80%) required further treatment. In our opinion, persistent dislocation without improvement after 3 weeks of treatment in the Pavlik harness mandates discontinuation of use of this device. No anatomic factors were seen at the time of the initial ultrasound examination that permitted prediction of those hips likely to succeed or fail treatment with the Pavlik harness. PMID:9075094

  20. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests.

    PubMed

    Cederwall, R T; Ricker, Y E; Cederwall, P L; Homan, D N; Anspaugh, L R

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches. PMID:2211113

  1. Ground-based air-sampling measurements near the Nevada Test Site after atmospheric nuclear tests

    SciTech Connect

    Cederwall, R.T.; Ricker, Y.E.; Cederwall, P.L.; Homan, D.N.; Anspaugh, L.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Historical air-sampling data measured within 320 km (200 mi) of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been reviewed for periods following atmospheric nuclear tests, primarily in the 1950s. These data come mostly from high-volume air samplers, with some from cascade-impactor samplers. Measurements considered here are for beta radiation from gross fission products. The resulting air-quality data base is comprised of almost 13,000 samples from 42 sampling locations downwind of the NTS. In order to compile an accurate air-quality data base for use in estimating exposure via inhalation, raw data values were sought where possible, and the required calculations were performed on a computer with state-of-the-art algorithms. The data-processing procedures consisted of (1) entry and error checking of historical data; (2) determination of appropriate background values, air-sampling volumes, and net air concentrations; and (3) calculation of integrated air concentration (C) for each sample (considering fallout arrival times). Comparing C values for collocated high-volume and cascade-impactor samplers during the Upshot-Knothole series showed similar lognormal distributions, but with a geometric mean C for cascade impactors about half that for the high-volume air samplers. Overall, the uncertainty in C values is about a factor of three. In the past, it has been assumed that C could be related to ground deposition by a constant having units of velocity. In our data bases, simultaneous measurements of air concentration and ground deposition at the same locations were not related by a constant; indeed, there was a great amount of scatter. This suggests that the relationship between C and ground deposition in this situation is too complex to be treated adequately by simple approaches.

  2. Papers Based Electrochemical Biosensors: From Test Strips to Paper-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bingwen; Du, Dan; Hua, Xin; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lin, Yuehe

    2014-05-08

    Papers based biosensors such as lateral flow test strips and paper-based microfluidic devices (or paperfluidics) are inexpensive, rapid, flexible, and easy-to-use analytical tools. An apparent trend in their detection is to interpret sensing results from qualitative assessment to quantitative determination. Electrochemical detection plays an important role in quantification. This review focuses on electrochemical (EC) detection enabled biosensors. The first part provides detailed examples in paper test strips. The second part gives an overview of paperfluidics engaging EC detections. The outlook and recommendation of future directions of EC enabled biosensors are discussed in the end.

  3. Rapid toxicity testing based on yeast respiratory activity

    SciTech Connect

    Haubenstricker, M.E. ); Meier, P.G.; Mancy, K.H. ); Brabec, M.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Rapid and economical techniques are needed to determine the effects of environmental contaminants. At present, the main methods to assess the impact of pollutants are based on chemical analysis of the samples. Invertebrate and vertebrate exposures have been used over the last two decades in assessing acute and chronic toxicities. However, these tests are labor intensive and require several days to complete. An alternative to whole organism exposure is to determine toxic effects in monocellular systems. Another approach for assessing toxicity is to monitor sensitive, nonspecific, subcellular target sites such as mitochondria. Changes in mitochondrial function which could indicate a toxic effect can be demonstrated readily after addition of a foreign substance. In initial assessments of various chemicals, rat liver mitochondria (RLM) were evaluated as a biological sensor of toxicity. False toxicity assessments will result if these ions are present even though they are generally considered nontoxic. Because of these disadvantages, an alternative mitochondrial system, such as found in bakers yeast, was evaluated.

  4. Testing smooth surface characteristics based on thermal infrared polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Wang, Zhen; Hong, Jin; Qiao, Yan-li; Chen, Yi-qiong

    2007-12-01

    A novel optical method was provided to test the sample surface using a thermal polarimeter. The polarimeter consists of a rotary polarization filter and a thermal imaging system that is based on an uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) in long wave infrared (LWIR, 8~12μm) band. The thermal infrared polarization images of a Vernier caliper head were taken by a rotary polarizing filter at angles of 0°, 60°, 120° degrees. These images were saved into a computer and were calculated with Stokes parameter formulas to produce digital images of Stokes parameters I, Q and U, degree of linear polarization and direction of polarization. These images clearly show the difference between different areas of Vernier caliper, and this difference is not obtainable from the intensity images. Experimental results show that the introduced method can extract surface roughness information from thermal images and can distinguish different surface characteristics quickly.

  5. Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Plasticity Harnesses Endocytic Circuitries

    PubMed Central

    Corallino, Salvatore; Malabarba, Maria Grazia; Zobel, Martina; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Scita, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    execution of different biological processes, with a primary role in the control of polarized functions. Thus, they may be relevant for controlling EMT or certain aspects of it. Here, by discussing a few paradigmatic cases, we will outline how endocytosis may be harnessed by the EMT process to promote dynamic changes in cellular identity, and to increase cellular flexibility and adaptation to micro-environmental cues, ultimately impacting on physiological and pathological processes, first and foremost cancer progression. PMID:25767773

  6. Hello, world: Harnessing social media for the Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Emily; Mignone, Claudia; O'Flaherty, Karen; Homfeld, Anne-Mareike; Bauer, Markus; McCaughrean, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) comet-chasing Rosetta mission was launched in 2004, before social media became a popular tool for mainstream communication. By harnessing a range of platforms for communicating the key messages of this unprecedented mission as it reached its destination ten years later, new audiences were reached and a global impact was achieved. Rosetta-specific social media accounts - @ESA_Rosetta on Twitter, the Rosetta Mission Facebook page and the rosettamission Instagram account - were developed during 2013/14 and used alongside the traditional reporting line of the main ESA website and the Rosetta blog to build awareness about the mission. Coordinated with ESA's existing social media channels (Flickr, YouTube, G+, Twitter, Facebook and Livestream) and with the support of ESA's country desks and Rosetta partner agency accounts (including @philae2014), information could be shared in a number of European languages, ensuring a wide reach across Europe - and the world. We discuss the roles of the various social media accounts in supporting and promoting the competitions and social media campaigns that were built around the key mission milestones of 2014: waking up from deep space hibernation (January), arriving at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (August) and naming the landing site for Philae ahead of the landing event in November. We discuss the different approach to each channel, such as the first person twitter accounts, the dialogue with and between blog users, and the discussions held live via G+ Hangouts with leading scientists and spacecraft operators. We compare and contrast the audiences, the interaction we had with them and how challenges were overcome. We also use the science-fiction-meets-science-fact Ambition short movie, and its "undercover" dissemination on social media, as an example of how the profile of the Rosetta mission was raised in a unique way. By using a variety of social media platforms to target different audiences with

  7. Simulation Method for Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-Liang; Fan, Zhao-Lin

    The Wind Tunnel Based Virtual Flight Testing (WTBVFT) could replicate the actual free flight and explore the aerodynamics/flight dynamics nonlinear coupling mechanism during the maneuver in the wind tunnel. The basic WTBVFT concept is to mount the test model on a specialized support system which allows for the model freely rotational motion, and the aerodynamic loading and motion parameters are measured simultaneously during the model motion. The simulations of the 3-DOF pitching motion of a typical missile in the vertical plane are performed with the openloop and closed-loop control methods. The objective is to analyze the effect of the main differences between the WTBVFT and the actual free flight, and study the simulation method for the WTBVFT. Preliminary simulation analyses have been conducted with positive results. These results indicate that the WTBVFT that uses closed-loop autopilot control method with the pitch angular rate feedback signal is able to replicate the actual free flight behavior within acceptable differences.

  8. Integrating software into PRA: a test-based approach.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Li, Ming; Smidts, Carol

    2005-08-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is a methodology to assess the probability of failure or success of a system's operation. PRA has been proved to be a systematic, logical, and comprehensive technique for risk assessment. Software plays an increasing role in modern safety critical systems. A significant number of failures can be attributed to software failures. Unfortunately, current probabilistic risk assessment concentrates on representing the behavior of hardware systems, humans, and their contributions (to a limited extent) to risk but neglects the contributions of software due to a lack of understanding of software failure phenomena. It is thus imperative to consider and model the impact of software to reflect the risk in current and future systems. The objective of our research is to develop a methodology to account for the impact of software on system failure that can be used in the classical PRA analysis process. A test-based approach for integrating software into PRA is discussed in this article. This approach includes identification of software functions to be modeled in the PRA, modeling of the software contributions in the ESD, and fault tree. The approach also introduces the concepts of input tree and output tree and proposes a quantification strategy that uses a software safety testing technique. The method is applied to an example system, PACS. PMID:16268949

  9. Multiscale Simulation of Damage Progression in 5-Harness Satin Weave Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiang; Qu, Shaoxing

    2015-07-01

    A multiscale finite element (FE) model is developed to predict damage and failure of 5-harness satin weave composites both at the micro-scale (fiber, matrix and interface) and meso-scale (ply). In the meso-scale damage model, specific characteristics of the 5HS, such as the yarn undulation, shape and orientation, are taken into account to characterize the failure mechanisms of the interlaced yarns. In the micro-scale damage model of the study, a micro-model including matrix, interface and fibers is considered and simplified to a two-dimensional problem in the plane of a cross-section of the yarn. In the micro-FE model, cohesive elements based on a traction-separation law have been used which allows for some detailed interpretation of the micro-mechanical interaction of fiber and matrix under unidirectional tension. The predictions based on the numerical simulations are compared to the experimental data from the literature. The results indicate that the meso-FE model accurately captures weft yarn transverse damage. Moreover, the micro-FE model shows the contributions of failure from micro-mechanisms, including the in-plane matrix cracking and interfacial debonding.

  10. An evaluation of backpack harness systems in non-neutral torso postures.

    PubMed

    Southard, Stephanie A; Mirka, Gary A

    2007-09-01

    Much of the research on backpack design has been focused on spinal loading/biomechanics while the wearer is in a neutral/upright trunk posture, such as those employed by outdoor enthusiasts and schoolchildren. This research has led to some important harness design improvements that reduce trunk muscle exertions, fatigue and improve overall comfort. There are number of occupations, however, wherein workers wear back-mounted packs/devices (e.g. air tanks) while working in non-neutral trunk postures. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of these non-neutral postures on biomechanical loading and then reconsider the backpack system design recommendations. Fifteen participants were asked to support a 18.2 kg load on their back while assuming static forward flexed postures of the torso (15 degrees , 30 degrees , 45 degrees , and 60 degrees of sagittal bend). The mass on the back was attached to the participant through two different harness mechanisms: a basic harness design (as seen on college student backpacks) and a more advanced design containing lateral stiffness rods and a weight-bearing hip belt (as seen on backpacks for hikers). While performing these static, posture maintenance tasks, the activation levels of the bilateral trapezius, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis were collected. Participants also provided subjective ratings of comfort. The results showed that there was a significant interaction between harness type and forward flexion angle for the trapezius and the erector spinae muscles. The normalized EMG for the trapezius muscles showed a 14% and 11% reduction in muscle activity at 15 degrees and 30 degrees , respectively, with the advanced design but these positive effects of the advanced design were not found at the greater flexion angles. Likewise the erector spinae muscles showed a 24% and 14% reduction in muscle activity at 15 degrees and 30 degrees , respectively, with the advanced design harness but these effects of the

  11. Construct Implications of Including Still Image or Video in Computer-Based Listening Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2007-01-01

    Over the past decade, listening comprehension tests have been converting to computer-based tests that include visual input. However, little research is available to suggest how test takers engage with different types of visuals on such tests. The present study compared a series of still images to video in academic computer-based tests to determine…

  12. Fast lemons and sour boulders: Testing crossmodal correspondences using an internet-based testing methodology

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Andy T.; Spence, Charles; Butcher, Natalie; Deroy, Ophelia

    2013-01-01

    According to a popular family of hypotheses, crossmodal matches between distinct features hold because they correspond to the same polarity on several conceptual dimensions (such as active–passive, good–bad, etc.) that can be identified using the semantic differential technique. The main problem here resides in turning this hypothesis into testable empirical predictions. In the present study, we outline a series of plausible consequences of the hypothesis and test a variety of well-established and previously untested crossmodal correspondences by means of a novel internet-based testing methodology. The results highlight that the semantic hypothesis cannot easily explain differences in the prevalence of crossmodal associations built on the same semantic pattern (fast lemons, slow prunes, sour boulders, heavy red); furthermore, the semantic hypothesis only minimally predicts what happens when the semantic dimensions and polarities that are supposed to drive such crossmodal associations are made more salient (e.g., by adding emotional cues that ought to make the good/bad dimension more salient); finally, the semantic hypothesis does not explain why reliable matches are no longer observed once intramodal dimensions with congruent connotations are presented (e.g., visually presented shapes and colour do not appear to correspond). PMID:24349696

  13. The application of computer-based testing to allow testing out in retraining subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Portwood, G.; Johnson, K.; Webster, C.

    1991-01-01

    ORNL's computer-generated test our program, developed using computer-based training (CBT) technology, allows employees the option of testing out'' instead of attending the General Employee Retraining (GER) class. The program contains a bank'' of questions; 20 different questions randomly selected by the computer for each exam. The exam is administered by computer; minimum input is required of the individual taking the exam. The training organization inputs the bank of exam questions, the type of questions to be used, and categorizes questions according to subject, such as Quality Assurance, Hazard Communication, Radiation Safety, and so forth. The exam is graded by the computer and a hard-copy record may be generated. Exam results may be stored on a floppy disk. Compliance training, as required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in many areas, has become an activity which requires individuals to spend more and more of their time in training. Compliance training could be defined as, training that is required for individuals who perform certain activities.'' In other words, it is training that is not optional. Compliance training exists for subjects that are general in nature such as General Employee Training (GET), and for subjects of a more technical nature such as Rad Worker, SARA/OSHA, and so forth. The computer-generated program, developed by ORNL using computer-based training technology, meets the criteria for compliance training, but training time'' or man training hours'' in the pilot program was reduced from two hours per person to about 20 minutes per person. Overall training time for the pilot program was reduced by almost sixty percent.

  14. Diagnostic reliability of MMPI-2 computer-based test interpretations.

    PubMed

    Pant, Hina; McCabe, Brian J; Deskovitz, Mark A; Weed, Nathan C; Williams, John E

    2014-09-01

    Reflecting the common use of the MMPI-2 to provide diagnostic considerations, computer-based test interpretations (CBTIs) also typically offer diagnostic suggestions. However, these diagnostic suggestions can sometimes be shown to vary widely across different CBTI programs even for identical MMPI-2 profiles. The present study evaluated the diagnostic reliability of 6 commercially available CBTIs using a 20-item Q-sort task developed for this study. Four raters each sorted diagnostic classifications based on these 6 CBTI reports for 20 MMPI-2 profiles. Two questions were addressed. First, do users of CBTIs understand the diagnostic information contained within the reports similarly? Overall, diagnostic sorts of the CBTIs showed moderate inter-interpreter diagnostic reliability (mean r = .56), with sorts for the 1/2/3 profile showing the highest inter-interpreter diagnostic reliability (mean r = .67). Second, do different CBTIs programs vary with respect to diagnostic suggestions? It was found that diagnostic sorts of the CBTIs had a mean inter-CBTI diagnostic reliability of r = .56, indicating moderate but not strong agreement across CBTIs in terms of diagnostic suggestions. The strongest inter-CBTI diagnostic agreement was found for sorts of the 1/2/3 profile CBTIs (mean r = .71). Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24749753

  15. Bipolar electrical coil based on YBCO bulks: initial tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, A.; Suárez, P.; Ceballos, J. M.; Pérez, B.; Werfel, F.; Floegel-Delor, U.

    2008-02-01

    In the field of the application of HTS in electrical motors, most prototypes are made using superconducting coils based on tape and located in the position where copper coils work in a similar conventional motor. Other prototypes use superconducting bulks (usually disk-shaped) in those positions where normal magnets should work in similar conventional motors. But it is very unusual to find designs using electrical coils based on bulks. This is a challenge whose main problem is the difficulty in machining the superconductor bulks to get the proper shape because of the impossibility of bending the material to wind coils. The design of a bipolar single-turn coil made from a superconducting YBCO disk was proposed by the group of Electrical Application of Superconductors, at the University of Extremadura, several years ago to be an element for the design of a modular two-phase inductor for an air core axial-flux motor. The shape of each coil looks like an 'S'. When a current flows through the circuit, two opposite magnetic fields appear in the upper and lower halves of the piece. Until now, attempts to get a good superconducting circuit by cutting a YBCO disk into the required shape have failed because of cracks appearing in the crystal during the process. Last year, our group at the University of Extremadura began to work with ATZ GmbH who have improved the machining process and made the coils. In this paper we present the coil and the first tests carried out.

  16. A Test Scheduling Algorithm Based on Two-Stage GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Peng, X. Y.; Peng, Y.

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we present a new algorithm to co-optimize the core wrapper design and the SOC test scheduling. The SOC test scheduling problem is first formulated into a twodimension floorplan problem and a sequence pair architecture is used to represent it. Then we propose a two-stage GA (Genetic Algorithm) to solve the SOC test scheduling problem. Experiments on ITC'02 benchmark show that our algorithm can effectively reduce test time so as to decrease SOC test cost.

  17. A comparative evaluation of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Mallardo, Karina; Nizza, Sandra; Fiorito, Filomena; Pagnini, Ugo; De Martino, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS) which is a potencial risk factor of transmission between animals and humans in different types of horses (harness racing-horses, breeding mares and riding-horses) and to compare the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates. Methods A total of 191 healthy horses, housed at different locations of the Campania Region (Italy), were included in the study. Nasal swab samples were collected from each nostril of the horses. The mecA gene was detected by a nested PCR technique. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested for each isolate. Results MRS was isolated from nasal samples of 68/191 (35.6%; 95% CI: 28.9%-42.9%) healthy horses. All isolates were coagulase-negative with the exception of two coagulase-positive MRS strains, identified as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, 2/83 (2.4%; 95% CI: 0.4%-9.2%). Interestingly, both coagulase-positive MRS isolates were from harness racing-horses. These horses also presented a significantly higher positivity for MRS (53.3%; 95% CI: 40.1%-66.1%) than the breeding mares and riding-horses groups. Antibiotic susceptibility testing showed difference between isolates due to different origins except for an almost common high resistance to aminopenicillins, such as ampicillin and amoxicillin. Conclusions It can be concluded that harness racing-horses may act as a significant reservoir of MRS as compared to breeding mares and riding-horses. PMID:23620832

  18. Harnessing the immunomodulatory effect of thermal and non-thermal ablative therapies for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bastianpillai, Christopher; Petrides, Neophytos; Shah, Taimur; Guillaumier, Stephanie; Ahmed, Hashim U; Arya, Manit

    2015-12-01

    Minimally invasive interventional therapies are evolving rapidly and their use for the treatment of solid tumours is becoming more extensive. The in situ destruction of solid tumours by such therapies is thought to release antigens that can prime an antitumour immune response. In this review, we offer an overview of the current evidence for immune response activation associated with the utilisation of the main thermal and non-thermal ablation therapies currently in use today. This is followed by an assessment of the hypothesised mechanisms behind this immune response priming and by a discussion of potential methods of harnessing this specific response, which may subsequently be applicable in the treatment of cancer patients. References were identified through searches of PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane databases to identify peer-reviewed original articles, meta-analyses and reviews. Papers were searched from 1850 until October 2014. Articles were also identified through searches of the authors' files. Only papers published in English were reviewed. Thermal and non-thermal therapies have the potential to stimulate antitumour immunity although the current body of evidence is based mostly on murine trials or small-scale phase 1 human trials. The evidence for this immune-modulatory response is currently the strongest in relation to cryotherapy and radiotherapy, although data is accumulating for related ablative treatments such as high-intensity focused ultrasound, radiofrequency ablation and irreversible electroporation. This effect may be greatly enhanced by combining these therapies with other immunostimulatory interventions. Evidence is emerging into the immunomodulatory effect associated with thermal and non-thermal ablative therapies used in cancer treatment in addition to the mechanism behind this effect and how it may be harnessed for therapeutic use. A potential exists for treatment approaches that combine ablation of the primary tumour with control and possible

  19. Ground Based Test Results for Broad Band LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, W. S.; Georgieva, E.; Huang, W.; Baldauf, B.; McComb, T.

    2010-12-01

    a 1.57 μm superluminescent light emitting diode (SLED) amplified by an optical parametric amplifier (OPA). In 2008 NGAS, leveraging expertise in thulium (Tm) fiber laser systems and recognizing the merit of the broadband approach, suggested a partnership with GSFC to develop a broadband lidar operating at 2.05 μm. Such a system takes advantage of the broad Tm-fiber gain spectrum and the inherent mechanical robustness, compact size, simple power scalability, efficiency and high beam quality offered by fiber lasers. In early 2010 NGAS completed development of a laboratory level, highly efficient, Tm-fiber laser that produces a specially formatted pulsed broadband output around 2.05 μm, a spectral region where CO2 has strong atmospheric absorption features. NGAS has loaned this tunable 2.05 μm laser to GSFC which had concurrently developed a 2.05 μm lidar sensor/receiver. In May 2010 the two systems were tested together to provide proof of concept of 2.05 µm broadband detection of CO2. This presentation will present results of ground based testing of the 1.57 μm and the 2.05 μm systems and discuss their potential application as space borne sensors for the ASCENDS mission.

  20. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  1. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  2. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  3. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  4. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  5. Testing primates with joystick-based automated apparatus - Lessons from the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1992-01-01

    Nonhuman primates provide useful models for studying a variety of medical, biological, and behavioral topics. Four years of joystick-based automated testing of monkeys using the Language Research Center's Computerized Test System (LRC-CTS) are examined to derive hints and principles for comparable testing with other species - including humans. The results of multiple parametric studies are reviewed, and reliability data are presented to reveal the surprises and pitfalls associated with video-task testing of performance.

  6. Medical students’ attitudes and perspectives regarding novel computer-based practical spot tests compared to traditional practical spot tests

    PubMed Central

    Wijerathne, Buddhika; Rathnayake, Geetha

    2013-01-01

    Background Most universities currently practice traditional practical spot tests to evaluate students. However, traditional methods have several disadvantages. Computer-based examination techniques are becoming more popular among medical educators worldwide. Therefore incorporating the computer interface in practical spot testing is a novel concept that may minimize the shortcomings of traditional methods. Assessing students’ attitudes and perspectives is vital in understanding how students perceive the novel method. Methods One hundred and sixty medical students were randomly allocated to either a computer-based spot test (n=80) or a traditional spot test (n=80). The students rated their attitudes and perspectives regarding the spot test method soon after the test. The results were described comparatively. Results Students had higher positive attitudes towards the computer-based practical spot test compared to the traditional spot test. Their recommendations to introduce the novel practical spot test method for future exams and to other universities were statistically significantly higher. Conclusions The computer-based practical spot test is viewed as more acceptable to students than the traditional spot test. PMID:26451213

  7. Strategies for Ground Based Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Jeff; Peacock, Mike; Gill, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Integrated testing (such as Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT)) is critical to reducing risks and minimizing problems encountered during assembly, activation, and on-orbit operation of large, complex manned spacecraft. Provides the best implementation of "Test Like You Fly:. Planning for integrated testing needs to begin at the earliest stages of Program definition. Program leadership needs to fully understand and buy in to what integrated testing is and why it needs to be performed. As Program evolves and design and schedules mature, continually look for suitable opportunities to perform testing where enough components are together in one place at one time. The benefits to be gained are well worth the costs.

  8. Teaching To the Test: Some SSS-Based TTTTT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsunsky, Boris

    2006-04-01

    "Teaching to the test" is an expression that has a decidedly derogatory connotation in the world of education. It is usually used to describe relentless and mindless drills with the expectation that the tasks on the test will resemble the drill exercises. However, "teaching to the test" can be understood in a broader—and much more positive—sense. A learning cycle always includes assessment tasks (well, tests)—and it seems a reasonable goal for an instructor to help the students take those tests successfully. In a way, one is always "teaching to the test."

  9. Harnessing autophagy for cell fate control gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Felizardo, Tania C; Foley, Jason; Steed, Kevin; Dropulic, Boro; Amarnath, Shoba; Medin, Jeffrey A; Fowler, Daniel H

    2013-07-01

    We hypothesized that rapamycin, through induction of autophagy and promotion of an antiapoptotic phenotype, would permit lentiviral (LV)-based transgene delivery to human T-Rapa cells, which are being tested in phase II clinical trials in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Manufactured T-Rapa cells were exposed to supernatant enriched for a LV vector encoding a fusion protein consisting of truncated CD19 (for cell surface marking) and DTYMK/TMPKΔ, which provides "cell-fate control" due to its ability to phosphorylate (activate) AZT prodrug. LV-transduction in rapamycin-treated T-Rapa cells: (1) resulted in mitochondrial autophagy and a resultant antiapoptotic phenotype, which was reversed by the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA; (2) yielded changes in MAP1LC3B and SQSTM1 expression, which were reversed by 3-MA; and (3) increased T-Rapa cell expression of the CD19-DTYMKΔ fusion protein, despite their reduced proliferative status. Importantly, although the transgene-expressing T-Rapa cells expressed an antiapoptotic phenotype, they were highly susceptible to cell death via AZT exposure both in vitro and in vivo (in a human-into-mouse xenogeneic transplantation model). Therefore, rapamycin induction of T cell autophagy can be used for gene therapy applications, including the CD19-DTYMKΔ cell-fate control axis to improve the safety of T cell immuno-gene therapy. PMID:23633667

  10. A model-based simulator for testing rule-based decision support systems for mechanical ventilation of ARDS patients.

    PubMed Central

    Sailors, R. M.; East, T. D.

    1994-01-01

    A model-based simulator was developed for testing rule-based decision support systems that manages ventilator therapy of patients with the Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). The simulator is based on a multi-compartment model of the human body and mathematical models of the gas exchange abnormalities associated with ARDS. Initial testing of this system indicates that model-based simulators are a viable tool for testing rule-based expert systems used in health-care. PMID:7949849

  11. Coverage Metrics for Requirements-Based Testing: Evaluation of Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staats, Matt; Whalen, Michael W.; Heindahl, Mats P. E.; Rajan, Ajitha

    2010-01-01

    In black-box testing, the tester creates a set of tests to exercise a system under test without regard to the internal structure of the system. Generally, no objective metric is used to measure the adequacy of black-box tests. In recent work, we have proposed three requirements coverage metrics, allowing testers to objectively measure the adequacy of a black-box test suite with respect to a set of requirements formalized as Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) properties. In this report, we evaluate the effectiveness of these coverage metrics with respect to fault finding. Specifically, we conduct an empirical study to investigate two questions: (1) do test suites satisfying a requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than randomly generated test suites of approximately the same size?, and (2) do test suites satisfying a more rigorous requirements coverage metric provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying a less rigorous requirements coverage metric? Our results indicate (1) only one coverage metric proposed -- Unique First Cause (UFC) coverage -- is sufficiently rigorous to ensure test suites satisfying the metric outperform randomly generated test suites of similar size and (2) that test suites satisfying more rigorous coverage metrics provide better fault finding than test suites satisfying less rigorous coverage metrics.

  12. A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection in a chemical factory.

    PubMed

    Pu, J P; Pu, P M; Hu, C H; Qian, J L; Pu, J X; Hua, J K

    2001-04-01

    A new technology for harnessing the dye polluted water and dye collection was developed. It is based on the enhanced evaporation by using solar, wind and air temperature energy and additional heat-electric energy. It consists of four parts: (1) evaporation carrier system (evaporation carrier and frame for evaporation carrier) for polluted water; (2) polluted water circulating system (pumping-spraying-collecting); (3) heating system; (4) workshop with polluted water reservoir-tanks and rainfall prevention roof. The polluted water was (heated in case necessary) sprayed to the evaporation carrier system and the water was evaporated when it moved in the space and downward along the carrier mainly by using natural (solar, wind and air temperature energy). In case, when there is no roof for the carrier system, the polluted water can be stored in the reservoirs (storage volume for about 20 days). The first 10-25 mm rainfall also need to be stored in the reservoirs to meet the state standard for discharging wastewater. The dye may be collected at the surface in the reservoir-tanks and the crystallized salt may be collected at the bottom plate. The black-color wastewater released by the factory is no more discharged to the surface water system of Taihu Lake Basin. About 2 kg dye and 200 kg industrial salt may be collected from each tone of the polluted water. The non-pollution production of dye may be realized by using this technology with environmental, economical and social benefits. PMID:11590742

  13. Harnessing Geothermal Energy from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, M. O.; Randolph, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Recent geotechnical research shows that geothermal heat can be efficiently mined by circulating CO2 through naturally permeable, porous rock formations. This method, called CO2 Plume Geothermal (CPG), targets the same geologic reservoirs that are suitable for deep saline aquifer CO2 sequestration or enhanced oil recovery (EOR). While previous investigations have focused on CO2-based heat mining from saline aquifers, here we present new research that is primarily concerned with EOR reservoirs, specifically those using a CO2 flood. EOR operations provide excellent opportunities for economically-favorable geothermal energy recovery, assuming subsurface temperatures are sufficient, because the majority of costly infrastructure (i.e., wells) is in place. Moreover, the subsurface characteristics that make a site suitable for hydrocarbon recovery -- at least moderate reservoir permeability and porosity, and a low-permeability capping feature -- help ensure that fluid can be circulated for heat extraction and that CO2 will be contained. However, heat extraction from the CO2 + water/brine + hydrocarbon EOR production stream is challenging, requiring fluid separation and multiple binary and/or direct power systems (depending on site-specific fluid composition and conditions). We discuss several scenarios, encompassing multiple power system configurations, for harnessing geothermal energy from CO2 EOR operations. In addition, we present preliminary numerical modeling results for net power production from such EOR operations -- accounting for wide variation in produced fluid temperature, pressure, and composition -- and consider the economic implications of power sales for EOR sites.

  14. A Bottom-Up Engineered Broadband Optical Nanoabsorber for Radiometry and Energy Harnessing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Anupama B.; Coles, James B.; Megerian, Krikor G.; Eastwood, Michael; Green, Robert O.; Bandaru, Prabhakar R.

    2013-01-01

    Optical absorbers based on vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), synthesized using electric-field assisted growth, are described here that show an ultra-low reflectance, 100X lower compared to Au-black from wavelength lamba approximately 350 nm - 2.5 micron. A bi-metallic Co/Ti layer was shown to catalyze a high site density of MWCNTs on metallic substrates and the optical properties of the absorbers were engineered by controlling the bottom-up synthesis conditions using dc plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Reflectance measurements on the MWCNT absorbers after heating them in air to 400deg showed negligible changes in reflectance which was still low, approximately 0.022 % at lamba approximately 2 micron. In contrast, the percolated structure of the reference Au-black samples collapsed completely after heating, causing the optical response to degrade at temperatures as low as 200deg. The high optical absorption efficiency of the MWCNT absorbers, synthesized on metallic substrates, over a broad spectral range, coupled with their thermal ruggedness, suggests they have promise in solar energy harnessing applications, as well as thermal detectors for radiometry.

  15. Towards safer, better healthcare: harnessing the natural properties of complex sociotechnical systems

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, J; Runciman, W B; Merry, A F

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To sustain an argument that harnessing the natural properties of sociotechnical systems is necessary to promote safer, better healthcare. Methods: Triangulated analyses of discrete literature sources, particularly drawing on those from mathematics, sociology, marketing science and psychology. Results: Progress involves the use of natural networks and exploiting features such as their scale-free and small world nature, as well as characteristics of group dynamics like natural appeal (stickiness) and propagation (tipping points). The agenda for change should be set by prioritising problems in natural categories, addressed by groups who self select on the basis of their natural interest in the areas in question, and who set clinical standards and develop tools, the use of which should be monitored by peers. This approach will facilitate the evidence-based practice that most agree is now overdue, but which has not yet been realised by the application of conventional methods. Conclusion: A key to health system transformation may lie under-recognised under our noses, and involves exploiting the naturally-occurring characteristics of complex systems. Current strategies to address healthcare problems are insufficient. Clinicians work best when their expertise is mobilised, and they flourish in groupings of their own interests and preference. Being invited, empowered and nurtured rather than directed, micro-managed and controlled through a hierarchy is preferable. PMID:19204130

  16. Ground-based testing of space nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, T.G.

    1990-10-22

    Small nuclear power plants for space applications are evaluated according to their testability in this two part report. The first part introduces the issues involved in testing these power plants. Some of the concerns include oxygen embrittlement of critical components, the test environment, the effects of a vacuum environment on materials, the practically of racing an activated test chamber, and possible testing alternative the SEHPTR, king develop at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. 10 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Rapid Bead-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Optical Diffusometry

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Chih-Yao; Wang, Jhih-Cheng; Chuang, Han-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study combined optical diffusometry and bead-based immunoassays to develop a novel technique for quantifying the growth of specific microorganisms and achieving rapid AST. Diffusivity rises when live bacteria attach to particles, resulting in additional energy from motile microorganisms. However, when UV-sterilized (dead) bacteria attach to particles, diffusivity declines. The experimental data are consistent with the theoretical model predicted according to the equivalent volume diameter. Using this diffusometric platform, the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the antibiotic gentamicin was tested. The result suggests that the proliferation of bacteria is effectively controlled by gentamicin. This study demonstrated a sensitive (one bacterium on single particles) and time-saving (within 2 h) platform with a small sample volume (~0.5 μL) and a low initial bacteria count (50 CFU per droplet ~ 105 CFU/mL) for quantifying the growth of microorganisms depending on Brownian motion. The technique can be applied further to other bacterial strains and increase the success of treatments against infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:26863001

  18. Rapid Bead-Based Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing by Optical Diffusometry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chih-Yao; Wang, Jhih-Cheng; Chuang, Han-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    This study combined optical diffusometry and bead-based immunoassays to develop a novel technique for quantifying the growth of specific microorganisms and achieving rapid AST. Diffusivity rises when live bacteria attach to particles, resulting in additional energy from motile microorganisms. However, when UV-sterilized (dead) bacteria attach to particles, diffusivity declines. The experimental data are consistent with the theoretical model predicted according to the equivalent volume diameter. Using this diffusometric platform, the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the antibiotic gentamicin was tested. The result suggests that the proliferation of bacteria is effectively controlled by gentamicin. This study demonstrated a sensitive (one bacterium on single particles) and time-saving (within 2 h) platform with a small sample volume (~0.5 μL) and a low initial bacteria count (50 CFU per droplet ~ 105 CFU/mL) for quantifying the growth of microorganisms depending on Brownian motion. The technique can be applied further to other bacterial strains and increase the success of treatments against infectious diseases in the near future. PMID:26863001

  19. The androgen receptor and its use in biological assays: looking toward effect-based testing and its applications.

    PubMed

    Cadwallader, Amy B; Lim, Carol S; Rollins, Douglas E; Botrè, Francesco

    2011-11-01

    Steroid abuse is a growing problem among amateur and professional athletes. Because of an inundation of newly and illegally synthesized steroids with minor structural modifications and other designer steroid receptor modulators, there is a need to develop new methods of detection which do not require prior knowledge of the abused steroid structure. The number of designer steroids currently being abused is unknown because detection methods in general are only identifying substances with a known structure. The detection of doping is moving away from merely checking for exposure to prohibited substance toward detecting an effect of prohibited substances, as biological assays can do. Cell-based biological assays are the next generation of assays which should be utilized by antidoping laboratories; they can detect androgenic anabolic steroid and other human androgen receptor (hAR) ligand presence without knowledge of their structure and assess the relative biological activity of these compounds. This review summarizes the hAR and its action and discusses its relevance to sports doping and its use in biological assays. PMID:22080898

  20. The Androgen Receptor and Its Use in Biological Assays: Looking Toward Effect-Based Testing and Its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cadwallader, Amy B.; Lim, Carol S.; Rollins, Douglas E.; Botrè, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Steroid abuse is a growing problem among amateur and professional athletes. Because of an inundation of newly and illegally synthesized steroids with minor structural modifications and other designer steroid receptor modulators, there is a need to develop new methods of detection which do not require prior knowledge of the abused steroid structure. The number of designer steroids currently being abused is unknown because detection methods in general are only identifying substances with a known structure. The detection of doping is moving away from merely checking for exposure to prohibited substance toward detecting an effect of prohibited substances, as biological assays can do. Cell-based biological assays are the next generation of assays which should be utilized by antidoping laboratories; they can detect androgenic anabolic steroid and other human androgen receptor (hAR) ligand presence without knowledge of their structure and assess the relative biological activity of these compounds. This review summarizes the hAR and its action and discusses its relevance to sports doping and its use in biological assays. PMID:22080898

  1. New developments in particle-based tests and immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Bangs, L B

    1990-09-01

    Latex agglutination tests were invented in 1957. Thirty years later, new tests are still being devised and applied to new analytes. Reproducibility and readability continue to improve. Qualitative tests have now evolved to quantitative particle immunoassays: agglutination is detected by spectrophotometers or nephelometers, in tubes or 96-well plates. These same particles are now also being used in particle capture ELIST and ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent tests and assays) where particles are caught upon a filter and act as supports for sandwich tests (those "+/-" or "blue-dot" tests). These also can be quantified, as in the Abbott IM x assay system. Dyed microspheres now function as the color tags in over-the-counter sandwich-type pregnancy tests. In the future, results from assays using this technology could be read on reflectometers (strip readers). Currently, magnetic particles are used in solid phase radioimmunoassays and DNA probes. PMID:10148953

  2. Automated cognitive testing of monkeys in social groups yields results comparable to individual laboratory based testing

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Regina Paxton; Brown, Emily Kathryn; Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive abilities likely evolved in response to specific environmental and social challenges and are therefore expected to be specialized for the life history of each species. Specialized cognitive abilities may be most readily engaged under conditions that approximate the natural environment of the species being studied. While naturalistic environments might therefore have advantages over laboratory settings for cognitive research, it is difficult to conduct certain types of cognitive tests in these settings. We implemented methods for automated cognitive testing of monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in large social groups (Field station) and compared the performance to that of laboratory housed monkeys (Laboratory). The Field station animals shared access to four touch screen computers in a large naturalistic social group. Each Field station subject had an RFID chip implanted in each arm for computerized identification and individualized assignment of cognitive tests. The Laboratory group was housed and tested in a typical laboratory setting, with individual access to testing computers in their home cages. Monkeys in both groups voluntarily participated at their own pace for food rewards. We evaluated performance in two visual psychophysics tests, a perceptual classification test, a transitive inference test, and a delayed matching to sample memory test. Despite differences in housing, social environment, age, and sex, monkeys in the two groups performed similarly in all tests. Semi-free ranging monkeys living in complex social environments are therefore viable subjects for cognitive testing designed to take advantage of the unique affordances of naturalistic testing environments. PMID:23263675

  3. Conventional Tests and Testing for Early Intervention Eligibility: Is There an Evidence Base?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macy, Marisa; Bagnato, Stephen J.; Macy, Robert S.; Salaway, Jen

    2015-01-01

    Conventional tests and testing procedures are used predominately to determine eligibility for early intervention and early childhood special education programs and services. Such traditional tests must have critical attributes to ensure accurate and representative measurements of the capabilities of infants, toddlers, and preschool children who…

  4. Humans robustly adhere to dynamic walking principles by harnessing motor abundance to control forces

    PubMed Central

    Toney, Megan E.

    2013-01-01

    Human walking dynamics are typically framed in the context of mechanics and energetics rather than in the context of neuromuscular control. Dynamic walking principles describe one helpful theoretical approach to characterize efficient human walking mechanics over many steps. These principles do not, however, address how such walking is controlled step-by-step despite small perturbations from natural variability. Our purpose was to identify neuromechanical control strategies used to achieve consistent and robust locomotion despite natural step-to-step force variability. We used the uncontrolled manifold concept to test whether human walkers select combinations of leading and trailing leg-forces that generate equivalent net-force trajectories during step-to-step transitions. Subjects selected leading and trailing leg-force combinations that generated consistent vertical net-force during step-to-step transitions. We conclude that vertical net-force is an implicit neuromechanical goal of human walking whose trajectory is stabilized for consistent step-to-step transitions, which agrees with the principles of dynamic walking. In contrast, inter-leg-force combinations modulated anterior–posterior net-force trajectories with each step to maintain constant walking speed, indicating that a consistent anterior–posterior net-force trajectory is not an implicit goal of walking. For a more complete picture of hierarchical locomotor control, we also tested whether each individual leg-force trajectory was stabilized through the selection of leg-force equivalent joint-torque combinations. The observed consistent vertical net-force trajectory was achieved primarily through the selection of joint-torque combinations that modulated trailing leg-force during step-to-step transitions. We conclude that humans achieve robust walking by harnessing inherent motor abundance of the joints and legs to maintain consistent step-by-step walking performance. PMID:24081680

  5. Evaluating the Comparability of Paper- and Computer-Based Science Tests across Sex and SES Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Jennifer; Sireci, Stephen; Li, Xueming; Kaira, Leah

    2012-01-01

    As access and reliance on technology continue to increase, so does the use of computerized testing for admissions, licensure/certification, and accountability exams. Nonetheless, full computer-based test (CBT) implementation can be difficult due to limited resources. As a result, some testing programs offer both CBT and paper-based test (PBT)…

  6. Windows-based SCADA stress-tested in Ottawa

    SciTech Connect

    MacMillan, S.; Roe, G.V.

    1995-02-01

    The weather in Ottawa, the seat of Canada`s federal government, poses many challenges to the owners and operators of commercial buildings in this beautiful and historic region. By far the largest of these landlords is the Canadian federal government with an excess of 600 buildings in the National Capital Region (NCR). Given the extremes of the climate, and the proximity of many of the federal buildings to each other, Canada decided many years ago to develop a system of central heating and cooling plants (CHCPs) distributed throughout the NCR. Today these plants provide steam and chilled water to approximately 125 of the more prominent buildings within the federal government`s portfolio. This infrastructure enables Utilities Management Services/Public Works and Government Services/Public Works and Government Services Canada (UMS/PWGSC) to operate much like a district heating and cooling association, resulting in significant economies of scale to the building tenants and ultimately Canadian taxpayers. UMS realized in the mid-1980s that the pneumatic control technology used in the CHCPs was nearing the end of its life expectancy, so they began to investigate distributed control system (DCS) technology. Based in part on an attractive projected rate of return on investment, UMS decided to upgrade one of the CHCPs as a test case. A DCS was installed at the Tunney`s Pasture CHCP in the late-1980s, and from the beginning it delivered significant improvements in operating efficiency. The DCS did not meet management`s expectations in one area: the information system`s ability to provide timely access to accurate production and consumption information. The authors take a brief look at the problems encountered with the custom data acquisition and reporting system installed at Tunney`s Pasture. They share their experience and insights from the key decision points in the replacement of this custom environment with an innovative, supervisory control and data acquisition package.

  7. Primary School Students' Attitudes towards Computer Based Testing and Assessment in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdabakan, Irfan; Uzunkavak, Cicek

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the attitudes of primary school students towards computer based testing and assessment in terms of different variables. The sample for this research is primary school students attending a computer based testing and assessment application via CITO-OIS. The "Scale on Attitudes towards Computer Based Testing and Assessment" to…

  8. Using Computer-Based Testing as Alternative Assessment Method of Student Learning in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapriati, Amalia; Zuhairi, Aminudin

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the use of computer-based testing in distance education, based on the experience of Universitas Terbuka (UT), Indonesia. Computer-based testing has been developed at UT for reasons of meeting the specific needs of distance students as the following: (1) students' inability to sit for the scheduled test; (2) conflicting…

  9. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 173 - Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedure for Base-level Vibration Testing C... Base-level Vibration Testing Base-level vibration testing shall be conducted as follows: 1. Three... platform. 4. Immediately following the period of vibration, each package shall be removed from the...

  13. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  14. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  15. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  16. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  17. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  18. Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bejar, Isaac I.; Graf, E. Aurora

    2010-01-01

    The duplex design by Bock and Mislevy for school-based testing is revisited and evaluated as a potential platform in test-based accountability assessments today. We conclude that the model could be useful in meeting the many competing demands of today's test-based accountability assessments, although many research questions will need to be…

  19. Environmental toxicity testing of contaminated soil based on microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gruiz, K; Feigl, V; Hajdu, Cs; Tolner, M

    2010-10-01

    Contaminated site assessment and monitoring requires efficient risk-management tools including innovative environmental toxicity tests. The first application of microcalorimetry for toxicity testing draw the attention to a possible new tool to increase sensitivity, to eliminate matrix effect and to study effect-mechanism. A Thermal Activity Monitor (TAM) microcalorimeter was used for measuring the heat production of various test organisms when getting in contact with sterile toxic soils. Well known bacterial (Azomonas agilis), animal (Folsomia candida) and plant test organisms (Sinapis alba) were tested for heat production. The heat response of selected testorganisms was measured in case of metal (Cu and Zn) and organic pollutant (Diesel oil, DBNPA and PCP) contaminated soils. In addition to the quantitative determination of the heat production, the mechanism of the toxic effect can be characterized from the shape of the power-time curve (slope of the curve, height and time of the maximum). In certain concentration ranges the higher the pollutant concentration of the soil the lower the maximum of the time-heat curve. At low pollutant concentrations an increased heat production was measured in case of A. agile and 20 and 200 mg Zn kg(-1) soil. The microcalorimetric testing was more sensitive in all cases than the traditional test methods. Our results showed that the microcalorimetric test method offers a new and sensitive option in environmental toxicology, both for research and routine testing. PMID:20549622

  20. Some Useful Cost-Benefit Criteria for Evaluating Computer-Based Test Delivery Models and Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luecht, Richard M.

    2005-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) is typically implemented using one of three general test delivery models: (1) multiple fixed testing (MFT); (2) computer-adaptive testing (CAT); or (3) multistage testing (MSTs). This article reviews some of the real cost drivers associated with CBT implementation--focusing on item production costs, the costs…

  1. Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

  2. Training Senior Teachers in Compulsory Computer Based Language Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia; Royo, Teresa Magal

    2009-01-01

    The IBT TOEFL has become the principal example of online high stakes language testing since 2005. Most instructors who do the preparation for IBT TOEFL face two main realities: first, students are eager and highly motivated to take the test because of the prospective implications; and, second, specific studies would be necessary to see if…

  3. Confidence Testing for Knowledge-Based Global Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Brady Michael; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Shymansky, James A.

    2009-01-01

    This proposal advocates the position that the use of confidence wagering (CW) during testing can predict the accuracy of a student's test answer selection during between-subject assessments. Data revealed female students were more favorable to taking risks when making CW and less inclined toward risk aversion than their male counterparts. Student…

  4. Item Writing for Domain-Based Tests of Prose Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roid, Gale; And Others

    Differences among test item writers and among different rules for writing multiple choice items were investigated. Items testing comprehension of a prose passage were varied according to five factors: (1) information density of the passage; (2) item writer; (3) deletion of nouns, as opposed to adjectives, from the sentence in order to construct…

  5. A Nugget-Based Test Collection Construction Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajput, Shahzad K.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of building test collections is central to the development of information retrieval systems such as search engines. The primary use of test collections is the evaluation of IR systems. The widely employed "Cranfield paradigm" dictates that the information relevant to a topic be encoded at the level of documents, therefore…

  6. TerraFERMA: Harnessing Advanced Computational Libraries in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Spiegelman, M.; van Keken, P.

    2012-12-01

    Many important problems in Earth sciences can be described by non-linear coupled systems of partial differential equations. These "multi-physics" problems include thermo-chemical convection in Earth and planetary interiors, interactions of fluids and magmas with the Earth's mantle and crust and coupled flow of water and ice. These problems are of interest to a large community of researchers but are complicated to model and understand. Much of this complexity stems from the nature of multi-physics where small changes in the coupling between variables or constitutive relations can lead to radical changes in behavior, which in turn affect critical computational choices such as discretizations, solvers and preconditioners. To make progress in understanding such coupled systems requires a computational framework where multi-physics problems can be described at a high-level while maintaining the flexibility to easily modify the solution algorithm. Fortunately, recent advances in computational science provide a basis for implementing such a framework. Here we present the Transparent Finite Element Rapid Model Assembler (TerraFERMA), which leverages several advanced open-source libraries for core functionality. FEniCS (fenicsproject.org) provides a high level language for describing the weak forms of coupled systems of equations, and an automatic code generator that produces finite element assembly code. PETSc (www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc) provides a wide range of scalable linear and non-linear solvers that can be composed into effective multi-physics preconditioners. SPuD (amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/Spud) is an application neutral options system that provides both human and machine-readable interfaces based on a single xml schema. Our software integrates these libraries and provides the user with a framework for exploring multi-physics problems. A single options file fully describes the problem, including all equations, coefficients and solver options. Custom compiled applications are

  7. Subject Load-Harness Interaction During Zero-Gravity Treadmill Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCrory, Jean L.; Baron, Heidi A.; Derr, Janice A.; Davis, Brian L.; Cavanagh, Peter R.

    1996-01-01

    When astronauts exercise on orbit, a subject load device (SLD) must be used to return the subject back to the supporting surface. The load in the SLD needs to be transferred the body by a harness which typically distributes this load between the pelvis and We shoulders. Through the use of a zero-gravity simulator, this research compared subject comfort and ground reaction forces during treadmill running at three levels of subject load (60%,80%, and 100% of body weight) in two harness designs ("shoulder only" and "waist "and shoulder ").

  8. Research Problems Associated with Limiting the Applied Force in Vibration Tests and Conducting Base-Drive Modal Vibration Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1995-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to make a case for developing and conducting vibration tests which are both realistic and practical (a question of tailoring versus standards). Tests are essential for finding things overlooked in the analyses. The best test is often the most realistic test which can be conducted within the cost and budget constraints. Some standards are essential, but the author believes more in the individual's ingenuity to solve a specific problem than in the application of standards which reduce problems (and technology) to their lowest common denominator. Force limited vibration tests and base-drive modal tests are two examples of realistic, but practical testing approaches. Since both of these approaches are relatively new, a number of interesting research problems exist, and these are emphasized herein.

  9. Colorimetric evaluation of iPhone apps for colour vision tests based on the Ishihara test.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; AlMerdef, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Given the versatility of smart phone displays, it was inevitable that applications (apps) providing colour vision testing would appear as an option. In this study, the colorimetric characteristics of five available iPhone apps for colour vision testing are assessed as a prequel to possible clinical evaluation. The colours of the displays produced by the apps are assessed with reference to the colours of a printed Ishihara test. The visual task is assessed on the basis of the colour differences and the alignment to the dichromatic confusion lines. The apps vary in quality and while some are colorimetrically acceptable, there are also some problems with their construction in making them a clinically useful app rather than curiosity driven self-testing. There is no reason why, in principle, a suitable test cannot be designed for smart phones. PMID:27146711

  10. The HARNESS Workbench: Unified and Adaptive Access to Diverse HPC Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Sunderam, Vaidy S.

    2012-03-20

    The primary goal of the Harness WorkBench (HWB) project is to investigate innovative software environments that will help enhance the overall productivity of applications science on diverse HPC platforms. Two complementary frameworks were designed: one, a virtualized command toolkit for application building, deployment, and execution, that provides a common view across diverse HPC systems, in particular the DOE leadership computing platforms (Cray, IBM, SGI, and clusters); and two, a unified runtime environment that consolidates access to runtime services via an adaptive framework for execution-time and post processing activities. A prototype of the first was developed based on the concept of a 'system-call virtual machine' (SCVM), to enhance portability of the HPC application deployment process across heterogeneous high-end machines. The SCVM approach to portable builds is based on the insertion of toolkit-interpretable directives into original application build scripts. Modifications resulting from these directives preserve the semantics of the original build instruction flow. The execution of the build script is controlled by our toolkit that intercepts build script commands in a manner transparent to the end-user. We have applied this approach to a scientific production code (Gamess-US) on the Cray-XT5 machine. The second facet, termed Unibus, aims to facilitate provisioning and aggregation of multifaceted resources from resource providers and end-users perspectives. To achieve that, Unibus proposes a Capability Model and mediators (resource drivers) to virtualize access to diverse resources, and soft and successive conditioning to enable automatic and user-transparent resource provisioning. A proof of concept implementation has demonstrated the viability of this approach on high end machines, grid systems and computing clouds.

  11. Harnessing peer networks as an instrument for AIDS prevention: results from a peer-driven intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Broadhead, R S; Heckathorn, D D; Weakliem, D L; Anthony, D L; Madray, H; Mills, R J; Hughes, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 1985, community outreach efforts to combat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the United States have overwhelmingly depended on a provider-client model that relies on staffs of professional outreach workers. We report on a comparison of this traditional outreach model with an innovative social network model, termed "a peer-driven intervention" (PDI). The latter provides IDUs with guidance and structured incentives that permit them to play a much more active role in the outreach process, thereby harnessing peer pressure on behalf of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts. METHODS: We compare the performance of a traditional outreach intervention (TOI) and a PDI that were implemented in medium-sized towns in eastern and central Connecticut. Comparisons are based on the number and representativeness of IDUs recruited at each site, the effectiveness of HIV prevention education, compliance rates with AIDS risk reduction recommendations, and relative cost. The analyses are based on 522 initial interviews and 190 six-month follow-up interviews conducted during the first two years of each intervention's operation. RESULTS: Both interventions produced significant reductions in HIV risk behaviors, as measured using self-reports. The PDI outperformed the traditional intervention with respect to the number of IDUs recruited, the ethnic and geographic representativeness of the recruits, and the effectiveness of HIV prevention education. In addition, the costs of recruiting IDUs into the intervention and educating them about HIV in the community was only one-thirtieth as much in the PDI as in the traditional intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that given guidance and nominal incentives, IDUs can play a more extensive role in community outreach efforts than the traditional model allows. The findings also suggest that both interventions reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors, but the PDI reaches

  12. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  13. Experimentally testing Bell's theorem based on Hardy's nonlocal ladder proofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, WeiJie; Fan, DaiHe; Wei, LianFu

    2015-02-01

    Bell's theorem argues the existence of quantum nonlocality which goes basically against the hidden variable theory (HVT). Many experiments have been done via testing the violations of Bell's inequalities to statistically verify the Bell's theorem. Alternatively, by testing the Hardy's ladder proofs we experimentally demonstrate the deterministic violation of HVT and thus confirm the quantum nonlocality. Our tests are implemented with non-maximal entangled photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric down conversions (SPDCs). We show that the degree freedom of photon entanglement could be significantly enhanced by using interference filters. As a consequence, the Hardy's ladder proofs could be tested and Bell's theorem is verified robustly. The probability of violating the locality reach to 41.9%, which is close to the expectably ideal value 46.4% for the photon pairs with degree of entanglement ɛ = 0.93. The higher violating probability is possible by further optimizing the experimental parameters.

  14. Small Study Supports New Stool-Based Colon Cancer Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... never be used as a substitute for the "gold standard" colon cancer test, colonoscopy. Cologuard is a ... a welcome addition to screening, colonoscopy "remains the gold standard in the prevention of colorectal cancer." Dr. ...

  15. Multifunction tests of a frequency domain based flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the process of analysis, design, digital implementation and subsonic testing of an active controls flutter suppression system for a full span, free-to-roll wind-tunnel model of an advanced fighter concept. The design technique employed a frequency domain representation of the plant and used optimization techniques to generate a robust multi-input/multi-output controller. During testing in a fixed-in-roll configuration, simultaneous suppression of both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter was successfully demonstrated. For a free-to-roll configuration, symmetric flutter was suppressed to the limit of the tunnel test envelope. During aggressive rolling maneuvers above the open-loop flutter boundary, simultaneous flutter suppression and maneuver load control were demonstrated. Finally, the flutter suppression controller was reoptimized overnight during the test using combined experimental and analytical frequency domain data, resulting in improved stability robustness.

  16. Multifunction tests of a frequency domain based flutter suppression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christhilf, David M.; Adams, William M., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The process is described of analysis, design, digital implementation, and subsonic testing of an active control flutter suppression system for a full span, free-to-roll wind tunnel model of an advanced fighter concept. The design technique uses a frequency domain representation of the plant and used optimization techniques to generate a robust multi input/multi output controller. During testing in a fixed-in-roll configuration, simultaneous suppression of both symmetric and antisymmetric flutter was successfully shown. For a free-to-roll configuration, symmetric flutter was suppressed to the limit of the tunnel test envelope. During aggressive rolling maneuvers above the open-loop flutter boundary, simultaneous flutter suppression and maneuver load control were demonstrated. Finally, the flutter damping controller was reoptimized overnight during the test using combined experimental and analytical frequency domain data, resulting in improved stability robustness.

  17. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  18. Fuzzy measurement based image testing for oil particles contamination level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xianming; Li, Chuan; Chen, Bin

    2010-11-01

    The oil contamination level testing is important for its using and maintenance which is the basement of the oil contamination control is required higher by the developing device system, and the testing method is urgently needed to be studied for improving the process method and the maintenance quality of the contaminated oil. To classify the level of particles contamination in lubricant, CCD imaging technology is used to capture microscopic digital image of the oil particles sample . The digital image was processed and segmented in order that the computer can recognize and understand the particle targets by using image testing algorithm to measure the sizes, amounts and distributions of particles. The oil contamination level can be measured effectively by the economical and convenient method in which there is little air bubble and bead leading to false particle targets. To improve the influence produced by the false particle targets, One method is that a series of dynamical image samples from the contaminated oil in the multi-period and the multi-state are captured and used to test the particle targets, and the further method is to employ the fuzzy measurement using Gaussian subjection function, which describes the distribution of the standard evidences and the distribution of the testing data, and the testing probabilities of the evidence are weighed by the matching degree of the two distributions, which is used to classify the oil particles contamination level .The test shows that the oil particles contamination level diagnosis reliability is improved and the diagnosis uncertainty is reduced. This method combining with other testing methods by using the multi-information fusion method will be further studied later.

  19. Testing-Based Compiler Validation for Synchronous Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garoche, Pierre-Loic; Howar, Falk; Kahsai, Temesghen; Thirioux, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel lightweight approach to validate compilers for synchronous languages. Instead of verifying a compiler for all input programs or providing a fixed suite of regression tests, we extend the compiler to generate a test-suite with high behavioral coverage and geared towards discovery of faults for every compiled artifact. We have implemented and evaluated our approach using a compiler from Lustre to C.

  20. Fluorescence-based test of fiber-optic continuity.

    PubMed

    Norwood, D P; Vinches, C; Anderson, J F; Reed, W F

    1997-04-20

    There is considerable interest in the use of lasers and optical fibers for the initiation of pyrotechnics. In this application the need develops for a means of testing the continuity of the initiation fiber before initiation of the pyrotechnic. We present proof of the feasibility of an unambiguous continuity test using the fluorescence returned by the fiber from a fluorescent material in or near the pyrotechnic. PMID:18253241

  1. Knowledge-based battery design of short-term tests based on dose information.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, R; Würgler, F E

    1990-10-01

    A construction of batteries of short-term tests (STTs) is described which is based on a classification of 73 chemicals in regard to their carcinogenicity. The 73 chemicals were studied within the U.S. National Toxicology Program (Ashby and Tennant, 1988). The batteries are validated using the classification of 35 additional chemicals. They are defined by logically structured combinations of rules. The single rules are defined by the z-scores of the logarithmic values of the limiting doses obtained from the 4 in vitro STTs used in the study by Ashby and Tennant. The limiting dose is defined as the lowest effective dose or the highest ineffective dose (Waters et al., 1987). The batteries are constructed by minimizing the number of disagreements with the classification by Ashby and Tennant. Compared with the results obtained from single STTs, 2 batteries of 3 STTs have higher concordances with the carcinogenicity data, namely 70% for the NTP data and 74-77% for the independent test data. In addition, a theoretical result shows that the proposed battery design, for a large enough learning set of chemicals, leads to results which are replicated with high probability on a large enough validation set. Based on the first results obtained with a limited number of chemicals it is concluded that the knowledge-based battery design is worth further development. PMID:2215543

  2. A goodness-of-fit test of student distributions based on Rényi entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequesne, Justine

    2015-01-01

    The non-standard Student distributions maximize Rényi entropy among all distributions having a fixed variance. Based on this maximum entropy property, we construct a goodness-of-fit test for testing composite null hypotheses of the non-standard Student distributions. The proposed test thus generalizes the goodness-of-fit tests based on Shannon entropy introduced by O. Vasicek in 1976 for testing normality.

  3. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnage, J. J.; Kennedy, R. S.; Smith, M. G.; Baltzley, D. R.; Lane, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety.

  4. Development of microcomputer-based mental acuity tests.

    PubMed

    Turnage, J J; Kennedy, R S; Smith, M G; Baltzley, D R; Lane, N E

    1992-10-01

    Recent disasters have focused attention on performance problems due to the use of alcohol and controlled substances in the workplace. Environmental stressors such as thermal extremes, mixed gases, noise, motion, and vibration also have adverse effects on human performance and operator efficiency. However, the lack of a standardized, sensitive, human performance assessment battery has probably delayed the systematic study of the deleterious effects of various toxic chemicals and drugs at home and in the workplace. The collective goal of the research reported here is the development of a menu of tests embedded in a coherent package of hardware and software that may be useful in repeated-measures studies of a broad range of agents that can degrade human performance. A menu of 40 tests from the Automated Performance Test System (APTS) is described, and the series of interlocking studies supporting its development is reviewed. The APTS tests, which run on several versions of laptop portables and desktop personal computers, have been shown to be stable, reliable, and factorially rich, and to have predictive validities with holistic measures of intelligence and simulator performances. In addition, sensitivity studies have been conducted in which performance changes due to stressors, agents, and treatments were demonstrated. We believe that tests like those described here have prospective use as an adjunct to urine testing for the screening for performance loss of individuals who are granted access to workplaces and stations that impact public safety. PMID:1516578

  5. Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the issue of testing in the social studies classroom. The first article, "The Role of Testing" (Bragaw), focuses on the need for tests to reflect the objectives of the study completed. The varying functions of pop quizzes, weekly tests, and unit tests are explored. "Testing Thinking Processes" (Killoran, Zimmer, and…

  6. An efficient frequency recognition method based on likelihood ratio test for SSVEP-based BCI.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yangsong; Dong, Li; Zhang, Rui; Yao, Dezhong; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Peng

    2014-01-01

    An efficient frequency recognition method is very important for SSVEP-based BCI systems to improve the information transfer rate (ITR). To address this aspect, for the first time, likelihood ratio test (LRT) was utilized to propose a novel multichannel frequency recognition method for SSVEP data. The essence of this new method is to calculate the association between multichannel EEG signals and the reference signals which were constructed according to the stimulus frequency with LRT. For the simulation and real SSVEP data, the proposed method yielded higher recognition accuracy with shorter time window length and was more robust against noise in comparison with the popular canonical correlation analysis- (CCA-) based method and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator- (LASSO-) based method. The recognition accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) obtained by the proposed method was higher than those of the CCA-based method and LASSO-based method. The superior results indicate that the LRT method is a promising candidate for reliable frequency recognition in future SSVEP-BCI. PMID:25250058

  7. Harnessing Solar Energy Using Photosynthetic and Organic Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Toby Ryan

    Fossil fuels are a finite energy resource that must be supplemented or replaced by more stable forms of electrical energy. Solar technology research strives to supplement and provide eventual replacement for fossil fuel technology. This experiment focused on the use of natural pigments as photo-sensitizers in the current generation of solar cells called dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pigments from purified chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b, crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) extract, phycocyanin, and chlorophyllin were used to construct DSSCs and evaluated, along with a control containing no pigment, for solar energy conversion. The anode of the solar cells consisted of titanium dioxide (TiO2) plates soaked in pigment solutions for twenty-four hours. The plates were assembled, along with an electrolyte sandwiched between cells, and a platinum-coated counter plate that functioned as the cathode. A gasket seal was placed between the plates and held together with rubber bands. The DSSCs were each tested for a maximum power (Pmax) point and a resistor was selected that corresponded to the resistance at that point. The cells were randomly placed into a power block assembly located in an environmental chamber with lighting that provided an average of 27,590 lumens at the surface of DSSCs. With appropriate resistors in place, the cells were subjected to twelve-hour days and twelve-hour nights for ten days, and measurements were recorded every ten minutes. Data were collected to obtain values for voltage in millivolts (mV), current in microamps (microA), and power in microwatts (microW), as well as beginning and ending efficiencies in converting light to usable energy. Voltages were substantially higher during the day than at night for all pigments, except for the control, indicating that the pigments functioned as DSSCs. Hence, only daytime values were used for data analysis. Voltage during the ten-day experiment ranged from 3.99 to 274 mV; current ranged

  8. Harnessing Multivariate Statistics for Ellipsoidal Data in Structural Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, N.; Davis, J. R.; Titus, S.; Tikoff, B.

    2015-12-01

    Most structural geology articles do not state significance levels, report confidence intervals, or perform regressions to find trends. This is, in part, because structural data tend to include directions, orientations, ellipsoids, and tensors, which are not treatable by elementary statistics. We describe a full procedural methodology for the statistical treatment of ellipsoidal data. We use a reconstructed dataset of deformed ooids in Maryland from Cloos (1947) to illustrate the process. Normalized ellipsoids have five degrees of freedom and can be represented by a second order tensor. This tensor can be permuted into a five dimensional vector that belongs to a vector space and can be treated with standard multivariate statistics. Cloos made several claims about the distribution of deformation in the South Mountain fold, Maryland, and we reexamine two particular claims using hypothesis testing: 1) octahedral shear strain increases towards the axial plane of the fold; 2) finite strain orientation varies systematically along the trend of the axial trace as it bends with the Appalachian orogen. We then test the null hypothesis that the southern segment of South Mountain is the same as the northern segment. This test illustrates the application of ellipsoidal statistics, which combine both orientation and shape. We report confidence intervals for each test, and graphically display our results with novel plots. This poster illustrates the importance of statistics in structural geology, especially when working with noisy or small datasets.

  9. Harnessing immune responses in the tumor microenvironment: all signals needed.

    PubMed

    Le, Dung T; Jaffee, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-15

    An agonist CD40 monoclonal antibody (CP-870,893), in combination with gemcitabine, is well tolerated in patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The combination results in induction of cytokines, B cell activation, and clinical responses. These findings support testing of immunotherapies in combination with other established and targeted therapies. PMID:24097857

  10. Ground Based Microgravity Emissions Testing Of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samorezov, Sergey; McNelis, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    To control microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA developed payloads have to meet the payload integration requirements of the Space Station Program, specifically a microgravity allocation plan. The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for verification of the payloads compliance with payload integration requirements. MEL is a 6 degree of freedom inertial measurement system capable of characterizing the microgravity emissions, generated by a disturber, down to a micro g. Microgravity Emissions tests provide a payload developer with a tool to assess payload's compliance with the requirements, i.e. forces and moments, generated by the payload at its center of gravity. Forces and moments are presented in time domain for both stationary and transient signals, and in frequency domain for the stationary signals. To date, MEL conducted over thirty tests of ISS hardware. The test results are being successfully used by the payload developers for design verification and improvement.

  11. Technology Base 2004 Report on the Ultrasonic Calibration Test Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Fisher, K A; Werve, M; Chambers, D H

    2004-09-29

    We designed and built a phantom consisting of vertical wires maintained under tension to be used as an ultrasonic test, calibration, and reconstruction object for the LLNL annular array scanner known as the KCI scanner. We provide a description of the phantom, present some example data sets, and preliminary reconstructions. The project goals are to design and build a reconfigurable ultrasonic phantom for the KCI scanner. Use it to collect well characterized data under controlled conditions for use as ''canonical data sets'' in testing and evaluating new inversion algorithms. The non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of objects and media of interest to LLNL/DOE/DOD is an essential part of LLNL's mission. Many NDE situations have put demands beyond the scope of the current suite of imaging algorithms. As new algorithms and codes come on line, they must be evaluated on well characterized phantoms. The Ultrasonic Calibration Test Phantom provides such a data set.

  12. Thermography Used to Test Conductivity of Carbon Based Cloth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Testing of the ability of carbon fiber to radiatively cool a heat source. The carbon fibers are attached to a heat source. The heat conducts into the fiber than along the fiber away from the heat source. The test are done in a vacuum chamber (10-5 Torr typical). The IR camera is viewing the fiber through a ZnSe window. A thermocouple (TC) in contact with the fiber is at the top right hand side of the area of interest and one is near the bottom. Thin shielding fins, seen edge on, are just above the top thermocouple.

  13. Enteroviruses harness the cellular endocytic machinery to remodel the host cell cholesterol landscape for effective viral replication

    PubMed Central

    Ilnytska, Olha; Santiana, Marianita; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Du, Wen-Li; Chen, Ying-Han; Viktorova, Ekaterina G.; Belov, Georgy; Brinker, Anita; Storch, Judith; Moore, Christopher; Dixon, Joseph L.; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a critical component of cellular membranes, regulating assembly and function of membrane-based protein/lipid complexes. Many RNA viruses, including enteroviruses, remodel host membranes to generate organelles with unique lipid blueprints on which they assemble replication complexes and synthesize viral RNA. Here we find that clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is harnessed by enteroviruses to traffic cholesterol from the plasma membrane (PM) and extracellular medium to replication organelles where cholesterol then regulates viral polyprotein processing and facilitates genome synthesis. When CME is disrupted, cellular cholesterol pools are instead stored in lipid droplets; cholesterol cannot be trafficked to replication organelles; and replication is inhibited. In contrast, replication is stimulated in cholesterol-elevated cells like those lacking caveolins or those from Niemann-Pick disease patients. Our findings indicate cholesterol as a critical determinant for enteroviral replication and outline roles for the endocytic machinery in both the enteroviral lifecycle and host cell cholesterol homeostasis. PMID:24034614

  14. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of a Home-Based HIV Counselling and Testing Intervention versus the Standard (Facility Based) HIV Testing Strategy in Rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tabana, Hanani; Nkonki, Lungiswa; Hongoro, Charles; Doherty, Tanya; Ekström, Anna Mia; Naik, Reshma; Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Jackson, Debra; Thorson, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is growing evidence concerning the acceptability and feasibility of home-based HIV testing. However, less is known about the cost-effectiveness of the approach yet it is a critical component to guide decisions about scaling up access to HIV testing. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of a home-based HIV testing intervention in rural South Africa. Methods Two alternatives: clinic and home-based HIV counselling and testing were compared. Costs were analysed from a provider’s perspective for the period of January to December 2010. The outcome, HIV counselling and testing (HCT) uptake was obtained from the Good Start home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) cluster randomised control trial undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal province. Cost-effectiveness was estimated for a target population of 22,099 versus 23,864 people for intervention and control communities respectively. Average costs were calculated as the cost per client tested, while cost-effectiveness was calculated as the cost per additional client tested through HBHCT. Results Based on effectiveness of 37% in the intervention (HBHCT) arm compared to 16% in control arm, home based testing costs US$29 compared to US$38 per person for clinic HCT. The incremental cost effectiveness per client tested using HBHCT was $19. Conclusions HBHCT was less costly and more effective. Home-based HCT could present a cost-effective alternative for rural ‘hard to reach’ populations depending on affordability by the health system, and should be considered as part of community outreach programs. PMID:26275059

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] to Measure Respiratory Responses to Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hailstone, Jono; Kilding, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The Zephyr[TM] BioHarness[TM] (Zephyr Technology, Auckland, New Zealand) is a wireless physiological monitoring system that has the ability to measure respiratory rate unobtrusively. However, the ability of the BioHarness[TM] to accurately and reproducibly determine respiratory rate across a range of intensities is currently unknown. The aim of…

  16. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 121.311, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder...

  17. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 121.311, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder...

  18. 14 CFR 121.311 - Seats, safety belts, and shoulder harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... defined in Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child.... Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 121.311, see the List of CFR Sections Affected... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Seats, safety belts, and shoulder...

  19. 42 CFR 84.116 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.116 Section 84.116 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.116...

  20. 42 CFR 84.1133 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.1133 Section 84.1133 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Dust, Fume, and...

  1. The Facebook-in-Action: Challenging, Harnessing and Enhancing Students Class Assignments and Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saifudin, Adam Mohd; Yacob, Aizan; Saad, Rohaizah

    2016-01-01

    Issues of universities students harnessing and capitalizing the usage of Facebook for their own learning capabilities and effective thinking is always the focus of education scholars, in assessing the quality class assignments and projects produced by them. Therefore, Facebook is now becoming unbearable influence since the internet activation in…

  2. Harnessing the power of big data: infusing the scientific method with machine learning to transform ecology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most efforts to harness the power of big data for ecology and environmental sciences focus on data and metadata sharing, standardization, and accuracy. However, many scientists have not accepted the data deluge as an integral part of their research because the current scientific method is not scalab...

  3. Improving Students' Educational Experience by Harnessing Digital Technology: elgg in the ODL Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tung, Lai Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Given the rising popularity of both open and distance learning (ODL) and social networking tools, it seems logical to merge and harness these two popular technologies with the goal of improving student educational experience. The integration seems to hold tremendous promise for the open and distance learning mode. To reduce the gap in the…

  4. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicle Safety Standard No. 213 (49 CFR 571.213)), vest- and harness-type child restraint systems, and lap....-registered civil aircraft (except a free balloon that incorporates a basket or gondola, or an airship type... aircraft (except a free balloon that incorporates a basket or gondola, or an airship type...

  5. Harnessing Sparse and Low-Dimensional Structures for Robust Clustering of Imagery Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Shankar Ramamohan

    2009-01-01

    We propose a robust framework for clustering data. In practice, data obtained from real measurement devices can be incomplete, corrupted by gross errors, or not correspond to any assumed model. We show that, by properly harnessing the intrinsic low-dimensional structure of the data, these kinds of practical problems can be dealt with in a uniform…

  6. 42 CFR 84.173 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.173 Section 84.173 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered...

  7. 42 CFR 84.196 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.196 Section 84.196 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators...

  8. 42 CFR 84.133 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.133 Section 84.133 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators...

  9. 42 CFR 84.73 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. 84.73 Section 84.73 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing...

  10. [Functional principles of the lumbotrain harness. A clinical and experimental study].

    PubMed

    Yücel, M; Breitenfelder, J; Liebscher, F; Nicol, K

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the results of pressure measurements on the truss pad of the lumbotrain harness. As compared to the pressure measurements carried out previously on truss pads of rigid orthotic devices by the same authors, a much more uniform pressure distribution was found. PMID:6475218

  11. Feasibility of a Computer-Based Intervention Addressing Barriers to HIV Testing Among Young Patients Who Decline Tests at Triage.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Ian David; Cleland, Charles M; Perlman, David C; Rajan, Sonali; Sun, Wendy; Bania, Theodore C

    2016-09-01

    Young people face greatly increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and high rates of undiagnosed HIV, yet are unlikely to test. Many also have limited or inconsistent access to health care, including HIV testing and prevention education, and prior research has documented that youth lack knowledge necessary to understand the HIV test process and to interpret test results. Computer-based interventions have been used to increase HIV test rates and knowledge among emergency department (ED) patients, including those who decline tests offered at triage. However, patients aged 18-24 years have been less likely to test, even after completing an intervention, compared to older patients in the same ED setting. The current pilot study sought to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new tablet-based video intervention designed to address established barriers to testing among ED patients aged 18-24 years. In particular, we examined whether young ED patients would: agree to receive the intervention; complete it quickly enough to avoid disrupting clinical workflows; accept HIV tests offered by the intervention; demonstrate increased postintervention knowledge; and report they found the intervention acceptable. Over 4 weeks, we recruited 100 patients aged 18-24 in a high-volume urban ED; all of them declined HIV tests offered at triage. Almost all (98%) completed the intervention (mean time <9 mins), 30% accepted HIV tests offered by the tablets. Knowledge was significantly higher after than before the intervention (t = -6.67, p < .001) and patients reported generally high acceptability. Additional research appears warranted to increase postintervention HIV testing. PMID:27565191

  12. Automated Source-Code-Based Testing of Object-Oriented Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Ralf; Gerlich, Rainer; Dietrich, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    With the advent of languages such as C++ and Java in mission- and safety-critical space on-board software, new challenges for testing and specifically automated testing arise. In this paper we discuss some of these challenges, consequences and solutions based on an experiment in automated source-code-based testing for C++.

  13. Enhancing a Computer-Based Testing Environment with Optimum Item Response Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delen, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    As technology has become more advanced and accessible in instructional settings, there has been an upward trend in computer-based testing in the last decades. The present experimental study examines students' behaviors during computer-based testing in two different conditions and explores how these conditions affect the test results. Results…

  14. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and as...) Data requirements. You will use the following data to implement the risk-based capital stress test. (1... capital stress test. (2) You will use Call Report data as the basis for Corporation data over the...

  15. A Web-Based Learning System for Software Test Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Minhong; Jia, Haiyang; Sugumaran, V.; Ran, Weijia; Liao, Jian

    2011-01-01

    Fierce competition, globalization, and technology innovation have forced software companies to search for new ways to improve competitive advantage. Web-based learning is increasingly being used by software companies as an emergent approach for enhancing the skills of knowledge workers. However, the current practice of Web-based learning is…

  16. A Bad Idea: National Standards Based on Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The justification for national standards is that test scores predict a nation's future economic success. There is no evidence that supports this assumption. There is evidence that it is wrong. For more than half a century, reformers have been trying to fix our schools with little success. The obvious conclusion is that something that can't be…

  17. Developing a Competency-Based Test Item Bank.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jesse W.

    The premise of this document is that trade instructors and incumbent workers can work together as a writing team to develop test items for vocational education. The development process used by the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) is described as follows: (1) identify and validate a task list; (2) conduct task analysis;…

  18. Automatic Test-Based Assessment of Programming: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douce, Christopher; Livingstone, David; Orwell, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems that automatically assess student programming assignments have been designed and used for over forty years. Systems that objectively test and mark student programming work were developed simultaneously with programming assessment in the computer science curriculum. This article reviews a number of influential automatic assessment systems,…

  19. Improved Accelerated Stress Tests Based on Fuel Cell Vehicle Data

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Timothy; Motupally, Sathya

    2012-06-01

    UTC will led a top-tier team of industry and national laboratory participants to update and improve DOE’s Accelerated Stress Tests (AST’s) for hydrogen fuel cells. This in-depth investigation will focused on critical fuel cell components (e.g. membrane electrode assemblies - MEA) whose durability represented barriers for widespread commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technology. UTC had access to MEA materials that had accrued significant load time under real-world conditions in PureMotion® 120 power plant used in transit buses. These materials are referred to as end-of-life (EOL) components in the rest of this document. Advanced characterization techniques were used to evaluate degradation mode progress using these critical cell components extracted from both bus power plants and corresponding materials tested using the DOE AST’s. These techniques were applied to samples at beginning-of-life (BOL) to serve as a baseline. These comparisons advised the progress of the various failure modes that these critical components were subjected to, such as membrane degradation, catalyst support corrosion, platinum group metal dissolution, and others. Gaps in the existing ASTs predicted the degradation observed in the field in terms of these modes were outlined. Using the gaps, new AST’s were recommended and tested to better reflect the degradation modes seen in field operation. Also, BOL components were degraded in a test vehicle at UTC designed to accelerate the bus field operation.

  20. Harnessing Diversity towards the Reconstructing of Large Scale Gene Regulatory Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yamanaka, Ryota; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Elucidating gene regulatory network (GRN) from large scale experimental data remains a central challenge in systems biology. Recently, numerous techniques, particularly consensus driven approaches combining different algorithms, have become a potentially promising strategy to infer accurate GRNs. Here, we develop a novel consensus inference algorithm, TopkNet that can integrate multiple algorithms to infer GRNs. Comprehensive performance benchmarking on a cloud computing framework demonstrated that (i) a simple strategy to combine many algorithms does not always lead to performance improvement compared to the cost of consensus and (ii) TopkNet integrating only high-performance algorithms provide significant performance improvement compared to the best individual algorithms and community prediction. These results suggest that a priori determination of high-performance algorithms is a key to reconstruct an unknown regulatory network. Similarity among gene-expression datasets can be useful to determine potential optimal algorithms for reconstruction of unknown regulatory networks, i.e., if expression-data associated with known regulatory network is similar to that with unknown regulatory network, optimal algorithms determined for the known regulatory network can be repurposed to infer the unknown regulatory network. Based on this observation, we developed a quantitative measure of similarity among gene-expression datasets and demonstrated that, if similarity between the two expression datasets is high, TopkNet integrating algorithms that are optimal for known dataset perform well on the unknown dataset. The consensus framework, TopkNet, together with the similarity measure proposed in this study provides a powerful strategy towards harnessing the wisdom of the crowds in reconstruction of unknown regulatory networks. PMID:24278007

  1. Development of Methods to Predict the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Parker, Peter A.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan A.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses work that began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The work was undertaken to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program had several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. This report provides details of the completed work, involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that provided data for the modeling efforts are also described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  2. Predicting the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Gaffney, Richard L.; Parker, Peter A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the progress of work which began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The purpose of the work is to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program has several components including the development of advance algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. The paper will provide details of current work involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that will provide data for the modeling efforts will also be described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  3. Early reading performance: a comparison of teacher-based and test-based assessments.

    PubMed

    Kenny, D T; Chekaluk, E

    1993-04-01

    An unresolved question in early screening is whether test-based or teacher-based assessments should form the basis of the classification of children at risk of educational failure. Available structured teacher rating scales are lacking in predictive validity, and teacher predictions of students likely to experience reading difficulties have yielded disappointing true positive rates, with teachers failing to identify the majority of severely disabled readers. For this study, three educational screening instruments were developed: (a) a single teacher rating, categorizing children into three levels of reading ability (advanced, average, poor); (b) a 15-item teacher questionnaire designed to measure students' cognitive and language ability, attentional and behavioral characteristics, and academic performance; and (c) a battery of language and reading tests that are predictive of, or correlate with, reading failure. The concurrent validity of each instrument was assessed in a sample of 312 Australian schoolchildren from kindergarten, Year 1, and Year 2. Students were assessed at the end of the 1989 school year after having completed 1, 2, or 3 years of schooling. The results suggest that the nature of the skills required for success in reading changes in the first 3 years of schooling. Both teachers and tests concur more closely as children progress through the elementary years and as the risk behavior (reading) becomes more accessible to direct measurement. Carefully focused teacher rating scales may be a cost-effective means of identifying children at risk of reading failure. Improved teacher rating scales should be developed and used to assist in the early screening process. PMID:8515187

  4. International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Testing, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Developed by the International Test Commission, the International Guidelines on Computer-Based and Internet-Delivered Testing are a set of guidelines specifically developed to highlight good practice issues in relation to computer/Internet tests and testing. These guidelines have been developed from an international perspective and are directed at…

  5. Developments and Challenges in the Use of Computer-Based Testing for Assessing Second Language Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    Computer-based testing (CBT) to assess second language ability has undergone remarkable development since Garret (1991) described its purpose as "the computerized administration of conventional tests" in "The Modern Language Journal." For instance, CBT has made possible the delivery of more authentic tests than traditional paper-and-pencil tests.…

  6. Generating Random Parallel Test Forms Using CTT in a Computer-Based Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, John A.; Gibson, Wade M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure for automated-test-forms assembly based on Classical Test Theory (CTT). The procedure uses stratified random-content sampling and test-form preequating to ensure both content and psychometric equivalence in generating virtually unlimited parallel forms. Extends the usefulness of CTT in automated test construction. (Author/SLD)

  7. Selecting Single Model in Combination Forecasting Based on Cointegration Test and Encompassing Test

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chuanjin; Zhang, Jing; Song, Fugen

    2014-01-01

    Combination forecasting takes all characters of each single forecasting method into consideration, and combines them to form a composite, which increases forecasting accuracy. The existing researches on combination forecasting select single model randomly, neglecting the internal characters of the forecasting object. After discussing the function of cointegration test and encompassing test in the selection of single model, supplemented by empirical analysis, the paper gives the single model selection guidance: no more than five suitable single models can be selected from many alternative single models for a certain forecasting target, which increases accuracy and stability. PMID:24892061

  8. ``Test kit'' for detection of biologically important anions: A salicylidene-hydrazine based Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md Akhtarul; Jana, Sankar; Karmakar, Saswati; Guchhait, Nikhil

    2013-02-01

    Test paper coated with Schiff base [(N,N/-bis(5-nitro-salicylidene)hydrazine] receptor 1 (host) can selectively detect fluoride and acetate ions (guest) by developing yellow color which can be detected by naked-eye both in aqueous-acetonitrile solution and in solid supported test kit. UV-vis spectral analysis shows that the absorption peaks at 288 and 345 nm of receptor 1 gradually decrease its initial intensity and new red shifted absorption bands at 397 nm and 455 nm gradually appear upon addition of increasing amount of F- and AcO- ions over several tested anions such as HPO4-, Cl, Br, I, NO3-, NO2-, HSO4-, HSO3-, and ClO4- in aqueous-acetonitrile solvent. The colorimetric test results and UV-vis spectral analysis are in well agreement with 1H NMR titration results in d6-DMSO solvent. The receptor 1 forms 1:2 stable complexes with F- and AcO- ions. However, similar kind of observation obtained from UV-vis titrations in presence of AcOH corresponds to 1:1 complexation ratio indicating the formation of H-bonding interaction between the receptor and anions (F- and AcO- ions). So, the observed 1:2 complexation ratio can only be explained on the basis of deprotonation (˜1 eqv.) and H-bonding (˜1 eqv.) interactions [1]. The ratiometric analysis of host-guest complexes corroborates well with the proposed theoretical model optimization at Density Functional Theory (DFT) level.

  9. Teaching Rank-Based Tests by Emphasizing Structural Similarities to Corresponding Parametric Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derryberry, DeWayne R.; Schou, Sue B.; Conover, W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Students learn to examine the distributional assumptions implicit in the usual t-tests and associated confidence intervals, but are rarely shown what to do when those assumptions are grossly violated. Three data sets are presented. Each data set involves a different distributional anomaly and each illustrates the use of a different nonparametric…

  10. Significance testing of rules in rule-based models of human problem solving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. M.; Hammer, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Rule-based models of human problem solving have typically not been tested for statistical significance. Three methods of testing rules - analysis of variance, randomization, and contingency tables - are presented. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are also described.

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and... OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CAPITAL Risk-Based Capital Pt. 1750, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1750—Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and... OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CAPITAL Risk-Based Capital Pt. 1750, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1750—Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology...

  13. Life Cycle Tests on a Hollow Cathode Based Plasma Contactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, Jason A.; Schneider, Todd A.; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The propulsive Small Expendable Deployer System (ProSEDS) mission is designed to provide an on-orbit demonstration of the electrodynamic propulsion capabilities of tethers in space. The ProSEDS experiment will be a secondary payload on a Delta II unmanned expendable booster with a mission duration of 12 days. A 5-km conductive tether is attached to the Delta II second stage and collects current from the low Earth orbit (LEO) plasma, and a Hollow Cathode Plasma Contactor (HCPC) emits the collected electrons from the Delta II, completing the electrical circuit to the ambient plasma. The HCPC for the ProSEDS mission have made it necessary to turn off the HCPC once a minute throughout the entire mission. Because of the unusual operating requirements by the ProSEDS mission, an engineering development unit of the HCPC was built to demonstrate the HCPC design would start reliably for the life of the ProSEDS mission. During the life test the engineering unit cycled for over 10,000 on/off cycles without missing a single start, and during that same test the HCPC unit demonstrated the capability to emit 0 to 5 A electron emission current. The performance of the HCPC unit during this life test will be discussed.

  14. The Memory Stack: New Technologies Harness Talking for Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Maureen T.

    In this paper, an elementary school teacher describes her experiences with the Memory Stack--a HyperCard based tool that can accommodate a voice recording, a graphic image, and a written text on the same card--which she designed to help her second and third grade students integrate their oral language fluency into the process of learning how to…

  15. Harnessing Solid-State Ionic Transport for Nanomanufacturing and Nanodevices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Keng Hao

    2009-01-01

    Through this work a new all-solid, ambient processing condition direct metal patterning technique has been developed and characterized. This ionic-transport-based patterning technique is capable of sub-50nm feature resolution under ambient conditions. It generates features with a rate that is comparable to conventional dry-etching techniques. A…

  16. A REFORMULATED, RECONSTITUTED WATER FOR TESTING THE FRESHWATER AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity testing with the freshwater amphipod, Hyalella azteca, has routinely been conducted using nonstandard waters. Four waters tested for acceptability for aqueous reference toxicant testing with H. azteca. These included three formulated (standardized) waters: moderately har...

  17. HIV seropositivity rates in outreach-based counseling and testing services: program evaluation.

    PubMed

    DiFranceisco, W; Holtgrave, D R; Hoxie, N; Reiser, W J; Resenhoeft, R; Pinkerton, S D; Vergeront, J

    1998-11-01

    A common assumption is that outreach-based HIV counseling and testing services reach a clientele with a higher HIV seroprevalence than clinic-based counseling and testing. To examine this assumption, we analyzed Wisconsin's anonymous counseling and testing client records for 62,299 contacts (testing episodes) from 1992 to 1995. Bivariate analysis of counseling and testing service setting (outreach-based or clinic-based) and HIV test results suggested that outreach contacts were 23% (odds ratio [OR], 1.23; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.0-1.5) more likely to test HIV-seropositive than clinic-based contacts. Relations between HIV test outcome and variables for client age, race, gender, previous testing history, mode of risk exposure, and region, as well as service setting, were examined by logistic regression. An inverted relation between service setting and seropositivity (OR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.5-0.8) indicated that, within some subpopulations, outreach contacts were significantly less likely to test HIV-positive than clinic-based contacts. Analysis of interactions among the covariates identified race as a critical codeterminant in the relation between service setting and test outcome. These results support retargeting outreach services to enhance their overall effectiveness. Specific recommendations include the need for aggressive strategies to better "market" HIV counseling and testing to nonwhite populations, and to focus resources more selectively on gay/bisexual men of all races. PMID:9803971

  18. Comparison of strength and load-based methods for testing wind turbine blades

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, W.D.; Clark, M.E.; Egging, N.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare two methods of blade test loading and show how they are applied in an actual blade test. Strength and load-based methods were examined to determine the test load for an Atlantic Orient Corporation (AOC) 15/50 wind turbine blade for fatigue and static testing. Fatigue load-based analysis was performed using measured field test loads extrapolated for extreme rare events and scaled to thirty-year spectra. An accelerated constant amplitude fatigue test that gives equivalent damage at critical locations was developed using Miner`s Rule and the material S-N curves. Test load factors were applied to adjust the test loads for uncertainties, and differences between the test and operating environment. Similar analyses were carried, out for the strength-based fatigue test using the strength of the blade and the material properties to determine the load level and number of constant amplitude cycles to failure. Static tests were also developed using load and strength criteria. The resulting test loads were compared and contrasted. The analysis shows that, for the AOC 15/50 blade, the strength-based test loads are higher than any of the static load-based cases considered but were exceeded in the fatigue analysis for a severe hot/wet environment.

  19. Harnessing Surface Dislocation Networks for Molecular Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Karsten

    2009-03-01

    The controlled fabrication of functional wafer-based nano-arrays is one of the ultimate quests in current nanotechnologies. Well-ordered misfit dislocation networks of ultrathin metal films are viable candidates for the growth of two- dimensional ordered cluster arrays in the nanometer regime. Such bottom-up processes can be very complex, involving collective effects from a large number of atoms. Unraveling the fundamental forces that drive these self-assembly processes requires detailed experimental information at the atomic level of large ensembles of hundreds to thousands of atoms. The combination of variable temperature measurements from our home-built STM correlated with 2D Frenkel-Kontorova models based on first-principle interaction parameters is used to explain how uniform arrays can form with the strain in the thin film as the driving force responsible for the surface self-assembly process. This process is generally applicable to assemble many molecular species thus opening avenues towards complex self-assembled structures based on a lock-and-key type approach. Moreover, when increasing the molecular coverage and/or decreasing the strain in the thin film the intermolecular interactions will eventually dominate the elastic effects and dictate the self-assembly process via molecular structure and functionality. We will show that controlling this delicate balance leads to a richness of structures, ranging from disperse ordered arrays of molecular clusters to patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of functionalized fullerenes and methanethiol.

  20. Attitudes and validity about the first computer-based college English test band 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang

    2011-10-01

    Computer-based College English Test Band 4(CET-4) has been one of the most talked about issue over the recent 4 years. The principal aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of computer-based CET-4 by comparing and analyzing the performance of test takers from a paper-and-pencil based CET-4 and a computer-based one which are taken by the same 50 students of Southwest University at the same week. The second goal was to assess test takers' acceptance of the computer-based CET-4. A questionnaire, which was distributed to the 50 test takers, concerning acceptance of computer-based CET-4, total computer attitude and familiarity with computers was generated by a review of literature. Attitudes about the CET-4 were moderately positive. The validity of computer-based CET-4 was also confirmed. Limitations and possible future research concerning the test were proposed in this study.

  1. Mobile testing complex based on an explosive magnetic generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Kozlov, A. V.; Gusev, A. N.; Shurupova, N. P.; Zavalova, V. E.; Chulkov, A. N.; Bazelyan, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    A mobile testing complex prototype on the basis of an explosive magnetic generator (MTC EMG) is developed to simulate a lightning current pulse. The main element of this complex is a current pulse generator comprising a EMG with a pulse transformer for energy release into the load. The electric chain of the MTC EMG is theoretically analyzed taking into consideration energy losses in active resistances in the primary circuit of the transformer and the inductive-resistive nature of the load, which resulted in the minimization of energy losses in the primary circuit depending on the electric chain parameters. It was found that, if the energy losses are minimized, the efficiency of transferring the EMG energy into the load exceeds 50%. As a result of the field tests of the MTC EMG, its basic characteristics were determined and the waveforms of the current pulses and voltages in the load were obtained. It is shown that the results of the mathematical simulation of current pulses in the load are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Mechanical Testing of Carbon Based Woven Thermal Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pham, John; Agrawal, Parul; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Three Dimensional Woven thermal protection system (TPS) materials are one of the enabling technologies for mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator systems. These materials have been shown capable of serving a dual purpose as TPS and as structural load bearing members during entry and descent operations. In order to ensure successful structural performance, it is important to characterize the mechanical properties of these materials prior to and post exposure to entry-like heating conditions. This research focuses on the changes in load bearing capacity of woven TPS materials after being subjected to arcjet simulations of entry heating. Preliminary testing of arcjet tested materials [1] has shown a mechanical degradation. However, their residual strength is significantly more than the requirements for a mission to Venus [2]. A systematic investigation at the macro and microstructural scales is reported here to explore the potential causes of this degradation. The effects of heating on the sizing (an epoxy resin coating used to reduce friction and wear during fiber handling) are discussed as one of the possible causes for the decrease in mechanical properties. This investigation also provides valuable guidelines for margin policies for future mechanically deployable entry systems.

  3. Plans of a test bed for ionospheric modelling based on Fennoscandian ground-based instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, Kirsti; Kero, Antti; Verronen, Pekka T.; Aikio, Anita; Vierinen, Juha; Lehtinen, Markku; Turunen, Esa; Pulkkinen, Tuija; Virtanen, Ilkka; Norberg, Johannes; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Kallio, Esa; Kestilä, Antti; Partamies, Noora; Syrjäsuo, Mikko

    2016-07-01

    One of the recommendations for teaming among research groups in the COSPAR/ILWS roadmap is about building test beds in which coordinated observing supports model development. In the presentation we will describe a test bed initiative supporting research on ionosphere-thermosphere-magnetosphere interactions. The EISCAT incoherent scatter radars with their future extension, EISCAT3D, form the backbone of the proposed system. The EISCAT radars are surrounded by versatile and dense arrays of ground-based instrumentation: magnetometers and auroral cameras (the MIRACLE and IMAGE networks), ionospheric tomography receivers (the TomoScand network) and other novel technology for upper atmospheric probing with radio waves (e.g. the KAIRA facility, riometers and the ionosonde maintained by the Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory). As a new opening, close coordination with the Finnish national cubesat program is planned. We will investigate opportunities to establish a cost efficient nanosatellite program which would support the ground-based observations in a systematic and persistent manner. First experiences will be gathered with the Aalto-1 and Aalto-2 satellites, latter of which will be the Finnish contribution to the international QB50 mission. We envisage close collaboration also in the development of data analysis tools with the goal to integrate routines and models from different research groups to one system, where the different elements support each other. In the longer run we are aiming for a modelling framework with observational guidance which gives a holistic description on ionosphere-thermosphere processes and this way enables reliable forecasts on upper atmospheric space weather activity.

  4. An Adaptive Algebra Test: A Testlet-Based, Hierarchically-Structured Test with Validity-Based Scoring. Technical Report No. 90-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; And Others

    The initial development of a testlet-based algebra test was previously reported (Wainer and Lewis, 1990). This account provides the details of this excursion into the use of hierarchical testlets and validity-based scoring. A pretest of two 15-item hierarchical testlets was carried out in which examinees' performance on a 4-item subset of each…

  5. Harnessing your GPU for interactive immersive oceanographic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, A. J.; Moore, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    We report on recent success using GPU for interactive Lagrangian (fish) and Eulerian (tsunami) modeling of marine systems. Lagrangian analyses based on numerical float tracks are a fundamental tool in hydrodynamic and marine biological modeling. In particular, spatially-explicit individual-based models (IBMs) can be used to explore how changes in coastal circulation affect fish recruitment, and 3D viewing of the results leads to new insights regarding the effects of behavior on spatial path. One limit to the usefulness of this modeling approach is the latency between submission of a run and examination of the results, especially when a large (i.e. statistically meaningful) number of individuals are being tracked through finely resolved current and scalar fields. Since float tracking is an inherently parallel problem, the hundreds of cores available in modern graphics cards (GPU) can readily increase the performance of suitably adapted code by two orders of magnitude at low cost. This offers a way forward to achieve interactive submission/examination of IBMs (and float tracks in general), even on a laptop computer. Latency is an even larger issue in tsunami forecasting, where there is a need to run simple deep-ocean shallow water wave models in real time, particularly during an event when tsunamigenic earthquake events occur outside known fault zones. This problem, too, lends itself to dramatic speedup via GPU, given a suitable parallel algorithm for the shallow water solver. Here we demonstrate successful model speedup using GPU-adapted code for: 1) a spatially explicit IBM prototype, based on pre-stored circulation model output for the Bering Sea; 2) real-time runs of tsunami propagation. In both cases, results will be presented using the stereo-immersive capabilities of the graphics card, for 3D animation.

  6. Technological innovations in mental healthcare: harnessing the digital revolution.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Chris; Morriss, Richard; Martin, Jennifer; Amani, Sarah; Cotton, Rebecca; Denis, Mike; Lewis, Shôn

    2015-04-01

    Digital technology has the potential to transform mental healthcare by connecting patients, services and health data in new ways. Digital online and mobile applications can offer patients greater access to information and services and enhance clinical management and early intervention through access to real-time patient data. However, substantial gaps exist in the evidence base underlying these technologies. Greater patient and clinician involvement is needed to evaluate digital technologies and ensure they target unmet needs, maintain public trust and improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25833865

  7. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Holly P.; Hole, David G.; Zavaleta, Erika S.

    2012-07-01

    Adapting to climate change is among the biggest challenges humanity faces in the next century. An overwhelming focus of adaptation strategies to reduce climate change-related hazards has been on hard-engineering structures such as sea walls, irrigation infrastructure and dams. Closer attention to a broader spectrum of adaptation options is urgently needed. In particular, ecosystem-based adaptation approaches provide flexible, cost-effective and broadly applicable alternatives for buffering the impacts of climate change, while overcoming many drawbacks of hard infrastructure. As such, they are a critical tool at adaptation planners' disposal for tackling the threats that climate change poses to peoples' lives and livelihoods.

  8. Membrane-based, dry-reagent prothrombin time tests.

    PubMed

    Zweig, S E; Meyer, B G; Sharma, S; Min, C; Krakower, J M; Shohet, S B

    1996-01-01

    The authors describe a prototype membrane-based, dry-reagent prothrombin time assay for whole blood. This system uses an asymmetric polysulfone membrane to separate plasma from red blood cells, and works with samples as small as 10 microliters. The membrane contains calcium and thromboplastin, and permits the reactions of the complete extrinsic pathway to occur with minimal distortion from membrane surface interactions. Thrombin generation is monitored optically using a rhodamine-110-based fluorescent thrombin substrate. Fluorescence kinetics are analyzed to produce a prothrombin-time--equivalent parameter that can be converted to an international normalized ratio (INR) value. The system provides results that correlate well with conventional liquid phase prothrombin time assays (R2 = 0.96). PMID:8739001

  9. Cryogenic tests of glass-epoxy based electrical insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Martin, P.S.; Pripstein, M.; Green, M.A.

    1981-08-01

    A thin superconducting solenoid for the Time Projection Chamber (TPC) experiment at PEP was constructed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) in 1979 and tested in 1980. A failure of the ground plane insulation damaged the coil to the point that it required rebuilding. An extensive study of this failure indicated that an iron chip embedded in the bore tube had penetrated the insulation. Before rebuilding the coil, an investigation of the insulation system was done with the goal of determining the most reliable techniques and materials for withstanding high voltages in the coil package. The experience with the TPC coil and its prototypes indicate that glass cloth vacuum-impregnated with epoxy is an excellent material for cryogenic applications from the mechanical standpoint. Further, since the LBL assembly shop had extensive experience with the epoxy formulation used in the coil, there was reluctance to change that component. Therefore, the investigation concentrated on different types of glass cloth and on composites containing glass cloth.

  10. Farmview product testing for a new spaced based information business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knoblauch, Gregory E.; Grace, John A.

    1996-03-01

    RESOURCE21, Inc. is planning to launch a constellation of four satellites to provide frequent and timely information to managers of earth resources for agricultural croplands and forests. Raw satellite data collected twice weekly will be processed into value added information and delivered electronically to customers within hours after satellite acquisition. This information can be used for real time or long range management decisions. Real time management decisions could include herbicide or insecticide applications, additional fertilizer applications, and/or irrigated water management. (Grace 1994) Long range management decisions could include future fertility programs or water management systems. RESOURCE21 is planning a satellite launch in 1998. Considerable work has been conducted in the development of products, potential retail markets, and delivery systems that will generate revenue streams to support this innovative satellite business. This paper will discuss how satellite prototype products were developed and refined over a four year product test program.

  11. AES analysis of failures in Cu based electromigration test samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baunack, S.; Kötter, T. G.; Wendrock, H.; Wetzig, K.

    2001-07-01

    Failures occurring in electromigration test of copper interconnects have been characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and scanning Auger microscopy (SAM). The Cu interconnects were 2 μm wide and 500 nm thick stripes on a Ta/TaN barrier. They are imbedded in trenches in a SiO 2 layer on Si. The failure manifests as the appearance of voids with lateral dimension of some micrometers. By EBSD mapping, it could be verified that no sidewall texture in the interconnect exist. Auger analysis clearly showed that the Ta/TaN barrier layer has not been destroyed at the site of electromigration failure. The interaction of the electron beam with small particles (≈0.5 μm) was modelled to understand the contribution of electron scattering in the voids to the lateral resolution.

  12. Harnessing new communication technologies for development in Asia.

    PubMed

    Mehra, A

    1988-01-01

    There exists 2 academic schools of thought when examining the implications of the communication revolution on developing nations. 1 camp views communication technologies as an opportunity for developing countries to jump into the information age. The other warns of the dangerous consequences of these technologies to national sovereignty and cultures and goes so far as to suggest dissociation and self-sufficient economic development. The real issue is not whether or not to use new communication technologies, but how to pick and choose them to maximize returns on the nations' scarce resources. Each developing country's economic infrastructure, level of industrialization and technical development, and socioeconomic ranking influence development goals and information technology needs. When defining these goals and needs based on the nation's economic capabilities, the nation must also consider its return on its investment in the total perspective before purchasing new communication technologies. Additionally, each country must bear in mind that introducing information technologies into an economy based on labor-intensive industries may displace the workforce. Since the majority of all computer installations in most Asian countries belong to transnational corporations and most of the large agricultural lands are far from wealthy, urban centers, Asian countries need to be prudent that these technologies do not widen the rural-urban gap and thereby reinforce the information gap between different social classes. Also Asian countries must be aware of the potential of these technologies to cause dependency on the exporters and discourage domestic innovation. PMID:12282038

  13. Photovoltaics Informatics: Harnessing Energy Science via Data-Driven Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, C.; Munch, K.; Biagioni, D.; Glynn, S.; Scharf, J.; Contreras, M. A.; Perkins, J. D.; Nelson, B. P.; Jones, W. B.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss our current research focus on photovoltaic (PV) informatics, which is dedicated to functionality enhancement of solar materials through data management and data mining-aided, integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) for rapid screening and identification of multi-scale processing/structure/property/performance relationships. Our current PV informatics research ranges from transparent conducting oxides (TCO) to solar absorber materials. As a test bed, we report on examples of our current data management system for PV research and advanced data mining to improve the performance of solar cells such as CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} (CIGS) aiming at low-cost and high-rate processes. For the PV data management, we show recent developments of a strategy for data modeling, collection and aggregation methods, and construction of data interfaces, which enable proper archiving and data handling for data mining. For scientific data mining, the value of high-dimensional visualizations and non-linear dimensionality reduction is demonstrated to quantitatively assess how process conditions or properties are interconnected in the context of the development of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films as the TCO layers for CIGS devices. Such relationships between processing and property of TCOs lead to optimal process design toward enhanced performance of CIGS cells/devices.

  14. Harnessing case isolation and ring vaccination to control Ebola.

    PubMed

    Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L; Wenzel, Natasha; Gaffney, Stephen G; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Altice, Frederick L; Atkins, Katherine E; Galvani, Alison P

    2015-05-01

    As a devastating Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues, non-pharmaceutical control measures including contact tracing, quarantine, and case isolation are being implemented. In addition, public health agencies are scaling up efforts to test and deploy candidate vaccines. Given the experimental nature and limited initial supplies of vaccines, a mass vaccination campaign might not be feasible. However, ring vaccination of likely case contacts could provide an effective alternative in distributing the vaccine. To evaluate ring vaccination as a strategy for eliminating Ebola, we developed a pair approximation model of Ebola transmission, parameterized by confirmed incidence data from June 2014 to January 2015 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Our results suggest that if a combined intervention of case isolation and ring vaccination had been initiated in the early fall of 2014, up to an additional 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone could have been averted beyond case isolation alone. The marginal benefit of ring vaccination is predicted to be greatest in settings where there are more contacts per individual, greater clustering among individuals, when contact tracing has low efficacy or vaccination confers post-exposure protection. In such settings, ring vaccination can avert up to an additional 8% of Ebola cases. Accordingly, ring vaccination is predicted to offer a moderately beneficial supplement to ongoing non-pharmaceutical Ebola control efforts. PMID:26024528

  15. Harnessing Case Isolation and Ring Vaccination to Control Ebola

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Chad; Yamin, Dan; Ndeffo-Mbah, Martial L.; Wenzel, Natasha; Gaffney, Stephen G.; Townsend, Jeffrey P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel; Fallah, Mosoka; Nyenswah, Tolbert G.; Altice, Frederick L.; Atkins, Katherine E.; Galvani, Alison P.

    2015-01-01

    As a devastating Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues, non-pharmaceutical control measures including contact tracing, quarantine, and case isolation are being implemented. In addition, public health agencies are scaling up efforts to test and deploy candidate vaccines. Given the experimental nature and limited initial supplies of vaccines, a mass vaccination campaign might not be feasible. However, ring vaccination of likely case contacts could provide an effective alternative in distributing the vaccine. To evaluate ring vaccination as a strategy for eliminating Ebola, we developed a pair approximation model of Ebola transmission, parameterized by confirmed incidence data from June 2014 to January 2015 in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Our results suggest that if a combined intervention of case isolation and ring vaccination had been initiated in the early fall of 2014, up to an additional 126 cases in Liberia and 560 cases in Sierra Leone could have been averted beyond case isolation alone. The marginal benefit of ring vaccination is predicted to be greatest in settings where there are more contacts per individual, greater clustering among individuals, when contact tracing has low efficacy or vaccination confers post-exposure protection. In such settings, ring vaccination can avert up to an additional 8% of Ebola cases. Accordingly, ring vaccination is predicted to offer a moderately beneficial supplement to ongoing non-pharmaceutical Ebola control efforts. PMID:26024528

  16. Harnessing Photovoice for tuberculosis advocacy in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Shama; Sajun, Sana Zehra; Khan, Faisal S

    2015-06-01

    In Pakistan, despite publically available free testing and treatment throughout the country, there were an estimated 58,000 deaths due to tuberculosis in 2010. Understanding the experiences of people affected by TB is essential in addressing barriers to effective treatment. The Indus Hospital used Photovoice to understand the experiences of people affected by TB in Karachi. Two hundred and thirty photographs and stories were collected from 55 people affected by TB. Five major themes and 12 sub-themes emerged from the data: the physical aspects of TB (weakness and the side effects of the medication), the social aspects of TB (loneliness, stigma, and the fear/guilt of infecting family members), the socio-economic aspects of TB (financial difficulties/poverty and poor living conditions), supportive factors during treatment (support from family and friends, support from welfare organizations, prayer, visiting peaceful places), and recovery (happiness about getting better). The photographs, stories, and a Call for Action were shared at a Gallery event with patients, practitioners, and policy-makers. This study provides a look at the complexities surrounding TB and emphasizes the need for holistic interventions for TB that address all aspects of the disease, including its social determinants. It also highlights the potential of Photovoice as an effective means to bring much-needed attention to this disease. PMID:23793302

  17. Formation and validation of questionnaire to assess Jāṭharāgni

    PubMed Central

    Eswaran, H. T.; Kavita, M. B.; Tripaty, T. B.; Shivakumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Jāṭharāgni (metabolic fire) is of the prime importance in the maintenance of health as well as causation of diseases. Food which is consumed by the person shares the major responsibility for being healthy or manifestation of diseases. The relation between food and health is mediated by Jāṭharāgni (the metabolic agent in Ayurveda). There are four different states of Jāṭharāgni viz, Mandāgni (mild or weak state of metabolic fire), Viṣamāgni (irregular state of metabolic fire), Tīkṣnāgni (sharp or intense state of metabolic fire), and Samāgni (Normal state of metabolic fire). Samāgni (Normal state of metabolic fire) is said to be the normal State and maintains the health of an individual. All the other states are considered as abnormal. Objectives: To frame and validate a Questionnaire to assess the state of Jāṭharāgni. Materials and Methods: A qualitative research that involved interview method and cluster sampling method. A total of 500 volunteers of either gender in two groups viz., apparently healthy and unhealthy were assessed for their Jāṭharāgni. Questionnaire was framed with 64 items. A total of 14 questions under Viṣamāgni (irregular state of metabolic fire), 13 under Tīkshṇāgni, 13 under Mandāgni and 24 questions under Samāgni were framed. The questionnaire was in optional format with 5 item likert's scale pattern and the validation was done by Cronbach's Alpha for internal consistency. Result: The internal consistency of the questionnaire using Cronbach's Alpha was 0.916. The internal consistency of Viṣamāgni domain was 0.909; Teekshnagni domain was 0.873; Mandāgni domain was 0.894; and Samāgni domain was 0.876. Conclusion: The internal consistency of the questionnaire was 0.909 which is indicative of the excellent internal consistency of questionnaire. The lacuna of tool to assess state of Jāṭharāgni in Ayurveda is filled by this questionnaire. PMID:26283805

  18. Cadaveric in-situ testing of optical coherence tomography system-based skull base surgery guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Cuiru; Khan, Osaama H.; Siegler, Peter; Jivraj, Jamil; Wong, Ronnie; Yang, Victor X. D.

    2015-03-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has extensive potential for producing clinical impact in the field of neurological diseases. A neurosurgical OCT hand-held forward viewing probe in Bayonet shape has been developed. In this study, we test the feasibility of integrating this imaging probe with modern navigation technology for guidance and monitoring of skull base surgery. Cadaver heads were used to simulate relevant surgical approaches for treatment of sellar, parasellar and skull base pathology. A high-resolution 3D CT scan was performed on the cadaver head to provide baseline data for navigation. The cadaver head was mounted on existing 3- or 4-point fixation systems. Tracking markers were attached to the OCT probe and the surgeon-probe-OCT interface was calibrated. 2D OCT images were shown in real time together with the optical tracking images to the surgeon during surgery. The intraoperative video and multimodality imaging data set, consisting of real time OCT images, OCT probe location registered to neurosurgical navigation were assessed. The integration of intraoperative OCT imaging with navigation technology provides the surgeon with updated image information, which is important to deal with tissue shifts and deformations during surgery. Preliminary results demonstrate that the clinical neurosurgical navigation system can provide the hand held OCT probe gross anatomical localization. The near-histological imaging resolution of intraoperative OCT can improve the identification of microstructural/morphology differences. The OCT imaging data, combined with the neurosurgical navigation tracking has the potential to improve image interpretation, precision and accuracy of the therapeutic procedure.

  19. Harnessing: Technologies for Sustainable Reindeer Husbandry in the Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.; Yurchak, Boris; Turi, Johan Mathis; Mathiesen, Svein

    2004-01-01

    To accelerate the development of sustainable reindeer husbandry under the lead of indigenous reindeer herders, it is critical to empower reindeer herders with the best available technologies and to promote a new kind of science where traditional knowledge is fully integrated into the scientific management of the natural environment in the Arctic. This is particularly true given the dramatic environmental, climatic, economic, social and industrial changes, which have taken place across the Arctic in recent years, all of which have had serious impacts on the reindeer herding communities of the North. The Anar Declaration, adopted by the 2d World Reindeer Herders Congress (WRHC), in Inari, Finland, June 2001drew guidelines for the development of a sustainable reindeer husbandry based on reindeer peoples values and goals. The declaration calls for the reindeer herding peoples to be given the possibilities to develop and influence the management of the reindeer industry and its natural environment because of their knowledge and traditional practices. At the same time, Arctic scientists from many institutions and governments are carrying out increasingly highly technical reindeer related research activities. It is important that the technologies and results of these activities be more commonly co-produced with the reindeer herder community and/or made more readily available to the reindeer peoples for comparison with traditional knowledge for improved herd management. This paper describes a project in which reindeer herders and scientists are utilizing technologies to create a system for collecting and sharing knowledge. The project, Reindeer Mapper, is creating an information management and knowledge sharing system, which will help make technologies more readily available to the herder community for observing, data collection and analysis, monitoring, sharing, communications, and dissemination of information - to be integrated with traditional, local knowledge. The

  20. Combining the P300-complex trial-based concealed information test and the reaction time-based autobiographical implicit association test in concealed memory detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Rosenfeld, J Peter

    2012-08-01

    Despite the P300-concealed information test's validity in detecting concealed memory when it is conducted immediately after the mock crime, whether the P300-CIT's detection efficiency is moderated by time delay remains unknown. Here, we conducted a mock crime study in which guilty participants were tested immediately after the mock crime or 1 month later. An innocent group was also tested. Assuming that the autobiographical Implicit Association Test (aIAT) and the P300-CIT rely on nonoverlapping mechanisms for memory detection, participants were tested using both the P300-CIT and the reaction time (RT)-based aIAT. Results suggested that the sensitivity of both tests remains even after the 1-month delay. The indicators from the RT-aIAT and P300-CIT were uncorrelated, thus combining P300-CIT and aIAT data further increased the efficiency of memory detection. PMID:22681260