Sample records for harsh touch sensation

  1. Real-time social touch gesture recognition for sensate robots

    E-print Network

    Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    This paper describes the hardware and algorithms for a realtime social touch gesture recognition system. Early experiments involve a sensate bear test-rig with full body touch sensing, sensor visualization and gesture ...

  2. Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E; Moshourab, Rabih A; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A J; Francisco, Allain G; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N; Lewin, Gary R; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2014-12-01

    The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals. It is postulated that mechanically activated cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting, mechanically activated ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel-cell-neurite complexes. It has been demonstrated that Merkel cells have a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by the innervating sensory neuron; however, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity. Here we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low-threshold mechanoreceptors that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2 conditional knockout mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that the mechanosensitivity of low-threshold mechanoreceptors strongly depends on Piezo2. This cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioural phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light-touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most low-threshold mechanoreceptor subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Notably, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that as-yet-unknown mechanically activated ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

  3. Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A.J.; Francisco, Allain G.; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N.; Lewin, Gary R.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Summary The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals1. It is postulated that mechanically activated (MA) cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive2. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting (RA) MA ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel cell-neurite complexes3,4. Merkel cells have been demonstrated to play a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by its innervating sensory neuron4-6. However, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity4,7. Here, we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most RA MA currents in DRG neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2CKO mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that mechanosensitivity of LTMRs strongly depends on Piezo2. This striking cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioral phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light touch sensation in multiple behavioral assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays RA MA currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most LTMR subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Interestingly, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that yet-unknown MA ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

  4. Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors’ fingertips via stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Methods Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Results Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p?touch sensation, independent of noise location and intensity. Vibrotactile noise at the wrist and dorsal hand may have enhanced the fingertips’ light touch sensation via stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks. PMID:24112371

  5. Phospholipids that contain polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance neuronal cell mechanics and touch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez, Valeria; Krieg, Michael; Lockhead, Dean; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Mechano-electrical transduction (MeT) channels embedded in neuronal cell membranes are essential for touch and proprioception. Little is understood about the interplay between native MeT channels and membrane phospholipids, in part because few techniques are available for altering plasma membrane composition in vivo. Here, we leverage genetic dissection, chemical complementation, and optogenetics to establish that arachidonic acid (AA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid, enhances touch sensation and mechanoelectrical transduction activity while incorporated into membrane phospholipids in C. elegans touch receptor neurons (TRNs). Because dynamic force spectroscopy reveals that AA modulates the mechanical properties of TRN plasma membranes, we propose that this PUFA is needed for MeT channel activity. These findings establish that polyunsaturated phospholipids are crucial determinants of both the biochemistry and mechanics of mechanoreceptor neurons and reinforce the idea that sensory mechanotransduction in animals relies on a cellular machine composed of both proteins and membrane lipids. PMID:24388754

  6. Touch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-30

    Humans are able to feel things touching them because of the nerve endings and different receptors embedded in their skin. Skin covers and protects the body, but it can also detect touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain.

  7. An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors

    E-print Network

    Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

    2008-01-01

    Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

  8. A Vestibular Sensation: Probabilistic Approaches to Spatial Perception

    E-print Network

    Snyder, Larry

    a fragrant flower, tasting a favorite food, or touching a soft fur coat, each sense gives rise to distinct sensations and perceptions. There is also a stealth sixth sensory system that often flies below our conscious

  9. Sensational Seaweed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-10-04

    In this culinary activity, learners use multiple senses (sight, smell, touch, and taste!) to explore real seaweed samples. They will compare and contrast land plants with kelp to review the structures and functions of parts, understand that algae is an important producer in aquatic environments, and learn how kelp is adapted to live along the California Coast. They will also explore various types of algae and discuss how the types differ from each other. This lesson guide is standards-based, and includes key vocabulary and wrap-up suggestions.

  10. A pilot study on simulating continuous sensation with two vibrating motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jongeun Cha; Lara Rahal; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a pilot study to present a continuous touch sensation with low-resolution array of a vibrotactile device on human skin using funneling illusion. The funneling illusion occurs when two loud stimuli presented simultaneously to adjacent locations on the skin, and they are funneled to form a sensation between the two stimulators rather than felt separately. This sensation is

  11. Touch Affordances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

    The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

  12. Touch Screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael McRoberts

    \\u000a You are now going to take a look at a cool gadget that you can use easily with an Arduino—a touch screen. Since the advent\\u000a of smart phones and handheld game consoles, touch screens are now inexpensive and readily available. A touch screen allows\\u000a you to make an easy touch interface for a device or it can be overlaid onto

  13. Real-time Estimation of Touch Feeling Factors Using Human Finger Mimetic Tactile Sensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shogo Okamoto; Masashi Konyo; Yuka Mukaibo; Takashi Maeno; Satoshi Tadokoro

    2006-01-01

    To realize a telepresence system with tactile feedback and force feedback, real-time estimation of various tactile sensation must be conducted. Because several types of tactile sensation consist in touch and human tactile feeling has high time resolution. A man feels active touch extraordinary with time delayed transmission of tactile information. Our proposing human finger mimetic sensor covers three tactile factors,

  14. Report of Altered Sensation in Patients With Cleft Lip

    PubMed Central

    Essick, Greg K.; Dorion, Craig; Rumley, Seth; Rogers, Lyna; Young, Michael; Trotman, Carroll-Ann

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether patients with cleft lip have normal perioral sensation. Design Each subject was carefully questioned about the following: sensation in the face at rest, light touch of different areas, and sensation in natural situations (e.g., exposure to cold weather) that reveal sensory abnormalities. A cotton-tip applicator stick was stroked lightly across the facial skin. The subject’s descriptions of the evoked sensations were used to identify and outline areas with abnormal sensation. Setting Data were obtained from subjects participating in a longitudinal, university-based study of the functional outcomes of lip revision surgery. Patients Seventeen patients with cleft lip and 12 control subjects (aged 7 to 22 years, mean 12.9 years) participated. Results In contrast to control subjects, 9 of 16 patients (56%) reported loss in sensation, described as decreased touch, scratch, tickle, or tingle intensity. Six other patients (38%) reported additional sensation, described as increased scratch, tickle, or tingle intensity. In eight patients, the altered sensation was restricted to the skin area flanking and including the visible scar, encompassing no more than 25% of the total area bound by the inferior nose, nasolabial grooves and inferior vermilion. In seven patients (unilateral cleft), the altered area extended to the contralateral, noncleft side of the upper lip or onto the philtrum. Conclusions In contrast to the literature, sensation in the upper lip of many patients with cleft lip is not normal. Loss in sensation is exhibited most commonly and limited largely to the skin overlying tissues traumatized during reconstructive surgery. PMID:15748109

  15. Charles Reade's Sensational Realism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Fantina

    2007-01-01

    Sensation fiction, which flourished in England from the 1850s to the 1880s, was viewed by Victorian establishment figures as a threat to prevailing social values. This dissertation focuses on the work of Charles Reade, who along with Wilkie Collins and Mary Elizabeth Braddon, was among the most well-known sensation novelists. While several novels by Collins and Braddon have been rediscovered

  16. Supplementary data for: Specific roles for DEG/ENaC and TRP channels in touch and

    E-print Network

    Schafer, William R.

    . Effects of mec-10 and TRP channel genes on PVD-dependent harsh body touch avoidance. Animals were touched-type and mutant animals. a. PVD harsh touch response and mec-10 phenotypes do not depend on the FLP neurons. Shown of FLP in wild-type, mec-10(tm1552) and mec-10(tm1552); ljEx220 [pegl-46::mec-10(+)] does not affect PVD

  17. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  18. Functionalism and Sensations

    E-print Network

    Brown, Mark

    cannot be essential to its operation. This negative insight of functional­ ism is its least controversial feature, although we will see reason to doubt it. On the positive side functionalists typically ex­ plicate the notion of an abstract causal role... programming. The special difficulty that functionalist theories face with the qualitative character of sensations can now be put plainly. The functionalist program is to define mental states relationally, but I will argue that some mental states appear...

  19. A Tactile Display Used Phantom Sensation with Apparent Movement Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Shintaro; Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    When two and more stimuli are arranged in the space, an illusion such as the phantom sensation and the apparent movement appear in the sense of touch. The foundation research to build a system of presenting two-dimensional information by using the phantom sensation and the apparent movement is done by this research. When the apparent movement is used, information in the direction can be expressed between 2 elements of tactile stimulus in two-dimensional vector information. In this report, we propose the technique of informatrion expression in 3 elements of tactile stimulus that the apparent movement is used with the phantom sensation together. By this technique, two-dimensional vector information can be expressed by 3 elements of tactile stimulus.

  20. Referred sensations and neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Soler, M D; Kumru, H; Vidal, J; Pelayo, R; Tormos, J M; Fregni, F; Navarro, X; Pascual-Leone, A

    2010-07-01

    It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:20471171

  1. TouchOver TouchOver TouchOver Android

    E-print Network

    Tanaka, Jiro

    TouchOver 8b 5 1-3 YouTube Wikipedia 3 Ninja Cursors [9] 1 / 2 TouchOver Shift TouchOver #12;WISS 2014 6. 1399­1408. 2008. [9] M. Kobayashi and T. Igarashi. Ninja Cursors: Using Multiple Cursors to Assist

  2. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  3. Words that touch.

    PubMed

    Quinodoz, Danielle

    2003-12-01

    In this paper the author examines her own use of language as a psychoanalyst and asks: what is the best way to help analyse and to find the words to express not only what they are thinking but also what they are feeling and experiencing? In common with other psychoanalysts, the author has observed that each of us simultaneously utilises both advanced psychic mechanisms that are accessible to symbolism and more archaic ones, which are less so. However, she draws a distinction between people who are able to tolerate the perception of their own heterogeneity, even if it is sometimes a source of suffering, and those whom she terms 'heterogeneous patients'. Patients in the latter category, whose lack of internal cohesion causes them anxiety, are afraid of losing their sense of identity. The author asks how we can understand their language and how we should speak to them. She uses several clinical examples to demonstrate that 'heterogeneous patients' need to be touched with a language that does not confine itself to imparting thoughts verbally but also conveys feelings and the sensations that accompany those feelings. It is also an 'incarnated' language because the words pronounced by the analyst can awaken, or reawaken, bodily fantasies in the patient. These words may enable him to find an emotional meaning in forgotten sensory or bodily experiences, which may then become a starting point for his work of thinking and of symbolisation. PMID:14754477

  4. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = ?.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  5. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D.

    2015-01-01

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  6. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  7. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modification of the scale, its reliability, internal consistency and discriminant validity were established Norms were developed for a defined segment of general population. This study may be seen as the beginning of research in India on the subject of sensation seeking. PMID:21743627

  8. Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

  9. SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH

    E-print Network

    Harris, Laurence R.

    1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University Psychology 3270, WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/3270/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisites: 2220 (Sensation and Perception I) and a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics: Section 1 Principles

  10. Harsh environments electronics : downhole applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, Paul Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The development and operational sustainment of renewable (geothermal) and non-renewable (fossil fuel) energy resources will be accompanied by increasingly higher costs factors: exploration and site preparation, operational maintenance and repair. Increased government oversight in the wake of the Gulf oil spill will only add to the cost burden. It is important to understand that downhole conditions are not just about elevated temperatures. It is often construed that military electronics are exposed to the upper limit in terms of extreme service environments. Probably the harshest of all service conditions for electronics and electrical equipment are those in oil, gas, and geothermal wells. From the technology perspective, advanced materials, sensors, and microelectronics devices are benefificial to the exploration and sustainment of energy resources, especially in terms of lower costs. Besides the need for the science that creates these breakthroughs - there is also a need for sustained engineering development and testing. Downhole oil, gas, and geothermal well applications can have a wide range of environments and reliability requirements: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Corrosion, and Service duration. All too frequently, these conditions are not well-defifined because the application is labeled as 'high temperature'. This ambiguity is problematic when the investigation turns to new approaches for electronic packaging solutions. The objective is to develop harsh environment, electronic packaging that meets customer requirements of cost, performance, and reliability. There are a number of challenges: (1) Materials sets - solder alloys, substrate materials; (2) Manufacturing process - low to middle volumes, low defect counts, new equipment technologies; and (3) Reliability testing - requirements documents, test methods and modeling, relevant standards documents. The cost to develop and sustain renewable and non-renewable energy resources will continue to escalate within the industry. Downhole electronics can provide a very cost-effective approach for well exploration and sustainment (data logging). However, the harsh environments are a 'game-changer' in terms defining materials, assembly processes and the long-term reliability of downhole electronic systems. The system-level approach will enable the integration of each of these contributors - materials, processes, and reliability - in order to deliver cost-effective electronics that meet customer requirements.

  11. The relation of sensation in the anal canal to the functional anal sphincter: a possible factor in anal continence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. L. Duthie; R. C. Bennett

    1963-01-01

    In normal subjects the length of the functional anal sphincter has been compared with the extent of sensation to light touch in the anal canal. At rest, the sphincteric zone was the longer. On distension of the rectum, a decrease in pressure in the anal canal so shortened the functional sphincter that intrarectal pressure extended down to contact the sensory

  12. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

  13. Touch Sensor for Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Primus, H. C.

    1986-01-01

    Touch sensor for robot hands provides information about shape of grasped object and force exerted by gripper on object. Pins projecting from sensor create electrical signals when pressed. When grasped object depresses pin, it contacts electrode under it, connecting electrode to common electrode. Sensor indicates where, and how firmly, gripper has touched object.

  14. Stay in touch.

    PubMed

    Barker, Phil; Buchanan-Barker, Poppy

    Touch is used in many cultures as a means of relating directly with another person. In this seventh article in our Heart of Nursing series, we look at how touch, used judiciously, can be a priceless form of doing. PMID:17016982

  15. Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

    2013-01-01

    Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

  16. Sensation seeking, message sensation value and sexual risk taking: Implications for teen pregnancy prevention campaigns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy John Schweitzer

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the personality trait sensation seeking and sexual risk taking behaviors. It aimed to determine whether high sensation seekers prefer poster presentations that differ in message sensation value (MSV). The goal was to inform the design and evaluation of sex education and teen pregnancy prevention campaigns. A random sample of 151 undergraduate students from a

  17. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5?°C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  18. Striking Panel Touch Location Detect

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Yu Wang; Hon-Ta Liu; Shih-Yu Shen

    2012-01-01

    Recently, there are more touch panels that have been extensively used throughout the world. Due to customer input regarding improvements, we have examined the use of technology of touch products. In the market, most of touch monitors used by finger or touch pen get the electricity, capacity effect, or stop sensor signal. From the signal orientates the controller, lots of

  19. SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH

    E-print Network

    Harris, Laurence R.

    1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University; Psychology 2220; WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/2220/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisite: a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics Introduction to perception The eye and seeing

  20. Delivering high speed communications into harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    For those who believe that information is power, extending an organization's knowledge base throughout the entire enterprise can not help but improve operations. Until recently, though, field operations were often left out of the loop, as extending high-bandwidth communications into harsh environments often proved impossible. The article, submitted by Optical Cable Corp., describes development of a tight-buffered fibre optic cable designed for harsh underground mining conditions. CONSOL has installed almost 100 miles of the cable across 10 different installations. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  1. Goat meat production in harsh environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Alexandre; N. Mandonnet

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides some insight into special attributes of the goat as an efficient producer of meat under harsh environments. The overview is not intended to be exhaustive; it gives the readers a comprehensive synthesis on the subject allowing them to consult the list of references. Moreover, it would not be possible to classify the most limiting factor among the

  2. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  3. Environmental harshness, heat stress, and Marmota flaviventris

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Webb

    1979-01-01

    Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were studied at three sites in central Oregon. Juveniles substantially reduced their foraging activity when equivalent black-body temperatures exceeded their upper critical temperature. Inclusion of heat stress into estimates of environmental harshness drastically reduced the differences in available foraging time between high elevation and low elevation sites.

  4. Touch and Discover

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

    Student teams identify and categorize various objects using their senses of touch and sight. One student chooses five objects for his/her blindfolded partner to describe and identify based solely on touch. Then they switch. Both students record their observations, describing the objects as: human-made or natural, living or non-living, as well as any other physical/sensory characteristics. Students become familiar with different classification systems and sharpen their vocabulary to describe the physical characteristics of different objects. They learn why engineers have a need to categorize materials.

  5. DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh

    2001-01-01

    A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to

  6. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  7. Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

  8. Transparent, Sensation-Preserving Haptic Rendering

    E-print Network

    Otaduy, Miguel A.

    ;6-DoF Haptic Rendering #12;Overview Rendering Algorithm Geometric Features (Collision Detection;Rendering Algorithm Collision Detection and Response Rigid Body Simulation Haptic Device and ControllerTransparent, Sensation- Preserving Haptic Rendering Miguel A. Otaduy http

  9. Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirich, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

  10. Silicon carbide MEMS for harsh environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MEHRAN MEHREGANY; CHRISTIAN A. ZORMAN; NARAYANAN RAJAN; Chien Hung Wu

    1998-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for the development of high-temperature solid-state electronics and transducers, owing to its excellent electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. This paper is a review of silicon carbide for microelectromechanical systems (SiC MEMS). Current efforts in developing SiC MEMS to extend the silicon-based MEMS technology to applications in harsh environments are discussed. A summary is

  11. The predictive value of sensation testing in the development of neuropathic ulceration on the hands of leprosy patients.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, M; Schreuders, T

    1994-09-01

    The early detection of the loss of protective sensation in leprosy patients is vital if neuropathic ulceration and subsequent disabilities are to be avoided. The aim of this study was to find protective value of sensory thresholds in the hands of leprosy patients. Thresholds for touch-pressure, vibration and temperature were assessed in areas on leprosy-affected hands near ulcers or ulcer scars (LU-group), in areas without lesions (LN-group), and in controls (N-group). Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments were used for testing the touch-pressure threshold (PST), a biothesiometer for the vibration threshold (VST) and a Thermo Sensation Tester for the temperature threshold (TST). The distribution of ulcers was about equal on palmar and dorsal aspects of the hands. In the LU-group there was a negative response to SWF of 2.0 g in all patients, while 74% could feel the 2.0 g in LN-areas and in N-areas 100% could detect the 2.0 g SWF. In the LU-group about 11% felt 8 V VST, in the LN-group about 60% and in the N-group 89%. Testing temperature sensation was given up prematurely because the results in controls were unsatisfactory. Both palmar and dorsal sides of the hands should be tested for sensation. The thresholds for protective sensation are 2.0 g SWF and 8 V for vibration sense. It is recommended that Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments should always be used for early detection of loss of protective sensation. PMID:8942156

  12. Identification of a spinal circuit for light touch and fine motor control.

    PubMed

    Bourane, Steeve; Grossmann, Katja S; Britz, Olivier; Dalet, Antoine; Del Barrio, Marta Garcia; Stam, Floor J; Garcia-Campmany, Lidia; Koch, Stephanie; Goulding, Martyn

    2015-01-29

    Sensory circuits in the dorsal spinal cord integrate and transmit multiple cutaneous sensory modalities including the sense of light touch. Here, we identify a population of excitatory interneurons (INs) in the dorsal horn that are important for transmitting innocuous light touch sensation. These neurons express the ROR alpha (ROR?) nuclear orphan receptor and are selectively innervated by cutaneous low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMs). Targeted removal of ROR? INs in the dorsal spinal cord leads to a marked reduction in behavioral responsiveness to light touch without affecting responses to noxious and itch stimuli. ROR? IN-deficient mice also display a selective deficit in corrective foot movements. This phenotype, together with our demonstration that the ROR? INs are innervated by corticospinal and vestibulospinal projection neurons, argues that the ROR? INs direct corrective reflex movements by integrating touch information with descending motor commands from the cortex and cerebellum. PMID:25635458

  13. PIEZO2 is required for mechanotransduction in human stem cell-derived touch receptors.

    PubMed

    Schrenk-Siemens, Katrin; Wende, Hagen; Prato, Vincenzo; Song, Kun; Rostock, Charlotte; Loewer, Alexander; Utikal, Jochen; Lewin, Gary R; Lechner, Stefan G; Siemens, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Human sensory neurons are inaccessible for functional examination, and thus little is known about the mechanisms mediating touch sensation in humans. Here we demonstrate that the mechanosensitivity of human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived touch receptors depends on PIEZO2. To recapitulate sensory neuron development in vitro, we established a multistep differentiation protocol and generated sensory neurons via the intermediate production of neural crest cells derived from hES cells or human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. The generated neurons express a distinct set of touch receptor-specific genes and convert mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, their most salient characteristic in vivo. Strikingly, mechanosensitivity is lost after CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PIEZO2 gene deletion. Our work establishes a model system that resembles human touch receptors, which may facilitate mechanistic analysis of other sensory subtypes and provide insight into developmental programs underlying sensory neuron diversity. PMID:25469543

  14. More than a rhythm of life: Breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation

    PubMed Central

    Kleinfeld, David; Deschênes, Martin; Wang, Fan; Moore, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    When rodents engage in the exploration of novel stimuli, breathing occurs at an accelerated rate that is synchronous with whisking. We review the recently observed relationships between breathing and the sensations of smell and vibrissa-based touch. We consider the hypothesis that the breathing rhythm serves not only as a motor drive signal but also as a common clock that binds these two senses into a common percept. This possibility may be extended to include taste through the coordination of licking with breathing. The status of experimental evidence that pertains to this hypothesis is evaluated. PMID:24762718

  15. Touch sensors and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the equipment employed and results obtained in experiments with tactile feedback and different levels of automatic control. In the experiments described tactile feedback was investigated by incorporating a touch sensing and touch display system into a teleoperator, while the levels of automatic control were investigated by incorporating supervisory control features in the teleoperator control system. In particular, a hand contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the contact between the end-effector and the object being touched or manipulated is described, as well as a jaw contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the shape and location of the object held in the remote jaws, and an arm control system consisting of a control station where the operator controls the motion of the arm by transmitting commands, a remote station that accepts the commands and uses them, and a communications link that limits information flow. In addition, an algorithmic language for remote manipulation is described, and the desired features that an automatic arm controller should possess are reviewed.

  16. Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

  17. Radiation hardening of FBG in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morana, A.; Girard, S.; Marin, E.; Marcandella, C.; Périsse, J.; Macé, J. R.; Boukenter, A.; Cannas, M.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The difficulties encountered in the implementation of a temperature or strain sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating in a harsh radiative environment are introduced. We present the choices made to select both a radiation-resistant fiber in terms of transmission and also the grating inscription conditions necessary to write radiation tolerant FBGs in such fibers with a femto-second laser. The response of different classes of gratings was also studied under radiation at high doses (<1MGy). The comparison between F- and Ge-doped fibers was highlighted.

  18. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments. PMID:22438744

  19. Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

    2012-12-01

    In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

  20. Harsh environment fiber optic connectors/testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Douglas A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic systems are used frequently in military, aerospace and commercial aviation programs. There is a long history of implementing fiber optic data transfer for aircraft control, for harsh environment use in local area networks and more recently for in-flight entertainment systems. The advantages of fiber optics include high data rate capacity, low weight, immunity to EMI/RFI, and security from signal tapping. Technicians must be trained particularly to install and maintain fiber systems, but it is not necessarily more difficult than wire systems. However, the testing of the fiber optic interconnection system must be conducted in a standardized manner to assure proper performance. Testing can be conducted with slight differences in the set-up and procedure that produce significantly different test results. This paper reviews various options of interconnect configurations and discusses how these options can affect the performance, maintenance required and longevity of a fiber optic system, depending on the environment. Proper test methods are discussed. There is a review of the essentials of proper fiber optic testing and impact of changing such test parameters as input launch conditions, wavelength considerations, power meter options and the basic methods of testing. This becomes important right from the start when the supplier test data differs from the user's data check upon receiving the product. It also is important in periodic testing. Properly conducting the fiber optic testing will eliminate confusion and produce meaningful test results for a given harsh environment application.

  1. The Ipswich Touch Test

    PubMed Central

    Rayman, Gerry; Vas, Prashanth R.; Baker, Neil; Taylor,, Charles G.; Gooday, Catherine; Alder, Amanda I.; Donohoe, Mollie

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To promote foot screening of inpatients with diabetes, we simplified sensory testing to lightly touching the tips of the first, third, and fifth toes (the Ipswich Touch Test [IpTT]). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Respective performances of the IpTT and 10-g monofilament (MF) were compared with a vibration perception threshold of ?25 V indicating at-risk feet in 265 individuals. The IpTT and MF were also directly compared. RESULTS With ?2 of 6 insensate areas signifying at-risk feet, sensitivities and specificities, respectively, were IpTT (77 and 90%), MF (81 and 91%); positive predictive values were IpTT (89%), MF (91%); and negative predictive values were IpTT (77%), MF (81%). Directly compared, agreement between the IpTT and MF was almost perfect (? = 0.88, P < 0.0001). Interrater agreement for the IpTT was substantial (? = 0.68). CONCLUSIONS The IpTT performs well against a recognized standard for ulcer prediction. Simple to teach, reliable, without expense, and always at hand, it should encourage uptake of screening and detection of high-risk inpatients requiring foot protection. PMID:21593300

  2. Dual Innervation of Neonatal Merkel Cells in Mouse Touch Domes

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wenqin

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

  3. Please Touch the Children: Appropriate Touch in the Primary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Pamela M.; Gillentine, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to shift the current theoretical framework in which teachers practise a guarded approach regarding the touching of children in early childhood settings, towards a practice of acceptance. A brief historical context of touching is presented and supplemented with a survey of 63 currently practising K-3rd grade teachers. The survey…

  4. Sensation seeking and males' sexual strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Seto; Martin L. Lalumière; Vernon L. Quinsey

    1995-01-01

    We examined the relationship between sensation seeking and the self-reports of both sexual interests and behaviours of 162 heterosexual male students and 60 heterosexual males recruited from the community. Because parental investment theory and previous research suggest that males' interest in sexual partner variety is constrained by females' preference for committed sexual relationships, we predicted that participants would desire to

  5. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  6. Novel optical encoder for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Mueller, Ulrich; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    We are presenting a new optical encoder architecture for shaft encoding, both in incremental and absolute modes. This encoder is based on a diffractive optics technology platform. We have developed various disk based rotary diffractive encoders previously. This encoder is different in the way it is not a disk composed of successive gratings or computer generated holograms, but rather composed of a single element placed on the shaft. It is thus best suited for hollow shaft or end of shaft applications such as in encoder controlled electrical motors. This new architecture aims at solving some of the problems encountered with previous implementations of diffractive encoders such as disk wobble, disk to shaft centering and also encoding in harsh environments.

  7. Resistive oxygen gas sensors for harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiss, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  8. Solar-Blind Photodetectors for Harsh Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G.; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P.; He, Jr-Hau

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200?V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1?nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 1013?cm?2 of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110?ms (the rise time) and ~ 80?ms (the fall time) at 5?V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments. PMID:24022208

  9. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  10. Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

    2014-06-01

    The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family. PMID:24661692

  11. Sensation seeking, risky driving and behavioral adaptation.

    PubMed

    Jonah, B A; Thiessen, R; Au-Yeung, E

    2001-09-01

    A study on the relationship between sensation seeking (SS) and risky driving, aggressive driving and behavioral adaptation is reported on. College students completed a questionnaire concerning their driving behavior and level of sensation seeking. Results indicated that high SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to speed, not wear belts, drink frequently, drive after drinking, perceive a low risk of detection for impaired driving, and perceive that they could drink more beer before being impaired. High SS's were also more likely to report aggressive driving habits. High SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to say that they would drive faster on highways and on wet roads and drive after drinking, if operating a vehicle equipped with anti-lock brakes. The results are consistent with previous research. PMID:11491249

  12. Urethral sensation: basic mechanisms and clinical expressions.

    PubMed

    Birder, Lori A; de Wachter, Stefan; Gillespie, James; Wyndaele, Jean Jacques

    2014-04-01

    A prerequisite for conscious bladder control is adequate sensory input to the central nervous system, and it is well established that changes in sensory mechanisms can give rise to disturbances in bladder function. Impulses related to the desire to void are believed to course through the pelvic nerves, and those for sensation of a full bladder course through the pudendal nerves. The sense of imminent micturition most probably resides in the urethra, and the desire to void comes from stretching the bladder wall. In addition, a variety of structures play an important role in terms of urethral closure (such as the urethral epithelium, vasculature and smooth muscle) that are necessary to maintain continence. This overview will discuss mechanisms related in part to the urethra involved in activation of bladder reflexes and sensation with a discussion on the mucosa (urothelium and underlying lamina propria) and underlying cellular structures. PMID:24807486

  13. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing ?-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  14. Touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Bounoutas; Martin Chalfie

    2007-01-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first organism for which touch insensitive mutants were obtained. The study of the genes defective in these mutants\\u000a has led to the identification of components of a mechanosensory complex needed for specific cells to sense gentle touch to\\u000a the body. Multiple approaches using genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology have characterized a channel\\u000a complex,

  15. Touch stimulation through an SMA-actuated micro-mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velazquez, Ramiro; Szewczyk, Jerome; Pissaloux, Edwige; Hafez, Moustapha

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new micro-actuator, which is currently being used to design and develop high resolution, lightweight and compact interfaces for tactile information representation. Based on shape memory alloy (SMA) technology, the actuator is capable of producing a mechanic deformation on the skin of the user's fingertip in order to re-create a realistic touch sensation. This actuator of 1.5 mm diameter, 5 cm length, 150 mg weight, 0.7 mm total excursion, 170 mN pull force and 4 Hz bandwidth represents a high spatial and temporal resolution actuation principle for tactile feel displays. The SMA actuator's design concept, modeling and implementation are presented and described in detail. In conclusion, the prototype and preliminary performance results are reported and discussed.

  16. Aluminum Nitride Sensors for Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goericke, Fabian Thomas

    Harsh environment applications include high temperature, pressure and mechanical shock. Aluminum nitride is a strong ceramic material with very good high temperature survivability. It also has piezoelectric properties that can be used for sensing applications and it can be deposited with good control as thin polycrystalline film for the fabrication of micro-electromechanical systems. In this dissertation, optimized deposition parameters for aluminum nitride films and characterization techniques for film stress gradients are investigated. Furthermore, two different fabrication processes are presented that can be used to build several sensors and other micromechanical elements on a single chip. The more advanced process includes a bulk-micromachining step that enables the use of the silicon substrate as large proof masses for accelerometers. At the same time, the fabrication process can be used to create membranes for devices such as pressure sensors. Several different devices are discussed from the device design and theoretical analysis to the fabrication and experimental verification. The most significant contribution is the performance improvement of several orders of magnitude that can be achieved with aluminum nitride accelerometers by switching from double-ended tuning forks to triple-beam tuning forks and by using the newly discovered sensing concept of bent-beam sensing. Additionally, rate gyroscopes were presented that use aluminum nitride as the structural material and for both actuating the drive axis and reading the sense axis. Both types of sensors have potential applications in inertial navigation at high temperature. Double-ended tuning forks and triple-beam tuning forks were tested in hot environment and it was shown that they can be used as highly sensitive strain sensors up to at least 570 °C. Additionally, a testing setup for high temperature testing of accelerometers was demonstrated.

  17. Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the Radiation Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack (RTIMS).

  18. Cellulolytic bacteria from soils in harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fábio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2012-05-01

    It is believed that the exposure of organisms to harsh climate conditions may select for differential enzymatic activities, making the surviving organisms a very promising source for bioprospecting. Soil bacteria play an important role in degradation of organic matter, which is mostly due to their ability to decompose cellulose-based materials. This work focuses on the isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from soil found in two environments with stressful climate conditions (Antarctica and the Brazilian semi-arid caatinga). Cellulolytic bacteria were selected using enrichments at high and low temperatures (4 or 60°C) in liquid media (trypic soy broth-TSB and minimum salt medium-MM) supplemented with cellulose (1%). Many of the isolates (119 out of 254-46.9%) displayed the ability to degrade carboxymethyl-cellulose, indicating the presence of endoglucolytic activity, while only a minority of these isolates (23 out of 254-9.1%) showed exoglucolytic activity (degradation of avicel). The obtained isolates revealed a preferential endoglucolytic activity according to the temperature of enrichments. Also, the identification of some isolates by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Bacteroidetes (e.g., Pedobacter, Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium) were the main phylum of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from soil in Antarctica; the Firmicutes (e.g., Bacillus) were more commonly isolated from samples from the caatinga; and Actinobacteria were found in both types of soil (e.g., Microbacterium and Arthrobacter). In conclusion, this work reports the isolation of bacteria able to degrade cellulose-based material from soil at very low or very high temperatures, a finding that should be further explored in the search for cellulolytic enzymes to be used in the bioenergy industry. PMID:22806042

  19. Visual sensations induced by relativistic nitrogen nuclei.

    PubMed

    McNulty, P J; Pease, V P; Pinsky, L S; Bond, V P; Schimmerling, W; Vosburgh, K G

    1972-10-13

    The ability of the human eye to detect nitrogen nuclei that enter the retina at speeds just above the Cerenkov threshold has been confirmed in an experiment at the Princeton Particle Accelerator. A system for beam transport and subject alignment delivered individual nitrogen nuclei onto a spot 3 millimeters in diameter on the retina at a visual angle of 7 degrees on the temporal side of the fovea. The beam particles entered the retina within 25 degrees of normal and induced visual sensations that had the appearance of streaks for three out of four subjects. PMID:5076904

  20. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  1. Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Carpenter

    2012-01-15

    Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

  2. Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

  3. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  4. To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gene Allen

    2011-01-01

    People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

  5. Roughness and slipperiness of floor surface: Tactile sensation and perception

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruifeng Yu; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The slipperiness of floor is one of the risk factors affecting the occurrence of slipping and falling. The purpose of the study was to compare the roughness and slipperiness of five floor surfaces based on tactual sensations from different body segments for human subjects. The perceived roughness and perceived floor slipperiness of five floors based on tactual sensation from 20

  6. Thermal sensation responses in hot, humid climates: effects of humidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Givoni; J. Khedari; N. H. Wong; H. Feriadi; M. Noguchi

    2006-01-01

    Experimental data from five previous comfort studies are used to derive formulas for the thermal sensation of sedentary and near-sedentary residents, and to examine the effect of one variable, humidity, on the perceived levels of comfort. Studies in Thailand, Singapore and Indonesia (two studies) investigated indoor comfort, and a further study in Japan investigated outdoor comfort. Thermal sensations of human

  7. Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

    2008-01-01

    A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

  8. Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment.

    PubMed

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  9. Role of TRP channels in pain sensation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man-Kyo; Jung, Sung Jun; Oh, Seog Bae

    2011-01-01

    It is crucial for a living organism to recognize and discern potentially harmful noxious stimuli from innocuous stimuli to avoid hazards in the environment. However, unnecessary or exaggerated nociception is at best unpleasant and often compromises the quality of life. In order to lessen the intensity of nociception or eliminate the pathological pain, it is important to understand the nature of nociception and the mechanisms of hyperalgesia or allodynia. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play central roles in nociception under physiological and pathological conditions including inflammation and neuropathy. In this chapter, we will highlight the enormous progress in understanding the role of TRP channels in nociception. We will mainly focus on two TRP channels (TRPV1 and TRPA1) that have been particularly implicated in transducing signals associated with pain sensation, and briefly discuss the role of TRPM8, TRPV3 and TRPV4. We will stress debatable issues that needed to be resolved and provide perspectives for the future studies. PMID:21290319

  10. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  11. A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

    This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

  12. Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

  13. Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes: A candidate system approach

    PubMed Central

    Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Bierut, Laura J

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavior disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to individual differences in sensation seeking, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and non-human animals provide evidence for this relationship. We present here a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation seeking, in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopaminergic genes were analyzed. Using 273 SNPs from eight dopamine genes in a sample of 635 unrelated individuals, we examined the aggregate effects of those SNPs significantly associated with sensation seeking. Multiple SNPs in four dopamine genes accounted for significant variance in sensation seeking. These results suggest that aggregation of multiple SNPs within genes relevant to a specific neurobiological system into a “genetic risk score” may explain a nontrivial proportion of variance in human traits. PMID:20732903

  14. Plant sensing: gravity and touch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

    Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch deficient mutant exhibits reduced gravity sensing due to reduced mass of statoliths in its root cap, this mutant exhibited normal bending upon contact with the barrier. This observation implies the reduced gravisensing in the mutant is sufficient to allow the gravitropic component of obstacle avoidance. However, pgm1 -1 develops a more random orientation to the barrier with time, suggesting that sustained tracking over the barrier requires continued input by the gravisensor. The growth response of roots where the root cap has been removed by laser ablation, also suggest that the root cap may be sensing a range of other, non-mechanical stimuli that are interacting with the gravity sensor to direct root growth. This work was supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

  15. Regional differences in temperature sensation and thermal comfort in humans.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Mayumi; Yoda, Tamae; Crawshaw, Larry I; Yasuhara, Saki; Saito, Yasuyo; Kasuga, Momoko; Nagashima, Kei; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2008-12-01

    Sensations evoked by thermal stimulation (temperature-related sensations) can be divided into two categories, "temperature sensation" and "thermal comfort." Although several studies have investigated regional differences in temperature sensation, less is known about the sensitivity differences in thermal comfort for the various body regions. In the present study, we examined regional differences in temperature-related sensations with special attention to thermal comfort. Healthy male subjects sitting in an environment of mild heat or cold were locally cooled or warmed with water-perfused stimulators. Areas stimulated were the face, chest, abdomen, and thigh. Temperature sensation and thermal comfort of the stimulated areas were reported by the subjects, as was whole body thermal comfort. During mild heat exposure, facial cooling was most comfortable and facial warming was most uncomfortable. On the other hand, during mild cold exposure, neither warming nor cooling of the face had a major effect. The chest and abdomen had characteristics opposite to those of the face. Local warming of the chest and abdomen did produce a strong comfort sensation during whole body cold exposure. The thermal comfort seen in this study suggests that if given the chance, humans would preferentially cool the head in the heat, and they would maintain the warmth of the trunk areas in the cold. The qualitative differences seen in thermal comfort for the various areas cannot be explained solely by the density or properties of the peripheral thermal receptors and thus must reflect processing mechanisms in the central nervous system. PMID:18845785

  16. Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

  17. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  18. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  19. Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

  20. Reliably Powering Remote Seismic Stations in a Harsh Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Estes; R. Rukick; R. A. Hansen

    2002-01-01

    Three decades of experience in the operation of remote seismic stations in Alaska has demonstrated the need for reliable power systems in a harsh arctic environment. Legacy remote power systems have included Edison Aircells, a primary battery; Gel Cells, a secondary (rechargeable battery) and photovoltaic panels; wind generators; and propane TEG (thermal electric generators). The most reliable were the primary

  1. Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee

    2011-03-01

    Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

  2. [A case of Parkinson's disease following restless genial sensation].

    PubMed

    Sawamura, Masanori; Toma, Keiichiro; Unai, Yuki; Sekiya, Tomoko; Nishinaka, Kazuhito; Udaka, Fukashi

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman experienced uncomfortable genial sensation in 2010. Her uncomfortable sensation was exacerbated during rest at night and improved by walking. She exhibited short-stepped gait with postural disturbance and was diagnosed as suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) in 2013. Administration of clonazepam and pramipexisole improved her uncomfortable genial sensation. In persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD)/restless genial syndrome (RGS), abnormal genital sensation occurred without sexual desire, which was relieved by clonazepam administration. PGAD/RGS often coexists with restless legs syndrome (RLS). PGAD/RGS and RLS share common characteristics. This is the first case report of PD following PGAD/RGS, suggesting similar underlying mechanisms between PGAD/RGS and RLS associated with PD. PMID:25904258

  3. Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

    2013-01-01

    Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha. PMID:23935663

  4. Reduced plantar sensation causes a cautious walking pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Eils; Susann Behrens; Oliver Mers; Lothar Thorwesten; Klaus Völker; Dieter Rosenbaum

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of reduced plantar sensation on gait patterns during walking in 20 healthy subjects (25.9±1.2 years, 61.6±11.5kg, 178±9.5cm) with no history of sensory disorders. Force plate measurements, electromyography (EMG) measurements and a three-dimensional movement analysis were performed simultaneously during barefoot walking before and after reduction of plantar sensation using an ice

  5. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cross, Catharine P; Cyrenne, De-Laine M; Brown, Gillian R

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information. PMID:23989235

  6. How Does a Touch Sensor Work?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

    Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  8. Application suitability and reliability of harsh environment fiber optic interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, William M.

    2014-09-01

    Severe environments, demanding performance and cost effectiveness characterize current harsh environment system interconnect needs. The increasing use of fiber optics in these applications mandates reliable, safe and efficient fiber optic (FO) interconnect systems. Reliability, safety, bandwidth, and environmental requirements necessitate the transition from copper wire based to fiber optic based systems. Discussed are the technologies, environments, and performance requirements applicable to these applications, along with the trade decisions necessary to implement solutions. This paper addresses harsh environment fiber optic reliability requirements, fiber optic reliability characterization, potential FO interconnect failure modes, and the how to quantify fiber optic reliability. A case study is presented that encompasses the applicable environments for such interconnects, quantifies the inherent reliability of the FO interconnect system in such environments, and provides fiber optic interconnect reliability risk mitigation strategies. FO interconnect failure prediction is also discussed.

  9. TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfacesu Olivier Bau1,2

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    electrostatic friction between a touch surface and the user!s finger. ABSTRACT We present a new technology of tactile touch screens using two comparable setups, one based on electrovibration and another on mechanical, Human Factors. Keywords: Tactile feedback, touch screens, multitouch. Permission to make digital or hard

  10. ""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done

    E-print Network

    ""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done Ken Crawford, DuPontKen Crawford, DuPont Kent Haggerty, DupontKent Haggerty, Dupont #12;OverviewOverview · Test Before Touch (TBT Voltage Testing · Summary & Conclusions #12;#12;How Would You Verify Power is Off?How Would You Verify

  11. High Temperature Electronics for Intelligent Harsh Environment Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of intelligent instrumentation systems is of high interest in both public and private sectors. In order to obtain this ideal in extreme environments (i.e., high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation), both sensors and electronics must be developed concurrently in order that the entire system will survive for extended periods of time. The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. The advantages of SiC over conventional materials include its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical properties in harsh environments, and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

  12. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  13. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  14. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  15. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  16. Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own temperaments, their marital relationship quality, and harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers’ (but not adoptive mothers’) harsh parenting was inversely related to an index of birth mother positive temperament (reward dependence), indicating evocative rGE. Higher marital quality was associated with less harsh parenting, but only for adoptive fathers. Adoptive parents’ negative temperamental characteristics (harm avoidance) were related to hostile parenting. Findings suggest the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

  17. Using thin-film piezoelectret to detect tactile and slip signals for restoring sensation of prosthetic hands.

    PubMed

    Fang, Peng; Tian, Lan; Zheng, Yue; Huang, Jianping; Li, Guanglin

    2014-01-01

    Most of the currently available prosthetic hands do not have a proper sensation of touching and slipping. Thus it is not easy for arm amputees to grasp objects properly only with an assistance of visual feedback. In this pilot work, a sensor based on thin-film piezoelectret was used to detect the possible tactile and slip information of a prosthetic hand. The piezoelectret sensor is flexible and is able to be bended, and therefore it could be properly mounted on the surface of prosthetic finger. Our preliminary results demonstrated that both the tactile and slip information could be acquired with the same sensor unit. For a grasp without slippage, the tactile signal was usually a single large peak, whereas the slip signal was a series of vibrations in a small range. Thus these two types of signals could be easily separated based on their different characteristics. This study suggested that by using thin-film piezoelectret sensor, a primary control with involuntary feedback might be achieved for the present prosthetic hands. More studies would be required on the detailed signal processing and control strategy for the restoration of sensation function in prosthetic hands. PMID:25570514

  18. A thermal sensation prediction tool for use by the profession

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, M.E. [Environmental Analytics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Huizenga, C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Center for Environmental Design Research

    1997-12-31

    As part of a recent ASHRAE research project (781-RP), a thermal sensation prediction tool has been developed. This paper introduces the tool, describes the component thermal sensation models, and presents examples of how the tool can be used in practice. Since the main end product of the HVAC industry is the comfort of occupants indoors, tools for predicting occupant thermal response can be an important asset to designers of indoor climate control systems. The software tool presented in this paper incorporates several existing models for predicting occupant comfort.

  19. [Enlightenment and thinking on deqi (arrival of needling sensation) by abdominal acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2011-02-01

    Enlightened by clinical practice of new acupuncture techniques such as abdominal acupuncture, different recognitions on deqi (arrival of needling sensation), namely qi sensation under the tip of the needles and qi sensation at the affected region were analyzed in this article. The cause and effect relation of arrival of the qi sensation and effectiveness was unscrambled. Varying from the commonly accepted concept of qi sensation, a new concept of latent needling sensation which took the clinical effectiveness as the standard is proposed as a result to provide theoretical preparations for the clinical practice of painlessness acupuncture. PMID:21442836

  20. Novel targeted sensory reinnervation technique to restore functional hand sensation after transhumeral amputation.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Jacqueline S; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Dawson, Michael R; Marasco, Paul D; Kuiken, Todd A; Chan, K Ming

    2014-07-01

    We present a case study of a novel variation of the targeted sensory reinnervation technique that provides additional control over sensory restoration after transhumeral amputation. The use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials on individual fascicles of the median and ulnar nerves allowed us to specifically target sensory fascicles to reroute to target cutaneous nerves at a distance away from anticipated motor sites in a transhumeral amputee. This resulted in restored hand maps of the median and ulnar nerve in discrete spatially separated areas. In addition, the subject was able to use native and reinnervated muscle sites to control a robotic arm while simultaneously sensing touch and force feedback from the robotic gripper in a physiologically correct manner. This proof of principle study is the first to demonstrate the ability to have simultaneous dual flow of information (motor and sensory) within the residual limb. In working towards clinical deployment of a sensory integrated prosthetic device, this surgical method addresses the important issue of restoring a usable access point to provide natural hand sensation after upper limb amputation. PMID:24760915

  1. Sequelae of moderate finger frostbite as assessed by subjective sensations, clinical signs, and thermophysiological responses.

    PubMed

    Ervasti, O; Hassi, J; Rintamäki, H; Virokannas, H; Kettunen, P; Pramila, S; Linna, T; Tolonen, U; Manelius, J

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate prevalence and qualities of sequelae following moderate finger frostbite. The study material comprised 30 subjects, who had suffered second-degree frostbite (73% contact frostbite) 4-11 years before this study. In clinical tests 66% of the subjects had an elevated tendency for vasospasm, yet only 20% suffered from white fingers. However, no marked traces of frostbite-related alterations were observed in systemic cardiovascular reflex tests or in X-ray examinations of the frostbite area. Subjective assessments revealed a high prevalence of sequelae (63%), although the primary frostbite was moderate and local. The sequelae in the frostbite area included hypersensitivity to cold (53%), numbness of fingers (40%), and declined sensitivity of touch (33%). Also working ability was lowered due to frostbite sequelae (13%). In cold air provocation tests, the skin temperature of the frostbitten areas decreased more quickly and reached lower values than in healthy control subjects. In conclusion the suffered frostbite was associated with an increased tendency for vasospasm. Subjective sensations of the frostbitten area were associated with thermophysiological changes. The sequelae were reported to worsen in the cold environment thus emphasizing the probable occupational limitations of even moderate cold injury. PMID:10998831

  2. Enabling aspects of fiber optic acoustic sensing in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu F.

    2013-05-01

    The advantages of optical fiber sensing in harsh electromagnetic as well as physical stress environments make them uniquely suited for structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing. In addition to aerospace applications they are making a strong footprint in geophysical monitoring and exploration applications for higher temperature and pressure environments, due to the high temperature resilience of fused silica glass sensors. Deeper oil searches and geothermal exploration and harvesting are possible with these novel capabilities. Progress in components and technologies that are enabling these systems to be fieldworthy are reviewed and emerging techniques summarized that could leapfrog the system performance and reliability.

  3. A Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ya; Jia, Yi; Chen, Qiushui; Wang, Yanyun

    2008-01-01

    High temperature sensors capable of operating in harsh environments are needed in order to prevent disasters caused by structural or system functional failures due to increasing temperatures. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they require either physical contact or a battery power supply for signal communication, and furthermore, neither of them can withstand high temperatures nor rotating applications. This paper presents a novel passive wireless temperature sensor, suitable for working in harsh environments for high temperature rotating component monitoring. A completely passive LC resonant telemetry scheme, relying on a frequency variation output, which has been applied successfully in pressure, humidity and chemical measurement, is integrated with a unique high-k temperature sensitive ceramic material, in order to measure the temperatures without contacts, active elements, or power supplies within the sensor. In this paper, the high temperature sensor design and performance analysis are conducted based on mechanical and electrical modeling, in order to maximize the sensing distance, the Q factor and the sensitivity. In the end, the sensor prototype is fabricated and calibrated successfully up to 235°C, so that the concept of temperature sensing through passive wireless communication is proved.

  4. Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2010-10-22

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

  5. Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

  6. Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

  7. MOBILE PHONE USE AND TEMPORAL SKIN HEAT SENSATION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    MOBILE PHONE USE AND TEMPORAL SKIN HEAT SENSATION ELMOUNTACER BILLAH ELABBASSI RENE DE-EN-HALATTE 60550, FRANCE Elmountacer.Elabbassifg^ineris.fr Abstract Epidemiological investigation of mobile phone by thermal insulation and heat conduction from MP associated with long calling time. Keywords Mobile phone

  8. Statistical analysis of unsolicited thermal sensation complaints in commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Federspiel, C.C. [Johnson Controls, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1998-10-01

    Unsolicited complaints from 23,500 occupants in 690 commercial buildings were examined with regard to absolute and relative frequency of complaints, temperatures at which thermal sensation complaints (too hot or too cold) occurred, and response times and actions. The analysis shows that thermal sensation complaints are the single most common complaint of any type and that they are the overwhelming majority of environmental complaints. The analysis indicates that thermal sensation complaints are mostly the result of poor control performance and HVAC system faults rather than inter-individual differences in preferred temperatures. The analysis also shows that the neutral temperature in summer is greater than in winter, and the difference between summer and winter neutral temperatures is smaller than the difference between the midpoints of the summer and winter ASHRAE comfort zones. On average, women complain that it is cold at a higher temperature than men, and the temperature at which men complain that it is hot is more variable than for women. Analysis of response times and actions provides information that may be useful for designing a dispatching policy, and it also demonstrates that there is potential to reduce the labor cost of HVAC maintenance by 20% by reducing the frequency of thermal sensation complaints.

  9. Original Research Mitigating Cutaneous Sensation Differences During tDCS

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    Original Research Mitigating Cutaneous Sensation Differences During tDCS: Comparing Sham Versus Low Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is gaining popu- larity as a means for non-invasively enhancing cognitive and motor task performance. In most studies, tDCS is administered at in- tensities between 1 and 2

  10. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  11. Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

  12. What role does sensation play in our awareness of bodily position? 

    E-print Network

    Sandilands, Emilia

    2011-11-23

    I attempt to draw out some difficulties with what may at first seem an intuitive and uncontroversial picture of tactile sensation - a picture of tactile sensation as perception of spatial locations where these spatial ...

  13. Stay in Touch in Crisis Situations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and activated to summon help. Consider also location-tracking devices such as the On-Star system in automobiles or other wireless technology integrated into watches and cell phones. O utline your STAY IN TOUCH plan in ...

  14. A cuttable multi-touch sensor

    E-print Network

    Olberding, Simon

    We propose cutting as a novel paradigm for ad-hoc customization of printed electronic components. As a first instantiation, we contribute a printed capacitive multi-touch sensor, which can be cut by the end-user to modify ...

  15. A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation

    PubMed Central

    Ringkamp, M.; Schepers, R. J.; Shimada, S.G.; Johanek, L.M.; Hartke, T.V.; Borzan, J.; Shim, B.; LaMotte, R.H.; Meyer, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of non-histaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in non-histaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: 1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a sub-group of subjects with A-fiber dominated itch, 2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber versus C-fiber dominated itch, 3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, 4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, 5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and 6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that non-histaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

  16. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain.

    PubMed

    Phumdoung, Sasitorn; Good, Marion

    2003-06-01

    Labor pain is often severe, and analgesic medication may not be indicated. In this randomized controlled trial we examined the effects of music on sensation and distress of pain in Thai primiparous women during the active phase of labor. The gate control theory of pain was the theoretical framework for this study. Randomization with a computerized minimization program was used to assign women to a music group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 55). Women in the intervention group listened to soft music without lyrics for 3 hours starting early in the active phase of labor. Dual visual analog scales were used to measure sensation and distress of pain before starting the study and at three hourly posttests. While controlling for pretest scores, one-way repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that those in the music group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than did the control group (F (1, 107) = 18.69, p <.001, effect size =.15, and F (1, 107) = 14.87, p <.001, effect size =.12), respectively. Sensation and distress significantly increased across the 3 hours in both groups (p <.001), except for distress in the music group during the first hour. Distress was significantly lower than sensation in both groups (p <.05). In this controlled study, music--a mild to moderate strength intervention--consistently provided significant relief of severe pain across 3 hours of labor and delayed the increase of affective pain for 1 hour. Nurses can provide soft music to laboring women for greater pain relief during the active phase when contractions are strong and women suffer. PMID:12836149

  17. Brief measures of sensation seeking for screening and large-scale surveys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael T. Stephenson; Rick H. Hoyle; Philip Palmgreen; Michael D. Slater

    2003-01-01

    Sensation seeking is central to research on the prevention of risky health behaviors, but current measures of sensation seeking are fairly long, thereby reducing their chances of inclusion in some research projects. Hence, we developed and evaluated two brief indices of sensation seeking, a four-item measure that retains the framework of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V (SSS-V) and a shorter

  18. Touch-less Fingerprint Recognition System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Y. Hiew; A. B. J. Teoh; Y. H. Pang

    2007-01-01

    Touch-less fingerprint recognition is regarded as a viable alternative to contact-based fingerprint recognition technology. It provides a near ideal solution to the problems in terms of hygienic, maintenance and latent fingerprints. In this paper, we present a touch-less fingerprint recognition system by using a digital camera. Specifically, we address the constraints of the fingerprint images that were acquired with digital

  19. Essential Touch: Meeting the Needs of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Frances M.

    2006-01-01

    Learn how to safely incorporate touch in the early childhood setting and how to prepare children to confront troubling touch-related situations that may arise outside your setting. Following Acknowledgments, the book includes the following six chapters: (1) Taking a Look at Touch; (2) The Importance of Touch in Development and Learning; (3)…

  20. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  1. Partial and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort— Part I: Uniform environmental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Arens; Hui Zhang; Charlie Huizenga

    2006-01-01

    Subjects exposed to uniform environments were polled for their local and overall (whole-body) thermal sensation and comfort. Sensation and comfort for local body parts vary greatly. In cool environments, hands and feet feel colder than other body parts. The head, insensitive to cold but sensitive to warm, feels warmer than the rest of the body in warm environments. Overall sensation

  2. HapSeat: Producing Motion Sensation with Multiple Force-feedback Devices Embedded in a Seat

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    HapSeat: Producing Motion Sensation with Multiple Force-feedback Devices Embedded in a Seat Fabien a sensation of motion expe- riencing passive navigation. A set of force-feedback devices such as mobile Design, Experimentation Keywords sensation of motion, force-feedback, haptic seat, audiovisual experience

  3. CargoNet: Micropower Sensate Tags for Supply-Chain Management and Security

    E-print Network

    CargoNet: Micropower Sensate Tags for Supply-Chain Management and Security by Mateusz Ksawery Sensate Tags for Supply-Chain Management and Security by Mateusz Ksawery Malinowski Submitted This thesis describes the development of a system of sensate active RFID tags for supply- chain management

  4. Touching Art: Intimacy, Embodiment, and the

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    of temperature is also pertinent to this study, pain sensations are less so. The Experience The experience forms create similar effects, which are expressed in ordinary language. Phrases like being filled with music and absorbed in a story speak to a shift in the ordinary extension of the body. The writer

  5. Touch. The beneficial effects for the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Tovar, M K; Cassmeyer, V L

    1989-05-01

    Touch can cause positive or negative neurophysiological responses. In the OR, nurses do a great deal of touching, and they need to be aware of the appropriateness of their touch. Touch can be an alternative mode of conveying empathy and caring for certain patients when it is difficult for the nurse to communicate verbal empathy. Touch assessments and interventions need to be included in perioperative nursing care plans to promote the patient's comfort and avoid unwanted physiological responses from the patient. PMID:2729967

  6. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  7. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  8. Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

  9. Qualification and Testing of Quantum Cascade Lasers for Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. S.; Myers, T. L.; Cannon, B. D.; Anderson, C. G.; Crowther, B. G.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offer the potential for the development of novel, laser-based instruments for both terrestrial and space applications. In order to withstand harsh conditions encountered in these environments, lasers must be robust, and rigorous testing is required before new systems can be utilized. A particular concern for space applications is the potential damage to laser performance caused by radiation exposure. While the effects of radiation exposure in diode lasers have been studied extensively, the effect on QCLs, which are fundamentally different from diode lasers, is not well known. We thus present work to quantify the performance of QCLs after exposure to moderate and high levels of radiation from different sources, including protons and gamma rays, to determine the effects of radiation damage.

  10. Reliably Powering Remote Seismic Stations in a Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, S. A.; Rukick, R.; Hansen, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    Three decades of experience in the operation of remote seismic stations in Alaska has demonstrated the need for reliable power systems in a harsh arctic environment. Legacy remote power systems have included Edison Aircells, a primary battery; Gel Cells, a secondary (rechargeable battery) and photovoltaic panels; wind generators; and propane TEG (thermal electric generators). The most reliable were the primary battery system but they were expensive, needed replacement every year and increasingly became a hazardous waste disposal problem. We have combined several of these power technologies to provide reliable, cost effective power for our current generation of analog and digital remotely powered seismic stations in Alaska with the use of a power controller. The features of the power controller are: to provide redundant power system control, solar panel voltage regulation, secondary battery charge regulation, state-of-heath output, and a primary battery "fuel gauge". Results of operations are presented.

  11. Upper extremity hemodynamics and sensation with backpack loads.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sae Hoon; Neuschwander, Timothy B; Macias, Brandon R; Bachman, Larry; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-05-01

    Heavy backpacks are often used in extreme environments, for example by military during combat, therefore completion of tasks quickly and efficiently is of operational relevance. The purpose of this study was to quantify hemodynamic parameters (brachial artery Doppler and microvascular flow by photoplethysmography; tissue oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy; arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter) and sensation in upper extremities and hands (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test and 2-point discrimination test) while wearing a loaded backpack (12 kg) in healthy adults for 10 min. All values were compared to baseline before wearing a backpack. Moderate weight loaded backpack loads significantly decreased upper extremity sensation as well as all macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamic values. Decreased macrovascular and microvascular hemodynamics may produce neurological dysfunction and consequently, probably affect fine motor control of the hands. PMID:24075289

  12. Paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects: peripherally conducted by A delta or C fibres?

    PubMed

    Susser, E; Sprecher, E; Yarnitsky, D

    1999-02-01

    Paradoxical heat sensation upon cooling of the skin has been reported in central as well as in peripheral neurological conditions. In our study, we examined this phenomenon in 35 naive healthy test subjects, of whom 23 experienced paradoxical heat sensation under test conditions. We measured the peripheral conduction velocities of cold sensation, warm sensation and of paradoxical heat sensation by using a quantitative sensory testing model of indirect peripheral conduction velocity measurement. This was based on comparison of measurements at a proximal and a distal site using two measurement methods, one inclusive and the other exclusive of reaction time. We found that the conduction velocity of paradoxical heat sensation (0.70 m/s) was similar to that of warm sensation (0.68 m/s), and that the conduction velocity of cold sensation (7.74-8.01 m/s) was considerably faster. Thus, we conclude that paradoxical heat sensation in healthy subjects is conducted peripherally via slow unmyelinated C fibres and not via the faster A delta fibres. Consequently, we propose that paradoxical heat sensation is encoded via the heat sensing pathway, in accordance with the labelled-line code theory. The mechanisms proposed suggest a malfunctioning cold-sensing pathway disinhibiting the heat-sensing pathway, at peripheral, central or both levels, thus facilitating a paradoxical heat sensation. PMID:10071052

  13. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

  14. Thermal sensation and comfort with different task conditioning systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideyuki Amai; Shin-ichi Tanabe; Takashi Akimoto; Takeshi Genma

    2007-01-01

    Subjective experiments with task conditioning systems, 3DU+, PEM, TU, and RCU were conducted to investigate the effect of three different types of Task air-conditioning systems on thermal comfort in a climate chamber. The chamber was conditioned at 28°C\\/50%RH with task systems and 26°C\\/50%RH without them. Under the condition with the task conditioning systems, the average rating of comfort sensation was

  15. Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

  16. Alliesthesia in visual and auditory sensations from environmental signals.

    PubMed

    Brondel, L; Cabanac, M

    2007-06-01

    'Alliesthesia' describes the fact that sensory stimuli can arouse pleasant or unpleasant sensations according to the internal state of a person. In the present work, the hedonicity aroused by stimuli from the environment in visual and auditory sensations was evaluated in 5 situations: 1) daytime without sensory stimulations (no video-tape); 2) daytime with poor sensory stimulations (uninteresting video-tape film); 3) daytime with rich sensory stimulations (interesting chosen movie on video-tape); 4) night-time without sensory stimulations (no video-tape); 5) night-time with poor sensory stimulations (uninteresting video-tape). During the day, hedonic ratings decreased with time in the no- and uninteresting video-tape film conditions (p<0.01), but increased with the chosen movie (p<0.05). During the night, hedonic ratings decreased similarly to daytime ratings with the uninteresting video-tape film (p<0.01) but rose in the no-video-tape environment (p<0.01). The time course of motivation to leave the environment mirrored that of hedonic ratings. Changes in hedonic ratings as well as motivation to leave the environment correlated with the state of tiredness in the day-no-video and night-no-video situations (r=0.541 and r=-0.593; p<0.01). Thus, alliesthesia occurred in visual and auditory sensations that originated from the environment, and motivated behavior that was not consummatory. Such results suggest that alliesthesia is a general property of all sensations, and emphasizes the fundamental role of pleasure in motivation for all behaviors. PMID:17399746

  17. A New NASA Book: Touch the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grice, N. A.

    2005-05-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired rely partly on their sense of touch to help paint pictures of objects and places in their mind's eye; however, astronomy and space science are, by nature, generally inaccessible to the touch. The universe, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope, was made hands-on in 2002 with the publication of Touch the Universe: A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy. This year, the Sun becomes an accessible object in a new universally designed publication called Touch the Sun. Touch the Sun contains text pages with both print and Braille. It features colorful embossed images from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) spacecraft. There is also a close-up picture of a sunspot from the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak. Textures of swirling gas currents, dark sunspots, curving magnetic fields and explosive eruptions emphasize the dynamic nature of the Sun. The prototype images were tested with students from the Colorado School for the Deaf and Blind; the images were revised, based upon their evaluations. Drs. Joe Gurman and Steele Hill from the Goddard Space Flight Center served as scientific consultants. Learn more about this special resource and try out some of the tactile images yourself!

  18. Sensation-seeking: Dopaminergic modulation and risk for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Norbury, Agnes; Husain, Masud

    2015-07-15

    Sensation-seeking (SS) is a personality trait that refers to individual differences in motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences. It describes a facet of human behaviour that has direct relevance for several psychopathologies associated with high social cost. Here, we first review ways of measuring SS behaviour in both humans and animals. We then present convergent evidence that implicates dopaminergic neurotransmission (particularly via D2-type receptors) in individual differences in SS trait. Both high tonic dopamine levels and hyper-reactive midbrain dopaminergic responses to signals of forthcoming reward are evident in higher sensations-seekers. We propose that differences in the efficacy of striatal dopaminergic transmission may result in differential expression of approach-avoidance reactions to same intensity stimuli. This constitutes a quantitative trait of intensity preference for sensory stimulation that may underlie core features of the SS personality. We review the evidence that high trait SS is a vulnerability factor for psychopathologies related to changes in brain dopamine function, in particular substance and gambling addictions. Conversely, we consider the possibility that increased tolerance of high intensity stimulation may represent a protective mechanism against the development of trauma-related psychopathologies (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) in high sensation-seeking individuals. Further understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying SS trait might not only to shed light on the aetiology of these disorders, but also aid in developing individualised therapies and prevention strategies for psychopathologies. PMID:25907745

  19. Stochastic resonance occurring in tactile sensation of human finger.

    PubMed

    Beceren, Kadir; Ohka, Masahiro; Miyaoka, Tetsu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review the influence of external noise on human tactile sensation as outlined in prior and current studies. In the last few decades, researchers have found that, although noise is always considered detrimental, it provides the benefit of stochastic resonance (SR) phenomena. Based on previous studies, we investigate the effect of the SR phenomenon on human tactile sensation. In this context, we developed a system consisting of an experimental apparatus and a computer program, and performed a series of psychophysical experiments using different types of stimulus with normal vibration. The experimental results show that tactile sensation precision can be enhanced by an appropriate level of external noise. Furthermore, we introduce a neural network model composed of nonlinear neurons with a bi-stable equilibrium condition to clarify the result. Finally, we perform a sequence of psychophysical experiments with tangential vibration to clarify which conditions of vibration direction and stimulus size cause the strongest SR. The results show that the normal difference limen (DL) is significantly affected by stimulus point size. On the other hand, neither normal nor tangential DL is significantly affected by stimulus point size. Moreover, the characteristics of SR with normal vibration are quite different from those with tangential vibration. PMID:24110916

  20. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

  1. Polymer\\/ceramic wireless MEMS pressure sensors for harsh environments: High temperature and biomedical applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Fonseca

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation presents an investigation of miniaturized sensors, designed to wirelessly measure pressure in harsh environments such as high temperature and biomedical applications. Current wireless microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors are silicon-based and have limited high temperature operation, require internal power sources, or have limited packaging technology that restricts their use in harsh environments. Sensor designs in this work are

  2. Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

    2014-10-01

    Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

  3. Maternal Warmth Moderates the Link between Harsh Discipline and Later Externalizing Behaviors for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Germán, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; McClain, Darya Bonds; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined maternal warmth as a moderator of the relation between harsh discipline practices and adolescent externalizing problems 1year later in low-income, Mexican American families. Design Participants were 189 adolescents and their mothers who comprised the control group of a longitudinal intervention program. Results Maternal warmth protected adolescents from the negative effects of harsh discipline such that, at higher levels of maternal warmth, there was no relation between harsh discipline and externalizing problems after controlling for baseline levels of externalizing problems and other covariates. At lower levels of maternal warmth, there was a positive relation between harsh discipline practices and later externalizing problems. Conclusions To understand the role of harsh discipline in the development of Mexican American youth outcomes, researchers must consider contextual variables that may affect youths’ perceptions of their parents’ behavior such as maternal warmth. PMID:23894229

  4. Efficient capacitive touch sensing using structured matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtar, Humza; Kakarala, Ramakrishna

    2015-03-01

    Compressive sensing is a technique used in signal processing applications to reduce sampling time. This paper talks about an efficient sampling framework based on compressive sensing for capacitive touch technology. We aim to minimize the number of measurements required during capacitance touch sensing process and in order to achieve this, we use structured matrices which can be used as a driving sensing framework for a touch controller. The novel contribution of this research is that we have modelled our recovery algorithm according to the structure of our sampling matrix, thus making it extremely efficient and simple to implement in a practical application. In this paper, we exploit the structure of the sensing matrix and conduct experiments to test the robustness of our proposed algorithm. Calculations of the floating point multiplication operations for the reconstruction algorithm and sensing matrix have also been looked into detail.

  5. Merkel cells and neurons keep in touch.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung-Hyun; Lumpkin, Ellen A; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-02-01

    The Merkel cell-neurite complex is a unique vertebrate touch receptor comprising two distinct cell types in the skin. Its presence in touch-sensitive skin areas was recognized more than a century ago, but the functions of each cell type in sensory transduction have been unclear. Three recent studies demonstrate that Merkel cells are mechanosensitive cells that function in touch transduction via Piezo2. One study concludes that Merkel cells, rather than sensory neurons, are principal sites of mechanotransduction, whereas two other studies report that both Merkel cells and neurons encode mechanical inputs. Together, these studies settle a long-standing debate on whether or not Merkel cells are mechanosensory cells, and enable future investigations of how these skin cells communicate with neurons. PMID:25480024

  6. Art & Games: Sensational Activities for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Susan J.; McNerney, Peg

    This booklet offers learning activities for children with disabilities grouped into art activities, activities that encourage interaction, and activities that encourage movement. The activities emphasize touch, smell, sight, and hearing to allow children to utilize their strongest senses. Each activity is presented with possible goals, materials,…

  7. Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  8. Dissociating the Neural Correlates of Experiencing and Imagining Affective Touch.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Molly V; Anderson, Laura C; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined experiencing and imagining gentle arm and palm touch to determine whether these processes activate overlapping or distinct brain regions. Although past research shows brain responses to experiencing and viewing touch, this study investigates neural processing of touch absent of visual stimulation. C-tactile (CT) nerves, present in hairy skin, respond specifically to caress-like touch. CT-targeted touch activates "social brain" regions including insula, right posterior superior temporal sulcus, amygdala, temporal poles, and orbitofrontal cortex ( McGlone et al. 2012). We addressed whether activations reflect sensory input-driven mechanisms, cognitive-based mechanisms, or both. We identified a functional dissociation between insula regions. Posterior insula responded during experienced touch. Anterior insula responded during both experienced and imagined touch. To isolate stimulus-independent mechanisms recruited during physical experience of CT-targeted touch, we identified regions active to experiencing and imagining such touch. These included amygdala and temporal pole. We posit that the dissociation of insula function suggests posterior and anterior insula involvement in distinct yet interacting processes: coding physical stimulation and affective interpretation of touch. Regions active during experiencing and imagining CT-targeted touch are associated with social processes indicating that imagining touch conjures affective aspects of experiencing such touch. PMID:24700583

  9. Adaptation of an epilithic ecosystem to harsh high altitude environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Torre Noetzel, R.; Horneck, G.; García Sancho, L.; Scherer, K.; Facius, R.; Urlings, T.; Rettberg, P.; Reina, M.; Pintado, A.

    2003-04-01

    Epilithic ecosystems in high mountains are exposed to an extreme microclimate characterized by intense solar UV radiation, high temperature fluctuations and high aridity. Using the epilithic ecosystem Rhizocarpon geographicum, the most abundant lichen at the Plataforma de Gredos (Sierra de Gredos, Central Spain, 1.895 m a.s.l.) as model system, we have investigated whether the cortex protects the photobiont against impacts by this extreme environment. The UV radiation climate was measured optoelectronically as well by use of the biological dosimeter DLR-Biofilm, and the microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, PAR) by a microclimatic station (Squirrel, U.K.). The photosynthetic activity of the lichens was periodically determined by use of a photosynthesis yield analyser MINI PAM. Using lichen samples with- and without cortex during different periods of a growing season, showed a substantial protection by the cortex against environmental stress conditions, especially at summer solstice. Solar UV radiation and desiccation exerted the most damaging effects in lichens without cortex. Because of the high resistance of the intact lichen against the harsh high altitude climate, R. geographicum has been selected as test system for survival studies in space to be performed during the upcoming BIOPAN mission of ESA.

  10. Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

  11. Turret mooring system design and analysis for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.; Judge, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses key factors that must be considered in the design and analysis of internal turret mooring systems for ship-shaped FPSO vessels in harsh environments. Peculiarities of this type of mooring system, such as extreme sensitivity to non-collinear environments, excessive vertical motions at the fairleads, and complicated thruster control strategies, require that design and analysis of the mooring system be closely interrelated to other subsystems such as turret and riser systems, as well as to the vessel itself. In addition, the selection of the mooring design code that will be followed can have a significant impact on the final mooring lime tensions derived, and it is important to understand the types of analytical approaches that can be used as well as their limitations when applied to turret moored vessels. Model testing, especially for turret moored FPSOs, can prove particularly beneficial if properly planned. With advance knowledge and understanding of the possible implications of all these factors, trade-offs in the FPSO mooring system design can be properly evaluated.

  12. A novel approach to tribological measurements at harsh conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weltevreden, Esther R.; van der Heide, Emile

    2011-10-01

    When dealing with high-tech equipment, accurate positioning is of the utmost importance to ensure durability and a productive lifetime. Unexpected high friction or wear of positioning mechanisms can lead to unnecessary down-time or products that are not up to specification. To ensure a sufficient lifetime, it is necessary to know beforehand how the sliding and rolling contacts will behave over time. This demand becomes more stringent when the machine operates at extreme conditions, e.g. vacuum or extremely low temperatures. Traditional greases and mineral oil based lubricants do not perform adequately in such extreme environments, as they either contaminate the vacuum or do not provide sufficient film thickness. TNO recently developed a unique measuring application, the TNO cryotribometer, in order to measure friction and wear of position mechanisms at harsh conditions. Preliminary results show that the contact pressure and the sliding velocity influenced the friction level greatly. This set-up is currently used to find and analyze different material combinations, which demonstrate a constant friction level under cryogenic vacuum conditions.

  13. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  14. Electrical Stimulation of Pain and Touch Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert H. Gibson

    1963-01-01

    To take best advantage of cutaneous channels for communication, information must be translated into a form compatible with perceptual properties of the touch sense. To find whether such channels are effective other than as providing mere warning information or slow transliteration of speech, one needs systematically to vary cutaneous stimuli along temporal and spatial dimensions to determine the resolving power

  15. A High-Resolution Imaging Touch Sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Daniel Hillis

    1982-01-01

    A dexterous robot manipulator must be able to feel what it is doing. The mechanical hand of the future will be able to roll a screw between its fingers and sense, by touch, which end is which. This paper describes a step toward ssuch a manipulator, an imaging tactile sensor with hundreds of pressure .sensors in a space tlze size

  16. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  17. Touch sensitive electrorheological fluid based tactile display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanju; Davidson, Rob; Taylor, Paul

    2005-12-01

    A tactile display is programmable device whose controlled surface is intended to be investigated by human touch. It has a great number of potential applications in the field of virtual reality and elsewhere. In this research, a 5 × 5 tactile display array including electrorheological (ER) fluid has been developed and investigated. Force responses of the tactile display array have been measured while a probe was moved across the upper surface. The purpose of this was to simulate the action of touch performed by human finger. Experimental results show that the sensed surface information could be controlled effectively by adjusting the voltage activation pattern imposed on the tactels. The performance of the tactile display is durable and repeatable. The touch sensitivity of this ER fluid based tactile display array has also been investigated in this research. The results show that it is possible to sense the touching force normal to the display's surface by monitoring the change of current passing through the ER fluid. These encouraging results are helpful for constructing a new type of tactile display based on ER fluid which can act as both sensor and actuator at the same time.

  18. Mechanosensitive channels: in touch with Piezo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X Z Shawn

    2010-11-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels. PMID:21056836

  19. Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

  20. Multi-Touch Tables and Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…

  1. Mechanosensitive Channels: In Touch with Piezo

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Rui; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensory transduction underlies touch, hearing and proprioception and requires mechanosensitive channels that are directly gated by forces; however, the molecular identities of these channels remain largely elusive. A new study has identified Piezo1 and Piezo2 as a novel class of mechanosensitive channels. PMID:21056836

  2. Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behavior.

    PubMed

    Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Cummings, E Mark

    2011-05-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. PMID:21142369

  3. Pubertal timing and Mexican-origin girls' internalizing and externalizing symptoms: the influence of harsh parenting.

    PubMed

    Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; White, Rebecca M B; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Roosa, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in 3 waves of data. Measures included girls' self-report of pubertal development and girls' and mothers' report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters' mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls' internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers' and daughters' nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters' report, we found that Mexican American mothers' harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls' internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers' report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  4. inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication

    E-print Network

    Ishii, Hiroshi

    inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication Scott Brave and Andrew Dahley MIT Media users separated by distance. Keywords Haptics, interpersonal communication, force feedback, telepresence INTRODUCTION Touch is a fundamental aspect of interpersonal communication. Whether a greeting handshake

  5. Nurses' comfort with touch and workplace well-being.

    PubMed

    Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

    2015-06-01

    Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24658288

  6. Review of Research Status and Development Trends of Wireless Passive LC Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Jia, Pinggang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Measurement technology for various key parameters in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature and biomedical applications) continues to be limited. Wireless passive LC resonant sensors offer long service life and can be suitable for harsh environments because they can transmit signals without battery power or wired connections. Consequently, these devices have become the focus of many current research studies. This paper addresses recent research, key technologies, and practical applications relative to passive LC sensors used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and harmful gases in harsh environments. The advantages and disadvantages of various sensor types are discussed, and prospects and challenges for future development of these sensors are presented. PMID:26053753

  7. Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Expressing and Recognizing Emotions Through Haptic Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Scott Brave; Dan Merget; David Koslow

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of Virtual Interpersonal Touch (VIT), people touching one another via force-feedback haptic devices. As collaborative virtual environments become utilized more effectively, it is only natural that interactants will have the ability to touch one another. In the work presented here, we used relatively basic devices to begin to explore the expression of emotion through VIT.

  8. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  9. Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

  10. Identification of genes expressed in C. elegans touch receptor neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun Zhang; Charles Ma; Thomas Delohery; Brian Nasipak; Barrett C. Foat; Alexander Bounoutas; Harmen J. Bussemaker; Stuart K. Kim; Martin Chalfie

    2002-01-01

    The extent of gene regulation in cell differentiation is poorly understood. We previously used saturation mutagenesis to identify 18 genes that are needed for the development and function of a single type of sensory neuron-the touch receptor neuron for gentle touch in Caenorhabditis elegans. One of these genes, mec-3, encodes a transcription factor that controls touch receptor differentiation. By culturing

  11. Genes Regulating Touch Cell Development in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongping Du; Martin Chalfie

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F2 progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations

  12. Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Southeast University

    E-print Network

    Liu, Benyuan

    Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Yang Zhang Southeast University Nanjing 211189, P screen may breach user privacy. In this paper, we introduce the fin- gerprint attack against touch-enabled devices. We dust the touch screen surface to reveal fingerprints, and use an iPhone camera to carefully

  13. Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher Cascade Microtech Europe Ltd A guide to Successful on Wafer Rf characterisation #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it Station Essentials Probe Tip Calibration How to Calibrate #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it

  14. The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

  15. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  16. Responses of human somatosensory cortex to stimuli below threshold for conscious sensation.

    PubMed

    Libet, B; Alberts, W W; Wright, E W; Feinstein, B

    1967-12-22

    Averaged evoked responses of somatosensory cortex, recorded subdurally, appeared with stimuli (skin, ventral posterolateral nucleus, cortex) which were subthreshold for sensation. Such responses were deficient in late components. Subthreshold stimuli could elicit sensation with suitable repetition. The primary evoked response was not sufficient for sensation. These facts bear on the problems of neurophysiological correlates of conscious and unconscious experience, and of "subliminal perception." PMID:6060369

  17. SmartTouch: Electric Skin to Touch the Untouchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto(1)

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    and a sensor mounted on the skin. The sensed information is converted to tactile sensation through electrical optical sensors. We endeavored to realize the tactile perception of luminance information, which the untouchable. The system is essentially composed of a tactile display and a sensor. When contacting an object

  18. Thermal and nociceptive sensations from menthol and their suppression by dynamic contact.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Schoen, Kate L

    2007-01-25

    It was recently found that cooling the skin to temperatures as mild as 25-30 degrees C can induce nociceptive sensations (burning, stinging or pricking) that are strongly suppressed by dynamic contact between the thermode and skin (contact suppression). Here we investigated whether nociceptive sensations produced by menthol can be similarly suppressed. In the first experiment subjects rated the intensity of cold and burning/stinging/pricking sensations before and after application of 10% l-menthol to the forearm. Ratings were compared at resting skin temperature ( approximately 33 degrees C) and at 28, 24, or 20 degrees C during static or dynamic contact cooling via a Peltier thermode. At resting skin temperature, menthol produced cold and nociceptive sensations, both of which were suppressed by dynamic contact. When the skin was cooled during static contact, menthol increased nociceptive sensations but not cold sensations; when the skin was cooled during dynamic contact, cold sensations were again unchanged while nociceptive sensations were suppressed. A second experiment tested whether contact suppression of menthol's cold and nociceptive sensations at resting skin temperature was caused by slight deviations of thermode temperature above skin temperature. The results showed that suppression occurred even when the thermode was slightly cooler (-0.5 degrees C) than the skin. These findings support other evidence that the menthol-sensitive channel, TRPM8, plays a role in cold nociception, and raise new questions about how dynamic tactile stimulation may modify perception of nonpainful cold stimulation. PMID:17092576

  19. Variants in the Dopamine-4-Receptor Gene Promoter Are Not Associated with Sensation Seeking in Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia J.; Rajala, Amelia K.; Carlson, Scott R.; Rupert, Jim L.

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (?1106T/C, ?906T/C, ?809G/A, ?291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n?=?599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population. PMID:24691022

  20. Variants in the dopamine-4-receptor gene promoter are not associated with sensation seeking in skiers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia J; Rajala, Amelia K; Carlson, Scott R; Rupert, Jim L

    2014-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (-1106T/C, -906T/C, -809G/A, -291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n = 599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population. PMID:24691022

  1. Placebo-induced somatic sensations: a multi-modal study of three different placebo interventions.

    PubMed

    Beissner, Florian; Brünner, Franziska; Fink, Maria; Meissner, Karin; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1) placebo irritant solution, (2) placebo laser stimulation, and (3) imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects' sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as "tingling" and "warm" that can reach consider-able spatial extent (? 205mm²) and intensity (? 80/100 VAS). Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon. PMID:25901350

  2. Uniformity of stratum-ventilated thermal environment and thermal sensation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Y; Fong, M L; Yao, T; Lin, Z; Fong, K F

    2014-10-01

    Three human test series were conducted to evaluate the uniformity of the thermal environments in a stratum-ventilated chamber with dimensions of 8.8 m (L) × 5.1 m (W) × 2.4 m (H). In all, nineteen conditions were generated by adjusting the room temperature, supply airflow rate, and supply terminal type. An air diffuser performance index (ADPI) of at least 80% was achieved for most cases. This result shows that the air velocity and temperature in the occupied zone are reasonably uniform. Subjective assessments using the ASHRAE 7-point scale indicate that the thermal sensations of the subjects in stratum ventilation are also uniform. This study examines the applicability of the predicted mean vote (PMV) model for evaluating stratum ventilation. When compared to the actual mean thermal sensation votes (ATS), the PMV values are acceptable. The PMV results at a height of 1.1 m above the floor show better agreement with the ATS than at a height of 0.1 m. PMID:24438214

  3. Tactile mapping of harsh, constrained environments, with an application to oil wells

    E-print Network

    Mazzini, Francesco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This work develops a practical approach to explore rough environments when time is critical. The harsh environmental conditions prevent the use of range, force/torque or tactile sensors. A representative case is the mapping ...

  4. Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer

    E-print Network

    Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer David;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Mantle Convection, David Bercovici MANTLE CONVECTION Synonyms Mantle dynamics. Mantle circulation. Definition Mantle convection: Thermal convection in the terrestrial planetary

  5. Longitudinal links between fathers' and mothers' harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259

  6. Parenting stress and harsh discipline in China: The moderating roles of marital satisfaction and parent gender.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Wang, Meifang

    2015-05-01

    This research examined the relationships between parents' parenting stress and their harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of marital satisfaction and parent gender in Chinese societies. Using a sample of 639 Chinese father-mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers' and fathers' parenting stress were directly associated with their harsh discipline. Mothers' marital satisfaction attenuated the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. However, fathers' marital satisfaction did not moderate the association between their parenting stress and harsh discipline. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of considering how the dyadic marital relationship factors may interact with individuals' parenting stress to influence both maternal and paternal disciplinary behaviors. PMID:25676108

  7. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259

  8. Perceptual conflict between vision and touch.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, T

    1976-06-01

    Although most of the studies support the conclusion that a perceptual conflict may be resolved in the visual dominance, a few suggest its prematurity and methodological problems. In the present study, the conflict was made by the instruction and the trick in order to keep the S's naivety, and the degree of conflict was varied. wthe visual comparison (vision), the haptic comparison (touch), the visual-haptic comparison (drawing by a pencil), and the haptic-visual comparison (production by the plasticine) were used as the comparison procedures. The result was that the perceptual conflict was resolved in a compromise between vision and touch. However, as the degree of conflict became greater, the judgements in the conflict tended to depend upon the comparison procedures. And in such a conflict taht the visual size was smaller than the tactual, the vision dominance tended to occur, and vice versa. PMID:988361

  9. Decreasing harsh discipline in mothers at risk for maltreatment: a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Mariana; Negrão, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of the attachment-based program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD; F. Juffer, M.J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, & M.H. van IJzendoorn, 2008) in decreasing harsh discipline of 43 mothers and their 1- to 4-year-old-children from severely deprived families. Based on previous studies, parenting stress was tested as a potential moderator of intervention effects on harsh discipline. Using a randomized control design, maternal harsh discipline was observed during home visits at the pretest and posttest, and mothers filled in questionnaires at both assessments. The VIPP-SD proved to be effective in decreasing maternal harsh discipline, but only for mothers who experienced higher levels of parenting stress at intake. These findings provide support for the program's ability to improve parenting in families who are most at risk for harsh parenting and for potentially maltreating child-parent interactions. The results are discussed in terms of the VIPP-SD elements most relevant to decreasing harsh discipline, and the challenges of parenting interventions in severely deprived populations. PMID:25798509

  10. The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann’s area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation. PMID:25826300

  11. Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Juntao Wu

    2008-03-14

    This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

  12. Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-06-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

  13. Reliability of perception of fever by touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepti Chaturvedi; K. Y. Vilhekar; Pushpa Chaturvedi; M. S. Bharambe

    2003-01-01

    Objective : To assess the reliability of touch to predict fever in children.Methods : 200 children who reported with fever formed the study material. Group I consisted of 100 children between 0–1 year of age\\u000a and Group II consisted of 100 children between 6–12 years of age. Preterm, neonates under warming device, tachypnoeic and\\u000a hypothermic were excluded from the study.

  14. “Dry-to-the-touch” thermal grease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Khatri; J. Ziemski

    2001-01-01

    Most thermal engineers believe that thermal greases (or heat sink compounds) provide the lowest thermal resistance of all thermal interface materials. Micro-faze(R) is a proprietary design, dry-to-the-touch thermal grease product that offers the lowest thermal resistance at low closure force, thus eliminating the need to sacrifice thermal performance for convenience. This dry grease is totally adaptable to die-cut and possesses

  15. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  16. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  17. Human perception of shape from touch

    PubMed Central

    Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers. PMID:21969692

  18. Development of the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for African American Adolescent Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph DiClemente; Robin R. Milhausen; Laura F. Salazar; Joshua Spitalnick; Jessica McDermott Sales; Richard A. Crosby; Sinead N. Younge; Gina M. Wingood

    2010-01-01

    We used data derived from two independent studies to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ willingness to engage in sexual sensation-seeking behavior. In Study 1, the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) was administered to a sample of 715 African American adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 21 years. The SSSA demonstrated strong internal

  19. Interactively Determined Generative Sound Design for Sensate Environments: Extending Cyborg Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty Beilharz

    Sensate environments provide a medium for humans to interact with space. This interaction includes ambient\\/passive triggering, performative artistic interaction and physical sensate spaces used for games and interactive entertainment. This paper examines aural representations of data activated by interaction, shaped by user activities and social environmental behaviours. Generative art forms, for example genetic algorithms and evolutionary design systems, provide methodologies

  20. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  1. The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

  2. Intercorrelations of the Sensation - Seeking Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Keith W.

    1977-01-01

    Two separate studies using Form IV of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) are reported. The first study correlates SSS by factor and sex with the earlier Form II SSS, supporting the reliability of the General SSS scale and discriminant validity of the Form IV SSS factor scales in relationship to general sensation-seeking. In the second study,…

  3. R-rated movie viewing, growth in sensation seeking and alcohol initiation: reciprocal and moderation effects.

    PubMed

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D; Worth, Keilah A; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-03-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N = 6255) of adolescents, ages 10-14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use. PMID:19655251

  4. ThermoGame: video game interaction system that offers dynamic temperature sensation to users

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuaki Baba; Kumiko Kushiyama; Kouki Doi

    2010-01-01

    Today, many researchers reports studies about haptic, tactile or tangible art and entertainment. Particularly about temperature sensation, few interaction system has ever been presented because of it does not have good responsiveness. In this study, we shall design the video game interaction system that uses temperature sensation to users. First of all we investigate the relation of the rapidity of

  5. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  6. Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberger, Kristina D.

    2004-01-01

    A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

  7. R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Worth, Keilah A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2010-01-01

    The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N=6255) of adolescents, ages 10–14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use. PMID:19655251

  8. SENSAT-a practical tool for estimation of the IC layout sensitivity to spot defects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Witold Pleskacz; Wieslaw Kuzmicz

    1995-01-01

    A practical interactive tool, SENSAT, is presented for IC layout optimization based on the concept of sensitive area. Since reduction of the layout sensitivity to shorts may increase its sensitivity to opens and vice versa, a practical tool must determine sensitive areas for both. The main function of SENSAT is to extract and display the sensitive areas in the IC

  9. Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples

    PubMed Central

    Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

  10. The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

    2010-11-01

    Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

  11. Harsh discipline and behavior problems: the moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems. PMID:25451383

  12. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations

    PubMed Central

    Zefferman, Emily; Stevens, Jens T.; Charles, Grace K.; Dunbar-Irwin, Mila; Emam, Taraneh; Fick, Stephen; Morales, Laura V.; Wolf, Kristina M.; Young, Derek J. N.; Young, Truman P.

    2015-01-01

    Plant communities in abiotically stressful, or ‘harsh’, habitats have been reported to be less invaded by non-native species than those in more moderate habitats. Here, we synthesize descriptive and experimental evidence for low levels of invasion in habitats characterized by a variety of environmental stressors: low nitrogen; low phosphorus; saline, sodic or alkaline soils; serpentine soils; low soil moisture; shallow/rocky soils; temporary inundation; high shade; high elevation; and high latitude. We then discuss major categories of hypotheses to explain this pattern: the propagule limitation mechanism suggests invasion of harsh sites is limited by relatively low arrival rates of propagules compared with more moderate habitats, while invasion resistance mechanisms suggest that harsh habitats are inherently less invasible due to stressful abiotic conditions and/or increased effects of biotic resistance from resident organisms. Both propagule limitation and invasion resistance may simultaneously contribute to low invadedness of harsh sites, but the management implications of these mechanisms differ. If propagule limitation is more important, managers should focus on reducing the likelihood of propagule introductions. If invasion resistance mechanisms are in play, managers should focus on restoring or maintaining harsh conditions at a site to reduce invasibility. PMID:26002746

  13. News in an age of competition : the case of sensationalism in Dutch television news, 1995-2001

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Hendriks Vettehen; C. M. Nuijten; Johannes Beentjes

    2005-01-01

    Trends in sensationalism in Dutch television news were investigated through a content analysis of 3 Dutch TV news programs in 1995 and 2001, a period when the competition between Dutch TV news programs increased. Indicators of sensationalism were derived from 4 categories: tabloid packaging, basic needs content, concreteness, and proximity. Results showed a trend toward the use of more sensational

  14. The role of touch in facilitated communication.

    PubMed

    Kezuka, E

    1997-10-01

    Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as "I am not retarded," using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. A force from the assistant, which controlled what was spelled through physical support, was measured. It was thus completely possible for any message to appear to be typed with FC regardless of the autistic child's actual knowledge or language ability. PMID:9403373

  15. Losing touch in the era of superbugs?

    PubMed

    Hass, Leif

    2010-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control. PMID:20843889

  16. HUMAN TOUCH nanotechnology information technology biomedical technology and

    E-print Network

    Vellekoop, Michel

    HIGH TECH, HUMAN TOUCH FACTS AND FIGURES 2014 #12;nanotechnology information technology biomedical technology and technical medicine behavioural sciences and governance geo-information science and earth

  17. Neural Encoding of Acupuncture Needling Sensations: Evidence from a fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoling; Chan, Suk-Tak; Fang, Jiliang; Nixon, Erika E.; Liu, Jing; Kwong, Kenneth K.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hui, Kathleen K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Deqi response, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous neuroimaging research works have investigated the neural correlates of an overall deqi response by summating the scores of different needling sensations. However, the roles of individual sensations in brain activity and how they interact with each other remain to be clarified. In this study, we applied fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of individual components of deqi during acupuncture on the right LV3 (Taichong) acupoint. We selected a subset of deqi responses, namely, pressure, heaviness, fullness, numbness, and tingling. Using the individual components of deqi of different subjects as covariates in the analysis of percentage change of bold signal, pressure was found to be a striking sensation, contributing to most of negative activation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN). The similar or opposite neural activity in the heavily overlapping regions is found to be responding to different needling sensations, including bilateral LPNN, right orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral posterior parietal cortex. These findings provide the neuroimaging evidence of how the individual needle sensations interact in the brain, showing that the modulatory effects of different needling sensations contribute to acupuncture modulations of LPNN network. PMID:24062782

  18. The development of reproductive strategy in females: early maternal harshness --> earlier menarche --> increased sexual risk taking.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

    2010-01-01

    To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization-that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)-the authors subjected longitudinal data on 433 White, 62 Black, and 31 Hispanic females to path analysis. Results showed (a) that greater maternal harshness at 54 months predicted earlier age of menarche; (b) that earlier age of menarche predicted greater sexual (but not other) risk taking; and (c) that maternal harshness exerted a significant indirect effect, via earlier menarche, on sexual risk taking (i.e., greater harshness --> earlier menarche --> greater sexual risk taking) but only a direct effect on other risk taking. Results are discussed in terms of evolutionary perspectives on human development and reproductive strategy, and future directions for research are outlined. PMID:20053011

  19. Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2006-12-01

    Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

  20. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers’ harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n=89) and non-alcoholic (n=94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers’ alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. PMID:20153586

  1. Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.

    PubMed

    van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action. PMID:25682493

  2. Cognitive influences on the affective representation of touch and the sight of touch in the human brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ciara McCabe; Edmund T. Rolls; Amy Bilderbeck; Francis McGlone

    2008-01-01

    We show that the affective experience of touch and the sight of touch can be modulated by cognition, and investigate in an fMRI study where top-down cognitive modulations of bottom-up somatosensory and visual processing of touch and its affective value occur in the human brain. The cognitive modulation was produced by word labels, 'Rich moisturizing cream' or 'Basic cream', while

  3. Harsh parenting, parasympathetic activity, and development of delinquency and substance use.

    PubMed

    Hinnant, J Benjamin; Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-02-01

    Stress response systems are thought to play an important role in the development of psychopathology. In addition, family stress may have a significant influence on the development of stress response systems. One potential avenue of change is through alterations to thresholds for the activation of stress responses: Decreased threshold for responding may mark increased stress sensitivity. Our first aim was to evaluate the interaction between thresholds for parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responding, operationalized as resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and harsh parenting in the prediction of development of delinquency and adolescent substance use (resting RSA as a biomarker of risk). The second aim was to evaluate if resting RSA changes over time as a function of harsh parenting and stress reactivity indexed by RSA withdrawal (altered threshold for stress responding). Our third aim was to evaluate the moderating role of sex in these relations. We used longitudinal data from 251 children ages 8-16 years. Mother-reports of child delinquency and RSA were acquired at all ages. Adolescents self-reported substance use at age 16 years. Family stress was assessed with child-reported harsh parenting. Controlling for marital conflict and change over time in harsh parenting, lower resting RSA predicted increases in delinquency and increased likelihood of drug use in contexts of harsh parenting, especially for boys. Harsh parenting was associated with declining resting RSA for children who exhibited greater RSA withdrawal to stress. Findings support resting PNS activity as a moderator of developmental risk that can be altered over time. PMID:25688440

  4. Generation of Drawing Sensation by Surface Acoustic Wave Tactile Display on Graphics Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamon, Ryo; Takasaki, Masaya; Mizuno, Takeshi

    This paper describes pen interface using a surface acoustic wave tactile display. Using the display, tactile sensation like a feeling of drawing with a charcoal can be generated. Combined with a graphics tablet with an LCD, it is possible to generate both visual information and tactile sensation dynamically. To add reality of sensation, control referring to m-sequence random number is proposed and described in this paper. Measurement results of pen vibration during rubbing the display with the reference and those without it were compared. FFT analysis results of the pen vibration are also compared.

  5. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001. PMID:24252879

  6. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

  7. Modeling of nociceptor transduction in skin thermal pain sensation.

    PubMed

    Xu, F; Wen, T; Lu, T J; Seffen, K A

    2008-08-01

    All biological bodies live in a thermal environment with the human body as no exception, where skin is the interface with protecting function. When the temperature moves out of normal physiological range, skin fails to protect and pain sensation is evocated. Skin thermal pain is one of the most common problems for humans in everyday life as well as in thermal therapeutic treatments. Nocicetors (special receptor for pain) in skin play an important role in this process, converting the energy from external noxious thermal stimulus into electrical energy via nerve impulses. However, the underlying mechanisms of nociceptors are poorly understood and there have been limited efforts to model the transduction process. In this paper, a model of nociceptor transduction in skin thermal pain is developed in order to build direct relationship between stimuli and neural response, which incorporates a skin thermomechanical model for the calculation of temperature, damage and thermal stress at the location of nociceptor and a revised Hodgkin-Huxley form model for frequency modulation. The model qualitatively reproduces measured relationship between spike rate and temperature. With the addition of chemical and mechanical components, the model can reproduce the continuing perception of pain after temperature has returned to normal. The model can also predict differences in nociceptor activity as a function of nociceptor depth in skin tissue. PMID:18601455

  8. Principles of applied neurogastroenterology: physiology/motility-sensation

    PubMed Central

    Kellow, J; Delvaux, M; Azpiroz, F; Camilleri, M; Quigley, E; Thompson, D

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms characteristic of the functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are consistent with dysfunction of the motor and/or sensory apparatus of the digestive tract. Those aspects of sensorimotor dysfunction most relevant to the FGID include alterations in: gut contractile activity; myoelectrical activity; tone and compliance; and transit, as well as an enhanced sensitivity to distension, in each region of the gastrointestinal tract. Assessment of these phenomena involves a number of techniques, some well established and others requiring further validation. Using such techniques, researchers have reported a wide range of alterations in sensory and in motor function in the FGID. Importantly, however, relationships between such dysfunction and symptoms have been relatively weak, and so the clinical relevance of the former remains unclear. Moreover, the proportions of patients in the various symptom subgroups who display dysfunction, and the extent and severity of their symptoms, require better characterization. On a positive note, progress is occurring on several fronts, especially in relation to functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome, and based on the data gathered to date, a number of areas where further advances are required can be highlighted.???Keywords: motility; sensation; gastrointestinal tract; functional gut disorders; functional dyspepsia; irritable bowel syndrome; visceral hyperalgesia; Rome II PMID:10457040

  9. Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface.

    PubMed

    Tabot, Gregg A; Dammann, John F; Berg, Joshua A; Tenore, Francesco V; Boback, Jessica L; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2013-11-01

    Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation--information about contact location, pressure, and timing--through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it. PMID:24127595

  10. Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface

    PubMed Central

    Tabot, Gregg A.; Dammann, John F.; Berg, Joshua A.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Boback, Jessica L.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

    2013-01-01

    Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation—information about contact location, pressure, and timing—through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it. PMID:24127595

  11. Meanings of Touch and Forgiveness: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferch, Shann R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines personal meanings ascribed to the experience of touch in the context of forgiveness. Data from in-depth interviews with six self-reported Christians were analyzed to determine themes in the meanings participants assigned to a forgiving touch. (Contains 54 references.) (Author)

  12. Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Michael R.; And Others

    For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

  13. New wind turbine grounding system to reduce step & touch voltage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kazemi Karegar; M. Arabi

    2010-01-01

    Step and touch voltage are two main parameters of a grounding system. Common way to reduce these two factors is using distributed mesh network under ground of substation, but wind turbines grounding system are different and limited area. In this paper, the wind turbine grounding system will be analyzed and step and touch voltage will be obtained. For this purpose,

  14. HapticArmrest: Remote Tactile Feedback on Touch Surfaces

    E-print Network

    HapticArmrest: Remote Tactile Feedback on Touch Surfaces Using Combined Actuators Hendrik Richter manual touch input and active tactile output allows for the combination of various types of tactile, actuators 1 Introduction Due to advances in display technology and sensing devices, surfaces responsive

  15. Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1-Do NOT Touch!

    E-print Network

    Acevedo, Alejandro

    Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1- Do NOT Touch! 1. Do not touch, pick up, or feed the animal. They are wild animals, and can bite. They also are easily stressed by humans. Do not return the animal immediately. 2- Observe Observe the animal from a distance of at least 50 feet. Keep people and dogs away. 3

  16. Haptic Interfaces: Getting in Touch with Web-based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussell, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Explains haptic computer interfaces for Web sites that relay touch-sensory feedback to the user. Discusses the importance of touch to cognition and learning; whether haptics can improve performance and learning; haptic interfaces for accessibility for blind and physically impaired users; comparisons of haptic devices; barriers to implementation;…

  17. Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics

    E-print Network

    Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics Eve Hoggan1 , John Williamson2 , Antti multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics; gestures; ergonomics. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. User Interfaces: Evaluation/Methodology, Input De

  18. Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components

    E-print Network

    Fridlind, Ann

    Scattering of light by bispheres with touching and separated components Michael I. Mishchenko with touching components in a fixed orientation, electromagnetic interactions between the constituent spheres for single spheres with size equal to the size of the bisphere components. Unlike other nonspherical

  19. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  20. Effectiveness of Iphone's Touch ID: KSA Case Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Diana Al Omari; Hadeel Al Hamid; Nada Hamad; Rawan Althemali

    2015-01-01

    A new trend of incorporating Touch ID sensors in mobile devices is appearing. Last year, Apple released a new model of its famous iPhone (5s). One of the most anticipated and hailed features of the new device was its Touch ID. Apple advertised that the new technology will increase the security of its device, and it will also be used

  1. Touch + Space: Active Learning for Visually Impaired Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Gottlieb

    The manipulation of objects is an essential part of learning. Children with visual impairment have a paradoxical relationship with touch; many are hesitant, even fearful to reach out and explore their surrounding; yet they have much to gain by engaging their sense of touch. The lack of one sense increases the importance of the remaining ones. This project has involved

  2. Software engineering abstractions for the multi-touch revolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lode Hoste

    2010-01-01

    Multi-touch interfaces allow users to use multiple fingers to provide input to a graphical user interface. The idea of allowing users to touch and manipulate digital information with their hands has been subject of research for more than 25 years [5, 4]. Recently several of these research artifacts have found their way to industry, with examples like the iPhone and

  3. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  4. The Neural Circuit for Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARTIN CHALFIE; JOHN E. SULSTON; JOHN G. WHITE; EILEEN SOUTHGATE; J. NICHOL THOMSON

    The neural pathways for touch-induced movement in Cae- norhabditis ekgans contain six touch receptors, five pairs of interneurons, and 69 motor neurons. The synaptic relation- ships among these cells have been deduced from recon- structions from serial section electron micrographs, and the roles of the cells were assessed by examining the behavior of animals after selective killing of precursors of

  5. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  6. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  7. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  8. Systematic Touch Exploration as a Screening Procedure for Child Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra K Hewitt; Alice A Arrowood

    1994-01-01

    Few child abuse interview formats have been assessed for validity. This paper presents a systematic touch exploration format for screening child abuse. The technique involves simple drawings with child participation that review both positive and negative forms of touching in a child's life. Screening for physical and emotional abuse as well as sexual abuse is incorporated in the format. Comparisons

  9. Sexual sensation seeking in spanish young men and women with different sexual orientations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Llario, María Dolores; Morell-Mengual, Vicente; Ballester-Arnal, Rafael; Giménez-García, Cristina; Castro-Calvo, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the relation of sexual orientation and gender to sexual sensation seeking. Participants were 382 individuals (200 men, 182 women) between 17 and 29 years old who completed the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale. Of the 382 participants, 52.46% self-reported heterosexual orientation, and 47.64% self-reported homosexual orientation. The results showed differences with Sexual Sensation Seeking being more frequent among heterosexuals and men. There were no differences between heterosexual and homosexual men. Heterosexual women had higher sexual sensation seeking scores than did homosexual women. These results and their possible implications for the effective development of prevention and intervention programs in affective-sexual education are discussed. PMID:24918266

  10. S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin

    E-print Network

    Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

  11. ChainMail: A configurable multimodal lining to enable sensate surfaces and interactive objects

    E-print Network

    Mistree, Behram F. T.

    The ChainMail system is a scalable electronic sensate skin that is designed as a dense sensor network. ChainMail is built from small (1"x1") rigid circuit boards attached to their neighbors with flexible interconnects that ...

  12. CargoNet : micropower sensate tags for supply-chain management and security

    E-print Network

    Malinowski, Mateusz Ksawery

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a system of sensate active RFID tags for supply-chain management and security applications, necessitated by the current lack of commercial platforms capable of monitoring the state ...

  13. The Prevalence and Magnitude of Impaired Cutaneous Sensation across the Hand in the Chronic Period Post-Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, Jocelyn L.; Lin, Gaven G.; McNulty, Penelope A.

    2014-01-01

    Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ?3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40–84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (p<0.05). When the stroke patient data were pooled cutaneous sensation fell within the healthy range, although ?1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke. PMID:25121607

  14. The importance of touch in development.

    PubMed

    Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

    2010-03-01

    Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation - for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need. PMID:21358895

  15. Object apprehension using vision and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

    1987-01-01

    Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

  16. Genetic interactions affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, G; Caldwell, G A; Chalfie, M

    1996-01-01

    At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of mec-4 and mec-5 yielded mutations in previously known genes. In addition, some mec-7 alleles showed allele-specific, dominant suppression of the mec-15 touch-insensitive (Mec) phenotype. The dominant enhancement and suppression exhibited by these mutations suggest that the products of several touch genes interact. These results are consistent with a model, supported by the known sequences of these genes, that almost all of the touch function genes contribute to the mechanosensory apparatus. PMID:8692859

  17. Perceived Harmfulness Predicts Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among College Students: Interactions with Sensation-Seeking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O’Grady; Eric D. Wish

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample\\u000a of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use.\\u000a In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking.\\u000a Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use,

  18. Training to yoga respiration selectively increases respiratory sensation in healthy man.

    PubMed

    Villien, Florence; Yu, Melody; Barthélémy, Pierre; Jammes, Yves

    2005-03-01

    Because yoga practitioners think they are benefiting from their breath training we hypothesized that yoga respiration training (YRT) could modify the respiratory sensation. Yoga respiration (YR) ("ujjai") consisted of very slow, deep breaths (2-3 min(-1)) with sustained breath-hold after each inspiration and expiration. At inclusion in the study and after a 2-month YRT program, we determined in healthy subjects their eupneic ventilatory pattern and their capacity to discriminate external inspiratory resistive loads (respiratory sensation), digital tactile mechanical pressures (somesthetic sensation) and sound-pressure stimulations (auditory sensation). Data were compared to a gender-, age-, and weight-matched control group of healthy subjects who did not undergo the YRT program but were explored at the same epochs. After the 2-month YRT program, the respiratory sensation increased. Thus, both the exponent of the Steven's power law (Psi=kPhin) and the slope of the linear-linear plot between Psi and mouth pressure (Pm) were significantly higher, and the intercept with ordinate axis of the Psi versus Pm relationship was lower. After YRT, the peak Pm developed against inspiratory loads was significantly lower, reducing the load-induced activation of respiratory afferents. YRT induced long-lasting modifications of the ventilatory pattern with a significant lengthening of expiratory duration and a modest tidal volume increase. No significant changes in somesthetic and auditory sensations were noted. In the control group, the respiratory sensation was not modified during a 15-min period of yoga respiration, despite the peak Pm changes in response to added loads were then significantly reduced. These data suggest that training to yoga respiration selectively increases the respiratory sensation, perhaps through its persistent conditioning of the breathing pattern. PMID:15733782

  19. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-07-14

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads' tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads' tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P < 0.01) in a similar manner for all four vibration locations. Specifically, vibration at 60% of the sensory threshold improved the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01), while vibration at 120% of the sensory threshold degraded the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01) and the 80% vibration did not significantly change the fingertip sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  20. Design of an infrared multi-touch surface for use as a computer keyboard

    E-print Network

    Torgerson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    A multi-touch surface was designed and constructed to detect a person's finger when pressed against the touch surface, with the objective of developing a prototype touch surface computer keyboard. The prototype developed ...

  1. An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation within an Evolutionary Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping…

  2. Original Article The effect of ecological harshness on perceptions of the ideal female body size

    E-print Network

    Cooper, Brenton G.

    Original Article The effect of ecological harshness on perceptions of the ideal female body size Keywords: Life history theory Mortality Socioeconomic differences Body fat Pubertal timing Ideal body size of female body weight ideals? The current research uses insights from life history theory and female

  3. Assessment of using unleaded fuel in the harsh environment of the United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taleb H. Ibrahim; Essam A. H. Al-Zubaidy

    2007-01-01

    The service life of lubricating oil produced in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was examined using a car fueled with leaded or unleaded gasoline of the same grade in harsh local conditions. In addition, the economic impact of using leaded vs. unleaded gasoline via the effects on the useful life of engine oil was investigated. Every 500km that the car

  4. Novel method for characterizing relativistic electron beams in a harsh laser-plasma environment

    E-print Network

    Kroupp, Eyal

    Novel method for characterizing relativistic electron beams in a harsh laser-plasma environment B EMP . Therefore, beam diagnostics different from those known from classical particle accelerators towards the EMP and associated stray light of all frequencies, taking into account the comparably low

  5. Influence of a mesoscopic bath on quantum coherence Onuttom Narayan1 and Harsh Mathur2

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    computing, a fast-expanding area of research.4 In this paper we consider a microscopic quantum systemInfluence of a mesoscopic bath on quantum coherence Onuttom Narayan1 and Harsh Mathur2 1Department; published 15 July 2005 For a quantum double well system interacting with a mesoscopic bath, it is shown

  6. Association between amygdala hyperactivity to harsh faces and severity of social anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Phan; D. A. Fitzgerald; P. J. Nathan; M. E. Tancer

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous functional brain imaging studies of social anxiety have implicated amygdala hyperactivity in response to social threat, though its relationship to quantitative measures of clinical symptomatology remains unknown. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between response to emotionally harsh faces in the amygdala, a region implicated in social and threat-related processing, and severity of

  7. Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

  8. Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment

    E-print Network

    Fiore, S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

  9. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  10. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  11. Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences

    PubMed Central

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Riem, Madelon M. E.; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N?=?42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants’ experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants’ whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues. PMID:22037689

  12. Interparental Hostility and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Spillover via Maternal Acceptance, Harshness, Inconsistency, and Intrusiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

    2008-01-01

    To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…

  13. The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2011-03-01

    Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

  14. The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison

    PubMed Central

    Chancellor, Leia V.; Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared to those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and 1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, 2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and 3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

  15. Harsh Corporal Punishment versus Quality of Parental Involvement as an Explanation of Adolescent Maladjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Ronald L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation utilizing data from panel study of 332 midwestern families to examine impact of harsh corporal punishment and quality of parental involvement on adolescent outcomes of aggressiveness, delinquency, and psychological well-being. Suggests that corporal punishment was not related to adolescent outcomes when effect of parental…

  16. Sensation seeking and risky driving: a review and synthesis of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jonah, B A

    1997-09-01

    The relationship between sensation seeking and risky behaviour has been observed since the 1970s. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, road safety researchers have examined the relationship between sensation seeking and risky driving (e.g. driving while impaired, speeding, following too closely), as well as its consequences (e.g. collisions, violations). There is also growing evidence that sensation seeking may also moderate the manner in which drivers respond to other factors such as alcohol impairment and perceived risk. This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature on sensation seeking as a direct influencer of risky driving and its consequences and as a moderator of the influence of other factors. The vast majority of the 40 studies reviewed showed positive relationships between sensation seeking (SS) and risky driving, with correlations in the 0.30-0.40 range, depending on gender and the measure of risky driving and SS employed. Of those studies that have looked at the subscales of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, Thrill and Adventure Seeking appears to have the strongest relationship to risky driving. The biological bases of SS is discussed as are the implications for collision prevention measures. PMID:9316713

  17. Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System.

    PubMed

    Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83?cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27?cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to "jump" between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians. PMID:23243458

  18. The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. This was a longitudinal study generating quantitative data. The subjects for this study were 132 seventh grade students from a suburban middle school in…

  19. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  20. iTouch, uTouch, Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's

    E-print Network

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Bug Bytes iTouch, uTouch, **Music Up Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A don't! Join us on this excursion as we learn from the bugs that share in every aspect of our lives's a touchtastic world out there. Which got us thinking here at Bug Bytes about the tactile world of insects

  1. MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

  2. Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch

    PubMed Central

    Giudice, Nicholas A.; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Bennett, Christopher R.; Loomis, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated.This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate. PMID:23070234

  3. Extraretinal Induced Visual Sensations during IMRT of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Background We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Methods and Findings Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt—CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). Conclusions There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs. PMID:25875609

  4. Individual differences in temperature perception: evidence of common processing of sensation intensity of warmth and cold.

    PubMed

    Green, Barry G; Akirav, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The longstanding question of whether temperature is sensed via separate sensory systems for warmth and cold was investigated by measuring individual differences in perception of nonpainful heating and cooling. Sixty-two subjects gave separate ratings of the intensity of thermal sensations (warmth, cold) and nociceptive sensations (burning/stinging/pricking) produced by cooling (29 degrees C) or heating (37 degrees C) local regions of the forearm. Stimuli were delivered via a 4 x 4 array of 8 mm x 8 mm Peltier thermoelectric modules that enabled test temperatures to be presented sequentially to individual modules or simultaneously to the full array. Stimulation of the full array showed that perception of warmth and cold were highly correlated (Pearson r = 0.83, p < 0.05). Ratings of nonpainful nociceptive sensations produced by the two temperatures were also correlated, but to a lesser degree (r = 0.44), and the associations between nociceptive and thermal sensations (r = 0.35 and 0.22 for 37 and 29 degrees C, respectively) were not significant after correction for multiple statistical tests. Intensity ratings for individual modules indicated that the number of responsive sites out of 16 was a poor predictor of temperature sensations but a significant predictor of nociceptive sensations. The very high correlation between ratings of thermal sensations conflicts with the classical view that warmth and cold are mediated by separate thermal modalities and implies that warm-sensitive and cold-sensitive spinothalamic pathways converge and undergo joint modulation in the central nervous system. Integration of thermal stimulation from the skin and body core within the thermoregulatory system is suggested as the possible source of this convergence. PMID:17558924

  5. Referred phantom sensations and cortical reorganization after spinal cord injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Moore, C I; Stern, C E; Dunbar, C; Kostyk, S K; Gehi, A; Corkin, S

    2000-12-19

    To test the hypothesis that cortical remapping supports phantom sensations, we examined referred phantom sensations and cortical activation in humans after spinal-cord injury (SCI) at the thoracic level (T3-T12). Of 12 SCI subjects, 9 reported phantom sensations, and 2 reported referred phantom sensations. In both of these subjects, referred phantom sensations were evoked by contact in reference zones (RZ) that were not adjacent in the periphery and were not predicted to be adjacent in the postcentral gyrus (PoCG), suggesting that representations separated by centimeters of cortical space were simultaneously engaged. This finding was supported by functional MRI (fMRI). In a subject with a T6-level complete SCI, contact in RZ on the left or right forearm projected referred phantom sensations to the ipsilateral chest. During fMRI, contact in either forearm RZ evoked activity in the central PoCG (the position of the forearm representation) and the medial PoCG (the position of the chest representation) with >/=1.6 cm of nonresponsive cortex intervening. In contrast, stimulation in non-RZ forearm and palm regions in this subject and in lesion-matched SCI subjects evoked central but not medial PoCG activation. Our findings support a relation between PoCG activation and the percept of referred phantom sensations. These results, however, present an alternative to somatotopic cortical reorganization, namely, cortical plasticity expressed in coactivation of nonadjacent representations. The observed pattern suggests that somatotopic subcortical remapping, projected to the cortex, can support perceptual and cortical reorganization after deafferentation in humans. PMID:11114177

  6. How do we recognize biological materials by touch?

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Takaaki; Maeno, Takashi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2010-10-15

    Biological materials are often used as industrial sources; however, the features of their tactile texture have not been examined. Here, we show that the features of biological materials are warm, silky, and non-slippery sensations, which are governed by thermal conductivity, surface energy, and surface roughness. Interestingly, surface roughness is the most important factor in determining these three tactile sensations. This finding is valuable for developing virtual reality systems and humanoids as well as for understanding the cognitive mechanism of biological materials. PMID:20598512

  7. The pleasant sensation of a gentle breeze or the painful experience of touching a hot stove are initiated by somatosensory neurons that inner-

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    the earliest proteins implicated in heat transduction was TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). This protein was identified related `vanilloid' chemicals contact the skin or mucous membranes, they activate TRPV1, which is highly TRPV1-expressing cells (or membrane patches derived from them) to more than 42 °C is also sufficient

  8. The C. elegans EMAP-like protein, ELP-1 is required for touch sensation and associates with microtubules and adhesion complexes

    E-print Network

    Hueston, Jennifer L.; Herren, Gina Purinton; Cueva, Juan G.; Buechner, Matthew; Lundquist, Erik A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

    2008-11-17

    tissues. In embryos, ELP-1 is expressed in the hypodermis. In larvae and adults, ELP-1 is expressed in the body wall, spermatheca and vulval muscles, intestine, and hypodermal seam cells. In muscle, ELP-1 is associated with adhesion complexes near the cell...

  9. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  10. Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

  11. Sensation Seeking, Stress, and Adolescent Injuries: A Test of Stress-Buffering, Risk-Taking, and Coping Skills Hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald E. Smith; J. T. Ptacek; Frank L. Smoll

    1992-01-01

    The potential stress-buffering effects of sensation seeking were assessed in a prospective study involving high school athletes. A significant positive relation between major negative sport-specific life events and subsequent injury time-loss occurred only for athletes low in sensation seeking. No evidence was obtained for a competing hypothesis that high sensation seeking would constitute an injury vulnerability factor by increasing risk-taking

  12. An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques

    E-print Network

    Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

    2013-08-16

    in the HSV color space. Hue is represented on a ring. Saturation and value are the two axes for the square gradient in the middle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.4 An illustration of the multi-touch techniques for selecting parameters...

  13. An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

    2013-08-16

    Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change in the virtual object...

  14. inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal communication. We present the design of our prototype inTouch system which provides a physical link between users separated by distance.

  15. Annual Report GreenTouch 20102011 Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Lefèvre, Laurent

    2010­2011 Annual Report #12;1 GreenTouch 2010­2011 Annual Report Contents Chairman's Letter........................................................................................................................ 4 Infrastructure and Logistics............................................................................................ 43 Beyond Cellular Green Generation (BCG2

  16. Modulation of gastric distension-induced sensations by small intestinal receptors.

    PubMed

    Feinle, C; Grundy, D; Fried, M

    2001-01-01

    Duodenal lipid exacerbates gastrointestinal sensations during gastric distension. Using luminal application of the local anesthetic benzocaine, we investigated the role of intestinal receptors in the induction of these sensations. Nine healthy subjects were studied on five occasions, during which isotonic saline or 20% lipid (2 kcal/min), combined with (duodenal or jejunal) 0.75% benzocaine or vehicle at 2.5 ml/min, was infused intraduodenally before and during gastric distension. Intragastric pressures and volumes, gastrointestinal sensations, and plasma CCK levels were determined. Duodenal lipid combined with vehicle increased gastric volume (in ml: saline, -10 +/- 18; lipid/vehicle, 237 +/- 30) and plasma CCK [mean levels (pmol/l): saline, 2.0 +/- 0. 2; lipid/vehicle, 8.0 +/- 1.6] and, during distensions, induced nausea (scores: saline, 3 +/- 2: lipid/vehicle, 58 +/- 19) and decreased pressures at which fullness and discomfort occurred. Duodenal but not jejunal benzocaine attenuated the effect of lipid on gastric volume, plasma CCK, and nausea during distension (135 +/- 38 and 216 +/- 40 ml, 4.6 +/- 0.6 pmol/l and not assessed, and 37 +/- 12 and 64 +/- 21 for lipid + duodenal benzocaine and lipid + jejunal benzocaine, respectively) and on pressures for sensations. In conclusion, intestinal receptors modulate gastrointestinal sensations associated with duodenal lipid and gastric distension. There is also the potential for local neural mechanisms to regulate CCK release and thereby reduce afferent activation indirectly. PMID:11123197

  17. Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-01-01

    The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

  18. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

  19. Micro- and nano-electronic technologies and their qualification methodology for space applications under harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan; Tudryn Weber, Carissa; Mojarradi, Mohammad; Kolawa, Elizabeth

    2011-06-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of the micro- and nano-electronic technologies for space applications under harsh environments, i.e. for operating temperatures beyond the range of -55°C to 125°C, and with exposure to radiation, pressure, shock, etc. The paper also addresses the technology reliability, the challenges and the qualification approaches for the harsh environment applications with a case study. The case study highlights the design-for-reliability approach and space qualification methodology developed to successfully design, fabricate, qualify, and infuse a motor drive electronics assembly with micro- and nano-electronics and packaging technology into a flight mission, which requires an operational temperature range over -128°C to +85°C.

  20. Improve ESD protection on mobile phone with capacitive touch screen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jui-Ming Tsai; Ying-Jui Chuang; Shry-Sann Liao; Shih-Yi Yuan

    2011-01-01

    with the new technological products become to more and more friendly man-machine interface, the intuition type interface of touch screen make the user very easily use, therefore its need continuously grows up. After Apple releases iPhone, it leads a great deal of usage of touch screen. The electrostatic discharge (ESD) is categorized for the following four kinds: Human-Body Model, Machine

  1. Bimanual Interaction with Interscopic Multi-Touch Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöning, Johannes; Steinicke, Frank; Krüger, Antonio; Hinrichs, Klaus; Valkov, Dimitar

    Multi-touch interaction has received considerable attention in the last few years, in particular for natural two-dimensional (2D) interaction. However, many application areas deal with three-dimensional (3D) data and require intuitive 3D interaction techniques therefore. Indeed, virtual reality (VR) systems provide sophisticated 3D user interface, but then lack efficient 2D interaction, and are therefore rarely adopted by ordinary users or even by experts. Since multi-touch interfaces represent a good trade-off between intuitive, constrained interaction on a touch surface providing tangible feedback, and unrestricted natural interaction without any instrumentation, they have the potential to form the foundation of the next generation user interface for 2D as well as 3D interaction. In particular, stereoscopic display of 3D data provides an additional depth cue, but until now the challenges and limitations for multi-touch interaction in this context have not been considered. In this paper we present new multi-touch paradigms and interactions that combine both traditional 2D interaction and novel 3D interaction on a touch surface to form a new class of multi-touch systems, which we refer to as interscopic multi-touch surfaces (iMUTS). We discuss iMUTS-based user interfaces that support interaction with 2D content displayed in monoscopic mode and 3D content usually displayed stereoscopically. In order to underline the potential of the proposed iMUTS setup, we have developed and evaluated two example interaction metaphors for different domains. First, we present intuitive navigation techniques for virtual 3D city models, and then we describe a natural metaphor for deforming volumetric datasets in a medical context.

  2. Assisting Gesture Interaction on Multi-Touch Screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Writser Cleveringa; Maarten van Veen; Arnout de Vries; Arnoud de Jong; Tobias Isenberg

    In this paper we present our ongoing work on multi-user touch interfaces with specific attention to assisting gesture interaction by using gesture previews. INTRODUCTION—MULTI-TOUCH RESEARCH AT TNO TNO is the national research organization in the Netherlands that applies scientific knowledge with the aim of strengthen- ing the innovative power of industry and government. In this paper we briefly introduce two

  3. Haptic pen: a tactile feedback stylus for touch screens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johnny C. Lee; Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh; William S. Yerazunis; Scott E. Hudson

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a system for providing tactile feedback for stylus-based touch-screen displays. The Haptic Pen is a simple low-cost device that provides individualized tactile feedback for multiple simultaneous users and can operate on large touch screens as well as ordinary surfaces. A pressure-sensitive stylus is combined with a small solenoid to generate a wide range of tactile

  4. Evaluating touch gestures for scrolling on notebook computers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Wayne Arthur; Nada Matic; Paul Ausbeck

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new circular touch gesture for scrolling called ChiralMotionTM and report on work to measure its performance. In a study using a document scrolling task, ChiralMotion outperformed linear Virtual Scrolling on a notebook computer TouchPad. Participants also indicated a preference for ChiralMotion in a follow-up questionnaire. We discuss the results and our plans for follow-up studies incorporating other

  5. Applications of Optical Fiber Assemblies in Harsh Environments, the Journey Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies including; qualification information, lessons learned and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  6. Survey of fiber-optic sensor for remote sensing in radiologically and chemically harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Addleman, R.S.; Crawford, B.A.; Mech, S.J.; Troyer, G.L. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)); Greenwell, R.A. (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The need for suitable remote sensors in highly radioactive defense waste storage tanks is discussed. The harsh radiological and chemical tank environment precludes the use of standard sensors because of the need for intrinsically safe systems. Potential sensor systems based on fiber-optics technologies suitable for hardening to the tank environment are identified. The need for certification standards for this type of environment is also discussed.

  7. Radiation performance of a monolithic synchronous DC-DC point of load regulator for harsh environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles Parkhurst; Hector Torres; Mark Hamlyn; Julio Acosta; James F. Salzman

    2011-01-01

    This work reviews the design and performance of a fully monolithic 6A synchronous buck converter for harsh environments. Radiation test results of total ionizing dose and single event effects are reported for the TPS50601-SP. Extended temperature performance is also discussed. The TPS50601-SP is fabricated in Texas Instruments 7th generation BiCMOS process technology developed for power system products.

  8. Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

    2010-10-01

    In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies. PMID:20829570

  9. Cooling the thermal grill illusion through self-touch.

    PubMed

    Kammers, Marjolein P M; de Vignemont, Frédérique; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-10-26

    Acute peripheral pain is reduced by multisensory interactions at the spinal level [1]. Central pain is reduced by reorganization of cortical body representations [2, 3]. We show here that acute pain can also be reduced by multisensory integration through self-touch, which provides proprioceptive, thermal, and tactile input forming a coherent body representation [4, 5]. We combined self-touch with the thermal grill illusion (TGI) [6]. In the traditional TGI, participants press their fingers on two warm objects surrounding one cool object. The warm surround unmasks pain pathways, which paradoxically causes the cool object to feel painfully hot. Here, we warmed the index and ring fingers of each hand while cooling the middle fingers. Immediately after, these three fingers of the right hand were touched against the same three fingers on the left hand. This self-touch caused a dramatic 64% reduction in perceived heat. We show that this paradoxical release from paradoxical heat cannot be explained by low-level touch-temperature interactions alone. To reduce pain, we often clutch a painful hand with the other hand. We show here that self-touch not only gates pain signals reaching the brain [7-9] but also, via multisensory integration, increases coherence of cognitive body representations to which pain afferents project [10]. PMID:20869246

  10. A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

  11. Harsh Parenting and Fearfulness in Toddlerhood Interact to Predict Amplitudes of Preschool Error-Related Negativity

    PubMed Central

    Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children’s risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200?µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10?s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3?aq, and O2?aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  13. Soybean growth rate response to touch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Adam Santone / research data

    2012-03-23

    A time-lapse video showing differential growth rates for touch-treated seedlings and control seedlings. This would be appropriate for lessons about plant growth responses to environmental stress and graphing growth rate. Plants were grown in a vermiculite soilless medium with calcium-enhanced water. No other minerals or nutrients were used. Plants were grown in a dark room with specially-filtered green light. The plants did not grow by cellular reproduction but only by expansion of existing cells in the hypocotyl region below the 'hook'. Video contains three plants in total. The first two plants to emerge from the vermiculite medium are the control (right) and treatment (left) plants. A third plant emerges in front of these two but is removed at the time of treatment and is not relevant except to help indicate when treatment was applied (watch for when it disappears). When that plant disappears, the slowed growth rate of the treatment plant is apparent. Treatment included a gentle flexing of the hypocotyl region of the treatment seedling for approximately 5 seconds. A rubber glove was used at this time to avoid an contamination of the plant tissue. Some video players allow users to 'scrub' the playback back and forth. This would help teachers or students isolate particular times (as indicated by the watch) and particular measurements (as indicated by the cm scale). A graph could be constructed by first creating a data table and then plotting the data points from the table. Multiple measurements from the video could be taken to create an accurate graph of the plants' growth rates (treatment vs control). Instructions for graphing usage: The scale in the video is in centimeters (one cm increments). Students could observe the initial time on the watch in the video and use that observation to represent time (t) = 0. For that value, a mark could be made to indicate the height of the seedlings. As they advance and pause the video repeatedly, the students would mark the time (+2.5 hours for example) and mark the related seedling heights. It is not necessary to advance the video at any regular interval but is necessary to mark the time and related heights as accurately as possible. Students may use different time values and would thus have different data sets but should find that their graphs are very similar. (Good opportunity to collect data from real research and create their own data sets) It is advised that the students collect multiple data points around the time where the seedling growth slows in response to touch to more accurately collect information around that growth rate slowing event. The resulting graph should have an initial growth rate slope, a flatter slope after stress treatment, and a return to approximately the same slope as seen pre-treatment. More data points should yield a more thorough view of this. This would be a good point to discuss. Students can use some of their data points to calculate approximate pre-treatment, immediate post-treatment, and late post-treatment slopes for both the control and treatment seedlings. This video was created by the submitter and is original content. Full screen playback should be an option for most video players. Video quality may appear degraded with a larger image but this may aid viewing the watch and scale for data collection.

  14. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    PubMed

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  15. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    PubMed Central

    Bustin, Gaëlle M.; Jones, Daniel N.; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research.

  16. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable the motor control is. This dissociation appears to yield an attribution conflict, resulting in the odd sensation. PMID:19492054

  17. BAM8-22 peptide produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans independent of histamine release.

    PubMed

    Sikand, Parul; Dong, Xinzhong; LaMotte, Robert H

    2011-05-18

    Chronic itch accompanying many dermatological, neurological, and systemic diseases is unresponsive to antihistamines. Our knowledge of endogenous chemicals that evoke histamine-independent itch and their molecular targets is very limited. Recently it was demonstrated in behavioral and cellular experiments that bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide (BAM8-22), a proteolytically cleaved product of proenkephalin A, is a potent activator of Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptors (Mrgprs), MrgprC11 and hMrgprX1, and induces scratching in mice in an Mrgpr-dependent manner. To study the sensory qualities that BAM8-22 evokes in humans, we tested the volar forearm of 15 healthy volunteers with heat-inactivated cowhage spicules previously soaked in the peptide. BAM8-22 produced itch in each subject, usually accompanied by sensations of pricking/stinging and burning. The sensations were occasionally accompanied by one or more mechanically evoked dysesthesias, namely alloknesis, hyperknesis, and/or hyperalgesia, but no wheal or neurogenic flare in the skin surrounding the application site. The inactive truncated peptide BAM8-18 produced weak or no sensations. Pretreatment of the tested skin with an antihistamine cream (doxepin) inhibited histamine-induced sensations, dysesthesias, and skin reactions but not the sensations and dysesthesias evoked by BAM8-22. We show that BAM8-22 produces itch and nociceptive sensations in humans in a histamine-independent manner. Thus, BAM8-22 may be an endogenous itch mediator that activates, in humans, MrgprX1, a novel target for potential anti-itch treatments. PMID:21593341

  18. iPhone\\/iPod Touch as Input Devices for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-sun Kim; Denis Gracanin; Kresimir Matkovic; Francis K. H. Quek

    2009-01-01

    iPhone and iPod Touch are multi-touch handheld devices that pro- vide new possibilities for interaction techniques. We describe iPhone\\/iPod Touch implementation of a navigation interaction tech- nique originally developed for a larger multi-touch device (i.e. Lemur). The interaction technique implemented on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch was used for navigation tasks in a CAVE virtual environ- ment. We performed a pilot study

  19. Harsh Discipline, Childhood Sexual Assault, and MAOA Genotype: An Investigation of Main and Interactive Effects on Diverse Clinical Externalizing Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime DerringerRobert; Robert F. Krueger; Daniel E. Irons; William G. Iacono

    2010-01-01

    We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms\\u000a (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota\\u000a Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there\\u000a a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh

  20. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Caleb; Chang, Si-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yeo; Huang, Hsu-Chia; Lee, Yen-Tung

    2014-01-01

    We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one's body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part?Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the "body swap illusion." The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD) connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter's head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other's left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter's hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject's own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP) in the opposite direction (180°), or the subject's full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face). The synchronous full-body conditions generate a "self-touching illusion": many participants felt that "I was brushing my own hand!" We found that (1) the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2) our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM). We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject's sense of "experiential ownership" (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience). We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies. PMID:25774138

  1. Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  2. Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.

    PubMed

    Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2009-12-01

    Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

  3. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  4. Non-contact Tactile Sensation Synthesized by Ultrasound Transducers Takayuki Hoshi

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Iwamoto 2 , and Hiroyuki Shinoda 1 1 The University of Tokyo and 2 Canon Inc. ABSTRACT This paper/or palms. Employed devices are, for example, vibrotactile stimulators (CyberTouch [8]), motor-driven belts

  5. Sensation Seeking as a Predictor of Treatment Compliance and Smoking Cessation Treatment Outcomes in Heavy Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Spillane, Nichea S.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of sensation seeking has been positively associated with risk of smoking initiation and level of tobacco use. However, its role in smoking cessation is much less established. This study examined the association between sensation seeking and smoking cessation among 236 heavy social drinkers participating in a clinical trial testing the efficacy of incorporating brief alcohol intervention into smoking cessation treatment. As hypothesized, higher sensation seeking predicted reduced odds of abstinence from smoking as well as greater alcohol use over 26 weeks of follow-up. Sensation seeking also significantly interacted with age, having a protective influence on smoking outcomes among the youngest participants and an increasingly negative effect on smoking outcomes with greater age. Compliance with nicotine replacement therapy and use of smoking cessation strategies (e.g., planning for high risk situations, thinking about the benefits of quitting, avoiding smoking situations) were negatively associated with sensation seeking and accounted for most of the main effect of sensation seeking on smoking outcomes. Findings suggest (a) that smokers high in sensation seeking may require a specific emphasis on treatment compliance and behavioral rehearsal of cessation strategies, and (b) that the significance of sensation seeking for smoking cessation may change with increasing age. PMID:19593843

  6. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  7. [On compulsive hand-washing--psychopathology of "touching"].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, M

    1993-01-01

    Compulsive hand-washing has been well known to the psychiatrists, since Legrand du Saulle described this disorder by the name of "délire du toucher" (1866), which refers to mysophobia or contact-phobia. But its clinical significance seems to have been not fully examined, except from the psychoanalytical point of view, that has observed the repression of sexuality in its pathology. This report presents four cases of compulsive hand-washing, and explores why they exclusively wash their hands. In order to elucidate the reason for their hand-washing and its significance, this report aims to study the relation of following three elements; "Sexuality", "hand" and "touching". As the idioms using "hand" often represent the various modes of sexual life in Japanese language as well as in English, so the "touching by hand" is reasonably considered to evoke the sexual impulsions, which the hand-washers fear and wish to avoid. On the other hand, "touching" is, necessarily in nature, to be touched by the touched object. For example, one who touches the lover's hand is inevitably to be touched by hers. That is; one is forced to be an object of one's object, which becomes to be a subject. In this sense, the act of "touching" means to lose one's "being subject" and to melt oneself into the situation where the structural distinction of subject and object can disappear. So one's act of "touching" or vivid contact with the other can cause anxiety by means of losing one's ego, which may be also a critical point to introduce to create something new. A compulsive hand-washer fears and avoids this critical moment that can make him lose his "being subject", so he "washes his hands of (cuts off relation with)" the situation that can undermine his ego. This avoidance of having contact can be compared to "the lose of vivid contact with the reality (la perte du contact avec la réalité (Minkowski)" observed in schizophrenia. In their ways of life, many hand-washers are not less autistic than the schizophrenics.om PMID:8356169

  8. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

  9. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child’s use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children’s employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes. PMID:26083848

  10. Sexual Sensation Seeking, Drug Use and Risky Sex among Detained Youth

    PubMed Central

    Voisin, Dexter R.; King, Kelly; Schneider, John; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Tan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Sexual sensation seeking has been correlated with drug use and risky sex in a number of populations. However, these relationships have had limited examination among adolescents, and to date, have not been explored among detained youth, a group with some of the highest rates of illicit drug use and STIs. To better understand these relationships we utilized A-CASI to collect data on sociodemographics, sexual sensation seeking, drug use and risky sexual behaviors among a sample of 550 detained youth. A series of multivariable regression models controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status and risky peer networks indicated that sexual sensation seeking was associated with alcohol and ecstasy use. Additionally, sexual sensation seeking was associated with having sex while high on drugs; having sex with a partner who was high on drugs; exchanging sex for drugs; exchanging sex for money; having more sexual partners in the last two months; having engaged in unprotected vaginal sex; and a less condom use during oral sex. These data have important implications for STI/drug use prevention interventions among detained adolescents. PMID:24383042

  11. Great Sensations: A Program to Encourage Heart Healthy Snacking by High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Classroom instruction, parent outreach, and media campaigns were strategies used by the Great Sensations program, designed to teach high school students good snacking habits. The program focused on salt and high blood pressure. Program design and results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  12. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  13. --Tinnitus is a consciously experienced `ringing' sensation in the auditory system, which occurs without the

    E-print Network

    Barreto, Armando

    Abstract. -- Tinnitus is a consciously experienced `ringing' sensation in the auditory system, which occurs without the presence of an actual auditory stimulation. The study of tinnitus has resulted for this phenomenon has not been confirmed. In the majority of cases, external acoustic stimulation masks the tinnitus

  14. A new control algorithm based on tactile and slippage sensation for robotic hand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANAFIAH YUSSOF; JIRO WADA; MASAHIRO OHKA

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new control algorithm in robotic hand based on tactile and slippage sensations. Optical three-axis tactile sensor is used as tactile sensing device at the robot hand system to acquire tactile and slippage information. The tactile sensor is based on optical waveguide transduction method that capable of defining normal and shear forces simultaneously. The proposed algorithm consists

  15. Measuring an Individual's Investment in the Future: Symbolic Immortality, Sensation Seeking, and Psychic Numbness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.

    1988-01-01

    Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic…

  16. Yesterday's Sensation: Tomorrow's Calibration. An after-dinner speech at DIS 2009

    E-print Network

    Glasgow, University of

    Yesterday's Sensation: Tomorrow's Calibration. An after-dinner speech at DIS 2009 D.H. Saxon Dept well, by only four people. Our thanks go to Claudia, Agustin, Juan and Cecilia. Conferences the `People's Park' riots. The last time this confusion arose was as follows. I was alone in a bowling alley

  17. Haptic displays provide users with artifi-cially created tactile sensations. One

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    Haptic displays provide users with artifi- cially created tactile sensations. One important use. Thiscapabilitycanbeusefulinseveralapplications,such assurgicalsimulators,becauseusers experience an enhanced sense of realism when a haptic simulation is combined with a graphic simula- tion. Haptic displays require two essential subsystems

  18. A fuzzy control system based on the human sensation of thermal comfort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maher Hamdi; Gerard Lachiver

    1998-01-01

    Unlike the majority of the existing residential heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) control systems which are considered as temperature control problems, this paper presents a new HVAC control technique that is based on the human sensation of thermal comfort. The proposed HVAC control strategy goal is not to maintain a constant indoor air temperature but a constant indoor thermal

  19. Scene Consistency and Spatial Presence Increase the Sensation of Self-Motion in Virtual Reality

    E-print Network

    Scene Consistency and Spatial Presence Increase the Sensation of Self-Motion in Virtual Reality--Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation, (e.g. HCI]: User Interfaces, ego-motion simulation, human factors, psy- chophysics, spatial presence, Virtual Reality, spatial

  20. Acupuncture points have subjective (needing sensation) and objective (serum cortisol increase) specificity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LU Roth; A Maret-Maric; RH Adler; BE Neuenschwander

    1997-01-01

    SummaryThis randomised, controlled trial was to determine if blinded subjects are able to discriminate between needle stimulation at traditional acupuncture points and sham points, based on the appreciation of needling sensation (de qi); and if needling at traditional points is related to the objective parameter of serum cortisol increase. Manual acupuncture at traditional and sham points was applied to 20

  1. The role of cutaneous sensation in the motor function of the hand.

    PubMed

    Ebied, Ayman M; Kemp, Graham J; Frostick, Simon P

    2004-07-01

    We studied the effect of abolishing cutaneous sensation (by infiltrating local anaesthetic around the median nerve at the wrist) on the ability of 10 healthy volunteers (a) to maintain a submaximal isometric pinch-grip force for 30 s without visual feedback, and (b) to perform a fine finger-manipulation 'handwriting' task. Blocking cutaneous sensation had no effect on ability to maintain pinch force, suggesting that muscle afferents have the major role in force-control feedback. However, a near-linear fall in force, present with or without block (mean slope=-1.3+/-0.2% s(-1)), which cannot be attributed to motor fatigue, reveals a shortcoming of the afferent feedback system. Blocking cutaneous sensation did impair ability to perform the more demanding writing task, as judged by an 18+/-6% increase in the length of the path between target points, a 22+/-9% increase in the duration of the movement and a 63+/-24% in 'normalised averaged rectified jerk', an averaged time-derivative of acceleration (all significantly nonzero, P < 0.04). These experiments demonstrate the relative importance of muscular and cutaneous afferent feedback on two aspects of hand performance, and provide a way to quantify the deficit resulting from the lack of cutaneous sensation. PMID:15183446

  2. Visual sensations produced by optic nerve stimulation using an implanted self-sizing spiral cuff electrode

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Veraart; Christian Raftopoulos; J. Thomas Mortimer; Jean Delbeke; Delphine Pins; Géraldine Michaux; Annick Vanlierde; Simone Parrini; Marie-Chantal Wanet-Defalque

    1998-01-01

    A blind volunteer with retinitis pigmentosa was chronically implanted with a self-sizing spiral cuff electrode around an optic nerve. Electrical stimuli applied to the nerve produced localized visual sensations that were broadly distributed throughout the visual field and could be varied by changing the stimulating conditions. These results demonstrate the potential for constructing a visual prosthesis, based on electrical stimulation

  3. Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takao Fukui; Toshitaka Kimura; Koji Kadota; Shinsuke Shimojo; Hiroaki Gomi; Jan Lauwereyns

    2009-01-01

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined

  4. Topical capsaicin in humans: parallel loss of epidermal nerve fibers and pain sensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Nolano; Donald A Simone; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Timothy Johnson; Eric Hazen; William R Kennedy

    1999-01-01

    Capsaicin applied topically to human skin produces itching, pricking and burning sensations due to excitation of nociceptors. With repeated application, these positive sensory responses are followed by a prolonged period of hypalgesia that is usually referred to as desensitization, or nociceptor inactivation. Consequently, capsaicin has been recommended as a treatment for a variety of painful syndromes. The precise mechanisms that

  5. Design and Performance of a Multichannel Vestibular Prosthesis That Restores Semicircular Canal Sensation in Rhesus Monkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryce Chiang; Gene Y. Fridman; Chenkai Dai; Mehdi A. Rahman; Charles C. Della Santina

    2011-01-01

    In normal individuals, the vestibular labyrinths sense head movementand mediate reflexes that maintain stable gaze and posture. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation causes chronic dise- quilibrium, oscillopsia, and postural instability. We describe a new multichannelvestibularprosthesis(MVP)intendedtorestoremod- ulation of vestibular nerve activity with head rotation. The device comprises motion sensors to measure rotation and gravitoinertial acceleration, a microcontroller to calculate pulse timing,

  6. A Multichannel Semicircular Canal Neural Prosthesis Using Electrical Stimulation to Restore 3-D Vestibular Sensation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles C. Della Santina; Americo A. Migliaccio; Amit H. Patel

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can be disabling. Those afflicted suffer illusory visual field movement during head movements, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability due to failure of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes. A neural prosthesis that emulates the normal transduction of head rotation by semicircular canals could significantly improve quality of life for these patients. Like the three semicircular canals in

  7. Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, H. E.

    1976-01-01

    Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

  8. Sensation Preserving Simplification for Haptic Rendering Miguel A. Otaduy Ming C. Lin

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    -of-Detail Algorithms, Haptics, Collision Detec- tion 1 Introduction Haptic rendering, or force display, is emergingSensation Preserving Simplification for Haptic Rendering Miguel A. Otaduy Ming C. Lin Department between two polyhedral objects in haptic rendering. Given a polyhedral model, we construct a mul

  9. Wearable Haptic Display to Present Gravity Sensation Preliminary Observations and Device Design

    E-print Network

    Tachi, Susumu

    on the fingerpad of the operator. In some researches, the slippage between the fingertips and the object has been focused on as a parameter for weight sensation. Johansson [5] showed that partial slippage plays an important role in object grasping, and Maeno [6] showed a method for controlling the grip force by detecting

  10. Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Zuckerman; Sybil B. Eysenck; H. J. Eysenck

    1978-01-01

    Compared the factor structure of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in English and American samples, and constructed a new form of the SSS, applicable to both groups. The English Ss consisted of 254 males and 639 females from the Maudsley Twin Register, ages 15–70 yrs. The American sample included 97 male and female undergraduates. Three of the 4 factors showed good

  11. Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

  12. GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

    2010-01-01

    We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

  13. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

  14. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

  15. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  16. Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.

    PubMed

    Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

    2015-02-18

    The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes. PMID:25640075

  17. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  18. Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    TOoe . ZTA245 07 8873 , ~O.I2."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from... touching you Hold him close to your body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them...

  19. Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents.

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    TOoe . ZTA245 07 8873 , ~O.I2."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from... in their mouths Keep things away from baby that he might swallow -that could make him sick 8aDIes learn wnen you hold and cuddle them 1 .. 6abies learn when you give them things to touch and to taste Educational programs conducted by the Texas...

  20. Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

    2014-06-01

    Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

  1. Recent developments on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for harsh conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Chilibon, Irinela; Grosu, Neculai; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The results of research into Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) devices have been recognized for their efficiency and versatility in the electrical signals processing. Actual progress in the industrial application of piezoelectric materials such as Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3), Langasite (LGS), Lanthanum-Gallium Silicate La3Ga5SiO14 and Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4), allows the manufacturing of devices with piezoelectric performances, which overcome the limits obtained with quartz crystals. The single crystal materials have a long term high stability - near to infinite - and moreover, some of these have an excellent behavior with temperature variation. Today, GaPO4 with its properties is by far the best suited piezoelectric material to be used in sensor applications for machine monitoring and pressure measurements, at high temperatures. SAW micro devices based on GaPO4 operate at temperatures of up to 8000C. For a particular case, of harsh-environment applications, additional challenges need to be overcome, relating to substrate integrity and operation, thin film electrode fabrication, device packaging, and sensor interrogation. This paper reviews the novel progres in the area of (SAW) sensors for harsh conditions.

  2. Vulnerability of CMOS image sensors in Megajoule Class Laser harsh environment.

    PubMed

    Goiffon, V; Girard, S; Chabane, A; Paillet, P; Magnan, P; Cervantes, P; Martin-Gonthier, P; Baggio, J; Estribeau, M; Bourgade, J-L; Darbon, S; Rousseau, A; Glebov, V Yu; Pien, G; Sangster, T C

    2012-08-27

    CMOS image sensors (CIS) are promising candidates as part of optical imagers for the plasma diagnostics devoted to the study of fusion by inertial confinement. However, the harsh radiative environment of Megajoule Class Lasers threatens the performances of these optical sensors. In this paper, the vulnerability of CIS to the transient and mixed pulsed radiation environment associated with such facilities is investigated during an experiment at the OMEGA facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY, USA. The transient and permanent effects of the 14 MeV neutron pulse on CIS are presented. The behavior of the tested CIS shows that active pixel sensors (APS) exhibit a better hardness to this harsh environment than a CCD. A first order extrapolation of the reported results to the higher level of radiation expected for Megajoule Class Laser facilities (Laser Megajoule in France or National Ignition Facility in the USA) shows that temporarily saturated pixels due to transient neutron-induced single event effects will be the major issue for the development of radiation-tolerant plasma diagnostic instruments whereas the permanent degradation of the CIS related to displacement damage or total ionizing dose effects could be reduced by applying well known mitigation techniques. PMID:23037056

  3. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Ann T.; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1,282) and fathers (n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger. PMID:25411645

  4. Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

    2014-01-01

    When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an "odd sensation" that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

  5. Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator

    PubMed Central

    Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

    2014-01-01

    When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

  6. Line-of-sight sealed silicon carbide diaphragms for harsh environment sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Debbie Gahaton

    2007-12-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is currently being developed as a platform material for micro scale devices that operate in harsh environments. One vision of the future is an all-SiC sensor chip composed of crystalline SiC substrate, doped polycrystalline SiC structures, and sputtered amorphous SiC sealing layers. Such a chip would have minimal internal stresses over a wide thermal range. The chemical inertness, as well as the electrical and mechanical properties of SiC in harsh environments overcomes the limitations of traditional silicon-based platforms. The development of robust SiC devices requires fabrication techniques and a materials system that are compatible with the thermal budget and operational environment. This thesis describes a process for depositing wafer-level, SiC sealing layers for harsh environment sensors. An emerging method of diaphragm fabrication is a sealing technique that utilizes deposition of two thin films: a porous scaffold layer and a second sealing layer. This approach offers many advantages in comparison to traditional bulk etch methods such as improved wafer-level uniformity and reduction in die size. This work describes a novel approach for the fabrication of diaphragms by the utilization of an ion beam sputter deposition of amorphous SiC for line-of-sight sealing. The approach was developed to be compatible with harsh environment specifications and can be applied to applications such as vacuum encapsulation and pressure sensing. This thesis also presents the etching of SiC films and substrates, which is important for device feature definition. A high density plasma etch system was used to further explore the etching of SiC with SiO2 etch masks in HBr/Cl2 etch chemistries. An etch recipe was developed for the fabrication of a thin film SiC resonant strain gauge. In addition, the use of aluminum nitride (AlN) as an etch mask with SF6/O2 was investigated for the first time and demonstrated improved etch rates, selectivities and sidewall slopes. The characteristics of ion beam, sputter deposited SiC were investigated for the development of a low temperature, directional deposition technique. Amorphous SiC thin films were sputter deposited at low temperature (below 430°C), high vacuum (order of 10--6 Torr) conditions. The material properties such as uniformity, composition, residual stress, strain gradient, and stoichiometry were investigated. The results demonstrated that low temperature and ion-bombarded films resulted in high compressive stresses and strain gradients. Therefore, annealing was used to reduce the film stresses and gradients. The deposition process also demonstrated that controllable SiC stoichiometries could be obtained with this process as well as low temperature pinhole free films. In addition to the film properties, the film deposition topography was observed with substrate tilting. The results confirmed line-of-sight deposition topology which can be utilized as vacuum scaling films. The integrity of the sealing was tested with a high temperature chemical etch. In addition, a fabrication process to obtain line-of-sight sealed SiC diaphragms to be used for vacuum encapsulation and pressure sensing applications was demonstrated. The techniques developed in this work add to the library of SiC processes for harsh environment applications.

  7. Hippocampal volumes and neuron numbers increase along a gradient of environmental harshness: a large-scale comparison

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Timothy C.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental conditions may provide specific demands for memory, which in turn may affect specific brain regions responsible for memory function. For food-caching animals, in particular, spatial memory appears to be important because it may have a direct effect on fitness via the accuracy of cache retrieval. Animals living in more harsh environments should rely more on cached food, and thus theoretically should have better memory to support cache retrieval, which may be crucial for survival. Consequently, animals in harsh environments may benefit from more neurons within a larger hippocampus (Hp), a part of the brain involved in spatial memory. Here, we present the first large-scale test of the hypothesis that Hp structure is related to the severity of the environment within a single food-caching species (the black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus) with a large range encompassing a great diversity of climatic conditions. Hp size in birds collected at five locations along a gradient of environmental harshness from Alaska to Kansas ranked perfectly with climatic severity. Birds from more harsh northern climates (defined by lower ambient temperature, shorter day length and more snow cover) had significantly larger Hp volumes and more Hp neurons (both relative to telencephalon volume) than those from more mild southern latitudes. Environmental pressures therefore seem capable of influencing specific brain regions independently, which may result in enhanced memory, and hence survival, in harsh climates. PMID:18945667

  8. Hippocampal volumes and neuron numbers increase along a gradient of environmental harshness: a large-scale comparison.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2009-02-01

    Environmental conditions may provide specific demands for memory, which in turn may affect specific brain regions responsible for memory function. For food-caching animals, in particular, spatial memory appears to be important because it may have a direct effect on fitness via the accuracy of cache retrieval. Animals living in more harsh environments should rely more on cached food, and thus theoretically should have better memory to support cache retrieval, which may be crucial for survival. Consequently, animals in harsh environments may benefit from more neurons within a larger hippocampus (Hp), a part of the brain involved in spatial memory. Here, we present the first large-scale test of the hypothesis that Hp structure is related to the severity of the environment within a single food-caching species (the black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus) with a large range encompassing a great diversity of climatic conditions. Hp size in birds collected at five locations along a gradient of environmental harshness from Alaska to Kansas ranked perfectly with climatic severity. Birds from more harsh northern climates (defined by lower ambient temperature, shorter day length and more snow cover) had significantly larger Hp volumes and more Hp neurons (both relative to telencephalon volume) than those from more mild southern latitudes. Environmental pressures therefore seem capable of influencing specific brain regions independently, which may result in enhanced memory, and hence survival, in harsh climates. PMID:18945667

  9. Effects of 24 Hours of Tobacco Withdrawal and Subsequent Tobacco Smoking Among Low and High Sensation Seekers

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Zimmerman, Eli; Robbins, Glenn; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have indicated that high sensation seekers are more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of nicotine, initiate smoking at an earlier age, and smoke greater amounts of cigarettes. This study examined the influence of sensation-seeking status on tobacco smoking following deprivation in regular tobacco users. Methods: Twenty healthy tobacco-smoking volunteers with low or high impulsive sensation-seeking subscale scores completed 2 consecutive test days per week for 3 consecutive weeks. Each week, a range of self-report, performance, and cardiovascular assessments were completed during ad libitum smoking on Day 1 and before and after the paced smoking of a tobacco cigarette containing 0.05, 0.6, or 0.9 mg of nicotine following 24 hr of tobacco deprivation on Day 2. In addition, self-administration behavior was analyzed during a 2-hr free access period after the initial tobacco administration. Results: In high sensation seekers, tobacco smoking independent of nicotine yield ameliorated deprivation effects, whereas amelioration of deprivation effects was dependent on nicotine yield among low sensation seekers. However, this effect was limited to a small subset of measures. Subsequent cigarette self-administration increased in a nicotine-dependent manner for high sensation seekers only. Conclusions: Compared with low sensation seekers, high sensation seekers were more sensitive to the withdrawal relieving effects of nonnicotine components of smoking following 24 hr of deprivation on selective measures and more sensitive to nicotine yield during subsequent tobacco self-administration. These results are consistent with studies suggesting that factors driving tobacco dependence may vary as a function of sensation-seeking status. PMID:21690318

  10. Impulsivity, Sensation-Seeking and Part-Time Job Status in Relation to Substance Use and Gambling in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although impulsivity, sensation-seeking and part-time employment have each been linked to risky behaviors in adolescents, their inter-relationships are less well understood. We examined data from adolescents to assess the following predictions: 1) sensation-seeking would relate closely to substance use and gambling; 2) impulsivity would relate closely to alcohol, drug and gambling problems; and 3) these relationships would be particularly strong amongst those holding part-time jobs. Method High-school students (N = 3106) were surveyed and provided data on impulsivity, sensation-seeking and part-time job status. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships with gambling, substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana) and related problems. Results Both impulsivity and sensation-seeking related significantly to substance use and impulsivity to gambling. Impulsivity had stronger associations with drug and gambling problems than sensation-seeking. Students with paid part-time jobs were more likely to drink alcohol, binge drink and use marijuana. Sensation-seeking had a particularly strong relationship to heavy cigarette smoking among students with part-time jobs. Conversely, there was little relationship between part-time job status and smoking among low sensation-seekers. Conclusions These findings further support the relevance of sensation-seeking, impulsivity and part-time job status to risky behaviors among adolescents. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity had unique relationships to risky behaviors, in accordance with theory and prior evidence. Impulsive adolescents may be in particular need for interventions to reduce drug use and gambling. While part-time jobs can be beneficial, parents and caregivers should be mindful of potential negative ramifications of paid work outside the home. PMID:24268362

  11. 75 FR 22625 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Multi-Touch Enabled Touchpads and Touchscreens...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Certain Electronic Devices With Multi-Touch Enabled Touchpads and Touchscreens; Notice...certain electronic devices with multi-touch enabled touchpads and touchscreens by reason...certain electronic devices with multi-touch enabled touchpads or touchscreens...

  12. TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR

    E-print Network

    Cavusoglu, Cenk

    TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR THE FUTURE Narendra Nathoo, M.D., Ph.D. Brain Tumor Institute and Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio M. Cenk of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio Gene H. Barnett, M.D. Brain Tumor Institute

  13. Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    propose a new tactile sensor skin ("Skin by Touch Area Receptor" or STAR). The skin consists of two robot skin including no long wires. Index Terms - Tactile sensor, Robot skin, Haptic interface, Contact such a robot skin, various arrays of pressure-sensitive tactile sensor elements [6]-[11] have been tried. One

  14. Youtopia: A Collaborative, Tangible, Multi-touch, Sustainability Learning Activity

    E-print Network

    Pedersen, Tom

    tabletop application developed to explore research questions focused on the design of games for learningYoutopia: A Collaborative, Tangible, Multi-touch, Sustainability Learning Activity Alissa N. Antle1. It was implemented on a Microsoft Pixelsense digital tabletop. The main method of interaction is through physical

  15. All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Kneissl; R. Rottger; U. Sandner; J. M. Leimeister; H. Krcmar

    2009-01-01

    For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user

  16. *Chapter 6. Touch Roberta L. Klatzky Susan J. Lederman

    E-print Network

    Klatzky, Roberta

    of Object Properties VI. Haptic Space Perception VII. Haptic Perception of 2- and 3- Dimensional Patterns A provides a map of space within reach of the body that provides the basis for recognition of two on touch, including aids for the blind and deaf and virtual environments that provide haptic feedback

  17. Haptic Overlay Device for Flat Panel Touch Displays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Wang; Kevin Tuer; Mauro Rossi; Joseph Shu

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. In an effort to present users with an increasing amount of information, many industries including automotive and aerospace are adopting flat panel touch displays as a user interface. These interfaces are becoming popular due to their reconfigurability so that control and display functions can be embedded in multiple layers or menus. However, one of the disadvantages

  18. Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

    2011-01-01

    Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour. PMID:21969682

  19. Towards Simulating Push Button Behavior on Touch Surfaces

    E-print Network

    various multimodal stimuli before, during and after manual activation. This makes them fast, discriminable characteristics to touch based digital interfaces entails complex and costly technology for force sensing using a remote tactile interface. Finally, we briefly discuss the results gained from 24 user interviews

  20. Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dane, D. H.

    1970-01-01

    Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

  1. Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-01-22

    In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

  2. Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WPSU

    2010-02-09

    In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

  3. Losing touch: pedagogies of incorporation and the ability to write

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan Watkins; Greg Noble

    2011-01-01

    The idea of “touch” is often used to point to the exemplary performance of skilful actions. While such a notion seemingly references the sensuous nature of that skill, it tends to mask the embodied acquisition of that capacity, implying intuitive ability rather than technique perfected through practice. Ironically, it also masks the significance of tactility in the process of developing

  4. Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve Hoggan; John Williamson; Antti Oulasvirta; Miguel Nacenta; Per Ola Kristensson; Anu Lehtiö

    2013-01-01

    Rotations performed with the index finger and thumb in- volve some of the most complex motor action among com- mon multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics. This note pre- sents results from a study where the angle, direction, diame- ter, and position of rotations were systematically manipu- lated. Subjects were asked to

  5. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  6. A Touch Screen Interface Design with Tactile Feedback

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Nishino; Ryotaro Goto; Tsuneo Kagawa; Kazuyuki Yoshida; Kouichi Utsumiya; Junji Hirooka; Toshihiko Osada; Nobuhiro Nagatomo; Eiji Aoki

    2011-01-01

    Various information displays are becoming available for implementing new kinds of human computer interaction (HCI) methods. Touch screen devices become the most popular choice among many types and models. They have been used in wide range of applications and are proven to be a useful infrastructure for creating intuitive HCI. In spite of their popularity, there are some weak points.

  7. Paper Generators: Harvesting Energy from Touching, Rubbing and Sliding

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Paper Generators: Harvesting Energy from Touching, Rubbing and Sliding Mustafa Emre Karagozler1, PA 15213 USA ABSTRACT We present a new energy harvesting technology that generates electrical energy from a user's interactions with paper-like materials. The energy harvesters are flexible, light

  8. Information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod Touch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim Hahn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a usability study which inquired into undergraduate student information seeking with Wikipedia on the iPod touch. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Data are drawn from iPod search logs and student survey responses. Search log data are coded with FRBR subject entities (group 3 entity sets) for analysis. Findings – Students

  9. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  10. Double-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Chu, Hao-hua

    from both the front and the back of the device. This new double-sided multi-touch mobile interaction, USA ACM 978-1-60558-246-7/09/04. Erh-li (Early) Shen National Taiwan University 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan b94502024@ntu.edu.tw Sung-sheng (Daniel) Tsai National Taiwan University 1

  11. Fetal Behavioural Responses to Maternal Voice and Touch

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Viola; Nagy, Emese

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is data on the spontaneous behavioural repertoire of the fetus, studies on their behavioural responses to external stimulation are scarce. Aim, Methods The aim of the current study was to measure fetal behavioural responses in reaction to maternal voice; to maternal touch of the abdomen compared to a control condition, utilizing 3D real-time (4D) sonography. Behavioural responses of 23 fetuses (21st to 33rd week of gestation; N = 10 in the 2nd and N = 13 in the 3rd trimester) were frame-by-frame coded and analyzed in the three conditions. Results Results showed that fetuses displayed more arm, head, and mouth movements when the mother touched her abdomen and decreased their arm and head movements to maternal voice. Fetuses in the 3rd trimester showed increased regulatory (yawning), resting (arms crossed) and self-touch (hands touching the body) responses to the stimuli when compared to fetuses in the 2nd trimester. Conclusion In summary, the results from this study suggest that fetuses selectively respond to external stimulation earlier than previously reported, fetuses actively regulated their behaviours as a response to the external stimulation, and that fetal maturation affected the emergence of these differential responses to the environment. PMID:26053388

  12. Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

  13. Keeping in Touch with Families All Year Long

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Carol; Yang, Alice

    2009-01-01

    For many parents, a phone call home from a teacher means trouble. The result? When a teacher gets in touch, parents' anxiety levels and defensive barriers may automatically go up, reducing their potential to participate as partners in their children's education. But it does not have to be that way. Teachers can regularly contact students' families…

  14. Finishing Touches for Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Technicians put final touches on NASA's Space Infrared Telescope Facility at Lockheed Martin Aeronautics in Sunnyvale, Calif. It will soon be shipped to Cape Canaveral, Florida, where it is scheduled to launch on April 15. The mission will observe the coldest, oldest and most dust-obscured objects in the universe.

  15. Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

  16. MULTI-TOUCH FOR GENERAL-PURPOSE COMPUTING

    E-print Network

    Pattanaik, Sumanta N.

    , in part, by: IARPA, under US Air Force Research Lab award FA87500820202; SAIC, under Science Applications- computer interaction. Multi-touch provides features such as gestural interaction, tangible interfaces, pen-based Hughes, Joseph LaViola, Stacey Scott, Brian Goldiez, and Michael Moshell. These efforts have been funded

  17. Neural Hedgehog signaling maintains stem cell renewal in the sensory touch dome epithelium.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Thoresen, Daniel T; Williams, Jonathan S; Wang, Chaochen; Perna, James; Petrova, Ralitsa; Brownell, Isaac

    2015-06-01

    The touch dome is a highly patterned mechanosensory structure in the epidermis composed of specialized keratinocytes in juxtaposition with innervated Merkel cells. The touch dome epithelium is maintained by tissue-specific stem cells, but the signals that regulate the touch dome are not known. We identify touch dome stem cells that are unique among epidermal cells in their activated Hedgehog signaling and ability to maintain the touch dome as a distinct lineage compartment. Skin denervation reveals that renewal of touch dome stem cells requires a perineural microenvironment, and deleting Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in neurons or Smoothened in the epidermis demonstrates that Shh is an essential niche factor that maintains touch dome stem cells. Up-regulation of Hedgehog signaling results in neoplastic expansion of touch dome keratinocytes but no Merkel cell neoplasia. These findings demonstrate that nerve-derived Shh is a critical regulator of lineage-specific stem cells that maintain specialized sensory compartments in the epidermis. PMID:26015562

  18. The sexual sensation seeking scale: reliability and validity within a heterosexual college student sample.

    PubMed

    Gaither, George A; Sellbom, Martin

    2003-10-01

    The Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale (SSSS; Kalichman & Rompa, 1995) is a measure of the propensity to seek out novel or risky sexual stimulation. This measure has been consistently related to HIV-risk behavior in several different samples of gay men and with behavioral correlates of sexual permissiveness in college students. Five hundred twenty-eight college students completed the SSSS and several other sexuality and personality measures. The results reveal significant gender differences on the SSSS and similar (although stronger among women) patterns of significant correlations with sexually permissive characteristics and behaviors. Furthermore, SSSS scores were more highly correlated with sexual measures, whereas a more general measure of sensation seeking was more highly correlated with general personality measures. We discuss implications for use of the SSSS by sexuality educators and sex therapists. PMID:12946922

  19. Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossholt, Nina

    2012-01-01

    The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

  20. Computer-aided video analysis of vertebrofemoral motion during toe touching in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth A. Tully; Barry C. Stillman

    1997-01-01

    Objective: Despite widespread use of the toe touch test, the relative contribution from vertebral and hip movements has not been clearly established, largely because of unsatisfactory measurement techniques. This study aimed to reinvestigate the kinematics of toe touching by combining computerized videotape analysis with a new model of reference marker placement.Method: Twenty-two subjects were videotaped during active toe touching from

  1. The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

  2. Adding Haptic Feedback to Touch Screens at the Right , Yuru Zhang1

    E-print Network

    Adding Haptic Feedback to Touch Screens at the Right Time Yi Yang1,2 , Yuru Zhang1 , Zhu Hou1 Villeneuve d'Ascq, France betty.semail@polytech-lille.fr ABSTRACT The lack of haptics on touch screens often causes errors and user frustration. However, adding haptic feedback to touch screens in order to address

  3. Presence and Quality of Touch Influence Coregulation in Mother-Infant Dyads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amanda J.; Posada, German E.; Goldyn, Danielle T.

    2006-01-01

    The first major goal of this study was to determine whether touch would enhance mother-infant coregulation in ordinary, nonstressful face-to-face interactions. In an experimental manipulation of presence versus absence of touch in face-to-face interactions between 79 mothers and their 3.5-month-old infants, results indicated that when touch is…

  4. Touch Cues: Teaching Pre-Language Skills to Infants with Multiple Handicaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeirnan, Mark

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of touch as a strategy to teach children with multiple handicaps. Touch cues help children to anticipate events and to interpret information from the environment. Caregivers should first observe the child's existing repertoire of movements, and then create touch cues that build upon the child's preferred…

  5. Recherche de sensations et conduites à risque chez l’adolescent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Michel; M. F Le Heuzey; D Purper-Ouakil; M. C Mouren-Siméoni

    2001-01-01

    Risk-taking behaviours often start and possibly remain throughout the teenage years and have become a major public health concern. Psychoactive substance use, dangerous driving, etc., are related to a significant mortality and morbidity. These risk-taking behaviours can be explained by sensation seeking. It seems that in some adolescents, dangerousness linked to an activity has an activating and\\/or stimulating function. After

  6. Near normoglycaemia improved nerve conduction and vibration sensation in diabetic neuropathy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. Service; R. A. Rizza; J. R. Daube; P. C. O'Brien; P. J. Dyck

    1985-01-01

    Summary  Twelve C-peptide deficient Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with abnormal peripheral nerve function were randomly assigned to continuation of conventional insulin therapy (CIT) or to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). There were no statistically significant differences at entry to the study between the two treatment groups in nerve function assessed by neurologic disability score, computer assisted sensation examination and measurements

  7. Sensation seeking and attitudes to aspects of national parks: a preliminary empirical investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme Galloway; Karla Lopez

    1999-01-01

    This article reports the results of an exploratory study concerning the relationship between the personality construct “sensation seeking”, operationalized in terms of Arnett’s (1994, Personality and Individual Differences, 16(2), 289–296) Inventory, and attitudes to various aspects of national parks. Significant relationships were observed between scores on the Intensity subscale of the Inventory and attitudes to visiting remote parks, structured tours,

  8. Undetected Metallic Chopstick Stabbed on Neck Resulting Tinnitus and Foreign Body Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun A; Shin, Seung Youp; Eun, Young Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Penetrating neck injuries constitute 5-10% of all trauma cases. These injuries may cause life-threatening suppurative or vascular complications, but the severity and extent of damage depends upon the inflicting object and the involved structures. If significant complications are not expected, then it is best to leave the foreign body embedded and avoid surgical risks. We present a rare case of a foreign body embedded in the neck causing tinnitus and foreign body sensation. PMID:25733998

  9. Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Ziegler; P Mayer; F A Gries

    1988-01-01

    Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain

  10. Circadian preference and trait impulsivity, sensation-seeking and response inhibition in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee In; Park, Chun Il; Sohn, Sung-yun; Kim, Hae Won; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

    2015-03-01

    Circadian preference has been considered related with impulsivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between circadian typology and impulsivity measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), sensation-seeking measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale - Form V (SSS-V) and response inhibition elicited by the GO/NO-GO paradigm. A total of 503 Korean healthy college students (288 males and 215 females) completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) for circadian typology and the BIS and SSS-V for impulsivity and risk taking, respectively. A subset of 142 subjects additionally performed the computerized GO/NO-GO task for motor response inhibition. A significant association was found between the circadian typology of the CSM and impulsivity of the BIS and disinhibition of SSS-V. In addition, there was a difference in trend level between the circadian typology and response inhibition elicited by the GO/NO-GO test. Regarding circadian preference, evening types were significantly associated with higher impulsivity on the BIS, disinhibition on the SSS-V and lower rate of successful inhibition on the GO/NO-GO task compared to morning types. The present results showed significant relationships between circadian preference and impulsivity and sensation-seeking personality traits. In particular, our findings suggest that high impulsivity, disinhibition and impaired response inhibition are more related to evening types. Circadian preference might be associated with psychiatric problems interacting with some aspects of personality traits such as inhibitory control. PMID:25286137

  11. Individual differences in drug abuse vulnerability: d-Amphetamine and sensation-seeking status

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Thomas H.; Robbins, Glenn; Martin, Catherine A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Lane, Scott D.; Harrington, Nancy G.; Rush, Craig R.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale While the personality dimensions of novelty seeking and sensation seeking are associated with drug abuse vulnerability, the mechanisms associated with this vulnerability remain obscure. Objective This study examined the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in healthy volunteers scoring in the upper and lower quartiles based on age- and gender-adjusted population norms on the impulsive Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ). Method Participants completed 7-day outpatient studies examining the subjective, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine (0, 7.5, and 15 mg/70 kg, p.o.) under double-blind conditions according to a randomized block design. Performance tasks included behavioral measures of impulsivity, including attention, inhibition, and risk-taking behavior. Results No differences in baseline performance or d-amphetamine effects on measures of attention, inhibition, and risk-taking behavior were observed. High impulsive sensation seekers reported greater increases on several subjective report measures associated with drug abuse potential, including visual analog scales feel drug, like drug, and high. Conclusions Healthy adults scoring in the top quartile on the population of the impulsive SSS of the ZKPQ may be vulnerable to the abuse potential of d-amphetamine. PMID:16972106

  12. Experimental study of the influence of anticipated control on human thermal sensation and thermal comfort.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y; Feng, C; Zhang, X

    2014-04-01

    To investigate whether occupants' anticipated control of their thermal environment can influence their thermal comfort and to explain why the acceptable temperature range in naturally ventilated environments is greater than that in air-conditioned environments, a series of experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in which the thermal environment remained the same but the psychological environment varied. The results of the experiments show that the ability to control the environment can improve occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort. Specifically, occupants' anticipated control decreased their thermal sensation vote (TSV) by 0.4-0.5 and improved their thermal comfort vote (TCV) by 0.3-0.4 in neutral-warm environment. This improvement was due exclusively to psychological factors. In addition, having to pay the cost of cooling had no significant influence on the occupants' thermal sensation and thermal comfort in this experiment. Thus, having the ability to control the thermal environment can improve occupants' comfort even if there is a monetary cost involved. PMID:23980928

  13. The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Erica E.

    2010-01-01

    Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed. PMID:19943092

  14. Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature (T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions. PMID:25112452

  15. Sensate anterolateral thigh perforator flap for ischiatic sores reconstruction in meningomyelocele patients.

    PubMed

    Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio; Longo, Benedetto; Pagnoni, Marco; Laporta, Rosaria

    2015-05-01

    Recidivating pressure sores are a frequent complication in meningomyelocele patients because of their limitation in motility and their scarce ability to monitor the pressure applied on insensate areas while seated. We report the utilization of the sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for reconstruction of ischiatic sores in meningomyelocele patients. Between May 2011 and September 2013, five patients underwent transfer of a sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap, by an intermuscular passageway through the upper thigh, to reach the ischial defect. Flap was properly harvested from the thigh after assessment of the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve sensitive area with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device. In all cases the flap reached the ischial defect harmlessly, healing was uneventful with no immediate nor late complications. Each patient showed persistence of sensitivity at the reconstructed area and no recurrent ischiatic sore was observed at mean follow-up of 26.4 months. The sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap is a valuable solution for coverage of recurrent ischial sores in meningomyelocele patients, in which pressure consciousness is fundamental. The intermuscular passageway allows to reduce the distance between flap's vascular pedicle origin and the ischial defect, hence to use the more reliable skin from the middle third of the anterolateral thigh. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 35:279-283, 2015. PMID:25241659

  16. A Thermal Sensation Index for Real-Time Tuning and Energy-Optimal Control of HVAC Systems 

    E-print Network

    Federspiel, C. C.; Norford, L.

    1992-01-01

    the thermal sensation index in a way that minimizes power consumption is investigated. The simplified index provides a quantitative means for determining the most energy efficient comfortable conditions. The analysis demonstrates that for low to moderate...

  17. A wireless passive pressure microsensor fabricated in HTCC MEMS technology for harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Xiong, Jijun; Qin, Li; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Chen; Ding, Liqiong; Zhang, Xiansheng; Yang, Mingliang

    2013-01-01

    A wireless passive high-temperature pressure sensor without evacuation channel fabricated in high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) technology is proposed. The properties of the HTCC material ensure the sensor can be applied in harsh environments. The sensor without evacuation channel can be completely gastight. The wireless data is obtained with a reader antenna by mutual inductance coupling. Experimental systems are designed to obtain the frequency-pressure characteristic, frequency-temperature characteristic and coupling distance. Experimental results show that the sensor can be coupled with an antenna at 600 °C and max distance of 2.8 cm at room temperature. The senor sensitivity is about 860 Hz/bar and hysteresis error and repeatability error are quite low. PMID:23917261

  18. Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

  19. Ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes as pressure sensors for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janssens, S. D.; Drijkoningen, S.; Haenen, K.

    2014-02-01

    Glass and diamond are suitable materials for harsh environments. Here, a procedure for fabricating ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes on glass, acting as an electrically insulating substrate, is presented. In order to investigate the pressure sensing properties of such membranes, a circular, highly conductive boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond membrane with a resistivity of 38 m? cm, a thickness of 150 nm, and a diameter of 555 ?m is fabricated in the middle of a Hall bar structure. During the application of a positive differential pressure under the membrane (0-0.7 bar), four point piezoresistive effect measurements are performed. From these measurements, it can be concluded that the resistance response of the membrane, as a function of differential pressure, is highly linear and sensitive.

  20. Ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes as pressure sensors for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, S. D., E-mail: stoffel.d.janssens@gmail.com; Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Drijkoningen, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

    2014-02-17

    Glass and diamond are suitable materials for harsh environments. Here, a procedure for fabricating ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes on glass, acting as an electrically insulating substrate, is presented. In order to investigate the pressure sensing properties of such membranes, a circular, highly conductive boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond membrane with a resistivity of 38?m??cm, a thickness of 150?nm, and a diameter of 555??m is fabricated in the middle of a Hall bar structure. During the application of a positive differential pressure under the membrane (0–0.7?bar), four point piezoresistive effect measurements are performed. From these measurements, it can be concluded that the resistance response of the membrane, as a function of differential pressure, is highly linear and sensitive.

  1. A harsh environment-oriented wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qiulin; Luo, Tao; Xiong, Jijun; Kang, Hao; Ji, Xiaxia; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    To meet measurement needs in harsh environments, such as high temperature and rotating applications, a wireless passive Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) temperature sensor based on ferroelectric dielectric material is presented in this paper. As a LC circuit which consists of electrically connected temperature sensitive capacitor and invariable planar spiral inductor, the sensor has its resonant frequency shift with the variation in temperature. Within near-filed coupling distance, the variation in resonant frequency of the sensor can be detected contactlessly by extracting the impedance parameters of an external antenna. Ferroelectric ceramic, which has temperature sensitive permittivity, is used as the dielectric. The fabrication process of the sensor, which differs from conventional LTCC technology, is described in detail. The sensor is tested three times from room temperature to 700 °C, and considerable repeatability and sensitivity are shown, thus the feasibility of high performance wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology is demonstrated. PMID:24594610

  2. Investigation on harsh environmental effects on polymer fiber optic link for aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherian, Sandy; Spangenberg, Holger; Caspary, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    To integrate polymer fiber based physical layer for avionic data network, it is necessary to understand the impact and cause of harsh environments on polymer fiber optic components and harnesses. Since temperature and vibration have a significant influence, we investigate the variation in optical transmittance and monitor the endurance of different types of connector and splices under extreme aircraft environments. Presently, there is no specific aerospace standard for the application of polymer fiber and components in the aircraft data network. Therefore, in the paper we examine and define the thermal cycling and vibration measurement set up and methods to evaluate the performance capability of the physical layer of the data network. Some of the interesting results observed during the measurements are also presented.

  3. Instrumentation and Controls Division Overview: Sensors Development for Harsh Environments at Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, Mary V.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    2002-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Controls Division is responsible for planning, conducting and directing basic and applied research on advanced instrumentation and controls technologies for aerospace propulsion and power applications. The Division's advanced research in harsh environment sensors, high temperature high power electronics, MEMS (microelectromechanical systems), nanotechnology, high data rate optical instrumentation, active and intelligent controls, and health monitoring and management will enable self-feeling, self-thinking, self-reconfiguring and self-healing Aerospace Propulsion Systems. These research areas address Agency challenges to deliver aerospace systems with reduced size and weight, and increased functionality and intelligence for future NASA missions in advanced aeronautics, economical space transportation, and pioneering space exploration. The Division also actively supports educational and technology transfer activities aimed at benefiting all humankind.

  4. Adolescents’ Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents’ lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents’ poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents’ wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents’ poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences. PMID:22544975

  5. Femtosecond laser induced fiber Bragg gratings for harsh environment sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailov, S. J.; Grobnic, D.; Walker, R. B.; Lu, P.; Ding, H.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber Bragg grating sensors have been developed beyond a laboratory curiosity to become a mainstream sensing technology because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to simultaneously measure multiple physical parameters such as temperature, strain and pressure. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This presentation will give a review of some of the more recent developments of femtosecond laser induced fiber Bragg gratings.

  6. A Harsh Environment-Oriented Wireless Passive Temperature Sensor Realized by LTCC Technology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qiulin; Luo, Tao; Xiong, Jijun; Kang, Hao; Ji, Xiaxia; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

    2014-01-01

    To meet measurement needs in harsh environments, such as high temperature and rotating applications, a wireless passive Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) temperature sensor based on ferroelectric dielectric material is presented in this paper. As a LC circuit which consists of electrically connected temperature sensitive capacitor and invariable planar spiral inductor, the sensor has its resonant frequency shift with the variation in temperature. Within near-filed coupling distance, the variation in resonant frequency of the sensor can be detected contactlessly by extracting the impedance parameters of an external antenna. Ferroelectric ceramic, which has temperature sensitive permittivity, is used as the dielectric. The fabrication process of the sensor, which differs from conventional LTCC technology, is described in detail. The sensor is tested three times from room temperature to 700 °C, and considerable repeatability and sensitivity are shown, thus the feasibility of high performance wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology is demonstrated. PMID:24594610

  7. Development of a durable fiber-optic oxygen sensor for harsh underground environments.

    PubMed

    Koshiba, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuki; Ito, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Takashi; Okazaki, Shinji; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Arai, Takashi

    2010-09-15

    This paper focuses on effects of protection with a silicone resin to develop a fiber-optic oxygen sensor with long-term stability and durability in harsh underground environments. Ruthenium (II) complexes were used as oxygen-sensing compounds. A uniform composite film composed of silicone resin and the Ru complex was prepared with spin coating technique. A comparison of dissolved-oxygen (DO) sensitivity between the composite film and a Ru complex film was made by exposing to hot water (80 degrees C). The result of the accelerated degradation test showed that sensitivity of the Ru complex film was stable; meanwhile that of the composite film increased with exposure time in a short period. In order to improve stability, the Ru complex film overcoated with silicone resin was prepared. Differences in sensitivity for saturated DO (8.5 ppm) between with and without the silicone resin overcoating on the Ru complex film were investigated by exposing to the hot water and simulated underground water. These results revealed that the sensitivities and response times of the overcoated films were stable and slow, respectively, compared to those of non-overcoated films. Then, optodes were evaluated for effects of the overcoating on sensing properties by exposing to 100 vol.% oxygen gas. The experiment showed that: (1) the response time was significantly influenced by the thickness of the overcoating; and (2) response speed of the overcoated optode was slow by a factor of about 35 compared to that of the non-overcoated. We concluded that the overcoating was effective in the application to mid- and long-term oxygen monitoring in the harsh environments. PMID:20801362

  8. Developing a Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Children: Establishing Concurrent Validity With Video Game Use and Rule-Breaking Behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jakob D. Jensen; Andrew J. Weaver; Rebecca Ivic; Kristen Imboden

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of life-cycle models to sensation seeking research, past studies have typically focused on adolescents and adults. This is especially problematic for researchers studying the role of media use in the development of risky behaviors (e.g., violent video game consumption and aggressive behavior). To facilitate research with child populations, a brief sensation seeking scale for children (BSSS-C) is

  9. The reinforcing, subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular effects of d-amphetamine: Influence of sensation-seeking status

    PubMed Central

    Stoops, William W.; Lile, Joshua A.; Robbins, C. Glenn; Martin, Catherine A.; Rush, Craig R.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    Individual differences that may contribute to vulnerability to abuse drugs have been identified. Sensation-seeking status has been shown to influence both vulnerability to drug use and response to acute drug administration. The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine in high and low sensation-seeking subjects using a modified progressive-ratio procedure. A battery of subject-rated, performance, and cardiovascular measures was also included to better characterize the effects of d-amphetamine in these groups. Ten high sensation seekers and ten low sensation seekers that were matched for education, age, drug use, height, and weight, first sampled doses of d-amphetamine (0, 8, and 16 mg). In subsequent sessions, subjects were offered the opportunity to work for the sampled dose on a modified progressive-ratio procedure. d-Amphetamine functioned as a reinforcer and produced prototypical stimulant-like effects (e.g., increased subject-ratings of Like Drug, enhanced performance, and increased heart rate). High sensation seekers were more sensitive than low sensation seekers to the reinforcing and some of the subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine. The results of the present experiment extend those of previous findings by demonstrating that the reinforcing effects of d-amphetamine vary as a function of the biologically based sensation-seeking personality trait. These results suggest that increased stimulant drug use and abuse among high sensation seekers may be related, in part, to increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of stimulants among these individuals. PMID:17011712

  10. Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Flint; A Raben; JE Blundell; A Astrup

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days.DESIGN: On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions.SUBJECTS: 55 healthy men (age 25.6±0.6

  11. Tactile feedback without a big fuss: simple actuators for high-resolution phantom sensations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Richter; Benedikt Blaha; Alexander Wiethoff; Dominikus Baur; Andreas Butz

    2011-01-01

    Multi-touch screens and surfaces for manipulating digital content play a crucial role in mobile and ubiquitous computing. Augmenting these interactive surfaces with tactile feedback has been found to increase interaction speed, reduce operating errors and minimize visual and cognitive load. Communicating detailed tactile characteristics of virtual elements, however, requires complex electromechanical or electrostatic actuator setups. This increase in complexity makes

  12. Tactile Feedback without a Big Fuss: Simple Actuators for High-Resolution Phantom Sensations

    E-print Network

    , Germany {hendrik.richter, alexander.wiethoff, dominikus.baur, andreas.butz}@ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT Multi-touch screens and surfaces for manipulating digital content play a crucial role in mobile and ubiquitous tactile characteristics of virtual elements, however, requires complex electromechanical or electrostatic

  13. Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.

    PubMed

    Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

    2015-01-01

    While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

  14. Physics Learning Strategies with Multi-touch Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, C.; Schofield, D.

    2011-03-01

    Advancements in technology have opened doorways to build new teaching and learning methods. Through conjunctive use of these technologies and methods, a classroom can be enriched to stimulate and improve student learning. The purpose of our research is to ascertain whether or not multi-touch technology enhances students' abilities to better comprehend and retain the knowledge taught in physics. At their basis, students learn via visual, aural, reading/writing, and kinesthetic styles. Labs provide for all but the aural style, while lectures lack kinesthetic learning. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style. By using multi-touch technology in lecture, not only can we accommodate kinesthetic learners, but we can also enrich the experiences of visual learners. Ushering to this wider array of students will hopefully lead to an increase in meaningful learning.

  15. The second touch hypothesis: T cell activation, homing and polarization

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The second touch hypothesis states that T cell activation, proliferation, induction of homing receptors and polarization are distinguishable and, at least in part, sequential. The second touch hypothesis maintains that full T cell polarization requires T cell interaction with antigen-presenting cells (DCs, macrophages, B cells and certain activated stromal cells) in the non-lymphoid tissue where the antigen resides. Upon initial antigen encounter in peripheral lymph nodes (PLN), T cells become activated, proliferate and express homing receptors that enable them to recirculate to the (inflamed) tissue that contains the antigen. Differentiation into the T helper lineages Th1, Th2, Th17 and induced regulatory T cells (iTreg) requires additional antigen presentation by tissue macrophages and other antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the inflamed tissue. Here, I present a conceptual framework for the importance of peripheral (non-lymphoid) antigen presentation to antigen-experienced T cells. PMID:25580220

  16. The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: an ERP study in economic decision making.

    PubMed

    Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

    2015-03-01

    The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals. PMID:25265874

  17. The Role of Harsh Discipline in Explaining Sex Differences in Conduct Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, two hypotheses about the role of harsh discipline (HD) in explaining the sex difference in the prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) were evaluated: that boys exhibit more CD than girls because (1) they are exposed to more HD and/or (2) there is a greater association between HD and CD in boys. These hypotheses were evaluated in…

  18. high to iillow eve11thc harsh iiicchaiiicalproccssing UT (lie boiirlal Adaptive MLSE receiver: hybrid of per-

    E-print Network

    Lee, Yong Hoon

    high to iillow eve11thc harsh iiicchaiiicalproccssing UT (lie boiirlal wDDRIIHz c;irricr frcqiieiicy. Thc tltila scquetlcc WIS ;ir~~ngcdinto 200 symbol lrtiincs. in which tlic sfirtc MI..SI:, rcmivers. Tlic channcl parmietcrs wcrc csliiiiutctl by thc KLS algnritliin

  19. Edge Maps: Representing Flow with Bounded Error Harsh Bhatia, Shreeraj Jadhav, Peer-Timo Bremer, Guoning Chen,

    E-print Network

    Chen, Guoning

    Edge Maps: Representing Flow with Bounded Error Harsh Bhatia, Shreeraj Jadhav, Peer-Timo Bremer. 1. Edge maps enable new views of vector field stability, illustrated with a vector field on this wavy surface. Top row (middle right): A visualization of some colored regions where flow shares

  20. Process for mounting and packaging of fiber Bragg grating strain sensors for use in harsh environment applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent P. Wnuk; Alexis Mendez; Steve Ferguson; Tom Graver

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a new bonding agent and method for the surface mounting of optical fiber Bragg grating strain and temperature sensors for use in harsh environments. The compound is based on a combination of ceramic fillers with an epoxy binder that is applied with a brush technique. Samples of optical fiber Bragg gratings were

  1. Real-time polarization difference imaging (rPDI) reveals surface details and textures in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brousseau, Denis; Plant, Jim; Thibault, Simon

    2013-05-01

    Extensive peer reviewed scientific research has demonstrated the utility of polarization difference imaging (PDI) to reveal subtle surface details and textures in poor lighting conditions caused by fog, smoke, clouds or turbid water. We present sample results of a new real time PDI camera showing the ability of the camera to enhanced imaging harsh environments, particularly in turbid water.

  2. Environmental harshness shapes life-history variation in an Australian temporary pool breeding frog: a skeletochronological approach.

    PubMed

    Reniers, Jane; Brendonck, Luc; Roberts, J Dale; Verlinden, Wim; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram

    2015-07-01

    For many amphibians, high temperatures and limited precipitation are crucial habitat characteristics that limit species ranges and modulate life-history characteristics. Although knowledge of the ability of amphibians to cope with such environmental harshness is particularly relevant in the light of ongoing environmental change, relatively little is known about natural variation in age, maturation and associated life-history traits across species' ranges. We used the analysis of growth rings in bones to investigate the link between environmental harshness and life-history traits, including age and body size distribution, in specimens from 20 populations of the Australian bleating froglet, Crinia pseudinsignifera. Despite the short lifespan of the species, bone slides revealed geographic variation in average age, body size and reproductive investment linked to variation in temperature and rainfall. We found no difference in age at maturation in different climatic harshness regimes. Frogs from harsher environments invested less in their first reproductive event but grew older than their counterparts in more benign environments, thereby allowing for more reproductive events and buffering them against the increased chance of reproductive failure in the harsher environments. For individual frogs, climatic harshness experienced during an individual's life promoted larger body size. Overall, these results illustrate how bone structure analyses from preserved specimens allow both the testing of ecogeographic hypotheses and the assessment of the adaptive potential of species in the light of environmental change. PMID:25694040

  3. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  4. Distributed Representation of Single Touches in Somatosensory and Visual Cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S LaConte; NE Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) was used to analyze blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) data, which were acquired as human subjects received brief vibrotactile stimulation of their hands and feet. Support vector machines trained and tested on the whole brain fMRI data were able to accurately decode the body site of single touches, with mean performance of

  5. Interface Design for Graphics Editor on Multi Touch Point Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srujitha Mullapudi

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to use the touch sensitive device capability of the iPad to give a better user experience and functionalities for the artists. In this project, I have explored different interactions that can give a better experience for artist when compared to traditional computer-mouse interaction. In the traditional Computer-mouse interaction it is very difficult for

  6. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  7. Carbon: A bane for giant magnetoresistance magnetic multilayers David X. Yang, Harsh Deep Chopra, B. Shashishekar, P. J. Chen, and W. F. Egelhoff

    E-print Network

    Chopra, Harsh Deep

    Carbon: A bane for giant magnetoresistance magnetic multilayers David X. Yang, Harsh Deep Chopra, B magnetoresistance ratio with temperature in epitaxial Fe/MgO/Co2MnSn magnetic tunnel junctions J. Appl. Phys. 110://apl.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Carbon: A bane for giant magnetoresistance magnetic multilayers David X. Yang, Harsh Deep Chopra

  8. A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

    2013-08-01

    Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

  9. Instrumented fingernails: a haptically unobstructive method for touch force input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, Stephen A.; Asada, H. Harry; Chang, Kuo Wei

    1998-12-01

    A new type of touch sensor for detecting contact pressure at human fingertips is presented. Fingernails are instrumented with miniature LEDs and photodetectors in order to measure changes in the nail color when the fingers are pressed against a surface, this new sensor allows the fingers to directly contact the environment without obstructing the human's natural haptic rather than the finger pad. Photo- reflective plethysmorgraphy is used for measuring the nail color. A prototype fingernail sensor and is constructed and used to create a fingertip-free electronic glove. Using these new touch senors, a novel human-machine interface, termed 'virtual switch', is developed and applied to robot programming. The virtual switch detects human intention of pressing a switch by measuring the finger touch signal and the hand location. Instead of embedding a physical switch in a wall or panel, the virtual switch requires merely an image of a switch posted on the surface, and hence can be placed on any surface where one wants to place switches.

  10. Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butkiewicz, Thomas; Jeong, Dong Hyun; Wartell, Zachary; Ribarsky, William; Chang, Remco

    2009-05-01

    In time critical visual analytic environments collaboration between multiple expert users allows for rapid knowledge discovery and facilitates the sharing of insight. New collaborative display technologies, such as multi-touch tables, have shown great promise as the medium for such collaborations to take place. However, under such new technologies, traditional selection techniques, having been developed for mouse and keyboard interfaces, become inconvenient, inefficient, and in some cases, obsolete. We present selection techniques for multi-touch environments that allow for the natural and efficient selection of complex regions-of-interest within a hierarchical geospatial environment, as well as methods for refining and organizing these selections. The intuitive nature of the touch-based interaction permits new users to quickly grasp complex controls, while the consideration for collaboration coordinates the actions of multiple users simultaneously within the same environment. As an example, we apply our simple gestures and actions mimicking real-world tactile behaviors to increase the usefulness and efficacy of an existing urban growth simulation in a traditional GIS-like environment. However, our techniques are general enough to be applied across a wide range of geospatial analytical applications for both domestic security and military use.

  11. Your Phone or Mine? Fusing Body, Touch and Device Sensing for Multi-User Device-Display Interaction

    E-print Network

    Dumais, Susan

    [12] uses 138 proximity sensors to map touch points to specific users. On mobile phones, PhoneTouch [4 to a mobile device held by the user. It exploits the combination of the phone's on-board sensors and touchYour Phone or Mine? Fusing Body, Touch and Device Sensing for Multi-User Device-Display Interaction

  12. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Guy; Krieger, John N; Morris, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The question of whether removal of sensory receptors in the prepuce by circumcision affects sensitivity and/or sexual pleasure is often debated. Aims To examine histological correlates relevant to penile sensitivity and sexual pleasure. Methods Systematic review of the scientific literature on penile structures that might affect sensitivity and sexual sensation. Articles were included if they contained original data on human male penile histology or anatomy. Individual articles, including reference lists, were evaluated. They were then considered in relation to physiological data from articles retrieved by a previous systematic review. Results We retrieved 41 publications on penile structure. Considered in the light of 12 reporting physiological measurements, our evaluation finds that sexual response is unlikely to involve Meissner’s corpuscles, whose density in the prepuce diminishes at the time of life when male sexual activity is increasing. Free nerve endings also show no correlation with sexual response. Because tactile sensitivity of the glans decreases with sexual arousal, it is unrelated to sexual sensation. Thermal sensitivity seems part of the reward mechanism of intercourse. Vibrational sensitivity is not related to circumcision status. Observations that penile sexual sensation is higher post circumcision are consistent with greater access of genital corpuscles to sexual stimuli after removal of the prepuce. This is based on the distribution of these corpuscles (which are located in the glans) and, in uncircumcised men, the position of the retracted prepuce during intercourse, rather than any change in the number of genital corpuscles. The scientific literature suggests that any sexual effect of circumcised men may depend solely on exposure of the glans and not on the absence of the prepuce. Conclusion Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse effect on sexual pleasure. Our evaluation supports overall findings from physiological measurements and survey data. PMID:26185672

  13. Visual sensations during megavoltage radiotherapy to the orbit attributable to Cherenkov radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, Francis; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Durairaj, Vikram D.; Ding Meisong; Stuhr, Kelly; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80217 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado, 80045 (United States)

    2008-01-15

    During megavoltage photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment involving the eye, patients commonly report visual sensations; 'nerve stimulation' is the conventional explanation. We propose that the phenomenon can be attributed to Cherenkov radiation inside the eye. The threshold electron energy for Cherenkov radiation in water is 260 keV. The human retina is able to perceive approximately 5-14 visible photons in 0.001 s. A single 500 keV electron traversing 1 mm of water will induce nearly 15 Cherenkov visible range photons. We propose that a portal image involving the eye will produce sufficient Cherenkov radiation to be detected by the retina.

  14. Reach out to one and you reach out to many: social touch affects third-party observers.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

  15. Ceramic-polymer capacitive sensors for tactile/force awareness in harsh environment robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weadon, Timothy L.; Evans, Thomas H.; Sabolsky, Edward M.

    2013-12-01

    The need for force feedback and spatial awareness of contact in harsh environment applications, such as space servicing, has been unsatisfied due to the inability of current sensor technology to resist environmental effects. In this work, capacitive sensors based on a thick film 0:3 connectivity ceramic:polymer composite structure were evaluated for potential use in future operations within robotic end effectors, withstanding temperatures ranging from -80?° C to 120?° C and forces up to 350 kPa. A thick film design is utilized to allow for ease of embedding, allowing sensors to be implemented into exciting robotic hardware with minimal intrusion, and protecting sensors from electron bombardment, radiation, and point concentrations from metal-on-metal contact. Taguchi design of experiments allows composition variables including sensor thickness, ceramic composition, ceramic particle size, ceramic volume loading, polymer character, modifier character, and the polymer:modifier ratio to be evaluated simultaneously. Dynamic thermal and mechanical loading techniques were implemented to characterize the composite sensors with in situ electrical acquisition. Individual composition variables were linked to the sensor magnitude, sensitivity, drift, and hysteresis, showing that the sensor response is optimized with a thickness of single microns, 10 vol% loading of nano-particle ceramics, and high molecular weight polymers with a low content of simple architecture modifiers lacking glass or melting temperatures in the working range.

  16. Conformal Thin Film Packaging for SiC Sensor Circuits in Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Karnick, David A.; Ponchak, George E.; Zorman, Christian A.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for 24 hours, in BOE for 24 hours, and in an O2 plasma etch for one hour. The adhesion strength of the thin film was measured by a pull test before and after the chemical immersion, which indicated that the film has an adhesion strength better than 10(exp 8) N/m2; this is similar to the adhesion of the gold layer to the alumina wafer. MIM capacitors are used to determine the dielectric constant, which is dependent on the SiC anneal temperature. Finally, to demonstrate that the SiC, conformal, thin film may be used to package RF circuits and sensors, an LC resonator circuit was fabricated and tested with and without the conformal SiC thin film packaging. The results indicate that the SiC coating adds no appreciable degradation to the circuits RF performance. Index Terms Sputter, silicon carbide, MIM capacitors, LC resonators, gold etchants, BOE, O2 plasma

  17. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilgrim, C. C. [Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK and Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heyes, A. L. [Energy Technology and Innovation Initiative, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Feist, J. P. [Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  18. A dual channel lens for simultaneous VIS and SWIR imaging in harsh radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dets, Sergiy

    2007-09-01

    Rapid thermal annealing that utilizes broadband flash lamp sources requires optical diagnostics for instantaneous thermal mapping of silicon wafers and its in-situ monitoring during the process. A new split channel optical assembly offering simultaneous imaging via CMOS- and FPA-imager was designed. Reverse telephoto optical design allows distortion of <2.5% in both imaging paths over the field of view of +/-18° with deep field range and no instrument protrusion into the semiconductor process chamber. Application of solarization resistant materials in a first negative group as well as a rugged housing suits the design to optically harsh environments. Additional stray light measures were taken to control heat dissipation inside the narrow lens barrel by the arrangement of refractive surfaces and absorptive baffles. The beam splitter in front of a second positive group is made of silicon, which both provides preliminary spectral filtering in the near infrared through-channel and further extends spectral capabilities of the visible (reflected) channel into UV-B region. Detailed lens performance, manufacturing aspects and other use of the lens - for direct discrimination of water-containing objects from the image pattern are reviewed.

  19. Noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) criteria as functions of vehicle design and consumer expectations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raichel, Daniel R.

    2005-09-01

    The criteria for NVH design are to a large degree determined by the types of vehicles and the perceived desires of the purchasers of vehicles, as well as the cost of incorporating NVH measures. Vehicles may be classified into specific types, e.g., economy car, midsize passenger, near-luxury and luxury passenger cars, sports cars, vans, minivans, and sports utility vehicles of varying sizes. The owner of a luxury sedan would expect a quiet ride with minimal vibration and harshness-however, if that sedan is to display sporting characteristics, some aspects of NVH may actually have to be increased in order to enhance a feeling of driver exhilaration. A discussion of the requirements for specific types of vehicles is provided, with due regard for effects on the usability of installed sound/video systems, driver and passenger fatigue, feel of steering mechanisms and other mechanical components, consumer market research, etc. A number of examples of vehicles on the market are cited.

  20. What you feel is what you see: inverse dynamics estimation underlies the resistive sensation of a delayed cursor.

    PubMed

    Takamuku, Shinya; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2015-07-22

    How our central nervous system (CNS) learns and exploits relationships between force and motion is a fundamental issue in computational neuroscience. While several lines of evidence have suggested that the CNS predicts motion states and signals from motor commands for control and perception (forward dynamics), it remains controversial whether it also performs the 'inverse' computation, i.e. the estimation of force from motion (inverse dynamics). Here, we show that the resistive sensation we experience while moving a delayed cursor, perceived purely from the change in visual motion, provides evidence of the inverse computation. To clearly specify the computational process underlying the sensation, we systematically varied the visual feedback and examined its effect on the strength of the sensation. In contrast to the prevailing theory that sensory prediction errors modulate our perception, the sensation did not correlate with errors in cursor motion due to the delay. Instead, it correlated with the amount of exposure to the forward acceleration of the cursor. This indicates that the delayed cursor is interpreted as a mechanical load, and the sensation represents its visually implied reaction force. Namely, the CNS automatically computes inverse dynamics, using visually detected motions, to monitor the dynamic forces involved in our actions. PMID:26156766

  1. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students. PMID:25962354

  2. Exploring the Relation of Harsh Parental Discipline with Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems by Using Multiple Informants. The Generation R Study

    PubMed Central

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Ringoot, Ank P.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W.; Tiemeier, Henning W.

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately. PMID:25120014

  3. Exploring the relation of harsh parental discipline with child emotional and behavioral problems by using multiple informants. The generation R study.

    PubMed

    Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Ringoot, Ank P; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W; Tiemeier, Henning W

    2014-01-01

    Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately. PMID:25120014

  4. Repeated Questions, Deception, and Children’s True and False Reports of Body Touch

    PubMed Central

    Quas, Jodi A.; Davis, Elizabeth L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Myers, John E. B.

    2010-01-01

    Four- to 7-year-olds’ ability to answer repeated questions about body touch either honestly or dishonestly was examined. Children experienced a play event, during which one third of the children were touched innocuously. Two weeks later, they returned for a memory interview. Some children who had not been touched were instructed to lie during the interview and say that they had been touched. Children so instructed were consistent in maintaining the lie but performed poorly when answering repeated questions unrelated to the lie. Children who were not touched and told the truth were accurate when answering repeated questions. Of note, children who had been touched and told the truth were the most inconsistent. Results call into question the common assumption that consistency is a useful indicator of veracity in children’s eyewitness accounts. PMID:17218648

  5. Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

    2003-01-01

    Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

  6. The sensation - seeker who is also alienated: towards a new hypothesis for genesis of opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Basu, D; Varma, V K; Malhotra, S; Malhotra, A

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess two psychological parameters, sensation-seeking (SS) and alienation (AL), in a sample of thirty DSM-III diagnosed opiate dependence cases, and to compare them on these two parameters with two non-drug-abusing control groups, one from the patients own peer groups and the other from the general population. The opiate dependent subjects were found to score higher both on SS and AL than those in the control groups. Further, there was a gradient of the degree of correlation between these two psychological variables amongst the three groups studied. The opiate dependent group showed the highest positive correlation. The general population control group showed the lowest degree of correlation, and the self-matched control group was intermediate.These findings are consonant with an "SS-AL combination" hypothesis for the genesis of opiate addiction. Briefly, the hypothesis states that a higher sensation-seeking need, coupled with an inability to meet this need through socially sanctioned channels, leads on to repeated experiences with drug taking behavior, thus fostering dependence. The present study provides preliminary data supporting this hypothesis. PMID:21743709

  7. Statistical Analysis of Hie (Cold Sensation) and Hiesho (Cold Disorder) in Kampo Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Tetsuhiro; Katayama, Kotoe; Munakata, Kaori; Horiba, Yuko; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Watanabe, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    A cold sensation (hie) is common in Japanese women and is an important treatment target in Kampo medicine. Physicians diagnose patients as having hiesho (cold disorder) when hie disturbs their daily activity. However, differences between hie and hiesho in men and women are not well described. Hie can be of three types depending on body part where patients feel hie. We aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with hie and hiesho by analyzing data from new patients seen at the Kampo Clinic at Keio University Hospital between 2008 and 2013. We collected information about patients' subjective symptoms and their severity using visual analogue scales. Of 4,016 new patients, 2,344 complained about hie and 524 of those were diagnosed with hiesho. Hie was most common in legs/feet and combined with hands or lower back, rather than the whole body. Almost 30% of patients with hie felt upper body heat symptoms like hot flushes. Cold sensation was stronger in hiesho than non-hiesho patients. Patients with hie had more complaints. Men with hiesho had the same distribution of hie and had symptoms similar to women. The results of our study may increase awareness of hiesho and help doctors treat hie and other symptoms. PMID:24489584

  8. Functionalization of Tactile Sensation for Robot Based on Haptograph and Modal Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokokura, Yuki; Katsura, Seiichiro; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    In the real world, robots should be able to recognize the environment in order to be of help to humans. A video camera and a laser range finder are devices that can help robots recognize the environment. However, these devices cannot obtain tactile information from environments. Future human-assisting-robots should have the ability to recognize haptic signals, and a disturbance observer can possibly be used to provide the robot with this ability. In this study, a disturbance observer is employed in a mobile robot to functionalize the tactile sensation. This paper proposes a method that involves the use of haptograph and modal decomposition for the haptic recognition of road environments. The haptograph presents a graphic view of the tactile information. It is possible to classify road conditions intuitively. The robot controller is designed by considering the decoupled modal coordinate system, which consists of translational and rotational modes. Modal decomposition is performed by using a quarry matrix. Once the robot is provided with the ability to recognize tactile sensations, its usefulness to humans will increase.

  9. Harsh discipline, childhood sexual assault, and MAOA genotype: An investigation of main and interactive effects on diverse clinical externalizing outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F.; Irons, Daniel E.; Iacono, William G.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh discipline for any phenotype or a significant interaction between MAOA and childhood sexual assault for substance problems. We found evidence that childhood sexual assault interacted with MAOA genotype to predict antisocial behavior and conduct disorder symptoms. Individuals with the low MAOA activity genotype who reported childhood sexual assault had more symptoms than individuals with either the high MAOA activity genotype and/or no history of childhood sexual assault. These findings suggest that the previously reported interaction between MAOA and childhood maltreatment may be specific to the antisocial subset of externalizing disorders. PMID:20364435

  10. Survey of fiber-optic sensor for remote sensing in radiologically and chemically harsh environments. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Addleman, R.S.; Crawford, B.A.; Mech, S.J.; Troyer, G.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Greenwell, R.A. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1992-09-01

    The need for suitable remote sensors in highly radioactive defense waste storage tanks is discussed. The harsh radiological and chemical tank environment precludes the use of standard sensors because of the need for intrinsically safe systems. Potential sensor systems based on fiber-optics technologies suitable for hardening to the tank environment are identified. The need for certification standards for this type of environment is also discussed.

  11. Touch imprint cytology: a rapid diagnostic tool for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Geetha, L; Astekar, M; Ashok, K N; Sowmya, G V

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for intraoperative pathologic examination of oral squamous cell carcinoma are rare in the literature. We evaluated the advantages and limitations of touch imprint cytology for intraoperative diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We used 30 incisional biopsies of clinically diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma and compared touch imprint cytology to histopathological sections. Touch imprint cytology showed 24 specimens positive for malignancy, two suspicious for malignancy and four inadequate specimens. The accuracy of the test was 93.2%. Touch imprint cytology is an accurate, simple, rapid and cost-effective method that aids diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma during operation, but it does not replace incisional biopsy. PMID:25801179

  12. A computer touch-screen apparatus for training visual discriminations in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Markham, M R; Butt, A E; Dougher, M J

    1996-01-01

    We describe an operant conditioning apparatus that uses computerized touch-screen technology and is designed for the versatile and highly controlled testing of rats in a potentially wide variety of behavioral paradigms. Although computer-controlled touch-screen systems have been developed for use with pigeons, monkeys, and humans, analogous technologies and methods have not yet been developed for rats. The development of a touch-screen system for rats could enhance the efficiency of behavioral research with rats, and may offer a unique tool for studying animal learning. In the first test of the utility of the apparatus, 3 Sprague-Dawley rats learned to activate the touch screen only after the touch-screen panel was made slightly movable. These animals then learned to discriminate visual stimuli presented on the computer monitor, but only after the food magazine and pellet dispenser were moved to the rear of the chamber opposite the stimulus display and response window. In a test of the utility of the modified apparatus, 6 Long-Evans rats learned to activate the touch screen and learned one of three different simple discriminations using computer-generated, visually presented stimuli. A basic method for training rats to activate the computer touch screen and for visual discrimination training is described. Results show that rats learned to activate the touch screen and discriminate visual stimuli presented on a computer monitor. Potential applications and advantages of the touch-screen-equipped rat operant conditioning chamber are discussed. PMID:8583196

  13. Moderation of Harsh Parenting on Genetic and Environmental Contributions to Child and Adolescent Deviant Peer Affiliation: A Longitudinal Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Mengjiao; Chen, Jie; Li, Xinying; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-07-01

    Affiliation with deviant peers is associated with biologically influenced personal attributes, and is itself a major contributor to growth in antisocial behavior over childhood and adolescence. Several studies have shown that variance in child and adolescent deviant peer affiliation includes genetic and non-genetic influences, but none have examined longitudinal genetic and environmental stability or change within the context of harsh parenting. To address this gap, we tested the moderating role of harsh parenting on genetic and environmental stability or change of deviant peer affiliation in a longitudinal (spanning one and a half years) study of Chinese child and adolescent twin pairs (N = 993, 52.0 % female). Using multiple informants (child- and parent-reports) and measurement methods to minimize rater bias, we found that individual differences in deviant peer affiliation at each assessment were similarly explained by moderate genetic and nonshared environmental variance. The longitudinal stability and change of deviant peer affiliation were explained by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. The results also revealed that the genetic variance for deviant peer affiliation is higher in the families with harsher parenting. This amplified genetic risk underscores the role of harsh parenting in the selection and socialization process of deviant peer relationships. PMID:25910772

  14. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  15. Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments

    SciTech Connect

    VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

    2006-05-30

    This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

  16. A new multichannel UV spectroradiometer for field measurements in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tueg, H.; Hanken, Th.; Schrems, O.

    2003-04-01

    Longterm trend measurements of solar UV radiation from 280 to 400 nm are an important task of environmental research in particular in polar regions. In order to be able to carry out UV measurements under the extreme climatical and logistical conditions at high latitudes we developed a new type of UV spectroradiometer, which fulfils the requirements necessary for field measurements in harsh environments. One of the most important features is the stable and automatic operation in the field for longer time periods without the necessity for maintenance and calibration. Since the UV spectroradiometers have to be shipped to remote areas, they have to be shock-prove, resistant against motion during operation, e.g. aboard ships or under water. Another leading point is that one needs spectroradiometers with a high time resolution to be able to investigate radiative transfer processes under fast changing inhomogeneous cloud conditions. The design of our none-scanning UV spectroradiomter is based on a multichannel detection system. Due to the much higher dynamics of the UV spectrum below 320 nm the wavelength ranges 280-320 nm and 320-400 nm are handled separately. For the shorter wavelengths a Bentham DM 150 double monochromator is being used with a low-resistance microchannel-plate photomultiplier-tube providing 32 detection channels working in a single photon counting mode. To measure above 320 nm a single monochromator is sufficient, combined with a photodiode array with 256 detection channels . The whole system is mounted in a weatherproof and temperature controlled housing with separate entrance optics for both wavelength ranges. The maximum time resolution is 1 spectrum per second allowing to measure even under fast changing conditions.

  17. Stabilization of Pt monolayer catalysts under harsh conditions of fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Yu, Shansheng; Qiao, Liang; Zheng, Weitao; Liu, Ping

    2015-05-01

    We employed density functional theory to explore the stability of core (M = Cu, Ru, Rh, Pd, Ag, Os, Ir, Au)-shell (Pt) catalysts under harsh conditions, including solutions and reaction intermediates involved in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells. A pseudomorphic surface alloy (PSA) with a Pt monolayer (Pt1ML) supported on an M surface, Pt1ML/M(111) or (001), was considered as a model system. Different sets of candidate M cores were identified to achieve a stable Pt1ML shell depending on the conditions. In vacuum conditions, the Pt1ML shell can be stabilized on the most of M cores except Cu, Ag, and Au. The situation varies under various electrochemical conditions. Depending on the solutions and the operating reaction pathways of the ORR, different M should be considered. Pd and Ir are the only core metals studied, being able to keep the PtML shell intact in perchloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and alkaline solutions as well as under the ORR conditions via different pathways. Ru and Os cores should also be paid attention, which only fall during the ORR via the *OOH intermediate. Rh core works well as long as the ORR does not undergo the pathway via *O intermediate. Our results show that PSAs can behave differently from the near surface alloy, Pt1ML/M1ML/Pt(111), highlighting the importance of considering both chemical environments and the atomic structures in rational design of highly stable core-shell nanocatalysts. Finally, the roles that d-band center of a core M played in determining the stability of supported Pt1ML shell were also discussed.

  18. Harsh corporal punishment is associated with increased T2 relaxation time in dopamine-rich regions.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-11-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) was defined as frequent parental administration of corporal punishment (CP) for discipline, with occasional use of objects such as straps, or paddles. CP is linked to increased risk for depression and substance abuse. We examine whether long-term exposure to HCP acts as sub-traumatic stressor that contributes to brain alterations, particularly in dopaminergic pathways, which may mediate their increased vulnerability to drug and alcohol abuse. Nineteen young adults who experienced early HCP but no other forms of maltreatment and twenty-three comparable controls were studied. T2 relaxation time (T2-RT) measurements were performed with an echo planar imaging TE stepping technique and T2 maps were calculated and analyzed voxel-by-voxel to locate regional T2-RT differences between groups. Previous studies indicated that T2-RT provides an indirect index of resting cerebral blood volume. Region of interest (ROI) analyses were also conducted in caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus and cerebellar hemispheres. Voxel-based relaxometry showed that HCP was associated with increased T2-RT in right caudate and putamen. ROI analyses also revealed increased T2-RT in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, substantia nigra, thalamus and accumbens but not globus pallidus or cerebellum. There were significant associations between T2-RT measures in dopamine target regions and use of drugs and alcohol, and memory performance. Alteration in the paramagnetic or hemodynamic properties of dopaminergic cell body and projection regions were observed in subjects with HCP, and these findings may relate to their increased risk for drug and alcohol abuse. PMID:20600981

  19. Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2014-05-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

  20. Eighteen Sensations After Breast Cancer Surgery: A 5Year Comparison of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta H. Baron; Jane V. Fey; Patrick I. Borgen; Michelle M. Stempel; Kathleen R. Hardick; Kimberly J. Van Zee

    2007-01-01

    Background  The aim of this study is to evaluate prevalence, severity, and level of distress of 18 sensations at baseline (3–15 days)\\u000a and 5 years after breast cancer surgery, and compare sensations after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) with those after SLNB\\u000a plus immediate or delayed axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 187 patients with breast cancer completed the