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Sample records for harsh touch sensation

  1. The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

    2011-01-01

    Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality. PMID:21587232

  2. Real-time social touch gesture recognition for sensate robots

    E-print Network

    Breazeal, Cynthia Lynn

    This paper describes the hardware and algorithms for a realtime social touch gesture recognition system. Early experiments involve a sensate bear test-rig with full body touch sensing, sensor visualization and gesture ...

  3. A novel tactile sensation measurement system for qualifying touch perception.

    PubMed

    Shao, F; Chen, X-J; Barnes, C J; Henson, B

    2010-01-01

    The feel of films, wrapping paper, cardboards, and other packaging materials are important to the commercial success of foods. It is known from people's self-report studies that different surfaces provoke different subjective responses. There are several mechanical parameters, including friction, roughness, compliance, and thermal properties, which are important to the sensory feel. This paper describes the design, construction, and use of a multisensory measurement system for tactile sensation that can be used to evaluate the feel of different packaging materials. The experiments were conducted by sliding or pressing an artificial fingertip with embedded sensors against the surfaces of different samples which were fixed on a force table. The roughness, friction coefficients, compliance, and rate of change in the temperature were obtained. Forty volunteers were asked to touch and rate the samples by filling in questionnaires about how they felt. Strong correlations were found between people's feelings and the physical measurements. PMID:20225461

  4. Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E.; Moshourab, Rabih A.; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A.J.; Francisco, Allain G.; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N.; Lewin, Gary R.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Summary The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals1. It is postulated that mechanically activated (MA) cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive2. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting (RA) MA ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel cell-neurite complexes3,4. Merkel cells have been demonstrated to play a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by its innervating sensory neuron4-6. However, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity4,7. Here, we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most RA MA currents in DRG neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2CKO mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that mechanosensitivity of LTMRs strongly depends on Piezo2. This striking cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioral phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light touch sensation in multiple behavioral assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays RA MA currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most LTMR subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Interestingly, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that yet-unknown MA ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

  5. Drosophila NOMPC is a mechanotransduction channel subunit for gentle-touch sensation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Wei; He, Ye; Gorczyca, David; Xiang, Yang; Cheng, Li E; Meltzer, Shan; Jan, Lily Yeh; Jan, Yuh Nung

    2013-01-10

    Touch sensation is essential for behaviours ranging from environmental exploration to social interaction; however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. In Drosophila larvae, two types of sensory neurons, class III and class IV dendritic arborization neurons, tile the body wall. The mechanotransduction channel PIEZO in class IV neurons is essential for sensing noxious mechanical stimuli but is not involved in gentle touch. On the basis of electrophysiological-recording, calcium-imaging and behavioural studies, here we report that class III dendritic arborization neurons are touch sensitive and contribute to gentle-touch sensation. We further identify NOMPC (No mechanoreceptor potential C), a member of the transient receptor potential (TRP) family of ion channels, as a mechanotransduction channel for gentle touch. NOMPC is highly expressed in class III neurons and is required for their mechanotransduction. Moreover, ectopic NOMPC expression confers touch sensitivity to the normally touch-insensitive class IV neurons. In addition to the critical role of NOMPC in eliciting gentle-touch-mediated behavioural responses, expression of this protein in the Drosophila S2 cell line also gives rise to mechanosensitive channels in which ion selectivity can be altered by NOMPC mutation, indicating that NOMPC is a pore-forming subunit of a mechanotransduction channel. Our study establishes NOMPC as a bona fide mechanotransduction channel that satisfies all four criteria proposed for a channel to qualify as a transducer of mechanical stimuli and mediates gentle-touch sensation. Our study also suggests that different mechanosensitive channels may be used to sense gentle touch versus noxious mechanical stimuli. PMID:23222543

  6. Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors’ fingertips via stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Methods Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Results Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p?touch sensation, independent of noise location and intensity. Vibrotactile noise at the wrist and dorsal hand may have enhanced the fingertips’ light touch sensation via stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks. PMID:24112371

  7. MEMS-based Force-clamp Analysis of the Role of Body Stiffness in C. elegans Touch Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Pruitt, Beth L.

    2013-01-01

    Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces < 1 ?N and indentation depths < 1 ?m. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans. PMID:23598612

  8. Touched in sensation--moved by respiration: embodied narrative identity--a treatment process.

    PubMed

    Sviland, Randi; Råheim, Målfrid; Martinsen, Kari

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this theoretical article is to elaborate on the underpinning of Norwegian psychomotor physiotherapy (NPMP). With a narrative and hermeneutic point of departure, we explore the unfolding of a 10-year-long treatment by analysing a particular narrative from this treatment context in relation to some foundational perspectives on movement, sensation and time. A woman in her late thirties suffering from muscular tensions and pain, depression, anxiety and anorexia, came for NPMP. The investigation of her treatment experience is based on the journal written by her physiotherapist and first author of this article. We suggest that new experiences in movement and sensation as well as changes in movement patterns can contribute to retuning in sensation and restructuring of narrative time. Feeding the fictional space and narrative fantasy with new experiences in movement and sensation can help counteracting delusional ideas and assist changes, supporting embodied narrative identity. Ingrid's experience is discussed in the light of Trygve Braatøy's understanding of muscular functions, Knud E Løgstrup's phenomenology of sensation and Paul Ricouer's narrative time. PMID:22716182

  9. The no-touch rubber hand paradigm and mirror-touch sensation: Support for the self-other theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Davies, Anne M Aimola

    2015-01-01

    We thoroughly enjoyed Ward and Banissy's Discussion Paper on mirror-touch synesthesia. The authors contrast two theories for explaining this phenomenon-the Threshold Theory and their Self-Other Theory. Ward and Banissy note that the Self-Other Theory garners support from studies that have tested individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia using the rubber hand paradigm. In this Commentary, we provide further support for the Self-Other Theory by drawing on findings from control participants without mirror-touch synesthesia tested with two different no-touch rubber hand paradigms-one paradigm makes it easier while the other makes it more difficult to make the self-other distinction. PMID:26114315

  10. An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors

    E-print Network

    Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

    2008-01-01

    Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

  11. Are mirror-sensations really synesthetic?

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-sensations, including touch and pain, are often referred to as synesthetic. The term can be challenged, however, because mirror-sensations lack the incongruency and saliency of synesthesia, may involve problems of perspective rather than entangled sensations, and may be easier to generate with suggestion. If mirror-sensations are truly sensations then they might be expected to act like the true sensation and mirror-pain, for example, might inhibit pain at a distance or itch in the same location. These predictions are highly testable. PMID:25997924

  12. Touch sense

    PubMed Central

    Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

  13. 2. Sensations and Attention Brian Whitworth

    E-print Network

    Whitworth, Brian

    ? © Brian Whitworth 3 Aristotle's view Sight sense Hearing sense Smell sense Touch sense Taste sense than 5 senses Link: Aristotle © Brian Whitworth 4 Sensation is reality · Perception is a physical change in the body senses · Aristotle thought external changes create a mirror copy of the real world

  14. Visio-Acoustic Screen for Contactless Touch Interface with Tactile Kazuma Yoshino, Hiroyuki Shinoda

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Visio-Acoustic Screen for Contactless Touch Interface with Tactile Sensation Kazuma Yoshino This paper proposes a contactless touch screen that produces tactile sensation just 1-3cm before the actual touch on the screen. The system has a screen, visual projectors, and sensors for finger motion detection

  15. Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

  16. Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

    2013-11-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. PMID:23707679

  17. Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations Is Predictive, not Postdictive

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, J. Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2006-01-01

    When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause. PMID:16402860

  18. A touching sight: SII/PV activation during the observation and experience of touch.

    PubMed

    Keysers, Christian; Wicker, Bruno; Gazzola, Valeria; Anton, Jean-Luc; Fogassi, Leonardo; Gallese, Vittorio

    2004-04-22

    Watching the movie scene in which a tarantula crawls on James Bond's chest can make us literally shiver--as if the spider crawled on our own chest. What neural mechanisms are responsible for this "tactile empathy"? The observation of the actions of others activates the premotor cortex normally involved in the execution of the same actions. If a similar mechanism applies to the sight of touch, movies depicting touch should automatically activate the somatosensory cortex of the observer. Here we found using fMRI that the secondary but not the primary somatosensory cortex is activated both when the participants were touched and when they observed someone or something else getting touched by objects. The neural mechanisms enabling our own sensation of touch may therefore be a window also to our understanding of touch. PMID:15091347

  19. Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

  20. Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin

    PubMed Central

    Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

  1. Placebo acupuncture as a form of ritual touch healing: a neurophenomenological model

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Catherine E.; Shaw, Jessica R; Conboy, Lisa; Kelley, John M.; Jacobson, Eric; Kaptchuk, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Evidence that placebo acupuncture is an effective treatment for chronic pain presents a puzzle: how do placebo needles appearing to patients to penetrate the body, but instead sitting on the skin’s surface in the manner of a tactile stimulus, evoke a healing response? Previous accounts of ritual touch healing in which patients often described enhanced touch sensations (including warmth, tingling or flowing sensations) suggest an embodied healing mechanism. In this qualitative study, we asked a subset of patients in a randomized trial in irritable bowel syndrome to describe treatment experiences. Analysis focused on patients’ unprompted descriptions of any enhanced touch sensations (e.g., warmth, tingling) and any significance patients assigned to the sensations. We found in 5/6 cases, patients associated sensations including “warmth” and “tingling” with treatment efficacy. The conclusion offers a “neurophenomenological” account of the placebo effect by considering dynamic effects of attentional filtering on early sensory cortices, possibly underlying the phenomenology of placebo acupuncture. PMID:21397519

  2. Referred sensations and neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Soler, M.D.; Kumru, H.; Vidal, J.; Pelayo, R.; Tormos, J.M.; Fregni, F.; Navarro, X.; Pascual-Leone, A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10 weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:20471171

  3. Explaining mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) is the conscious experience of tactile sensations induced by seeing someone else touched. This paper considers two different, although not mutually exclusive, theoretical explanations and, in the final section, considers the relation between MTS and other forms of synesthesia and also other kinds of vicarious perception (e.g., contagious yawning). The Threshold Theory explains MTS in terms of hyper-activity within a mirror system for touch and/or pain. This offers a good account for some of the evidence (e.g., from fMRI) but fails to explain the whole pattern (e.g., structural brain differences outside of this system; performance on some tests of social cognition). The Self-Other Theory explains MTS in terms of disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. This can be construed in terms of over-extension of the bodily self in to others, or as difficulties in the control of body-based self-other representations. In this account, MTS is a symptom of a broader cognitive profile. We suggest this meets the criteria for synesthesia, despite the proximal causal mechanisms remaining largely unknown, and that the tendency to localize vicarious sensory experiences distinguishes it from other kinds of seemingly related phenomena (e.g., non-localized affective responses to observing pain). PMID:25893437

  4. The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

  5. The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

    2014-11-21

    The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

  6. Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = ?.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

  7. The science of interpersonal touch: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2010-02-01

    Surprisingly little scientific research has been conducted on the topic of interpersonal touch over the years, despite the importance of touch in our everyday social interactions from birth through to adulthood and old age. In this review, we critically evaluate the results of the research on this topic that have emerged from disciplines, such as cognitive and social psychology, neuroscience, and cultural anthropology. We highlight some of the most important advances to have been made in our understanding of this topic: For example, research has shown that interpersonal tactile stimulation provides an effective means of influencing people's social behaviors (such as modulating their tendency to comply with requests, in affecting people's attitudes toward specific services, in creating bonds between couples or groups, and in strengthening romantic relationships), regardless of whether or not the tactile contact itself can be remembered explicitly. What is more, interpersonal touch can be used to communicate emotion in a manner similar to that demonstrated previously in vision and audition. The recent growth of studies investigating the potential introduction of tactile sensations to long-distance communication technologies (by means of mediated or 'virtual' touch) are also reviewed briefly. Finally, we highlight the synergistic effort that will be needed by researchers in different disciplines if we are to develop a more complete understanding of interpersonal touch in the years to come. PMID:18992276

  8. A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.

    PubMed

    Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-10-01

    Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss. PMID:25298320

  9. Touch screen have become

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    Typing { l ABSTRACT Touch screen have become screens pales examine typing physical keybo o inform future (Figure 1). O screen keyb rting touch-typ yed a techniqu 33]): we asked 1. Finger (blue ricted typing c te-bas of typing on fla t just in the ph in the ability t ust visually atte ouches occur touch screen ecially from

  10. Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand

    SciTech Connect

    Stansfield, S.A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

  11. Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces. PMID:24244425

  12. Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

  13. Optical mounts for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimovich, Mark E.; Griffee, Jonathan C.; Goodding, James C.

    2009-08-01

    Development and testing of a lightweight-kinematic optical mount with integrated passive vibration-and-shock mitigation technologies and simple / robust optical alignment functionality is presented. Traditionally, optical mounts are designed for use in laboratory environments where the thermal-mechanical environments are carefully controlled to preserve beam path conditions and background disturbances are minimized to facilitate precise optically based measurements. Today's weapon and surveillance systems, however, have optical sensor suites where static and dynamic alignment performance in the presence of harsh operating environments is required to nearly the same precision and where the system cannot afford the mass of laboratory-grade stabilized mounting systems. Jitter and alignment stability is particularly challenging for larger optics operating within moving vehicles and aircraft where high shock and significant temperature excursions occur. The design intent is to have the mount be suitable for integration into existing defense and security optical systems while also targeting new commercial and military components for improved structural dynamic and thermal distortion performance. A mount suitable for moderate-sized optics and an integrated disturbance-optical metrology system are described. The mount design has performance enhancements derived from the integration of proven aerospace mechanical vibration and shock mitigation technologies (i.e. multi-axis passive isolation and integral damping), precision alignment adjustment and lock-out functionality, high dimensional stability materials and design practices which provide benign optical surface figure errors under harsh thermal-mechanical loading. Optical jitter, alignment, and wave-front performance testing of an eight-inch-aperture optical mount based on this design approach are presented to validate predicted performance improvements over an existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) design.

  14. SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH

    E-print Network

    Harris, Laurence R.

    1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University Psychology 3270, WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/3270/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisites: 2220 (Sensation and Perception I) and a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics: Section 1 Principles

  15. Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.

    PubMed

    Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-11-01

    Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry - the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation - and that of adaptation - the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25201560

  16. Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.

    PubMed

    D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

    2015-02-01

    To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation. PMID:25485660

  17. Harsh environments electronics : downhole applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, Paul Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The development and operational sustainment of renewable (geothermal) and non-renewable (fossil fuel) energy resources will be accompanied by increasingly higher costs factors: exploration and site preparation, operational maintenance and repair. Increased government oversight in the wake of the Gulf oil spill will only add to the cost burden. It is important to understand that downhole conditions are not just about elevated temperatures. It is often construed that military electronics are exposed to the upper limit in terms of extreme service environments. Probably the harshest of all service conditions for electronics and electrical equipment are those in oil, gas, and geothermal wells. From the technology perspective, advanced materials, sensors, and microelectronics devices are benefificial to the exploration and sustainment of energy resources, especially in terms of lower costs. Besides the need for the science that creates these breakthroughs - there is also a need for sustained engineering development and testing. Downhole oil, gas, and geothermal well applications can have a wide range of environments and reliability requirements: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Corrosion, and Service duration. All too frequently, these conditions are not well-defifined because the application is labeled as 'high temperature'. This ambiguity is problematic when the investigation turns to new approaches for electronic packaging solutions. The objective is to develop harsh environment, electronic packaging that meets customer requirements of cost, performance, and reliability. There are a number of challenges: (1) Materials sets - solder alloys, substrate materials; (2) Manufacturing process - low to middle volumes, low defect counts, new equipment technologies; and (3) Reliability testing - requirements documents, test methods and modeling, relevant standards documents. The cost to develop and sustain renewable and non-renewable energy resources will continue to escalate within the industry. Downhole electronics can provide a very cost-effective approach for well exploration and sustainment (data logging). However, the harsh environments are a 'game-changer' in terms defining materials, assembly processes and the long-term reliability of downhole electronic systems. The system-level approach will enable the integration of each of these contributors - materials, processes, and reliability - in order to deliver cost-effective electronics that meet customer requirements.

  18. Genetics of Human Gastrointestinal Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The objective is to review the genetics of human visceral pain with particular emphasis on pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The biomarkers most commonly employed in identifying visceral hypersensitivity are sensation ratings and thresholds or brain imaging during viscus (e.g. rectal) distension. Genetic studies suggest that variation in the control of candidate genes involved in ion channel function, neurotransmitter synthesis, reuptake or receptor functions, and inflammatory disease susceptibility loci may impact variations in prevalence of the symptom phenotype of abdominal pain or IBS, or quantitative traits (intermediate phenotypes) of rectal sensation. The candidate genes include SLC6A4, CNR1, and TNFSF15 reflecting serotonin reuptake, cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory-barrier functions. However, other than TNFSF15, the other candidate genes are only univariately associated with pain, IBS symptom complex or quantitative traits of sensation. These data have generated hypotheses and present opportunities for study of mechanisms and treatment of visceral pain in humans, which remains an unmet clinical need in patients with IBS and functional abdominal pain. PMID:23594334

  19. A Personal Touch -Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior

    E-print Network

    A Personal Touch - Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior Sarah Martina Kolly Computer of touch screen based smart phones has been constantly increasing over the last few years. However a large scale study to research the users' touch screen behavior on standard UI elements. To do so we

  20. Active touch sensing.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Tony J; Diamond, Mathew E; Wing, Alan M

    2011-11-12

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch--antennae, whiskers and fingertips--but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  1. Active touch sensing

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

  2. Electrodynamic Generator of Gravity Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jevtov, Predrag

    2012-07-01

    Rotation is in the focus of all artificial-gravity research as centripetal acceleration generated by rotation can be substitute for gravity. A very effective way to spin an object in space is to use electrodynamic technologies and obtain controlled rotation of habitats for generating gravity sensation by means of guidance and velocity control by a unified trajectory control system made of propulsion and steering subsystems. Superconducting electrodynamic technologies are especially suitable to be optimized and applied in space. Deep space, as cold vacuum without gravity, offers significant advantages for application of electrodynamic technologies.

  3. Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder. PMID:22717491

  4. Fundamental Study on Quantification of Tactile Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Yoko; Mishima, Fumihito; Nishijima, Shigehiro

    The objective of this study is to quantify the tactile sensation by physical indexes for material design of cosmetics or fabrics. We tried to indicate the sensory scores of tactile sensation as a combination of physical indexes. In order to extract the principal factors of tactile sensation, factor analysis was applied to the sensory evaluation data of skin lotions, whose tactile sensation is designed experimentally. Extracted factors were related to physical indexes by multiple regression analysis, and the sensory score was estimated by using the physical indexes such as viscosity, contact angle, friction coefficient and weight loss by temperature increase.

  5. "The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'. PMID:22822610

  6. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5?°C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  7. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-06-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5?°C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli.

  8. Laser-induced thermoelastic effects can evoke tactile sensations.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Hoon; Park, Jong-Rak; Kim, Sung-Phil; Min Bae, Young; Park, Jang-Yeon; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Choi, Seungmoon; Jung, Sung Jun; Hwa Park, Seung; Yeom, Dong-Il; Jung, Gu-In; Kim, Ji-Sun; Chung, Soon-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Humans process a plethora of sensory information that is provided by various entities in the surrounding environment. Among the five major senses, technology for touch, haptics, is relatively young and has relatively limited applications largely due to its need for physical contact. In this article, we suggest a new way for non-contact haptic stimulation that uses laser, which has potential advantages such as mid-air stimulation, high spatial precision, and long working distance. We demonstrate such tactile stimulation can be enabled by laser-induced thermoelastic effects by means of physical and perceptual studies, as well as simulations. In the physical study, the mechanical effect of laser on a human skin sample is detected using low-power radiation in accordance with safety guidelines. Limited increases (< ~2.5?°C) in temperature at the surface of the skin, examined by both thermal camera and the Monte Carlo simulation, indicate that laser does not evoke heat-induced nociceptive sensation. In the human EEG study, brain responses to both mechanical and laser stimulation are consistent, along with subjective reports of the non-nociceptive sensation of laser stimuli. PMID:26047142

  9. Sensation and Perception PSYC 225: Section 001

    E-print Network

    Hopfinger, Joseph B.

    Sensation and Perception PSYC 225: Section 001 Syllabus Example Course Material · Required Text o Goldstein, B.R. (2007). Sensation and Perception. 7th Edition. Wadsworth Publishing, Pacific Grove, CA of perception. o Anticipate/propose how changes or malfunctions within sensory and perceptive systems can alter

  10. SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH

    E-print Network

    Harris, Laurence R.

    of perception demonstrate an understanding of visual perception including depth, motion, colour and size1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University; Psychology 2220; WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/2220/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisite

  11. Getting Back in Touch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiles, John; Hudson, Kat

    1997-01-01

    Discusses strategies for teachers to get back in touch with the earth and re-connect with the environment. Argues that the teacher's appreciation for nature's beauty will bring about a sensitivity not experienced before and help students develop a reverence and awe for the natural world. (JRH)

  12. [Developing touch through rugby].

    PubMed

    Becas, Didier; Luksenberg, Marion; Denis, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    Rugby subjects the body to a tough test. Attack, defence, contact, touching are all elements which form part of this physical activity. It is very structured and safe from a psychological perspective. Taking pleasure in the game, with its rules, helps patients to develop interpersonal and relationship skills. PMID:23631084

  13. Getting in Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyrli, Kurt O.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

  14. Touched by Turner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This is a personal reflection on an encounter with the works of the nineteenth-century painter J. M. W. Turner in London's Tate Britain exhibition "Late Turner: Painting Set Free". The article discusses the deeply subjective nature of engaging with artworks, and touches upon theories that might account for the ineffable but moving…

  15. The Emerging Role of TRP Channels in Mechanisms of Temperature and Pain Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Story, Gina M

    2006-01-01

    Pain is universal and vital to survival. It is an essential component of our sense of touch; together, touch and pain have evolved to enable our awareness of the intricacies of our environment and to warn us of danger and possible injury. There is a clear link between temperature sensation and pain—painful temperature sensations occur acutely and are a hallmark of inflammatory and chronic pain disorders of the nervous system. Mounting evidence suggests a subset of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels activated by temperature (thermoTRPs) are important molecular players in acute, inflammatory and chronic pain states. Varying degrees of heat activate four of these channels (TRPV1-4), while cooling temperatures ranging from pleasant to painful activate two distantly related thermoTRP channels (TRPM8 and TRPA1). ThermoTRP channels are also chemosensitive, being activated and or modulated by plant-derived small molecules and endogenous inflammatory mediators. All thermoTRPs are expressed in tissues essential to cutaneous thermal and pain sensation. This review examines the contribution of thermoTRP channels to our understanding of temperature and pain transduction at the molecular level. PMID:18615141

  16. Seeing Touches Early in Life

    PubMed Central

    Addabbo, Margaret; Longhi, Elena; Bolognini, Nadia; Senna, Irene; Tagliabue, Paolo; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Turati, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The sense of touch provides fundamental information about the surrounding world, and feedback about our own actions. Although touch is very important during the earliest stages of life, to date no study has investigated infants’ abilities to process visual stimuli implying touch. This study explores the developmental origins of the ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving others. Looking times and orienting responses were measured in a visual preference task, in which participants were simultaneously presented with two videos depicting a touching and a no-touching gesture involving human body parts (face, hand) and/or an object (spoon). In Experiment 1, 2-day-old newborns and 3-month-old infants viewed two videos: in one video a moving hand touched a static face, in the other the moving hand stopped before touching it. Results showed that only 3-month-olds, but not newborns, differentiated the touching from the no-touching gesture, displaying a preference for the former over the latter. To test whether newborns could manifest a preferential visual response when the touched body part is different from the face, in Experiment 2 newborns were presented with touching/no-touching gestures in which a hand or an inanimate object—i.e., a spoon- moved towards a static hand. Newborns were able to discriminate a hand-to-hand touching gesture, but they did not manifest any preference for the object-to-hand touch. The present findings speak in favour of an early ability to visually recognize touching gestures involving the interaction between human body parts. PMID:26366563

  17. A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

    2014-07-01

    To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200-240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens.

  18. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  19. TouchCuts and TouchZoom: Enhanced Target Selection for Touch Displays using Finger Proximity Sensing

    E-print Network

    touch-screen laptops are increasing in popularity, users still do not comfortably rely on touch have started producing laptops equipped with touch-screens, allowing users to use their fingersTouchCuts and TouchZoom: Enhanced Target Selection for Touch Displays using Finger Proximity

  20. Tactile C fibers and their contributions to pleasant sensations and to tactile allodynia

    PubMed Central

    Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Olausson, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    In humans converging evidence indicates that affective aspects of touch are signaled by low threshold mechanoreceptive C tactile (CT) afferents. Analyses of electrophysiological recordings, psychophysical studies in denervated subjects, and functional brain imaging, all indicate that CT primary afferents contribute to pleasant touch and provide an important sensory underpinning of social behavior. Considering both these pleasant and social aspects of gentle skin-to-skin contact, we have put forward a framework within which to consider CT afferent coding properties and pathways—the CT affective touch hypothesis. Recent evidence from studies in mice suggests that CTs, when activated, may have analgesic or anxiolytic effects. However, in neuropathic pain conditions, light touch can elicit unpleasant sensations, so called tactile allodynia. In humans, tactile allodynia is associated with reduced CT mediated hedonic touch processing suggesting loss of the normally analgesic effect of CT signaling. We thus propose that the contribution of CT afferents to tactile allodynia is mainly through a loss of their normally pain inhibiting role. PMID:24639633

  1. Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

    1989-01-01

    Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

  3. Interpersonal stroking touch is targeted to C tactile afferent activation.

    PubMed

    Croy, I; Luong, A; Triscoli, C; Hofmann, E; Olausson, H; Sailer, U

    2016-01-15

    C tactile fibers are a specialized group of fibers innervating the non-glabrous skin that are tuned to light gentle stroking applied with velocities between 1 and 10cm/s. Those fibers add to the sensation of interpersonal caressing and pleasant touch. It is unclear whether people spontaneously apply touch that is tuned to optimally activate those fibers. This was investigated in three studies. In study one, 45 participants (21.8±2.3 years, 24 women) were asked to stroke an artificial arm. In study two, 32 participants (28.3±8.7years, 16 women) were asked to stroke their partner. In study three, 11 parents (29.4±5.7years, 6 women) were asked to stroke their babies. Stroking velocity was tracked in all conditions. Stroking velocities were significantly slower in the partner touch and baby touch condition than in the artificial arm condition and all of the participants stroking their partner or baby used velocities that can activate C tactile fibers. We conclude that human social stroking is optimized for C tactile stimulation. PMID:26433145

  4. Biomimetic approaches to bionic touch through a peripheral nerve interface.

    PubMed

    Saal, Hannes P; Bensmaia, Sliman J

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art prosthetic hands nearly match the dexterity of the human hand, and sophisticated approaches have been developed to control them intuitively. However, grasping and dexterously manipulating objects relies heavily on the sense of touch, without which we would struggle to perform even the most basic activities of daily living. Despite the importance of touch, not only in motor control but also in affective communication and embodiment, the restoration of touch through bionic hands is still in its infancy, a shortcoming that severely limits their effectiveness. Here, we focus on approaches to restore the sense of touch through an electrical interface with the peripheral nerve. First, we describe devices that can be chronically implanted in the nerve to electrically activate nerve fibers. Second, we discuss how these interfaces have been used to convey basic somatosensory feedback. Third, we review what is known about how the somatosensory nerve encodes information about grasped objects in intact limbs and discuss how these natural neural codes can be exploited to convey artificial tactile feedback. Finally, we offer a blueprint for how these codes could be implemented in a neuroprosthetic device to deliver rich, natural, and versatile tactile sensations. PMID:26092769

  5. Touch sensors and control.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. W.; Sword, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the equipment employed and results obtained in experiments with tactile feedback and different levels of automatic control. In the experiments described tactile feedback was investigated by incorporating a touch sensing and touch display system into a teleoperator, while the levels of automatic control were investigated by incorporating supervisory control features in the teleoperator control system. In particular, a hand contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the contact between the end-effector and the object being touched or manipulated is described, as well as a jaw contact system which senses and reproduces to the operator the shape and location of the object held in the remote jaws, and an arm control system consisting of a control station where the operator controls the motion of the arm by transmitting commands, a remote station that accepts the commands and uses them, and a communications link that limits information flow. In addition, an algorithmic language for remote manipulation is described, and the desired features that an automatic arm controller should possess are reviewed.

  6. Optical sensors for harsh environment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, R.; Maity, S.; Bekal, A.; Vartak, S.; Sridharan, A. K.; Mitra, C.

    2015-05-01

    The development of a harsh environment ammonia slip sensor based on tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is presented. A hybrid optical sensor design, through combination of wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) and alignment control, is proposed as an approach towards reliable in-situ measurements in misalignment prone harsh environments. 1531.59 nm, 1553.4 nm and 1555.56 nm are suggested as possible absorption lines for trace ammonia measurement (<1ppm at 10m path length at 500K) in gas turbine exhaust conditions. Design and performance of the alignment control system are presented in detail. Effect of misalignment related measurement degradation is investigated and significant improvement in measurement fidelity is demonstrated through the use of the hybrid optical sensor design.

  7. Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

  8. Slide Rule: Making Mobile Touch Screens Accessible to Blind People Using Multi-Touch Interaction Techniques

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Slide Rule: Making Mobile Touch Screens Accessible to Blind People Using Multi-Touch Interaction advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users

  9. Radiation hardening of FBG in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morana, A.; Girard, S.; Marin, E.; Marcandella, C.; Périsse, J.; Macé, J. R.; Boukenter, A.; Cannas, M.; Ouerdane, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The difficulties encountered in the implementation of a temperature or strain sensor based on Fiber Bragg Grating in a harsh radiative environment are introduced. We present the choices made to select both a radiation-resistant fiber in terms of transmission and also the grating inscription conditions necessary to write radiation tolerant FBGs in such fibers with a femto-second laser. The response of different classes of gratings was also studied under radiation at high doses (<1MGy). The comparison between F- and Ge-doped fibers was highlighted.

  10. Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

    2004-01-01

    The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

  11. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments. PMID:22438744

  12. Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion. PMID:20195378

  13. Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

  14. Harsh environment fiber optic connectors/testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Douglas A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic systems are used frequently in military, aerospace and commercial aviation programs. There is a long history of implementing fiber optic data transfer for aircraft control, for harsh environment use in local area networks and more recently for in-flight entertainment systems. The advantages of fiber optics include high data rate capacity, low weight, immunity to EMI/RFI, and security from signal tapping. Technicians must be trained particularly to install and maintain fiber systems, but it is not necessarily more difficult than wire systems. However, the testing of the fiber optic interconnection system must be conducted in a standardized manner to assure proper performance. Testing can be conducted with slight differences in the set-up and procedure that produce significantly different test results. This paper reviews various options of interconnect configurations and discusses how these options can affect the performance, maintenance required and longevity of a fiber optic system, depending on the environment. Proper test methods are discussed. There is a review of the essentials of proper fiber optic testing and impact of changing such test parameters as input launch conditions, wavelength considerations, power meter options and the basic methods of testing. This becomes important right from the start when the supplier test data differs from the user's data check upon receiving the product. It also is important in periodic testing. Properly conducting the fiber optic testing will eliminate confusion and produce meaningful test results for a given harsh environment application.

  15. "The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springgay, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

  16. High resolution skin-like sensor capable of sensing and visualizing various sensations and three dimensional shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Tianbai; Wang, Wenbo; Bian, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, J. K.; Dong, Shurong

    2015-08-01

    Human skin contains multiple receptors, and is able to sense various stimuli such as temperature, pressure, force, corrosion etc, and to feel pains and the shape of objects. The development of skin-like sensors capable of sensing these stimuli is of great importance for various applications such as robots, touch detection, temperature monitoring, strain gauges etc. Great efforts have been made to develop high performance skin-like sensors, but they are far from perfect and much inferior to human skin as most of them can only sense one stimulus with focus on pressure (strain) or temperature, and are unable to visualize sensations and shape of objects. Here we report a skin-like sensor which imitates real skin with multiple receptors, and a new concept of pain sensation. The sensor with very high resolution not only has multiple sensations for touch, pressure, temperature, but also is able to sense various pains and reproduce the three dimensional shape of an object in contact.

  17. High resolution skin-like sensor capable of sensing and visualizing various sensations and three dimensional shape

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tianbai; Wang, Wenbo; Bian, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, J.K.; Dong, Shurong

    2015-01-01

    Human skin contains multiple receptors, and is able to sense various stimuli such as temperature, pressure, force, corrosion etc, and to feel pains and the shape of objects. The development of skin-like sensors capable of sensing these stimuli is of great importance for various applications such as robots, touch detection, temperature monitoring, strain gauges etc. Great efforts have been made to develop high performance skin-like sensors, but they are far from perfect and much inferior to human skin as most of them can only sense one stimulus with focus on pressure (strain) or temperature, and are unable to visualize sensations and shape of objects. Here we report a skin-like sensor which imitates real skin with multiple receptors, and a new concept of pain sensation. The sensor with very high resolution not only has multiple sensations for touch, pressure, temperature, but also is able to sense various pains and reproduce the three dimensional shape of an object in contact. PMID:26269285

  18. High resolution skin-like sensor capable of sensing and visualizing various sensations and three dimensional shape.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tianbai; Wang, Wenbo; Bian, Xiaolei; Wang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Xiaozhi; Luo, J K; Dong, Shurong

    2015-01-01

    Human skin contains multiple receptors, and is able to sense various stimuli such as temperature, pressure, force, corrosion etc, and to feel pains and the shape of objects. The development of skin-like sensors capable of sensing these stimuli is of great importance for various applications such as robots, touch detection, temperature monitoring, strain gauges etc. Great efforts have been made to develop high performance skin-like sensors, but they are far from perfect and much inferior to human skin as most of them can only sense one stimulus with focus on pressure (strain) or temperature, and are unable to visualize sensations and shape of objects. Here we report a skin-like sensor which imitates real skin with multiple receptors, and a new concept of pain sensation. The sensor with very high resolution not only has multiple sensations for touch, pressure, temperature, but also is able to sense various pains and reproduce the three dimensional shape of an object in contact. PMID:26269285

  19. Resistive oxygen gas sensors for harsh environments.

    PubMed

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiss, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  20. Solar-Blind Photodetectors for Harsh Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G.; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P.; He, Jr-Hau

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200?V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1?nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 1013?cm?2 of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110?ms (the rise time) and ~ 80?ms (the fall time) at 5?V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments. PMID:24022208

  1. Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

  2. Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

  3. Touch button to make your selection

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    when cameras are selected) Source preview screen (displays selected local or remote source) -Touch to view full screen Touch to return to main videoconferencing control page Touch to return to mainTouch button to make your selection Video Conferencing requires a password OVER Mic mute and unmute

  4. A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

    2007-01-01

    Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

  5. The DEG/ENaC protein MEC-10 regulates the transduction channel complex in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; O'Hagan, Robert; Chen, Yushu; Goodman, Miriam B; Chalfie, Martin

    2011-08-31

    Gentle touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the MEC-4/MEC-10 channel complex, which is expressed exclusively in six touch receptor neurons (TRNs). The complex contains two pore-forming subunits, MEC-4 and MEC-10, as well as the accessory subunits MEC-2, MEC-6, and UNC-24. MEC-4 is essential for channel function, but beyond its role as a pore-forming subunit, the functional contribution of MEC-10 to the channel complex and to touch sensation is unclear. We addressed this question using behavioral assays, in vivo electrophysiological recordings from TRNs, and heterologous expression of mutant MEC-10 isoforms. Animals with a deletion in mec-10 showed only a partial loss of touch sensitivity and a modest decrease in the size of the mechanoreceptor current (MRC). In contrast, five previously identified mec-10 alleles acted as recessive gain-of-function alleles that resulted in complete touch insensitivity. Each of these alleles produced a substantial decrease in MRC size and a shift in the reversal potential in vivo. The latter finding indicates that these mec-10 mutations alter the ionic selectivity of the transduction channel in vivo. All mec-10 mutant animals had properly localized channel complexes, indicating that the loss of MRCs was not attributable to a dramatic mislocalization of transduction channels. Finally, electrophysiological examination of heterologously expressed complexes suggests that mutant MEC-10 proteins may affect channel current via MEC-2. PMID:21880930

  6. Characterization of Deqi Sensation and Acupuncture Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xing-Yue; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future. PMID:23864884

  7. Redirected Touching: Training and Adaptation in Warped Virtual Spaces

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Luv; Whitton, Mary C.; Brooks, Frederick P.

    2014-01-01

    Redirected Touching is a technique in which virtual space is warped to map many virtual objects onto one real object that serves as a passive haptic prop. Recent work suggests that this mapping can often be predictably unnoticeable and have little effect on task performance. We investigated training and adaptation on a rapid aiming task in a real environment, an unwarped virtual environment, and a warped virtual environment. Participants who experienced a warped virtual space reported an initial strange sensation, but adapted to the warped space after short repeated exposure. Our data indicate that all the virtual training was less effective than real-world training, but after adaptation, participants trained as well in a warped virtual space as in an unwarped one. PMID:25621318

  8. Touched by the storyteller: the influence of remote touch in the context of storytelling

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    ]. In adulthood touch remains vital in social interaction, touch is important for maintenance of a romantic bonds [17]. Moreover, being touched by a loved one can have stress-reducing effects [3]. Social touc on studying the effect of remote touch and the timing of touch on perceived social presence and story recall

  9. Genetics, adaptation, and invasion in harsh environments

    PubMed Central

    Gomulkiewicz, Richard; Holt, Robert D; Barfield, Michael; Nuismer, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    We analyze mathematical models to examine how the genetic basis of fitness affects the persistence of a population suddenly encountering a harsh environment where it would go extinct without evolution. The results are relevant for novel introductions and for an established population whose existence is threatened by a sudden change in the environment. The models span a range of genetic assumptions, including identical loci that contribute to absolute fitness, a two-locus quantitative genetic model with nonidentical loci, and a model with major and minor genes affecting a quantitative trait. We find as a general (though not universal) pattern that prospects for persistence narrow as more loci contribute to fitness, in effect because selection per locus is increasingly weakened with more loci, which can even overwhelm any initial enhancement of fitness that adding loci might provide. When loci contribute unequally to fitness, genes of small effect can significantly reduce extinction risk. Indeed, major and minor genes can interact synergistically to reduce the time needed to evolve growth. Such interactions can also increase vulnerability to extinction, depending not just on how genes interact but also on the initial genetic structure of the introduced, or newly invaded, population. PMID:25567911

  10. Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

    2014-09-01

    There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing ?-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

  11. Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    2010-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

  12. Diminished P300 to physical risk in sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya; Tan, Fei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Huijuan

    2015-04-01

    Zuckerman's theory proposes individual differences in optimal arousal and arousability level as the root of the sensation-seeking trait. The current study addressed how sensation seeking influences responses to emotional arousal at the electrophysiological level during a passive viewing task and at the psychometrical level during a self-assessment task. Electrophysiologically, high sensation seekers (HSSs) compared to low sensation seekers (LSSs) exhibited a reduced P300 for high-arousing stimuli (adventure and surreal pictures), but not for low-arousing stimuli (leisure and neutral pictures). Psychometrically, HSSs displayed a higher preference for adventure and surreal pictures whereas LSSs showed a higher preference for leisure pictures. Instead of supporting the optimal arousal hypothesis, these findings suggest that sensation seeking is associated with diminished P300 to physical risk, which may be driven by a hypoactive avoidance system in sensation seeking. PMID:25766263

  13. The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-08-20

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

  14. The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

  15. Design, Fabrication, and Administration of the Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe).

    PubMed

    Borstad, Alexandra; Altenburger, Alex; Hannigan, Aaron; LaPorte, Joshua; Mott, Rachael; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S

    2015-01-01

    The concept of personalizing neurologic rehabilitation, based on individual impairments, has experienced a recent surge. In parallel, the number of outcome measures of upper extremity motor performance has grown. However, clinicians and researchers lack practical, quantitative measures of the hand's natural role as a receptor of the environment. The Hand Active Sensation Test (HASTe), developed by Williams and colleagues in 2006, is a valid and reliable measure of haptic performance. Though not available commercially, the HASTe can be fabricated from inexpensive materials, and it has been used successfully to identify impairments in haptic touch in individuals with stroke. (Williams, 2006). This paper presents the methods of design and fabrication of the HASTe testing kit, as well as a visual screen to be used during administration, and instructions for the tests administration and scoring. PMID:26382931

  16. Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

  17. Compact harsh environment energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shehab

    The quest for energy is leading the industry into drilling deeper wells. Typically, a temperature gradient of 1°C/150 ft can be expected, with bottom hole temperatures reaching beyond 200°C in many areas of the world. Moreover, the increased recovery benefits and cost reductions possible with the use of horizontal and multilateral wells has triggered a need for higher power energy conversion systems in bottom hole assemblies, such as rotary steerable tools and downhole tractors. The concepts developed throughout this work address some of these new needs. This research investigated improvements, novel solutions and considerations that will lead to significant advantages in terms of reliability, extended temperature operation, increased power capability and reduced size and cost of compact harsh environment energy conversion systems. Improvements to both the electromechanical subsystem and the power electronic subsystem are introduced. Air gap viscous losses were shown to a have a significant effect on the optimal design of submersible PM (permanent magnet) machines, and a design procedure to account for this loss component in the design was developed. The application of a dual winding exterior rotor PM machine in a downhole environment enabled a significant increase in the application's torque capability, provided protection against generator winding over voltage, and reduced parts count. Comprehensive switching device qualification, testing, and simulation lead to a simple failure mitigation technique for the operation of the most suitable devices at elevated temperature. A flying capacitor multilevel inverter was then successfully constructed and temperature tested. A novel motor drive concept suited for elevated temperature oil filled environment applications concluded the research.

  18. Aluminum Nitride Sensors for Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goericke, Fabian Thomas

    Harsh environment applications include high temperature, pressure and mechanical shock. Aluminum nitride is a strong ceramic material with very good high temperature survivability. It also has piezoelectric properties that can be used for sensing applications and it can be deposited with good control as thin polycrystalline film for the fabrication of micro-electromechanical systems. In this dissertation, optimized deposition parameters for aluminum nitride films and characterization techniques for film stress gradients are investigated. Furthermore, two different fabrication processes are presented that can be used to build several sensors and other micromechanical elements on a single chip. The more advanced process includes a bulk-micromachining step that enables the use of the silicon substrate as large proof masses for accelerometers. At the same time, the fabrication process can be used to create membranes for devices such as pressure sensors. Several different devices are discussed from the device design and theoretical analysis to the fabrication and experimental verification. The most significant contribution is the performance improvement of several orders of magnitude that can be achieved with aluminum nitride accelerometers by switching from double-ended tuning forks to triple-beam tuning forks and by using the newly discovered sensing concept of bent-beam sensing. Additionally, rate gyroscopes were presented that use aluminum nitride as the structural material and for both actuating the drive axis and reading the sense axis. Both types of sensors have potential applications in inertial navigation at high temperature. Double-ended tuning forks and triple-beam tuning forks were tested in hot environment and it was shown that they can be used as highly sensitive strain sensors up to at least 570 °C. Additionally, a testing setup for high temperature testing of accelerometers was demonstrated.

  19. Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the Radiation Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack (RTIMS).

  20. Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

  1. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  2. HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME

    EPA Science Inventory

    Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

  3. Effect of imperceptible vibratory noise applied to wrist skin on fingertip touch evoked potentials - an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Seo, Na Jin; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lauer, Abigail W; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-11-01

    Random vibration applied to skin can change the sense of touch. Specifically, low amplitude white-noise vibration can improve fingertip touch perception. In fact, fingertip touch sensation can improve even when imperceptible random vibration is applied to other remote upper extremity areas such as wrist, dorsum of the hand, or forearm. As such, vibration can be used to manipulate sensory feedback and improve dexterity, particularly during neurological rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the neurological bases for remote vibration enhanced sensory feedback are yet poorly understood. This study examined how imperceptible random vibration applied to the wrist changes cortical activity for fingertip sensation. We measured somatosensory evoked potentials to assess peak-to-peak response to light touch of the index fingertip with applied wrist vibration versus without. We observed increased peak-to-peak somatosensory evoked potentials with wrist vibration, especially with increased amplitude of the later component for the somatosensory, motor, and premotor cortex with wrist vibration. These findings corroborate an enhanced cortical-level sensory response motivated by vibration. It is possible that the cortical modulation observed here is the result of the establishment of transient networks for improved perception. PMID:26603457

  4. Effect of imperceptible vibratory noise applied to wrist skin on fingertip touch evoked potentials – an EEG study

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Na Jin; Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Bonilha, Leonardo; Lauer, Abigail W; Schmit, Brian D

    2015-01-01

    Random vibration applied to skin can change the sense of touch. Specifically, low amplitude white-noise vibration can improve fingertip touch perception. In fact, fingertip touch sensation can improve even when imperceptible random vibration is applied to other remote upper extremity areas such as wrist, dorsum of the hand, or forearm. As such, vibration can be used to manipulate sensory feedback and improve dexterity, particularly during neurological rehabilitation. Nonetheless, the neurological bases for remote vibration enhanced sensory feedback are yet poorly understood. This study examined how imperceptible random vibration applied to the wrist changes cortical activity for fingertip sensation. We measured somatosensory evoked potentials to assess peak-to-peak response to light touch of the index fingertip with applied wrist vibration versus without. We observed increased peak-to-peak somatosensory evoked potentials with wrist vibration, especially with increased amplitude of the later component for the somatosensory, motor, and premotor cortex with wrist vibration. These findings corroborate an enhanced cortical-level sensory response motivated by vibration. It is possible that the cortical modulation observed here is the result of the establishment of transient networks for improved perception. PMID:26603457

  5. Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2015-02-01

    Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. PMID:25392175

  6. Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

  7. The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse

    E-print Network

    The MAGIC Touch: Combining MAGIC-Pointing with a Touch-Sensitive Mouse Heiko Drewes1 , Albrecht the combination of eye-gaze and a touch-sensitive mouse to ease pointing tasks in graphical user interfaces. A touch of the mouse positions the mouse pointer at the current gaze position of the user. Thus

  8. Contactless Touch Interface Supporting Blind Touch Interaction by Aerial Tactile Stimulation

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Contactless Touch Interface Supporting Blind Touch Interaction by Aerial Tactile Stimulation Kazuma by the use of tactile stimulation. In the system users can interact with a touch screen without actual touch on it and get tactile feedback for the action. The components of this system are a special screen (Visuo

  9. TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion

    E-print Network

    Chen, Hao

    TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion Abstract Attacks that use]. Electromaganetic emanations of key- boards are also studied for keylogging [8]. Touch screen smartphones have changed the paradigm of user interaction. Most touch screen smartphones have no physical keyboard. Instead

  10. TouchLight: An Imaging Touch Screen and Display for Gesture-Based Interaction

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    TouchLight: An Imaging Touch Screen and Display for Gesture-Based Interaction Andrew D. Wilson Microsoft Research One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA awilson@microsoft.com ABSTRACT A novel touch screen plastic in normal indoor lighting conditions. The resulting touch screen display system transforms

  11. Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

    Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

  12. Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Carpenter

    2012-01-15

    Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

  13. Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Amaral, Luis A.N.

    Haptics, tactile feedback, touch screen. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. [User Interfaces]: InteractionFrictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch that improve touch interactions by enhancing physicality, performance, and subjective satisfaction. Keywords

  14. 'Am I moving?' An illusion of agency and ownership in mirror-touch synaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Maria Cristina; Banissy, Michael J; Moore, James W

    2016-01-01

    Mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) is a condition that leads people to experience tactile sensations on their own body when watching at someone else being touched. Recent accounts postulate that MTS is linked with atypical self-other representations. It has been suggested that this may be associated with disturbances in two main components of self-awareness: sense of agency and sense of ownership. This study investigates changes in sense of agency and sense of ownership in MTS. Using a paradigm that deliberately blurs the boundaries between the self and the other, we not only found that MTS affects sense of agency and sense of ownership, but that these aspects of self-awareness are affected differently. We suggest that alterations in sense of agency can be linked to more profound disturbances in sense of ownership in MTS, and that MTS may be characterised by underlying difficulties in self-other processing. PMID:26550800

  15. Vibrissa Self-Motion and Touch Are Reliably Encoded along the Same Somatosensory Pathway from Brainstem through Thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey D.; Mercer Lindsay, Nicole; Deschênes, Martin; Kleinfeld, David

    2015-01-01

    Active sensing involves the fusion of internally generated motor events with external sensation. For rodents, active somatosensation includes scanning the immediate environment with the mystacial vibrissae. In doing so, the vibrissae may touch an object at any angle in the whisk cycle. The representation of touch and vibrissa self-motion may in principle be encoded along separate pathways, or share a single pathway, from the periphery to cortex. Past studies established that the spike rates in neurons along the lemniscal pathway from receptors to cortex, which includes the principal trigeminal and ventral-posterior-medial thalamic nuclei, are substantially modulated by touch. In contrast, spike rates along the paralemniscal pathway, which includes the rostral spinal trigeminal interpolaris, posteromedial thalamic, and ventral zona incerta nuclei, are only weakly modulated by touch. Here we find that neurons along the lemniscal pathway robustly encode rhythmic whisking on a cycle-by-cycle basis, while encoding along the paralemniscal pathway is relatively poor. Thus, the representations of both touch and self-motion share one pathway. In fact, some individual neurons carry both signals, so that upstream neurons with a supralinear gain function could, in principle, demodulate these signals to recover the known decoding of touch as a function of vibrissa position in the whisk cycle. PMID:26393890

  16. Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

    2008-03-01

    A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

  17. PSYCH 388: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SPRING SEMESTER, 2009

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    color vision, depth and space perception, motion perception, visual form perception, and pattern1 PSYCH 388: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SPRING SEMESTER, 2009 THURS 4:00-6:40, WEST COMMONS 220 underlying the study of perception and the mind, the common methods by which sensations and perceptions can

  18. PSYCH 388: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SPRING SEMESTER, 2008

    E-print Network

    Gallo, Linda C.

    color vision, depth and space perception, motion perception, visual form perception, and pattern1 PSYCH 388: SENSATION AND PERCEPTION SPRING SEMESTER, 2008 THURS 4:00-6:40, WC 220 INSTRUCTOR the study of perception and the mind, the common methods by which sensations and perceptions can be measured

  19. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  20. Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

  1. Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-03-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

  2. Intravital microscopic interrogation of peripheral taste sensation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

  3. Sensation of agency and perception of temporal order.

    PubMed

    Timm, Jana; Schönwiesner, Marc; SanMiguel, Iria; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    After adaptation to a fixed temporal delay between actions and their sensory consequences, stimuli delivered during the delay are perceived to occur prior to actions. Temporal judgments are also influenced by the sensation of agency (experience of causing our own actions and their sensory consequences). Sensory consequences of voluntary actions are perceived to occur earlier in time than those of involuntary actions. However, it is unclear whether temporal order illusions influence the sensation of agency. Thus, we tested how the illusionary reversal of motor actions and sound events affect the sensation of agency. We observed an absence of the sensation of agency in the auditory modality in a condition in which sounds were falsely perceived as preceding motor acts relative to the perceived temporal order in the control condition. This finding suggests a strong association between the sensation of agency and the temporal order perception of actions and their consequences. PMID:24362412

  4. Ernst Mach and the episode of the monocular depth sensations.

    PubMed

    Banks, E C

    2001-01-01

    Although Ernst Mach is widely recognized in psychology for his discovery of the effects of lateral inhibition in the retina ("Mach Bands"), his contributions to the theory of depth perception are not as well known. Mach proposed that steady luminance gradients triggered sensations of depth. He also expanded on Ewald Hering's hypothesis of "monocular depth sensations," arguing that they were subject to the same principle of lateral inhibition as light sensations were. Even after Hermann von Helmholtz's attack on Hering in 1866, Mach continued to develop theories involving the monocular depth sensations, proposing an explanation of perspective drawings in which the mutually inhibiting depth sensations scaled to a mean depth. Mach also contemplated a theory of stereopsis in which monocular depth perception played the primary role. PMID:11596069

  5. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership.

    PubMed

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  6. Voluntary self-touch increases body ownership

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Masayuki; Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Higuchi, Takahiro; Fukuhara, Kazunobu; Yamamoto, Akio; Higuchi, Toshiro; Blanke, Olaf; Salomon, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Experimental manipulations of body ownership have indicated that multisensory integration is central to forming bodily self-representation. Voluntary self-touch is a unique multisensory situation involving corresponding motor, tactile and proprioceptive signals. Yet, even though self-touch is frequent in everyday life, its contribution to the formation of body ownership is not well understood. Here we investigated the role of voluntary self-touch in body ownership using a novel adaptation of the rubber hand illusion (RHI), in which a robotic system and virtual reality allowed participants self-touch of real and virtual hands. In the first experiment, active and passive self-touch were applied in the absence of visual feedback. In the second experiment, we tested the role of visual feedback in this bodily illusion. Finally, in the third experiment, we compared active and passive self-touch to the classical RHI in which the touch is administered by the experimenter. We hypothesized that active self-touch would increase ownership over the virtual hand through the addition of motor signals strengthening the bodily illusion. The results indicated that active self-touch elicited stronger illusory ownership compared to passive self-touch and sensory only stimulation, and show an important role for active self-touch in the formation of bodily self. PMID:26617534

  7. Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-03-01

    Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. PMID:24361816

  8. Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Klöcker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration. PMID:22737122

  9. Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

  10. An "economic" theory of addiction, hypomania, and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Marvel, G A; Hartmann, B R

    1986-01-01

    Research into the relationship between mania, sensation seeking, and substance abuse has shown that hypomanics and sensation seekers use substances frequently and often for the purpose of adjusting their moods. This essay develops an "economic" theory of addiction that attempts to account for those phenomena. The theory also supports the notion that sensation-seeking behavior and variants of manic behavior share many of the characteristics of the addictive behaviors. Implications for the treatment of addictive behaviors are discussed. Data from drug users in the military (Navy) are presented to support the theory, and suggestions for future research are outlined. PMID:3771010

  11. Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee

    2011-03-01

    Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

  13. Generating STR profile from "Touch DNA".

    PubMed

    Aditya, Sangeeta; Sharma, A K; Bhattacharyya, C N; Chaudhuri, Keya

    2011-10-01

    As forensic DNA technology has become a common tool in criminal investigations, scientists have attempted to obtain DNA evidence from what were once considered unlikely sources. "Touch DNA" refers to the DNA that is left behind from skin cells when a person touches or comes into contact with an item. This present study shows, DNA profiling of touched evidence materials is reported employing a combination of LCN typing and miniSTRs. The technology is highly valuable for increasing the scope of DNA profiling to large number touched evidence materials. PMID:21907930

  14. LiquiTouch: Liquid as a Medium for Versatile Tactile Feedback on Touch Surfaces

    E-print Network

    for versatile tactile feedback. We present LiquiTouch, a first prototype which emits ac- tively generated water and improve the interac- tion with touch surfaces. Author Keywords touch, liquid, water, tactile feedback and communicates rich sensory stimuli. The warm water washing around our feet at the beach, the power

  15. Touch: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Touché: Enhancing Touch Interaction on Humans, Screens, Liquids, and Everyday Objects ABSTRACT with a "gesture password"; (c) interact- ing with water; (d) hand postures in touch screen interaction Touché proposes a novel Swept Frequency Capacitive Sens- ing technique that can not only detect a touch

  16. Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

  17. Qualification of Spacecraft Materials for use in Harsh Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Paul B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concerns regarding qualifiying materials used in spacecraft construction for harsh radiation environments, defined as a high flux charged particle environment in space. This environment consists of high surface doses at low energy and low doses at high energies. The concept phase of the Europa Flagship mission is used as an example.

  18. Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Smaldino, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

  19. Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

    2012-01-01

    Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

  20. Specialty fiber optic applications for harsh and high radiation environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Brian G.

    2015-05-01

    Since the first commercial introduction in the 1980s, optical fiber technology has undergone an almost exponential growth. Currently over 2 billion fiber kilometers are deployed globally with 2014 global optical fiber production exceeding 300 million fiber kilometers. 1 Along with the staggering growth in optical fiber production and deployment, an increase in optical fiber technologies and applications has also followed. Although the main use of optical fibers by far has been for traditional data transmission and communications, numerous new applications are introduced each year. Initially the practical application of optical fibers was limited by cost and sensitivity of the optical fibers to stress, radiation, and other environmental factors. Tremendous advances have taken place in optical fiber design and materials allowing optical fibers to be deployed in increasingly harsh environments with exposure to increased mechanical and environmental stresses while maintaining high reliability. With the increased reliability, lower cost, and greatly expanded range of optical fiber types now available, new optical fiber deployments in harsh and high radiation environments is seeing a tremendous increase for data, communications, and sensing applications. An overview of key optical fiber applications in data, communications, and sensing for harsh environments in industrial, energy exploration, energy generation, energy transmission, and high radiation applications will be presented. Specific recent advances in new radiation resistant optical fiber types, other specialty optical fibers, optical fiber coatings, and optical fiber cable materials will be discussed to illustrate long term reliability for deployment of optical fibers in harsh and high radiation environments.

  1. “I Feel Contaminated in My Fake Hand”: Obsessive-Compulsive-Disorder like Disgust Sensations Arise from Dummy during Rubber Hand Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Jalal, Baland; Krishnakumar, Divya; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its theoretical and clinical interest, there are no experimental studies exploring obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-like disgust sensations through using somatosensory illusions. Such illusions provide important clues to the nature and limits of multisensory integration and how the brain constructs body image; and may potentially inform novel therapies. One such effect is the rubber hand illusion (RHI) in which tactile sensations are referred to a rubber hand; if the experimenter simultaneously strokes a subject’s occluded hand together with a visible fake hand, the subject starts experiencing the touch sensations as arising from the dummy. In this study, we explore whether OCD-like disgust may result from contamination of a dummy hand during the RHI; suggesting a possible integration of somatosensory and limbic inputs in the construction of body image. We predicted that participants would experience sensations of disgust, when placing a disgust stimulus (fake feces, vomit or blood) on the dummy hand after establishing the RHI. We found that 9 out of 11 participants experienced greater disgust during the synchronous condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in synchrony) compared to the asynchronous control condition (real hidden hand and fake hand are stroked in asynchrony); and on average such disgust was significantly greater during the synchronous condition compared to the asynchronous control condition, Z = 2.7, p = .008. These results argue against a strictly hierarchical modular approach to brain function and suggest that a four-way multisensory interaction occurs between vision, touch, proprioception on the one hand and primal emotions like disgust on the other. These findings may inform novel clinical approaches for OCD; that is, contaminating a dummy during the RHI could possibly be used as part of an in-vivo exposure-intervention for OCD. PMID:26642323

  2. The Use of Touch in Therapy: Can We Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Melanie A.

    The empirical literature regarding the use of nonerotic touch in psychotherapy is reviewed. Theoretical and ethical concerns are discussed, including the taboo against touching clients, situations in which touch may be appropriate, and whether or not nonerotic touch leads to erotic touch. It is difficult to design controlled studies for ongoing…

  3. Inhaled furosemide greatly alleviates the sensation of experimentally induced dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Nishino, T; Ide, T; Sudo, T; Sato, J

    2000-06-01

    Furosemide is known to influence the activity of vagally mediated mechanoreceptors in the airways. Because vagal afferent fibers may play an important role in modulation of the sensation of dyspnea, it is possible that inhaled furosemide may modify the sensation of dyspnea. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, we compared the effect of inhaled furosemide on dyspneic sensation with that of placebo. Severe dyspneic sensation was induced in 12 healthy subjects in two ways: (1) breathholding and (2) loaded breathing with a combination of inspiratory resistive load (240 cm H(2)O/L/s) and hypercapnia induced by extra mechanical dead space (0.26 L). Subjects were asked to rate their sensation of respiratory discomfort using a visual analogue scale (dyspneic VAS). Breathholding times and changes in dyspneic VAS score during a 5-min period of loaded breathing were measured after inhalation of placebo and furosemide (40 mg). Total breathholding time after inhalation of furosemide (median, 93 [interquartile range, 78 to 112]s) was prolonged compared with the total breathholding time after placebo inhalation (67 [47-74]s). We also found that respiratory discomfort during loaded breathing after inhalation of furosemide develops more slowly and is less than that observed after inhalation of placebo. Our findings indicate that inhaled furosemide greatly alleviates the sensation of dyspnea induced experimentally by breathholding and by a combination of resistive loading and hypercapnia. PMID:10852774

  4. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Catharine P.; Cyrenne, De-Laine M.; Brown, Gillian R.

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information. PMID:23989235

  5. Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  6. HapTouch and the 2+1 State Model: Potentials of Haptic Feedback on Touch Based In-Vehicle

    E-print Network

    -vehicle information system with tactile feedback. The touch-screen is force-sensitive, i.e., touching and palpatingHapTouch and the 2+1 State Model: Potentials of Haptic Feedback on Touch Based In on touch-sensitive displays provides significant benefits in terms of reducing error rates, increasing

  7. What You See Is What You Touch: Visualizing Touch Screen Interaction in the Head-Up Display

    E-print Network

    What You See Is What You Touch: Visualizing Touch Screen Interaction in the Head-Up Display Felix, Germany Andreas.Butz@ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT Touch screens are increasingly used for secondary in- vehicle Is What You Touch" (WYSIWYT), which allows touch screen interaction without removing one's eyes from

  8. Real-time social touch gesture recognition for sensate Citation Knight, H. et al. "Real-time social touch gesture recognition for

    E-print Network

    Breazeal, Cynthia

    Faculty has made this article openly available. Please share how this access benefits you. Your story demonstrates that a robot which can respond to affective displays (such as petting in pet therapy [3

  9. Characterization of evoked tactile sensation in forearm amputees with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Guohong; Sui, Xiaohong; Li, Si; He, Longwen; Lan, Ning

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The goal of this study is to characterize the phenomenon of evoked tactile sensation (ETS) on the stump skin of forearm amputees using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Approach. We identified the projected finger map (PFM) of ETS on the stump skin in 11 forearm amputees, and compared perceptual attributes of the ETS in nine forearm amputees and eight able-bodied subjects using TENS. The profile of perceptual thresholds at the most sensitive points (MSPs) in each finger-projected area was obtained by modulating current amplitude, pulse width, and frequency of the biphasic, rectangular current stimulus. The long-term stability of the PFM and the perceptual threshold of the ETS were monitored in five forearm amputees for a period of 11 months. Main results. Five finger-specific projection areas can be independently identified on the stump skin of forearm amputees with a relatively long residual stump length. The shape of the PFM was progressively similar to that of the hand with more distal amputation. Similar sensory modalities of touch, pressure, buzz, vibration, and numb below pain sensation could be evoked both in the PFM of the stump skin of amputees and in the normal skin of able-bodied subjects. Sensory thresholds in the normal skin of able-bodied subjects were generally lower than those in the stump skin of forearm amputees, however, both were linearly modulated by current amplitude and pulse width. The variation of the MSPs in the PFM was confined to a small elliptical area with 95% confidence. The perceptual thresholds of thumb-projected areas were found to vary less than 0.99 × 10-2 mA cm-2. Significance. The stable PFM and sensory thresholds of ETS are desirable for a non-invasive neural interface that can feed back finger-specific tactile information from the prosthetic hand to forearm amputees.

  10. Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept

    E-print Network

    Belaïd, Abdel

    Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept U. Pal a,*, A. Belaiid b , Ch. Choisy b is mainly based on features obtained from a concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

  11. Simulated Social Touch in a Collaborative Game

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    . For example, social touch affects compliance to requests [13], can reduce stress [10], and can be usedSimulated Social Touch in a Collaborative Game Gijs Huisman(B) , Jan Kolkmeier, and Dirk Heylen Human Media Interaction Group, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands {gijs

  12. Affective Touch at a Distance Gijs Huisman

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    Affective Touch at a Distance Gijs Huisman Human Media Interaction Group University of Twente Email of social bonds [1]. Touch can increase compliance to requests [2], can have stress reducing effects [3 Sciences Email: a.darriba.frederiks@hva.nl Dirk Heylen Human Media Interaction Group University of Twente

  13. Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

  14. Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

  15. The Place of Touch in the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perricone, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

  16. [Research and thinking on needling sensation of acupoint Huantiao (GB 30)].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiejing; Han, Junying; Zhu, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xiuzhu; Wu, Jiulong; Zhang, Jian-bin

    2015-03-01

    Taken Huantiao (GB 30) as breakthrough point, acupuncture manipulations of generating various needling sensations by different physicians are sorted. Types of acupoint needling sensations and conducting directions after acupuncture and all kinds of factors that affect needling sensations are analyzed from new perspectives. It is considered that attention should be paid to acupoint location, postures of patients, manipulation methods, types of needling sensations, transmission lines and duration time of needling sensations, etc. PMID:26062197

  17. The Sensory Neurons of Touch

    PubMed Central

    Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

    2013-01-01

    The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

  18. Comparing Physical, Overlay, and Touch Screen Parameter Controls

    E-print Network

    Tory, Melanie

    Comparing Physical, Overlay, and Touch Screen Parameter Controls Melanie Tory University and movement tasks with dial and slider controls on horizontal touch screens. Results showed that physical physical controls are impractical. Author Keywords Input; touch screen; physical control; slider; dial

  19. Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Levesque, Vincent

    Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

  20. Silicon Carbide Sensors and Electronics for Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment (high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation) that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. This is due to its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

  1. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Kang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Durán Retamal, José Ramón; Kang, Chen-Fang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Teng-Han; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Wu, Chih-I; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85?°C is over 3?×?104?sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity?=?90% at 85?°C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments. PMID:26455819

  2. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Yang, Po-Kang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Durán Retamal, José Ramón; Kang, Chen-Fang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Teng-Han; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Wu, Chih-I; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85?°C is over 3?×?10(4)?sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity?=?90% at 85?°C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments. PMID:26455819

  3. A Fully Transparent Resistive Memory for Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Po-Kang; Ho, Chih-Hsiang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Durán Retamal, José Ramón; Kang, Chen-Fang; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Huang, Teng-Han; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Wu, Chih-I.; He-Hau, Jr.

    2015-10-01

    A fully transparent resistive memory (TRRAM) based on Hafnium oxide (HfO2) with excellent transparency, resistive switching capability, and environmental stability is demonstrated. The retention time measured at 85?°C is over 3?×?104?sec, and no significant degradation is observed in 130 cycling test. Compared with ZnO TRRAM, HfO2 TRRAM shows reliable performance under harsh conditions, such as high oxygen partial pressure, high moisture (relative humidity?=?90% at 85?°C), corrosive agent exposure, and proton irradiation. Moreover, HfO2 TRRAM fabricated in cross-bar array structures manifests the feasibility of future high density memory applications. These findings not only pave the way for future TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of HfO2 TRRAM for harsh environments.

  4. Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

  5. Where is hidden the ghost in phantom sensations?

    PubMed Central

    Buonocore, Michelangelo

    2015-01-01

    The term phantom sensations (PS) refers to sensations in a missing body part. They are almost universal in amputees and can be both painful and not painful. Although PS have been frequently described in limb amputees, they can also occur in other clinical conditions and several pathophysiological interpretations have been proposed, with a predominance of theories based on a central origin. Actually, different mechanisms are able to create a phantom sensation. After an amputation, PS are frequently generated by the genesis of ectopic action potentials in the interrupted nerve fibers but the PS generator can also be more proximal. Sometimes PS are not created by the stimulation of somatosensory fibers with a missing territory, but they can be the result of central sensitization or neuroplastic changes that allow for the convergence of impulses coming from different body parts (referred sensations), one of which is missing. In conclusion, PS can be generated by both neuropathic and non-neuropathic mechanisms developed in the amputated body part or in other parts of the nervous system. Since these mechanisms are not pathognomonic of amputation there are no hidden ghosts to look for in phantom sensations. The only interpretative rule is just to follow the pathophysiological principles. PMID:26244147

  6. High Temperature Electronics for Intelligent Harsh Environment Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Laura J.

    2008-01-01

    The development of intelligent instrumentation systems is of high interest in both public and private sectors. In order to obtain this ideal in extreme environments (i.e., high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation), both sensors and electronics must be developed concurrently in order that the entire system will survive for extended periods of time. The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. The advantages of SiC over conventional materials include its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical properties in harsh environments, and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

  7. Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements

    SciTech Connect

    W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

    1999-09-19

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  8. Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

    1999-09-01

    Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

  9. Dopamine Regulates Approach-Avoidance in Human Sensation-Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Winston, Joel S.; Roiser, Jonathan P.; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sensation-seeking is a trait that constitutes an important vulnerability factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost. However, little is understood either about the mechanisms underlying motivation for intense sensory experiences or their neuropharmacological modulation in humans. Methods: Here, we first evaluate a novel paradigm to investigate sensation-seeking in humans. This test probes the extent to which participants choose either to avoid or self-administer an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric stimulation) orthogonal to performance on a simple economic decision-making task. Next we investigate in a different set of participants whether this behavior is sensitive to manipulation of dopamine D2 receptors using a within-subjects, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Results: In both samples, individuals with higher self-reported sensation-seeking chose a greater proportion of mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli, even when this involved sacrifice of monetary gain. Computational modelling analysis determined that people who assigned an additional positive economic value to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli exhibited speeding of responses when choosing these stimuli. In contrast, those who assigned a negative value exhibited slowed responses. These findings are consistent with involvement of low-level, approach-avoidance processes. Furthermore, the D2 antagonist haloperidol selectively decreased the additional economic value assigned to mild electric stimulation-associated stimuli in individuals who showed approach reactions to these stimuli under normal conditions (behavioral high-sensation seekers). Conclusions: These findings provide the first direct evidence of sensation-seeking behavior being driven by an approach-avoidance–like mechanism, modulated by dopamine, in humans. They provide a framework for investigation of psychopathologies for which extreme sensation-seeking constitutes a vulnerability factor. PMID:25857822

  10. Experimental Research Examining How People Can Cope with Uncertainty Through Soft Haptic Sensations.

    PubMed

    van Horen, Femke; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Human beings are constantly surrounded by uncertainty and change. The question arises how people cope with such uncertainty. To date, most research has focused on the cognitive strategies people adopt to deal with uncertainty. However, especially when uncertainty is due to unpredictable societal events (e.g., economical crises, political revolutions, terrorism threats) of which one is unable to judge the impact on one's future live, cognitive strategies (like seeking additional information) is likely to fail to combat uncertainty. Instead, the current paper discusses a method demonstrating that people might deal with uncertainty experientially through soft haptic sensations. More specifically, because touching something soft creates a feeling of comfort and security, people prefer objects with softer as compared to harder properties when feeling uncertain. Seeking for softness is a highly efficient and effective tool to deal with uncertainty as our hands are available at all times. This protocol describes a set of methods demonstrating 1) how environmental (un)certainty can be situationally activated with an experiential priming procedure, 2) that the quality of the softness experience (what type of softness and how it is experienced) matters and 3) how uncertainty can be reduced using different methods. PMID:26436729

  11. Vibrotactile stimulation promotes embodiment of an alien hand in amputees with phantom sensations.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Marco; Clemente, Francesco; Cipriani, Christian

    2015-05-01

    Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control and to promote the sense of self-attribution of a prosthetic limb. Recent findings showed that amputees can be tricked to experience this embodiment, when synchronous and modality-matched stimuli are delivered to biological afferent structures and to an alien rubber hand. Hence, it was suggested to exploit this effect by coupling touch sensors in a prosthesis to an array of haptic tactile stimulators in the prosthetic socket. However, this approach is not clinically viable due to physical limits of current haptic devices. To address this issue we have proposed modality-mismatched stimulation and demonstrated that this promotes self-attribution of an alien hand on normally limbed subjects. In this work we investigated whether similar effects could be induced in transradial amputees with referred phantom sensations in a series of experiments fashioned after the Rubber Hand Illusion using vibrotactile stimulators. Results from three independent measures of embodiment demonstrated that vibrotactile sensory substitution elicits body-ownership of a rubber hand in transradial amputees. These results open up promising possibilities in this field; indeed miniature, safe and inexpensive vibrators could be fitted into commercially available prostheses and sockets to induce the illusion every time the prosthesis manipulates an object. PMID:25051556

  12. A cuttable multi-touch sensor

    E-print Network

    Olberding, Simon

    We propose cutting as a novel paradigm for ad-hoc customization of printed electronic components. As a first instantiation, we contribute a printed capacitive multi-touch sensor, which can be cut by the end-user to modify ...

  13. Shape recognition for capacitive touch display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarneri, I.; Capra, A.; Farinella, G. M.; Battiato, S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we present a technique to classify five common classes of shapes acquired with a capacitive touch display: finger, ear, cheek, hand hold, half ear-half cheek. The need of algorithms able to discriminate among the aforementioned shapes comes from the growing diffusion of touch screen based consumer devices (e.g. smartphones, tablet, etc.). In this context, detection and the recognition of fingers are fundamental tasks in many touch based user applications (e.g., mobile games). Shape recognition algorithms are also extremely useful to identify accidental touches in order to avoid involuntary activation of the device functionalities (e.g., accidental calls). Our solution makes use of simple descriptors designed to capture discriminative information of the considered classes of shapes. The recognition is performed through a decision tree based approach whose parameters are learned on a set of labeled samples. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed solution achieves good recognition accuracy.

  14. Concave points for separating touching particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Deisy; Trujillo, Maria; Barraza, Juan Manuel

    2015-03-01

    Separation of touching objects/particles is a step before measuring morphological characteristics. An approach for identifying and splitting touching char particles is presented. The proposed approach is based on two processes. First, concave points are detected using a concavity measure and a list of touching point candidates is built. Second, separation lines are identified using location, length, blur and size. A decision criterion is derived for deciding whether or not to split a particle. The proposed approach is evaluated using 180 images of char particles and compared to the Watershed algorithm. The evaluation was twofold: quantifying the accuracy of identifying touching particles and measuring the separation quality. Expert criteria are used as a ground truth for qualitative evaluations. A good agreement between the visual judgement and automatic results was obtained, using the proposed approach.

  15. A Serious Chemist -with a Light Touch

    E-print Network

    Faraon, Andrei

    A Serious Chemist -with a Light Touch Whatever the game-research, teaching, tennis, or tomfoolery was going on. Whatever the game-research, teach- ing, tennis, bridge, Monopoly,or tomfoolery-Harry Gray has

  16. [The language of touch in care].

    PubMed

    Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

    2013-03-01

    At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication. PMID:23641577

  17. Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

    Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on our extensive experiences with two types of interactive multi-touch tables and we introduce a software framework that abstracts from their technical differences.

  18. Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

    2014-01-01

    This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own temperaments, their marital relationship quality, and harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers’ (but not adoptive mothers’) harsh parenting was inversely related to an index of birth mother positive temperament (reward dependence), indicating evocative rGE. Higher marital quality was associated with less harsh parenting, but only for adoptive fathers. Adoptive parents’ negative temperamental characteristics (harm avoidance) were related to hostile parenting. Findings suggest the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

  19. Gesture-based Process Modeling Using Multi-Touch Devices

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    in com- panies range from smartphones to tablets to multi-touch tables and walls. Obviously, screen size interviewing process #12;participants. In turn, multi-touch devices having larger screens (e.g., multi- touch. The core gesture set we suggest is applicable to all screen sizes independent of the multi-touch device

  20. Double-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices

    E-print Network

    Chu, Hao-hua

    finger touch screens. Copyright is held by the author/owner(s). CHI 2009, April 4 ­ 9, 2009, Boston, MA a single-touch pad to the rear side of a small screen device, to enable interactive use of the back to interact with the main front-side screen. LucidTouch [8] also enables users to operate a touch screen from

  1. Beyond QWERTY: Augmenting Touch-Screen Keyboards with Multi-Touch Gestures for Non-Alphanumeric Input

    E-print Network

    Daume III, Hal

    Beyond QWERTY: Augmenting Touch-Screen Keyboards with Multi-Touch Gestures for Non text input on touch screens, the vast majority of this research ignores non-alphanumeric input (i.e., punctuation, symbols, and modifiers). To support this input, widely adopted commercial touch-screen interfaces

  2. Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

  3. Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

    2006-05-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

  4. Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

  5. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman?s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers. PMID:26364127

  6. E. Mach on the analysis of motion sensation.

    PubMed

    Henn, V

    1984-01-01

    Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his many and widely read publications contributed to physics, physiology, and philosophy. His work on the analysis of motion sensation is discussed in the light of contemporary ideas and modern concepts of vestibular physiology. PMID:6384156

  7. Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

  8. Sensation Seeking and Targeting of Televised Anti-Drug PSAs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohew, Lewis; And Others

    A study was conducted to determine how to reach out in an effective manner via televised public service announcements (PSAs) to particular at-risk audiences to motivate participation in drug abuse prevention programs. The subjects (207 young adults in Fayette County, Kentucky) responded to the M. Zuckerman sensation-seeking questionnaire. They…

  9. A Vestibular Sensation: Probabilistic Approaches to Spatial Perception

    E-print Network

    Snyder, Larry

    system is also critical for a number of autonomic and limbic system functions (Balaban, 1999; Yates.neuron.2009.11.010 The vestibular system helps maintain equilibrium and clear vision through reflexes sensations and perceptions. There is also a stealth sixth sensory system that often flies below our conscious

  10. Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

  11. Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreiner, David S.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

  12. Definition Of Touch-Sensitive Zones For Graphical Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monroe, Burt L., III; Jones, Denise R.

    1988-01-01

    Touch zones defined simply by touching, while editing done automatically. Development of touch-screen interactive computing system, tedious task. Interactive Editor for Definition of Touch-Sensitive Zones computer program increases efficiency of human/machine communications by enabling user to define each zone interactively, minimizing redundancy in programming and eliminating need for manual computation of boundaries of touch areas. Information produced during editing process written to data file, to which access gained when needed by application program.

  13. What role does sensation play in our awareness of bodily position? 

    E-print Network

    Sandilands, Emilia

    2011-11-23

    I attempt to draw out some difficulties with what may at first seem an intuitive and uncontroversial picture of tactile sensation - a picture of tactile sensation as perception of spatial locations where these spatial locations serve as the units...

  14. Fabrication of a CMOS compatible pressure sensor for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakula, L. S.; Yang, H.; Pham, H. T. M.; French, P. J.; Sarro, P. M.

    2004-11-01

    The fabrication and characteristics of CMOS compatible absolute pressure sensors for harsh environments are presented in this paper. The sensor which was fabricated using post-processing surface micromachining consists of 100 circular membranes with a total capacity of 14 pF. PECVD SiC was used due to its good mechanical properties, but since SiC has high resistivity, aluminium layers were used for electrodes. The stiction problems were avoided by using polyimide PI2610 as a sacrificial layer. The pressure sensors were fabricated and the change of capacitance over full pressure range, 5 bar, was 3.4 pF.

  15. Music reduces sensation and distress of labor pain.

    PubMed

    Phumdoung, Sasitorn; Good, Marion

    2003-06-01

    Labor pain is often severe, and analgesic medication may not be indicated. In this randomized controlled trial we examined the effects of music on sensation and distress of pain in Thai primiparous women during the active phase of labor. The gate control theory of pain was the theoretical framework for this study. Randomization with a computerized minimization program was used to assign women to a music group (n = 55) or a control group (n = 55). Women in the intervention group listened to soft music without lyrics for 3 hours starting early in the active phase of labor. Dual visual analog scales were used to measure sensation and distress of pain before starting the study and at three hourly posttests. While controlling for pretest scores, one-way repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that those in the music group had significantly less sensation and distress of pain than did the control group (F (1, 107) = 18.69, p <.001, effect size =.15, and F (1, 107) = 14.87, p <.001, effect size =.12), respectively. Sensation and distress significantly increased across the 3 hours in both groups (p <.001), except for distress in the music group during the first hour. Distress was significantly lower than sensation in both groups (p <.05). In this controlled study, music--a mild to moderate strength intervention--consistently provided significant relief of severe pain across 3 hours of labor and delayed the increase of affective pain for 1 hour. Nurses can provide soft music to laboring women for greater pain relief during the active phase when contractions are strong and women suffer. PMID:12836149

  16. The Sound of Touch In this paper we describe the Sound of Touch, a new

    E-print Network

    The Sound of Touch Abstract In this paper we describe the Sound of Touch, a new instrument for real-time capture and sensitive physical stimulation of sound samples using digital convolution. Our hand-held wand can be used to (1) record sound, then (2) playback the recording by brushing, scraping, striking

  17. Touching the Void Introducing CoST: Corpus of Social Touch

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    social inter- action. To transfer the tactile modality from interpersonal interaction to other areas such as Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) and remote communication automatic recognition of social touch. INTRODUCTION Touch behavior is one of the important non-verbal forms of social interaction as are visual cues

  18. S.N.A.K.E.: A Dynamically Reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin

    E-print Network

    S.N.A.K.E.: A Dynamically Reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin by Gerardo Barroeta P´erez B.N.A.K.E.: A Dynamically Reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin by Gerardo Barroeta P´erez Submitted to the Program Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether

  19. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  20. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2012-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

  1. Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

    2001-09-01

    This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

  2. Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

  3. Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

  4. Perception of touch quality in piano tones.

    PubMed

    Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

  5. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  6. High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

    2007-01-01

    In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable operation in harsh 500C environments. This has included world record operation of SiC-based transistor technology (including packaging) that has demonstrated continuous electrical operation at 500C for over 2000 hours. Based on SiC electronics, development of high temperature wireless communication has been on-going. This work has concentrated on maturing the SiC electronic devices for communication purposes as well as the passive components such as resistors and capacitors needed to enable a high temperature wireless system. The objective is to eliminate wires associated with high temperature sensors which add weight to a vehicle and can be a cause of sensor unreliability. This paper discusses the development of SiC based electronics and wireless communications technology for harsh environment applications such as propulsion health management systems and in Venus missions. A brief overview of the future directions in sensor technology is given including maturing of near-room temperature "Lick and Stick" leak sensor technology for possible implementation in the Crew Launch Vehicle program. Then an overview of high temperature electronics and the development of high temperature communication systems is presented. The maturity of related technologies such as sensor and packaging will also be discussed. It is concluded that a significant component of efforts to improve the intelligence of harsh environment operating systems is the development and implementation of high temperature wireless technology

  7. The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation

    PubMed Central

    Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

    2013-01-01

    It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

  8. Quantitative sensory testing of temperature, pain, and touch in adults with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Knegt, Nanda; Defrin, Ruth; Schuengel, Carlo; Lobbezoo, Frank; Evenhuis, Heleen; Scherder, Erik

    2015-12-01

    The spinothalamic pathway mediates sensations of temperature, pain, and touch. These functions seem impaired in children with Down syndrome (DS), but have not been extensively examined in adults. The objective of the present study was to compare the spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between adults with DS and adults from the general population and to examine in the DS group the relationship between the sensory functions and level of intellectual functioning. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was performed in 188 adults with DS (mean age 37.5 years) and 142 age-matched control participants (median age 40.5 years). Temperature, pain, and touch were evaluated with tests for cold-warm discrimination, sharp-dull discrimination (pinprick), and tactile threshold, respectively. Level of intellectual functioning was estimated with the Social Functioning Scale for Intellectual Disability (intellectual disability level) and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (intelligence level). Overall, the difference in spinothalamic-mediated sensory functions between the DS and control groups was not statistically significant. However, DS participants with a lower intelligence level had a statistically significant lower performance on the sharp-dull discrimination test than DS participants with higher intelligence level (adjusted p=.006) and control participants (adjusted p=.017). It was concluded that intellectual functioning level is an important factor to take into account for the assessment of spinothalamic-mediated sensory functioning in adults with DS: a lower level could coincide with impaired sensory functioning, but could also hamper QST assessment. PMID:26460852

  9. P2Y1 purinergic receptors in sensory neurons: contribution to touch-induced impulse generation.

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, F; Strittmatter, S M

    1996-01-01

    Somatic sensation requires the conversion of physical stimuli into the depolarization of distal nerve endings. A single cRNA derived from sensory neurons renders Xenopus laevis oocytes mechanosensitive and is found to encode a P2Y1 purinergic receptor. P2Y1 mRNA is concentrated in large-fiber dorsal root ganglion neurons. In contrast, P2X3 mRNA is localized to small-fiber sensory neurons and produces less mechanosensitivity in oocytes. The frequency of touch-induced action potentials from frog sensory nerve fibers is increased by the presence of P2 receptor agonists at the peripheral nerve ending and is decreased by the presence of P2 antagonists. P2X-selective agents do not have these effects. The release of ATP into the extracellular space and the activation of peripheral P2Y1 receptors appear to participate in the generation of sensory action potentials by light touch. Images Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8816824

  10. The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harsimrat; Bauer, Markus; Chowanski, Wojtek; Sui, Yi; Atkinson, Douglas; Baurley, Sharon; Fry, Martin; Evans, Joe; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10–20 Hz) – and a beta-band response (25–30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements. PMID:25426047

  11. The rubber hand illusion depends on the tactile congruency of the observed and felt touch.

    PubMed

    Ward, Jamie; Mensah, Ajua; Jünemann, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    The rubber hand illusion (RHI) occurs when the participants' own unseen hand is stroked in synchrony with an observed rubber hand. It manifests itself in terms of a tendency to misreport the position of one's own hand as nearer to the rubber hand (proprioceptive drift) and in terms of feelings of ownership of the rubber hand. Many studies have examined whether the illusion depends on characteristics of the hand (e.g., orientation, skin color), but very few have examined the importance of the tool that delivers the tactile sensation. We demonstrate that the RHI depends on the congruency of the tool used to stroke the real/rubber hands. The RHI is diminished when using tools that are incongruent with respect to their visual appearance and predicted tactile consequences (e.g., touching the dummy with a pencil and the real hand with a paintbrush) relative to when they are congruent. Theoretical models of visuotactile integration used to explain the RHI need to be extended to incorporate the qualitative nature of the observed and felt touch and not just its synchrony and location. PMID:26191614

  12. Flexible graphene woven fabrics for touch sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Xiao; Yang, Tingting; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Rujing; Zhu, Miao; Zhang, Hongze; Xie, Dan; Wei, Jinquan; Zhong, Minlin; Wang, Kunlin; Wu, Dehai; Li, Zhihong; Zhu, Hongwei

    2013-04-01

    Graphene woven fabric (GWF) prepared from chemical vapor deposition was used as smart self-sensing element to assemble piezoresistor through directly transferring onto the flexible substrate poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with the deposited Ti/Au electrodes. A rational strategy was proposed to fabricate flexible touch sensors easily and effectively with the full usage of the mechanical and electrical properties of GWF, whose resistance is highly sensitive to macro-deformation or micro-defect. Compared to commercial and traditional touch sensing, the GWF-on-PDMS piezoresistor is structurally flexible that is demanded under special conditions and meanwhile makes the piezoresistor to have excellent durability.

  13. Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity

    PubMed Central

    Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

  14. Enhanced turret mooring system for harsh environment operation

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, P.; Askestad, S.; Schoemaker, J.; Hansen, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    Framnaes Engineering AS together with Norsk Hydro AS have developed an enhanced turret mooring system based on proven of the shelf technology for permanent moored production ships with high oil and gas production rates and multi production risers and umbilical systems suitable for harsh weather and North Sea type environmental conditions. The main elements in the turret named FETurr are patented. The design described in this document is for an imaginary field with a production rate of 12000sM3 accommodating 12 risers, however the configurations can be adjusted to fields with more complex subsea systems and higher/lower number of wells. Designs have been performed for up to 24 risers, 9 umbilicals and 12 mooring lines.

  15. Qualification and Testing of Quantum Cascade Lasers for Harsh Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brauer, C. S.; Myers, T. L.; Cannon, B. D.; Anderson, C. G.; Crowther, B. G.; Hansen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) offer the potential for the development of novel, laser-based instruments for both terrestrial and space applications. In order to withstand harsh conditions encountered in these environments, lasers must be robust, and rigorous testing is required before new systems can be utilized. A particular concern for space applications is the potential damage to laser performance caused by radiation exposure. While the effects of radiation exposure in diode lasers have been studied extensively, the effect on QCLs, which are fundamentally different from diode lasers, is not well known. We thus present work to quantify the performance of QCLs after exposure to moderate and high levels of radiation from different sources, including protons and gamma rays, to determine the effects of radiation damage.

  16. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

  17. Rugged spinel windows and optics for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Busse, Lynda; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Aggarwal, Ishwar

    2013-05-01

    Spinel is a rugged ceramic transparent from ultraviolet to midwave infrared (0.18 - 5.5 ?m) wavelengths. It has the best transmission from 4-5 ?m among the competing materials ALON and sapphire with comparable mechanical properties. We have developed low absorption loss spinel as an exit window aperture for High Energy Laser systems. We demonstrated that spinel possesses excellent thermo-optical characteristics required for the High Energy Laser systems and at the same time it can provide the necessary ruggedness desired for the realistic and harsh battlefield environment. We have demonstrated through testing that spinel can withstand very adverse conditions of rain, sand storms and salt fog conditions without any change in its optical performance. We have also developed rugged anti-reflective coatings and anti-reflective surface structures to maintain high optical transmission in adverse environment.

  18. Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao -Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-05-24

    In this study, langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensormore »with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.« less

  19. Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

  20. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2013-01-01

    Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

  1. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  2. Solidly mounted resonators aging under harsh environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivira, B.; Fillit, R. Y.; Ndagijimana, F.; Benech, Ph; Boussey, J.; Parat, G.; Ancey, P.

    2006-04-01

    A contribution to reliability studies of Solidly Mounted Resonators (SMR) submitted to harsh environments such as temperature and humidity is presented. Electrical, structural and chemical monitoring of representative parameters is performed by means of RF, DC characterizations and also X-ray diffraction coupled to X-fluorescence to assess aging in microstructures. Results indicate that humidity affects samples stronger than high temperature. From viewpoint of robustness, non-negligible effects of SiO2 mass-loading on antiresonance and resonance frequencies are reported. Drifts of parameters for a lonely resonator and filter transmission are both in good accordance. Finally, the need of a full sheet passivation layer is demonstrated in order to protect metals and Aluminum Nitride (AlN) against oxidation and pollutant compounds respectively.

  3. Reliably Powering Remote Seismic Stations in a Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estes, S. A.; Rukick, R.; Hansen, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    Three decades of experience in the operation of remote seismic stations in Alaska has demonstrated the need for reliable power systems in a harsh arctic environment. Legacy remote power systems have included Edison Aircells, a primary battery; Gel Cells, a secondary (rechargeable battery) and photovoltaic panels; wind generators; and propane TEG (thermal electric generators). The most reliable were the primary battery system but they were expensive, needed replacement every year and increasingly became a hazardous waste disposal problem. We have combined several of these power technologies to provide reliable, cost effective power for our current generation of analog and digital remotely powered seismic stations in Alaska with the use of a power controller. The features of the power controller are: to provide redundant power system control, solar panel voltage regulation, secondary battery charge regulation, state-of-heath output, and a primary battery "fuel gauge". Results of operations are presented.

  4. Engineering food crops to grow in harsh environments

    PubMed Central

    López-Arredondo, Damar; González-Morales, Sandra Isabel; Bello-Bello, Elohim; Alejo-Jacuinde, Gerardo; Herrera, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Achieving sustainable agriculture and producing enough food for the increasing global population will require effective strategies to cope with harsh environments such as water and nutrient stress, high temperatures and compacted soils with high impedance that drastically reduce crop yield. Recent advances in the understanding of the molecular, cellular and epigenetic mechanisms that orchestrate plant responses to abiotic stress will serve as the platform to engineer improved crop plants with better designed root system architecture and optimized metabolism to enhance water and nutrients uptake and use efficiency and/or soil penetration. In this review we discuss such advances and how the generated knowledge could be used to integrate effective strategies to engineer crops by gene transfer or genome editing technologies. PMID:26380074

  5. Beyond re-membering: Phantom sensations of congenitally absent limbs

    PubMed Central

    Brugger, Peter; Kollias, Spyros S.; Müri, René M.; Crelier, Gérard; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Regard, Marianne

    2000-01-01

    Phantom limbs are traditionally conceptualized as the phenomenal persistence of a body part after deafferentation. Previous clinical observations of subjects with phantoms of congenitally absent limbs are not compatible with this view, but, in the absence of experimental work, the neural basis of such “aplasic phantoms” has remained enigmatic. In this paper, we report a series of behavioral, imaging, and neurophysiological experiments with a university-educated woman born without forearms and legs, who experiences vivid phantom sensations of all four limbs. Visuokinesthetic integration of tachistoscopically presented drawings of hands and feet indicated an intact somatic representation of these body parts. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of phantom hand movements showed no activation of primary sensorimotor areas, but of premotor and parietal cortex bilaterally. Movements of the existing upper arms produced activation expanding into the hand territories deprived of afferences and efferences. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the sensorimotor cortex consistently elicited phantom sensations in the contralateral fingers and hand. In addition, premotor and parietal stimulation evoked similar phantom sensations, albeit in the absence of motor evoked potentials in the stump. These data indicate that body parts that have never been physically developed can be represented in sensory and motor cortical areas. Both genetic and epigenetic factors, such as the habitual observation of other people moving their limbs, may contribute to the conscious experience of aplasic phantoms. PMID:10801982

  6. Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyosawa, Satoshi; Kawai, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.

  7. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  8. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. PMID:26674408

  9. The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezuka, Emiko

    1997-01-01

    A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

  10. Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    , including the top paid games, the top free games, and the most popular games, and so on, and providesMobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick

  11. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  12. Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

  13. Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

    2014-01-01

    The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

  14. The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Elaine Fogel

    1996-01-01

    The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

  15. Weak spatial constancy in touch Mark Wexler

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    perception. In vision, spatial constancy refers to the conversion of retinotopic signals into spatiotopicWeak spatial constancy in touch Mark Wexler CNRS & Universit´e Paris Descartes Vincent Hayward Universit´e Pierre et Marie Curie ABSTRACT We propose extending the concept of spatial constancy to haptic

  16. Artificial Skin Could Bring Sense of Touch to Prosthetics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155174.html Artificial Skin Could Bring Sense of Touch to Prosthetics ... a sense of touch, scientists have developed an artificial skin that can "feel" pressure and send those ...

  17. TaSST: Affective Mediated Touch Adun Darriba Frederiks

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    chosen for remote touch not to feel as alien or detached. Indeed a number of devices have explored remoteTaSST: Affective Mediated Touch Aduén Darriba Frederiks Digital Life Centre Amsterdam University

  18. Art & Games: Sensational Activities for Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Susan J.; McNerney, Peg

    This booklet offers learning activities for children with disabilities grouped into art activities, activities that encourage interaction, and activities that encourage movement. The activities emphasize touch, smell, sight, and hearing to allow children to utilize their strongest senses. Each activity is presented with possible goals, materials,…

  19. Touching is believing : sensing and analyzing touch information with GelSight

    E-print Network

    Li, Rui, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    For robots to perform advanced manipulation in a world of unknowns, touch is a critical source of information, and a high-quality tactile sensor is essential. However, existing tactile sensors generally are low-resolution ...

  20. Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yookyong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

  1. Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

    2014-10-01

    Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

  2. Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

  3. Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chare, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

  4. "Touch" in Educational and Child Care Settings: Dilemmas and Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Smith, Hannah

    2003-01-01

    This article considers the touching, or rather, not touching, of children and young people in professional settings. Some have argued that many schools and other childcare environments are becoming "no touch" zones. Formal guidelines in the UK are centrally concerned with "child protection" issues, and "force and control", and as such appear more…

  5. The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

  6. MeTA: Mediated Touch and Affect Gijs Huisman

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    MeTA: Mediated Touch and Affect Gijs Huisman Human Media Interaction Group University of Twente on aspects of the touch-technology- affect triangle (as it is exemplified in mediated social touch gijs.huisman@utwente.nl Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze UCL Interaction Centre University College London n

  7. Precise Selection Techniques for Multi-Touch Screens Hrvoje Benko

    E-print Network

    Benko, Hrvoje

    Precise Selection Techniques for Multi-Touch Screens Hrvoje Benko Department of Computer Science and the lack of sensing precision can make precise touch screen interactions difficult. We present a set Touch screens, tabletop displays, two-finger, bi-manual, interaction techniques, precise target

  8. Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Southeast University

    E-print Network

    Liu, Benyuan

    screen may breach user privacy. In this paper, we introduce the fin- gerprint attack against touch-enabled devices. We dust the touch screen surface to reveal fingerprints, and use an iPhone camera to carefully of our knowledge, we are the first using finger- print powder on touch screen and inferring passwords

  9. Dispatch 541 Mechanosensation: Touch at the molecular level

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    throughout most of the body. A saturated screen for touch-insensitive mutants -- termed the Mec phenotypeDispatch 541 Mechanosensation: Touch at the molecular level Jaime García-Añoveros and David P. Corey The cloning of genes needed for gentle-touch sensitivity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

  10. Effect of Touch-Screen Size on Game Matt Thompson

    E-print Network

    Cairns, Paul

    Effect of Touch-Screen Size on Game Immersion Matt Thompson Department of Computer Science York YO the influence on players' game immersion level by changing the size of the touch screen device used. We use two of touch screen could be an important factor to influence immersion in videogames. game, immersion, screen

  11. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings.

    PubMed

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  12. Friendly touch increases gratitude by inducing communal feelings

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Cláudia; Seibt, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Communion among people is easily identifiable. Close friends or relatives frequently touch each other and this physical contact helps identifying the type of relationship they have. We tested whether a friendly touch and benefits elicit the emotion of gratitude given the close link between gratitude and communal relations. In Study 1, we induced a communal mindset and manipulated friendly touch (vs. non-touch) and benefit to female participants by a female confederate. We measured pre- and post-benefit gratitude, communal feelings, and liking toward the toucher, as well as general affect. In Study 2, we manipulated mindset, friendly touch and benefit, and measured the same variables in female pairs (confederate and participants). In both studies the results showed a main effect of touch on pre-benefit gratitude: participants who were touched by the confederate indicated more gratitude than those not touched. Moreover, benefit increased gratitude toward a confederate in the absence of touch, but not in the presence of touch. Additionally, perceiving the relationship as communal, and not merely liking the confederate, or a positive mood mediated the link between touch and gratitude. The results further support a causal model where touch increases communal feelings, which in turn increase gratitude at the end of the interaction, after having received a benefit from the interaction partner. These results support a broader definition of gratitude as an emotion embodied in communal relationship cues. PMID:26124737

  13. Maternal Warmth Moderates the Link between Harsh Discipline and Later Externalizing Behaviors for Mexican American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Germán, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; McClain, Darya Bonds; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined maternal warmth as a moderator of the relation between harsh discipline practices and adolescent externalizing problems 1year later in low-income, Mexican American families. Design Participants were 189 adolescents and their mothers who comprised the control group of a longitudinal intervention program. Results Maternal warmth protected adolescents from the negative effects of harsh discipline such that, at higher levels of maternal warmth, there was no relation between harsh discipline and externalizing problems after controlling for baseline levels of externalizing problems and other covariates. At lower levels of maternal warmth, there was a positive relation between harsh discipline practices and later externalizing problems. Conclusions To understand the role of harsh discipline in the development of Mexican American youth outcomes, researchers must consider contextual variables that may affect youths’ perceptions of their parents’ behavior such as maternal warmth. PMID:23894229

  14. A method of reducing the perceived latency of touch input by employing a model to predict touch events before the

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    of latency - for direct touch systems, it has been measured as low as 24ms when tapping the screen [20 to the touch at the predicted point before the finger lands on the screen. The timing of the trigger is tunedABSTRACT A method of reducing the perceived latency of touch input by employing a model to predict

  15. Sensation seeking genes and physical activity in youth

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Wang, Jian; Bondy, Melissa L.; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xifeng; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret R.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multi-determined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a boarder range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study we focus on one such correlate – sensation seeking behavior. Participants (N=1,130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation seeking tendencies in 2008–09. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males – 37.6%; females – 22.0%) reported ?60 minutes of PA on five out of seven days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in ACE (rs8066276 OR=1.44; p=0.012) and TPH2 (rs11615016 OR=1.73; p=0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in SNAP25 (rs363035 OR=0.53; p=0.005) and CNR1 (rs6454672 OR=0.62; p=0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings. PMID:23190435

  16. Psychology)301,)Section)2)Syllabus) Sensation)&)Perception)

    E-print Network

    0up0to020extra0credit0points.0Details0to0come.0 0 Class)Policies) 0 Cell0phones0must0be0off0or0set0Psychology)301,)Section)2)Syllabus) Sensation)&)Perception) Fall)2014) Mon.,)Thurs.)4:10pmA5:25pmempirical0data0relating0to0stimulus0detection,0encoding0 and0perception0as0a0function0of0variables0including

  17. Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion

    PubMed Central

    Gentsch, Antje; Panagiotopoulou, Elena; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    Summary Social touch plays a powerful role in human life, with important physical and mental health benefits in development and adulthood. Touch is central in building the foundations of social interaction, attachment, and cognition [1–5], and early, social touch has unique, beneficial neurophysiological and epigenetic effects [6–9]. The recent discovery of a separate neurophysiological system for affectively laden touch in humans has further kindled scientific interest in the area [10, 11]. Remarkably, however, little is known about what motivates and sustains the human tendency to touch others in a pro-social manner. Given the importance of social touch, we hypothesized that active stroking elicits more sensory pleasure when touching others’ skin than when touching one’s own skin. In a set of six experiments (total N = 133) we found that healthy participants, mostly tested in pairs to account for any objective differences in skin softness, consistently judged another’s skin as feeling softer and smoother than their own skin. We further found that this softness illusion appeared selectively when the touch activated a neurophysiological system for affective touch in the receiver. We conclude that this sensory illusion underlies a novel, bodily mechanism of socio-affective bonding and enhances our motivation to touch others. PMID:26365257

  18. Active Interpersonal Touch Gives Rise to the Social Softness Illusion.

    PubMed

    Gentsch, Antje; Panagiotopoulou, Elena; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-09-21

    Social touch plays a powerful role in human life, with important physical and mental health benefits in development and adulthood. Touch is central in building the foundations of social interaction, attachment, and cognition [1-5], and early, social touch has unique, beneficial neurophysiological and epigenetic effects [6-9]. The recent discovery of a separate neurophysiological system for affectively laden touch in humans has further kindled scientific interest in the area [10, 11]. Remarkably, however, little is known about what motivates and sustains the human tendency to touch others in a pro-social manner. Given the importance of social touch, we hypothesized that active stroking elicits more sensory pleasure when touching others' skin than when touching one's own skin. In a set of six experiments (total N = 133) we found that healthy participants, mostly tested in pairs to account for any objective differences in skin softness, consistently judged another's skin as feeling softer and smoother than their own skin. We further found that this softness illusion appeared selectively when the touch activated a neurophysiological system for affective touch in the receiver. We conclude that this sensory illusion underlies a novel, bodily mechanism of socio-affective bonding and enhances our motivation to touch others. PMID:26365257

  19. Turret mooring system design and analysis for harsh environments

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.; Judge, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses key factors that must be considered in the design and analysis of internal turret mooring systems for ship-shaped FPSO vessels in harsh environments. Peculiarities of this type of mooring system, such as extreme sensitivity to non-collinear environments, excessive vertical motions at the fairleads, and complicated thruster control strategies, require that design and analysis of the mooring system be closely interrelated to other subsystems such as turret and riser systems, as well as to the vessel itself. In addition, the selection of the mooring design code that will be followed can have a significant impact on the final mooring lime tensions derived, and it is important to understand the types of analytical approaches that can be used as well as their limitations when applied to turret moored vessels. Model testing, especially for turret moored FPSOs, can prove particularly beneficial if properly planned. With advance knowledge and understanding of the possible implications of all these factors, trade-offs in the FPSO mooring system design can be properly evaluated.

  20. Harsh-environment fiber optic sensors for structural monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielder, Robert S.; Stinson-Bagby, Kelly L.; Palmer, Matthew E.

    2004-07-01

    The objective of the work presented was to develop a suite of sensors for use in high-temperature aerospace environments, including turbine engine monitoring, hypersonic vehicle skin friction measurements, and support ground and flight test operations. A fiber optic sensor platform was used to construct the sensor suite. Successful laboratory demonstrations include calibration of a pressure sensor to 100psi at a gas temperature of 800°C, calibration of an accelerometer to 2.5g at a substrate temperature of 850°C. Temperature sensors have been field tested up to 1400°C, and a skin friction sensor designed for 870°C operation has been constructed. The key advancement that enabled the operation of these novel harsh environment sensors was a fiber optic packaging methodology that allowed the coupling of alumina and sapphire transducer components, optical fiber, and high-temperature alloy housing materials. The basic operation of the sensors and early experimental results are presented. Each of the sensors described here represent a quantifiable advancement in the state of the art in high-temperature physical sensors and will have a significant impact on the aerospace propulsion instrumentation industry.

  1. Technologies and Materials for Recovering Waste Heat in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Nimbalkar, Sachin U.; Thekdi, Arvind; Rogers, Benjamin M.; Kafka, Orion L.; Wenning, Thomas J.

    2014-12-15

    A large amount (7,204 TBtu/year) of energy is used for process heating by the manufacturing sector in the United States (US). This energy is in the form of fuels mostly natural gas with some coal or other fuels and steam generated using fuels such as natural gas, coal, by-product fuels, and some others. Combustion of these fuels results in the release of heat, which is used for process heating, and in the generation of combustion products that are discharged from the heating system. All major US industries use heating equipment such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, kilns, and dryers. The hot exhaust gases from this equipment, after providing the necessary process heat, are discharged into the atmosphere through stacks. This report deals with identification of industries and industrial heating processes in which the exhaust gases are at high temperature (>1200 F), contain all of the types of reactive constituents described, and can be considered as harsh or contaminated. It also identifies specific issues related to WHR for each of these processes or waste heat streams.

  2. High temperature, harsh environment sensors for advanced power generation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohodnicki, P. R.; Credle, S.; Buric, M.; Lewis, R.; Seachman, S.

    2015-05-01

    One mission of the Crosscutting Technology Research program at the National Energy Technology Laboratory is to develop a suite of sensors and controls technologies that will ultimately increase efficiencies of existing fossil-fuel fired power plants and enable a new generation of more efficient and lower emission power generation technologies. The program seeks to accomplish this mission through soliciting, managing, and monitoring a broad range of projects both internal and external to the laboratory which span sensor material and device development, energy harvesting and wireless telemetry methodologies, and advanced controls algorithms and approaches. A particular emphasis is placed upon harsh environment sensing for compatibility with high temperature, erosive, corrosive, and highly reducing or oxidizing environments associated with large-scale centralized power generation. An overview of the full sensors and controls portfolio is presented and a selected set of current and recent research successes and on-going projects are highlighted. A more detailed emphasis will be placed on an overview of the current research thrusts and successes of the in-house sensor material and device research efforts that have been established to support the program.

  3. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  4. Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

    2014-06-01

    Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

  5. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch.

    PubMed

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25-30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  6. The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch

    PubMed Central

    Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

  7. Transparent and conformal 'piezoionic' touch sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    us Sarwar, Mirza S.; Dobashi, Yuta; Scabeni Glitz, Ettore F.; Farajollahi, Meisam; Mirabbasi, Shahriar; Naficy, Sina; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Madden, John D. W.

    2015-04-01

    A polyurethane hydrogel based touch sensor with high transparency and conformability is demonstrated. Polyurethane hydrogels swollen with various electrolytes were compressed at a pressure of 30 kPa, simulating a fingertap on a conventional touch screen device. Unlike ionic polymer metal composite and conducting polymer trilayer sensors, where electrodes render the sensors opaque and relatively rigid, the electrodes used in this work are metal wires or strips, separated from each other by regions of transparent film, enabling transparency and compliance. The voltages and currents observed when the perturbation is above one electrode are on the order of 10-2 V and 10-7 A, relative to a second electrode that is approximately 1 cm away. The sign of voltage and current signals detected from perturbations made between electrodes is determined by relative proximity to each electrode, and the magnitude appears to decrease with increasing distance from the electrodes. These observations suggest that it may be possible to discriminate the location of touch based on signals transmitted to the edges of an ionically conductive film. A model to describe the inhomogeneous ionic distribution and predict the resultant voltage and current is presented to qualitatively explain the sensing, based on the Donnan potential.

  8. Human perception of shape from touch

    PubMed Central

    Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers. PMID:21969692

  9. Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation seeking and delinquent behavior were assessed biennially between ages 10–11 and 16–17 in a nationally representative sample of 7,675 youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth: Children and Young Adults (CNLSY). Analyses using latent growth curve modeling found that within-person change in sensation seeking was significantly and positively correlated with within-person change in delinquency from childhood to adolescence. Furthermore, behavioral genetic analyses of a subset of 2,562 sibling pairs indicated that there were substantial genetic influences on both initial levels of sensation seeking and change in sensation seeking during early adolescence, with over 80% of individual differences in change due to genetic factors. Finally, these genetically driven increases in sensation seeking were most important for predicting increases in delinquency, whereas environmental paths between sensation seeking and delinquency were not significant. These results suggest that developmental changes in delinquent behaviors during adolescence are driven by a genetically governed process of personality change. PMID:22251301

  10. Placebo-Induced Somatic Sensations: A Multi-Modal Study of Three Different Placebo Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Beissner, Florian; Brünner, Franziska; Fink, Maria; Meissner, Karin; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Napadow, Vitaly

    2015-01-01

    Somatic sensations induced by placebos are a frequent phenomenon whose etiology and clinical relevance remains unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the quantitative, qualitative, spatial, and temporal characteristics of placebo-induced somatic sensations in response to three different placebo interventions: (1) placebo irritant solution, (2) placebo laser stimulation, and (3) imagined laser stimulation. The quality and intensity of evoked sensations were assessed using the McGill pain questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS), while subjects’ sensation drawings processed by a geographic information system (GIS) were used to measure their spatial characteristics. We found that all three interventions are capable of producing robust sensations most frequently described as “tingling” and “warm” that can reach consider-able spatial extent (? 205mm²) and intensity (? 80/100 VAS). Sensations from placebo stimulation were often referred to areas remote from the stimulation site and exhibit considerable similarity with referred pain. Interestingly, there was considerable similarity of qualitative features as well as spatial patterns across subjects and placebos. However, placebo laser stimulation elicited significantly stronger and more widespread sensations than placebo irritant solution. Finally, novelty seeking, a character trait assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and associated with basal dopaminergic activity, was less pronounced in subjects susceptible to report placebo-induced sensations. Our study has shown that placebo-induced sensations are frequent and can reach considerable intensity and extent. As multiple somatosensory subsystems are involved despite the lack of peripheral stimulus, we propose a central etiology for this phenomenon. PMID:25901350

  11. Changes in respiratory sensations induced by lobeline after human bilateral lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J E; Anand, A; Crawford, M R; Glanville, A R; McKenzie, D K; Paintal, A S; Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2001-01-01

    The sensations evoked by the injection of lobeline into the right antecubital vein were studied in 8 subjects after bilateral lung transplantation and 10 control subjects. In control subjects, two distinct sensations were experienced. There was an early noxious sensation (onset ?10 s) followed by a late sensation of breathlessness (onset ?26 s) associated with involuntary hyperventilation. The early sensation was accompanied by respiratory and cardiovascular changes. In contrast to control subjects, the early respiratory events and the noxious sensations evoked by injections of lobeline (18–60 ?g kg?1) did not occur in subjects with recent bilateral lung transplantation. This suggests that the early respiratory sensations are mediated by the discharge of receptors in the lungs. The late hyperventilation and the accompanying sensation of breathlessness occurred in both transplant and control subjects and are therefore likely to be mediated by receptors elsewhere in the body, presumably systemic arterial chemoreceptors stimulated by lobeline. In control subjects, but not transplant subjects, there was a consistent decrease in mean arterial pressure associated with the lobeline injection. This suggests that pulmonary afferents mediate the hypotension. For transplant subjects studied more than a year after transplantation, there was some evidence that the noxious respiratory sensations evoked by lobeline had returned. This suggests that some functional reinnervation of pulmonary afferents may occur. PMID:11454974

  12. Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

    2012-01-01

    Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

  13. Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) Channels and Taste Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Ishimaru, Y.; Matsunami, H.

    2009-01-01

    Humans have 5 basic taste sensations: sweet, bitter, sour, salty, and umami (taste of 1-amino acids). Among 33 genes related to transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, 3—including TRP-melastatin 5 (TRPM5), polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 (PKD1L3), and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 (PKD2L1)—are specifically and abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells. TRP-melastatin 5 is co-expressed with taste receptors T1Rs and T2Rs, and functions as a common downstream component in sweet, bitter, and umami taste signal transduction. In contrast, polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 are co-expressed in distinct subsets of taste receptor cells not expressing TRP-melastatin 5. In the heterologous expression system, cells expressing both polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3 and polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 responded to sour stimuli, showing a unique “off-response” property. Genetic ablation of polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1-expressing cells resulted in elimination of gustatory nerve response to sour stimuli, indicating that cells expressing polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 function as sour taste detectors. These results suggest that polycystic kidney disease-1-like 3/polycystic kidney disease-2-like 1 may play a significant role, possibly as taste receptors, in sour taste sensation. PMID:19329452

  14. Negotiating pain: the joint construction of a child's bodily sensation

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Traditional theories of socialisation, in which the child was viewed as a passive subject of external influences, are increasingly being rejected in favour of a new sociology of childhood which frames the child as a social actor. This article demonstrates the way in which conversation analysis can reveal children's agency in the micro-detail of naturally occurring episodes in which children express bodily sensations and pain in everyday life. Based on 71 video-recordings of mealtimes with five families, each with two children under 10 years old, the analysis focuses on the components of children's expressions of bodily sensation (including pain), the character of parents’ responses and the nature of the subsequent talk. The findings provide further evidence that children are social actors, active in constructing, accepting and resisting the nature of their physical experience and pain. A conversation analysis of ordinary family talk facilitates a description of how a child's agency is built, maintained or resisted through the interactional practices participants employ to display knowledge. PMID:25760923

  15. Review of Research Status and Development Trends of Wireless Passive LC Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Jia, Pinggang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Measurement technology for various key parameters in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature and biomedical applications) continues to be limited. Wireless passive LC resonant sensors offer long service life and can be suitable for harsh environments because they can transmit signals without battery power or wired connections. Consequently, these devices have become the focus of many current research studies. This paper addresses recent research, key technologies, and practical applications relative to passive LC sensors used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and harmful gases in harsh environments. The advantages and disadvantages of various sensor types are discussed, and prospects and challenges for future development of these sensors are presented. PMID:26053753

  16. Review of Research Status and Development Trends of Wireless Passive LC Resonant Sensors for Harsh Environments.

    PubMed

    Li, Chen; Tan, Qiulin; Jia, Pinggang; Zhang, Wendong; Liu, Jun; Xue, Chenyang; Xiong, Jijun

    2015-01-01

    Measurement technology for various key parameters in harsh environments (e.g., high-temperature and biomedical applications) continues to be limited. Wireless passive LC resonant sensors offer long service life and can be suitable for harsh environments because they can transmit signals without battery power or wired connections. Consequently, these devices have become the focus of many current research studies. This paper addresses recent research, key technologies, and practical applications relative to passive LC sensors used to monitor temperature, pressure, humidity, and harmful gases in harsh environments. The advantages and disadvantages of various sensor types are discussed, and prospects and challenges for future development of these sensors are presented. PMID:26053753

  17. The gravity reference response, the rotation sensation, and other illusory sensations experienced in aircraft and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shillinger, G. L., Jr.; Von Baumgarten, R. J.; Baldrighi, G.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the gravitational and inertial forces which act during aircraft flight upon the vestibular systems of the aircraft occupants reveals that in the absence of a visual horizon, certain illusory sensations are predictable for various acceleration environments. The 'inversion illusion' (Graybiel and Kellog, 1966) felt by some human subjects at 0 g seems to be different from the rotation sensation and could be caused by the diminished pressure forces of the otoliths on the maculae. The 'inversion illusion' of man correlates well with the blind fish diving behavior observed during aircraft parabolic flight (von Baumgarten et al., 1969, 1972). It is suggested that the fish low g diving response and the human inversion illusion are due to the substitution of a predominantly shearing force of low magnitude as a vestibular reference in place of a normal, predominantly pressure force. This hypothesis indicates that vestibular senses alone cannot provide meaningful postural orientation to simulated or actual gravity of a magnitude below that of earth's gravity.

  18. Longitudinal Links between Fathers' and Mothers' Harsh Verbal Discipline and Adolescents' Conduct Problems and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal harsh verbal discipline and adolescents' conduct problems and depressive symptoms. Data were from a sample of 976 two-parent families and their children (51% males; 54% European American, 40% African American). Mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline at age 13 predicted an increase in adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms between ages 13 and 14. A child effect was also present, with adolescent misconduct at age 13 predicting increases in mothers' and fathers' harsh verbal discipline between ages 13 and 14. Furthermore, maternal and paternal warmth did not moderate the longitudinal associations between mothers' and fathers' use of harsh verbal discipline and adolescent conduct problems and depressive symptoms. PMID:24001259

  19. Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer

    E-print Network

    Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer David;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Mantle Convection, David Bercovici MANTLE CONVECTION Synonyms Mantle dynamics. Mantle circulation. Definition Mantle convection: Thermal convection in the terrestrial planetary

  20. Design and operation of a harsh-climate observatory for amateur astrophotography.

    E-print Network

    Bruneau, Steve

    Design and operation of a harsh-climate observatory for amateur astrophotography. Bruneau, S.1 for amateur astronomers is becoming available at the retail level and at affordable prices. A significant

  1. Tactile mapping of harsh, constrained environments, with an application to oil wells

    E-print Network

    Mazzini, Francesco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    This work develops a practical approach to explore rough environments when time is critical. The harsh environmental conditions prevent the use of range, force/torque or tactile sensors. A representative case is the mapping ...

  2. On the Location of the Sensation Seeking Construct in the Personality Domain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birenbaum, Menucha; Montag, Itzhak

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the location of Zukerman's sensation seeking (SS) construct in the personality domain as measured by Cattell's 16 personality factors (16PF). Results of the factor analytic study indicated that the global construct of sensation seeking is related to the broad personality factor of independence. (Author/LMO)

  3. A Customizable Sensate Surface for Music Control Nan-Wei Gong

    E-print Network

    to develop new electronic music controllers with intuitive interfaces and ways to enable people to playA Customizable Sensate Surface for Music Control Nan-Wei Gong MIT Media Lab 75 Amherst Street@media.mit.edu ABSTRACT This paper describes a novel music control sensate surface, which enables integration between any

  4. Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

  5. Intercorrelations of the Sensation - Seeking Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Keith W.

    1977-01-01

    Two separate studies using Form IV of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) are reported. The first study correlates SSS by factor and sex with the earlier Form II SSS, supporting the reliability of the General SSS scale and discriminant validity of the Form IV SSS factor scales in relationship to general sensation-seeking. In the second study,…

  6. Associations Between Message Features and Subjective Evaluations of the Sensation Value of Antidrug Public Service Announcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Susan E.; Palmgreen, Philip; Stephenson, Michael T.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.

    2003-01-01

    Identifies message design features that show the greatest promise for developing message high in sensation value for anti-drug campaigns and other interventions aimed at sensation-seeking risky behaviors. Investigates certain features of drug prevention Public Service Announcements (PSAs) associated with viewers' subjective responses to them.…

  7. Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does It Change over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change…

  8. The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

    2013-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

  9. The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

  10. Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Juntao Wu

    2008-03-14

    This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

  11. Thirst in Critically Ill Patients: From Physiology to Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Shoshana; Stotts, Nancy; Puntillo, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Critically ill patients often have distressful episodes of severe thirst, but the underlying complex biochemical, neurohormonal regulatory controls that regulate this primal sensation have rarely been addressed by clinicians. Subtle changes in plasma osmolality are the most potent stimulus for thirst. In response to increases in osmolality, osmoreceptors activate release of the neurohormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). The released vasopressin acts on the kidneys to conserve water to correct the hyperosmolar state. If this compensatory mechanism is unsuccessful, thirst arises to promote drinking. Thirst induced by marked volume loss, in contrast, is more closely related to the volemic and pressure changes regulated by the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Understanding the physiological mechanisms of thirst will help in understanding the pathophysiological consequences of underlying thirst-related disease and treatments in critically ill patients. Further clinical research is needed to elucidate the multiple inhibitory and excitatory neurohormonal stimuli that motivate patients’ intense desire for water. PMID:23817822

  12. Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples

    PubMed Central

    Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

  13. A Novel Behavioral Assay for Measuring Cold Sensation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, Daniel S.; Golden, Judith P.; Gereau, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia. PMID:22745825

  14. Attenuated self-tickle sensation even under trajectory perturbation.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, George; Paton, Bryan; Howell, Jacqui; Hohwy, Jakob

    2015-11-01

    The efference copy account of the tickle effect (i.e., our inability to tickle ourselves) predicts no tickle effect (i.e., an ability to tickle ourselves) when the trajectory of a tactile stimulus is perturbed relative to the associated movement, and there is evidence in support of this. The active inference account, however, predicts the tickle effect should survive trajectory perturbation. We test these accounts of the tickle effect under the hypothesis that previous findings are due to attentional modulation, and that the tickle effect will be found in a paradigm with no conscious attention directed to the trajectory perturbation. We thus expected to find support for active inference. Our first experiment confirms this hypothesis, while our second seeks to explain previous findings in terms of the modulation of the tickle sensation when there is awareness of, and different degrees of attention to, the spatial tactile and kinesthetic trajectories. PMID:26143281

  15. Genes regulating touch cell development in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Du, H; Chalfie, M

    2001-01-01

    To identify genes regulating the development of the six touch receptor neurons, we screened the F(2) progeny of mutated animals expressing an integrated mec-2::gfp transgene that is expressed mainly in these touch cells. From 2638 mutated haploid genomes, we obtained 11 mutations representing 11 genes that affected the production, migration, or outgrowth of the touch cells. Eight of these mutations were in known genes, and 2 defined new genes (mig-21 and vab-15). The mig-21 mutation is the first known to affect the asymmetry of the migrations of Q neuroblasts, the cells that give rise to two of the six touch cells. vab-15 is a msh-like homeobox gene that appears to be needed for the proper production of touch cell precursors, since vab-15 animals lacked the four more posterior touch cells. The remaining touch cells (the ALM cells) were present but mispositioned. A similar touch cell phenotype is produced by mutations in lin-32. A more severe phenotype; i.e., animals often lacked ALM cells, was seen in lin-32 vab-15 double mutants, suggesting that these genes acted redundantly in ALM differentiation. In addition to the touch cell abnormalities, vab-15 animals variably exhibit embryonic or larval lethality, cell degenerations, malformation of the posterior body, uncoordinated movement, and defective egg laying. PMID:11333230

  16. Brain encoding of acupuncture sensation - coupling on-line rating with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali P.; Kim, Jieun; LaCount, Lauren; Vangel, Mark; Harris, Richard E; Kettner, Norman; Park, Kyungmo

    2009-01-01

    Acupuncture-induced sensations have historically been associated with clinical efficacy. These sensations are atypical, arising from sub-dermal receptors, and their neural encoding is not well known. In this fMRI study, subjects were stimulated at acupoint PC-6, while rating sensation with a custom-built, MR-compatible potentiometer. Separate runs included real (ACUP) and sham (SHAM) acupuncture, the latter characterized by non-insertive, cutaneous stimulation. FMRI data analysis was guided by the on-line rating timeseries, thereby localizing brain correlates of acupuncture sensation. Sensation ratings correlated with stimulation more (p<0.001) for SHAM (r=0.63) than for ACUP (r=0.32). ACUP induced stronger and more varied sensations with significant persistence into no-stimulation blocks, leading to more runtime spent rating low and moderate sensations compared to SHAM. ACUP sensation correlated with activation in regions associated with sensorimotor (SII, insula) and cognitive (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)) processing, and deactivation in default-mode network (DMN) regions (posterior cingulate, precuneus). Compared to SHAM, ACUP yielded greater activity in both anterior and posterior dmPFC and dlPFC. In contrast, SHAM produced greater activation in sensorimotor (SI, SII, insula) and greater deactivation in DMN regions. Thus, brain encoding of ACUP sensation (more persistent and varied, leading to increased cognitive load) demonstrated greater activity in both cognitive/evaluative (posterior dmPFC) and emotional/interoceptive (anterior dmPFC) cortical regions. Increased cognitive load and dmPFC activity may be a salient component of acupuncture analgesia - sensations focus attention and accentuate bodily awareness, contributing to enhanced top-down modulation of any nociceptive afference and central pain networks. Hence, acupuncture may function as a somatosensory-guided mind-body therapy. PMID:19500677

  17. Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity.

    PubMed

    Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-04-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete's body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the 'enfacement illusion' to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant's face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using 'morphed' images containing varying proportions of the participant's face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

  18. Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element

    E-print Network

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki

    Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element Takayuki Hoshi and Hiroyuki Shinoda propose a new tactile sensor skin ("Skin by Touch Area Receptor" or STAR). The skin consists of two robot skin including no long wires. Index Terms - Tactile sensor, Robot skin, Haptic interface, Contact

  19. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans

    PubMed Central

    Suvilehto, Juulia T.; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r2 = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  20. A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen L.

    This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

  1. Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

  2. The Sound of Touch: Physical Manipulation of Digital Sound

    E-print Network

    The Sound of Touch: Physical Manipulation of Digital Sound David Merrill, Hayes Raffle MIT Media Cambridge, MA 02139. USA roberto@aliumlabs.com ABSTRACT The Sound of Touch is a new tool for real-time capture and sensitive physical stimulation of sound samples using dig- ital convolution. Our hand

  3. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  4. Topography of social touching depends on emotional bonds between humans.

    PubMed

    Suvilehto, Juulia T; Glerean, Enrico; Dunbar, Robin I M; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2015-11-10

    Nonhuman primates use social touch for maintenance and reinforcement of social structures, yet the role of social touch in human bonding in different reproductive, affiliative, and kinship-based relationships remains unresolved. Here we reveal quantified, relationship-specific maps of bodily regions where social touch is allowed in a large cross-cultural dataset (N = 1,368 from Finland, France, Italy, Russia, and the United Kingdom). Participants were shown front and back silhouettes of human bodies with a word denoting one member of their social network. They were asked to color, on separate trials, the bodily regions where each individual in their social network would be allowed to touch them. Across all tested cultures, the total bodily area where touching was allowed was linearly dependent (mean r(2) = 0.54) on the emotional bond with the toucher, but independent of when that person was last encountered. Close acquaintances and family members were touched for more reasons than less familiar individuals. The bodily area others are allowed to touch thus represented, in a parametric fashion, the strength of the relationship-specific emotional bond. We propose that the spatial patterns of human social touch reflect an important mechanism supporting the maintenance of social bonds. PMID:26504228

  5. fNIRS detects temporal lobe response to affective touch.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Anderson, Laura C; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

    2014-04-01

    Touch plays a crucial role in social-emotional development. Slow, gentle touch applied to hairy skin is processed by C-tactile (CT) nerve fibers. Furthermore, 'social brain' regions, such as the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) have been shown to process CT-targeted touch. Research on the development of these neural mechanisms is scant, yet such knowledge may inform our understanding of the critical role of touch in development and its dysfunction in disorders involving sensory issues, such as autism. The aim of this study was to validate the ability of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an imaging technique well-suited for use with infants, to measure temporal lobe responses to CT-targeted touch. Healthy adults received brushing to the right forearm (CT) and palm (non-CT) separately, in a block design procedure. We found significant activation in right pSTS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to arm > palm touch. In addition, individual differences in autistic traits were related to the magnitude of peak activation within pSTS. These findings demonstrate that fNIRS can detect brain responses to CT-targeted touch and lay the foundation for future work with infant populations that will characterize the development of brain mechanisms for processing CT-targeted touch in typical and atypical populations. PMID:23327935

  6. Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

    2013-03-01

    Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

  7. Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

    2012-01-01

    This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

  8. A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotnick, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

  9. Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction

    E-print Network

    Levesque, Vincent

    Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with variable surface friction. In a series of four studies, we first confirm that variable friction gives significant performance advantages in low

  10. Touch-induced visual illusion Artem Violentyev,1,CA

    E-print Network

    Shams, Ladan B.

    Touch-induced visual illusion Artem Violentyev,1,CA Shinsuke Shimojo2 and Ladan Shams1,2 1 illusion, two auditory stimuli cause one visual £ash to be perceived as two.We report an extension of the sound-induced £ash illusion to the tac- tile^visual domain, yielding the touch-induced £ash illusion

  11. Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher Cascade Microtech Europe Ltd A guide to Successful on Wafer Rf characterisation #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. ® Agenda The need for on-wafer S-parameter Measurements Typical system components Microwave Probes Probe

  12. The importance of touch in development.

    PubMed

    Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

    2010-03-01

    Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation - for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need. PMID:21358895

  13. Design of an infrared multi-touch surface for use as a computer keyboard

    E-print Network

    Torgerson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    A multi-touch surface was designed and constructed to detect a person's finger when pressed against the touch surface, with the objective of developing a prototype touch surface computer keyboard. The prototype developed ...

  14. Barrier Pointing: Using Physical Edges to Assist Target Acquisition on Mobile Device Touch Screens

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    Barrier Pointing: Using Physical Edges to Assist Target Acquisition on Mobile Device Touch Screens popular pervasive technologies. Many of these devices contain touch screens, which can present problems. General Terms: Design, Experimentation, Human Factors. Keywords: Target acquisition, touch screens, edges

  15. 78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

  16. Kant and the magnitude of sensation: a neglected prologue to modern psychophysics.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative relations between the sensations and the stimuli that produce them are the domain of psychophysics, a branch of natural science not yet known at the time of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). But Kant's philosophical doctrines of perception imply that sensations can be quantified. Accordingly, he proposed not only to consider the magnitude of both sensations and stimuli but also to work out an appropriate mathematics that would relate these magnitudes to each other. This part of Kant's work received almost no attention up to the present time although it contains some essential elements of modern psychophysics. PMID:18161593

  17. Generation of Drawing Sensation by Surface Acoustic Wave Tactile Display on Graphics Tablet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamon, Ryo; Takasaki, Masaya; Mizuno, Takeshi

    This paper describes pen interface using a surface acoustic wave tactile display. Using the display, tactile sensation like a feeling of drawing with a charcoal can be generated. Combined with a graphics tablet with an LCD, it is possible to generate both visual information and tactile sensation dynamically. To add reality of sensation, control referring to m-sequence random number is proposed and described in this paper. Measurement results of pen vibration during rubbing the display with the reference and those without it were compared. FFT analysis results of the pen vibration are also compared.

  18. Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

  19. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations.

    PubMed

    Zefferman, Emily; Stevens, Jens T; Charles, Grace K; Dunbar-Irwin, Mila; Emam, Taraneh; Fick, Stephen; Morales, Laura V; Wolf, Kristina M; Young, Derek J N; Young, Truman P

    2015-01-01

    Plant communities in abiotically stressful, or 'harsh', habitats have been reported to be less invaded by non-native species than those in more moderate habitats. Here, we synthesize descriptive and experimental evidence for low levels of invasion in habitats characterized by a variety of environmental stressors: low nitrogen; low phosphorus; saline, sodic or alkaline soils; serpentine soils; low soil moisture; shallow/rocky soils; temporary inundation; high shade; high elevation; and high latitude. We then discuss major categories of hypotheses to explain this pattern: the propagule limitation mechanism suggests invasion of harsh sites is limited by relatively low arrival rates of propagules compared with more moderate habitats, while invasion resistance mechanisms suggest that harsh habitats are inherently less invasible due to stressful abiotic conditions and/or increased effects of biotic resistance from resident organisms. Both propagule limitation and invasion resistance may simultaneously contribute to low invadedness of harsh sites, but the management implications of these mechanisms differ. If propagule limitation is more important, managers should focus on reducing the likelihood of propagule introductions. If invasion resistance mechanisms are in play, managers should focus on restoring or maintaining harsh conditions at a site to reduce invasibility. PMID:26002746

  20. Forgone but not forgotten: the effects of partial and full feedback in "harsh" and "kind" environments.

    PubMed

    Rakow, Tim; Newell, Ben R; Wright, Louise

    2015-12-01

    In a perfect world, the choice of any course of action would lead to a satisfactory outcome, and we would obtain feedback about both our chosen course and those we have chosen to forgo. In reality, however, we often face harsh environments in which we can only minimize losses, and we receive impoverished feedback. In these studies, we examined how decision makers dealt with these challenges in a simple task in which we manipulated three features of the decision: The outcomes from the available options were either mostly positive or mostly negative (kind or harsh environment); feedback was either full or partial (outcomes revealed for all options or only for the chosen option); and for the final 20 trials in a sequence, participants either chose on each trial or set an "advance-directive" policy. The propensity to choose the better option was explained by several factors: Full feedback was more beneficial in harsh than in kind environments; policy decisions encouraged better decisions and ameliorated the adverse impact of a harsh environment; and beliefs about the value of strategy diversification predicted switch rates and choice quality. The results suggest a subtle interplay between bottom-up and top-down processes: Although harsh environments encourage poor choices, and some decision makers choose less well than others, this need not imply that the decision maker has failed to identify the better option. PMID:25956833

  1. Plant communities in harsh sites are less invaded: a summary of observations and proposed explanations

    PubMed Central

    Zefferman, Emily; Stevens, Jens T.; Charles, Grace K.; Dunbar-Irwin, Mila; Emam, Taraneh; Fick, Stephen; Morales, Laura V.; Wolf, Kristina M.; Young, Derek J. N.; Young, Truman P.

    2015-01-01

    Plant communities in abiotically stressful, or ‘harsh’, habitats have been reported to be less invaded by non-native species than those in more moderate habitats. Here, we synthesize descriptive and experimental evidence for low levels of invasion in habitats characterized by a variety of environmental stressors: low nitrogen; low phosphorus; saline, sodic or alkaline soils; serpentine soils; low soil moisture; shallow/rocky soils; temporary inundation; high shade; high elevation; and high latitude. We then discuss major categories of hypotheses to explain this pattern: the propagule limitation mechanism suggests invasion of harsh sites is limited by relatively low arrival rates of propagules compared with more moderate habitats, while invasion resistance mechanisms suggest that harsh habitats are inherently less invasible due to stressful abiotic conditions and/or increased effects of biotic resistance from resident organisms. Both propagule limitation and invasion resistance may simultaneously contribute to low invadedness of harsh sites, but the management implications of these mechanisms differ. If propagule limitation is more important, managers should focus on reducing the likelihood of propagule introductions. If invasion resistance mechanisms are in play, managers should focus on restoring or maintaining harsh conditions at a site to reduce invasibility. PMID:26002746

  2. Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

    2010-01-01

    The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

  3. The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertl, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. This was a longitudinal study generating quantitative data. The subjects for this study were 132 seventh grade students from a suburban middle school in…

  4. The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Cold Sensation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Of somatosensory modalities, cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30 °C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biological effects has been poorly studied, yet new advances in our understanding of cold mechanisms may portend a better understanding of sensory perception as well as provide novel therapeutic approaches. Chief among these was the identification of a number of ion channels that either serve as the initial detectors of cold as a stimulus in the peripheral nervous system, or are part of rather sophisticated differential expression patterns of channels that conduct electrical signals, thereby endowing select neurons with properties that are amenable to electrical signaling in the cold. This review highlights the current understanding of the channels involved in cold transduction as well as presents a hypothetical model to account for the broad range of cold thermal thresholds and distinct functions of cold fibers in perception, pain, and analgesia. PMID:23421674

  5. A Pilot Study of the Effect of Daikenchuto on Rectal Sensation in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Acosta, Andres; Camilleri, Michael; Linker-Nord, Sara; Busciglio, Irene; Iturrino, Johanna; Szarka, Lawrence A; Zinsmeister, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Daikenchuto (TU 100), a botanical agent that modulates gastrointestinal nerves, is used in the treatment of motility and functional disorders. Our aim was to study the effects of TU-100 on rectal compliance and sensation in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods In 20 patients per treatment arm, we conducted a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single-dose pharmacodynamics study evaluating the effects of TU-100, 15 g (5 g t.i.d. [means 3 times a day]), for 14–16 consecutive days on rectal compliance and rectal sensation (thresholds and sensation ratings), all measured at baseline and on the last day of medication treatment. The primary endpoint was rectal sensation thresholds and sensation ratings in response to balloon distension at 32 mmHg. Secondary endpoints were rectal compliance, sensation thresholds, ratings and tone (fasting and postprandial), bowel pattern, abdominal pain (average and worst severity) and bloating scores, IBS quality of life and safety profile. Results Rectal sensation ratings post-treatment were significantly associated with baseline (pre-treatment) ratings and with level of anxiety or stress recorded at the time of the sensation testing. There were no effects of TU-100 treatment on rectal sensation ratings, sensation thresholds, rectal fasting or postprandial tone, rectal compliance, bowel function, abdominal pain or bloating scores, or IBS quality of life. Conclusions TU-100 did not significantly affect rectal compliance and sensation in patients with IBS in this study. PMID:26486374

  6. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245

  7. Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.

    PubMed

    Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2006-12-01

    Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

  8. Mechanically sensitive ion channels mediate a vast array of different cellular and organismic sensations, ranging

    E-print Network

    Corey, David P.

    sensations, ranging from the most basic that must occur in all living cells, such as osmoregulation@fas.harvard.edu doi:10.1038/nrn2149 Osmoregulation A homeostatic mechanism by which cells maintain their volume

  9. CargoNet : micropower sensate tags for supply-chain management and security

    E-print Network

    Malinowski, Mateusz Ksawery

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a system of sensate active RFID tags for supply-chain management and security applications, necessitated by the current lack of commercial platforms capable of monitoring the state ...

  10. S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin

    E-print Network

    Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

    2006-01-01

    The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

  11. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation

    PubMed Central

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-01-01

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads’ tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads’ tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P < 0.01) in a similar manner for all four vibration locations. Specifically, vibration at 60% of the sensory threshold improved the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01), while vibration at 120% of the sensory threshold degraded the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01) and the 80% vibration did not significantly change the fingertip sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  12. Application of vibration to wrist and hand skin affects fingertip tactile sensation.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Kishor; Lauer, Abigail W; Ramakrishnan, Viswanathan; Webster, John G; Seo, Na Jin

    2015-07-14

    A recent study showed that fingertip pads' tactile sensation can improve by applying imperceptible white-noise vibration to the skin at the wrist or dorsum of the hand in stroke patients. This study further examined this behavior by investigating the effect of both imperceptible and perceptible white-noise vibration applied to different locations within the distal upper extremity on the fingertip pads' tactile sensation in healthy adults. In 12 healthy adults, white-noise vibration was applied to one of four locations (dorsum hand by the second knuckle, thenar and hypothenar areas, and volar wrist) at one of four intensities (zero, 60%, 80%, and 120% of the sensory threshold for each vibration location), while the fingertip sensation, the smallest vibratory signal that could be perceived on the thumb and index fingertip pads, was assessed. Vibration intensities significantly affected the fingertip sensation (P < 0.01) in a similar manner for all four vibration locations. Specifically, vibration at 60% of the sensory threshold improved the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01), while vibration at 120% of the sensory threshold degraded the thumb and index fingertip tactile sensation (P < 0.01) and the 80% vibration did not significantly change the fingertip sensation (P > 0.01), all compared with the zero vibration condition. This effect with vibration intensity conforms to the stochastic resonance behavior. Nonspecificity to the vibration location suggests the white-noise vibration affects higher level neuronal processing for fingertip sensing. Further studies are needed to elucidate the neural pathways for distal upper extremity vibration to impact fingertip pad tactile sensation. PMID:26177959

  13. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

    2014-08-01

    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of the Reliability of Acupuncture Deqi Sensations in Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Spaeth, Rosa B.; Camhi, Stephanie; Hashmi, Javeria A.; Vangel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Deqi is one of the core concepts in acupuncture theory and encompasses a range of sensations. In this study, we used the MGH Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) to measure and assess the reliability of the sensations evoked by acupuncture needle stimulation in a longitudinal clinical trial on knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the clinical outcome. Thirty OA patients were randomized into one of three groups (high dose, low dose, and sham acupuncture) for 4?weeks. We found that, compared with sham acupuncture, real acupuncture (combining high and low doses) produced significant improvement in knee pain (P = .025) and function in sport (P = .049). Intraclass correlation analysis showed that patients reliably rated 11 of the 12 acupuncture sensations listed on the MASS and that heaviness was rated most consistently. Overall perceived sensation (MASS Index) (P = .014), ratings of soreness (P = .002), and aching (P = .002) differed significantly across acupuncture groups. Compared to sham acupuncture, real acupuncture reliably evoked stronger deqi sensations and led to better clinical outcomes when measured in a chronic pain population. Our findings highlight the MASS as a useful tool for measuring deqi in acupuncture research. PMID:23935656

  15. Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate-a comparison of linear and ordinal models.

    PubMed

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

    2014-08-01

    A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism. PMID:24113737

  16. Extraretinal Induced Visual Sensations during IMRT of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Background We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Methods and Findings Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt—CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). Conclusions There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs. PMID:25875609

  17. Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

  18. Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Michael

    2013-02-01

    Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

  19. How do we recognize biological materials by touch?

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Takaaki; Maeno, Takashi; Nonomura, Yoshimune

    2010-10-15

    Biological materials are often used as industrial sources; however, the features of their tactile texture have not been examined. Here, we show that the features of biological materials are warm, silky, and non-slippery sensations, which are governed by thermal conductivity, surface energy, and surface roughness. Interestingly, surface roughness is the most important factor in determining these three tactile sensations. This finding is valuable for developing virtual reality systems and humanoids as well as for understanding the cognitive mechanism of biological materials. PMID:20598512

  20. Towards Tactile Expressions of Emotion Through Mediated Touch

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    , or as an intensifier of emotional displays from other modalities [5, 7]. However, recent findings indicate that touch image shows the output layer, the input layer, and the control box. notion opens up new opportunities

  1. Emotional Availability and Touch in Deaf and Hearing Dyads.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Grace; Koester, Lynne Sanford

    2015-01-01

    In recent years , increasing attention has been given to the development of deaf children, though few studies have included Deaf parents. The present study examined emotional availability (EA) and functions of touch used by Deaf or hearing parents with hearing or deaf infants during free play. Sixty dyads representing four hearing status groups were observed when the infants were 18 months old. Comparisons among all four groups revealed significant differences in regard to parental sensitivity and child responsiveness, with hearing mothers with deaf infants tending to score lowest in the various subcategories of EA. Significant differences were also found for attentional touch and total touch, with deaf mothers of deaf or hearing infants using both types of touch more than hearing mothers of deaf or hearing infants. The importance of support and interventions for hearing mothers with deaf infants is discussed. PMID:26320752

  2. Touch interface for markless AR based on Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Kuo, Tai-Ku; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Yeh-Kuang; Chang, Liung-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We develop an augmented reality (AR) environment with hidden-marker via touch interface using Kinect device, and then also set up a touch painting game with the AR environment. This environment is similar to that of the touch screen interface which allows user to paint picture on a tabletop with his fingers, and it is designed with depth image information from Kinect device setting up above a tabletop. We incorporate support vector machine (SVM) to classify painted pictures which correspond to the inner data and call out its AR into the tabletop in color images information from Kinect device. Because users can utilize this similar touch interface to control AR, we achieve a marker-less AR and interactive environment.

  3. An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

    2013-08-16

    Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change ...

  4. Does Adolescents’ Religiousness Moderate Links between Harsh Parenting and Adolescent Substance Use?

    PubMed Central

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Farley, Julee P.; Holmes, Christopher J.; Longo, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that religiousness is inversely related to adolescent substance use; yet, no systematic investigation has examined whether religiousness may be a protective factor against substance use in the presence of risk factors. We examined whether religiousness moderates the links between parents’ psychological and physical aggression and adolescent substance use directly and indirectly through adolescent self-control. The sample comprised adolescents (N = 220, 45% female) and their primary caregivers. Structural equation modeling analyses suggested that adolescents with low religiousness were likely to engage in substance use when subjected to harsh parenting, but there was no association between harsh parenting and substance use among adolescents with high religiousness. Furthermore, although harsh parenting was related to poor adolescent self-control regardless of religiousness levels, poor self-control was significantly related to substance use for adolescents with low religiousness, whereas the link between poor self-control and substance use did not exist for adolescents with high religiousness. The findings present the first evidence that adolescent religiousness may be a powerful buffering factor that can positively alter pathways to substance use in the presence of risk factors such as harsh parenting and poor self-control. PMID:24979658

  5. Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences

    PubMed Central

    van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Riem, Madelon M. E.; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N?=?42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants’ experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants’ whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues. PMID:22037689

  6. Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments

    E-print Network

    Richerson, Peter J.

    Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population have here is inevitably a simplified representation of a human population, but it provides a basis

  7. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  8. Predictors of Harsh Parenting Practices in Parents of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin

    2014-01-01

    International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…

  9. An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation within an Evolutionary Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping…

  10. Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on these patterns, we propose an overall model of primary controls on the distribution of fish on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Harsh conditions, including lake freezing, limit occupancy in winter through extinction events while lake occupancy in spring and summer is driven by directional migration (large-bodied species) and undirected dispersal (small-bodied species).

  11. Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences.

    PubMed

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Riem, Madelon M E; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A

    2012-11-01

    Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N = 42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants' experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants' whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues. PMID:22037689

  12. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  13. Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment

    E-print Network

    Fiore, S

    2015-01-01

    Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

  14. MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

  15. The C. elegans EMAP-like protein, ELP-1 is required for touch sensation and associates with microtubules and adhesion complexes

    E-print Network

    Hueston, Jennifer L.; Herren, Gina Purinton; Cueva, Juan G.; Buechner, Matthew; Lundquist, Erik A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

    2008-11-17

    in mammals (EML1 through EML5) and only one in both Drosophila (ELP-1) and C. elegans (ELP-1). Biochemical studies of sea urchin EMAP and vertebrate EMLs implicate these proteins in the regulation of microtubule stability. So far, however, the physiological...

  16. Effects and after-effects of voluntary intermittent light finger touch on body sway.

    PubMed

    Johannsen, Leif; Lou, Shu-Zon; Chen, Hui-Ya

    2014-09-01

    Effects of light touch on body sway have usually been investigated with some form of constant contact. Only two studies investigated transient sway dynamics following the addition or withdrawal of light touch. This study adopted a paradigm of intermittent touch and assessed body sway during as well as following short periods of touch of varying durations to investigate whether effects and after-effects of touch differ as a function of touch duration. In a modified heel-to-toe posture, 15 blindfolded participants alternated their index finger position between no-touching and touching on a strain gauge in response to low- and high-pitched auditory cues. Five trials of 46 s duration were segmented into 11 sections: a 6-s no-touching period was followed by five pseudo-randomly ordered touching periods of 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2-, and 5-s duration, each of which was followed by another 6-s no-touching interval. Consistent with previous research, compared to no-touching intervals sway was reduced during touch periods with touch durations greater than 2 s. Progressive reductions in sway were evident after touch onset. After touch withdrawal in the 2-s touch condition, postural sway increased and returned to baseline level nearly immediately. Interestingly, in the 5-s touch condition, reductions in sway persisted even after touch withdrawal in the medio-lateral and antero-posterior plane for around 2.5 s and 5.5 s, respectively. Our intermittent touch paradigm resulted in duration-dependent touch effects and after-effects; the latter is a novel finding and may result from a more persistent postural set involved in proactive sway control. PMID:25088757

  17. Ghosts in the Interface: Meta-user Interface Visualizations as Guides for Multi-touch Interaction

    E-print Network

    Ghosts in the Interface: Meta-user Interface Visualizations as Guides for Multi-touch Interaction become exceedingly complex. We introduce TouchGhosts: visual guides that are embedded in the multi-touch user interface and that demonstrate the available interactions to the user. TouchGhosts are activated

  18. Designing interaction with molecule visualizations on a multi-touch table

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    The goal of the research is to answer the following quesion: Can current (multi-)touch screen interactions of the art in interaction with multi- touch tables and other touch screens? 2. Are there existing interactionDesigning interaction with molecule visualizations on a multi-touch table Jeroen Logtenberg Twente

  19. Tactile Rendering of 3D Features on Touch Surfaces Seung-Chan Kim1,2

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    , such as bumps, on touch screen surfac- es. This is achieved by modulating friction forces between the user's finger and the touch screen, instead of physically moving the touch surface. We proposed that the percept tactile feedback for touch screen interaction have also increased [15, 19]. The goal of this work

  20. Squeezing the Sandwich: A Mobile Pressure-Sensitive Two-Sided Multi-Touch Prototype

    E-print Network

    . Showing interface elements in the limited screen space comes at a cost. Touch-based interactions addition to give additional flexibility to a touch-screen [3,6]. In this demonstration we describe a working, the same location on the screen can be touched from two sides. Minute shifts of the touch points of the two

  1. Design and Evaluation of Interaction Models for Multi-touch Mice Hrvoje Benko1

    E-print Network

    Benko, Hrvoje

    typical of touch-based interfaces and compare them to interacting directly on a multi-touch screen demonstrated by surface computing to the desktop environment without the cost of multi-touch screens on the design problem of how to effective- ly use the touch data on a mouse to manipulate on-screen objects

  2. Interacting with Data Visualizations on Tablets and Phones: Developing Effective Touch-based Gestures and Operations

    E-print Network

    Stasko, John T.

    the touch screen, as they do not offer the smooth, optimized experience expected on tablets. TouchInteracting with Data Visualizations on Tablets and Phones: Developing Effective Touch is not true for interaction on touch-based devices such as tablets and mobile phones. Data visualization has

  3. Everything is a Window: Utilizing the Window Manager for Multi-Touch Interaction

    E-print Network

    system. Usually, multi-touch applications are run in a full-screen mode. As widgets for multi-touch UIsEverything is a Window: Utilizing the Window Manager for Multi-Touch Interaction Raphael Wimmer General Terms Human Factors Author Keywords window manager, unix, compiz, x11, multi-touch, curve

  4. TouchMover 2.0 -3D Touchscreen with Force Feedback and Haptic Texture

    E-print Network

    Benko, Hrvoje

    that is robotically actuated in the Z-direction (Figure 1). The user can touch and press on the screen to move screen. The user test of TouchMover consisted of requiring people to disambiguate ten different 3D shapes sub-audible actuators mounted to the touch screen. In TouchMover 2.0, the texture vibrotactile

  5. LucidTouch: A See-Through Mobile Device Daniel Wigdor1,2

    E-print Network

    Baudisch, Patrick

    , touch input on the small screen of a mobile device is problematic because a user's fingers occlude to overcome this limitation, manufacturers have equipped some mobile devices with touch screens, usually with input and display devices calibrated for direct-touch input. Touch screens offer good pointing

  6. Experimental Analysis of Touch-Screen Gesture Designs in Mobile Environments

    E-print Network

    Cortes, Corinna

    Experimental Analysis of Touch-Screen Gesture Designs in Mobile Environments Andrew Bragdon1@microsoft.com ABSTRACT Direct-touch interaction on mobile phones revolves around screens that compete for visual of these situational impairments on touch-screen interaction. We probe several design factors for touch-screen gestures

  7. Stroke me for longer this touch feels too short: The effect of pleasant touch on temporal perception.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Ruth S; Moore, David; Redfern, Leanne; McGlone, Francis

    2015-11-01

    Negative, painful, somatosensory stimulation lengthens the perceived duration of time. However, to date, no research has explored the influence of positive, pleasant, somatosensory stimulation on temporal perception. Here we asked whether gentle stroking touch influences perceptions of duration. Pleasant (gentle) and mildly unpleasant (rough) tactile stimulation was delivered whilst participants estimated the duration of a neutral visual stimulus. Pleasant touch resulted in shorter estimates of duration than unpleasant touch. There was no difference in duration perception in the unpleasant and control conditions. Taken together with the results of previous research (Ogden, Moore, Redfern, & McGlone, 2015), the results of this study suggest that pleasant and painful somatosensory stimulation have opposing effects on temporal perception, and additionally that pleasant touch can alter aspects of perceptual and attentional processing outside the purely affective domain. PMID:26210078

  8. Milder form of heat-related symptoms and thermal sensation: a study in a Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantavou, Katerina G.; Lykoudis, Spyridon P.; Nikolopoulos, Georgios K.

    2015-10-01

    Mild heat-related health effects and their potential association with meteorological and personal parameters in relation to subjective and objective thermal sensation were investigated. Micrometeorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were conducted in an urban Mediterranean environment during a warm, cool, and a transitional season. The participants were asked to indicate their thermal sensation based on a seven-point scale and report whether they were experiencing any of the following symptoms: headache, dizziness, breathing difficulties, and exhaustion. Two thermal indices, Actual Sensation Vote (ASV) and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), were estimated in order to obtain an objective measure of individuals' thermal sensation. Binary logistic regression was applied to identify risk parameters while cluster analysis was used to determine thresholds of air temperature, ASV and UTCI related to health effects. Exhaustion was the most frequent symptom reported by the interviewees. Females and smokers were more likely to report heat-related symptoms than males and nonsmokers. Based on cluster analysis, 35 °C could be a cutoff point for the manifestation of heat-related symptoms during summer. The threshold for ASV was 0.85 corresponding to "warm" thermal sensation and for UTCI was about 30.85 °C corresponding to "moderate heat stress" according to the Mediterranean assessment scale.

  9. Gender differences in itch and pain-related sensations provoked by histamine, cowhage and capsaicin.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Elisabeth M; Handwerker, Hermann O; Forster, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Cowhage, capsaicin and histamine, all applied via spicules, were used to induce itch and pain-related sensations in 15 male and 15 female subjects. Sensory qualities were assessed by questionnaire; intensities and time courses of the "itching" and "burning" sensation were measured alternately, but continuously on a VAS. In addition, axon reflexes were assessed. Only histamine and capsaicin produced a clear axon reflex flare (histamine?>?capsaicin, male?=?female). The 3 types of spicules caused mixed burning and itching sensations with different time courses. In the beginning burning prevailed, in the following minutes histamine induced mostly itching, capsaicin predominantly burning, cowhage both sensory components equally. Female subjects experienced more pain-related sensations (questionnaire), and their ratings leaned more toward burning than those of males. These findings indicate that the mixed itching and burning sensations are differentially processed by both genders. No indications were found for gender specific differential processing in the primary afferents as reflected by nearly identical flare responses. PMID:24819823

  10. Cocaine Exposure and Children's Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness

    PubMed Central

    Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Veira, Yvette; Cox, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Johns, Josephine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3?years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother–infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7?months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother–toddler interactions at 2?years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3?years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and children’s self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal harshness or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, ?2 (23)?=?34.36, p?>?0.05, Comparative Fit Index?=?0.95, RMSEA?=?0.05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of harshness toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2?years of age (??=?0.23, p?harshness at 2?years was predictive of lower self-regulation at 3?years (??=??0.36, p?harshness among cocaine using mothers is predictive of child self-regulatory outcomes in the preschool period. PMID:21716637

  11. Differential Contributions of Vision, Touch and Muscle Proprioception to the Coding of Hand Movements

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Caroline; Roll, Régine; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Kavounoudias, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration, this study examines the controversial issue of whether congruent inputs from three different sensory sources can enhance the perception of hand movement. Illusory sensations of clockwise rotations of the right hand were induced by either separately or simultaneously stimulating visual, tactile and muscle proprioceptive channels at various intensity levels. For this purpose, mechanical vibrations were applied to the pollicis longus muscle group in the subjects’ wrists, and a textured disk was rotated under the palmar skin of the subjects’ right hands while a background visual scene was projected onto the rotating disk. The elicited kinaesthetic illusions were copied by the subjects in real time and the EMG activity in the adductor and abductor wrist muscles was recorded. The results show that the velocity of the perceived movements and the amplitude of the corresponding motor responses were modulated by the nature and intensity of the stimulation. Combining two sensory modalities resulted in faster movement illusions, except for the case of visuo-tactile co-stimulation. When a third sensory input was added to the bimodal combinations, the perceptual responses increased only when a muscle proprioceptive stimulation was added to a visuo-tactile combination. Otherwise, trisensory stimulation did not override bimodal conditions that already included a muscle proprioceptive stimulation. We confirmed that vision or touch alone can encode the kinematic parameters of hand movement, as is known for muscle proprioception. When these three sensory modalities are available, they contribute unequally to kinaesthesia. In addition to muscle proprioception, the complementary kinaesthetic content of visual or tactile inputs may optimize the velocity estimation of an on-going movement, whereas the redundant kinaesthetic content of the visual and tactile inputs may rather enhance the latency of the perception. PMID:23626826

  12. Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Caleb; Chang, Si-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yeo; Huang, Hsu-Chia; Lee, Yen-Tung

    2015-01-01

    We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one's body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part?Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the “body swap illusion.” The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD) connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter's head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other's left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter's hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject's own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP) in the opposite direction (180°), or the subject's full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face). The synchronous full-body conditions generate a “self-touching illusion”: many participants felt that “I was brushing my own hand!” We found that (1) the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2) our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM). We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject's sense of “experiential ownership” (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience). We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies. PMID:25774138

  13. Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

  14. Sensations of skin infestation linked to abnormal frontolimbic brain reactivity and differences in self-representation.

    PubMed

    Eccles, J A; Garfinkel, S N; Harrison, N A; Ward, J; Taylor, R E; Bewley, A P; Critchley, H D

    2015-10-01

    Some patients experience skin sensations of infestation and contamination that are elusive to proximate dermatological explanation. We undertook a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain to demonstrate, for the first time, that central processing of infestation-relevant stimuli is altered in patients with such abnormal skin sensations. We show differences in neural activity within amygdala, insula, middle temporal lobe and frontal cortices. Patients also demonstrated altered measures of self-representation, with poorer sensitivity to internal bodily (interoceptive) signals and greater susceptibility to take on an illusion of body ownership: the rubber hand illusion. Together, these findings highlight a potential model for the maintenance of abnormal skin sensations, encompassing heightened threat processing within amygdala, increased salience of skin representations within insula and compromised prefrontal capacity for self-regulation and appraisal. PMID:26260311

  15. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement

    PubMed Central

    Bustin, Gaëlle M.; Jones, Daniel N.; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people’s choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants’ preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people’s sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  16. Who does Red Bull give wings to? Sensation seeking moderates sensitivity to subliminal advertisement.

    PubMed

    Bustin, Gaëlle M; Jones, Daniel N; Hansenne, Michel; Quoidbach, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether subliminal priming of a brand name of a drink can affect people's choices for the primed brand, and whether this effect is moderated by personality traits. Participants with different levels of sensation seeking were presented subliminally with the words Red Bull or Lde Ublr. Results revealed that being exposed to Red Bull lead on average to small increases in participants' preferences for the primed brand. However, this effect was twice as strong for participants high in sensation seeking and did not occur for participants low in sensation seeking. Going beyond previous research showing that situational factors (e.g., thirst, fatigue…) can increase people's sensitivity to subliminal advertisement, our results suggest that some dispositional factors could have the same potentiating effect. These findings highlight the necessity of taking personality into account in non-conscious persuasion research. PMID:26150795

  17. Phytosterols in onion contribute to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Egusa, Ai Saiga; Nagao, Akira; Odahara, Tsutomu; Sugise, Takeshi; Mizoguchi, Noriko; Nosho, Yasuharu

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to examine the substance in a precipitate of heat-treated onion concentrate (HOC) that contributes to a sensation of lingering of aroma, a koku attribute induced by the sensing of richness and persistence in terms of taste, aroma and texture. Adding precipitate, separated from HOC, to consommé enhanced the lingering sensation of aroma in the consommé more than adding the supernatant from HOC. After the precipitate was washed with hot water and ethanol its enhancing effect disappeared. Analysis of the HOC precipitate showed that it contained phytosterols, such as beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Tests of binding to aroma compounds showed that both sterols, as well as the washed precipitate, were able to bind methyl propyl disulfide and N-hexanal. Thus phytosterols in the HOC precipitate seemed to bind and hold the aroma compounds and gradually release them, inducing a lingering sensation of aroma under the koku concept during consumption. PMID:26304403

  18. The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.

    PubMed

    Klempe, Sven Hroar

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

  19. Optical touch sensing: practical bounds for design and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bläßle, Alexander; Janbek, Bebart; Liu, Lifeng; Nakamura, Kanna; Nolan, Kimberly; Paraschiv, Victor

    2013-02-01

    Touch sensitive screens are used in many applications ranging in size from smartphones and tablets to display walls and collaborative surfaces. In this study, we consider optical touch sensing, a technology best suited for large-scale touch surfaces. Optical touch sensing utilizes cameras and light sources placed along the edge of the display. Within this framework, we first find a sufficient number of cameras necessary for identifying a convex polygon touching the screen, using a continuous light source on the boundary of a circular domain. We then find the number of cameras necessary to distinguish between two circular objects in a circular or rectangular domain. Finally, we use Matlab to simulate the polygonal mesh formed from distributing cameras and light sources on a circular domain. Using this, we compute the number of polygons in the mesh and the maximum polygon area to give us information about the accuracy of the configuration. We close with summary and conclusions, and pointers to possible future research directions.

  20. Design and implementation of spaceborne high resolution infrared touch screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tai-guo; Li, Wen-xin; Dong, Yi-peng; Ma, Wen; Xia, Jia-gao

    2015-10-01

    For the consideration of the special application environment of the electronic products used in aerospace and to further more improve the human-computer interaction of the manned aerospace area. The research is based on the design and implementation way of the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen on the basis of FPGA and DSP frame structure. Beside the introduction of the whole structure for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, this essay also gives the detail information about design of hardware for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen system, FPGA design, GUI design and DSP algorithm design based on Lagrange interpolation. What is more, the easy makes a comprehensive research of the reliability design for the high resolution spaceborne infrared touch screen for the special purpose of it. Besides, the system test is done after installation of spaceborne infrared touch screen. The test result shows that the system is simple and reliable enough, which has a stable running environment and high resolution, which certainly can meet the special requirement of the manned aerospace instrument products.

  1. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child's use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children's employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes. PMID:26083848

  2. Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cristia, Alejandrina; Seidl, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Touch screens are increasingly prevalent, and anecdotal evidence suggests that young children are very drawn towards them. Yet there is little data regarding how young children use them. A brief online questionnaire queried over 450 French parents of infants between the ages of 5 and 40 months on their young child’s use of touch-screen technology. Parents estimated frequency of use, and further completed several checklists. Results suggest that, among respondent families, the use of touch screens is widespread in early childhood, meaning that most children have some exposure to touch screens. Among child users, certain activities are more frequently reported to be liked than others, findings that we discuss in light of current concern for children’s employment of time and the cognitive effects of passive media exposure. Additionally, these parental reports point to clear developmental trends for certain types of interactive gestures. These results contribute to the investigation of touch screen use on early development and suggest a number of considerations that should help improve the design of applications geared towards toddlers, particularly for scientific purposes. PMID:26083848

  3. Association of Smoking Onset With R-Rated Movie Restrictions and Adolescent Sensation Seeking

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Tanski, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we examined how often US youths reported having complete parental restrictions on watching R-rated movies. In addition, we assessed the relationship between parental R-rated movie restrictions and adolescents' sensation seeking and how this interplay is related to smoking onset. METHODS: Data from a 4-wave longitudinal study of 6522 adolescents (10–14 years of age) who were recruited through a random-digit-dial telephone survey were used. At baseline, subjects were nationally representative of the US population. Subjects were monitored for 2 years and queried about their smoking status, their sensation-seeking propensity, and how often they were allowed to watch R-rated movies. A cross-lagged model combined with survival analysis was used to assess the relationships between parental R-rated movie restrictions, sensation-seeking propensity, and risk for smoking onset. RESULTS: Findings demonstrated that 32% of the US adolescents reported being completely restricted from watching R-rated movies by their parents. Model findings revealed that adolescents' sensation seeking was related to greater risk for smoking onset not only directly but also indirectly through their parents becoming more permissive of R-rated movie viewing. Parental R-rated movie restrictions were found to decrease the risk of smoking onset directly and indirectly by changing children's sensation seeking. CONCLUSIONS: These findings imply that, beyond direct influences, the relationship between adolescents' sensation seeking and parental R-rated movie restrictions in explaining smoking onset is bidirectional in nature. Finally, these findings highlight the relevance of motivating and supporting parents in limiting access to R-rated movies. PMID:21135004

  4. Effects of Harsh and Unpredictable Environments in Adolescence on Development of Life History Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Figueredo, Aurelio José; Ellis, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood. PMID:20634914

  5. Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-01-01

    The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

  6. Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

  7. Applications of Optical Fiber Assemblies in Harsh Environments, the Journey Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies including; qualification information, lessons learned and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

  8. Fiber optic connectors for harsh environment of aviation and aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.

    2014-09-01

    Fiber optic connector technology is making significant advances for use in aviation and aerospace applications. This increasingly user friendly system has contributed to more novel extremely small multifiber connectors for fiber optic interconnection. With low insertion loss and excellent environmental endurance in harsh environments they meet the requirements of higher integration in optical backplanes. There are two main methods of transmitting an optical signal between two fibers: (1) Physical Contact (PC) and (2) Non-Physical Contact Connectors, Expanded Beam (EB). Expanded beam connectors have been shown to withstand extreme environments without the need for special servicing or cleaning equipment. Protecting the optical fibers behind the lenses ensures that no damage or degradation can occur to the fiber ends. Severe conditions, extreme surroundings, rough weather, rugged and unforgiving environment call for the use of high-performance fiber optic connectors. Appropriate connector selection is essential to assure adequate optical, environmental and mechanical performance. The choice of these items should be specific to the requirements of the system when considering environmental and mechanical limitations. Proper installation, maintenance and repair training is essential. This paper outlines the attributes, environments, requirements, technologies and solutions of fiber optic connectors for harsh environment for aviation and aerospace applications. Furthermore, it describes various state-of-the-art technologies, particularly for aviation industry. Discussion will also place emphasis on physical contact and expanded beam designs which are the fiber optic technologies being used in harsh environments of aviation and aerospace applications. Key

  9. A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

  10. Development of a micro liquid-level sensor for harsh environments using a periodic heating technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jonggan; Chang, Young Soo; Kim, Dongsik

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a novel micro thermal sensor for point sensing of lubrication oil level in industrial compressors. The results reported in this work can be applied to various harsh environments that feature high temperature/pressure, limited space and flow/vibration. The sensor employs an ac (alternating current) thermal technique with a single heating/sensing element. As the sensing scheme is based on the so-called three-omega method, the sensing signal is noise-resistant and hardly affected by flow in the liquid being measured. Experiments with DI water, ethanol and ethylene glycol confirm that the sensor performance is satisfactory under atmospheric pressure. Also, to mimic harsh conditions as in an industrial compressor, tests are performed in a pressure vessel containing R410A gas and polyvinylether lubrication oil under high temperatures and pressures. The results indicate that the sensitivity and response time of the developed sensor are appropriate for practical usage in harsh environments. As the sensor can be easily mass-produced at low cost using photolithography, it has strong potential for industrial applications.

  11. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  12. A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

  13. 32.3 / T.-K. Ho 32.3: Simple Single-Layer Multi-Touch Projected Capacitive

    E-print Network

    shows the multiplex design. This approach is more suitable to be used as a touch screen in a high32.3 / T.-K. Ho 32.3: Simple Single-Layer Multi-Touch Projected Capacitive Touch Panel Tsz-Kin Ho A simple projected capacitive touch panel is developed. This touch panel is capable of detecting multi

  14. Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

  15. The Role of Sensation-Seeking in Alcohol Use and Risk-Taking Behavior among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parent, Elena C.; Newman, Denise L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies the relationship of sensation-seeking to alcohol use and risk-taking behavior in a sample of college women. Risk-taking behavior measured in a driving simulation task was affected by state of intoxication. Results indicate that the personality trait of sensation-seeking appears to play an important mediating role in alcohol use and…

  16. Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quick, Brian L.; Stephenson, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation sought to advance Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) by examining whether trait reactance and sensation seeking influence the magnitude of a perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. Results revealed that high trait reactant (HTR) and low trait reactant (LTR) individuals and high sensation seekers…

  17. Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents. 

    E-print Network

    Anonymous,

    1979-01-01

    ."~ ) B - 1269 -~abies Touch, .. Taste, and Learn 0') A Gu ide for Parents TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE Daniel C. Pfannstiel, Director, College Station, Texas A baby learns from touching you Hold him close to your... body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them in their mouths Keep things away...

  18. How mirror-touch informs theories of synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Meier, Beat; Lunke, Katrin; Rothen, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy provide an excellent overview of the state of mirror-touch research in order to advance this field. They present a comparison of two prominent theoretical approaches for understanding mirror-touch phenomena. According to the threshold theory, the phenomena arise as a result of a hyperactive mirror neuron system. According to the Self-Other Theory, they are due to disturbances in the ability to distinguish the self from others. Here, we explore how these two theories can inform theories of synesthesia more generally. We conclude that both theories are not suited as general models of synesthesia. PMID:26118388

  19. Causal mechanisms of mirror-touch synesthesia: Clues from neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy offer a critical discussion of Mirror-Touch Synesthesia (MTS), with reference to Threshold and Self-Other theories. The authors argue that developmental MTS is linked to differences in the functioning of a mirror system for touch (and pain), which are driven by neurocognitive alterations that lie outside of the somatosensory system and concern bodily awareness and/or the control of self-other representations. This commentary briefly presents some neuropsychological evidence in line with Ward and Banissy's argument, questioning the potential similarities between MTS and some post-stroke disorders of body representation. PMID:26218326

  20. Longitudinal pathways from early maternal depression to children's dysregulated representations: a moderated mediation analysis of harsh parenting and gender.

    PubMed

    Martoccio, Tiffany L; Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Maupin, Angela N; Robinson, Joann L

    2016-02-01

    There is some evidence linking maternal depression, harsh parenting, and children's internal representations of attachment, yet, longitudinal examinations of these relationships and differences in the developmental pathways between boys and girls are lacking. Moderated mediation growth curves were employed to examine harsh parenting as a mechanism underlying the link between maternal depression and children's dysregulated representations using a nationally-representative, economically-vulnerable sample of mothers and their children (n = 575; 49% boys, 51% girls). Dysregulation representations were measured using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery at five years of age (M = 5.14, SD = 0.29). Harsh parenting mediated the association between early maternal depression and dysregulated representations for girls. Though initial harsh parenting was a significant mediator for boys, a stronger direct effect of maternal depression to dysregulated representations emerged over time. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for intervention efforts aimed at promoting early supportive parenting. PMID:26608177

  1. A Longitudinal Examination of Mothers’ and Fathers’ Social Information Processing Biases and Harsh Discipline in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Woodlief, Darren; Malone, Patrick S.; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta; Skinner, Ann T.; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Uribe Tirado, Liliana Maria; Zelli, Arnaldo; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Alampay, Liane Peña; Bacchini, Dario; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Di Giunta, Laura; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether parents’ social information processing was related to their subsequent reports of their harsh discipline. Interviews were conducted with mothers (n = 1277) and fathers (n = 1030) of children in 1297 families in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, United States), initially when children were 7- to 9-years-old and again one year later. Structural equation models showed that parents’ positive evaluations of aggressive responses to hypothetical childrearing vignettes at Time 1 predicted parents’ self-reported harsh physical and nonphysical discipline at Time 2. This link was consistent across mothers and fathers and across the nine countries, providing support for the universality of the link between positive evaluations of harsh discipline and parents’ aggressive behavior toward children. The results suggest that international efforts to eliminate violence toward children could target parents’ beliefs about the acceptability and advisability of using harsh physical and nonphysical forms of discipline. PMID:24762321

  2. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

  3. Great Sensations: A Program to Encourage Heart Healthy Snacking by High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Classroom instruction, parent outreach, and media campaigns were strategies used by the Great Sensations program, designed to teach high school students good snacking habits. The program focused on salt and high blood pressure. Program design and results are discussed. (Author/DF)

  4. Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

  5. ChainMail A Configurable Multimodal Lining to Enable Sensate Surfaces and Interactive Objects

    E-print Network

    with a suite of thirteen sensors, providing dense, multimodal capture of proximate and contact phenomena sensor, and a whisker sensor capable of monitoring airflow or proximity. Permission to make digital is a scalable electronic sensate skin that is designed as a dense sensor network. ChainMail is built from small

  6. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure to Health Risk Behavior in Adolescence: Motivation to Cope and Sensation Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Sonya S.; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined two potential mechanisms linking violence exposure and health risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: sensation seeking and coping with stress through escape behavior. Method: Male (59%) and female adolescents (N = 251), ages 12 to 19 years, from diverse ethnic backgrounds (61% African American, 19%…

  7. Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER RiskySex:InteractionsAmongEthnicity,SexualSensationSeeking,

    E-print Network

    CaucasianAmericans.ResultsrevealedthathigherSSSwas associated with more vaginal and anal sex partners. Further, the association between SSS and the number of anal sex partners was positive among Asian Americans and Caucasians, but non- significant among AfricanORIGINAL PAPER RiskySex:InteractionsAmongEthnicity,SexualSensationSeeking, Sexual Inhibition

  9. Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

  10. Sensation Seeking as a Psychological Trait of Drug Abuse among Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Reginald J.

    1994-01-01

    Conceptualization of the role of personality constructs in the drug usage behavior of individuals with disabilities has both preventive and treatment relevance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between sensation seeking and drug usage pattern of persons with spinal cord injury. Implications for rehabilitation research…

  11. Measuring an Individual's Investment in the Future: Symbolic Immortality, Sensation Seeking, and Psychic Numbness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Robert C.; Mister, Rena D.

    1988-01-01

    Operationalized Lifton's constructs of symbolic immortality and developed instrument to measure individual's needs for symbolic immortality in Lifton's five modes (biological, religious, nature, creative, experiential) in study which also examined age effects on needs for symbolic immortality and relation between sensation seeking and symbolic…

  12. Tactile Sensation Imaging for Artificial Palpation Jong-Ha Lee1

    E-print Network

    Won, Chang-Hee

    Tactile Sensation Imaging for Artificial Palpation Jong-Ha Lee1 , Chang-Hee Won1 , Kaiguo Yan2 phantom with hard inclusions (tumor models) is developed. The proposed tactile imaging sensor estimated, ultrasonic imaging, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and x-rays have been developed [1], [2]. However

  13. Human consciousness is one of the wonders of the world. It integrates sensation, per-

    E-print Network

    Bargh, John A.

    35 Human consciousness is one of the wonders of the world. It integrates sensation, per- ception, and electrons, combine and organize so as to make conscious experience possible remains one of the most unassailable mysteries in the scientific understanding of the universe. Yet consciousness itself is, of course

  14. Scene Consistency and Spatial Presence Increase the Sensation of Self-Motion in Virtual Reality

    E-print Network

    Scene Consistency and Spatial Presence Increase the Sensation of Self-Motion in Virtual Reality--Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation, (e.g. HCI]: User Interfaces, ego-motion simulation, human factors, psy- chophysics, spatial presence, Virtual Reality, spatial

  15. Early Adolescent Boys' Exposure to Internet Pornography: Relationships to Pubertal Timing, Sensation Seeking, and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyens, Ine; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that adolescents regularly use Internet pornography. This two-wave panel study aimed to test an integrative model in early adolescent boys (M[subscript age] = 14.10; N = 325) that (a) explains their exposure to Internet pornography by looking at relationships with pubertal timing and sensation seeking, and (b) explores…

  16. The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

  17. Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample

    PubMed Central

    Taillieu, Tamara L.; Afifi, Tracie O.; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Sareen, Jitender

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n = 34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

  18. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John E; Sullivan, Bridget S; Duffy, Valerie B

    2010-06-16

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  19. Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

    2010-01-01

    Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

  20. Motor and parietal cortex stimulation for phantom limb pain and sensations.

    PubMed

    Bolognini, Nadia; Olgiati, Elena; Maravita, Angelo; Ferraro, Francesco; Fregni, Felipe

    2013-08-01

    Limb amputation may lead to chronic painful sensations referred to the absent limb, ie phantom limb pain (PLP), which is likely subtended by maladaptive plasticity. The present study investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive technique of brain stimulation that can modulate neuroplasticity, can reduce PLP. In 2 double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in subjects with unilateral lower or upper limb amputation, we measured the effects of a single session of tDCS (2 mA, 15 min) of the primary motor cortex (M1) and of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) on PLP, stump pain, nonpainful phantom limb sensations and telescoping. Anodal tDCS of M1 induced a selective short-lasting decrease of PLP, whereas cathodal tDCS of PPC induced a selective short-lasting decrease of nonpainful phantom sensations; stump pain and telescoping were not affected by parietal or by motor tDCS. These findings demonstrate that painful and nonpainful phantom limb sensations are dissociable phenomena. PLP is associated primarily with cortical excitability shifts in the sensorimotor network; increasing excitability in this system by anodal tDCS has an antalgic effect on PLP. Conversely, nonpainful phantom sensations are associated to a hyperexcitation of PPC that can be normalized by cathodal tDCS. This evidence highlights the relationship between the level of excitability of different cortical areas, which underpins maladaptive plasticity following limb amputation and the phenomenology of phantom limb, and it opens up new opportunities for the use of tDCS in the treatment of PLP. PMID:23707312

  1. Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

  2. Drop-Off Detection in the Touch Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uslan, Mark M.; Schriebman, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    Using a theoretical model of walking with the cane, drop off detection in the touch technique was analyzed for usefulness with the visually impaired. Sufficient cane length for detecting curb drop offs was found to be measurable and a chart was generated to enable the practitioner to determine cane length easily. (Author)

  3. Heat-Induced Pain Diminishes Vibrotactile Perception: A Touch Gate

    E-print Network

    Apkarian, A. Vania

    Heat- Induced Pain Diminishes Vibrotactile Perception: A Touch Gate A. Vania Apkarian,*.t-1 Richard the perception of pain. We have found the reverse effect: Heat at levels that induce pain can substantially stimulated by a tonic, pain- producing heat stimulus and vibrotactile stimuli (1, 10, and 100 Hz

  4. Human Figure Drawings and Children’s Recall of Touching

    PubMed Central

    Bruck, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions. PMID:20025421

  5. Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis

    E-print Network

    Ras, Zbigniew W.

    Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis Thomas selection of complex regions-of-interest within a hierarchical geospatial environment, as well as methods enough to be applied across a wide range of geospatial analytical applications for both domestic security

  6. The effect of relationship status on communicating emotions through touch.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Erin H; Hampton, James A

    2011-02-01

    Research into emotional communication to date has largely focused on facial and vocal expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, and Keltner (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touch. The study showed that strangers were unable to communicate the self-focused emotions embarrassment, envy and pride, or the universal emotion surprise. Literature relating to touch indicates that the interpretation of a tactile experience is significantly influenced by the relationship between the touchers (Coan, Schaefer, & Davidson, 2006). The present study compared the ability of romantic couples and strangers to communicate emotions solely via touch. Results showed that both strangers and romantic couples were able to communicate universal and prosocial emotions, whereas only romantic couples were able to communicate the self-focused emotions envy and pride. PMID:21432672

  7. Touch and Discover. Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    Students work in pairs or small groups to identify and categorize various objects. One student is blindfolded and the other student chooses five objects for his/her partner to identify. The blindfolded student has to describe and try to identify the object based solely on touch. Both students then record their data, describing the objects first as…

  8. Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Predmore, Sarah R.

    2005-01-01

    There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

  9. Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

  10. Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens Ivan Poupyrev Shigeaki Maruyama

    E-print Network

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    Tactile Interfaces for Small Touch Screens Ivan Poupyrev Shigeaki Maruyama Interaction Lab, Sony CSL, Micro Device Center, Sony EMCS, 3-14-13 Higashigotanda, Shinagawa 2-15-3 Konan, Minato Tokyo 141-0022, Japan Tokyo 108-6201, Japan poup@csl.sony.co.jp shigeaki.maruyama@jp.sony.com ABSTRACT We present

  11. Three Sales Letter Themes: Taste It, Try It, Touch It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Marsha L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes three approaches to writing a persuasive sales letter that require the student to either taste a product, try out an item, or touch an object before writing the sales letter to a prospective audience. Describes preassignment activities, the assignment, and student reaction to the activities. (SR)

  12. TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR

    E-print Network

    Cavusoglu, Cenk

    -directed surgery, Neurosurgery, Robot, Robotic technology Neurosurgery 56:421-433, 2005 DOI: 10.1227/01.NEUTOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR THE FUTURE Narendra Nathoo, M.D., Ph.D. Brain for the discipline of neurological surgery. Driven primarily by synergistic developments in science and engineering

  13. High-Touch Healthcare Volume 6 | Issue 2 | Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    ® High-Touch Healthcare Volume 6 | Issue 2 | Spring 2011 University of California, Irvine personalized, participatory healthcare 1 Blazing the Path Forward Calit2 celebrates 10 years of achievement at the mattress." Advances in information technology are creating revolutionary healthcare- delivery mechanisms

  14. Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling

    2005-01-01

    When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

  15. Fetal Behavioural Responses to Maternal Voice and Touch

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Viola; Nagy, Emese

    2015-01-01

    Background Although there is data on the spontaneous behavioural repertoire of the fetus, studies on their behavioural responses to external stimulation are scarce. Aim, Methods The aim of the current study was to measure fetal behavioural responses in reaction to maternal voice; to maternal touch of the abdomen compared to a control condition, utilizing 3D real-time (4D) sonography. Behavioural responses of 23 fetuses (21st to 33rd week of gestation; N = 10 in the 2nd and N = 13 in the 3rd trimester) were frame-by-frame coded and analyzed in the three conditions. Results Results showed that fetuses displayed more arm, head, and mouth movements when the mother touched her abdomen and decreased their arm and head movements to maternal voice. Fetuses in the 3rd trimester showed increased regulatory (yawning), resting (arms crossed) and self-touch (hands touching the body) responses to the stimuli when compared to fetuses in the 2nd trimester. Conclusion In summary, the results from this study suggest that fetuses selectively respond to external stimulation earlier than previously reported, fetuses actively regulated their behaviours as a response to the external stimulation, and that fetal maturation affected the emergence of these differential responses to the environment. PMID:26053388

  16. Cognitive Neuroscience: Scene Layout from Vision and Touch

    E-print Network

    Epstein, Russell A.

    Cognitive Neuroscience: Scene Layout from Vision and Touch Parahippocampal and retrosplenial responds preferentially to scenes because it codes the spatial layout of the local environment, as defined of the four preceding sample items. To encourage subjects to perceive the scenes as navigable layouts, toy

  17. Analysis of the AirTouch automatic vehicle location system's ability to locate moving vehicles 

    E-print Network

    Henry, Tracy Lynn

    1995-01-01

    as recovering stolen vehicles. Because many applications require traveling vehicles, this thesis focused on the AirTouch system's ability to accurately locate a moving vehicle. Recent AirTouch vehicle location system reports were compiled and analyzed...

  18. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust

    PubMed Central

    Erk, Stefanie M.; Van Erp, Jan B.F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for participants scoring high on these factors. The implications of these results for further research are discussed, and some suggestions for follow-up experiments are presented. PMID:26557429

  19. Effects of mediated social touch on affective experiences and trust.

    PubMed

    Erk, Stefanie M; Toet, Alexander; Van Erp, Jan B F

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for participants scoring high on these factors. The implications of these results for further research are discussed, and some suggestions for follow-up experiments are presented. PMID:26557429

  20. Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch

    PubMed Central

    Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

  1. Thermal stability and energy harvesting characteristics of Au nanorods: harsh environment chemical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karker, Nicholas; Dharmalingam, Gnanaprakash; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the levels of polluting gases such as CO and NOx from high temperature (500°C and higher) combustion environments requires materials with high thermal stability and resilience that can withstand harsh oxidizing and reducing environments. Au nanorods (AuNRs) have shown potential in plasmonic gas sensing due to their catalytic activity, high oxidation stability, and absorbance sensitivity to changes in the surrounding environment. By using electron beam lithography, AuNR geometries can be patterned with tight control of the rod dimensions and spacings, allowing tunability of their optical properties. Methods such as NR encapsulation within an yttria-stabilized zirconia overcoat layer with subsequent annealing procedures will be shown to improve temperature stability within a simulated harsh environment. Since light sources and spectrometers are typically required to obtain optical measurements, integration is a major barrier for harsh environment sensing. Plasmonic sensing results will be presented where thermal energy is harvested by the AuNRs, which replaces the need for an external incident light source. Results from gas sensing experiments that utilize thermal energy harvesting are in good agreement with experiments which use an external incident light source. Principal component analysis results demonstrate that by selecting the most "active" wavelengths in a plasmonic band, the wavelength space can be reduced from hundreds of monitored wavelengths to just four, without loss of information about selectivity of the AuNRs. By combining thermal stability, the thermal energy harvesting capability, and the selectivity in gas detection (achieved through multivariate analysis), integration of plasmonic sensors into combustion environments can be greatly simplified.

  2. Characterization of the Vectron PX-570 Crystal Oscillator for Use in Harsh Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jacob; Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Computing hardware, data-acquisition systems, communications systems, and many electronic control systems require well-controlled timing signals for proper and accurate operation. These signals are, in most cases, provided by circuits that employ crystal oscillators due to availability, cost, ease of operation, and accuracy. In some cases, the electronic systems are expected to survive and operate under harsh conditions that include exposure to extreme temperatures. These applications exist in terrestrial systems as well as in aerospace products. Well-logging, geothermal systems, and industrial process control are examples of ground-based applications, while distributed jet engine control in aircraft, space-based observatories (such as the James Webb Space Telescope), satellites, and lunar and planetary landers are typical environments where electronics are exposed to harsh operating conditions. To ensure these devices produce reliable results, the digital heartbeat from the oscillator must deliver a stable signal that is not affected by external temperature or other conditions. One such solution is a recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) oscillator, the PX-570 series from Vectron International. The oscillator was designed for high-temperature applications and as proof, the crystal oscillator was subjected to a wide suite of tests to determine its ruggedness for operation in harsh environments. The tests performed by Vectron included electrical characterization under wide range of temperature, accelerated life test/aging, shock and vibration, internal moisture analysis, ESD threshold, and latch-up testing. The parametric evaluation was performed on the oscillator's frequency, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current over the temperature range of -125 C to +230 C. The evaluations also determined the effects of thermal cycling and the oscillator's re-start capability at extreme hot and cold temperatures. These thermal cycling and restart tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Overall, the crystal oscillator performed well and demonstrated very good frequency stability. This paper will discuss the test procedures and present details of the performance results.

  3. Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

    2013-01-01

    What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

  4. Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2014-01-01

    To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

  5. Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

  6. Illumination design of a multi-touch sensing projection screen for augmented virtual environments

    E-print Network

    Hua, Hong

    Illumination design of a multi-touch sensing projection screen for augmented virtual environments of a multi-touch sensing projection screen for augmented virtual environments Sheng Liu, Chunyu Gao, Hong Hua The paper presents the illumination engineering for a low- cost multi-touch projection screen. Eight near

  7. High-Entropy Visual Identification for Touch Screen Devices Nathaniel Wesley Filardo and Giuseppe Ateniese

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    High-Entropy Visual Identification for Touch Screen Devices Nathaniel Wesley Filardo and Giuseppe-derived keying material on touch- screen devices. We allow a device to recover previously generated, highly on the part of the user. Instead, we require the use of a transparency overlaid on the touch-screen. Our

  8. ContextType: Using Hand Posture Information to Improve Mobile Touch Screen Text Entry

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    ContextType: Using Hand Posture Information to Improve Mobile Touch Screen Text Entry Mayank Goel1, the right thumb, or the index finger) to improve mobile touch screen text entry. ContextType switches condition, ContextType reduced total text entry error rate by 20.6%. Author Keywords Touch screen

  9. Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users Shaun K. Kane Adding tactile feedback to touch screens can improve their accessibility to blind users, but prior approaches to integrating tactile feedback with touch screens have either offered limited functionality

  10. How Screen Transitions Influence Touch and Pointer Interaction Across Angled Display Arrangements

    E-print Network

    How Screen Transitions Influence Touch and Pointer Interaction Across Angled Display Arrangements of combined displays as one large screen [2, 7]. Bezels affect both pointer and direct touch input. Pointer way [3]. For touch interaction, the haptic continuity of the display arrangement is essential. Screen

  11. Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users

    E-print Network

    Kane, Shaun K.

    Touchplates: Low-Cost Tactile Overlays for Visually Impaired Touch Screen Users Shaun K. Kane UMBC feedback to touch screens can improve their accessibility to blind users, but prior approaches to integrating tactile feedback with touch screens have either offered limited functionality or required

  12. Comparing Voice with Touch Screen for Controlling the Instructor's Operating Station of a Flight Simulator

    E-print Network

    Desmarais, Michel C.

    Comparing Voice with Touch Screen for Controlling the Instructor's Operating Station of a Flight with the simulator by using touch screen devices. We analyzed how a voice driven interface can improve the trainer interface and two touch screen interfaces are reported. Twenty voice commands have been derived from

  13. Input Finger Detection for Nonvisual Touch Screen Text Entry in Perkinput

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    Input Finger Detection for Nonvisual Touch Screen Text Entry in Perkinput Shiri Azenkot*, Jacob O Finger Detection (IFD), a novel technique for nonvisual touch screen input, and its application finger represents one bit, either touching the screen or not. Maximum likelihood and tracking algorithms

  14. EVALUATION OF MULTI-TOUCH TECHNIQUES FOR PHYSICALLY SIMULATED VIRTUAL OBJECT MANIPULATIONS IN 3D SPACE

    E-print Network

    Lindeman, Robert W.

    interaction. 1. INTRODUCTION The study of touch screen interaction for collaboration in tabletop and office the history of multi-touch screen and at which point we are now. It also poses questions that could or should- touch interfaces tends to occur because of the dislocation of the finger's centroid on screen during

  15. Sparse Selection of Training Data for Touch Correction Daryl Weir, Simon Rogers

    E-print Network

    offset models which improve input accuracy on mobile touch screen devices typically require the useSparse Selection of Training Data for Touch Correction Systems Daryl Weir, Simon Rogers University Buschek University of Munich Amalienstr. 17, 80333 Munich, Germany buschek@cip.ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT Touch

  16. Access Overlays: Improving Non-Visual Access to Large Touch Screens for Blind Users

    E-print Network

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    Access Overlays: Improving Non-Visual Access to Large Touch Screens for Blind Users Shaun K. Kane1@dgp.toronto.edu ladner@cs.washington.edu wobbrock@uw.edu ABSTRACT Many touch screens remain inaccessible to blind users touch screens or spatial data. In this paper, we introduce a set of three software-based access overlays

  17. How To Make Large Touch Screens Usable While Driving Sonja Rmelin

    E-print Network

    How To Make Large Touch Screens Usable While Driving Sonja Rümelin 1,2 , Andreas Butz 2 1 BMW Group), Amalienstr. 17, Munich, Germany {sonja.ruemelin, butz}@ifi.lmu.de ABSTRACT Large touch screens are recently elements in and around the screen space were regarded useful to ease orientation. With touch gestures

  18. User-Specific Touch Models in a Cross-Device Context Daniel Buschek

    E-print Network

    Murray-Smith, Roderick

    part of their finger than the one with which they actually touch the screen, see for example [8]. TUser-Specific Touch Models in a Cross-Device Context Daniel Buschek University of Munich Amalienstr to intended touch locations to improve accuracy. We propose a flexible framework to adapt and apply models

  19. SVIFT: Swift Vision-Free Text-entry for Touch Screens

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    SVIFT: Swift Vision- Free Text-entry for Touch Screens Aakar Gupta University of Toronto aakar additional peripherals. Users use their fingers to interact with the touch screen and the accelerometer-free text-entry technique for mobile touch devices to increase speed and accuracy while enabling fast

  20. Towards Gesture-based Process Modeling on Multi-Touch Devices

    E-print Network

    Ulm, Universität

    devices with larger screens (e.g., multi-touch tables), in turn, can be used to collaboratively model designed with multi-touch devices in mind and do not take their specific properties (e.g., small screen. The suggested core gesture set is applicable to all screen sizes of multi-touch devices. It has been developed

  1. Shift: A Technique for Operating Pen-Based Interfaces Using Touch

    E-print Network

    Baudisch, Patrick

    to address these issues. When the user touches the screen, Shift creates a callout showing a copy of the oc is created and users enjoy the full performance of an unaltered touch screen. We report the results of a user an unaided touch screen and that Shift is faster than Offset Cursor for larger targets. Author Keywords

  2. The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

  3. Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line Coombs, Douglas L. Jones, and Chang Liu

    E-print Network

    Jones, Douglas L.

    Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line Coombs, Douglas L. Jones reprints, see: Notes: #12;Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line Yingchen Yang-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically

  4. 78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ... Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U... sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile handset devices and related touch... within the United States after importation of certain mobile handset devices and related touch...

  5. Simplifying Touch Data from Tri-axial Sensors Using a New Data Visualization Tool

    PubMed Central

    SALUD, Lawrence H.; KWAN, Calvin; PUGH, Carla M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantification and evaluation of palpation is a growing field of research in medicine and engineering. A newly developed tri-axial touch sensor has been designed to capture a multi-dimensional profile of touch-loaded forces. We have developed a data visualization tool as a first step in simplifying interpretation of touch for assessing hands-on clinical performance. PMID:23400186

  6. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  7. 19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.15 Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign...Form 1379 to touch and trade. When a fishing vessel departs from the United...

  8. Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator

    PubMed Central

    Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

    2014-01-01

    When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

  9. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin

    PubMed Central

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  10. Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin.

    PubMed

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

    2014-01-01

    The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

  11. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Ann T; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A; Malone, Patrick S; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2014-01-20

    Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers', fathers', and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1,282) and fathers (n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers' and fathers' reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger. PMID:25411645

  12. Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Ann T.; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1,282) and fathers (n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger. PMID:25411645

  13. Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

    2014-06-01

    Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

  14. Rugged optical mirrors for Fourier-Transform Spectrometers operated in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feist, D. G.; Arnold, S. G.; Hase, F.; Ponge, D.

    2015-10-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) operate a number of Fourier-Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) that measure trace gases in the atmosphere by observing solar spectra. To guide the sunlight into the FTS, a solar tracker has to be placed outside. This device needs high-quality optical mirrors with good reflectivity in the near and mid infrared. More and more FTS stations are operated in remote locations with harsh environments. Optical mirrors are usually made for laboratory conditions and might not last very long there. At the MPI-BGC's TCCON site on Ascension Island, several mirrors from different optical manufacturers were destroyed within weeks. To continue operation, the MPI-BGC had to develop rugged mirrors that could sustain the harsh conditions for months or even years. While commercially available mirrors are typically made from a substrate coverered with a thin reflective coating, these rugged mirrors were made from stainless steel with no additional coating. Except for their lower reflectivity (which can easily be compensated for), their optical properties are comparable to existing mirrors. However, their rugged design makes them mostly immune to corrosion and scratching. Unlike most coated mirrors, they can also be cleaned easily.

  15. Plastic optical fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems for harsh environment in aerospace application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kish; Mendoza, Edward; Kempen, Lothar

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the 1st successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Evolved Expandable Lunch Vehicle (EELV) Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the possible leak of rocket prior launch to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. Due to harsh environment of launch vehicle, we developed the first combination of 100 m POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. The hydrogen sensor consisted of optrodes distributed at multiple locations along a fiber optic cable-based network. These hydrogen sensors were used on the Common Booster Core (CBC) of Delta IV had to perform in temperatures between -18° C and +60° C. The hydrogen sensor sensitive chemistry was fully reversible and had demonstrated a response to hydrogen gas in the range of 0% to 10% with a resolution of 0.1 % and a response time of 5 seconds measured at a gas flow rate of 1 cc/mm. The optical signature of the optrode in the visible spectrum varied proportionally to the local hydrogen gas concentration. To qualify the POF and fiber optic cables, performed detail investigation for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy. Extensive networking using LabView were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

  16. Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

  17. Study of harsh environment operation of flexible ferroelectric memory integrated with PZT and silicon fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, M. T.; Hussain, M. M.

    2015-08-01

    Flexible memory can enable industrial, automobile, space, and smart grid centered harsh/extreme environment focused electronics application(s) for enhanced operation, safety, and monitoring where bent or complex shaped infrastructures are common and state-of-the-art rigid electronics cannot be deployed. Therefore, we report on the physical-mechanical-electrical characteristics of a flexible ferroelectric memory based on lead zirconium titanate as a key memory material and flexible version of bulk mono-crystalline silicon (100). The experimented devices show a bending radius down to 1.25 cm corresponding to 0.16% nominal strain (high pressure of ˜260 MPa), and full functionality up to 225 °C high temperature in ambient gas composition (21% oxygen and 55% relative humidity). The devices showed unaltered data retention and fatigue properties under harsh conditions, still the reduced memory window (20% difference between switching and non-switching currents at 225 °C) requires sensitive sense circuitry for proper functionality and is the limiting factor preventing operation at higher temperatures.

  18. Efficacy of scallop shell powders and slaked lime for inactivating avian influenza virus under harsh conditions.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Tsujimura, Misato; Satoh, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Tomomi; Tamura, Miho; Kawamura, Akinobu; Ishida, Yuki; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy and stability of scallop shell powder (SSP) were investigated, in terms of its capacity to inactivate avian influenza virus (AIV), and compared with slaked lime (SL). An environmental simulation was conducted by emulating sunlight and wet-dry conditions. The powders were collected at consecutive 2-week intervals under sunlight and upon every resuspension. These materials were tested by mixing them with AIV and incubating the mixture for 3 min or 20 h, followed by AIV titration. At the same time, a pH buffering test was conducted by neutralization with Tris-HCl. The results revealed that SSP and SL have high alkalinity and excellent ability to inactivate AIV. In a simulated harsh environment, SSP and SL retained a satisfactory ability to inactivate AIV within 20 h throughout the experimental procedure. However, SSP was able to inactivate AIV during a short contact period (3 min), even under harsh conditions, and it was more resistant than SL to neutralization. PMID:26168709

  19. Recent developments on surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors for harsh conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiopu, Paul; Chilibon, Irinela; Grosu, Neculai; Craciun, Alexandru

    2015-02-01

    The results of research into Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) devices have been recognized for their efficiency and versatility in the electrical signals processing. Actual progress in the industrial application of piezoelectric materials such as Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3), Langasite (LGS), Lanthanum-Gallium Silicate La3Ga5SiO14 and Gallium Orthophosphate (GaPO4), allows the manufacturing of devices with piezoelectric performances, which overcome the limits obtained with quartz crystals. The single crystal materials have a long term high stability - near to infinite - and moreover, some of these have an excellent behavior with temperature variation. Today, GaPO4 with its properties is by far the best suited piezoelectric material to be used in sensor applications for machine monitoring and pressure measurements, at high temperatures. SAW micro devices based on GaPO4 operate at temperatures of up to 8000C. For a particular case, of harsh-environment applications, additional challenges need to be overcome, relating to substrate integrity and operation, thin film electrode fabrication, device packaging, and sensor interrogation. This paper reviews the novel progres in the area of (SAW) sensors for harsh conditions.

  20. Reduced Prefrontal Cortical Gray Matter Volume in Young Adults Exposed to Harsh Corporal Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods 1,455 young adults (18–25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3T trio scanner. Results GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P = 0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA 9) (P = 0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) (P < 0.001, uncorrected cluster level) of HCP subjects. There were significant correlations between GMV in these identified regions and performance IQ on the WAIS-III. Conclusions Exposing children to harsh HCP may have detrimental effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP. PMID:19285558

  1. Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesham, Rajeshuni

    2013-03-01

    Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A multiple rework processes may be implemented with CCGA packaging technology to understand the effect of number of reworks on the reliability of this technology for harsh thermal environments. In general, reliability of the assembled electronic packages reduces as a function of number of reworks and the extent is not known yet. A CCGA rework process has been tried and implemented to design a daisy-chain test board consists of 624 and 717 packages. Reworked CCGA interconnect electronic packages of printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging and optical microscope techniques. The assembled boards after 1st rework and 1st reflow were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space JPL/NASA for moderate to harsh thermal mission environments. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling to determine intermittent failures. This paper provides the experimental reliability test results to failure of assemblies for the first time of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages under extreme harsh thermal environments.

  2. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M; Wright, Patricia B; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  3. Instrumentation for magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching of auditory and lingual vibrotactile sensations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel; Fucci, Donald; Petrosino, Linda; Wallace, Daniel

    1986-09-01

    An instrumentation system has been designed to investigate the relationship between auditory and oral tactile sensory processes. This instrumentation can be employed to obtain judgments of auditory and oral tactile sensation magnitudes by the psychophysical scaling methods of magnitude estimation and cross-modality matching. The stimulus generating units, stimulus measurement units, and psychophysical sensation magnitude scaling procedures are described. Previous research on the relationship of auditory and oral tactile sensory processes has frequently involved disruption of one or both sensory modes. The instrumentation system described permits investigation of these sensory channels in a nondisruptive manner. The results of two preliminary studies employing the described instrumentation and experimental techniques indicate that the system provides a viable means for investigating auditory and oral tactile sensory interactions in normal and speech-disordered subjects.

  4. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M.; Wright, Patricia B.; Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed SSS was correlated with number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  5. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed. PMID:22201248

  6. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain. PMID:26334275

  7. Developing Mixed Reality Educational Applications: The Virtual Touch Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Mateu, Juan; Lasala, María José; Alamán, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present Virtual Touch, a toolkit that allows the development of educational activities through a mixed reality environment such that, using various tangible elements, the interconnection of a virtual world with the real world is enabled. The main goal of Virtual Touch is to facilitate the installation, configuration and programming of different types of technologies, abstracting the creator of educational applications from the technical details involving the use of tangible interfaces and virtual worlds. Therefore, it is specially designed to enable teachers to themselves create educational activities for their students in a simple way, taking into account that teachers generally lack advanced knowledge in computer programming and electronics. The toolkit has been used to develop various educational applications that have been tested in two secondary education high schools in Spain. PMID:26334275

  8. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

  9. Polymorphisms in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs associate with sensations from sampled ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variation in chemosensory genes can explain variability in individual’s perception of and preference for many foods and beverages. To gain insight into variable preference and intake of alcoholic beverages, we explored individual variability in the responses to sampled ethanol. In humans, ethanol elicits sweet, bitter and burning sensations. Here, we explore the relationship between variation in ethanol sensations and polymorphisms in genes encoding bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and a polymodal nociceptor (TRPV1). Methods Caucasian participants (n=93) were genotyped for 16 SNPs in TRPV1, 3 SNPs in TAS2R38 and 1 SNP in TAS2R13. Participants rated sampled ethanol on a generalized Labeled Magnitude Scale. Two stimuli were presented: a 16% ethanol whole mouth sip-and-spit solution with a single time-point rating of overall intensity, and a cotton swab saturated with 50% ethanol on the circumvallate papillae (CV) with repeated ratings made over 3 minutes. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for the time-intensity data. Results The ethanol whole mouth solution had overall intensity ratings near ‘very strong’. Burning/stinging had the highest mean AUC values, followed by bitterness and sweetness. Whole mouth intensity ratings were significantly associated with burning/stinging and bitterness AUC values on the CV. Three TRPV1 SNPs (rs224547, rs4780521, rs161364) were associated with ethanol sensations on the CV, with two (rs224547 and rs4780521) exhibiting strong linkage disequilibrium. Additionally, the TAS2R38 SNPs rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939 formed a haplotype, and were associated with bitterness on the CV. Lastly, overall intensity for whole mouth ethanol associated with the TAS2R13 SNP rs1015443. Conclusions These data suggest genetic variations in TRPV1 and TAS2Rs influence sensations from sampled ethanol and may potentially influence how individuals initially respond to alcoholic beverages. PMID:25257701

  10. Influence of Sensation Seeking on Response to Alcohol Versus Placebo: Implications for the Acquired Preparedness Model

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Caitlin; Corbin, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous research has identified several aspects of behavioral undercontrol that are associated with heavy drinking and problems. Further, research on the acquired preparedness model (Smith and Anderson, 2001) has identified biased learning as a potential mechanism of these effects. Traits like sensation seeking have been linked to stronger positive and weaker negative expectancies, which, in turn, contribute to increased risk for heavy drinking and problems. Although expectancies are thought to represent potentially biased expectations about drinking outcomes, they may also reflect individual differences in alcohol response. The present study examined the strength of associations between sensation seeking and both expectancies (response to placebo) and subjective response under alcohol. Method: Using a between-subjects design, young adult social drinkers (N = 236) were randomly assigned to receive alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration of .08%) or placebo, after which they reported on subjective experiences of stimulation and sedation. Results: Sensation seeking was significantly related to stimulant response, and the strength of this association did not differ by beverage condition (alcohol vs. placebo). Conclusions: The findings argue against a pharmacological explanation for results of prior studies of the acquired preparedness model and support a biased learning interpretation of relations between sensation seeking and positive expectancies. Results also extend the findings on the acquired preparedness model to an implicit measure of positive alcohol expectancies (subjective response to placebo). Future studies using additional measures of implicit expectancies (e.g., Implicit Association Test) would be helpful in determining the relative strength of implicit and explicit expectancies as mediators within the acquired preparedness model. PMID:24411805

  11. Sensation seeking, self-esteem, and unprotected sex in college students.

    PubMed

    Gullette, Donna L; Lyons, Margaret A

    2006-01-01

    This descriptive correlational study examined the relationships of sexual sensation seeking, self-esteem, and self-efficacy in condom use, stages of change, and alcohol consumption to HIV risk-taking behaviors among college students. A total of 159 students completed an online survey in 2004. Instruments included the Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, College Alcohol Problems Scale, Condom Use Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. High sensation seekers had higher self-esteem, more self-efficacy in condom usage, fewer problems associated with alcohol consumption, and belonged to Greek organizations (F [1,158] = 12.54; p < .0005). Women who were high sensation seekers perceived more advantages (F [1, 116] = 1.67; p = .05) than disadvantages (F [1, 116] = 2.01; p = .01) to using condoms. Men consumed significantly more alcohol and had more social problems related to alcohol use than women (F [1, 158] = 5.04; p < .03). Students in Greek organizations had significantly more positive attitudes (X(2) [1] = 4.55; p < .03) and more respect for themselves (X(2) [1] = 11.22; p < .0008) than other students and were more likely to be tested for HIV (X(2) [1] = 3.85; p < .05). Students with low self-esteem consumed more alcohol, had more sexual partners, and had more HIV risk-taking behaviors than other students. Even though students were reported to be efficacious in condom usage, they used them inconsistently with their sexual partners and were in the earlier stages of change. Interventions are needed in the community to help sexually active individuals take responsibility for their sexual health and to increase the awareness of the need to be tested for HIV. PMID:16979512

  12. Additive effects of gastric volumes and macronutrient composition on the sensation of postprandial fullness in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marciani, L; Cox, E F; Pritchard, S E; Major, G; Hoad, C L; Mellows, M; Hussein, M O; Costigan, C; Fox, M; Gowland, P A; Spiller, R C

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intake of food or fluid distends the stomach and triggers mechanoreceptors and vagal afferents. Wall stretch and tension produces a feeling of fullness. Duodenal infusion studies assessing gastric sensitivity by barostat have shown that the products of fat digestion have a greater effect on the sensation of fullness and also dyspeptic symptoms than carbohydrates. We tested here the hypothesis that fat and carbohydrate have different effects on gastric sensation under physiological conditions using non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure gastric volumes. Subjects/Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects received a rice pudding test meal with added fat or added carbohydrate on two separate occasions and underwent serial postprandial MRI scans for 4.5?h. Fullness was assessed on a 100-mm visual analogue scale. Results: Gastric half emptying time was significantly slower for the high-carbohydrate meal than for the high-fat meal, P=0.0327. Fullness significantly correlated with gastric volumes for both meals; however, the change from baseline in fullness scores was higher for the high-fat meal for any given change in stomach volume (P=0.0147), despite the lower energy content and faster gastric emptying of the high-fat meal. Conclusions: Total gastric volume correlates positively and linearly with postprandial fullness and ingestion of a high-fat meal increases this sensation compared with high-carbohydrate meal. These findings can be of clinical interest in patients presenting with postprandial dyspepsia whereby manipulating gastric sensitivity by dietary intervention may help to control digestive sensations. PMID:25226819

  13. The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces.

    PubMed

    Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

    2014-12-01

    Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power (R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context. PMID:24648148

  14. Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

  15. Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2009-01-01

    Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

  16. An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

    2014-05-01

    The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

  17. A task control theory of mirror-touch synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia; Catmur, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Ward and Banissy's illuminating discussion of mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) encourages research testing two alternatives to Threshold Theory: Their own Self-Other Theory, and "Task Control Theory". MTS may be due to abnormal mirror activity plus a domain-general, rather than a specifically social, impairment in the ability to privilege processing of task-relevant over task-irrelevant information. PMID:26114543

  18. Distinct neural networks underlying empathy for pleasant and unpleasant touch.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Claus; Silani, Giorgia; Singer, Tania

    2015-09-01

    In spite of considerable progress in the understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying the experience of empathy, the majority of previous investigations have focused on how we share negative affective states (and in particular pain) of others, whereas only few studies have targeted empathy for positive emotions. This bias has precluded addressing one of the central tenets of the shared representations account of empathy, which is that different networks should be engaged when empathizing with emotions that are represented on different neural levels. The aim of the present study was to overcome this limitation and to test whether empathy for pleasant and unpleasant affective touch is underpinned by different neural networks. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), with two independent replication experiments (N = 18, N = 32), and a novel paradigm enabling the joint investigation of first-hand and vicarious responses to pleasant and unpleasant affect induced via visuo-tactile stimulation. This revealed that empathy is subserved by distinct neural networks, with those regions recruited in the first-hand experience of positive or negative affective states also being specifically recruited when empathizing with these respective states in others. More specifically, the first-hand and vicarious experience of pleasant touch commonly recruited medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), while unpleasant touch was associated with shared activation in the right fronto-insular cortex. The observation that specifically tailored subsystems of the human brain are engaged to share positive versus negative touch of others brings fresh evidence to one of the major goals of the social neuroscience of empathy: to identify which specific aspects of the affective states of others are shared, and what role this plays in enabling the understanding of the emotions of others. PMID:25725510

  19. Sensory-Motor Circuits: Hox Genes Get in Touch.

    PubMed

    Philippidou, Polyxeni; Dasen, Jeremy S

    2015-11-01

    Sensory-motor reflex circuits are the basic units from which animal nervous systems are constructed, yet little is known regarding how connections within these simple networks are established. In papers in Cell Reports and in this issue of Neuron, Zheng et al. (2015a, 2015b) demonstrate that coordinate activities of Hox genes in sensory neurons and interneurons govern connectivity within touch-reflex circuits in C. elegans. PMID:26539884

  20. Sensate anterolateral thigh perforator flap for ischiatic sores reconstruction in meningomyelocele patients.

    PubMed

    Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio; Longo, Benedetto; Pagnoni, Marco; Laporta, Rosaria

    2015-05-01

    Recidivating pressure sores are a frequent complication in meningomyelocele patients because of their limitation in motility and their scarce ability to monitor the pressure applied on insensate areas while seated. We report the utilization of the sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for reconstruction of ischiatic sores in meningomyelocele patients. Between May 2011 and September 2013, five patients underwent transfer of a sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap, by an intermuscular passageway through the upper thigh, to reach the ischial defect. Flap was properly harvested from the thigh after assessment of the lateral cutaneous femoral nerve sensitive area with the Pressure-Specified Sensory Device. In all cases the flap reached the ischial defect harmlessly, healing was uneventful with no immediate nor late complications. Each patient showed persistence of sensitivity at the reconstructed area and no recurrent ischiatic sore was observed at mean follow-up of 26.4 months. The sensate pedicled anterolateral thigh flap is a valuable solution for coverage of recurrent ischial sores in meningomyelocele patients, in which pressure consciousness is fundamental. The intermuscular passageway allows to reduce the distance between flap's vascular pedicle origin and the ischial defect, hence to use the more reliable skin from the middle third of the anterolateral thigh. PMID:25241659