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1

A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.  

PubMed

For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the no-touch rubber hand paradigm. PMID:22445446

Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

2013-03-01

2

Pressure sensors based on MEMS, operating in harsh environments (touch-mode)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Poly-crystalline silicon carbide (poly-sic) Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive pressure sensor operating in harsh environment in touch mode is proposed, The principle of the paper is to design, obtain analytical solution and compare the results with the simulation for a circular diaphragm deflection before and after touch point. The sensor demonstrated a high temperature sensing capability up to

M. N. Hamidon; A. R. Bahadorimehr

2008-01-01

3

Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation  

PubMed Central

Touch sensation is essential for behaviours ranging from environmental exploration to social interaction; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown1. In Drosophila larvae, two types of sensory neurons, class III and class IV dendritic arborization neurons, tile the body wall. The mechanotransduction channel PIEZO in class IV neurons is essential for sensing noxious mechanical stimuli but is not involved in gentle touch2. On the basis of electrophysiological-recording, calcium-imaging and behavioural studies, here we report that class III dendritic arborization neurons are touch sensitive and contribute to gentle-touch sensation. We further identify NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels, as a mechanotransduction channel for gentle touch. NOMPC is highly expressed in class III neurons and is required for their mechanotransduction. Moreover, ectopic NOMPC expression confers touch sensitivity to the normally touch-insensitive class IV neurons. In addition to the critical role of NOMPC in eliciting gentle-touch-mediated behavioural responses, expression of this protein in the Drosophila S2 cell line also gives rise to mechanosensitive channels in which ion selectivity can be altered by NOMPC mutation, indicating that NOMPC is a pore-forming subunit of a mechanotransduction channel. Our study establishes NOMPC as a bona fide mechanotransduction channel that satisfies all four criteria proposed for a channel to qualify as a transducer of mechanical stimuli3 and mediates gentle-touch sensation. Our study also suggests that different mechanosensitive channels may be used to sense gentle touch versus noxious mechanical stimuli. PMID:23222543

Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; He, Ye; Gorczyca, David; Xiang, Yang; Cheng, Li E.; Meltzer, Shan; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

2014-01-01

4

Assessment of light touch sensation in the hands of systemic sclerosis patients  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis is a relatively rare connective tissue disorder characterized by severe and progressive fibrosis of the skin. Due to the current lack of available information on this subject, the aim of the present study was to assess light touch sensations in the hands of patients with systemic sclerosis. METHODS: We completed a cross-sectional comparative study. Light touch sensations were evaluated in 30 individuals, including 15 patients with systemic sclerosis who exhibited changes in the dermis of their hands without loss of the distal phalanx and 15 subjects who did not exhibit changes in the upper limbs (control group). The groups were age- and sex-matched. Tactile sensory evaluations were performed using the Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and the two-point discrimination test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between groups in the monofilament test. The study group had lower scores across all points of the hand when compared with the control group. Differences were also found when dominant and non-dominant hands were compared (p<0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between groups for a subset of the assessed points in the two-point discrimination test. CONCLUSIONS: The results of a monofilament test showed that tactile sensation, specifically light touch and deep pressure sensations, is altered in the hands of systemic sclerosis patients.

Silva, Paula Gabriel; Jones, Anamaria; Araujo, Pola Maria Poli; Natour, Jamil

2014-01-01

5

MEMS-based Force-clamp Analysis of the Role of Body Stiffness in C. elegans Touch Sensation  

PubMed Central

Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces < 1 ?N and indentation depths < 1 ?m. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans. PMID:23598612

Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Pruitt, Beth L.

2013-01-01

6

A new perceptual paradigm to investigate the visual remapping of others' tactile sensations onto one's own body shows "mirror touch" for the hands  

PubMed Central

The last two decades have seen a multitude of publications showing the activation of an observer’s somatosensory cortical system during the observation of touch on another person. Behavioral demonstrations of “mirror touch,” however, have been slow in coming forward, and have so far primarily been shown as “visual remapping of touch” on the face. The present study uses a new paradigm to investigate the mirroring of others’ tactile sensations: a 2-AFC task of intensity judgment for touch on the observer’s left and right index finger pads. Observers viewed a left and right hand in an egocentric position, which were either touched passively (pencil moving to touch index finger pad) or actively sought touch (index finger moving to touch pencil). Touch and no-touch events for the two viewed hands were designed to eliminate confounding effects of spatial attention. Felt touches were either concurrent with viewed touch or no-touch events, or were delayed in time to assess potential response bias. The findings demonstrate visual remapping of touch for touch on the hands. If touch was shown on one of the hands only (e.g., left), observers were more likely to perceive touch on the same hand (i.e., their own left hand) as more intense than touch on the other hand even if tactile intensities did not differ, compared to touch shown on both or neither hand. These remapping effects occurred only when viewed and felt touches were concurrent, they were strongly modulated by the way in which viewed touch was incurred, and they were more reliable for touch on the left hand. A second, control experiment, in which touch observation was replaced by bright dots shown on or next to the finger pads, confirmed that these effects were largely due to genuine tactile mirroring rather than to somatotopic cueing. This 2-AFC tactile intensity judgment task may be a useful paradigm to investigate the remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto an observer’s own body. PMID:24575070

Gillmeister, Helge

2014-01-01

7

Touched in sensation--moved by respiration: embodied narrative identity--a treatment process.  

PubMed

The aim of this theoretical article is to elaborate on the underpinning of Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy (NPMP). With a narrative and hermeneutic point of departure, we explore the unfolding of a 10-year-long treatment by analysing a particular narrative from this treatment context in relation to some foundational perspectives on movement, sensation and time. A woman in her late thirties suffering from muscular tensions and pain, depression, anxiety and anorexia, came for NPMP. The investigation of her treatment experience is based on the journal written by her physiotherapist and first author of this article. We suggest that new experiences in movement and sensation as well as changes in movement patterns can contribute to retuning in sensation and restructuring of narrative time. Feeding the fictional space and narrative fantasy with new experiences in movement and sensation can help counteracting delusional ideas and assist changes, supporting embodied narrative identity. Ingrid's experience is discussed in the light of Trygve Braatøy's understanding of muscular functions, Knud E Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Paul Ricouer's narrative time. PMID:22716182

Sviland, Randi; Råheim, Målfrid; Martinsen, Kari

2012-12-01

8

An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors  

E-print Network

Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

2008-01-01

9

Use of Decision Support for Clothing Products on the Web Results in No Difference in Perception of Tactile Sensation Than Actually Touching the Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of decision support through visualization to increase tactile sensations (physical sensations) of clothing products. Gap and Anthropologie e-commerce Web sites were selected, and 160 participants (80 for Gap and 80 for Anthropologie) took part in this study. For each brand, the 80 participants were divided into two groups. One group

K. Jeong; S. Jang; J. Chae; G. Cho; Gavriel Salvendy

2008-01-01

10

Touch massage, a rewarding experience.  

PubMed

This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. PMID:24771663

Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

2014-12-01

11

Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.  

PubMed

In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. PMID:22981809

Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

2013-01-01

12

Sensational Seaweed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this culinary activity, learners use multiple senses (sight, smell, touch, and taste!) to explore real seaweed samples. They will compare and contrast land plants with kelp to review the structures and functions of parts, understand that algae is an important producer in aquatic environments, and learn how kelp is adapted to live along the California Coast. They will also explore various types of algae and discuss how the types differ from each other. This lesson guide is standards-based, and includes key vocabulary and wrap-up suggestions.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

13

Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

14

Feel the presence: technologies of touch and distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptic devices for computers and video-game consoles aim to reproduce touch and to engage the user with 'force feedback'. Although physical touch is often associated with proximity and intimacy, technologies of touch can reproduce such sensations over a distance, allowing intricate and detailed operations to be conducted through a network such as the Internet. The 'virtual handshake' between Boston and

Mark Paterson

2006-01-01

15

Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

2014-07-01

16

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch  

PubMed Central

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O'Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-01-01

17

Labeled lines meet and talk: population coding of somatic sensations  

PubMed Central

The somatic sensory system responds to stimuli of distinct modalities, including touch, pain, itch, and temperature sensitivity. In the past century, great progress has been made in understanding the coding of these sensory modalities. From this work, two major features have emerged. First, there are specific neuronal circuits or labeled lines transmitting specific sensory information from the skin to the brain. Second, the generation of specific sensations often involves crosstalk among distinct labeled lines. These features suggest that population coding is the mechanism underlying somatic sensation. PMID:21041959

Ma, Qiufu

2010-01-01

18

The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.  

PubMed

The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

2014-11-21

19

The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

2014-01-01

20

A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.  

PubMed

Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss. PMID:25298320

Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

2014-10-01

21

Music by Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of how robotic touch sensors work is reinforced through a hands-on design challenge involving LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT intelligent bricks, motors and touch sensors. They learn programming skills and logic design in parallel as they program robot computers to play sounds and rotate a wheel when a touch sensor is pressed, and then produce different responses if a different touch sensor is activated. Students see first-hand how robots can take input from sensors and use it to make decisions to move as programmed, including simultaneously moving a motor and playing music. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

22

A Personal Touch -Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior  

E-print Network

with a precision of about 80%, based on just a few touch events. Keywords behavioral biometrics, touch input, largeA Personal Touch - Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior Sarah Martina Kolly Computer a large scale study to research the users' touch screen behavior on standard UI elements. To do so we

23

Physical touch in psychotherapy: Why are we not touching more?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the issue of using touch in psychotherapy and addresses the difficulties encountered in discussing the topic. These difficulties include confusion about the purpose of touch, lack of experience among psychotherapists in the use of touch, and misunderstandings about who actually uses touch in psychotherapy. The article then addresses the anxiety psychotherapists feel about using touch such as

Gill Westland

2011-01-01

24

Headphones with touch control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Touch Headphones are meant for portable music players and aim to present an improvement to the conventional remote control in the headphone wire, and a solution for controls on wireless in-ear type headphones. Two capacitive touch sensors per earpiece sense when earpieces are being tapped on, and being put in or out.

Vincent Buil; Gerard Hollemans; Sander van de Wijdeven

2005-01-01

25

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

26

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces. PMID:24244425

Klocker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Theate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

27

Striking Panel Touch Location Detect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, there are more touch panels that have been extensively used throughout the world. Due to customer input regarding improvements, we have examined the use of technology of touch products. In the market, most of touch monitors used by finger or touch pen get the electricity, capacity effect, or stop sensor signal. From the signal orientates the controller, lots of

Chin-Yu Wang; Hon-Ta Liu; Shih-Yu Shen

2012-01-01

28

Molecular Mechanisms of Itch Sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Itch is a sensation which causes scratching response to protect skin against external harmful reagents. Acute itch arises in short time period after insect bites or allergen contact. Chronic itch happens in various skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis. Chronic itch usually continues for over six weeks and is resistant to commonly used anti-histamine drugs. While pain

SEUNGIL KIM

2011-01-01

29

Harsh environments electronics : downhole applications.  

SciTech Connect

The development and operational sustainment of renewable (geothermal) and non-renewable (fossil fuel) energy resources will be accompanied by increasingly higher costs factors: exploration and site preparation, operational maintenance and repair. Increased government oversight in the wake of the Gulf oil spill will only add to the cost burden. It is important to understand that downhole conditions are not just about elevated temperatures. It is often construed that military electronics are exposed to the upper limit in terms of extreme service environments. Probably the harshest of all service conditions for electronics and electrical equipment are those in oil, gas, and geothermal wells. From the technology perspective, advanced materials, sensors, and microelectronics devices are benefificial to the exploration and sustainment of energy resources, especially in terms of lower costs. Besides the need for the science that creates these breakthroughs - there is also a need for sustained engineering development and testing. Downhole oil, gas, and geothermal well applications can have a wide range of environments and reliability requirements: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Corrosion, and Service duration. All too frequently, these conditions are not well-defifined because the application is labeled as 'high temperature'. This ambiguity is problematic when the investigation turns to new approaches for electronic packaging solutions. The objective is to develop harsh environment, electronic packaging that meets customer requirements of cost, performance, and reliability. There are a number of challenges: (1) Materials sets - solder alloys, substrate materials; (2) Manufacturing process - low to middle volumes, low defect counts, new equipment technologies; and (3) Reliability testing - requirements documents, test methods and modeling, relevant standards documents. The cost to develop and sustain renewable and non-renewable energy resources will continue to escalate within the industry. Downhole electronics can provide a very cost-effective approach for well exploration and sustainment (data logging). However, the harsh environments are a 'game-changer' in terms defining materials, assembly processes and the long-term reliability of downhole electronic systems. The system-level approach will enable the integration of each of these contributors - materials, processes, and reliability - in order to deliver cost-effective electronics that meet customer requirements.

Vianco, Paul Thomas

2011-03-01

30

Crystal Growing The "Touch"  

E-print Network

Crystal Growing The "Touch" I was taught that crystal growing is a knack (a special ready capacity about crystal growing. We all know some people who can grow crystals quite by accident and some that could not grow a crystal if their science depended on it. With that said, there are techniques

Meagher, Mary

31

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

32

Genetics of Human Gastrointestinal Sensation  

PubMed Central

The objective is to review the genetics of human visceral pain with particular emphasis on pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The biomarkers most commonly employed in identifying visceral hypersensitivity are sensation ratings and thresholds or brain imaging during viscus (e.g. rectal) distension. Genetic studies suggest that variation in the control of candidate genes involved in ion channel function, neurotransmitter synthesis, reuptake or receptor functions, and inflammatory disease susceptibility loci may impact variations in prevalence of the symptom phenotype of abdominal pain or IBS, or quantitative traits (intermediate phenotypes) of rectal sensation. The candidate genes include SLC6A4, CNR1, and TNFSF15 reflecting serotonin reuptake, cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory-barrier functions. However, other than TNFSF15, the other candidate genes are only univariately associated with pain, IBS symptom complex or quantitative traits of sensation. These data have generated hypotheses and present opportunities for study of mechanisms and treatment of visceral pain in humans, which remains an unmet clinical need in patients with IBS and functional abdominal pain. PMID:23594334

Camilleri, Michael

2013-01-01

33

Sustained attention to spontaneous thumb sensations activates brain somatosensory and other proprioceptive areas.  

PubMed

The present experiment was designed to test if sustained attention directed to the spontaneous sensations of the right or left thumb in the absence of any external stimuli is able to activate corresponding somatosensory brain areas. After verifying in 34 healthy volunteers that external touch stimuli to either thumb effectively activate brain contralateral somatosensory areas, and after subtracting attention mechanisms employed in both touch and spontaneous-sensation conditions, fMRI evidence was obtained that the primary somatosensory cortex (specifically left BA 3a/3b) becomes active when an individual is required to attend to the spontaneous sensations of either thumb in the absence of external stimuli. In addition, the left superior parietal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, motor and premotor cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Broca's area, and occipital cortices were activated. Moreover, attention to spontaneous-sensations revealed an increased connectivity between BA 3a/3b, superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), probably allowing top-down activations of primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that specific primary somatosensory areas in conjunction with other left parieto-frontal areas are involved in processing proprioceptive and interoceptive bodily information that underlies own body-representations and that these networks and cognitive functions can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. PMID:24727703

Bauer, Clemens C C; Díaz, José-Luis; Concha, Luis; Barrios, Fernando A

2014-06-01

34

Touch Satiety: Differential Effects of Stroking Velocity on Liking and Wanting Touch Over Repetitions  

PubMed Central

A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ?50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

2014-01-01

35

2. Sensations and Attention Brian Whitworth  

E-print Network

? © Brian Whitworth 3 Aristotle's view Sight sense Hearing sense Smell sense Touch sense Taste sense The seven senses · Vision · Hearing · Touch (touch, pressure, temperature, pain) · Smell · Taste of air molecules! · Taste - 1 teaspoon sugar in 2 gal. Water · Smell - one drop perfume diffused in 6

Whitworth, Brian

36

Acupuncture sensation during ultrasound guided acupuncture needling  

PubMed Central

Background Although acupuncture sensation (also known as de qi) is a cornerstone of traditional acupuncture therapy, most research has accepted the traditional method of defining acupuncture sensation only through subjective patient reports rather than on any quantifiable physiological basis. Purpose To preliminarily investigate the frequency of key sensations experienced while needling to specific, quantifiable tissue levels (TLs) guided by ultrasound (US) imaging. Methods Five participants received needling at two acupuncture points and two control points at four TLs. US scans were used to determine when each TL was reached. Each volunteer completed 32 sets of modified Southampton Needle Sensation Questionnaires. Part one of the study tested sensations experienced at each TL and part two compared the effect of oscillation alone versus oscillation + rotation. Results In all volunteers, the frequency of pricking, sharp sensations was significantly greater in shallower TLs than deeper (p=0.007); the frequency of sensations described as deep, dull and heavy, as spreading, and as electric shocks was significantly greater in deeper TLs than shallower (p=0.002). Sensations experienced did not significantly differ between real and control points within each of three TLs (p>0.05) except TL 4 (p=0.006). The introduction of needle rotation significantly increased deep, dull, heavy sensations, but not pricking and sharp sensations; within each level, the spectrum of sensation experienced during both oscillation + rotation and oscillation alone did not significantly differ between acupuncture and control points. Conclusion The preliminary study indicates a strong connection between acupuncture sensation and both tissue depth and needle rotation. Furthermore, the new methodology has been proven feasible. A further study with an objective measurement is warranted. PMID:21642648

Park, Jongbae J.; Akazawa, Margeaux; Ahn, Jaeki; Beckman-Harned, Selena; Lin, Feng-Chang; Lee, Kwangjae; Fine, Jason; Davis, Robert T; Langevin, Helene

2014-01-01

37

What Is The Sensation Seeker? Personality Trait And Experience Correlates Of The Sensation-Seeking Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The correlations of the Sensation Seeking Scale with Personality scales indicate that the general sensation seeking trait is related to an uninhibited, nonconforming, inpulsive, dominant type of extraversion, but not particularly related to the socialization type of extraversion. (Author)

Zuckerman, Marvin; And Others

1972-01-01

38

Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA variant

Jakob Hohwy; Bryan Paton; Antoni Rodriguez-Fornells

2010-01-01

39

Relationship and touch in public settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in touch in U.S. populations have been well demonstrated. The age of participants and the setting in which touch occurs have been shown to affect the gender differences. Some investigators have concluded that a gender asymmetry exists with men touching women more than women touch men. A number of studies have shown that men and women interpret touch

Frank N. Willis Jr; Leon F. Briggs

1992-01-01

40

Tactile C fibers and their contributions to pleasant sensations and to tactile allodynia  

PubMed Central

In humans converging evidence indicates that affective aspects of touch are signaled by low threshold mechanoreceptive C tactile (CT) afferents. Analyses of electrophysiological recordings, psychophysical studies in denervated subjects, and functional brain imaging, all indicate that CT primary afferents contribute to pleasant touch and provide an important sensory underpinning of social behavior. Considering both these pleasant and social aspects of gentle skin-to-skin contact, we have put forward a framework within which to consider CT afferent coding properties and pathways—the CT affective touch hypothesis. Recent evidence from studies in mice suggests that CTs, when activated, may have analgesic or anxiolytic effects. However, in neuropathic pain conditions, light touch can elicit unpleasant sensations, so called tactile allodynia. In humans, tactile allodynia is associated with reduced CT mediated hedonic touch processing suggesting loss of the normally analgesic effect of CT signaling. We thus propose that the contribution of CT afferents to tactile allodynia is mainly through a loss of their normally pain inhibiting role. PMID:24639633

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Olausson, Hakan

2014-01-01

41

Environmental harshness, heat stress, and Marmota flaviventris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were studied at three sites in central Oregon. Juveniles substantially reduced their foraging activity when equivalent black-body temperatures exceeded their upper critical temperature. Inclusion of heat stress into estimates of environmental harshness drastically reduced the differences in available foraging time between high elevation and low elevation sites.

D. R. Webb

1979-01-01

42

Determinants of Harsh Parenting in Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a structural model of the determinants of harsh parenting among Mexican mothers. One hundred five mothers (46 from the community; 59 referred to agencies for child maltreatment) were recruited from Sonora (Northern) Mexico and interviewed. In this model the use of physical punishment was explained by (1) authoritarian parenting style (mothers' beliefs concerning the effective use of

Martha Frías-Armenta; Laura Ann McCloskey

1998-01-01

43

Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic.  

PubMed

Mirror neurons allow us to covertly simulate the sensation and movement of others. If mirror neurons are sensory and motor neurons, why do we not actually feel this simulation- like "mirror-touch synesthetes"? Might afferent sensation normally inhibit mirror representations from reaching consciousness? We and others have reported heightened sensory referral to phantom limbs and temporarily anesthetized arms. These patients, however, had experienced illness or injury of the deafferented limb. In the current study we observe heightened sensory and motor referral to the face after unilateral nerve block for routine dental procedures. We also obtain double-blind, quantitative evidence of heightened sensory referral in healthy participants completing a mirror-touch confusion task after topical anesthetic cream is applied. We suggest that sensory and motor feedback exist in dynamic equilibrium with mirror representations; as feedback is reduced, the brain draws more upon visual information to determine- perhaps in a Bayesian manner- what to feel. PMID:23791606

Case, Laura K; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

2013-08-01

44

Dual Innervation of Neonatal Merkel Cells in Mouse Touch Domes  

PubMed Central

Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

Luo, Wenqin

2014-01-01

45

Protracted delay in taste sensation recovery after surgical lingual nerve repair: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lingual nerve injury is sometimes caused by dental treatment. Many kinds of treatment have been reported, but many have exhibited poor recovery. Here the authors report changes in somatosensory and chemosensory impairments during a long-term observation after lingual nerve repair. Case presentation A 30-year-old Japanese woman claimed dysesthesia and difficulty eating. Quantitative sensory test results indicated complete loss of sensation in the right side of her tongue. She underwent a repair surgery involving complete resection of her lingual nerve using a polyglycolic acid tube containing collagen 9 months after the injury. A year after the operation, her mechanical touch threshold recovered, but no other sensations recovered. Long-term observation of her somatosensory and chemosensory function after the nerve repair suggested that recovery of taste sensation was greatly delayed compared with that of somatosensory function. Conclusion This case shows characteristic changes in somatosensory and chemosensory recoveries during 7 postoperative years and suggests that taste and thermal sensations require a very long time to recover after repair surgery. PMID:23506304

2013-01-01

46

A Stereognostic Test for Screening Tactile Sensation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose of this investigation is to develop a method of measuring tactile sensation regarding the texture, size, and shape of objects (stereognosis) in the hand of normal two- to four-year-old children. (Author)

Tyler, Nancy B.

1972-01-01

47

Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

Cheok, Adrian David

48

Sensation Seekers as a Healthcare Marketing Metasegment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses “sensation seekers” as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and\\/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these

Donald R. Self; Carolyn Sara Findley

2010-01-01

49

Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

Pirich, Ronald

2014-09-01

50

Intergenerational Continuity and Discontinuity in Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The Family Transitions Project began in 1989 to see how rural families in Iowa were coping with the severe economic downturn in agriculture at that time. In this report we show that cohort members who were treated harshly by their parents tended to emulate these behaviors with their children. However, if they co-parented with a partner who demonstrated a warm and supportive parenting style, intergenerational continuity was disrupted. PMID:22754400

Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

2012-01-01

51

Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

2008-01-01

52

Lung afferent activity: implications for respiratory sensation.  

PubMed

Stimuli within the lung can cause the sensations of pain, ache, irritation and urge-to-cough. In general these are abolished or inhibited by vagal section or vagal anaesthesia, or local anaesthesia within the airways. They are present in patients with functional high cervical spinal cord transaction and after general neuromuscular paralysis. There are at least nine sensors in the bronchopulmonary system, studied almost entirely in animals. It is at present impossible to link any one sensor with any one pattern of sensation. It is reasonable to suppose that urge-to-cough arises from sensors what mediate cough, but there are at least five sensors involved in this reflex, and how they relate to unpleasant sensation is unknown. The problem is that sensation can almost only be studied in humans, and the vagal neural mechanisms almost only in other species. Vagal sensors can also ameliorate the sensation of air hunger, and this is probably due to the action of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs). The same sensors may give rise to the awareness of lung volume and its changes. Many sensors in the lungs can be sensitized or desensitized by natural or imposed conditions, and this could underlie the sensitization and desensitization of dyspnoeic sensations that have been described. PMID:18952010

Widdicombe, John

2009-05-30

53

More than a rhythm of life: Breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation  

PubMed Central

When rodents engage in the exploration of novel stimuli, breathing occurs at an accelerated rate that is synchronous with whisking. We review the recently observed relationships between breathing and the sensations of smell and vibrissa-based touch. We consider the hypothesis that the breathing rhythm serves not only as a motor drive signal but also as a common clock that binds these two senses into a common percept. This possibility may be extended to include taste through the coordination of licking with breathing. The status of experimental evidence that pertains to this hypothesis is evaluated. PMID:24762718

Kleinfeld, David; Deschenes, Martin; Wang, Fan; Moore, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

54

Evaluation of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation in children: a reliability study.  

PubMed

Forty-three healthy children aged between six and 12 years were tested to determine the intra-rater reliability of four clinical cutaneous and proprioceptive sensory assessment tools: touch pressure, vibration perception, thermal discrimination and kinaesthesis. The tests were carried out bilaterally on proximal and distal upper- and lower- extremity sites. The mean intraclass coefficients represented good to excellent reliability, which suggests that these assessment tools allow objective and reproducible measurements of cutaneous and proprioceptive sensation in children. The results were compared with existing data in the literature: in general, children and adults obtain similar sensory scores, and sex, age and laterality have no significant effect on the results for any test. However, the touch-pressure and vibration scores were significantly influenced by the site tested, the index fingerpad being the most sensitive area in both tests. PMID:7926330

Thibault, A; Forget, R; Lambert, J

1994-09-01

55

Transfections of animal touch, techniques of biosecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal touch – in the broadest sense, biological touch across species lines – emerges as a biosecurity threat within contemporary contexts of pandemic alert. At the same time, animal touch is increasingly invested with therapeutic, healing value within neoliberal economies of affect. This article develops two genealogies of animal touch toward historicizing the way it has come to mean and

Nicole Shukin

2011-01-01

56

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

57

Helping through touch: The embodiment of caring.  

PubMed

There is a power to touch, and a magic. Some call it mystery. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the various meanings and uses of touch, particularly within the context of relationship and helping. There will be no attempt to formulate a protocol for touch or to lay claim to a definitive meaning for touch. Reflection about touch may instead clarify some of its meanings and dynamics while encouraging care providers to embrace the experience of helping-through-touch. This paper supports a considered use of empathie touch because of its power and its ability to embody care. PMID:24276964

Peloquin, S M

1989-12-01

58

Touch attitudes and behaviors, recollections of early childhood touch, and social self-confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects filled out three touch attitude scales, a measure of recollections of early childhood touch, and a social competence inventory, and then proceeded to record their touches in a log for one week. The touch questionnaires, although correlated with one another, did not predict day-to-day touching as recorded in logs. However, the results also suggest that questionnaire responses (for the

Stanley E. Jones; Brandi C. Brown

1996-01-01

59

In touch with your emotions: oxytocin and touch change social impressions while others' facial expressions can alter touch.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is frequently used for communicating emotions, strengthen social bonds and to give others pleasure. The neuropeptide oxytocin increases social interest, improves recognition of others' emotions, and it is released during touch. Here, we investigated how oxytocin and gentle human touch affect social impressions of others, and vice versa, how others' facial expressions and oxytocin affect touch experience. In a placebo-controlled crossover study using intranasal oxytocin, 40 healthy volunteers viewed faces with different facial expressions along with concomitant gentle human touch or control machine touch, while pupil diameter was monitored. After each stimulus pair, participants rated the perceived friendliness and attractiveness of the faces, perceived facial expression, or pleasantness and intensity of the touch. After intranasal oxytocin treatment, gentle human touch had a sharpening effect on social evaluations of others relative to machine touch, such that frowning faces were rated as less friendly and attractive, whereas smiling faces were rated as more friendly and attractive. Conversely, smiling faces increased, whereas frowning faces reduced, pleasantness of concomitant touch - the latter effect being stronger for human touch. Oxytocin did not alter touch pleasantness. Pupillary responses, a measure of attentional allocation, were larger to human touch than to equally intense machine touch, especially when paired with a smiling face. Overall, our results point to mechanisms important for human affiliation and social bond formation. PMID:24275000

Ellingsen, Dan-Mikael; Wessberg, Johan; Chelnokova, Olga; Olausson, Håkan; Laeng, Bruno; Leknes, Siri

2014-01-01

60

Fiber Bragg grating sensors for harsh environments.  

PubMed

Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments. PMID:22438744

Mihailov, Stephen J

2012-01-01

61

Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.  

PubMed

This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues. PMID:20155549

Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

2010-01-01

62

Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.  

PubMed

In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

2012-12-01

63

TRPV1-lineage neurons are required for thermal sensation  

PubMed Central

The ion-channel TRPV1 is believed to be a major sensor of noxious heat, but surprisingly animals lacking TRPV1 still display marked responses to elevated temperature. In this study, we explored the role of TRPV1-expressing neurons in somatosensation by generating mice wherein this lineage of cells was selectively labelled or ablated. Our data show that TRPV1 is an embryonic marker of many nociceptors including all TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons as well as many Mrg-expressing neurons. Mutant mice lacking these cells are completely insensitive to hot or cold but in marked contrast retain normal touch and mechanical pain sensation. These animals also exhibit defective body temperature control and lose both itch and pain reactions to potent chemical mediators. Together with previous cell ablation studies, our results define and delimit the roles of TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons in thermosensation, thermoregulation and nociception, thus significantly extending the concept of labelled lines in somatosensory coding. PMID:21139565

Mishra, Santosh K; Tisel, Sarah M; Orestes, Peihan; Bhangoo, Sonia K; Hoon, Mark A

2011-01-01

64

Harsh environment fiber optic connectors/testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic systems are used frequently in military, aerospace and commercial aviation programs. There is a long history of implementing fiber optic data transfer for aircraft control, for harsh environment use in local area networks and more recently for in-flight entertainment systems. The advantages of fiber optics include high data rate capacity, low weight, immunity to EMI/RFI, and security from signal tapping. Technicians must be trained particularly to install and maintain fiber systems, but it is not necessarily more difficult than wire systems. However, the testing of the fiber optic interconnection system must be conducted in a standardized manner to assure proper performance. Testing can be conducted with slight differences in the set-up and procedure that produce significantly different test results. This paper reviews various options of interconnect configurations and discusses how these options can affect the performance, maintenance required and longevity of a fiber optic system, depending on the environment. Proper test methods are discussed. There is a review of the essentials of proper fiber optic testing and impact of changing such test parameters as input launch conditions, wavelength considerations, power meter options and the basic methods of testing. This becomes important right from the start when the supplier test data differs from the user's data check upon receiving the product. It also is important in periodic testing. Properly conducting the fiber optic testing will eliminate confusion and produce meaningful test results for a given harsh environment application.

Parker, Douglas A.

2014-09-01

65

Touching Your Photos and Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduced you to the iPod touch’s Photos app and showed you how to navigate your photo collections in a variety\\u000a of ways. We also showed you how your iPod’s wide-screen video features and interactive touchscreen are in a class of their\\u000a own. They offer clear, easy-to-watch video on a (relatively) large screen. In this chapter, you’ve seen how

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

66

To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen

2011-01-01

67

Solar-Blind Photodetectors for Harsh Electronics  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200?V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1?nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 1013?cm?2 of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110?ms (the rise time) and ~ 80?ms (the fall time) at 5?V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments. PMID:24022208

Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G.; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P.; He, Jr-Hau

2013-01-01

68

Dynamic (Kinesthetic) Touch Perception in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preschool years are an important time during which children gain proficiency using the hands for both performatory and perceptual functions that involve dynamic (kinesthetic) touch. We evaluated dynamic touch perception of object extent and found that preschool children are able to discriminate length by dynamic touch early, but perception is not very fine-tuned and perceptual attunement to inertial characteristics

Paula Fitzpatrick; Nicole Flynn

2010-01-01

69

Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate

Shaun K. Kane; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Jacob O. Wobbrock

2008-01-01

70

Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

2008-03-01

71

Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk  

PubMed Central

Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

72

Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in

HEATHER L. BENDER; JOSEPH P. ALLEN; KATHLEEN BOYKIN McELHANEY; JILL ANTONISHAK; CYNTHIA M. MOORE; HEATHER O'BEIRNE KELLY; STEVEN M. DAVIS

2007-01-01

73

Characterization of Deqi Sensation and Acupuncture Effect  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future. PMID:23864884

Yang, Xing-Yue; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

2013-01-01

74

Pain relief by touch: A quantitative approach  

PubMed Central

Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch–pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch–pain interactions. PMID:24361816

Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

2014-01-01

75

Post-Bariatric Abdominoplasty: Skin Sensation Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The number of bariatric surgeries is progressively increasing in the USA and in Brazil. The number of post-bariatric plastic\\u000a surgeries also increases as a response to this phenomenon. Abdominoplasties performed in former morbidly obese patients present\\u000a a larger number of postoperative complications. Studies show that abdominoplasty caused postoperative skin hypesthesia. This\\u000a study aims at evaluating skin sensibility\\/sensation in post-bariatric patients

Rodolpho Alberto Bussolaro; Elvio Bueno Garcia; Marcus Vinicius Jardini Barbosa; Ivan Rene Viana Omonte; Juliana Perez Rodrigues Huijsmans; Roberta Lopes Bariani; Lydia Masako Ferreira

2010-01-01

76

Genetics, adaptation, and invasion in harsh environments  

PubMed Central

We analyze mathematical models to examine how the genetic basis of fitness affects the persistence of a population suddenly encountering a harsh environment where it would go extinct without evolution. The results are relevant for novel introductions and for an established population whose existence is threatened by a sudden change in the environment. The models span a range of genetic assumptions, including identical loci that contribute to absolute fitness, a two-locus quantitative genetic model with nonidentical loci, and a model with major and minor genes affecting a quantitative trait. We find as a general (though not universal) pattern that prospects for persistence narrow as more loci contribute to fitness, in effect because selection per locus is increasingly weakened with more loci, which can even overwhelm any initial enhancement of fitness that adding loci might provide. When loci contribute unequally to fitness, genes of small effect can significantly reduce extinction risk. Indeed, major and minor genes can interact synergistically to reduce the time needed to evolve growth. Such interactions can also increase vulnerability to extinction, depending not just on how genes interact but also on the initial genetic structure of the introduced, or newly invaded, population.

Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Holt, Robert D; Barfield, Michael; Nuismer, Scott L

2010-01-01

77

Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing ?-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

2014-09-01

78

The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-01-01

79

The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting.  

PubMed

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-08-20

80

Compact harsh environment energy conversion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for energy is leading the industry into drilling deeper wells. Typically, a temperature gradient of 1°C/150 ft can be expected, with bottom hole temperatures reaching beyond 200°C in many areas of the world. Moreover, the increased recovery benefits and cost reductions possible with the use of horizontal and multilateral wells has triggered a need for higher power energy conversion systems in bottom hole assemblies, such as rotary steerable tools and downhole tractors. The concepts developed throughout this work address some of these new needs. This research investigated improvements, novel solutions and considerations that will lead to significant advantages in terms of reliability, extended temperature operation, increased power capability and reduced size and cost of compact harsh environment energy conversion systems. Improvements to both the electromechanical subsystem and the power electronic subsystem are introduced. Air gap viscous losses were shown to a have a significant effect on the optimal design of submersible PM (permanent magnet) machines, and a design procedure to account for this loss component in the design was developed. The application of a dual winding exterior rotor PM machine in a downhole environment enabled a significant increase in the application's torque capability, provided protection against generator winding over voltage, and reduced parts count. Comprehensive switching device qualification, testing, and simulation lead to a simple failure mitigation technique for the operation of the most suitable devices at elevated temperature. A flying capacitor multilevel inverter was then successfully constructed and temperature tested. A novel motor drive concept suited for elevated temperature oil filled environment applications concluded the research.

Ahmed, Shehab

81

Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the Radiation Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack (RTIMS).

2008-01-01

82

Aluminum Nitride Sensors for Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Harsh environment applications include high temperature, pressure and mechanical shock. Aluminum nitride is a strong ceramic material with very good high temperature survivability. It also has piezoelectric properties that can be used for sensing applications and it can be deposited with good control as thin polycrystalline film for the fabrication of micro-electromechanical systems. In this dissertation, optimized deposition parameters for aluminum nitride films and characterization techniques for film stress gradients are investigated. Furthermore, two different fabrication processes are presented that can be used to build several sensors and other micromechanical elements on a single chip. The more advanced process includes a bulk-micromachining step that enables the use of the silicon substrate as large proof masses for accelerometers. At the same time, the fabrication process can be used to create membranes for devices such as pressure sensors. Several different devices are discussed from the device design and theoretical analysis to the fabrication and experimental verification. The most significant contribution is the performance improvement of several orders of magnitude that can be achieved with aluminum nitride accelerometers by switching from double-ended tuning forks to triple-beam tuning forks and by using the newly discovered sensing concept of bent-beam sensing. Additionally, rate gyroscopes were presented that use aluminum nitride as the structural material and for both actuating the drive axis and reading the sense axis. Both types of sensors have potential applications in inertial navigation at high temperature. Double-ended tuning forks and triple-beam tuning forks were tested in hot environment and it was shown that they can be used as highly sensitive strain sensors up to at least 570 °C. Additionally, a testing setup for high temperature testing of accelerometers was demonstrated.

Goericke, Fabian Thomas

83

Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration. PMID:22737122

Klocker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

84

Circadian typology and sensation seeking in adolescents.  

PubMed

The relationship of circadian typology with personality has been largely studied in adults, but there are few studies exploring such relationship in adolescents. Adolescence has been associated with a greater tendency to eveningness preference, sleeping problems, poorer academic achievement, earlier substance use, or risky behaviors, and it is suggested that this association might be mediated by personality factors. Given the relevance of identifying the behavioral outcomes of young evening types to detect and prevent health problems, the present study aimed to explore, for the first time, the relationship between sensation seeking and circadian typology in an adolescent sample of 688 students (51.45% boys) from 12 to 16 yrs old. They answered the Spanish versions of the Morningness-Eveningness Scale for Children (MESC) and the Junior Sensation Seeking Scale (J-SSS), which includes four subscales measuring Thrill and Adventure Seeking, Experience Seeking, Disinhibition, and Boredom Susceptibility. Analyses showed that boys obtained significantly higher scores than girls on J-SSS total score and all subscales except Boredom Susceptibility, whereas evening-type adolescents of both sexes scored significantly higher than neither types and than morning types on J-SSS total score. These results indicate that evening-type adolescents show a greater desire for varied, new, complex, and intense sensations, and they are ready for experiencing more risks than morning types. The implications of this study suggest the need of being aware of individual differences in the SS trait in evening-type adolescents, as well as taking into account the wide variety of behaviors associated with it, either prosocial or antisocial, to design better preventive health and academic programs. PMID:23130757

Muro, Anna; Gomà-i-Freixanet, Montserrat; Adan, Ana

2012-12-01

85

Building Interactive Multi-Touch Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multi-touch interaction with computationally enhanced surfaces has received considerable attention in recent years. Hardware\\u000a implementations of multi-touch interaction such as Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) and Diffuse Illumination (DI)\\u000a have allowed for the low cost development of surfaces. Although many of these technologies and associated applications have\\u000a been presented in academic settings, the practicalities of building a high quality multi-touch

Johannes Schöning; Jonathan Hook; Nima Motamedi; Patrick Olivier; Florian Echtler; Peter Brandl; Laurence Muller; Florian Daiber; Otmar Hilliges; Markus Löchtefeld; Tim Roth; Dominik Schmidt; Ulrich von Zadow

2009-01-01

86

Generating STR profile from "Touch DNA".  

PubMed

As forensic DNA technology has become a common tool in criminal investigations, scientists have attempted to obtain DNA evidence from what were once considered unlikely sources. "Touch DNA" refers to the DNA that is left behind from skin cells when a person touches or comes into contact with an item. This present study shows, DNA profiling of touched evidence materials is reported employing a combination of LCN typing and miniSTRs. The technology is highly valuable for increasing the scope of DNA profiling to large number touched evidence materials. PMID:21907930

Aditya, Sangeeta; Sharma, A K; Bhattacharyya, C N; Chaudhuri, Keya

2011-10-01

87

Capacitive pressure sensors based on MEMS, operating in harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poly-crystalline silicon carbide (polysic) Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive pressure sensors operating at harsh environments (e.g. high temperature) are proposed because of SiC owing excellent electrical stability, mechanical robustness, and chemical inertness properties. The principle of this paper is, design, simulation. The application of SiC pressure sensors are in a harsh environments such as automotive industries, aerospace, oil\\/logging equipments, nuclear station,

Y. Hezarjaribi; M. N. Hamidon; S. H. Keshmiri; A. R. Bahadorimehr

2008-01-01

88

Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

89

Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

2011-01-01

90

Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

2013-05-01

91

How Haptic Size Sensations Improve Distance Perception  

PubMed Central

Determining distances to objects is one of the most ubiquitous perceptual tasks in everyday life. Nevertheless, it is challenging because the information from a single image confounds object size and distance. Though our brains frequently judge distances accurately, the underlying computations employed by the brain are not well understood. Our work illuminates these computions by formulating a family of probabilistic models that encompass a variety of distinct hypotheses about distance and size perception. We compare these models' predictions to a set of human distance judgments in an interception experiment and use Bayesian analysis tools to quantitatively select the best hypothesis on the basis of its explanatory power and robustness over experimental data. The central question is: whether, and how, human distance perception incorporates size cues to improve accuracy. Our conclusions are: 1) humans incorporate haptic object size sensations for distance perception, 2) the incorporation of haptic sensations is suboptimal given their reliability, 3) humans use environmentally accurate size and distance priors, 4) distance judgments are produced by perceptual “posterior sampling”. In addition, we compared our model's estimated sensory and motor noise parameters with previously reported measurements in the perceptual literature and found good correspondence between them. Taken together, these results represent a major step forward in establishing the computational underpinnings of human distance perception and the role of size information. PMID:21738457

Battaglia, Peter W.; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R.

2011-01-01

92

TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion  

E-print Network

TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion Abstract Attacks that use are ineffective on smartphones without physi- cal keyboards. We describe a new side channel, motion, on touch screen smartphones with only soft keyboards. Since typing on different locations on the screen causes

Chen, Hao

93

""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done  

E-print Network

""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done Ken Crawford, DuPontKen Crawford, DuPont Kent Haggerty, DupontKent Haggerty, Dupont #12;OverviewOverview · Test Before Touch (TBT Voltage Testing · Summary & Conclusions #12;#12;How Would You Verify Power is Off?How Would You Verify

94

TouchLight: An Imaging Touch Screen and Display for Gesture-Based Interaction  

E-print Network

projection screen material (DNP HoloScreen) which permits projection onto a transparent sheet of acrylicTouchLight: An Imaging Touch Screen and Display for Gesture-Based Interaction Andrew D. Wilson Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA awilson@microsoft.com ABSTRACT A novel touch screen

Dumais, Susan

95

Hearing as substitution for sensation: a new principle for artificial sensibility.  

PubMed

We describe a new principle for artificial sensibility of the hand based on sense substitution, using hearing as substitution for loss of sensation. The experiments were performed on 3 patients who had recently undergone isolated median nerve repair, 1 patient with replantation of an amputated forearm, 1 patient using a myoelectric prosthesis, and 4 patients using cosmetic prostheses. Small condenser microphones were mounted dorsally on the distal phalanges of multiple fingers of the nonsensate hands or prostheses. The friction sound, reflecting the vibrotactile stimuli generated by the moving touch of the objects, was picked up by the microphones and processed in a stereo amplifier that separated signals from individual fingers into different channels. The signals were transmitted to earphones, making possible a spatial resolution that enabled identification of each finger by the generated acoustic stimuli. Since the friction sound is characteristic of specific surfaces and textures, the corresponding acoustic stimuli made possible identification of different textures, such as glass, metal, wood, and paper, without using vision. We conclude that sense substitution using specifically processed acoustic stimuli as a substitute for sensation may represent a useful principle for generation of artificial sensibility in prostheses or hands lacking sensibility due to lesions in the peripheral or central nervous system or because of neurologic disease. PMID:10194002

Lundborg, G; Rosén, B; Lindberg, S

1999-03-01

96

The Sensory Neurons of Touch  

PubMed Central

The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

2013-01-01

97

The performance of touch screen soft buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments

Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai

2009-01-01

98

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

99

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

100

Tactile interfaces for small touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, implementation, and informal evaluation of tactile interfaces for small touch screens used in mobile devices. We embedded a tactile apparatus in a Sony PDA touch screen and enhanced its basic GUI elements with tactile feedback. Instead of observing the response of interface controls, users can feel it with their fingers as they press the screen. In

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama

2003-01-01

101

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept  

E-print Network

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept U. Pal a,*, A. Belaiid b , Ch. Choisy b is mainly based on features obtained from a concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

Belaïd, Abdel

102

Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2012-01-01

103

Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

2006-01-01

104

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

Levesque, Vincent

105

SENSATION SEEKING AND VOLUNTEERING FOR SENSORY DEPRIVATION AND HYPNOSIS EXPERIMENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 STUDIES CONDUCTED AT 3 DIFFERENT UNIVERSITIES TESTED THE HYPOTHESIS OF A RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A SENSATION-SEEKING TENDENCY AND VOLUNTEERING FOR EXPERIMENTS IN HYPNOSIS AND SENSORY DEPRIVATION. MALE AND FEMALE UNDERGRADUATES WHO VOLUNTEERED FOR HYPNOSIS EXPERIMENTS WERE FOUND TO BE SIGNIFICANTLY HIGHER ON THE SENSATION-SEEKING SCALE (SSS) THAN NONVOLUNTEERS. FEMALES VOLUNTEERING FOR SENSORY DEPRIVATION EXPERIMENTS WERE HIGHER ON THE SSS THAN

MARVIN ZUCKERMAN; DUANE P. SCHULTZ; T. ROBERT HOPKINS

1967-01-01

106

Sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception.  

PubMed

This study aimed to elaborate the relationships between sensation-seeking, Internet dependency, and online interpersonal deception. Of the 707 individuals recruited to this study, 675 successfully completed the survey. The results showed high sensation-seekers and high Internet dependents were more likely to engage in online interpersonal deception than were their counterparts. PMID:18422419

Lu, Hung-Yi

2008-04-01

107

Camera Motions Improve the Sensation of Walking in Virtual Environments  

E-print Network

Camera Motions Improve the Sensation of Walking in Virtual Environments Anatole Lécuyer 1 SIAMES This paper investigates the use of camera motions, in order to improve the sensation of walking in a Virtual.e. a linear motion, as if the user was driving a car). Furthermore, the participants preferred oscillating

Lindeman, Robert W.

108

Appetite Sensations in Pregnancy among Agropastoral Women in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women all over the globe report physical and appetite sensations in early pregnancy, and this study contributes to this growing literature by reporting on the appetite sensations experienced by pregnant women from rural Tanzania. Appetite changes associated with 545 pregnancies were compiled from surveys conducted to report on the prevalence of appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, joint pain, cravings, aversions,

Crystal L. Patil

2012-01-01

109

Sensation of agency and perception of temporal order.  

PubMed

After adaptation to a fixed temporal delay between actions and their sensory consequences, stimuli delivered during the delay are perceived to occur prior to actions. Temporal judgments are also influenced by the sensation of agency (experience of causing our own actions and their sensory consequences). Sensory consequences of voluntary actions are perceived to occur earlier in time than those of involuntary actions. However, it is unclear whether temporal order illusions influence the sensation of agency. Thus, we tested how the illusionary reversal of motor actions and sound events affect the sensation of agency. We observed an absence of the sensation of agency in the auditory modality in a condition in which sounds were falsely perceived as preceding motor acts relative to the perceived temporal order in the control condition. This finding suggests a strong association between the sensation of agency and the temporal order perception of actions and their consequences. PMID:24362412

Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

2014-01-01

110

Evaluating the effects of intimate touch instruction: facilitating professional and respectful touch by male nursing students.  

PubMed

Nurses are expected to touch areas of patients' bodies that are considered private and emotionally sensitive (intimate), yet little is known about how nursing students learn, rehearse, and incorporate appropriate touch strategies. Although touch education is important to all nurses, male students face additional challenges due to gender roles and negative stereotypes. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to evaluate whether a 3-hour intimate touch instructional laboratory with subsequent clinical experience (intervention group) facilitated male students' development of intimate touch knowledge, skills, and attitudes, compared with having only clinical experience and no laboratory (control group). Findings revealed that intervention group participants were significantly more comfortable with cleansing genitalia, less apprehensive about touch being misperceived as sexual, reported less gender requirement rigidity, and scored significantly higher on measures associated with client dignity, comfort, and respect than control group participants in a simulated perineal hygiene demonstration. PMID:24512337

O'Lynn, Chad; Krautscheid, Lorretta

2014-03-01

111

Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines an alternative method for teaching typewriting skills--the Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method using the principles of response conditioning. (Author/RK)

Diercks, Caroll J.

1977-01-01

112

Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on our extensive experiences with two types of interactive multi-touch tables and we introduce a software framework that abstracts from their technical differences.

Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

113

Developing Robot Motions by Simulated Touch Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a very powerful but not much studied communication mean in human-robot interaction. Nonetheless many robots are not\\u000a equipped with touch sensors, because it is often difficult to place such sensors over the robot surface or simply because\\u000a the main task of the robot does not require them. We propose an approach that allows developing motions for a real

Fabio Dalla Libera; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Enrico Pagello; Emanuele Menegatti

2008-01-01

114

Oxytocin facilitates the sensation of social stress.  

PubMed

Essentially all social species experience social stress which can be a catalyst for detriments in mental and physical health. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to produce anxiolytic and antistress effects, thereby qualifying the OXT system as a promising drug target in the treatment of stress-related disorders. However, recently it has been shown that OXT can have anxiogenic effects as well. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 60 healthy men while they were exposed to social stress after they received either intranasal OXT (24 IU) or placebo treatment. Although OXT administration did not alter salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate marker of stress axis activity, our participants initially reported an increment in perceived social stress. This behavioral effect was paralleled on the neural level by increased activity in the precuneus and cingulate cortex. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that OXT can induce a self-referential processing bias which facilitates the sensation of social stress in the absence of altered endocrine responses. PMID:24659430

Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Weber, Kristina; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

2014-09-01

115

Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

2008-01-01

116

Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

117

Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns  

PubMed Central

This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

Smaldino, Paul E.

2013-01-01

118

Screening for Harsh Punishment in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine: (1) the prevalence of harsh punishment among parents in a pediatric clinic, and (2) the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and stability of a brief screening measure. Methods: A subset of families involved in a study of child maltreatment prevention were recruited for this study. Two items in a parent screening…

Feigelman, Susan; Dubowitz, Howard; Lane, Wendy; Prescott, Leslie; Meyer, Walter; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Kim, Jeongeun

2009-01-01

119

Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

2010-01-01

120

Sensation seeking and the use and selection of media materials.  

PubMed

175 individuals recruited from urban universities (n=82) and the surrounding community (120 women, 55 men; 82 18- to 25-yr.-olds, 26 26- to 34-yr.-olds, 44 35- to 50-yr.-olds, 23 50 yr. old or over) completed a sensation seeking scale and measures of the frequency with which they used specific media and selected specific television programming, film, and music genres. Regression analyses showed Sensation Seeking to be associated positively with Movie Theatre Attendance and with the Selection of Urban Music Genres. Sensation Seeking was also associated negatively with Selection of Light Film Genres. PMID:16279330

Hall, Alice

2005-08-01

121

Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

2013-01-01

122

The Development and Nature of the Construct Touch Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch avoidance is a nonverbal communication predisposition that consists of same sex touch avoidance and opposite sex touch avoidance. It is related to communication apprehension, self-disclosure, self-esteem, and a series of cultural role variables. These seem to have the greatest relationship with the measures of touch avoidance. (Author)

Andersen, Peter A.; Leibowitz, Kenneth

1978-01-01

123

Moment of Inertia: Psychophysical Study of an Overlooked Sensation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the distribution of mass in a hand-held object as a fundamental but unrecognized contributor to the sensation one receives from the object. Experiments producing fractions for human sensitivity are given. (SA)

Science, 1979

1979-01-01

124

Discovering and Learning Sensational Episodes of News Events  

E-print Network

had gained much sensation among soccer reporters and fans in the world. When the Welsh soccer player people. Such pairs of co-occurring news events within short period, while not necessarily bearing causal

Li, Chengkai

125

Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points  

PubMed Central

Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha. PMID:23935663

Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

2013-01-01

126

Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

1988-01-01

127

The effect of age on neural processing of pleasant soft touch stimuli  

PubMed Central

Tactile interactions with our environment stimulate afferent fibers within the skin, which deliver information about sensations of pain, texture, itch and other feelings to the brain as a comprehensive sense of self. These tactile interactions can stimulate brain regions involved in interoception and reward processing. This study examined subjective, behavioral, and neural processing as a function of age during stimulation of A-beta (A?) and C tactile (CT) afferents using a soft brush stroke task. 16 adolescents (ages 15–17), 22 young adults (ages 20–28), and 20 mature adults (ages 29–55) underwent a simple continuous performance task while periodically anticipating and experiencing a soft touch to the palm or forearm, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI results showed that adolescents displayed greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults across all conditions and stimulus types. Adolescents also demonstrated greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults specifically in response to the soft touch condition. Adolescents also exhibited greater activation than mature adults in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during the soft touch condition. However, mature adults showed greater striatum activation than adolescents and young adults during anticipation. In the left anterior cingulate cortex, mature adults exhibited greater activation than adolescents and young adults when anticipating the upcoming touch. These results support the hypothesis that adolescents show an exaggerated neural response to pleasant stimulation of afferents, which may have profound effects on how they approach or avoid social and risky situations. In particular, heightened interoceptive reactivity to pleasant stimuli might cause adolescents to seek experiences that are associated with pleasant stimulation. PMID:24600366

May, April C.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.

2014-01-01

128

Touch: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects  

E-print Network

is equally effective for a pencil, a door- knob, a mobile phone or a table. Gesture recognition also scales with Touché is trivial: a single electrode embedded into an object and attached to our sensor controller electrode ­ no additional instrumentation is nec- essary. Finally, Touché is inexpensive, safe, low power

Poupyrev, Ivan

129

Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information. PMID:23989235

Cross, Catharine P.; Cyrenne, De-Laine M.; Brown, Gillian R.

2013-01-01

130

ENLARGE IMAGE Virtual touch. Electronic fingertips could  

E-print Network

. The team hopes to one day incorporate the devices into a smart glove that creates virtual sensations-fingertips-pave-way-for-vi.html?rss... #12;AUGUST 10, 2012 Too Much Rock 'n' Roll? AUGUST 6, 2012 Mars Rover Already Doing Science JULY 22

Rogers, John A.

131

Perception of touch quality in piano tones.  

PubMed

Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

2014-11-01

132

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching  

PubMed Central

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

2011-01-01

133

Application suitability and reliability of harsh environment fiber optic interconnects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe environments, demanding performance and cost effectiveness characterize current harsh environment system interconnect needs. The increasing use of fiber optics in these applications mandates reliable, safe and efficient fiber optic (FO) interconnect systems. Reliability, safety, bandwidth, and environmental requirements necessitate the transition from copper wire based to fiber optic based systems. Discussed are the technologies, environments, and performance requirements applicable to these applications, along with the trade decisions necessary to implement solutions. This paper addresses harsh environment fiber optic reliability requirements, fiber optic reliability characterization, potential FO interconnect failure modes, and the how to quantify fiber optic reliability. A case study is presented that encompasses the applicable environments for such interconnects, quantifies the inherent reliability of the FO interconnect system in such environments, and provides fiber optic interconnect reliability risk mitigation strategies. FO interconnect failure prediction is also discussed.

Reid, William M.

2014-09-01

134

Using high-power LEDs in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are becoming common as energy efficient light sources. Their long life, small footprint and low energy consumption show great promise in many applications including those that relate to harsh environments. However, in designing an efficient light source, a mathematical model is required. The development of such a mathematical model was identified as a priority task by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2010 for general lighting. In this paper, we report an experiment involving two high-power white LED models which were stressed with different currents and junction temperatures. It shows the large variation between different models and stress conditions that takes place in the degradation process. This is part of an effort to develop a tool for the simulation of LED degradation for harsh environment lighting conditions.

Bouchard, Sébastien; Thibault, Simon

2013-05-01

135

Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

2010-01-01

136

Microflown based sound pressure microphone suitable for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several cases where a sound field reconstruction or prediction is required under harsh conditions such as high temperature, humidity or chemical attack. A regular pressure microphone will not last long under these conditions. Electret based pressure microphones stop working well above 70 degrees centigrade and other type of pressure microphones often operate with a built in amplifier that does not function above 120 degrees centigrade. The functionality of a MEMS based Microflown acoustic particle velocity sensor in air lies in the use of two heated platinum wires that are resistant to high temperatures and chemical attack. The wires are supported by silicon that has no other function than provide support. A pressure microphone is made based upon the Microflown principle by putting it in the opening of an enclosure. In this paper a silicon and platinum based sound probe for harsh environments is created, combining particle velocity and pressure measurements in a harsh environment. Use of this sensor is possible up to 250 degrees centigrade, in humid and under most chemical environments. The probe realization as well as calibration measurements are presented.

Yntema, D. R.; de Bree, Hans-Elias

2005-09-01

137

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects. PMID:24416318

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

138

Frontal reactivity and sensation seeking an ERP study in skydivers.  

PubMed

1. In the line of Zuckerman's studies on sensation seeking and optimal level of arousal, the authors hypothesized that high sensation seeking might be used to compensate for anhedonia due to basal arousal deficit. A population of interest was found with parachutists practicing skydiving, generally described as very high sensation seekers. 2. After clinical assessment of emotional and affective components, amplitudes of the frontal P3 of the ERP were used as indices of arousal. 3. Skydivers presented more negative symptoms (anhedonia and blunted-affect) than controls. This was observed in isolation from any depressive episode, which would suggest the presence of emotional deficit as a trait. As expected, skydivers presented more sensation seeking than controls. These two results taken together could indicate that sensation seeking is an adaptive reaction to anhedonia. 4. ERP results showed that frontal P3 amplitudes were larger in skydivers than in controls, whereas in a previous study we showed the opposite in depressed patients with a similar emotional deficit. This could indicate that the frontal P3 amplitude does not reflect the emotional deficit per se. We suggest that it rather reflects the capacity to use some behaviors which improve automatic attentional processes in order to obtain arousing stimulation that could counterbalance the emotional deficit. Depressions with emotional deficit might be due to the lack of such a capacity. PMID:10378229

Pierson, A; Le Houezec, J; Fossaert, A; Dubal, S; Jouvent, R

1999-04-01

139

Smoking Trajectories Across High School: Sensation Seeking and Hookah Use  

PubMed Central

Introduction: This study investigated the associations of trajectories of cigarette smoking over the high school years with the prior development of childhood sensation seeking and the subsequent use of cigarettes and hookah at age 20/21. Methods: Participants (N = 963) were members of a cohort-sequential longitudinal study, the Oregon Youth Substance Use Project. Sensation seeking was assessed across 4th–8th grades and cigarette smoking was assessed across 9th–12th grades. Cigarette and hookah use was assessed at age 20/21 for 684 of the 963 participants. Results: Four trajectory classes were identified: Stable High Smokers (6%), Rapid Escalators (8%), Experimenters (15%), and Stable Nonsmokers or very occasional smokers (71%). Membership in any smoker class versus nonsmokers was predicted by initial level and growth of sensation seeking. At age 20/21, there was a positive association between smoking and hookah use for Nonsmokers and Experimenters in high school, whereas this association was not significant for Stable High Smokers or Rapid Escalators. Conclusions: Level and rate of growth of sensation seeking are risk factors for adolescent smoking during high school (Stable High Smokers, Rapid Escalators, and Experimenters), suggesting the need for interventions to reduce the rate of increase in childhood sensation seeking. For those who were not already established smokers by the end of high school, hookah use may have served as a gateway to smoking. PMID:23322766

2013-01-01

140

Stochastic facilitation of artificial tactile sensation in primates.  

PubMed

Artificial sensation via electrical or optical stimulation of brain sensory areas offers a promising treatment for sensory deficits. For a brain-machine-brain interface, such artificial sensation conveys feedback signals from a sensorized prosthetic limb. The ways neural tissue can be stimulated to evoke artificial sensation and the parameter space of such stimulation, however, remain largely unexplored. Here we investigated whether stochastic facilitation (SF) could enhance an artificial tactile sensation produced by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Two rhesus monkeys learned to use a virtual hand, which they moved with a joystick, to explore virtual objects on a computer screen. They sought an object associated with a particular artificial texture (AT) signaled by a periodic ICMS pattern delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) through a pair of implanted electrodes. During each behavioral trial, aperiodic ICMS (i.e., noise) of randomly chosen amplitude was delivered to S1 through another electrode pair implanted 1 mm away from the site of AT delivery. Whereas high-amplitude noise worsened AT detection, moderate noise clearly improved the detection of weak signals, significantly raising the proportion of correct trials. These findings suggest that SF could be used to enhance prosthetic sensation. PMID:23055496

Medina, Leonel E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2012-10-10

141

When Principals Lose Touch with the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many teachers believe that their administrators have lost touch with life in the classroom, and the resulting gap is a serious concern. Closing a perception gap between principals and teachers is critical if they are to work together for their mutual benefit and that of the children they serve. The authors of this article asked a group of veteran,…

Jorgenson, Olaf; Peal, Christopher

2008-01-01

142

The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

Schneider, Elaine Fogel

1996-01-01

143

Touch-Enabled Interfaces Ming C. Lin  

E-print Network

, and pediatric IV; PICC; phlebotomy; and skills assessment #12;Virtual Endoscopic Surgery Training VEST System · Endovascular simulator - Percutaneous coronary and peripheral interventions and cardiac rhythm management/follow path #12;Laparoscopic Surgery · MIT Touch Lab #12;Molecular Dynamics · VMD: Visual Molecular Dynamics

North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

144

Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.

145

Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

Dierks, Caroll J.

146

Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

2014-01-01

147

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures  

E-print Network

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

Chen, Sheng-Wei

148

Novel targeted sensory reinnervation technique to restore functional hand sensation after transhumeral amputation.  

PubMed

We present a case study of a novel variation of the targeted sensory reinnervation technique that provides additional control over sensory restoration after transhumeral amputation. The use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials on individual fascicles of the median and ulnar nerves allowed us to specifically target sensory fascicles to reroute to target cutaneous nerves at a distance away from anticipated motor sites in a transhumeral amputee. This resulted in restored hand maps of the median and ulnar nerve in discrete spatially separated areas. In addition, the subject was able to use native and reinnervated muscle sites to control a robotic arm while simultaneously sensing touch and force feedback from the robotic gripper in a physiologically correct manner. This proof of principle study is the first to demonstrate the ability to have simultaneous dual flow of information (motor and sensory) within the residual limb. In working towards clinical deployment of a sensory integrated prosthetic device, this surgical method addresses the important issue of restoring a usable access point to provide natural hand sensation after upper limb amputation. PMID:24760915

Hebert, Jacqueline S; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Dawson, Michael R; Marasco, Paul D; Kuiken, Todd A; Chan, K Ming

2014-07-01

149

TapTap: A Haptic Wearable for Asynchronous Distributed Touch  

E-print Network

emotion, in part because even an abstract representation of touch can convey presence. Psychologist Harry Harlow demonstrated that maternal touch was critical to the development of infant rhesus monkeys

Ishii, Hiroshi

150

Allodynia: When Touch Hurts But Shouldn't  

MedlinePLUS

... Print Email Allodynia: When Touch Hurts But Shouldn't ACHE Newsletter Sign up for our newsletter by ... address below. Allodynia: When Touch Hurts But Shouldn't Gretchen E. Tietjen, MD Key Points: Allodynia is ...

151

Touched by a robot: an investigation of subjective responses to robot-initiated touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

By initiating physical contact with people, robots can be more useful. For example, a robotic caregiver might make contact to provide physical assistance or facilitate communication. So as to better understand how people respond to robot-initiated touch, we conducted a 2x2 between-subjects experiment with 56 people in which a robotic nurse autonomously touched and wiped the subject's forearm. Our independent

Tiffany L. Chen; Chih-Hung King; Andrea Lockerd Thomaz; Charles C. Kemp

2011-01-01

152

The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing  

PubMed Central

Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10–20 Hz) – and a beta-band response (25–30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements.

Singh, Harsimrat; Bauer, Markus; Chowanski, Wojtek; Sui, Yi; Atkinson, Douglas; Baurley, Sharon; Fry, Martin; Evans, Joe; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

2014-01-01

153

Imprecision, Inaccuracy, and Frustration: The Tale of Touch Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Touch and multi-touch technologies have generated a great deal of excitement. In this chapter we focus on addressing the fundamental\\u000a limitations associated with the use of touch as the primary input mechanism. We discuss seven problems facing the users of\\u000a touch-based interfaces and offer a set of possible solutions from the available research so far. In particular, we address\\u000a issues

Hrvoje Benko; Daniel Wigdor

154

Enabling aspects of fiber optic acoustic sensing in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of optical fiber sensing in harsh electromagnetic as well as physical stress environments make them uniquely suited for structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing. In addition to aerospace applications they are making a strong footprint in geophysical monitoring and exploration applications for higher temperature and pressure environments, due to the high temperature resilience of fused silica glass sensors. Deeper oil searches and geothermal exploration and harvesting are possible with these novel capabilities. Progress in components and technologies that are enabling these systems to be fieldworthy are reviewed and emerging techniques summarized that could leapfrog the system performance and reliability.

Saxena, Indu F.

2013-05-01

155

Effect of Touch-Screen Size on Game Matt Thompson  

E-print Network

Effect of Touch-Screen Size on Game Immersion Matt Thompson Department of Computer Science York YO the influence on players' game immersion level by changing the size of the touch screen device used. We use two of touch screen could be an important factor to influence immersion in videogames. game, immersion, screen

Cairns, Paul

156

The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

157

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

E-print Network

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

Boyer, Edmond

158

Clinical Holistic Medicine: Classic Art of Healingor the Therapeutic Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touching is often a forgotten part of medicine. The manual medicine or therapeutic touch (TT) is much more powerful than many modern, biomedically oriented physicians think. Pain and discomfort can be alleviated just by touching the sick area and in this way help the patient to be in better contact with the tissue and organs of their body. Lack of

Soren Ventegodt; Mohammed Morad; Joav Merrick

2004-01-01

159

A Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications  

PubMed Central

High temperature sensors capable of operating in harsh environments are needed in order to prevent disasters caused by structural or system functional failures due to increasing temperatures. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they require either physical contact or a battery power supply for signal communication, and furthermore, neither of them can withstand high temperatures nor rotating applications. This paper presents a novel passive wireless temperature sensor, suitable for working in harsh environments for high temperature rotating component monitoring. A completely passive LC resonant telemetry scheme, relying on a frequency variation output, which has been applied successfully in pressure, humidity and chemical measurement, is integrated with a unique high-k temperature sensitive ceramic material, in order to measure the temperatures without contacts, active elements, or power supplies within the sensor. In this paper, the high temperature sensor design and performance analysis are conducted based on mechanical and electrical modeling, in order to maximize the sensing distance, the Q factor and the sensitivity. In the end, the sensor prototype is fabricated and calibrated successfully up to 235°C, so that the concept of temperature sensing through passive wireless communication is proved.

Wang, Ya; Jia, Yi; Chen, Qiushui; Wang, Yanyun

2008-01-01

160

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2010-10-22

161

Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

2013-01-01

162

Remote driven and read MEMS sensors for harsh environments.  

PubMed

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

Knobloch, Aaron J; Ahmad, Faisal R; Sexton, Dan W; Vernooy, David W

2013-01-01

163

Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Taiwanese high school adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined excessive Internet use of Taiwanese adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents. Seven hundred and fifty three Taiwanese high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users. Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line

Sunny S. J. Lin; Chin-Chung Tsai

2002-01-01

164

Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

1978-01-01

165

Statistical analysis of unsolicited thermal sensation complaints in commercial buildings  

SciTech Connect

Unsolicited complaints from 23,500 occupants in 690 commercial buildings were examined with regard to absolute and relative frequency of complaints, temperatures at which thermal sensation complaints (too hot or too cold) occurred, and response times and actions. The analysis shows that thermal sensation complaints are the single most common complaint of any type and that they are the overwhelming majority of environmental complaints. The analysis indicates that thermal sensation complaints are mostly the result of poor control performance and HVAC system faults rather than inter-individual differences in preferred temperatures. The analysis also shows that the neutral temperature in summer is greater than in winter, and the difference between summer and winter neutral temperatures is smaller than the difference between the midpoints of the summer and winter ASHRAE comfort zones. On average, women complain that it is cold at a higher temperature than men, and the temperature at which men complain that it is hot is more variable than for women. Analysis of response times and actions provides information that may be useful for designing a dispatching policy, and it also demonstrates that there is potential to reduce the labor cost of HVAC maintenance by 20% by reducing the frequency of thermal sensation complaints.

Federspiel, C.C. [Johnson Controls, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

1998-10-01

166

A Vestibular Sensation: Probabilistic Approaches to Spatial Perception  

E-print Network

Neuron Review A Vestibular Sensation: Probabilistic Approaches to Spatial Perception Dora E.neuron.2009.11.010 The vestibular system helps maintain equilibrium and clear vision through reflexes, but it also contributes to spatial perception. In recent years, research in the vestibular field has expanded

Snyder, Larry

167

Factor Analysis on Subjective Attributes Affecting Knitted Fabric's Comfort Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clothing comfort is a state of satisfaction indicating physiological, psychological and physical balance among the person. Subjective experiment is rated an end-use performance test to collect the comfort sensation of wears. In this paper, 20 samples are chosen, then subjective experiment with four processes rest, walking, running and rest is taken and questionnaire is designed to test 10 comfort properties

Min Li; Dong-ping Li; Wei-yuan Zhang; Xiao-zhong Tang

2009-01-01

168

Sensation Seeking and Targeting of Televised Anti-Drug PSAs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine how to reach out in an effective manner via televised public service announcements (PSAs) to particular at-risk audiences to motivate participation in drug abuse prevention programs. The subjects (207 young adults in Fayette County, Kentucky) responded to the M. Zuckerman sensation-seeking questionnaire. They…

Donohew, Lewis; And Others

169

The genetic correlation between impulsivity and sensation seeking traits.  

PubMed

A number of studies have demonstrated associations between sensation seeking traits and measures of impulsivity. This study examined contributions to the observed correlations between imupulsivity and sensation seeking traits. Fifty-seven pairs of identical and 49 pairs of fraternal twins who were reared apart and 90 individuals who also participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart completed the Control scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ; Tellegen, 1982) and the four subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS; Zuckerman, 1979). Consistent with previous studies, the Control scale was significantly correlated with the SSS. A Cholesky decomposition of the data indicated that the phenotypic correlations between the Control scale and the four subscales of the SSS were mediated almost entirely by genetic factors. In the final reduced model the proportion of the genetic variance of the Control scale in common with the SSS was estimated as 55%, and the rest of the genetic variance (45%) was attributed to the genetic variance specific to the Control scale. The results emphasize the importance of common biological mechanisms underlying associations between impulsivity and sensation seeking traits. PMID:9336082

Hur, Y M; Bouchard, T J

1997-09-01

170

Aesthesiometry : Quantification of cutaneous pressure sensation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Semmes-Weinstein pressure aesthesi- ometer, which measures cutaneous pressure sensation, was used for quantifying sensory loss in diabetic periph- eral neuropathy . Eighty subjects comprising four groups were tested : nondiabetic controls (Group C) ; non- neuropathic, diabetic controls (Group DC) ; diabetic subjects with neuropathy and without a history of pedal ulcerations (Group DN) ; and, diabetic subjects with

JOHN J. HOLEWSKI; RICHARD M. STESS; PETER M. GRAF; CARL GRUNFELD

171

MOBILE PHONE USE AND TEMPORAL SKIN HEAT SENSATION  

E-print Network

sensation of the cheek. These symptoms may be due to thermal insulation, conduction of the heat produced by thermal insulation and heat conduction from MP associated with long calling time. Keywords Mobile phone the skin and the air due to the contact between the phone and the skin (thermal insulation), conduction

Boyer, Edmond

172

Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

173

Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

2006-05-01

174

Relations Among Sensation Seeking and Simulated and Behavioral Personal Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simulated and behavioral personal space measures and the Sensation Seeking Scale were administered to 20 males and 20 females. In the simulated measures Ss positioned male and female top profiles relative to a top profile representing themselves at each of nine equally spaced angles. For the behavioral measure Ss were approached by a male or female at each of the

Darhl M. Pedersen

1973-01-01

175

Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

Masny, Diana

2012-01-01

176

Reconciling “human touch” with “high tech”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a With the increasing proliferation of technology in education, especially in the higher education sector, educators face the\\u000a dilemma of reconciling “human touch” services, such as academic and personal advising, with the “high tech” environment. Extensive\\u000a research has indicated that advising and other support services form a critical part of a student’s success. This is particularly\\u000a applicable to the sub-degree student

Madeleine Tsoi; Reggie Kwan; Kat Leung; Sandy Tse

177

Can you hear shapes you touch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shape is an inherent property of objects existing in both vision and touch but not audition. Can shape then be represented\\u000a by sound artificially? It has previously been shown that sound can convey visual information by means of image-to-sound coding,\\u000a but whether sound can code tactile information is not clear. Blindfolded sighted individuals were trained to recognize tactile\\u000a spatial information

Jung-Kyong Kim; Robert J. Zatorre

2010-01-01

178

Touch Therapies across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ayur-Veda, the earliest known medical text from India (around 1800 b.c.), lists touch therapy (massage therapy), diet, and exercise as primary healing practices of that time. As Jules Older notes,\\u000a even the English word shampoo comes from the word champna, which is an ancient Indian word meaning to press (Older, 1982). From early times, massage has been effectively used

Tiffany M. Field

179

The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch  

PubMed Central

The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

2011-01-01

180

A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation  

PubMed Central

Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of non-histaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in non-histaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: 1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a sub-group of subjects with A-fiber dominated itch, 2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber versus C-fiber dominated itch, 3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, 4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, 5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and 6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that non-histaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

Ringkamp, M.; Schepers, R. J.; Shimada, S.G.; Johanek, L.M.; Hartke, T.V.; Borzan, J.; Shim, B.; LaMotte, R.H.; Meyer, R.A.

2011-01-01

181

Advances of SiC-based MOS capacitor hydrogen sensors for harsh environment applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SiC-based hydrogen sensors have attracted much attention due to applications in harsh environments. In this paper, harsh environment is defined. Characteristics of SiC-based hydrogen sensors for harsh environment applications are reviewed. Various types of SiC-based field effect hydrogen sensor in terms of their respective history, structure, advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. SiC-based MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor will be conferred

Mun Teng Soo; Kuan Yew Cheong; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor

2010-01-01

182

Brief measures of sensation seeking for screening and large-scale surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation seeking is central to research on the prevention of risky health behaviors, but current measures of sensation seeking are fairly long, thereby reducing their chances of inclusion in some research projects. Hence, we developed and evaluated two brief indices of sensation seeking, a four-item measure that retains the framework of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V (SSS-V) and a shorter

Michael T. Stephenson; Rick H. Hoyle; Philip Palmgreen; Michael D. Slater

2003-01-01

183

Testosterone exposure, dopaminergic reward, and sensation-seeking in young men Benjamin C. Campbell a,  

E-print Network

]. Finally, sensation-seeking was associated with free T among a sample of adolescents with Attention DeficitTestosterone exposure, dopaminergic reward, and sensation-seeking in young men Benjamin C. Campbell form 4 December 2009 Accepted 14 December 2009 Available online xxxx Keywords: Testosterone Sensation-seeking

Little, Tony

184

The HR\\/LR model: Further evidence as an animal model of sensation seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation seeking is a personality trait characterized by risk-taking and the desire to experience novel stimuli. Evidence suggests that sensation seeking may increase an individual's psychological and neurobiological vulnerabilities to drug abuse. One potential animal model of human sensation seeking is high response to novelty in rats. High responders (HRs) prefer a novel environment to a familiar one and show

Mathieu M. Blanchard; Daniel Mendelsohn; Jennifer A. Stamp

2009-01-01

185

30/01/2014 PS1061 Sensation & Perception #3 JMZ 1 Illusions as Key to Reality  

E-print Network

1 30/01/2014 PS1061 Sensation & Perception #3 JMZ 1 Illusions as Key to Reality Johannes M. Zanker Sensation & Perception #1 JMZ 2 Learning Outcomes at the end of this lecture, you should be able in science 30/01/2014 PS1061 Sensation & Perception #3 JMZ 3 · is the internal representation a veridical

Zanker, Johannes M.

186

Partial and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort— Part I: Uniform environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects exposed to uniform environments were polled for their local and overall (whole-body) thermal sensation and comfort. Sensation and comfort for local body parts vary greatly. In cool environments, hands and feet feel colder than other body parts. The head, insensitive to cold but sensitive to warm, feels warmer than the rest of the body in warm environments. Overall sensation

Edward Arens; Hui Zhang; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01

187

The Interaction between Sensation Seeking and Negative Affect Lability on Alcohol Involvement Kenny A. Karyadi1  

E-print Network

), the current study tested whether negative affect lability moderated the effect of sensation seeking on levelsThe Interaction between Sensation Seeking and Negative Affect Lability on Alcohol Involvement Kenny with negative affect and affect lability, negative affect lability might moderate the sensation seeking

Zhou, Yaoqi

188

Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2012-01-01

189

Diagnostics hardening for harsh environment in Laser Megajoule (invited).  

PubMed

The diagnostic designs for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will require components to operate in environments far more severe than those encountered in present facilities. This harsh environment will be induced by fluxes of neutrons, gamma rays, energetic ions, electromagnetic radiations, and, in some cases, debris and shrapnel, at levels several orders of magnitude higher than those experienced today on existing facilities. The lessons learned about the vulnerabilities of present diagnostic parts fielded mainly on OMEGA for many years, have been very useful guide for the design of future LMJ diagnostics. The present and future LMJ diagnostic designs including this vulnerability approach and their main mitigation techniques will be presented together with the main characteristics of the LMJ facility that provide for diagnostic protection. PMID:19044614

Bourgade, J L; Marmoret, R; Darbon, S; Rosch, R; Troussel, P; Villette, B; Glebov, V; Shmayda, W T; Gomme, J C; Le Tonqueze, Y; Aubard, F; Baggio, J; Bazzoli, S; Bonneau, F; Boutin, J Y; Caillaud, T; Chollet, C; Combis, P; Disdier, L; Gazave, J; Girard, S; Gontier, D; Jaanimagi, P; Jacquet, H P; Jadaud, J P; Landoas, O; Legendre, J; Leray, J L; Maroni, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Miquel, J L; Marshall, F J; Masclet-Gobin, I; Pien, G; Raimbourg, J; Reverdin, C; Richard, A; Rubin de Cervens, D; Sangster, C T; Seaux, J P; Soullie, G; Stoeckl, C; Thfoin, I; Videau, L; Zuber, C

2008-10-01

190

Reliably Powering Remote Seismic Stations in a Harsh Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three decades of experience in the operation of remote seismic stations in Alaska has demonstrated the need for reliable power systems in a harsh arctic environment. Legacy remote power systems have included Edison Aircells, a primary battery; Gel Cells, a secondary (rechargeable battery) and photovoltaic panels; wind generators; and propane TEG (thermal electric generators). The most reliable were the primary battery system but they were expensive, needed replacement every year and increasingly became a hazardous waste disposal problem. We have combined several of these power technologies to provide reliable, cost effective power for our current generation of analog and digital remotely powered seismic stations in Alaska with the use of a power controller. The features of the power controller are: to provide redundant power system control, solar panel voltage regulation, secondary battery charge regulation, state-of-heath output, and a primary battery "fuel gauge". Results of operations are presented.

Estes, S. A.; Rukick, R.; Hansen, R. A.

2002-12-01

191

Solidly mounted resonators aging under harsh environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A contribution to reliability studies of Solidly Mounted Resonators (SMR) submitted to harsh environments such as temperature and humidity is presented. Electrical, structural and chemical monitoring of representative parameters is performed by means of RF, DC characterizations and also X-ray diffraction coupled to X-fluorescence to assess aging in microstructures. Results indicate that humidity affects samples stronger than high temperature. From viewpoint of robustness, non-negligible effects of SiO2 mass-loading on antiresonance and resonance frequencies are reported. Drifts of parameters for a lonely resonator and filter transmission are both in good accordance. Finally, the need of a full sheet passivation layer is demonstrated in order to protect metals and Aluminum Nitride (AlN) against oxidation and pollutant compounds respectively.

Ivira, B.; Fillit, R. Y.; Ndagijimana, F.; Benech, Ph; Boussey, J.; Parat, G.; Ancey, P.

2006-04-01

192

Rugged spinel windows and optics for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinel is a rugged ceramic transparent from ultraviolet to midwave infrared (0.18 - 5.5 ?m) wavelengths. It has the best transmission from 4-5 ?m among the competing materials ALON and sapphire with comparable mechanical properties. We have developed low absorption loss spinel as an exit window aperture for High Energy Laser systems. We demonstrated that spinel possesses excellent thermo-optical characteristics required for the High Energy Laser systems and at the same time it can provide the necessary ruggedness desired for the realistic and harsh battlefield environment. We have demonstrated through testing that spinel can withstand very adverse conditions of rain, sand storms and salt fog conditions without any change in its optical performance. We have also developed rugged anti-reflective coatings and anti-reflective surface structures to maintain high optical transmission in adverse environment.

Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Busse, Lynda; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Aggarwal, Ishwar

2013-05-01

193

Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

1993-06-01

194

Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing  

PubMed Central

Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

2013-01-01

195

The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation  

PubMed Central

It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

2013-01-01

196

The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

2010-11-01

197

Upper extremity hemodynamics and sensation with backpack loads.  

PubMed

Heavy backpacks are often used in extreme environments, for example by military during combat, therefore completion of tasks quickly and efficiently is of operational relevance. The purpose of this study was to quantify hemodynamic parameters (brachial artery Doppler and microvascular flow by photoplethysmography; tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy; arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter) and sensation in upper extremities and hands (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and 2-point discrimination test) while wearing a loaded backpack (12 kg) in healthy adults for 10 min. All values were compared to baseline before wearing a backpack. Moderate weight loaded backpack loads significantly decreased upper extremity sensation as well as all macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamic values. Decreased macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamics may produce neurological dysfunction and consequently, probably affect fine motor control of the hands. PMID:24075289

Kim, Sae Hoon; Neuschwander, Timothy B; Macias, Brandon R; Bachman, Larry; Hargens, Alan R

2014-05-01

198

Mecamylamine blocks the burning sensation of nicotine on the tongue  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrated the probability of nicotinic cholinergic receptors in the sensory nerves of the tongue . Subjects, tested on two occasions, evaluated the intensity of the burning sensation of 0 .1290 (7.4 mM) nicotine or a water control . Pretreatment of the tongue with 0 .075% (4.5 mM) mecamylamine, a nicotinic cholinergic receptor blocker, resulted in significantly lower magnitude

Murray E. Jarvik; Kamyar M. Assil

1988-01-01

199

Respiratory sensations evoked by activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers.  

PubMed

C-fibers represent the majority of vagal afferents innervating the airways and lung, and can be activated by inhaled chemical irritants and certain endogenous substances. Stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers with selective chemical activators by either inhalation or intravenous injection evokes irritation, burning and choking sensations in the throat, neck and upper chest (mid-sternum region) in healthy human subjects. These irritating sensations are often accompanied by bouts of coughs either during inhalation challenge or when a higher dose of the chemical activator is administered by intravenous injection. Dyspnea and breathless sensation are not always evoked when these afferents are activated by different types of chemical stimulants. This variability probably reflects the chemical nature of the stimulants, as well as the possibility that different subtypes of C-fibers encoded by different receptor proteins are activated. These respiratory sensations and reflex responses (e.g., cough) are believed to play an important role in protecting the lung against inhaled irritants and preventing overexertion under unusual physiological stresses (e.g., during strenuous exercise) in healthy individuals. More importantly, recent studies have revealed that the sensitivity of bronchopulmonary C-fibers can be markedly elevated in acute and chronic airway inflammatory diseases, probably caused by a sensitizing effect of certain endogenously released inflammatory mediators (e.g., prostaglandin E(2)) that act directly or indirectly on specific ion channels expressed on the sensory terminals. Normal physiological actions such as an increase in tidal volume (e.g., during mild exercise) can then activate these C-fiber afferents, and consequently may contribute, in part, to the lingering respiratory discomforts and other debilitating symptoms in patients with lung diseases. PMID:18586581

Lee, Lu-Yuan

2009-05-30

200

Sensate Media — Multimodal Electronic Skins as Dense Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the concept of building electronic sensate skins as extremely dense, multimodal, systolic sensor networks. In this fashion, the copious signals produced by the skin's receptors are reduced by the network itself, and only high-level features are routed out peer-to-peer, avoiding complex wiring requirements while promising to enable scalability across large areas. Our architectures and algorithms

J A Paradiso; J Lifton; M Broxton

2004-01-01

201

A Virtual Billiard Game with Visual, Auditory and Haptic Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In late years game construction with high reality have been done along with the development of VR technology. However, three\\u000a components such as behavior generation using rigid body physics, 3D sound generation and haptic feedback are considered necessary\\u000a for constructing a virtual world with high reality. In the paper, synchronization among visual, auditory and haptic sensation\\u000a is attained by SCRAME

Yoshihiro Takamura; Norihiro Abe; Kazuaki Tanaka; Hirokazu Taki; Shoujie He

2006-01-01

202

Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.

Toyosawa, Satoshi; Kawai, Takashi

2014-03-01

203

Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

2013-01-01

204

Referred Sensations Elicited by Video-Mediated Mirroring of Hands  

PubMed Central

Humans readily perceive ownership of a limb even when it is artificially induced as in the case of using a mirror reflection. However, mirror reflections are very constrained perceptions which do not allow transformations and varied contexts as often occurs in real life. The extent to which perceived limb ownership occurs with video-mediated manipulations is not known, particularly given the perception would no longer be a precise copy (reflection) of a person’s own limb. The present study directly compared referred sensations of the limbs with the use of a mirror reflection to those obtained with a new video-mediated setup to assess perceived ownership. Manipulations that could not be performed with a standard mirror reflection, such as reversal of the spatial positions of the limbs, were also investigated to examine how far the perceived ownership effects could be pushed. Across a series of experiments, data on the quality, intensity and location of referred sensations were collected and analyzed together with measures of hand ownership and participants’ experience of the two setups. Results reveal that participants felt referred sensations in both the optical and the video-mediated setup, and that video-mediated manipulations of hand-position reversals produced equal to stronger effects of ownership compared with the mirror reflection. These findings open up new possibilities for scientific experimentation and therapy that are discussed in the paper. PMID:23272080

Hoermann, Simon; Franz, Elizabeth A.; Regenbrecht, Holger

2012-01-01

205

Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments  

E-print Network

Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution, Richerson PJ (2013) Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh

Richerson, Peter J.

206

Mothers' Emotion Dynamics and Their Relations With Harsh and Lax Discipline: Microsocial Time Series Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hypotheses were tested about how moment-by-moment variation in mothers' negative emotion predicts harsh and lax discipline. Mother-toddler dyads interacted in a task designed to elicit challenging child behavior. Mothers viewed videotapes of their interactions and continuously rated their experienced emotion. Harsh discipline was associated with…

Lorber, Michael F.; Smith Slep, Amy M.

2005-01-01

207

Wireless Harsh-Environment Oxygen Sensors D.W. Greve,1,2  

E-print Network

Wireless Harsh-Environment Oxygen Sensors D.W. Greve,1,2 Peng Zheng,1,3 and T.-L. Chin1,2 1) sensors fabricated on high-temperature piezoelectric substrates can be applied as harsh-environment oxygen. INTRODUCTION Oxygen sensors are used in many combustion processes is order to improve efficiency and reduce

Greve, David.W.

208

Response of red deer stags (Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red deer stags (Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

2014-08-01

209

Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

2014-10-01

210

Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

Lee, Yookyong

2009-01-01

211

Maternal Warmth Moderates the Link between Harsh Discipline and Later Externalizing Behaviors for Mexican American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined maternal warmth as a moderator of the relation between harsh discipline practices and adolescent externalizing problems 1year later in low-income, Mexican American families. Design Participants were 189 adolescents and their mothers who comprised the control group of a longitudinal intervention program. Results Maternal warmth protected adolescents from the negative effects of harsh discipline such that, at higher levels of maternal warmth, there was no relation between harsh discipline and externalizing problems after controlling for baseline levels of externalizing problems and other covariates. At lower levels of maternal warmth, there was a positive relation between harsh discipline practices and later externalizing problems. Conclusions To understand the role of harsh discipline in the development of Mexican American youth outcomes, researchers must consider contextual variables that may affect youths’ perceptions of their parents’ behavior such as maternal warmth. PMID:23894229

German, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; McClain, Darya Bonds; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger

2012-01-01

212

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis: a case with preserved itch sensation to histamine and partial pain sensation.  

PubMed

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis is a rare autosomal recessive hereditary disorder that is characterized by having both sensory neuropathy and anhidrosis. A 6-year-old Japanese boy presented with recurrent fever, lack of sweating, occult bone fractures and impaired pain sensation without mental retardation. Genetic analyses revealed compound heterozygous mutations in the NTRK1 gene that encodes TrkA, which is a receptor for nerve growth factor. While there were no apparent changes in the patient's dermal eccrine glands, the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test with acetylcholine chloride revealed a complete loss of both the axon reflex-mediated and the directly activated sweat responses. On the other hand, the histamine prick test induced a normal weal response surrounded by a flare phenomenon. Notably, the patient felt both an itch sensation after histamine and a burning sensation after topical capsaicin application. Consistent with these findings, PGP9.5+ nerve fibre innervation of the papillary dermis was observed, although the fibres were completely absent around the eccrine glands. These findings suggest that there was a partial preservation of the nerve endings that express the H(1) receptor and/or TRPV1 in the upper dermis, even though there were mutations of the NTRK1 gene in this case. PMID:22032467

Tanaka, T; Satoh, T; Tanaka, A; Yokozeki, H

2012-04-01

213

Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans  

PubMed Central

Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

2013-01-01

214

Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans.  

PubMed

Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short--cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a 'code of honour'. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social-ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

McCullough, Michael E; Pedersen, Eric J; Schroder, Jaclyn M; Tabak, Benjamin A; Carver, Charles S

2013-01-01

215

Radio-frequency plasma transducer for use in harsh environments.  

PubMed

We describe a compact transducer used to generate and modulate low-intensity radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma (RF-APP) for high temperature gap measurement and generation of air-coupled ultrasound. The new transducer consists of a quarter-wave transmission line where the ground return path is a coaxial solenoid winding. The RF-APP is initiated at the open end of the transmission line and stabilized by passive negative feedback between the electrical impedance of the plasma and the energy stored in the solenoid. The electrical impedance of the plasma was measured at the lower-voltage source end of the transducer, eliminating the need to measure kilovolt-level voltages near the discharge. We describe the use of a 7 MHz RF-APP prototype as a harsh-environment clearance sensor to demonstrate the suitability of plasma discharges for a common nondestructive inspection application. Clearance measurements of 0-5 mm were performed on a rotating calibration target with a measurement precision of 0.1 mm and a 20 kHz sampling rate. PMID:17979443

May, Andrew; Andarawis, Emad

2007-10-01

216

Radio-frequency plasma transducer for use in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

We describe a compact transducer used to generate and modulate low-intensity radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma (RF-APP) for high temperature gap measurement and generation of air-coupled ultrasound. The new transducer consists of a quarter-wave transmission line where the ground return path is a coaxial solenoid winding. The RF-APP is initiated at the open end of the transmission line and stabilized by passive negative feedback between the electrical impedance of the plasma and the energy stored in the solenoid. The electrical impedance of the plasma was measured at the lower-voltage source end of the transducer, eliminating the need to measure kilovolt-level voltages near the discharge. We describe the use of a 7 MHz RF-APP prototype as a harsh-environment clearance sensor to demonstrate the suitability of plasma discharges for a common nondestructive inspection application. Clearance measurements of 0-5 mm were performed on a rotating calibration target with a measurement precision of 0.1 mm and a 20 kHz sampling rate.

May, Andrew; Andarawis, Emad [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

2007-10-15

217

Harsh-environment fiber optic sensors for structural monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of a pressure sensor to 100psi at a gas temperature of 800°C, calibration of an accelerometer to 2.5g at a substrate temperature of 850°C. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400°C, and a skin friction sensor designed for 870°C operation has been constructed. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

2004-07-01

218

Temporal changes of a macrobenthic assemblage in harsh lagoon sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An opportunistic macrobenthic assemblage was studied from 2001 to 2003 in a central area of the Cabras lagoon (western Sardinia, Italy), known to be affected by environmental disturbances (i.e. organic over-enrichment of sediments, and episodic events of hypoxia/anoxia and sulphide development). We identified recurrent seasonal changes in this macrobenthic assemblage, with a general impoverishment in summer and a recovery in winter/spring. The nereids Neanthes succinea and Hediste diversicolor were found to replace the spionid Polydora ciliata as the most dominant species in the summer for 3 consecutive years. Occasional, unsynchronized appearances of small-sized deposit feeders, such as Tubificidae, Capitella cf. capitata, chironomid larvae and Hydrobia spp., were observed in winter/spring. We suggest that these changes are driven by the interplay of environmental conditions (worse in summer) with numerous biotic factors. This includes different tolerance levels of taxa to low oxygen concentrations and sulphides, variability in larval supply and post-larval transport, as well as competition for space and food between and within different functional groups, and facilitation through animal bioturbation and sediment reoxidation. A conceptual model is proposed to demonstrate how environmental conditions and biotic interactions may control the benthic assemblage in such a harsh lagoon environment.

Como, Serena; Magni, Paolo

2009-08-01

219

Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete’s body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the ‘Enfacement Illusion’ to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant’s face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using ‘morphed’ images containing varying proportions of the participant’s face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

220

Object apprehension using vision and touch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

1987-01-01

221

The importance of touch in development  

PubMed Central

Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation – for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need. PMID:21358895

Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

2010-01-01

222

Visually guided touching and manual tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Animate vision depends on an ability to choose a region of the visual environment for task-specific processing. This processing may involve extraction of image features for object classification or identification, or it may involve extraction of viewpoint parameters, such as position, scale, and orientation, for guiding movement. It is the role of selective attention to choose the region to be processed in a task-dependent way. This paper describes a real-time implementation of a vision-robotics system that uses the location information provided by the attention mechanism to guide eye movements and arm movements in touching and manual tracking behaviors. The approach makes use of a 3-D retinocentric coordinate frame for representing position information, and differential kinematics for relating the eye and arm motor systems to this retinocentric sensory frame.

Sandon, Peter A.

1993-03-01

223

TUIC: Enabling Tangible Interaction on Capacitive Multi-touch Display  

E-print Network

tangible interaction on capacitive multi-touch devices, such as iPad, iPhone, and 3M's multi-touch displays passive materials and active modulation circuits embedded inside tangible objects, and can be used tag, physical interaction, interactive surface ACM Classification Keywords H5.2 [Information

Huang, Polly

224

fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.  

PubMed

Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2014-04-01

225

From dance to touch: movement qualities for interaction design  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address the question of extending user experience in large scale tactile displays. Our contribution is a non task-oriented interaction technique based on modern dance for the creation of aesthetically pleasant large scale tactile interfaces. This approach is based on dance movement qualities applied to touch interaction allowing for natural gestures in large touch displays. We used

Sarah Fdili Alaoui; Baptiste Caramiaux; Marcos Serrano

2011-01-01

226

A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.

227

Touch in Therapy: An Effort to Make the Unknown Known  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an exploratory study based on interviews with four psycho-analytically-oriented therapists who touched their patients. It examines how the therapists and their patients conceptualized their experience. The therapists reported that the decision to touch, in the five cases presented here, was guided by the specific needs of their patients and their patient's circumstances rather than by their orientation

Bassya Pinson

2002-01-01

228

Precise selection techniques for multi-touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The size of human fingers and the lack of sensing precision can make precise touch screen interactions difficult. We present a set of five techniques, called Dual Finger Selections, which leverage the recent development of multi- touch sensitive displays to help users select very small targets. These techniques facilitate pixel-accurate targeting by adjusting the control-display ratio with a secondary finger

Hrvoje Benko; Andrew D. Wilson; Patrick Baudisch

2006-01-01

229

AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel  

E-print Network

from shining on the screen. Note: The light buttons have 2 Led colors. Red = On, Green = Off. 1. Turn 1. Type in code into keypad (please contact eMAP for code) and open hatch to reveal AMX touch screen to go to the timer screen. 3. Touch on the up button to increase the time of the class duration (this

Peak, Derek

230

A Genetic Algorithm for the Segmentation of Known Touching Objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem statement: Segmentation is the first and fundamental step in the process of computer vision and object classification. However, complicate or similar colour pattern add complexity to the segmentation of touching objects. The objective of this study was to develop a robust technique for the automatic segmentation and classification of touching plastic bottles, whose features were previously stored in a

Edgar Scavino; Dzuraidah Abdul Wahab; Hassan Basri; Mohd Marzuki Mustafa; Aini Hussain

2009-01-01

231

PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 Joseph D. Touch1  

E-print Network

PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 PC-ATOMIC Joseph D. Touch1 USC / Information Sciences Institute touch@isi.edu ABSTRACT: PC-ATOMIC is a PC interface for the ATOMIC LAN. PC- ATOMIC is implemented as a VL-Bus (VESA. This document describes the PC-ATOMIC interface, its design, capabilities, and performance. The board design

Touch, Joe

232

Teaching by touching: Interpretation of tactile instructions for motion development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is an important means for communication among humans. Sport instructors or dance teachers often use touch to adjust students' postures in a very intuitive way. Using tactile instructions appears thus to be a very appealing modality for developing humanoid robot motions as well. Spontaneous interpretation of tactile instructions given by users reveals itself to be a complex task for

Fabio DallaLibera; Fransiska Basoeki; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Emanuele Menegatti

2011-01-01

233

Demo: User Identification and Authentication with Capacitive Touch Communication  

E-print Network

Mobile devices provide us ubiquitous access to a vast array of media content and digital services and temporarily share them with others [2]. We may let our children play games on our smartphones or share. This signal spoofs the effect of human touch on the screen and thus results in touch events being registered

Gruteser, Marco

234

Ionic Signaling in Plant Responses to Gravity and Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing

Jeremiah M. Fasano; Gioia D. Massa; Simon Gilroy

2002-01-01

235

Effect of robot's active touch on people's motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of a robot's active touch for improving people's motivation. For services in the education and healthcare fields, a robot might be useful for improving the motivation of performing such repetitive and monotonous tasks as exercising or taking medicine. Previous research demonstrated with a robot the effect of user touch on improving its impressions, but they

Kayako Nakagawa; Masahiro Shiomi; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Reo Matsumura; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita

2011-01-01

236

Meanings of Touch and Forgiveness: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines personal meanings ascribed to the experience of touch in the context of forgiveness. Data from in-depth interviews with six self-reported Christians were analyzed to determine themes in the meanings participants assigned to a forgiving touch. (Contains 54 references.) (Author)

Ferch, Shann R.

2000-01-01

237

The Neural Circuit for Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neural pathways for touch-induced movement in Cae- norhabditis ekgans contain six touch receptors, five pairs of interneurons, and 69 motor neurons. The synaptic relation- ships among these cells have been deduced from recon- structions from serial section electron micrographs, and the roles of the cells were assessed by examining the behavior of animals after selective killing of precursors of

MARTIN CHALFIE; JOHN E. SULSTON; JOHN G. WHITE; EILEEN SOUTHGATE; J. NICHOL THOMSON

238

Associations between taste genetics, oral sensation and alcohol intake.  

PubMed

Alcohol produces a range of oral sensations, some of which have been shown to vary with the perceived bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), one marker for genetic variation in taste. Some studies report that offspring of alcoholics are most likely to be PROP nontasters [Physiol. Behav. 51 (1992) 1261; Physiol. Behav. 64 (1998) 147], yet others report the offspring as more responsive to sodium chloride (NaCl) and citric acid, which appears to contradict the taste genetic hypothesis. We predicted alcohol sensation and intake from measures of taste genetics (PROP bitterness and number of fungiform papilla), NaCl and citric acid intensity, and spatial taste pattern in 40 females and 43 males. Subjects used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale (gLMS) [Chem. Senses 18 (1993) 683; J. Food Qual. Pref. 14 (2002) 125] as an intensity and hedonic scale. Those who tasted PROP as most bitter or had highest numbers of fungiform papilla reported greatest oral burn from an alcohol probe; those who tasted least PROP bitterness consumed alcoholic beverages most frequently. Although higher NaCl and citric acid ratings associated with more frequent consumption of alcoholic beverages, the findings could be explained by lower intensity of tastants on the tongue tip (chorda tympani nerve) relative to whole mouth perception. In multiple regression analyses, PROP bitterness and the spatial pattern of taste perception were independent contributors to the prediction of alcohol intake. In summary, the results support that variation in oral sensation associates with alcohol intake. Those who taste PROP as least bitter and have low chorda tympani relative to whole mouth taste intensity appear to have fewest oral sensory hindrances to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. PMID:15276808

Duffy, Valerie B; Peterson, Julie M; Bartoshuk, Linda M

2004-09-15

239

Yes, There Is Deqi Sensation in Laser Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Deqi, a composite of unique sensations, is essential for clinical efficacy according to Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is described as a sensory perception of varying character and is mostly ascribed to metal needle acupuncture. However, it can also be elicited by different kinds of laser acupuncture stimulation. This short paper summarizes the current scientific status of deqi in laser stimulation. Different kinds of laser acupuncture are described in a comprehensive form, and the most interesting studies concerning deqi and laser acupuncture are presented. PMID:23533464

2013-01-01

240

Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

1975-01-01

241

Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch  

PubMed Central

Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated.This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate. PMID:23070234

Giudice, Nicholas A.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Bennett, Christopher R.; Loomis, Jack M.

2012-01-01

242

Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

2010-01-01

243

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

244

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological\\u000a gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured\\u000a with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied\\u000a on the SSS-V total score, the current

Erica E. Fortune; Adam S. Goodie

2010-01-01

245

Sensation Seeking, Substance Abuse, and Psychopathology in Treatment-Seeking and Community Cocaine Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation seeking, substance abuse severity, and psychiatric disorders were systematically assessed in a clinical and a community sample of 335 cocaine abusers. In contrast to low-sensation-seeking cocaine abusers, high-sensation seekers exhibited more severe symptoms of substance abuse, exhibited more severe psychosocial impairment, were more likely to be polysubstance abusers, and had an earlier age of onset for substance use and

Samuel A. Ball; Kathleen M. Carroll; Bruce J. Rounsaville

1994-01-01

246

A generalised sensation of coldness following introduction of rosuvastatin therapy.  

PubMed

Rosuvastatin is the most potent 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor commercially available to lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Rosuvastatin has been associated with several adverse effects, including rhabdomyolysis and arthralgias. Here, we report an unusual adverse effect occurring on treatment with rosuvastatin, a 'continuous sensation of coldness'. A 60-year-old man began experiencing this peculiar feeling shortly after introduction of rosuvastatin treatment. The gentleman had to wear extra pair of socks and cover himself with blankets while reading, even during summer with surrounding temperature above 30°C. The abnormal sensation persisted for the 26?months during which he was treated with rosuvastatin, and disappeared within a week after discontinuing treatment. Physical examination, including thorough neurological examination, was entirely normal, as were haematological and biochemical parameters. While the pathophysiology of this phenomenon remains unknown, we hope that this case will encourage others to report similar symptomatology, perhaps enabling to gain more insight on the condition. PMID:25301422

Huynh, Niem Tu; Huot, Philippe

2014-01-01

247

Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.  

PubMed

Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population. PMID:24691022

Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L

2014-01-01

248

Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation seeking and delinquent behavior were assessed biennially between ages 10–11 and 16–17 in a nationally representative sample of 7,675 youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth: Children and Young Adults (CNLSY). Analyses using latent growth curve modeling found that within-person change in sensation seeking was significantly and positively correlated with within-person change in delinquency from childhood to adolescence. Furthermore, behavioral genetic analyses of a subset of 2,562 sibling pairs indicated that there were substantial genetic influences on both initial levels of sensation seeking and change in sensation seeking during early adolescence, with over 80% of individual differences in change due to genetic factors. Finally, these genetically driven increases in sensation seeking were most important for predicting increases in delinquency, whereas environmental paths between sensation seeking and delinquency were not significant. These results suggest that developmental changes in delinquent behaviors during adolescence are driven by a genetically governed process of personality change. PMID:22251301

Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2011-01-01

249

Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface.  

PubMed

Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation--information about contact location, pressure, and timing--through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it. PMID:24127595

Tabot, Gregg A; Dammann, John F; Berg, Joshua A; Tenore, Francesco V; Boback, Jessica L; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J

2013-11-01

250

Tactile mapping of harsh, constrained environments, with an application to oil wells  

E-print Network

This work develops a practical approach to explore rough environments when time is critical. The harsh environmental conditions prevent the use of range, force/torque or tactile sensors. A representative case is the mapping ...

Mazzini, Francesco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

251

Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

Juntao Wu

2008-03-14

252

Attention to touch weakens audiovisual speech integration.  

PubMed

One of the classic examples of multisensory integration in humans occurs when speech sounds are combined with the sight of corresponding articulatory gestures. Despite the longstanding assumption that this kind of audiovisual binding operates in an attention-free mode, recent findings (Alsius et al. in Curr Biol, 15(9):839-843, 2005) suggest that audiovisual speech integration decreases when visual or auditory attentional resources are depleted. The present study addressed the generalization of this attention constraint by testing whether a similar decrease in multisensory integration is observed when attention demands are imposed on a sensory domain that is not involved in speech perception, such as touch. We measured the McGurk illusion in a dual task paradigm involving a difficult tactile task. The results showed that the percentage of visually influenced responses to audiovisual stimuli was reduced when attention was diverted to a tactile task. This finding is attributed to a modulatory effect on audiovisual integration of speech mediated by supramodal attention limitations. We suggest that the interactions between the attentional system and crossmodal binding mechanisms may be much more extensive and dynamic than it was advanced in previous studies. PMID:17899043

Alsius, Agnès; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

2007-11-01

253

Sensation Seeking as Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. Methods A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. Results High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. Limitations The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. Conclusions The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. PMID:22921521

Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

2012-01-01

254

Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples  

PubMed Central

In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove.

Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

2014-01-01

255

Thirst in Critically Ill Patients: From Physiology to Sensation  

PubMed Central

Critically ill patients often have distressful episodes of severe thirst, but the underlying complex biochemical, neurohormonal regulatory controls that regulate this primal sensation have rarely been addressed by clinicians. Subtle changes in plasma osmolality are the most potent stimulus for thirst. In response to increases in osmolality, osmoreceptors activate release of the neurohormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). The released vasopressin acts on the kidneys to conserve water to correct the hyperosmolar state. If this compensatory mechanism is unsuccessful, thirst arises to promote drinking. Thirst induced by marked volume loss, in contrast, is more closely related to the volemic and pressure changes regulated by the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Understanding the physiological mechanisms of thirst will help in understanding the pathophysiological consequences of underlying thirst-related disease and treatments in critically ill patients. Further clinical research is needed to elucidate the multiple inhibitory and excitatory neurohormonal stimuli that motivate patients’ intense desire for water. PMID:23817822

Arai, Shoshana; Stotts, Nancy; Puntillo, Kathleen

2013-01-01

256

The importance of touch in the development of attachment.  

PubMed

Until recently the role of human touch in the social world of the developing infant has not been given special attention. Instead the focus, in part due to John Bowlby's Attachment Theory, has centered on the critical need for a child to develop a secure attachment to his caregiver. To be sure, this has provided a valuable contribution to understanding and promoting a child's well-being in his early years and beyond. Yet Bowlby's theory is limited in its discussion of the meaning of human touch and its role in development of attachment. As such, it now becomes more critical to delve into the factors that significantly foster development of attachment, specifically the concept of human touch. With recognition of the importance for a child to develop secure attachment to his caregiver, the essential function that human nurturing touch provides in facilitating that connection is explored. PMID:21102171

Duhn, Lenora

2010-12-01

257

An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques  

E-print Network

Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change in the virtual object...

Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

2013-08-16

258

Touching Triangle Representation for 3-Connected Planar Graphs  

E-print Network

Mondal , and Rahnuma Islam Nishat § Department of Computer Science, University of Arizona Department corresponding to two objects touching in some specified fashion. Early results, such as Koebe's 1936 theorem [11

Kobourov, Stephen G.

259

Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens Ivan Poupyrev Shigeaki Maruyama  

E-print Network

Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens Ivan Poupyrev Shigeaki Maruyama Interaction Lab, Sony-0022, Japan Tokyo 108-6201, Japan poup@csl.sony.co.jp shigeaki.maruyama@jp.sony.com ABSTRACT We present

Poupyrev, Ivan

260

R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects  

PubMed Central

The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N=6255) of adolescents, ages 10–14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use. PMID:19655251

Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Worth, Keilah A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2010-01-01

261

Crime Shows and Sensational Interests: An Exploratory Examination of Students in Criminal Justice Related Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been assumed for many years that people who commit sadistic or other violent crime possess an unhealthy fascination with violence and death. Numerous studies have focused on levels of such sensational interests among criminal populations with a view to rehabilitation. What appears to be missing from current literature is an examination of sensational interests among those who work

Monica L. P. Robbers

262

Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300 adjudicated adolescents. Significant relationships between impulsive sensation seeking and future orientation were

Reuben N. Robbins; Angela Bryan

2004-01-01

263

Intercorrelations of the Sensation - Seeking Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two separate studies using Form IV of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) are reported. The first study correlates SSS by factor and sex with the earlier Form II SSS, supporting the reliability of the General SSS scale and discriminant validity of the Form IV SSS factor scales in relationship to general sensation-seeking. In the second study,…

Jacobs, Keith W.

1977-01-01

264

Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use by College Students: Examining Multiple Pathways of Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use

Itzhak Yanovitzky

2006-01-01

265

Verification of out of body sensations, attribution and localization by interaction with oneself  

E-print Network

evaluation methods. In this paper, we experiment with out-of-body sensations in a telexistence system experience. e-mail: kouichi@tachilab.org e-mail:tachi@tachilab.org There is also research on the out-of-bodyVerification of out of body sensations, attribution and localization by interaction with oneself

Tachi, Susumu

266

The Effects of Sensation Seeking, Physical Attractiveness of Stimuli, and Exposure Frequency on Liking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Males (N=54) and 46 females who scored high or low on a sensation seeking scale were exposed to slides of physically attractive or unattractive person stimuli. High sensation seekers both liked and expected to recognize the physically attractive persons in the future more than the physically unattractive persons. (Author)

Horai, Joann

1976-01-01

267

Height phobia and biases in the interpretation of bodily sensations: Some links between acrophobia and agoraphobia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate some of the factors that might underlie the commonly found association between agoraphobia and fear of heights (acrophobia). The results showed that measures of acrophobia are highly associated with the tendency to interpret ambiguous bodily sensations as threatening, and with an increased tendency to report bodily sensations of anxiety. These features of acrophobia

Graham C. L. Davey; Ross Menzies; Barbara Gallardo

1997-01-01

268

R-rated movie viewing, growth in sensation seeking and alcohol initiation: reciprocal and moderation effects.  

PubMed

The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N = 6255) of adolescents, ages 10-14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use. PMID:19655251

Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Gibbons, Frederick X

2010-03-01

269

Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

2008-01-01

270

Observations of upper-extremity skin temperature and corresponding overall-body thermal sensations and comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how upper extremity skin temperatures correlate with overall-body thermal sensation. Skin temperature measurements of the finger, hand, and forearm might be useful in monitoring and predicting people's thermal state. Subjective perceptions of overall thermal sensation and comfort were collected by repeated surveys, for subjects in a range of test chamber temperatures. A positive temperature gradient (finger warmer

Danni Wang; Hui Zhang; Edward Arens; Charlie Huizenga

2007-01-01

271

Cutaneous Grooves: Composing for the Sense of Touch  

E-print Network

This paper presents a novel coupling of haptics technology and music, introducing the notion of tactile composition or aesthetic composition for the sense of touch. A system that facilitates the composition and perception of intricate, musically structured spatio-temporal patterns of vibration on the surface of the body is described. An initial test of the system in a performance context is discussed. The fundamental building blocks of a compositional language for touch are considered.

Eric Gunther; Glorianna Davenport

2002-01-01

272

Opposite sex touch avoidance: A national replication and extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtually all previous research on touch avoidance was conducted in the Northeast region of the United States (U.S.). The present study replicated and extended Andersen and Leibowitz' (1978) research on touch avoidance by testing hypotheses for nearly 4,000 subjects at 40 universities from all socio-cultural regions of the United States. Results confirmed previous research, with the pattern of results at

Janis F. Andersen; Peter A. Andersen; Myron W. Lustig

1987-01-01

273

Merkel cells and touch domes: more than mechanosensory functions?  

PubMed

The touch dome (TD) is an innervated structure in the epidermis of mammalian skin. Composed of specialized keratinocytes and neuroendocrine Merkel cells, the TD has distinct molecular characteristics compared to the surrounding epidermal keratinocytes. Much of the research on Merkel cell function has focused on their role in mechanosensation, specifically light touch. Recently, more has been discovered about Merkel cell molecular characteristics and their cells of origin. Here we review Merkel cell and TD biology, and discuss potential functions beyond mechanosensation. PMID:24862916

Xiao, Ying; Williams, Jonathan S; Brownell, Isaac

2014-10-01

274

The Interactive Effects of Affect Lability, Negative Urgency, and Sensation Seeking on Young Adult Problematic Drinking  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency. PMID:24826366

Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

275

Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies.

Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Hyuck Lee, Kang; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

2010-10-01

276

Identification of genes expressed in C. elegans touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed

The extent of gene regulation in cell differentiation is poorly understood. We previously used saturation mutagenesis to identify 18 genes that are needed for the development and function of a single type of sensory neuron--the touch receptor neuron for gentle touch in Caenorhabditis elegans. One of these genes, mec-3, encodes a transcription factor that controls touch receptor differentiation. By culturing and isolating wild-type and mec-3 mutant cells from embryos and applying their amplified RNA to DNA microarrays, here we have identified genes that are known to be expressed in touch receptors, a previously uncloned gene (mec-17) that is needed for maintaining touch receptor differentiation, and more than 50 previously unknown mec-3-dependent genes. These genes are randomly distributed in the genome and under-represented both for genes that are co-expressed in operons and for multiple members of gene families. Using regions 5' of the start codon of the first 20 genes, we have also identified an over-represented heptanucleotide, AATGCAT, that is needed for the expression of touch receptor genes. PMID:12124626

Zhang, Yun; Ma, Charles; Delohery, Thomas; Nasipak, Brian; Foat, Barrett C; Bounoutas, Alexander; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Kim, Stuart K; Chalfie, Martin

2002-07-18

277

Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch.  

PubMed

Acute peripheral pain is reduced by multisensory interactions at the spinal level [1]. Central pain is reduced by reorganization of cortical body representations [2, 3]. We show here that acute pain can also be reduced by multisensory integration through self-touch, which provides proprioceptive, thermal, and tactile input forming a coherent body representation [4, 5]. We combined self-touch with the thermal grill illusion (TGI) [6]. In the traditional TGI, participants press their fingers on two warm objects surrounding one cool object. The warm surround unmasks pain pathways, which paradoxically causes the cool object to feel painfully hot. Here, we warmed the index and ring fingers of each hand while cooling the middle fingers. Immediately after, these three fingers of the right hand were touched against the same three fingers on the left hand. This self-touch caused a dramatic 64% reduction in perceived heat. We show that this paradoxical release from paradoxical heat cannot be explained by low-level touch-temperature interactions alone. To reduce pain, we often clutch a painful hand with the other hand. We show here that self-touch not only gates pain signals reaching the brain [7-9] but also, via multisensory integration, increases coherence of cognitive body representations to which pain afferents project [10]. PMID:20869246

Kammers, Marjolein P M; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Haggard, Patrick

2010-10-26

278

CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER  

E-print Network

CONSTRUCTING AN ELASTIC TOUCH PANEL WITH EMBEDDED IR-LEDS USING SILICONE RUBBER Yuichiro Sakamoto a technique for the construction of an elastic touch panel using silicone rubber. The technique is similar to that of the frustrated total internal reflection-based method for multi-touch sensing, but the surface of the touch panel

Tanaka, Jiro

279

Brief Report: Autistic Children's Attentiveness and Responsivity Improve after Touch Therapy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 22 preschool children with autism investigated touch therapy effects on problems commonly associated with autism including inattentiveness, touch aversion, and withdrawal. Orienting to irrelevant sounds and stereotypic behaviors decreased in both the touch therapy and the touch control group; however, orienting decreased more in the…

Field, Tiffany; Lasko, David; Mundy, Peter; Henteleff, Tanja; Kabat, Susan; Talpins, Susan; Dowling, Monica

1997-01-01

280

Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation  

PubMed Central

Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

2013-01-01

281

iPhone\\/iPod Touch as Input Devices for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

iPhone and iPod Touch are multi-touch handheld devices that pro- vide new possibilities for interaction techniques. We describe iPhone\\/iPod Touch implementation of a navigation interaction tech- nique originally developed for a larger multi-touch device (i.e. Lemur). The interaction technique implemented on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch was used for navigation tasks in a CAVE virtual environ- ment. We performed a pilot study

Ji-sun Kim; Denis Gracanin; Kresimir Matkovic; Francis K. H. Quek

2009-01-01

282

A genetically informed study of the association between harsh punishment and offspring behavioral problems.  

PubMed

Conclusions about the effects of harsh parenting on children have been limited by research designs that cannot control for genetic or shared environmental confounds. The present study used a sample of children of twins and a hierarchical linear modeling statistical approach to analyze the consequences of varying levels of punishment while controlling for many confounding influences. The sample of 887 twin pairs and 2,554 children came from the Australian Twin Registry. Although corporal punishment per se did not have significant associations with negative childhood outcomes, harsher forms of physical punishment did appear to have specific and significant effects. The observed association between harsh physical punishment and negative outcomes in children survived a relatively rigorous test of its causal status, thereby increasing the authors' conviction that harsh physical punishment is a serious risk factor for children. PMID:16756394

Lynch, Stacy K; Turkheimer, Eric; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Mendle, Jane; Emery, Robert E; Slutske, Wendy S; Martin, Nicholas G

2006-06-01

283

A Genetically Informed Study of the Association Between Harsh Punishment and Offspring Behavioral Problems  

PubMed Central

Conclusions about the effects of harsh parenting on children have been limited by research designs that cannot control for genetic or shared environmental confounds. The present study used a sample of children of twins and a hierarchical linear modeling statistical approach to analyze the consequences of varying levels of punishment while controlling for many confounding influences. The sample of 887 twin pairs and 2,554 children came from the Australian Twin Registry. Although corporal punishment per se did not have significant associations with negative childhood outcomes, harsher forms of physical punishment did appear to have specific and significant effects. The observed association between harsh physical punishment and negative outcomes in children survived a relatively rigorous test of its causal status, thereby increasing the authors’ conviction that harsh physical punishment is a serious risk factor for children. PMID:16756394

Lynch, Stacy K.; Turkheimer, Eric; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Mendle, Jane; Emery, Robert E.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2010-01-01

284

Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.  

PubMed

Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

2006-12-01

285

Harsh voice quality and its association with blackness in popular American media.  

PubMed

Performers use various laryngeal settings to create voices for characters and personas they portray. Although some research demonstrates the sociophonetic associations of laryngeal voice quality, few studies have documented or examined the role of harsh voice quality, particularly with vibration of the epilaryngeal structures (growling). This article qualitatively examines phonetic properties of vocal performances in a corpus of popular American media and evaluates the association of voice qualities in these performances with representations of social identity and stereotype. In several cases, contrasting laryngeal states create sociophonetic contrast, and harsh voice quality is paired with the portrayal of racial stereotypes of black people. These cases indicate exaggerated emotional states and are associated with yelling/shouting modes of expression. Overall, however, the functioning of harsh voice quality as it occurs in the data is broader and may involve aggressive posturing, comedic inversion of aggressiveness, vocal pathology, and vocal homage. PMID:24060966

Moisik, Scott Reid

2012-01-01

286

The C. elegans EMAP-like protein, ELP-1 is required for touch sensation and associates with microtubules and adhesion complexes  

E-print Network

(exon ?11–16)::nls::gfp (pKA99-1); rol-6(su1006)] (KA15-17), (lin-15(n765); lkEx1[Pelp-1::elp-1::gfp (pKA99-2); lin-15(+)]) (KA6-8), (lin- 15(n765); lkEx3[Pelp-1::gfp (pKA99-3); lin-15(+)]), (KA14) and deg-1(u38)X;lkEx4[Pelp-1::elp-1::gfp (pKA99-2); rol... [GenBank: NM_001008707], EML2 [GenBank: NM_012155], EML3 [Gen- Bank: NM_153265], EML4 [GenBank: NM_019063], and EML5 [GenBank: NM_183387]. EMAP (S. purpuratus) ELP-1 (C. elegans) EML2 (H.sapiens) EML1 (H.sapiens) EML3 (H.sapiens) EML4 (H.sapiens) EML5...

Hueston, Jennifer L.; Herren, Gina Purinton; Cueva, Juan G.; Buechner, Matthew; Lundquist, Erik A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

2008-11-17

287

Evaluation of age-related plantar-surface insensitivity and onset age of advanced insensitivity in older adults using vibratory and touch sensation tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related decline in plantar-surface sensitivity has been cited as one of the reasons for balance problems in older adults. This study investigated the level of plantar-surface sensitivity in older adults compared to young adults. Additionally, this study attempted to identify the onset age of advanced insensitivity in older adults and how well monofilament testing was able to predict insensitivity and

Stephen D. Perry

2006-01-01

288

Separation of single- and double-touching handwritten numeral strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve overall separation and classification performance for touching handwritten numeral strings, we have to deal with double- touching problems, which occur particularly for some combinations of digits. We propose a strategy to separate single- and double-touching numerical strings. The proposed technique includes: using two-cut links to deal with double-touching problems; using weighted geometric-property measures to rank both one- and two-cut links; and using a rejection scheme to reject poor links at both ranking and recognition stages. Two- cut link pairs that join the high-curvature points in inner contour(s) to those in the external contour are considered when all one-cut links that join the upper and the lower external contours fail to separate them. All combinations of one- and two-cut links are ranked according to weighted geometric-property measures, and the top links are chosen and tested by the recognition system. Experimental results on the National Institute of Standards and Technology database show that our system for solving both single- and double-touching problems compares favorably with the other techniques tested.

Chi, Zheru; Suters, Mark; Yan, Hong

1995-04-01

289

Optical touch sensing: practical bounds for design and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch sensitive screens are used in many applications ranging in size from smartphones and tablets to display walls and collaborative surfaces. In this study, we consider optical touch sensing, a technology best suited for large-scale touch surfaces. Optical touch sensing utilizes cameras and light sources placed along the edge of the display. Within this framework, we first find a sufficient number of cameras necessary for identifying a convex polygon touching the screen, using a continuous light source on the boundary of a circular domain. We then find the number of cameras necessary to distinguish between two circular objects in a circular or rectangular domain. Finally, we use Matlab to simulate the polygonal mesh formed from distributing cameras and light sources on a circular domain. Using this, we compute the number of polygons in the mesh and the maximum polygon area to give us information about the accuracy of the configuration. We close with summary and conclusions, and pointers to possible future research directions.

Bläßle, Alexander; Janbek, Bebart; Liu, Lifeng; Nakamura, Kanna; Nolan, Kimberly; Paraschiv, Victor

2013-02-01

290

Hydrostatic pressure sensation in cells: integration into the tensegrity model.  

PubMed

Hydrostatic pressure (HP) is a mechanical stimulus that has received relatively little attention in the field of the cell biology of mechanotransduction. Generalized models, such as the tensegrity model, do not provide a detailed explanation of how HP might be detected. This is significant, because HP is an important mechanical stimulus, directing cell behaviour in a variety of tissues, including cartilage, bone, airways, and the vasculature. HP sensitivity may also be an important factor in certain clinical situations, as well as under unique environmental conditions such as microgravity. While downstream cellular effects have been well characterized, the initial HP sensation mechanism remains unclear. In vitro evidence shows that HP affects cytoskeletal polymerization, an effect that may be crucial in triggering the cellular response. The balance between free monomers and cytoskeletal polymers is shifted by alterations in HP, which could initiate a cellular response by releasing and (or) activating cytoskeleton-associated proteins. This new model fits well with the basic tenets of the existing tensegrity model, including mechanisms in which cellular HP sensitivity could be tuned to accommodate variable levels of stress. PMID:17901896

Myers, Kenneth A; Rattner, Jerome B; Shrive, Nigel G; Hart, David A

2007-10-01

291

The Desired Sensation Level Multistage Input/Output Algorithm  

PubMed Central

The Desired Sensation Level (DSL) Method was revised to support hearing instrument fitting for infants, young children, and adults who use modern hearing instrument technologies, including multichannel compression, expansion, and multimemory capability. The aims of this revision are to maintain aspects of the previous versions of the DSL Method that have been supported by research, while extending the method to account for adult-child differences in preference and listening requirements. The goals of this version (5.0) include avoiding loudness discomfort, selecting a frequency response that meets audibility requirements, choosing compression characteristics that appropriately match technology to the user's needs, and accommodating the overall prescription to meet individual needs for use in various listening environments. This review summarizes the status of research on the use of the DSL Method with pediatric and adult populations and presents a series of revisions that have been made during the generation of DSL v5.0. This article concludes with case examples that illustrate key differences between the DSL v4.1 and DSL v5.0 prescriptions. PMID:16424945

Scollie, Susan; Seewald, Richard; Cornelisse, Leonard; Moodie, Sheila; Bagatto, Marlene; Laurnagaray, Diana; Beaulac, Steve; Pumford, John

2005-01-01

292

Automatic negative evaluation of suffocation sensations in individuals with suffocation fear.  

PubMed

The current study tested whether "suffocation sensations" (respiratory loads) are automatically evaluated in a negative way by people fearing these sensations. It was found that, after having been primed with a slight respiratory load, participants with high suffocation fear (n=15) reacted more quickly to suffocation words and more slowly to positive words than participants with low suffocation fear (n=21). However, the effect was present only in participants who had noticed the primes. The findings are relevant to the cognitive model of panic disorder because automatic negative appraisal of sensations may play a role in initiating a panic attack. PMID:16117583

Kroeze, Sabine; Van der Does, A J Willem; Spinhoven, Philip; Schot, Robert; Sterk, Peter J; Van den Aardweg, Joost G

2005-08-01

293

A possible link between sensation-seeking status and positive subjective effects of oxycodone in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is linked to use and abuse of drugs. Laboratory studies have established that high sensation seekers, as measured by different instruments, are more likely to report abuse liability-related subjective effects from drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, and d-amphetamine than low sensation seekers. One class of drugs that has not been studied to date in this fashion is opioids. Accordingly, a retrospective analysis encompassing five studies that examined oxycodone effects, including its abuse liability-related effects, was conducted in subjects categorized as high or low sensation seekers. In addition, because there appear to be sex differences in how males and females respond to opioids, this factor was taken into account in the analysis. Seventy one subjects who scored on the lower end (15 and 19 low sensation seeking males and females, respectively) or the higher end (23 and 14 high sensation seeking males and females) of the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V were studied for their responses to 0, 10, and 20 mg of oral oxycodone. Ratings of “pleasant bodily sensations” were significantly higher after oxycodone administration than placebo only in male and female high sensation seekers. Ratings of “take again,” “drug liking,” “carefree,” and “elated (very happy)” also tended to differentiate high from low sensation seekers although Group × Dose interactions were only marginally significant with the latter three ratings. Male and female low sensation seekers and female high sensation seekers reported dysphoric effects (e.g., ratings of nauseated) particularly after administration of the 20-mg oxycodone dose. The results of this analysis provide suggestive evidence that high sensation seekers are more likely to experience greater positive subjective effects from oxycodone than low sensation seekers, but likelihood of experiencing negative effects is more complex (involving both sensation seeking status and sex). PMID:20045020

Zacny, James P.

2010-01-01

294

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

295

The effect of friendly touch on delay-of-gratification in preschool children.  

PubMed

Physical touch has many documented benefits, but past research has paid little attention to the effects of touch on children's development. Here, we tested the effect of touch on children's compliance behaviour in a modified delay-of-gratification task. Forty children (M?=?59 months) were randomly assigned to a touch or no touch group. Children in the intervention condition received a friendly touch on the back while being told that they should wait for permission to eat a candy. Results showed that children in the touch condition waited an average of two minutes longer to eat the candy than children in the no touch condition. This finding has implications for the potential of using touch to promote positive behaviours in children. PMID:24666195

Leonard, Julia A; Berkowitz, Talia; Shusterman, Anna

2014-11-01

296

Gender and the Communication of Emotion Via Touch  

PubMed Central

We reanalyzed a data set consisting of a U.S. undergraduate sample (N?=?212) from a previous study (Hertenstein et al. 2006a) that showed that touch communicates distinct emotions between humans. In the current reanalysis, we found that anger was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a male comprised at least one member of a communicating dyad. Sympathy was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a female comprised at least one member of the dyad. Finally, happiness was communicated only if females comprised the entire dyad. The current analysis demonstrates gender asymmetries in the accuracy of communicating distinct emotions via touch between humans. PMID:21297854

Keltner, Dacher

2010-01-01

297

Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents.  

E-print Network

TOoe . ZTA245 07 8873 , ~O.I2."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from... touching you Hold him close to your body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

298

Touch and technology: Two paradigms of patient care.  

PubMed

Technology violates human dignity only to the extent that its use reduces persons to the moral status of objects. The prevalence of technology in health care is an extension of the scientific paradigm, in which the body is reduced to an object void of subjectivity. The empathie paradigm, in contrast, is based upon the moral primacy of subjectivity. Empathic touch-as distinct from instrumental and philanthropic touch-establishes a clinical relation of intersubjectivity, affirming in patients the dignity and worth that morally distinguish persons from objects. PMID:24306940

Gadow, S

1984-03-01

299

ChainMail: A configurable multimodal lining to enable sensate surfaces and interactive objects  

E-print Network

The ChainMail system is a scalable electronic sensate skin that is designed as a dense sensor network. ChainMail is built from small (1"x1") rigid circuit boards attached to their neighbors with flexible interconnects that ...

Mistree, Behram F. T.

300

Sex differences moderate decision making behaviour in high impulsive sensation seekers.  

PubMed

We tested whether individuals with high levels of impulsive sensation seeking learn to choose advantageously in a specific decision-making context. One hundred twenty-eight participants (73 female) completed a neuropsychological task, the variant version of the Iowa Gambling Task (vIGT; Bechara, Tranel, & Damasio, 2000), in which individuals must select cards from decks that offer high initial losses if they are to eventually make a profit. The selection from decks of cards that led to the highest profit as the task progressed was higher in high, compared to low, impulsive sensation seekers. However, learning to choose advantageously was moderated by sex of participant. Specifically, compared to females, male high impulsive sensation seekers learned more quickly to make consistent selections from the advantageous decks despite the large immediate losses. Overall, the data support the hypothesis that insensitivity to loss due to impulsive sensation seeking can lead to financial gain. PMID:21432662

Dretsch, Michael N; Tipples, Jason

2011-01-01

301

CargoNet : micropower sensate tags for supply-chain management and security  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a system of sensate active RFID tags for supply-chain management and security applications, necessitated by the current lack of commercial platforms capable of monitoring the state ...

Malinowski, Mateusz Ksawery

2007-01-01

302

S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin  

E-print Network

The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

2006-01-01

303

Examination of Force Discrimination in Human Upper Limb Amputees With Reinnervated Limb Sensation Following Peripheral Nerve Transfer  

PubMed Central

Artificial limbs allow amputees to manipulate objects, but the loss of a limb severs the sensory link between a subject and objects they touch. A novel surgical technique we term targeted reinnervation (TR) allows severed cutaneous nerves to reinnervate skin on a different portion of the body. This technique provides a physiologically appropriate portal to the sensory pathways of the missing limb through the reinnervated skin. This study quantified the ability of three amputee subjects who had undergone TR surgery on the chest (two subjects) and upper arm (one subject) to discriminate changes in graded force on their reinnervated skin over a range of 1–4 N using a stochastic staircase approach. These values were compared to those from sites on their intact contralateral skin and index fingers, and from the chests and index fingers of a control population (n = 10). Weber’s ratio (WR) was used to examine the subjects’ abilities to discriminate between a baseline force and subsequent forces of different magnitudes. WRs of 0.22, 0.25, and 0.12 were measured on the reinnervated skin of the three TR subjects, whereas WRs of 0.25,0.23, and 0.12 were measured on their contralateral skin. TR subjects did not have substantially different WRs on their reinnervated versus their contralateral normal side and did not appear to exhibit a trend towards impaired sensation. No significant difference was found between the WR of the chest and index finger of the control subjects, which ranged between 0.09 and 0.21. WR of reinnervated skin for TR subjects were within the 95% confidence interval of the control group. These data suggest that subjects with targeted reinnervation have unimpaired ability to discriminate gradations in force. PMID:19775983

Sensinger, Jonathon W.; Schultz, Aimee E.; Kuiken, Todd A.

2011-01-01

304

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison  

PubMed Central

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared to those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and 1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, 2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and 3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

Chancellor, Leia V.; Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2011-01-01

305

A Genetically Informed Study of the Association Between Harsh Punishment and Offspring Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions about the effects of harsh parenting on children have been limited by research designs that cannot control for genetic or shared environmental confounds. The present study used a sample of children of twins and a hierarchical linear modeling statistical approach to analyze the consequences of varying levels of punishment while controlling for many confounding influences. The sample of 887

Stacy K. Lynch; Eric Turkheimer; Brian M. DOnofrio; Jane Mendle; Robert E. Emery; Wendy S. Slutske; Nicholas G. Martin

2006-01-01

306

Some Consequences of Early Harsh Discipline: Child Aggression and a Maladaptive Social Information Processing Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using an experimental design that avoided some methodological difficulties of earlier studies, this study found a relationship between harsh parental discipline and kindergarten children's aggression. This relationship was apparently not a result of confounding factors such as child temperament, SES, and marital violence. (BC)

Weiss, Bahr; And Others

1992-01-01

307

Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHarsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in

Akemi Tomoda; Hanako Suzuki; Keren Rabi; Yi-Shin Sheu; Ann Polcari; Martin H. Teicher

2009-01-01

308

Development of a low-noise amplifier for neutron detection in harsh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast matching charge amplifier for neutron spectroscopy in harsh environment has been developed and tested at the JET Tokamak. This front-end circuit is capable to operate at a distance up to 100 meters from a sensor without increasing its equivalent noise charge. Further improvements are possible by exploiting the intrinsic performance of silicon-germanium bipolar junction transistors.

Angelone, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Paolozzi, L.; Pillon, M.

2014-10-01

309

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer  

E-print Network

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer David;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Mantle Convection, David Bercovici MANTLE CONVECTION Synonyms Mantle convection the- ory to follow, the simple B�enard convective sys- 1 #12;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth

310

"The Certainty of Hopelessness": Are Courts too Harsh toward Bankrupt Student Loan Debtors?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In most cases, individuals filing for bankruptcy to discharge student loans are those who encountered difficult life circumstances, not middle-class college graduates who refused to pay for their education. Many courts have interpreted the Bankruptcy Code's "undue hardship" provisions too harshly and without compassion. (70 footnotes) (MLF)

Fossey, Richard

1997-01-01

311

DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE ROUTING IN MANETs (1) John S. Baras and Harsh Mehta  

E-print Network

1 DYNAMIC ADAPTIVE ROUTING IN MANETs (1) John S. Baras and Harsh Mehta Electrical and Computer changes. In this paper we present performance results on a new routing algorithm for MANETs based with respect to the characteristics of a MANET, the varying parameters of the algorithm itself as well

Baras, John S.

312

Vandals: Think Tank Says Catch Them But Don't Punish Them Too Harshly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A report of the British government's Central Policy Review Staff finds no reliable evidence that harsh punishment deters the vandal. It recommends that local authorities make buildings more vandal-proof and adults be encouraged to help deter and catch young offenders. (Author/SJL)

Haydon, Carolyn

1978-01-01

313

Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

314

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.  

PubMed

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2011-03-01

315

Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

2009-01-01

316

Marital Quality, Maternal Depressed Affect, Harsh Parenting, and Child Externalising in Hong Kong Chinese Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used a family systems approach to examine harsh parenting, maternal depressed affect, and marital quality in relation to children's externalising behaviour problems in a sample of 158 Hong Kong primary school children. At two time points, peers and teachers provided ratings of children's externalising behaviours, and mothers…

Chang, Lei; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Schwartz, David; Farver, Joann M.

2004-01-01

317

Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensors for Health and Performance Monitoring of Aerospace Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in transportation costs and the push for cleaner emissions demands advancements in aerospace technology. The current instrumentation used in aerospace applications is costly, and indirect measurement approaches are often employed due to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. Health monitoring technologies for the development of a distributed sensor network can be utilized to improve engine

Debbie G. Senesky; Babak Jamshidi; Kan Bun Cheng; A. P. Pisano

2009-01-01

318

Harsh Corporal Punishment versus Quality of Parental Involvement as an Explanation of Adolescent Maladjustment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes investigation utilizing data from panel study of 332 midwestern families to examine impact of harsh corporal punishment and quality of parental involvement on adolescent outcomes of aggressiveness, delinquency, and psychological well-being. Suggests that corporal punishment was not related to adolescent outcomes when effect of parental…

Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

1994-01-01

319

An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation within an Evolutionary Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping…

Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.

2012-01-01

320

Predictors of Harsh Parenting Practices in Parents of Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…

Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin

2014-01-01

321

Justifying harsh treatment of asylum seekers through the support of social cohesion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I show how politicians and other members in the asylum debate in the UK use arguments about social cohesion to simultaneously present themselves as caring about social relations while also justifying the harsh treatment of asylum seekers. A discourse analysis of a corpus of public domain media texts is used to identify two arguments utilising this strategy.

Simon Goodman

322

Perceived Harmfulness Predicts Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among College Students: Interactions with Sensation-Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample\\u000a of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use.\\u000a In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking.\\u000a Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use,

Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O’Grady; Eric D. Wish

2008-01-01

323

Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster\\/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults

John E. Hayes; Bridget S. Sullivan; Valerie B. Duffy

2010-01-01

324

Perineal sensation: an important predictor of long-term outcome in open spina bifida  

PubMed Central

Objectives To see if perineal sensation in infants with open spina bifida is associated with a better long?term outcome, particularly in terms of survival, renal?related deaths and incontinence. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study on a complete cohort of 117 consecutive patients with open spina bifida, whose backs were closed non?selectively at birth between 1963 and 1971. A meticulous neurological examination in infancy showed that 33 (28%) of them had perineal sensation, defined as intact sensation to pinprick in at least one dermatome on one side in the saddle area (S2–4). Data recorded within 48?h of birth and during six reviews between 1972 and 2002 were used. Details of deaths were obtained from medical records and from the Office of National Statistics. Results By December 2005, 57% (67/117) of the cohort had died. There were 50 survivors with a mean age 38?years (range 35–41). More of those with perineal sensation survived than those without (23/33 v 27/84, p<0.001). This difference was mainly caused by 19 renal deaths in those lacking perineal sensation. Crucially there were no renal?related deaths in those with perineal sensation (0/33 v 19/84, p?=?0.003). Among the survivors, those with perineal sensation were more likely than the remainder to be continent of urine and faeces (10/23 v 1/27, p<0.001 and 18/23 v 9/27, p?=?0.002 respectively). They were also more likely to be able to walk at least 50?m (11/23 v 5/27, p?=?0.027) and never to have had pressure sores (15/23 v 9/27, p?=?0.025). Conclusions A simple assessment of perineal sensation in infancy predicts long?term outcome in terms of survival, renal prognosis and incontinence in open spina bifida. PMID:16943260

Oakeshott, P; Hunt, G M; Whitaker, R H; Kerry, S

2007-01-01

325

‘Sensation of Space and Modern Architecture’: a psychology of architecture by Franz Löwitsch  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1928 the Austrian architect and engineer Franz Löwitsch (1894–1946) published the article ‘Sensation of Space and Modern Architecture’ inImago, the psychoanalytical journal edited by Sigmund Freud. Based on Richard Semon's theories ofMneme,which Löwitsch connected to psychoanalytical theories, the prevalence of dissimilar sensations of space throughout the stages of the development of western architectural history is presupposed, and Löwitsch offered

Tanja Poppelreuter

2012-01-01

326

A comparison of impulsivity and sensation seeking in pathological gamblers and skydivers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare pathological gamblers and skydivers in relation to measures of impulsivity and sensation seeking. The Eysenck Impulsivity Scale - Narrow Impulsiveness Subscale and the Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking were administered to pathological gamblers (n = 29), skydivers (n = 93), and a control group (n = 43). A two-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted to explore differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between the groups and possible group by gender and group by age interaction effects. The significant effects were further investigated using follow-up univariate analysis of variance. The results showed significant main effects of Group, Gender and Age, and a significant Group by Gender interaction effect. The results showed no statistically significant differences in impulsivity between pathological gamblers and skydivers; however, both groups scored higher than the controls. The skydivers scored higher compared to the pathological gamblers and controls on both sensation seeking subscales. Pathological gamblers scored higher than the controls on the subscale Need for Stimulus Intensity, although lower than the controls on the subscale Need for Novelty. We conclude that skydivers and pathological gamblers do not seem to differ in terms of impulsivity, but that the two groups differ in terms of sensation seeking. Skydivers are hence characterized by more sensation seeking compared to pathological gamblers. Skydiving, as opposed to pathological gambling, is not considered a psychiatric disorder, and skydiving may represent a more non-pathological way to fulfill the need for stimulus intensity. PMID:22783975

Myrseth, Helga; Tverå, Renate; Hagatun, Susanne; Lindgren, Camilla

2012-08-01

327

Brain responses to repeated visual experience among low and high sensation seekers: role of boredom susceptibility  

PubMed Central

To better understand individual differences in sensation seeking and its components, including boredom susceptibility and experience seeking, we examined brain responses of high and low sensation seekers during repeated visual experience. Individuals scoring in the top and bottom quartiles from a college-aged population on the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) participated in an event-related potentials (ERPs) experiment. Line drawings of common objects were randomly intermixed and presented 1–3 times. Sixty-four channel ERP responses were recorded while participants classified items as “man-made” or “not man-made” in a repetition priming task. The two groups showed different ERP responses at frontal electrode sites after seeing a visual stimulus for 400–800 ms. The frontal late positive components (LPC) showed different habituation of ERP responses to new and studied repeated objects between high and low sensation seekers. Source localization analysis (LORETA) indicated that during visual stimulus adaptation the left ventral pre-frontal cortex showed lack of frontal involvement among high sensation seekers. Furthermore, frontal LPC latencies during repeated visual exposure correlated with boredom susceptibility and experience seeking subscales. The distinct profiles of brain responses to repeated visual experience in high and low sensation seekers provide evidence that individual differences in neural adaptation can be linked to personality dimensions. PMID:19560906

Jiang, Yang; Lianekhammy, Joann; Lawson, Adam; Guo, Chunyan; ynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.; Gold, Brian T.; Kelly, Thomas H.

2009-01-01

328

Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

2014-08-01

329

The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology.  

PubMed

Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

2013-10-01

330

Determination of sensation threshold from small pulse trains of 2.01?m laser light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of sensation thresholds has applications ranging from uses in the medical community such as neural pathway mapping and for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy, to potential uses in determining safety standards. This study sought to determine the sensation threshold, and the distribution of sensation probabilities, for pulse trains ranging from two 10 ms pulses to nine 10 ms pulses from 2.01 ?m laser light incident on a human forearm and chest. Threshold was defined as the energy density that would elicit sensation 50% of the time (ED50). A method of levels approach was used in conjunction with a monovariate binary response model to determine the ED50. We determined the ED50 and also a distribution of threshold probabilities. Threshold was found to be largely dependant on total energy deposited for smaller pulse trains, and thus independent of the number of pulses. Total energy becomes less important as the number of pulses increases however, and a decrease in threshold was measured for a nine pulse train as compared to one through four pulse trains. Thus we have demonstrated that this method is a useful and easy way for determining sensation thresholds from a 2.01 ?m laser for possible clinical use. We have also demonstrated that lower power lasers when pulsed can elicit sensation at comparable levels to higher power single pulse lasers.

Dugan, Daniel C.; Johnson, Thomas E.

2009-02-01

331

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise-level targeting activities. We then explore the design space of variable friction interface controls and assess graphical user interfaces that allowed users to directly manipulate objects. The iPhone's success suggests

Levesque, Vincent

332

Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

2013-01-01

333

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

334

Affective TouchCasting Leonardo Bonanni and Cati Vaucelle  

E-print Network

and affective nature of touch. Haptic devices are often hand-held, like video game controllers; and abstract, so-intuitive, as in a system that maps the position of the ball in a televised sports game to a vibrotactile array, vibration and deep pressure have been effective at reducing anxiety and improving morale in a number

Ishii, Hiroshi

335

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine  

E-print Network

in the context of a furry artificial lap-pet, with the ultimate goal of creating ther- apeutic interactions of touch therapy, such as in- teraction with trained animals, are often unavailable in hos- pitals, homes lead to a whole new range of potential uses in therapy, rehabilitation, edu- cation, treatment

MacLean, Karon

336

Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components  

E-print Network

Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components Michael I. Mishchenko and Mackowski 3Opt. Lett. 19, 1604 1199424 to compute light scattering by bispheres in fixed and random extensive studies of light scattering by spheroids and Chebyshev particles. For monodisperse bispheres

Fridlind, Ann

337

RESEARCH ARTICLE Perceived timing of vestibular stimulation relative to touch,  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Perceived timing of vestibular stimulation relative to touch, light and sound. Here we measured the perceived timing of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) relative to tactile for differences in processing times. Keywords Audition Á Galvanic vestibular stimulation Á Multisensory Á

Harris, Laurence R.

338

Improving Telerobotic Touch Via High-Frequency Acceleration Matching  

E-print Network

interactions, a high-bandwidth sensor measures accelerations at the slave's end effector, and the realImproving Telerobotic Touch Via High-Frequency Acceleration Matching Katherine J. Kuchenbecker-laden high-frequency accelerations in addition to quasi-static forces when interacting with objects via

Kuchenbecker, Katherine J.

339

TOUCH: A Robotic Vision System for Underwater Object Tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

TOUCH is a real-time computer vision system that has been developed in order to aid the operation of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs). The algorithm is based on a modified 4-connectivity approach that scans the incoming frames for a target hue range and based upon the largest connected blobs of hue, tracks an object and provides

Anuj Sehgal; Jason Kadarusman; Leslie D. Fife

2004-01-01

340

A reconfigurable multi-touch framework for teleoperation tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide variety of remotely controlled mobile robots have been developed in the past. Despite the evolution in robotics functionalities, not much effort has been made to customize control interfaces to meet user preferences and needs. General users can find difficulties in controlling mobile robots by standard interfaces. On the other hand, recent advances in multi-touch devices now allow researchers

Gianluca Paravati; Andrea Sanna; Fabrizio Lamberti; Cesare Celozzi

2011-01-01

341

Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their

Mark Potter; C. Ilie; D. Schofield

2011-01-01

342

Collaboration and interference: Awareness with mice or touch input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch surfaces are becoming increasingly popular. An assumed benefit is that they can facilitate collaborative interactions in co-located groups. In particular, being able to see another's physical actions can enhance awareness, which in turn can support fluid interaction and coordination. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence or measures to support these claims. We present an analysis of different

Eva Hornecker; Paul Marshall; Nick Sheep Dalton; Yvonne Rogers

2008-01-01

343

Hapticat: Exploration of Affective Touch Steve Yohanan1  

E-print Network

for the approach we have taken in this pa- per stems from animals and the symbiotic relationship hu- mans have- action styles General Terms Human Factors, Design, Experimentation Permission to make digital or hard qualities of touch and the variety of responses they evoke. One field that addresses the relationship

MacLean, Karon

344

inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal, an encouraging pat on the back, or a comforting hug, physical contact is a basic means through which people, such as family and friends, touch is particularly important as a communicator of affection. Current interpersonal

Ishii, Hiroshi

345

Mobile Music Touch: Vibration stimulus in hand rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hand rehabilitation often consists of repetitive exercises, which may result in reduced patient compliance and decreased results. The Mobile Music Touch (MMT) is proposed as an engaging form of hand rehabilitation. MMT is a lightweight, wireless haptic music instruction system consisting of gloves and a mobile Bluetooth-enabled computing device, such as a mobile phone. Musical passages to be learned via

T. Markow; N. Ramakrishnan; K. Huang; T. Starner; M. Eicholtz; S. Garrett; H. Profita; A. Scarlata; C. Schooler; A. Tarun; D. Backus

2010-01-01

346

Design of a therapeutic robotic companion for relational, affective touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has shown the positive health benefits of companion animals. Unfortunately these animals are not always available to patients due to allergies, risk of disease, or other reasons. Recently, this application domain has attracted attention of robotics researchers. The Huggable is a new type of robotic companion capable of active relational and affective touch-based interactions with a person. It

Walter Dan Stiehl; Jeff Lieberman; Cynthia Breazeal; Louis Basel; Levi Lalla; Michael Wolf

2005-01-01

347

Courtship compliance: The effect of touch on women's behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that light tactile contact increases compliance to a wide variety of requests. However, the effect of touch on compliance to a courtship request has never been studied. In this paper, three experiments were conducted in a courtship context. In the first experiment, a young male confederate in a nightclub asked young women to dance with him

Nicolas Guéguen

2007-01-01

348

Inconspicuous Personal Computer Protection with Touch-Mouse  

E-print Network

from a touch-mouse and user behavior patterns categorized by common mouse action primitives and security are categorized into three types. Biometrics is a commonly used solution for user identity recognition [7]. Biometrics-based identification methods are reliable and unique for individual users. However

He, Lei

349

Simulation of Touch by Means of Surface Ultrasound Waves.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The method of simulating touch is based on the use of surface ultrasonic waves of the megacycle range radiated in the form of impulses and passing around the surface of an 'artificial finger.' The transmitting capacity of the 'artificial finger' was discu...

L. L. Myasnikov

1964-01-01

350

Sex, Touch, and HIV Risk Among Ecstasy Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined HIV risk among heavy and nonheavy ecstasy users, focusing specifically on touch and sexual behavior as part of the ecstasy experience. Structured interviews were conducted with 268 young adult (age 18–25) ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia. Heavy ecstasy users were more likely to have been tested for HIV than nonheavy users (79 vs. 68%). However, they also were

Katherine P. Theall; Kirk W. Elifson; Claire E. Sterk

2006-01-01

351

Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

Predmore, Sarah R.

2005-01-01

352

Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

2011-01-01

353

Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution.  

PubMed

Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision-touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

2011-11-12

354

Separability of spatial manipulations in multi-touch interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch interfaces allow users to translate, rotate, and scale digital objects in a single interaction. However, this freedom represents a problem when users intend to perform only a subset of manipulations. A user trying to scale an object in a print layout program, for example, might find that the object was also slightly translated and rotated, interfering with what was

Miguel A. Nacenta; Patrick Baudisch; Hrvoje Benko; Andy Wilson

2009-01-01

355

Capacitive Touch Communication: A Technique to Input Data Through Devices'  

E-print Network

may want to limit access to age- appropriate games and media for our children or prevent them from that needs to be touched to the screen. Experiments with our prototype transmitter and tablet receiver show for differentiating users in multiplayer tablet games or parental control applications. Controlled experiments

Gruteser, Marco

356

Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

357

Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

King, Kathy

358

A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto,  

E-print Network

-dependent Measurement of Physical Quantities (1979). 6) Matsushita, N. and Rekimoto, J.: HoloWall: designing a finger.D.: TouchLight: an imaging touch screen and display for gesture-based interac- tion, ICMI '04, ACM, pp.69

Tanaka, Jiro

359

Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

2013-01-01

360

Dopamine modulates risk-taking as a function of baseline sensation-seeking trait.  

PubMed

Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling. PMID:23926253

Norbury, Agnes; Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D; Husain, Masud

2013-08-01

361

Sensation seeking and hormones in men and women: exploring the link.  

PubMed

Risky behaviors (e.g., binge drinking, drunk driving, risky sex) are increasing among U.S. college students, and the personality trait of sensation seeking provides a potential link between such norm-breaking behaviors and biological processes. We examined the relationship between sensation-seeking behaviors and two hormones, testosterone and cortisol, in male and female college students. Hormone levels were hypothesized to contribute to the variability of individual scores on Zuckerman's Sensation-Seeking Scale. As expected, males scored higher on the scale than females, but the data failed to support the generally accepted positive relationship between testosterone and sensation seeking for either sex. Instead, our results support the existence of a significant inverse relationship between cortisol and sensation seeking in men, but not in women, even after adjustment for testosterone levels and age. Our study contributes to the current literature by (a) supporting the association between risky behavior and a hormone other than testosterone, (b) being the first to examine the association between cortisol and sensation seeking in women, and (c) identifying a possible effect of gender on the association between hormones and sensation-seeking behaviors. Gendered social norms and expectations are likely to be partly responsible for this effect. Theory-guided interdisciplinary research is needed to improve understanding of the biological influences on human behavior, and special attention must be paid to social context, women's perceptions of their expected behavior, and gendered socialization regarding norm-breaking or risky behaviors, which may obscure biological links to female behavior. PMID:11673912

Rosenblitt, J C; Soler, H; Johnson, S E; Quadagno, D M

2001-11-01

362

Grooming and touching behaviour in captive ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of grooming and touching behaviours was recorded in a group of captive ring-tailed lemurs. Grooming was found\\u000a to be performed chiefly by older, higher ranking animals; touching (i.e., “reach out and touch” behaviour) was directed primarily\\u000a by younger, low ranking animals to older, high ranking individuals. It is suggested that such touching is a submissive gesture\\u000a in this

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Robin J. Thompson

1985-01-01

363

Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia. PMID:23921098

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

2013-12-01

364

The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

2013-01-01

365

Interactive Content System based on Spatial Augmented Reality and Multi Touch Screen  

E-print Network

touch screen, use 8mm acrylic board and 880nm Infra-Red LED (IR LED). Figure 1. Movement of IR rays IR acrylic rear screen and detect touched point through IR LED and IR camera. In addition, we built SARInteractive Content System based on Spatial Augmented Reality and Multi Touch Screen Kim Jung-hoon1

Romano, Daniela

366

What Caused that Touch? Expressive Interaction with a Surface through Fiduciary-Tagged Gloves  

E-print Network

returned from it [16], Benko's EMG muscle sensing ap- proach that identifies fingers touching a surface [1What Caused that Touch? Expressive Interaction with a Surface through Fiduciary-Tagged Gloves terms: Design, Human Factors Keywords: Surfaces, touch, gestures, postures, gloves, fiduciary tags

Greenberg, Saul

367

Genetic Control of Differentiation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Touch Receptor Neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic control of neuronal differentiation has been studied by examining mutations that affect the development and function of the six touch receptor neurons of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. By screening for touch-insensitive mutants, it has been possible to identify 18 genes (represented by 417 mutations) that are required at various stages in the developmental program for touch cell differentiation.

Martin Chalfie; Macy Au

1989-01-01

368

IMPROVING THE ACCURACY OF TOUCH SCREENS: AN EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF THREE STRATEGIES  

E-print Network

controllers or medical equipment operators, probably because of the annoyance of high error @I988 ACM-O-89791 was confirmed had fewer errors than other touch strategies. The implications of the results for touch screens, parallax between the touch screen surface and the display surface can cause users to misinterpret where

Shneiderman, Ben

369

Touching Behavior in Sport: Functional Components, Analysis of Sex Differences, and Ethological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists regarding sex differences in touching behavior in sport or recreational settings. This study investigates sex differences in amounts, types, and factors influencing same-sex touching in a sport context. Subjects were 119 members of four men's college varsity baseball teams and 52 members of three women's college varsity softball teams. All touches performed on-field between team members were

Linda M. Kneidinger; Terry L. Maple; Stuart A. Tross

2001-01-01

370

Evaluating Controls for a Point and Shoot Mobile Game: Augmented Reality, Touch and Tilt.  

E-print Network

Evaluating Controls for a Point and Shoot Mobile Game: Augmented Reality, Touch and Tilt. Asier Bordeaux, Talence, France ABSTRACT Controls based on Augmented Reality (AR), Tilt and Touch have been experience, videogames, controller, augmented reality, tilt, touch. Index Terms: H.5.1 [Information

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

371

Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research and applications in the area of mediated or remote social touch. Whereas current communication media rely predominately on vision and hearing, mediated social touch allows people to touch each other over a distance by means of haptic feedback technology. Overall, the reviewed applications have interesting potential, such as the communication of simple ideas (e.g.,

Antal Haans; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

2006-01-01

372

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2011-04-01

373

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2010-04-01

374

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

2012-04-01

375

Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.  

PubMed

Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

2012-01-01

376

Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification  

PubMed Central

The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

2014-01-01

377

Perceived message sensation value (PMSV) and the dimensions and validation of a PMSV scale.  

PubMed

Sensation seeking has been linked to drug abuse and risky behaviors, and is positively associated with preferences for messages high in sensation value (i.e., perceived to be highly novel, arousing, dramatic, or intense). This suggests the utility of valid and reliable measures of perceived message sensation value (PMSV) in research on information processing, persuasion, and reducing risk-related behaviors. Dimensions and construct validity of a 17-item PMSV scale were examined via 2 studies: 1 of 368 high school students' reactions to televised antimarijuana public service announcements (PSAs) and one of 444 college students' responses to televised anticocaine PSAs. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated 3-dimensional solutions for the PMSV scale were nearly identical for high sensation seeking (HSS) and low sensation seeking (LSS) respondents in Study 1 and HSS respondents in Study 2. Total scale alphas were .87 for Study 1 and .93 for Study 2. The PMSV scale and its dimensions (Emotional Arousal, Dramatic Impact, Novelty) were positively correlated with affective response measures in both studies for HSS and LSS. Study 1 also examined cognitive, narrative, and sensory PSA processing, which were found to be positively associated with total PMSV and the Arousal and Dramatic Impact dimensions of PSMV for both HSS and LSS. PMID:12375769

Palmgreen, Philip; Stephenson, Michael T; Everett, Maureen W; Baseheart, John R; Francies, Regina

2002-01-01

378

The role of sensation in subjective and objective evaluation of nasal patency.  

PubMed

To assess if sensation of nasal mucosa affect the subjective sensation of nasal patency. This is a case control study with 50 patients, using 2% lignocaine as the active drug and normal saline as the placebo (2 groups of 25 patients each). Each subject had 2 ml of solution sprayed into the test nose. These subjects had no prior nasal symptoms, allergy or surgery. They were evaluated subjectively using Likert scale and objectively by acoustic rhinometry before and after lignocaine or normal saline. The patients in both normal saline and lignocaine groups demonstrated no significant change based upon Likert scale. The study also demonstrated the mean cross sectional area 1 (CSA1), mean cross sectional area 2 (CSA2), with mean Volume 1 and mean Volume 2, these results did not vary significantly in both groups with Acoustic Rhinometry. The analysis thus shows that the use of topical anesthetic spray on nasal mucosa produces no objective effect on nasal resistance or subjective sensation of altered nasal patency. Thus the study concludes that, tactile sensation of nasal mucosa does not play a role in the sensation of nasal obstruction. PMID:22319710

Dipak, S; Prepageran, N; Haslinda, Siti; Atiya, As; Raman, R

2011-01-01

379

Sensation Seeking, Stress, and Adolescent Injuries: A Test of Stress-Buffering, Risk-Taking, and Coping Skills Hypotheses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential stress-buffering effects of sensation seeking were assessed in a prospective study involving high school athletes. A significant positive relation between major negative sport-specific life events and subsequent injury time-loss occurred only for athletes low in sensation seeking. No evidence was obtained for a competing hypothesis that high sensation seeking would constitute an injury vulnerability factor by increasing risk-taking

Ronald E. Smith; J. T. Ptacek; Frank L. Smoll

1992-01-01

380

UltraHigh Reliability Flip Chip on Laminate For Harsh Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, we report on our efforts to develop ultra-high reliability flip chip on laminate assemblies for deployment in harsh thermal cycling environments characteristic of ground and aerospace vehicles (e.g. -55 to 150 degC). Reliability enhancement has been achieved through the use of a novel low expansion, high stiffness, and relatively low cost laminate substrate material that virtually eliminates

D. Scott Copeland; M. Kaysar Rahim; Jeffrey C. Suhling; Guoyun Tian; Pradeep Lall; Richard C. Jaeger; Kris Vasoya

2005-01-01

381

Harsh environments minimally invasive optical sensor using free-space targeted single-crystal silicon carbide  

Microsoft Academic Search

To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, a single-crystal silicon carbide (SiC)-based minimally invasive smart optical sensor suited for harsh environments has been designed and demonstrated. The novel sensor design is based on an agile wavelength source, instantaneous single-wavelength strong two-beam interferometry, full optical power cycle data acquisition, free-space targeted laser beams, multiple single-crystal-thick SiC optical front-end

Nabeel A. Riza; A. Arain; Frank Perez

2006-01-01

382

An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation Within an Evolutionary Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping with threat and challenge cohered into 2 broad, phenotypic dimensions—hawk and dove—that have been

Melissa L. Sturge-Apple; Patrick T. Davies; Meredith J. Martin; Dante Cicchetti; Rochelle F. Hentges

2012-01-01

383

Fiber-optic photo-acoustic spectroscopy sensor for harsh environment gas detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photo-acoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has been successfully applied to detect various gases and chemicals due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. However, the performance of the conventional acoustic sensors prohibits the application of PAS for harsh environment gas species real-time monitoring. By replacing conventional acoustic sensors, such as microphone and piezo-transducers, with a high-temperature Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) vibration sensor, we

Juntao Wu; Kung-Li Deng; Renato Guida; Boon Lee

2007-01-01

384

A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.  

PubMed

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

Yang, Jie

2013-01-01

385

Harsh Parenting and Fearfulness in Toddlerhood Interact to Predict Amplitudes of Preschool Error-Related Negativity  

PubMed Central

Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children’s risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

386

Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin  

PubMed Central

The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

387

Sex, perceptions of attractiveness, and sensation seeking and ratings of the likelihood of having sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

Association of attractiveness, sex, and sensation seeking with perceptions of sexually transmitted diseases were examined. Subjects (64 women and 56 men) were given a picture and brief description of a target and asked to rate the accuracy of statements based on information provided. Pictures depicted a man or woman previously rated as attractive or unattractive by volunteers. The hobbies listed skydiving and rock climbing for high sensation seekers and reading and listening to music for low sensation seekers. Analysis indicated a significant three-way interaction with the attractive male targets described as high sensation-seeking and being perceived by men as most likely to have a sexually transmitted disease. PMID:15154195

Zaromatidis, Katherine; Carlo, Regina; Racanello, Dennis

2004-04-01

388

Non-contact Tactile Sensation Synthesized by Ultrasound Transducers Takayuki Hoshi  

E-print Network

Iwamoto 2 , and Hiroyuki Shinoda 1 1 The University of Tokyo and 2 Canon Inc. ABSTRACT This paper/or palms. Employed devices are, for example, vibrotactile stimulators (CyberTouch [8]), motor-driven belts

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

389

An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

2014-05-01

390

Wave Touch: Educational Game on Interactive Tabletop with Water Simulation  

E-print Network

, Kiwon Yeom1 , DongWook Yoon1 , Dong-young Kim2 , JungHyun Han2 and Ji-Hyung Park1 1 Intelligence-touch tabletop interface, which supports cooperative and competitive gaming. These days, a few researchers have are a generalized version of the N-S equations. These equations reduce the problem of a 3D fluid motion to a 2D

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

391

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

392

Interface Design for Graphics Editor on Multi Touch Point Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the project is to use the touch sensitive device capability of the iPad to give a better user experience and functionalities for the artists. In this project, I have explored different interactions that can give a better experience for artist when compared to traditional computer-mouse interaction. In the traditional Computer-mouse interaction it is very difficult for

Srujitha Mullapudi

2011-01-01

393

Distributed representation of single touches in somatosensory and visual cortex.  

PubMed

Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to analyze blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data, which were acquired as human subjects received brief vibrotactile stimulation of their hands and feet. Support vector machines trained and tested on the whole brain fMRI data were able to accurately decode the body site of single touches, with mean performance of 92% in a two-way discrimination task (chance performance 50%) and 70% in a four-way discrimination task (chance performance 25%). Primary and secondary somatosensory areas (S1 and S2) alone decoded the touched body site with high accuracy. S1 was more accurate at decoding touches closely spaced on the body surface (different fingers of the same hand) whereas S2 and S1 were equally accurate at decoding widely spaced touches (hand vs. foot). The hand and foot regions of S1 (S1hand and S1foot) were separately examined in a two-way classification task. S1hand was better able to decode the hand of stimulation (left vs. right), and S1foot was better able to decode the foot of stimulation. In addition to S1 and S2, vibrotactile responses were observed in a region of visual cortex, areas MST and STP (MST/STP) in lateral occipito-temporal lobe. MST/STP was able to accurately decode the hand but not the foot of stimulation, supporting the idea of a role for MST/STP in eye-hand coordination. PMID:19224618

Beauchamp, Michael S; Laconte, Stephen; Yasar, Nafi

2009-10-01

394

“No-Touch” submuscular saline breast augmentation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a retrospective view of the author's 17-year experience with 2863 saline implants in 1327 patients and details his “no-touch” technique. The experience included almost an equal number of submammary and subpectoral procedures. The submammary procedures were done early on and were replaced with subpectoral procedures, done exclusively at the present time. There were significantly less complications-capsules, wrinkling

Richard A. Mladick

1993-01-01

395

Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment  

PubMed Central

International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries. PMID:23316097

Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

2012-01-01

396

Supermicrosurgical free sensate intercostal artery perforator flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch for plantar reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap has recently become popular in reconstructive surgery. We have developed a novel free sensate ICAP flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch (LCB) and applied it to a case with a plantar defect. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first to describe a free sensate ICAP flap based on the LCB. This method has several advantages: (1) a sensate flap is possible because the LCB neurovascular bundle is consistently available; (2) the long neurovascular pedicle can be harvested in the supine position without the risk of pneumothorax; (3) the donor-site morbidity is low; and (4) conversion or combination with a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) or a superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap is readily possible. We believe that this method represents a new option for soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24491457

Iida, Takuya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Koshima, Isao

2014-07-01

397

The conduction velocities of peripheral nerve fibres conveying sensations of warming and cooling.  

PubMed Central

With the current practice of measuring thresholds for warming and cooling separately, the question of the exact nature of afferents subserving these sensations assumes new importance. Experiments to measure reaction times to warming and cooling stimuli at two sites on the lower limb are described. The conduction velocity for each sensation was estimated from the conduction distance and conduction time in the limb. The estimated mean conduction velocity for warming was 0.5, SD 0.2 m/s and cooling 2.1, SD 0.8 m/s. These figures confirm that the sensation of warming is conveyed in unmyelinated and cooling in small myelinated peripheral nerve fibres. PMID:3225599

Fowler, C J; Sitzoglou, K; Ali, Z; Halonen, P

1988-01-01

398

Mechanosensitive unpaired innexin channels in C. elegans touch neurons.  

PubMed

Invertebrate innexin proteins share sequence homology with vertebrate pannexins and general membrane topology with both pannexins and connexins. While connexins form gap junctions that mediate intercellular communication, pannexins are thought to function exclusively as plasma membrane channels permeable to both ions and small molecules. Undoubtedly, certain innexins function as gap junction proteins. However, due to sequence similarity to pannexins, it was postulated that innexins also function as plasma membrane channels. Indeed, some of the leech innexins were found to mediate ATP release as unpaired membrane channels with shared pharmacology to pannexin channels. We show here that Caenorhabditis elegans touch-sensing neurons express a mechanically gated innexin channel with a conductance of ?1 nS and voltage-dependent and K(+)-selective subconductance state. We also show that C. elegans touch neurons take up ethidium bromide through a mechanism that is activated and blocked by innexin activating stimuli and inhibitors, respectively. Finally, we present evidence that touch neurons' innexins are required for cell death induced by chemical ischemia. Our work demonstrates that innexins function as plasma membrane channels in native C. elegans neurons, where they may play a role in pathological cell death. PMID:25252948

Sangaletti, Rachele; Dahl, Gerhard; Bianchi, Laura

2014-11-15

399

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

400

A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

2013-08-01

401

Separation of single- and double-touching handwritten numeral strings based on structural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new method to separate touching handwritten numeral pairs using structural analysis. The string is preprocessed with an efficient algorithm for smoothing, linearization, and detection of structural points of image contours. The structural region of the string is determined. Some left- or right-side numerals of the string are recognized. The property of each hole contour in a string is detected. The touching model of a string is determined, whether single- or double-touching. For double-touching, the touching hole contour is determined. For the two touching models, the touching point is preselected, its position is corrected, and the corresponding match touching point is found. The string is separated based on all touching points. All processing procedures are based on morphological structural analyses. We have tested our method on image samples taken from the U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology database. We used 500 sample images to design the required models. For 3287 test samples the correct-separation rate was 97.2% for single- touching strings, and 97% for double-touching strings.

Yu, Donggang; Hu, Jianming; Yan, Hong

1999-03-01

402

Stance stability with unilateral and bilateral light touch of an external stationary object.  

PubMed

Unilateral light fingertip touch of a stationary object has a significant stabilizing effect on postural sway during stance. The purpose of this study was to find out if this effect is enhanced by bilateral light touch of parallel stationary objects. The postural sway of 54 healthy subjects was tested in four stance conditions: no touch; unilateral left light touch of the left handle of a walker; unilateral right light touch of the right handle of the same walker; and bilateral light touch of the two handles. During testing, subjects stood blindfolded on two foam pads placed on the left and right force plates of the Tetrax balance system. Testing in each condition lasted 45 s and was executed twice in a random order. As expected, postural sway was significantly reduced by unilateral left or right light fingertip touch. It was significantly further decreased by bilateral light touch. In addition, light touch conditions were associated with a reduction in pressure fluctuations between the heel and forefoot of the same foot as well as those of the contralateral foot, with a concomitant increase in weight shift fluctuations between the two feet. The decrease in postural sway with bilateral light touch suggests cortical modulation of the bilateral touch inputs, with enhancement of the stabilizing response. PMID:16503584

Dickstein, Ruth

2005-12-01

403

Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program  

PubMed Central

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a “phantom” of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable the motor control is. This dissociation appears to yield an attribution conflict, resulting in the odd sensation. PMID:19492054

Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

2009-01-01

404

Perceived harmfulness predicts nonmedical use of prescription drugs among college students: Interactions with sensation-seeking  

PubMed Central

This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use. In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking. Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use, were conducted with 1,253 first-year college students. Participants were then followed-up twice at six-month intervals. Perceived harmfulness of nonmedical use of prescription drugs was assessed at six months via a web-based survey. At the 12-month follow-up interview, drug use was again assessed. Students who never had the opportunity to use prescription drugs nonmedically were excluded from all analyses. Results revealed that one in four students perceived a great risk of harm from occasional nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (25.2%) and analgesics (27.8%). As expected, low perceived harmfulness and high sensation-seeking were independently associated with increased risk of nonmedical use, holding constant demographic characteristics. The protective effect of high perceived harmfulness could be seen at all levels of sensation-seeking with one important exception: among high sensation-seekers, perceived harmfulness was not related to nonmedical use of prescription analgesics. Perceived harmfulness appears to distinguish nonmedical users from non-users, given the opportunity to use. Increasing perceived harmfulness may be a viable prevention strategy for most students, but alternative approaches might need to be developed that are tailored to high sensation-seekers. PMID:18633709

Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

2008-01-01

405

Eliciting accounts of alleged child sexual abuse: how do children report touch?  

PubMed

Investigative interviewers frequently question alleged victims of child sexual abuse about any touching or bodily contact that might have occurred. In the present study of forensic interviews with 192 alleged sexual abuse victims, between 4 and 13 years of age, we examined the frequency with which alleged victims reported bodily contact as "touch" and the types of prompts associated with "touch" reports. Even young alleged victims of sexual abuse reported bodily contact as "touch," and they used the word "touch" more frequently in response to recall than recognition prompts. Regardless of age, children typically referred to "touch" before interviewers used this term, suggesting that even young children are able to report "touch" without being cued by interviewers. PMID:25101533

Teoh, Yee-San; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen; Johnson, Zephyr H; Lamb, Michael E

2014-10-01

406

Thermal sensation and comfort in transient non-uniform thermal environments.  

PubMed

Most existing thermal comfort models are applicable only to steady-state, uniform thermal environments. This paper presents summary results from 109 human tests that were performed under non-uniform and transient conditions. In these tests, local body areas were independently heated or cooled while the rest of the body was exposed to a warm, neutral or cool environment. Skin temperatures, core temperature, thermal sensation and comfort responses were collected at 1- to 3-min intervals. Based on these tests, we have developed predictive models of local and overall thermal sensation and comfort. PMID:15221406

Zhang, H; Huizenga, C; Arens, E; Wang, D

2004-09-01

407

Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. PMID:24878692

González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

2014-10-01

408

Predictors of adolescent psychopathy: the role of impulsivity, hyperactivity, and sensation seeking.  

PubMed

Clinical applications to psychopathy encompass downward extensions to adolescent populations. In alliance with clinical practice, several prominent researchers have formulated prediction models for adolescent psychopathy that include various forms of behavioral dysregulation, including impulsivity, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and sensation seeking. As a cross-sectional study, the current investigation systematically examined behavioral dysregulation in 79 male adolescents who, as a result of adjudication, were placed them in a maximum-security facility. Impulsivity appeared to be the best predictor of both psychopathy and conduct problems. In addition, conduct-disordered symptoms were predicted mostly by impulsivity, with minor contributions from sensation seeking and ADHD symptoms. PMID:11785608

Vitacco, M J; Rogers, R

2001-01-01

409

Ultra low power, harsh environment SOI-CMOS design of temperature sensor based threshold detection and wake-up IC  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ultra-low-power temperature-sensor-based silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS Integrated Circuit (IC) for harsh environment application is presented. It first detects a temperature threshold, secondly generates a wake-up signal that turns on a data-acquisition microprocessor once the threshold has been detected and thirdly operates as a temperature sensor in a harsh environment while being wired to the microprocessor kept in a safe area.

M. Assaad; P. Ge?rard; L. A. Francis; D. Flandre

2010-01-01

410

Virtual Active Touch Using Randomly Patterned Intracortical Microstimulation  

PubMed Central

Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) has promise as a means for delivering somatosensory feedback in neuroprosthetic systems. Various tactile sensations could be encoded by temporal, spatial, or spatiotemporal patterns of ICMS. However, the applicability of temporal patterns of ICMS to artificial tactile sensation during active exploration is unknown, as is the minimum discriminable difference between temporally modulated ICMS patterns. We trained rhesus monkeys in an active exploration task in which they discriminated periodic pulse-trains of ICMS (200 Hz bursts at a 10 Hz secondary frequency) from pulse trains with the same average pulse rate, but distorted periodicity (200 Hz bursts at a variable instantaneous secondary frequency). The statistics of the aperiodic pulse trains were drawn from a gamma distribution with mean inter-burst intervals equal to those of the periodic pulse trains. The monkeys distinguished periodic pulse trains from aperiodic pulse trains with coefficients of variation 0.25 or greater. Reconstruction of movement kinematics, extracted from the activity of neuronal populations recorded in the sensorimotor cortex concurrent with the delivery of ICMS feedback, improved when the recording intervals affected by ICMS artifacts were removed from analysis. These results add to the growing evidence that temporally patterned ICMS can be used to simulate a tactile sense for neuroprosthetic devices. PMID:22207642

O'Doherty, Joseph E.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; Li, Zheng; Nicolelis, Miguel A.L.

2012-01-01

411

Sensation Seeking, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Behaviors Among Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients in Cape Town, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol use is associated with risks for HIV\\/AIDS. The association between alcohol and sexual risk may be accounted for by sensation seeking personality. However, sensation seeking in relation to substance use and HIV risk has not been examined in Africa. In this study, 292 men and 219 women receiving sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnostic and treatment services in Cape Town,

Seth C. Kalichman; Leickness C. Simbayi; Sean Jooste; Demetria Cain; Charsey Cherry

2006-01-01

412

Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation sought to advance Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) by examining whether trait reactance and sensation seeking influence the magnitude of a perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. Results revealed that high trait reactant (HTR) and low trait reactant (LTR) individuals and high sensation seekers…

Quick, Brian L.; Stephenson, Michael T.

2008-01-01

413

Abstract--Telexistence technology enables a highly realistic sensation of existence in a remote place without any actual  

E-print Network

Abstract--Telexistence technology enables a highly realistic sensation of existence in a remote place without any actual travel. The concept was originally proposed by the first author in 1980 & IV, capable of generating the sensation of being in a remote place in local space using a combination

Tachi, Susumu

414

Relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with sexual risk behavior in young Urban women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer- Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was

Rachel Jones

2004-01-01

415

Touch in primary care consultations: qualitative investigation of doctors' and patients' perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Good communication skills are integral to successful doctor–patient relationships. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, and touch is a significant component, which has received little attention in the primary care literature. Touch may be procedural (part of a clinical task) or expressive (contact unrelated to a procedure/examination). Aim To explore GPs’ and patients’ experiences of using touch in consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study in urban and semi-rural areas of north-west England. Method Participating GPs recruited registered patients with whom they felt they had an ongoing relationship. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and subjected to constant comparative qualitative analysis. Results All participants described the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication in developing relationships. Expressive touch was suggested to improve communication quality by most GPs and all patients. GPs reported a lower threshold for using touch with older patients or those who were bereaved, and with patients of the same sex as themselves. All patient responders felt touch on the hand or forearm was appropriate. GPs described limits to using touch, with some responders rarely using anything other than procedural touch. In contrast, most patient responders believed expressive touch was acceptable, especially in situations of distress. All GP responders feared misinterpretation in their use of touch, but patients were keen that these concerns should not prevent doctors using expressive touch in consultations. Conclusion Expressive touch improves interactions between GPs and patients. Increased educational emphasis on the conscious use of expressive touch would enhance clinical communication and, hence, perhaps patient wellbeing and care. PMID:23540485

Cocksedge, Simon; George, Bethan; Renwick, Sophie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A

2013-01-01

416

Abstract -A sensate robotic gripper was developed and interfaced to an electrotactile tongue stimulation system. The  

E-print Network

- level quadriplegia. Tele-manipulation systems were initially developed for work in hazardous with quadriplegia, however, ordinary haptic feedback for tele-operation is not possible because both sensation deficiencies experienced by people with high-level quadriplegia may be overcome [4, 5]. Employing this new

Ferrier, Nicola J.

417

Perception, Evaluation, and Performance in a Neat and Messy Room by High and Low Sensation Seekers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes two studies that investigated the relationship between the effects of room environment (neat versus messy) and high and low sensation seeker's perception, evaluation, and performance. Elapsed time estimation did not vary as a function of room condition and personality. Sex differences were not found to be critical. (BT)

Samuelson, David J.; Lindauer, Martin S.

1976-01-01

418

Sexual Risk-Taking in Gay Men: The Relevance of Sexual Arousability, Mood, and Sensation Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined the relationship of three aspects of personality to sexual risk-taking in gay men: (1) sexual arousability, as propensity for sexual excitation, and propensity for inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of threat (measured by the Sexual Excitation, SES, and Sexual Inhibition, SIS1, SIS2, scales); (2) the relation between negative mood and sexuality; and (3) sensation seeking.

John Bancroft; Erick Janssen; David Strong; Lori Carnes; Zoran Vukadinovic; J. Scott Long

2003-01-01

419

I Am What I Watch: Voyeurism, Sensation Seeking, and Television Viewing Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the role of viewers' personality traits, sensation-seeking, and voyeurism in relation to reported consumption of voyeuristic program content in various television genres. A uses and gratifications approach was employed to identify factors predicting appeal of particular TV programs. The study combines two types of media research: survey and content analysis. Results were combined to create the Voyeurism

Zhanna Bagdasarov; Kathryn Greene; Smita C. Banerjee; Marina Krcmar; Itzhak Yanovitzky; Dovile Ruginyte

2010-01-01

420

Topical capsaicin in humans: parallel loss of epidermal nerve fibers and pain sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsaicin applied topically to human skin produces itching, pricking and burning sensations due to excitation of nociceptors. With repeated application, these positive sensory responses are followed by a prolonged period of hypalgesia that is usually referred to as desensitization, or nociceptor inactivation. Consequently, capsaicin has been recommended as a treatment for a variety of painful syndromes. The precise mechanisms that

Maria Nolano; Donald A Simone; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Timothy Johnson; Eric Hazen; William R Kennedy

1999-01-01

421

Sensation Seeking as a Psychological Trait of Drug Abuse among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conceptualization of the role of personality constructs in the drug usage behavior of individuals with disabilities has both preventive and treatment relevance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sensation seeking and drug usage pattern of persons with spinal cord injury. Implications for rehabilitation research…

Alston, Reginald J.

1994-01-01

422

Panic Reactivity to Voluntary Hyperventilation Challenge Predicts Distress Tolerance to Bodily Sensations Among Daily Cigarette Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation examined the extent to which panic reactivity to bodily sensations is related to distress tolerance (DT) among daily smokers. It was hypothesized that panic reactivity to an initial voluntary hyperventilation (i.e., whether participants met criteria for a DSM–IV panic attack; PA) would predict the relative degree of task persistence on a second hyperventilation trial (DT) above and

Erin C. Marshall; Michael J. Zvolensky; Anka A. Vujanovic; Kristin Gregor; Laura E. Gibson; Teresa M. Leyro

2008-01-01

423

Great Sensations: A Program to Encourage Heart Healthy Snacking by High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom instruction, parent outreach, and media campaigns were strategies used by the Great Sensations program, designed to teach high school students good snacking habits. The program focused on salt and high blood pressure. Program design and results are discussed. (Author/DF)

Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; And Others

1984-01-01

424

The impact of anxiety on the neural processing of respiratory sensations  

PubMed Central

Previous studies demonstrated that anxiety considerably impacts the reported perceptions of respiratory sensations. A novel feature of the current study is exploring the impact of anxiety on the neural processing of respiratory sensations elicited by short inspiratory occlusions during different affective contexts. Using high-density EEG, respiratory-related evoked potentials (RREP) were recorded in 23 low and 23 matched higher anxious individuals when viewing unpleasant or neutral picture series. Low anxious individuals showed the expected pattern of reduced magnitudes of later RREP components P2 and P3 during the unpleasant compared to the neutral affective context (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). In contrast, higher anxious individuals showed greater magnitudes of P2 and P3 during the unpleasant compared to the neutral affective context (p’s < 0.05). Moreover, higher anxiety levels were correlated with greater magnitudes for P2 (r = 0.44, p < 0.01) and P3 (r = 0.54, p < 0.001) during the unpleasant relative to the neutral affective context. Earlier components of the RREP (Nf, P1, N1) were not affected by anxiety. This study demonstrates that anxiety affects the later, higher-order neural processing of respiratory sensations, but not its earlier, first-order sensory processing. These findings might represent a neural mechanism that underlies the increased perception of respiratory sensations in anxious individuals. PMID:21111831

von Leupoldt, Andreas; Chan, Pei-Ying S.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.; Davenport, Paul W.

2010-01-01

425

Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: The Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments

Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher

1984-01-01

426

The Psychophysical Relationship between Bitter Taste and Burning Sensation: Evidence of Qualitative Similarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it has long been studied as a pure sensory irritant, the ability of capsaicin to evoke, mask, and desensitize bitter taste suggests that burning sensations and bitter taste might be closely related perceptually. The current study investigated the psy- chophysical relationship between bitterness and burning using 2 different approaches. In Experiment 1, spatial discrimination of 4 taste stimuli was

Juyun Lim; Barry G. Green

2006-01-01

427

The Relationship between Sensation Seeking and the Preference for Rap Music of Young Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sensation seeking and the preference for rap-music stimulation of young offenders. In the initial pilot study 18 participants rated the stimulation level of the music and lyrics for 12 pieces of rap music. Based on participants? responses, four pieces of rap-music categories were selected for the main study, representing

Kie Yamada

2008-01-01

428

Artificial Tactile Sensation Imaging for Healthcare Application Jong-Ha Lee1  

E-print Network

tumor are usually associated with localized changes in mechanical properties such as stiffnessArtificial Tactile Sensation Imaging for Healthcare Application Jong-Ha Lee1 , Chang-Hee Won1 limitations, including the exposure to radiation, excessive costs, and complexity of machinery. Artificial

Won, Chang-Hee

429

Tactile Sensation Imaging for Artificial Palpation Jong-Ha Lee1  

E-print Network

that the tissue abnormalities are usually associated with localized changes in mechanical propertiesTactile Sensation Imaging for Artificial Palpation Jong-Ha Lee1 , Chang-Hee Won1 , Kaiguo Yan2, each of these techniques has limitations, including the exposure to radiation, excessive costs

Won, Chang-Hee

430

Painful and non-painful pressure sensations from human skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Painful and non-painful pressure sensations from muscle are generally accepted to exist but the peripheral neural correlate has not been clarified. The aim of the present human study was to assess the non-painful and painful pressure sensitivity with (1) anaesthetised skin, and (2) anaesthetised skin combined with a block of large diameter muscle afferents. The skin was anaesthetised by a

Thomas Graven-Nielsen; Siegfried Mense; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

2004-01-01

431

Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment for Panic Disorder with Moderate to Severe Agoraphobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article presents a detailed description of an intensive treatment program for panic disorder with moderate to severe levels of agoraphobia (PDA), called Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment (SFIT). Although the efficacy of traditional CBT treatment programs has been well established for the treatment of PDA, patients with moderate to…

Morissette, Sandra Baker; Spiegel, David A.; Heinrichs, Nina

2005-01-01

432

Aerobic Energy Cost and Sensation Responses During Submaximal Running Exercise - Positive Effects of Wearing Compression Tights  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine the effects of wearing compression compared to classic elastic tights and conventional shorts (con- trol trial) on oxygen cost and sensation responses during sub- maximal running exercise. In part I, aerobic energy cost was eval- uated in six trained runners at 10, 12, 14, and 16 km · h -1 . In part II, the

A. Bringard; S. Perrey; N. Belluye

2006-01-01

433

Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

2008-01-01

434

Heightened visceral sensation in functional gastrointestinal disease is not site-specific  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alteration in visceral sensation locally at the site of presumed symptom origin in the gastrointestinal tract has been proposed as an important etiopathological mechanism in the so-called functional bowel disorders. Patients presenting with one functional gastrointestinal syndrome, however, frequently have additional symptoms referable to other parts of the gut, suggesting that enhanced visceral nociception may be a panintestinal phenomenon. We

K. C. Trimble; R. Farouk; A. Pryde; S. Douglas; R. C. Heading

1995-01-01

435

Sexual Sensation Seeking, Drug Use and Risky Sex among Detained Youth  

PubMed Central

Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with drug use and risky sex in a number of populations. However, these relationships have had limited examination among adolescents, and to date, have not been explored among detained youth, a group with some of the highest rates of illicit drug use and STIs. To better understand these relationships we utilized A-CASI to collect data on sociodemographics, sexual sensation seeking, drug use and risky sexual behaviors among a sample of 550 detained youth. A series of multivariable regression models controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and risky peer networks indicated that sexual sensation seeking was associated with alcohol and ecstasy use. Additionally, sexual sensation seeking was associated with having sex while high on drugs; having sex with a partner who was high on drugs; exchanging sex for drugs; exchanging sex for money; having more sexual partners in the last two months; having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex; and a less condom use during oral sex. These data have important implications for STI/drug use prevention interventions among detained adolescents. PMID:24383042

Voisin, Dexter R.; King, Kelly; Schneider, John; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Tan, Kevin

2013-01-01

436

Impulse-control disorders in alcoholics are related to sensation seeking and not to impulsivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impulse-control disorders (ICD) include intermittent explosive disorder, kleptomania, trichotillomania, pyromania and pathological gambling. Several studies have suggested that the incidence of pathological gambling and impulsive violent behavior is substantially higher in alcohol-dependent patients than in the general population. The association between ICD and alcoholism, as well as personality characteristics such as sensation seeking and impulsivity, has never been systematically studied.

Michel Lejoyeux; Nathalie Feuché; Sabrina Loi; Jacquelyn Solomon; Jean Adès

1998-01-01

437

Finger Length, Digit Ratio and Gender Differences in Sensation Seeking and Internet Self-Efficacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have suggested a significant relationship between finger length and aspects of personality. In this study the ratio between second and fourth digit lengths, known as digit ratio, was correlated with sensation seeking and Internet self-efficacy. In addition the relationship be- tween the fourth and fifth digits, i.e. the little finger and ring finger, and these two constructs was

Peter Eachus

2007-01-01

438

Bending Modes, Damping, and the Sensation of Sting in Baseball Bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The painful sensation of sting in the top hand of a player holding a baseball or softball bat may be a deterrent to enjoying the game, especially for young players. Several mechanisms for reducing the vibration of bending modes have been implemented in youth baseball bats in order to reduce sting. One method of assessing the effectiveness of these mechanisms

Daniel A. Russell

2006-01-01

439

Appetite Sensations and Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: An Overview of the Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review information about the potential mechanisms underlying nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), food cravings, and\\/or aversions in pregnancy. In addition to providing overviews about genetic predispositions and hormonal associations with appetite sensations and NVP, we review two functional explanations: the “maternal and embryo protection” and the “placental growth and development” hypotheses. We conclude with a discussion about the

Crystal L. Patil; Elizabeth T. Abrams; Alexis R. Steinmetz; Sera L. Young

2012-01-01

440

Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

2004-01-01

441

Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

Stanton, H. E.

1976-01-01

442

Why Sensations Must be Neurological Properties: A Defense of the Identity Theory  

E-print Network

Why Sensations Must be Neurological Properties: A Defense of the Identity Theory by ©2013 Nicholas K. Simmons Submitted to the graduate degree program in Philosophy and the Graduate Faculty of the University of Kansas in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Chairperson, John Bricke John Symons Thomas Tuozzo Ben Eggleston Michael Vitevitch Date Defended: April 16, 2013 ii...

Simmons, Nicholas Keith

2013-05-31

443

The Aggression Paradox: Understanding Links Among Aggression, Sensation Seeking, and the Consideration of Future Consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four studies involving 573 female and 272 male college students demonstrated that multiple forms and measures of aggression were associated with high levels of sensation seeking, impulsivity, and a focus on the immediate consequences of behavior. Multiple regression analyses and structural equation models supported a theoretical model based on the general aggression model (C. A. Anderson & B. J. Bushman,

Jeff Joireman; Jonathan Anderson; Alan Strathman

2003-01-01

444

--Tinnitus is a consciously experienced `ringing' sensation in the auditory system, which occurs without the  

E-print Network

's disease, Multiple Sclerosis and Acoustic Neuroma. Neurological aspects of tinnitus have been extensively for this phenomenon has not been confirmed. In the majority of cases, external acoustic stimulation masks the tinnitus sensation and the offset of tinnitus is preceded by the complete withdrawal of acoustic stimulus. This paper

Barreto, Armando

445

The effect of music type on running perseverance and coping with effort sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To examine: (a) the effect of music type on running time and on sensations and thoughts experienced by the runners under high physical exertion, and (b) the role that music plays in the use of two distinct self-regulation techniques during high exertion, namely dissociative and motivational.Design and procedure. Three studies were conducted. In Study 1 and Study 2, performed

G Tenenbaum; R Lidor; N Lavyan; K Morrow; S Tonnel; A Gershgoren; J Meis; M Johnson

2004-01-01

446

Characterization of the Vectron PX-570 Crystal Oscillator for Use in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computing hardware, data-acquisition systems, communications systems, and many electronic control systems require well-controlled timing signals for proper and accurate operation. These signals are, in most cases, provided by circuits that employ crystal oscillators due to availability, cost, ease of operation, and accuracy. In some cases, the electronic systems are expected to survive and operate under harsh conditions that include exposure to extreme temperatures. These applications exist in terrestrial systems as well as in aerospace products. Well-logging, geothermal systems, and industrial process control are examples of ground-based applications, while distributed jet engine control in aircraft, space-based observatories (such as the James Webb Space Telescope), satellites, and lunar and planetary landers are typical environments where electronics are exposed to harsh operating conditions. To ensure these devices produce reliable results, the digital heartbeat from the oscillator must deliver a stable signal that is not affected by external temperature or other conditions. One such solution is a recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) oscillator, the PX-570 series from Vectron International. The oscillator was designed for high-temperature applications and as proof, the crystal oscillator was subjected to a wide suite of tests to determine its ruggedness for operation in harsh environments. The tests performed by Vectron included electrical characterization under wide range of temperature, accelerated life test/aging, shock and vibration, internal moisture analysis, ESD threshold, and latch-up testing. The parametric evaluation was performed on the oscillator's frequency, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current over the temperature range of -125 C to +230 C. The evaluations also determined the effects of thermal cycling and the oscillator's re-start capability at extreme hot and cold temperatures. These thermal cycling and restart tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Overall, the crystal oscillator performed well and demonstrated very good frequency stability. This paper will discuss the test procedures and present details of the performance results.

Li, Jacob; Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

2012-01-01

447

Phase-stepping interferometric system for capturing instantaneous flow field under harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interferometric reconstruction of a flow field usually consists of three steps. The first is to record interferograms, the second is to extract phase information from interferograms and the final is for numerical inversion of the phase data. In interferometric flow recording, test section enclosures and opaque models are frequently present, blocking a portion of the probing rays or restricting the view angle of the field to produce a partial data set especially for interferometric tomography. It also involves very harsh environments with external vibrations and disturbances of the ambient air. The ill-posed problem is susceptible to experimental noise and can produce serious distortions in reconstruction. Interferometric reconstruction of flow fields thus needs accurate phase information extraction. The major problem encountered in interferometry is that it is extremely sensitive to external disturbances including the vibration of the optical setup. This is true especially for aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. For successful application of interferometry to experimental fluid mechancis and heat/mass transfer, efficient mechanisms for accurate flow-field recording and information extraction are thus very necessary. In interferometric recording, use of the phase stepping techniques is desirable whenever possible, since they provide the most accuracy. However, they are not applicable under disturbing conditions; that is, under harsh environments. In an effort to provide accurate interferometric data, we device interferogram recording and reduction techniques. They are based on a phase-stepping method: however, applicable to harsh environments including wind tunnel testing. Here we present the governing concepts, investigation results, and application demonstration of our approaches for practical flow measurements. The developed approaches are tested through phoase extraction and 3D reconstruction of an experimental flow field, which is designed for future wind tunnel testing. The test conditions are very harsh, involving building vibrations and ambient air disturbances especially during the interferometric data acquisition in the phase stepping process. The results of the thermocouple readings agree fairly well with those from the experiment when compared. The acceptable error in the entire interferometric reconstruction process is believed to be mainly due to the ill-posed nature of the tomographic reconstruction but not from the phase extraction of the employed phase-stepping technique.

Burner, Alpheus W.; Yu, Enxi; Cha, Soyoung S.

2003-04-01

448

Investigation and improvment of noise, vibration and harshness(nvh) properties of automotive panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aINVESTIGATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF NOISE, VIBRATION AND HARSHNESS (NVH) PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE PANELS\\u000aby\\u000aMOHAMMAD AL-ZUBI\\u000aJuly 2012\\u000aAdvisor: Dr. Emmanuel Ayorinde\\u000aMajor: Mechanical Engineering\\u000aDegree: Doctor of Philosophy\\u000aThe reduction of noise and vibration in and across several components and modules of the automotive, such as the panels, doors, engine covers, seats, and others, is of primary importance. The

Mohammad Al zubi

2012-01-01

449

Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking  

PubMed Central

Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

2010-01-01

450

Age-related changes in cutaneous sensation in the healthy human hand.  

PubMed

Cutaneous sensation deteriorates with age. It is not known if this change is consistent over the entire hand or if sensation is affected by changes in skin mechanics. Cutaneous perceptual thresholds were tested at eight sites in the glabrous skin and two in the hairy skin of both hands in 70 subjects (20-88 years), five male and five female per decade, using calibrated von Frey filaments, two-point discrimination, and texture discrimination. Venous occlusion at the wrist (40?±?10 mmHg) and moisturizer were used to alter skin mechanics. Cutaneous thresholds increased significantly with age (p?sensation varied according to the site tested with smaller changes on the fingers compared to the palm. Two-point discrimination deteriorated with age (p?=?0.046), but with no interaction between sex, handedness, or changes in skin mechanics. There were no significant differences for texture discrimination. Changes in skin mechanics improved cutaneous thresholds in the oldest males after moisturizing (p?=?0.001) but not otherwise. These results emphasize the complex pattern of age-related deterioration in cutaneous sensation with differences between sexes, the hands, sites on the hand, and the mode of testing. As the index fingertip is not a sensitive indicator of sensory decline, the minimum assessment of age-related changes in cutaneous sensation should include both hands, and sites on the palm. PMID:22661298

Bowden, Jocelyn L; McNulty, Penelope A

2013-08-01

451

Touch DNA collection versus firearm fingerprinting: comparing evidence production and identification outcomes.  

PubMed

A project by a metropolitan police agency in 2008-2009 had police use touch DNA kits to collect cell samples from seized firearms. To assess outcomes, results of touch DNA swabbing of firearms were compared to fingerprinting firearm evidence. The rationale was that fingerprinting, as the older technology, was the baseline against which to compare touch DNA. But little is known about ways to measure touch DNA productivity compared to fingerprinting. To examine differences between the two requires comparable measurements. Two measures were used: quantity of probative or investigative evidence produced and identification outcomes. When applied to firearms seized within an Indianapolis, IN police district, touch DNA produced a larger volume of evidence than fingerprinting, but identification outcomes for the two methods were equal. Because touch DNA was deployed by police patrol officers, there are implications for firearm forensics and the choice of forensic approaches used by police. PMID:23458456

Nunn, Samuel

2013-05-01

452

iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch UNSG Wireless Improvements  

E-print Network

iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Page 1 UNSG Wireless Improvements On August 15, 2011, UNSG Help Desk at 617.495.7777 or ithelp@harvard.edu. #12;iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Page 2 1 Now #12;iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch Page 3 7. Enter your passcode if set 8. Enter your HUID

Wolfe, Patrick J.

453

Vulnerability of CMOS image sensors in Megajoule Class Laser harsh environment.  

PubMed

CMOS image sensors (CIS) are promising candidates as part of optical imagers for the plasma diagnostics devoted to the study of fusion by inertial confinement. However, the harsh radiative environment of Megajoule Class Lasers threatens the performances of these optical sensors. In this paper, the vulnerability of CIS to the transient and mixed pulsed radiation environment associated with such facilities is investigated during an experiment at the OMEGA facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY, USA. The transient and permanent effects of the 14 MeV neutron pulse on CIS are presented. The behavior of the tested CIS shows that active pixel sensors (APS) exhibit a better hardness to this harsh environment than a CCD. A first order extrapolation of the reported results to the higher level of radiation expected for Megajoule Class Laser facilities (Laser Megajoule in France or National Ignition Facility in the USA) shows that temporarily saturated pixels due to transient neutron-induced single event effects will be the major issue for the development of radiation-tolerant plasma diagnostic instruments whereas the permanent degradation of the CIS related to displacement damage or total ionizing dose effects could be reduced by applying well known mitigation techniques. PMID:23037056

Goiffon, V; Girard, S; Chabane, A; Paillet, P; Magnan, P; Cervantes, P; Martin-Gonthier, P; Baggio, J; Estribeau, M; Bourgade, J-L; Darbon, S; Rousseau, A; Glebov, V Yu; Pien, G; Sangster, T C

2012-08-27

454

Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries  

PubMed Central

Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1,282) and fathers (n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

Skinner, Ann T.; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Pena; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

2014-01-01

455

Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

2013-05-01

456

Plastic optical fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems for harsh environment in aerospace application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the 1st successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Evolved Expandable Lunch Vehicle (EELV) Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the possible leak of rocket prior launch to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. Due to harsh environment of launch vehicle, we developed the first combination of 100 m POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. The hydrogen sensor consisted of optrodes distributed at multiple locations along a fiber optic cable-based network. These hydrogen sensors were used on the Common Booster Core (CBC) of Delta IV had to perform in temperatures between -18° C and +60° C. The hydrogen sensor sensitive chemistry was fully reversible and had demonstrated a response to hydrogen gas in the range of 0% to 10% with a resolution of 0.1 % and a response time of 5 seconds measured at a gas flow rate of 1 cc/mm. The optical signature of the optrode in the visible spectrum varied proportionally to the local hydrogen gas concentration. To qualify the POF and fiber optic cables, performed detail investigation for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy. Extensive networking using LabView were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kish; Mendoza, Edward; Kempen, Lothar

2012-06-01

457

Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

2014-06-01

458

Discriminative and affective touch in human experimental tactile allodynia.  

PubMed

Recently, several studies have suggested a role for unmyelinated (C-tactile, CT) low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the allodynic condition. In this psychophysical study we explored the integrity of both A? and CT afferent processing following application of the heat capsaicin model of tactile allodynia on the left forearm in healthy subjects (n=40). We measured tactile direction discrimination (TDD) to target the integrity of A? processing (n=20). The TDD accuracy was significantly lower in the allodynic compared to a control zone. In addition, we measured the perceived pleasantness and pain of brush stroking at CT targeted (slow) and CT sub-optimal (fast) stroking velocities to investigate the integrity of CT processing (n=20). When comparing touch pleasantness in the allodynic and control zone, there was a significantly larger difference in ratings for CT targeted compared to CT suboptimal stimulation. The results suggest a disturbance in both A?-mediated discriminative and CT-mediated affective touch processing in human experimental tactile allodynia. Our findings support the canonical view that tactile allodynia is signaled by A? afferents but that CTs seem to contribute by the loss of a pain inhibiting role. PMID:24486839

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Marshall, Andrew; Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan

2014-03-20

459

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

Bjornsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Hakan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

460

Perceptual equivalence between vision and touch is complexity dependent.  

PubMed

We experience the shape of objects in our world largely by way of our vision and touch but the availability and integration of information between the senses remains an open question. The research presented in this article examines the effect of stimulus complexity on visual, haptic and crossmodal discrimination. Using sculpted three-dimensional objects whose features vary systematically, we perform a series of three experiments to determine perceptual equivalence as a function of complexity. Two unimodal experiments--vision and touch-only, and one crossmodal experiment investigating the availability of information across the senses, were performed. We find that, for the class of stimuli used, subjects were able to visually discriminate them reliably across the entire range of complexity, while the experiments involving haptic information show a marked decrease in performance as the objects become more complex. Performance in the crossmodal condition appears to be constrained by the limits of the subjects' haptic representation, but the combination of the two sources of information is of some benefit over vision alone when comparing the simpler, low-frequency stimuli. This result shows that there is crossmodal transfer, and therefore perceptual equivalency, but that this transfer is limited by the object's complexity. PMID:19691944

Phillips, F; Egan, E J L; Perry, B N

2009-11-01

461

Flexible Electronics Sensors for Tactile Multi-Touching  

PubMed Central

Flexible electronics sensors for tactile applications in multi-touch sensing and large scale manufacturing were designed and fabricated. The sensors are based on polyimide substrates, with thixotropy materials used to print organic resistances and a bump on the top polyimide layer. The gap between the bottom electrode layer and the resistance layer provides a buffer distance to reduce erroneous contact during large bending. Experimental results show that the top membrane with a bump protrusion and a resistance layer had a large deflection and a quick sensitive response. The bump and resistance layer provided a concentrated von Mises stress force and inertial force on the top membrane center. When the top membrane had no bump, it had a transient response delay time and took longer to reach steady-state. For printing thick structures of flexible electronics sensors, diffusion effects and dimensional shrinkages can be improved by using a paste material with a high viscosity. Linear algorithm matrixes with Gaussian elimination and control system scanning were used for multi-touch detection. Flexible electronics sensors were printed with a resistance thickness of about 32 ?m and a bump thickness of about 0.2 mm. Feasibility studies show that printing technology is appropriate for large scale manufacturing, producing sensors at a low cost. PMID:22399962

Chang, Wen-Yang; Fang, Te-Hua; Yeh, Shao-Hsing; Lin, Yu-Cheng

2009-01-01

462

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch-screen Technology  

PubMed Central

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the video deficit effect. The present study employs a novel approach, using touch-screen technology to examine 15-month-olds’ transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D) conditions. For the within-dimension conditions, an experimenter demonstrated an action by pushing a virtual button on a 2D screen or a real button on a 3D object. Infants were then given the opportunity to imitate using the same screen or object. For the 3D/2D condition, an experimenter demonstrated the action on the 3D object, and infants were given the opportunity to reproduce the action on a 2D touch-screen (and vice versa for the 2D/3D condition). Infants produced significantly fewer target actions in the cross-dimension conditions than in the within-dimension conditions. These findings have important implications for infants understanding and learning from 2D images and for their using 2D media as the basis of actions in the real world. PMID:19972660

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2010-01-01

463

Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A multiple rework processes may be implemented with CCGA packaging technology to understand the effect of number of reworks on the reliability of this technology for harsh thermal environments. In general, reliability of the assembled electronic packages reduces as a function of number of reworks and the extent is not known yet. A CCGA rework process has been tried and implemented to design a daisy-chain test board consists of 624 and 717 packages. Reworked CCGA interconnect electronic packages of printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging and optical microscope techniques. The assembled boards after 1st rework and 1st reflow were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space JPL/NASA for moderate to harsh thermal mission environments. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling to determine intermittent failures. This paper provides the experimental reliability test results to failure of assemblies for the first time of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages under extreme harsh thermal environments.

Ramesham, Rajeshuni

2013-03-01

464

A computer touch-screen apparatus for training visual discriminations in rats.  

PubMed Central

We describe an operant conditioning apparatus that uses computerized touch-screen technology and is designed for the versatile and highly controlled testing of rats in a potentially wide variety of behavioral paradigms. Although computer-controlled touch-screen systems have been developed for use with pigeons, monkeys, and humans, analogous technologies and methods have not yet been developed for rats. The development of a touch-screen system for rats could enhance the efficiency of behavioral research with rats, and may offer a unique tool for studying animal learning. In the first test of the utility of the apparatus, 3 Sprague-Dawley rats learned to activate the touch screen only after the touch-screen panel was made slightly movable. These animals then learned to discriminate visual stimuli presented on the computer monitor, but only after the food magazine and pellet dispenser were moved to the rear of the chamber opposite the stimulus display and response window. In a test of the utility of the modified apparatus, 6 Long-Evans rats learned to activate the touch screen and learned one of three different simple discriminations using computer-generated, visually presented stimuli. A basic method for training rats to activate the computer touch screen and for visual discrimination training is described. Results show that rats learned to activate the touch screen and discriminate visual stimuli presented on a computer monitor. Potential applications and advantages of the touch-screen-equipped rat operant conditioning chamber are discussed. PMID:8583196

Markham, M R; Butt, A E; Dougher, M J

1996-01-01

465

Autistic traits are associated with diminished neural response to affective touch  

PubMed Central

‘Social brain’ circuitry has recently been implicated in processing slow, gentle touch targeting a class of slow-conducting, unmyelinated nerves, CT afferents, which are present only in the hairy skin of mammals. Given the importance of such ‘affective touch’ in social relationships, the current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to replicate the finding of ‘social brain’ involvement in processing CT-targeted touch and to examine the relationship between the neural response and individuals’ social abilities. During an fMRI scan, 19 healthy adults received alternating blocks of slow (CT-optimal) and fast (non-optimal) brushing to the forearm. Relative to fast touch, the slow touch activated contralateral insula, superior temporal sulcus (STS), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and amygdala. Connectivity analyses revealed co-activation of the mPFC, insula and amygdala during slow touch. Additionally, participants’ autistic traits negatively correlated with the response to slow touch in the OFC and STS. The current study replicates and extends findings of the involvement of a network of ‘social brain’ regions in processing CT-targeted affective touch, emphasizing the multimodal nature of this system. Variability in the brain response to such touch illustrates a tight coupling of social behavior and social brain function in typical adults. PMID:22267520

Voos, Avery C.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

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