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1

The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious/painful) touch, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. C. elegans is a highly successful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that C. elegans exhibits differential behavioral responses to harsh touch and gentle touch. Laser ablations identify distinct sets of sensory neurons and interneurons required for harsh touch sensation at different body segments. Optogenetic stimulation of the circuitry can drive behavior. Patch-clamp recordings reveal that TRP family and amiloride-sensitive Na+ channels mediate touch-evoked currents in different sensory neurons. Our work identifies the neural circuits and characterizes the sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in C. elegans, establishing it as a genetic model for studying this sensory modality.

Li, Wei; Kang, Lijun; Piggott, Beverly J.; Feng, Zhaoyang; Shawn Xu, X. Z.

2011-01-01

2

Prevalence of touch sensation (sparshanendriya-vyapaktva).  

PubMed

There are much more topics in our Ayurvedic classics about which we have limited knowledge. Like this an another topic is Indriya. We don't know what is indriya or what are their sites. Are the organs by which we perceive sensation called Indriya or different from them? Acharya Charaka has told five types of Indriyas, Sparshanendriya, Chakshurendriya, Ghranendriya, Rasanendriya & Shravanendriya. He also described their sites, functions, composition, and their properties. But he also told that Sparshanendriya is the main Indriya and it is present in all Indriyas. Why Charaka told that Sparshanendriya is Vyapak in all Indriyas. Is this concept wrong or right? The answer is right & this concept can be proved by following means as described in this paper. PMID:22131695

Kumar, Ajay; Singhal, Tina; Upadhyay, B N

2010-01-01

3

MEMS-based Force-clamp Analysis of the Role of Body Stiffness in C. elegans Touch Sensation  

PubMed Central

Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces < 1 ?N and indentation depths < 1 ?m. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans.

Petzold, Bryan C.; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Pruitt, Beth L.

2013-01-01

4

MEMS-based force-clamp analysis of the role of body stiffness in C. elegans touch sensation.  

PubMed

Touch is enabled by mechanoreceptor neurons in the skin and plays an essential role in our everyday lives, but is among the least understood of our five basic senses. Force applied to the skin deforms these neurons and activates ion channels within them. Despite the importance of the mechanics of the skin in determining mechanoreceptor neuron deformation and ultimately touch sensation, the role of mechanics in touch sensitivity is poorly understood. Here, we use the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to directly test the hypothesis that body mechanics modulate touch sensitivity. We demonstrate a microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based force clamp that can apply calibrated forces to freely crawling C. elegans worms and measure touch-evoked avoidance responses. This approach reveals that wild-type animals sense forces <1 ?N and indentation depths <1 ?m. We use both genetic manipulation of the skin and optogenetic modulation of body wall muscles to alter body mechanics. We find that small changes in body stiffness dramatically affect force sensitivity, while having only modest effects on indentation sensitivity. We investigate the theoretical body deformation predicted under applied force and conclude that local mechanical loads induce inward bending deformation of the skin to drive touch sensation in C. elegans. PMID:23598612

Petzold, Bryan C; Park, Sung-Jin; Mazzochette, Eileen A; Goodman, Miriam B; Pruitt, Beth L

2013-06-01

5

The age-dependent deterioration in light touch sensation on the plantar aspect of the foot in a rural community in India: implications when screening for sensory impairment.  

PubMed

Regular testing for impaired sensation is important in the management of diseases that can cause progressive nerve damage, such as leprosy. It has been shown that light touch sensibility decreases with age in the hands of healthy individuals, but little research has been undertaken to assess possible changes in the feet in developing countries. This information is needed to allow an appropriate level of sensation to be chosen when screening for nerve damage in the foot. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study on male adults was carried out in the rural town of Salur, Andhra Pradesh, India. A range of Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments were employed at 12 locations on the foot to determine sensation to light touch stimuli in individuals from each decade of adult life. It was found that in this population, sensibility threshold in the foot increases with age and this was noted in both soft and callous skin. This shows the increase was due to neurological factors, not merely due to an increase in callous deposition with advancing age. In the majority of individuals in their fifties and sixties, the callous skin at the forefoot and heel was unable to detect the 5.07 monofilament (equivalent to 8-12 g), previously recommended as a method to screen for plantar neuropathy. All areas of all feet were able to detect the 5.46 filament (approximately 30 g). The size of this study (54 individuals) prevents the determination of definitive normal ranges for each decade of life in this population. However, it does demonstrate the degree to which sensation deteriorates with age and could be used as an approximate guide when interpreting the results of sensory testing in similar rural areas of the developing world. PMID:10920612

Mitchell, P D; Mitchell, T N

2000-06-01

6

Neuroanatomical evidence for segregation of nerve fibers conveying light touch and pain sensation in Eimer's organ of the mole.  

PubMed

Talpid moles are small insectivores that live in dark underground tunnels. They depend heavily on touch to navigate and find food. Most species have an array of complex epidermal sensory structures called Eimer's organs that cover the tip of the nose. In this study, the anatomy of Eimer's organ was examined in the coast mole and star-nosed mole by using the fluorescent styryl pyridinium dye AM1-43 and immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament 200 and substance P. In addition, DiI was used to label neural components of Eimer's organ. AM1-43 labeled all of the Eimer's organ receptors after systemic injection, suggesting a role in mechanotransduction. Immunostaining with neurofilament 200 and substance P labeled distinct subtypes of sensory fibers. Substance P labeled a group of free nerve endings along the outer edge of Eimer's organ, indicating a nociceptive role for these fibers. In contrast, neurofilament 200 labeled a more central set of nerve endings, suggesting that these fibers function as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. By labeling subsets of trigeminal afferents distant from the receptor array with DiI, we revealed innervation patterns indicating that one afferent supplies the outer, substance P-positive set of free nerve endings, whereas several afferents differentially innervate the central free nerve endings. Our results suggest that the free nerve endings innervating Eimer's organ are largely mechanosensitive and may play an important role in the rapid sensory discrimination observed in these species. PMID:16751268

Marasco, Paul D; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Bautista, Diana M; Julius, David; Catania, Kenneth C

2006-06-13

7

Neuroanatomical evidence for segregation of nerve fibers conveying light touch and pain sensation in Eimer's organ of the mole  

PubMed Central

Talpid moles are small insectivores that live in dark underground tunnels. They depend heavily on touch to navigate and find food. Most species have an array of complex epidermal sensory structures called Eimer’s organs that cover the tip of the nose. In this study, the anatomy of Eimer’s organ was examined in the coast mole and star-nosed mole by using the fluorescent styryl pyridinium dye AM1-43 and immunocytochemical staining for neurofilament 200 and substance P. In addition, DiI was used to label neural components of Eimer’s organ. AM1-43 labeled all of the Eimer’s organ receptors after systemic injection, suggesting a role in mechanotransduction. Immunostaining with neurofilament 200 and substance P labeled distinct subtypes of sensory fibers. Substance P labeled a group of free nerve endings along the outer edge of Eimer’s organ, indicating a nociceptive role for these fibers. In contrast, neurofilament 200 labeled a more central set of nerve endings, suggesting that these fibers function as low-threshold mechanoreceptors. By labeling subsets of trigeminal afferents distant from the receptor array with DiI, we revealed innervation patterns indicating that one afferent supplies the outer, substance P-positive set of free nerve endings, whereas several afferents differentially innervate the central free nerve endings. Our results suggest that the free nerve endings innervating Eimer’s organ are largely mechanosensitive and may play an important role in the rapid sensory discrimination observed in these species.

Marasco, Paul D.; Tsuruda, Pamela R.; Bautista, Diana M.; Julius, David; Catania, Kenneth C.

2006-01-01

8

In Vivo Imaging of C. elegans Mechanosensory Neurons Demonstrates a Specific Role for the MEC-4 Channel in the Process of Gentle Touch Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nematode C. elegans, genes encoding components of a putative mechanotransducing channel complex have been identified in screens for light-touch-insensitive mutants. A long-standing question, however, is whether identified MEC proteins act directly in touch transduction or contribute indirectly by maintaining basic mechanoreceptor neuron physiology. In this study, we used the genetically encoded calcium indicator cameleon to record cellular responses

Hiroshi Suzuki; Rex Kerr; Laura Bianchi; Christian Frøkjær-Jensen; Dan Slone; Jian Xue; Beate Gerstbrein; Monica Driscoll; William R. Schafer

2003-01-01

9

Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation.

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurelie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

2012-01-01

10

Colour Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN NATURE of July 15 there is given an abstract of a paper by Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green in which he gives reasons for supposing that the sensation produced by spectral yellow is a simple sensation, and not a compound of red and green, as supposed by the Young-Helmholtz theory. In 1872 I read a paper on colour sensation before

John Aitken

1915-01-01

11

Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.  

PubMed

In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. PMID:22981809

Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

2013-01-01

12

Sensational Seaweed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this culinary activity, learners use multiple senses (sight, smell, touch, and taste!) to explore real seaweed samples. They will compare and contrast land plants with kelp to review the structures and functions of parts, understand that algae is an important producer in aquatic environments, and learn how kelp is adapted to live along the California Coast. They will also explore various types of algae and discuss how the types differ from each other. This lesson guide is standards-based, and includes key vocabulary and wrap-up suggestions.

Sciences, California A.

2008-01-01

13

Sencha Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sencha Touch (www.sencha.com\\/products\\/touch) is a JavaScript framework for creating web applications targeted to touch-based\\u000a devices. Sencha Touch is the flagship product of Sencha (formerly Ext JS), a Palo Alto, Calif. company launched in 2007 that\\u000a makes application frameworks. Sencha Touch combines ExtJS, jQTouch and Raphaël. Unlike jQTouch, Sencha Touch is not dependent\\u000a on jQuery and is compatible with both the

Sarah Allen; Vidal Graupera; Lee Lundrigan

14

Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

2014-07-01

15

Psychophysical properties of female genital sensation.  

PubMed

Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is characterized by the presence of vulvar touch and pain hypersensitivity. Pain with vaginal distension, which motivates treatment seeking and perpetuates distress, is frequently reported with PVD. However, the concordance between the perception of vulvar and vaginal sensation (ie, somatic and visceral genital sensations, respectively) remains unstudied in healthy women, as well as in clinical populations such as PVD. To evaluate the static and dynamic (time-varying) properties of somatic and visceral genital sensation, women with PVD (n=14) and age- and contraceptive-matched healthy controls (n=10) rated varying degrees of nonpainful and painful genital stimulation. Somatic (vulvar) mechanical sensitivity to nonpainul and painful degrees of force were compared to visceral (vaginal) sensitivity to nonpainful and painful distension volumes. Results indicated that healthy women showed substantial individual variation in and high discrimination of vulvar and vaginal sensation. In contrast, PVD was associated with vulvar allodynia and hyperalgesia, as well as vaginal allodynia. Modeling of dynamic perception revealed novel properties of abnormal PVD genital sensation, including temporal delays in vulvar touch perception and reduced perceptual thresholds for vaginal distension. The temporal properties and magnitude of PVD distension pain were indistinguishable from vaginal fullness in healthy controls. These results constitute the first empirical comparison of somatic and visceral genital sensation in healthy women. Findings provide novel insights into the sensory abnormalities that characterize PVD, including an experimental demonstration of visceral allodynia. This investigation challenges the prevailing diagnostic assessment of PVD and reconceptualizes PVD as a chronic somatic and visceral pain condition. PMID:23707679

Farmer, Melissa A; Maykut, Caroline A; Huberman, Jackie S; Huang, Lejian; Khalifé, Samir; Binik, Yitzchak M; Apkarian, A Vania; Schweinhardt, Petra

2013-11-01

16

Touch panel  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A touch panel of the present invention in which a piezoelectric substrate is fixed to a movable plate or a supporting substrate has a reduced weight, size, and thickness by providing simpler wiring. The touch panel comprises: a movable plate having an input manipulation surface; a supporting substrate, disposed with a slight insulation gap from the movable plate, for supporting the movable plate from a back surface thereof; conductive layers on the movable plate and the supporting substrate on their respective opposing surfaces; and a piezoelectric substrate fixed to the movable plate or the supporting substrate. A pair of driving electrodes on the piezoelectric substrate are fixed to respective opposing surfaces of the piezoelectric substrate. A conductive layer electrode of the movable plate, a conductive layer electrode of the supporting substrate, and the pair of driving electrodes of the piezoelectric substrate are withdrawn integrally using a single connector tail.

2007-06-05

17

Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing

K. Carrie Armel; V. S. Ramachandran

2003-01-01

18

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch.  

PubMed

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions among whisker movement, neural activity and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in a closed loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of the spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. The illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior, consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O'Connor, Daniel H; Hires, S Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-07-01

19

Testing for and the role of anal and rectal sensation.  

PubMed

The rectum is insensitive to stimuli capable of causing pain and other sensations when applied to a somatic cutaneous surface. It is, however, sensitive to distension by an experimental balloon introduced through the anus, though it is not known whether it is the stretching or reflex contraction of the gut wall, or the distortion of the mesentery and adjacent structures which induces the sensation. No specific sensory receptors are seen on careful histological examination of the rectum in humans. However, myelinated and non-myelinated nerve fibres are seen adjacent to the rectal mucosa, but no intraepithelial fibres arise from these. The sensation of rectal distension travels with the parasympathetic system to S2, S3 and S4. The two main methods for quantifying rectal sensation are rectal balloon distension and mucosal electrosensitivity. The balloon is progressively distended until particular sensations are perceived by the patient. The volumes at which these sensations are perceived are recorded. Three sensory thresholds are usually defined: constant sensation of fullness, urge to defecate, and maximum tolerated volume. The modalities of anal sensation can be precisely defined. Touch, pain and temperature sensation exist in normal subjects. There is profuse innervation of the anal canal with a variety of specialized sensory nerve endings: Meissner's corpuscles which record touch sensation, Krause end-bulbs which respond to thermal stimuli, Golgi-Mazzoni bodies and pacinian corpuscles which respond to changes in tension and pressure, and genital corpuscles which respond to friction. In addition, there are large diameter free nerve endings within the epithelium. The nerve pathway for anal canal sensation is via the inferior haemorrhoidal branches of the pudendal nerve to the sacral roots of S2, S3 and S4. Anal sensation may be quantitatively measured in response to electrical stimulation. The technique involves the use of a specialized constant current generator and bipolar electrode probe inserted in the anal canal. The equipment is generally available and the technique has been shown to be an accurate and repeatable quantitative test of anal sensation. PMID:1586768

Rogers, J

1992-03-01

20

Mechanical control of the sense of touch by ?-spectrin.  

PubMed

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all, animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of Caenorhabditis elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane crosslinker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through atomic force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pre-tension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R; Goodman, Miriam B

2014-03-01

21

Haptics: Gaming's New Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptics technology can simulate tactile and kinesthetic sensations so that computer interfaces not only look but also feel - in the literal sense of the word - like the interfaces we are accustomed to using in the real world. Although haptics in PC gaming began by focusing on kinesthetics, while haptics in console gaming began by focusing on vibrotactile effects,

Dean Chang

2002-01-01

22

Unmyelinated tactile afferents signal touch and project to insular cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is dual tactile innervation of the human hairy skin: in addition to fast-conducting myelinated afferent fibers, there is a system of slow-conducting unmyelinated (C) afferents that respond to light touch. In a unique patient lacking large myelinated afferents, we found that activation of C tactile (CT) afferents produced a faint sensation of pleasant touch. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

Y. Lamarre; H. Backlund; C. Morin; B. G. Wallin; G. Starck; S. Ekholm; I. Strigo; K. Worsley; Å. B. Vallbo; M. C. Bushnell; H. Olausson

2002-01-01

23

Referred sensations and neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:20471171

Soler, M D; Kumru, H; Vidal, J; Pelayo, R; Tormos, J M; Fregni, F; Navarro, X; Pascual-Leone, A

2010-07-01

24

Referred sensations and neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that painful and non-painful referred sensations (RSs) are associated with reorganization of sensory pathways in patients with complete spinal cord injury (SCI). In order to investigate the referred sensation (RS) phenomenon and its correlation with neuropathic pain (NP) 48 patients with complete SCI, 24 with chronic NP and 24 without pain or paraesthesias were studied using clinical examination and neurophysiological tests. Patients reporting RSs were re-examined at 2 and 10 weeks after the first examination. We defined the presence of RS as sensations perceived below the injury level in response to touch and pinprick stimuli in various body points above the injury level. The examination was carried out by one researcher applying the stimuli to the patient under two visual conditions (open and closed eyes), and then asking the patient to make tactile self-stimulation. Seven patients with SCI and NP (29%) reported RS below the injury level. RS were well located and consistently evoked at repeated examinations. Touch and pinprick stimulation elicited similar RS that were non-painful in six patients and painful in one. Visual feedback did not change RS perception and characteristics. None of the patients in the SCI group without NP presented RS. In conclusion, our results indicate that RS is relatively frequent in patients with complete SCI and NP. The common occurrence of RS in patients with NP and the location of the sensations in the same area as NP suggest that pain and RS share common pathophysiological mechanisms.

Soler, M.D.; Kumru, H.; Vidal, J.; Pelayo, R.; Tormos, J.M.; Fregni, F.; Navarro, X.; Pascual-Leone, A.

2013-01-01

25

Innocuous cooling can produce nociceptive sensations that are inhibited during dynamic mechanical contact  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   In a previous study of the heat grill illusion, sensations of burning and stinging were sometimes reported when the skin\\u000a was cooled by as little as 2°C. Informal tests subsequently indicated that these nociceptive sensations were experienced if\\u000a cooling occurred when the stimulating thermode rested on the skin, but not when the thermode was cooled and then touched to

Barry G. Green; Jennifer V. Pope

2003-01-01

26

Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions.  

PubMed

Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth puzzles, and touching hard or soft objects nonconsciously influenced impressions and decisions formed about unrelated people and situations. Among other effects, heavy objects made job candidates appear more important, rough objects made social interactions appear more difficult, and hard objects increased rigidity in negotiations. Basic tactile sensations are thus shown to influence higher social cognitive processing in dimension-specific and metaphor-specific ways. PMID:20576894

Ackerman, Joshua M; Nocera, Christopher C; Bargh, John A

2010-06-25

27

Incidental Haptic Sensations Influence Social Judgments and Decisions  

PubMed Central

Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth puzzles, and touching hard or soft objects nonconsciously influenced impressions and decisions formed about unrelated people and situations. Among other effects, heavy objects made job candidates appear more important, rough objects made social interactions appear more difficult, and hard objects increased rigidity in negotiations. Basic tactile sensations are thus shown to influence higher social cognitive processing in dimension-specific and metaphor-specific ways.

Ackerman, Joshua M.; Nocera, Christopher C.; Bargh, John A.

2010-01-01

28

Specific roles for DEG/ENaC and TRP channels in touch and thermosensation in C. elegans nociceptors  

PubMed Central

Summary Polymodal nociceptors detect noxious stimuli including harsh touch, toxic chemicals, and extremes of heat and cold. The molecular mechanisms by which nociceptors are able to sense multiple qualitatively distinct stimuli are not well-understood. We show here that the C. elegans PVD neurons are mulitidendritic nociceptors that respond to harsh touch as well as cold temperatures. The harsh touch modality specifically requires the DEG/ENaC proteins MEC-10 and DEGT-1, which represent putative components of a harsh touch mechanotransduction complex. By contrast, responses to cold require the TRPA-1 channel and are MEC-10- and DEGT-1-independent. Heterologous expression of C. elegans TRPA-1 can confer cold responsiveness to other C. elegans neurons or to mammalian cells, indicating that TRPA-1 is itself a cold sensor. These results show that C. elegans nociceptors respond to thermal and mechanical stimuli using distinct sets of molecules, and identify DEG/ENaC channels as potential receptors for mechanical pain.

Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Yoo, Sungjae; Watson, Joseph D.; Lee, Wei-Hsiang; Spencer, W. Clay; Kindt, Katie S.; Hwang, Sun Wook; Miller, David M.; Treinin, Millet; Driscoll, Monica; Schafer, William R.

2010-01-01

29

Pen + touch = new tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe techniques for direct pen+touch input. We observe people's manual behaviors with physical paper and notebooks. These serve as the foundation for a prototype Microsoft Surface application, centered on note-taking and scrapbooking of materials. Based on our explorations we advocate a division of labor between pen and touch: the pen writes, touch manipulates, and the combination of pen +

Ken Hinckley; Koji Yatani; Michel Pahud; Nicole Coddington; Jenny Rodenhouse; Andy Wilson; Hrvoje Benko; Bill Buxton

2010-01-01

30

Observations on active touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of observations, both introspective and behavioral, confirms the distinction between touching and being touched. The former is a channel for a great variety of information about the environment, but whether it should be considered one or several senses is a matter of definition. The simple formula that it consists of passive touch plus kinesthesis is insufficient. The hypothesis

James J. Gibson

1962-01-01

31

Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = ?.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN.

Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

2013-01-01

32

Topside engineering for harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

Water depths in excess of 1000 ft and Arctic offshore conditions beyond the 100-ft contour represent operationally unproven endeavors and higher costs to the industry. It would be a mistake to apply gravel island topside facility rationale across the board to offshore gravity-based units in deeper water. Design of topside facilities in harsh environments is influenced in numerous aspects by operational considerations. These considerations are discussed.

Williams, L.M.; Lancaster, J.R.

1985-11-01

33

Headphones with touch control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Touch Headphones are meant for portable music players and aim to present an improvement to the conventional remote control in the headphone wire, and a solution for controls on wireless in-ear type headphones. Two capacitive touch sensors per earpiece sense when earpieces are being tapped on, and being put in or out.

Vincent Buil; Gerard Hollemans; Sander van de Wijdeven

2005-01-01

34

Optical mounts for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development and testing of a lightweight-kinematic optical mount with integrated passive vibration-and-shock mitigation technologies and simple / robust optical alignment functionality is presented. Traditionally, optical mounts are designed for use in laboratory environments where the thermal-mechanical environments are carefully controlled to preserve beam path conditions and background disturbances are minimized to facilitate precise optically based measurements. Today's weapon and surveillance systems, however, have optical sensor suites where static and dynamic alignment performance in the presence of harsh operating environments is required to nearly the same precision and where the system cannot afford the mass of laboratory-grade stabilized mounting systems. Jitter and alignment stability is particularly challenging for larger optics operating within moving vehicles and aircraft where high shock and significant temperature excursions occur. The design intent is to have the mount be suitable for integration into existing defense and security optical systems while also targeting new commercial and military components for improved structural dynamic and thermal distortion performance. A mount suitable for moderate-sized optics and an integrated disturbance-optical metrology system are described. The mount design has performance enhancements derived from the integration of proven aerospace mechanical vibration and shock mitigation technologies (i.e. multi-axis passive isolation and integral damping), precision alignment adjustment and lock-out functionality, high dimensional stability materials and design practices which provide benign optical surface figure errors under harsh thermal-mechanical loading. Optical jitter, alignment, and wave-front performance testing of an eight-inch-aperture optical mount based on this design approach are presented to validate predicted performance improvements over an existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) design.

Mimovich, Mark E.; Griffee, Jonathan C.; Goodding, James C.

2009-08-01

35

A remote instruction system empowered by tightly shared haptic sensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a system to realize an on-line instruction environment among physically separated participants based on a multi-modal communication strategy. In addition to visual and acoustic information, commonly used communication modalities in network environments, our system provides a haptic channel to intuitively conveying partners' sense of touch. The human touch sensation, however, is very sensitive for delays and jitters in the networked virtual reality (NVR) systems. Therefore, a method to compensate for such negative factors needs to be provided. We show an NVR architecture to implement a basic framework that can be shared by various applications and effectively deals with the problems. We take a hybrid approach to implement both data consistency by client-server and scalability by peer-to-peer models. As an application system built on the proposed architecture, a remote instruction system targeted at teaching handwritten characters and line patterns on a Korea-Japan high-speed research network also is mentioned.

Nishino, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Akira; Kagawa, Tsuneo; Utsumiya, Kouichi

2007-09-01

36

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia  

PubMed Central

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes.

Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupe, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

37

Paperworks: The Human Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paperworks: The Human Touch\\u000aan exhibition of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers\\u000aSOUTH EUCLID, Ohio—8 August 2012—In conjunction with Octavofest, a celebration of the book and paper arts, and Watermarks 2012, Notre Dame College’s (NDC’s) Clara Fritzsche Library will host “Paperworks: The Human Touch,” a showing of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers. An opening reception will be held

2012-01-01

38

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces.

Klocker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Theate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

39

Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world.

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

2011-01-01

40

Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response.  

PubMed Central

Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing was done to the real hand. Sensations could even be projected to anatomically impossible locations. The illusion was much less vivid, as indicated by subjective reports and SCR, if the real hand was simultaneously visible during stroking, or if the real hand was hidden but touched asynchronously. The fact that the illusion could be significantly diminished when the real hand was simultaneously visible suggests that the illusion and associated SCRs were due to perceptual assimilation of the table (or rubber hand) into one's body image rather than associative conditioning. These experiments demonstrate the malleability of body image and the brain's remarkable capacity for detecting statistical correlations in the sensory input.

Armel, K Carrie; Ramachandran, V S

2003-01-01

41

Tribometer for Ultra-Harsh Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High temperature structural materials that exhibit structural, functional and multifunctional properties are needed to improve the performance of aeronautics and aerospace components. The major challenge for the application of materials at ultra harsh env...

A. Sayir

2006-01-01

42

The relation of sensation in the anal canal to the functional anal sphincter: a possible factor in anal continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal subjects the length of the functional anal sphincter has been compared with the extent of sensation to light touch in the anal canal. At rest, the sphincteric zone was the longer. On distension of the rectum, a decrease in pressure in the anal canal so shortened the functional sphincter that intrarectal pressure extended down to contact the sensory

H. L. Duthie; R. C. Bennett

1963-01-01

43

Touch and Discover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams identify and categorize various objects using their senses of touch and sight. One student chooses five objects for his/her blindfolded partner to describe and identify based solely on touch. Then they switch. Both students record their observations, describing the objects as: human-made or natural, living or non-living, as well as any other physical/sensory characteristics. Students become familiar with different classification systems and sharpen their vocabulary to describe the physical characteristics of different objects. They learn why engineers have a need to categorize materials.

Center For Engineering Educational Outreach

44

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

45

Neural correlates of painful genital touch in women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) is a common cause of dyspareunia in pre-menopausal women. Recent evidence points to the importance of the sensory component in VVS, particularly the heightened processing of tactile and pain sensation in the vulvar vestibule. The goal of the present study was to examine the neural basis of heightened sensitivity to touch (i.e. allodynia) in women with

Caroline F. Pukall; Irina A. Strigo; Yitzchak M. Binik; Rhonda Amsel; Samir Khalifé; M. Catherine Bushnellf

2005-01-01

46

Genetics of Human Gastrointestinal Sensation  

PubMed Central

The objective is to review the genetics of human visceral pain with particular emphasis on pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The biomarkers most commonly employed in identifying visceral hypersensitivity are sensation ratings and thresholds or brain imaging during viscus (e.g. rectal) distension. Genetic studies suggest that variation in the control of candidate genes involved in ion channel function, neurotransmitter synthesis, reuptake or receptor functions, and inflammatory disease susceptibility loci may impact variations in prevalence of the symptom phenotype of abdominal pain or IBS, or quantitative traits (intermediate phenotypes) of rectal sensation. The candidate genes include SLC6A4, CNR1, and TNFSF15 reflecting serotonin reuptake, cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory-barrier functions. However, other than TNFSF15, the other candidate genes are only univariately associated with pain, IBS symptom complex or quantitative traits of sensation. These data have generated hypotheses and present opportunities for study of mechanisms and treatment of visceral pain in humans, which remains an unmet clinical need in patients with IBS and functional abdominal pain.

Camilleri, Michael

2013-01-01

47

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

48

Getting Back in Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses strategies for teachers to get back in touch with the earth and re-connect with the environment. Argues that the teacher's appreciation for nature's beauty will bring about a sensitivity not experienced before and help students develop a reverence and awe for the natural world. (JRH)

Stiles, John; Hudson, Kat

1997-01-01

49

Sustained attention to spontaneous thumb sensations activates brain somatosensory and other proprioceptive areas.  

PubMed

The present experiment was designed to test if sustained attention directed to the spontaneous sensations of the right or left thumb in the absence of any external stimuli is able to activate corresponding somatosensory brain areas. After verifying in 34 healthy volunteers that external touch stimuli to either thumb effectively activate brain contralateral somatosensory areas, and after subtracting attention mechanisms employed in both touch and spontaneous-sensation conditions, fMRI evidence was obtained that the primary somatosensory cortex (specifically left BA 3a/3b) becomes active when an individual is required to attend to the spontaneous sensations of either thumb in the absence of external stimuli. In addition, the left superior parietal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, motor and premotor cortex, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, Broca's area, and occipital cortices were activated. Moreover, attention to spontaneous-sensations revealed an increased connectivity between BA 3a/3b, superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32), probably allowing top-down activations of primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that specific primary somatosensory areas in conjunction with other left parieto-frontal areas are involved in processing proprioceptive and interoceptive bodily information that underlies own body-representations and that these networks and cognitive functions can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. PMID:24727703

Bauer, Clemens C C; Díaz, José-Luis; Concha, Luis; Barrios, Fernando A

2014-06-01

50

Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

2005-01-01

51

TRPV1-lineage neurons are required for thermal sensation  

PubMed Central

The ion-channel TRPV1 is believed to be a major sensor of noxious heat, but surprisingly animals lacking TRPV1 still display marked responses to elevated temperature. In this study, we explored the role of TRPV1-expressing neurons in somatosensation by generating mice wherein this lineage of cells was selectively labelled or ablated. Our data show that TRPV1 is an embryonic marker of many nociceptors including all TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons as well as many Mrg-expressing neurons. Mutant mice lacking these cells are completely insensitive to hot or cold but in marked contrast retain normal touch and mechanical pain sensation. These animals also exhibit defective body temperature control and lose both itch and pain reactions to potent chemical mediators. Together with previous cell ablation studies, our results define and delimit the roles of TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons in thermosensation, thermoregulation and nociception, thus significantly extending the concept of labelled lines in somatosensory coding.

Mishra, Santosh K; Tisel, Sarah M; Orestes, Peihan; Bhangoo, Sonia K; Hoon, Mark A

2011-01-01

52

Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder.

Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

2013-01-01

53

Sensation seeking, message sensation value and sexual risk taking: Implications for teen pregnancy prevention campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relationship between the personality trait sensation seeking and sexual risk taking behaviors. It aimed to determine whether high sensation seekers prefer poster presentations that differ in message sensation value (MSV). The goal was to inform the design and evaluation of sex education and teen pregnancy prevention campaigns. A random sample of 151 undergraduate students from a

Jeremy John Schweitzer

2011-01-01

54

Mouse model of touch-evoked itch (alloknesis)  

PubMed Central

Lightly touching normal skin near a site of itch can elicit itch sensation, a phenomenon known as alloknesis. To investigate the neural mechanisms of alloknesis, we have developed an animal model. Low-threshold mechanical stimulation of the skin normally does not elicit any response in naïve C57/BL6 mice. Following acute intradermal (id) injection of histamine in the rostral back, mechanical stimulation 7 mm from the injection site elicited discrete hindlimb scratch bouts directed toward the stimulus. This began at 10 min and peaked 20–40 min post-histamine, declining over the next hour. Histamine itself elicited bouts of scratching not associated with the mechanical stimulus, that ceased after 30 min. Histamine- and touch-evoked scratching was inhibited by the ?-opiate antagonist naltrexone. Touch-evoked scratching was observed following id 5-HT, a PAR-4 agonist and a MrgprC11 agonist BAM8-22, but not chloroquine or a PAR-2 agonist. The histamine H1 receptor antagonist terfenadine prevented scratching and alloknesis evoked by histamine, but not 5-HT, a PAR-4 agonist or a MrgprC11 agonist. In mice with experimental dry skin, there was a time-dependent increase in spontaneous and touch-evoked scratching. This animal model, which to our knowledge is previously unreported, appears to be useful to investigate neural mechanisms of itch and alloknesis.

Akiyama, Tasuku; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Ikoma, Akihiko; Cevikbas, Ferda; Steinhoff, Martin; Carstens, E.

2012-01-01

55

The social and personality neuroscience of empathy for pain and touch  

PubMed Central

First- and third-person experiences of bodily sensations, like pain and touch, recruit overlapping neural networks including sensorimotor, insular, and anterior cingulate cortices. Here we illustrate the peculiar role of these structures in coding the sensory and affective qualities of the observed bodily sensations. Subsequently we show that such neural activity is critically influenced by a range of social, emotional, cognitive factors, and importantly by inter-individual differences in the separate components of empathic traits. Finally we suggest some fundamental issues that social neuroscience has to address for providing a comprehensive knowledge of the behavioral, functional and anatomical brain correlates of empathy.

Bufalari, Ilaria; Ionta, Silvio

2013-01-01

56

Silicon carbide MEMS for harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for the development of high-temperature solid-state electronics and transducers, owing to its excellent electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. This paper is a review of silicon carbide for microelectromechanical systems (SiC MEMS). Current efforts in developing SiC MEMS to extend the silicon-based MEMS technology to applications in harsh environments are discussed. A summary is

MEHRAN MEHREGANY; CHRISTIAN A. ZORMAN; NARAYANAN RAJAN; Chien Hung Wu

1998-01-01

57

Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

2008-01-01

58

Intergenerational Continuity and Discontinuity in Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS The Family Transitions Project began in 1989 to see how rural families in Iowa were coping with the severe economic downturn in agriculture at that time. In this report we show that cohort members who were treated harshly by their parents tended to emulate these behaviors with their children. However, if they co-parented with a partner who demonstrated a warm and supportive parenting style, intergenerational continuity was disrupted.

Conger, Rand D.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Neppl, Tricia K.

2012-01-01

59

Tactile C fibers and their contributions to pleasant sensations and to tactile allodynia  

PubMed Central

In humans converging evidence indicates that affective aspects of touch are signaled by low threshold mechanoreceptive C tactile (CT) afferents. Analyses of electrophysiological recordings, psychophysical studies in denervated subjects, and functional brain imaging, all indicate that CT primary afferents contribute to pleasant touch and provide an important sensory underpinning of social behavior. Considering both these pleasant and social aspects of gentle skin-to-skin contact, we have put forward a framework within which to consider CT afferent coding properties and pathways—the CT affective touch hypothesis. Recent evidence from studies in mice suggests that CTs, when activated, may have analgesic or anxiolytic effects. However, in neuropathic pain conditions, light touch can elicit unpleasant sensations, so called tactile allodynia. In humans, tactile allodynia is associated with reduced CT mediated hedonic touch processing suggesting loss of the normally analgesic effect of CT signaling. We thus propose that the contribution of CT afferents to tactile allodynia is mainly through a loss of their normally pain inhibiting role.

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Olausson, Hakan

2014-01-01

60

Empathic Touch by Relational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

2010-01-01

61

Acquisition of a Touching Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel

1999-01-01

62

Quantitative assessment of facial sensation in leprosy.  

PubMed

The trigeminal and great auricular nerves which supply sensation to the face are affected in leprosy. No objective sensory testing methods have been devised for testing sensation in the face. Testing for corneal sensation to ascertain trigeminal nerve or visualization and palpation of the great auricular nerve alone may not be enough to establish the involvement of these nerves. In a sample of leprosy patients, face sensation threshold measurements were done using a set of three Semmes-Weinstein (SW) monofilaments that gave a force of 0.05-0.07, 0.2 and 2 g. Sensation was tested by three examiners and intra- and inter-observer testing was used as a means to validate the findings. Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that use of SW monofilaments is a fairly reliable and repeatable method for sensory testing in the face. During follow up, a single filament with a force of 0.5-0.7 g (2.83 marking number in SW filament or any other filament with a corresponding gram force) could be used to assess sensation. A simple procedure of quantifying sensation in these nerves is suggested. A method to incorporate trigeminal or great auricular nerve sensory testing into the existing sensory assessment charts is also discussed. PMID:9934361

Premkumar, R; Daniel, E; Suneetha, S; Yovan, P

1998-09-01

63

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.

Mihailov, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

64

Touch, awareness of touch, and compliance with a request.  

PubMed

In certain situations it has been shown that touch has a positive effect on the compliance with a request expressed by a stranger. However, the difference between the effect of touch on request compliance between people who had noticed and those who had not noticed this contact has never been taken into account. In this experiment a female confederate asked 227 women to answer a questionnaire. When asking for their collaboration the forearm was or was not touched for a brief period of 1 to 2 seconds. Analysis showed that touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request but no difference was found between subjects who had noticed the tactual contact and subjects who had not noticed. PMID:12434826

Guéguen, Nicolas

2002-10-01

65

More than a rhythm of life: breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation.  

PubMed

When rodents engage in the exploration of novel stimuli, breathing occurs at an accelerated rate that is synchronous with whisking. We review the recently observed relationships between breathing and the sensations of smell and vibrissa-based touch. We consider the hypothesis that the breathing rhythm serves not only as a motor drive signal, but also as a common clock that binds these two senses into a common percept. This possibility may be extended to include taste through the coordination of licking with breathing. Here we evaluate the status of experimental evidence that pertains to this hypothesis. PMID:24762718

Kleinfeld, David; Deschênes, Martin; Wang, Fan; Moore, Jeffrey D

2014-05-01

66

Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

Carlson, Frances M.

2005-01-01

67

Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations.

Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiss, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

2011-01-01

68

Coherent beam combining performance in harsh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent beam combining (CBC) is a promising solution for high power directed energy weapons. We investigate several particular issues for this application: First, we study the evolution of phase noise spectrum for increasing pump power in 100 W MOPFA. The main variations in the spectrum are located in the low frequency region corresponding to thermal transfer between the fiber core heated by the pump absorption and the fiber environment. The phase noise root mean square evolves linearly with the pump power. Noise spectrum is not shifted to higher frequencies. Second, we investigate the influence of fiber packaging and amplifier packaging on the phase noise and estimate the LOCSET controller bandwidth (BW) requirement in each case. Results show large variation of BW depending on the packaging, and not on the power. Then, we investigate the performances of CBC in harsh environment. For this purpose, we implement CBC of a 20-W fiber amplifier and a passive fiber using the LOCSET technique and simulate harsh environment by applying strong vibrations with a hammering drill on the optical table. The applied vibration spectrum ranges from 1 Hz to ~10 kHz with a standard deviation of 9 m/s2. CBC of the amplifier output and the passive fiber output is performed on a second table, isolated from vibrations. Measurements of the phase difference between both outputs and of the applied vibrations are simultaneously performed. Residual phase error of ?/40 (i.e. > 99 % CBC efficiency) is achieved under strong vibrations at 20 W. The -3 dB bandwidth of the LOCSET controller has been measured to be ~4.5 kHz. Results are in agreement with simulations.

Lombard, L.; Canat, G.; Durecu, A.; Bourdon, P.

2014-03-01

69

Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.  

PubMed

In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

2012-12-01

70

Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk  

PubMed Central

Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment.

McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

71

To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen

2011-01-01

72

Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany

2010-01-01

73

"The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

Springgay, Stephanie

2011-01-01

74

infosense: Interaction Design for Sensate Spaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explains the theoretical and practical objectives of infosense, a studio for designing interactive experiences in sensate space. Spaces embedded with sensing capabilities for gathering information about users form a new design phenomenon that requires strategies for developing responsive, interactive visual and sonic displays. The infosense studio exposed students to a range of intelligent building, art installation, generative design

Andrew Vande Moere; Kirsty Beilharz

75

Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: Prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.  

PubMed

The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family. PMID:24661692

Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

2014-06-01

76

Augmented touch without visual obtrusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Visuo-haptic mixed,reality consists of adding to a real scene the ability to see and touch virtual objects. It requires the use of see- through display technology for visually mixing real and virtual ob- jects, and haptic devices for adding haptic interaction with the vir- tual objects. However, haptic devices tend to be bulky items that appear in the field

Francesco I. Cosco; Carlos Garre; Fabio Bruno; Maurizio Muzzupappa; Miguel A. Otaduy

2009-01-01

77

Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided by…

Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

2008-01-01

78

Cellulolytic bacteria from soils in harsh environments.  

PubMed

It is believed that the exposure of organisms to harsh climate conditions may select for differential enzymatic activities, making the surviving organisms a very promising source for bioprospecting. Soil bacteria play an important role in degradation of organic matter, which is mostly due to their ability to decompose cellulose-based materials. This work focuses on the isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from soil found in two environments with stressful climate conditions (Antarctica and the Brazilian semi-arid caatinga). Cellulolytic bacteria were selected using enrichments at high and low temperatures (4 or 60°C) in liquid media (trypic soy broth-TSB and minimum salt medium-MM) supplemented with cellulose (1%). Many of the isolates (119 out of 254-46.9%) displayed the ability to degrade carboxymethyl-cellulose, indicating the presence of endoglucolytic activity, while only a minority of these isolates (23 out of 254-9.1%) showed exoglucolytic activity (degradation of avicel). The obtained isolates revealed a preferential endoglucolytic activity according to the temperature of enrichments. Also, the identification of some isolates by partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Bacteroidetes (e.g., Pedobacter, Chryseobacterium and Flavobacterium) were the main phylum of cellulolytic bacteria isolated from soil in Antarctica; the Firmicutes (e.g., Bacillus) were more commonly isolated from samples from the caatinga; and Actinobacteria were found in both types of soil (e.g., Microbacterium and Arthrobacter). In conclusion, this work reports the isolation of bacteria able to degrade cellulose-based material from soil at very low or very high temperatures, a finding that should be further explored in the search for cellulolytic enzymes to be used in the bioenergy industry. PMID:22806042

Soares, Fábio Lino; Melo, Itamar Soares; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Andreote, Fernando Dini

2012-05-01

79

Requesting Pervasive Services by Touching RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a general framework for requesting pervasive services by touching RFID tags. The tags conne ct the physical and digital environments. Visual symbols c ommunicate to users the objects that can be touched and the services that can be activated. When a user touches such a symbol with a mobile phone, the data stored in the tag and other

Jukka Riekki; Timo Salminen; Ismo Alakärppä

2006-01-01

80

Plant sensing: gravity and touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch deficient mutant exhibits reduced gravity sensing due to reduced mass of statoliths in its root cap, this mutant exhibited normal bending upon contact with the barrier. This observation implies the reduced gravisensing in the mutant is sufficient to allow the gravitropic component of obstacle avoidance. However, pgm1 -1 develops a more random orientation to the barrier with time, suggesting that sustained tracking over the barrier requires continued input by the gravisensor. The growth response of roots where the root cap has been removed by laser ablation, also suggest that the root cap may be sensing a range of other, non-mechanical stimuli that are interacting with the gravity sensor to direct root growth. This work was supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

81

Post-Bariatric Abdominoplasty: Skin Sensation Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The number of bariatric surgeries is progressively increasing in the USA and in Brazil. The number of post-bariatric plastic\\u000a surgeries also increases as a response to this phenomenon. Abdominoplasties performed in former morbidly obese patients present\\u000a a larger number of postoperative complications. Studies show that abdominoplasty caused postoperative skin hypesthesia. This\\u000a study aims at evaluating skin sensibility\\/sensation in post-bariatric patients

Rodolpho Alberto Bussolaro; Elvio Bueno Garcia; Marcus Vinicius Jardini Barbosa; Ivan Rene Viana Omonte; Juliana Perez Rodrigues Huijsmans; Roberta Lopes Bariani; Lydia Masako Ferreira

2010-01-01

82

Visual Sensations Produced by Cosmic Ray Muons  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN 1961, D'Arcy and Porter1 demonstrated that when single cosmic ray muons passed through the eyes of supine, dark-adapted observers, a small proportion produced a detectable visual sensation. The effect was ascribed either to the production of Cherenkov light in the eye media by the relativistic, singly charged particles or to some form of direct stimulation of the retina. Interest

W. N. Charman; Christina M. Rowlands

1971-01-01

83

Laser Interferometry for Harsh Environment MEMS Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-based MEMS technology has enabled the fabrication of a broad range of sensor and actuator systems that are having a great impact in areas that benefit from miniaturization and increased functionality. The main advantage of Si-based MEMS technologies is their possibility of integration with microelectronics thus allowing the economical production of smart microsystems. In the automotive industry for example, there is a need for inexpensive smart MEMS sensors for engine control applications. For instance, smart MEMS sensors capable of operating ``in cylinder'', where temperatures are around 400 C, could continuously monitor the combustion quality of the cylinders of automotive engines thus leading to reduced emissions and improved fuel economy. However, when the environment temperature is too high (>180 C), conventional Si-based microelectronics suffer from severe performance degradation, thus making smart Si-based MEMS impractical. Hence, further development, in terms of new MEMS materials and/or new technologies, is needed especially where high temperature capability is crucial to realizing improved electronic control. Remote sensing through optical signal detection has major advantages for safe signal transmission in harsh environments. It is highly resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) and at the same time, it eliminates the necessity of on-board electronics, which has been one of the main obstacles in the development of smart MEMS sensors for high temperature applications. An economical way to deal with higher temperatures and other aggressive environmental conditions is to build MEMS sensors out of robust materials (e.g. Silicon nitride, SiC) and integrate them with optical signal detection techniques to form MOEMS. In this paper, we review recent trends for the use of laser interferometry for MEMS sensors in the context of using them for high temperature applications. Technological challenges faced in the development of these sensors, including sensitivity to measurement errors, packaging and cost reduction are also outlined. Finally, an overview of Fabry-Perot like MEMS sensors for high temperature applications is presented and issues facing their future progress and economical implementation are discussed.

Nieva, Patricia

2008-03-01

84

Use of harsh physical discipline and developmental outcomes in adolescence.  

PubMed

A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions, and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at age 16. Both parents' use of harsh discipline was related to greater adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and relatedness. PMID:17241492

Bender, Heather L; Allen, Joseph P; McElhaney, Kathleen Boykin; Antonishak, Jill; Moore, Cynthia M; Kelly, Heather O'Beirne; Davis, Steven M

2007-01-01

85

Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

2013-05-01

86

"Two novel DEG/ENaC channel subunits expressed in glia are needed for nose touch sensitivity in C. elegans"  

PubMed Central

Summary Neuronal DEG/ENaC Na+ channels have been implicated in touch sensation. For example, MEC-4 is expressed in touch neurons in C. elegans and mediates gentle touch response. Similarly, homologous mammalian ASIC2 and ASIC3 are expressed in sensory neurons and produce touch phenotypes when knocked out in mice. Here, we show that novel DEG/ENaC subunits DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons in C. elegans and that their knock-out causes defects in mechanosensory behaviors related to nose touch and foraging, which are mediated by OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons. Cell-specific rescue supports that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are required cell-autonomously in glia to orchestrate mechanosensory behaviors. Electron microscopy reveals that in delm-1 knockouts, OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons and associated glia are structurally normal. Furthermore, we show that knockout of DELM-1 and DELM-2 does not disrupt the expression or cellular localization of TRPA-1, a TRP channel needed in OLQ and IL1 neurons for touch behaviors. Rather, rescue of the delm-1 nose-touch insensitive phenotype by expression of a K+ channel in socket glia and of a cationic channel in OLQ neurons suggests that DELM channels set basal neuronal excitability. Taken together, our data show that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons where they are not needed for neuronal structural integrity or cellular distribution of neuronal sensory channels, but rather for their function.

Han, Lu; Wang, Ying; Sangaletti, Rachele; D'Urso, Giulia; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Bianchi, Laura

2013-01-01

87

How Does a Touch Sensor Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

88

Transparent and flexible haptic array actuator made with cellulose acetate for tactile sensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports an array type film haptic actuator based on cellulose acetate. Suggested actuator can vibrate with faster response time and various frequencies to give a range of haptic feedbacks to users which can be used in touch screen devices. Fabrication process, performance evaluation and electrostatic behavior of haptic actuator are reported for tactile sensation. Cellulose acetate film is suitable for haptic actuator for its transparency, flexibility and high dielectric constant. An element of haptic actuator is made by using cellulose acetate film with patterned adhesive tape spacer, then haptic actuator elements arrayed to 3 x 3 to embed in haptic devices. Experiment to measure vibration acceleration is carried out on wide range of actuation frequency and voltage for single actuator to evaluate 3x3 array actuator.

Mohiuddin, Md; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Jaehwan

2014-04-01

89

Rasch-Built Measure of Pleasant Touch through Active Fingertip Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence suggests that somatic sensation has a modality for pleasant touch. Objective: To investigate pleasant touch at the fingertip level (i.e., glabrous skin site) through the elaboration of a linear unidimensional scale that measures (i) various materials according to the level of pleasantness they elicit through active fingertip explorations and (ii) subjects according to their pleasantness leniency levels. Subjects: We enrolled 198 healthy subjects without any neurological disease. Methods: Blindfolded subjects actively explored 48 materials with their index fingertips and reported the perceived pleasantness of each on a 4-level scale. The fingertip moisture levels on each subject were measured before the experimental session. Data were analyzed using the Rasch model. Results: We elaborated unidimensional linear scale that included 37 materials according to their pleasantness of touch. The pleasantness level of 21 materials was perceived differently, depending on the fingertip moisture levels of the subjects. Conclusion: Based on our findings, we formulated a Pleasant Touch Scale. Fingertip moisture levels appeared to be a major factor for (un)pleasant feelings during active exploration.

Klocker, Anne; Arnould, Carlyne; Penta, Massimo; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2012-01-01

90

On the recall of vestibular sensations.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies on the recall or imagination of a distinctive task in the motor network or of sensations in sensory systems (visual, acoustic, nociceptive, gustatory, and olfactory) demonstrated that the respective primary cortex is often involved in the mental imagery process. Our aim was to examine this phenomenon in the vestibular system using fMRI. Sixteen healthy subjects were asked to remember the feeling of a rotatory chair procedure in contrast to an identical situation at rest. Shortly afterwards they were asked to recall the vestibular experience in a 1.5-T scanner. The resulting activations were then compared with the responses of a galvanic vestibular control experiment and a rest condition. The vestibular recall showed significant bihemispheric activations in the inferior frontal gyri, the anterior operculum, the middle cingulate, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the premotor motor cortex, and the anterior insula. We found activations in regions known to play a role in spatial referencing, motor programs, and attention in the recall of vestibular sensations. But important known relay stations for the cortical processing of vestibular information showed neither relevant activations nor deactivations. PMID:22367249

zu Eulenburg, Peter; Müller-Forell, W; Dieterich, M

2013-01-01

91

Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2012-01-01

92

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT LASER TOUCH AND TECHNOLOGIES, LLC LASER TOUCH MODEL LT-B512  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of Laser Touch model LT-B512 targeting device manufactured by Laser Touch and Technologies, LLC, for manual spray painting operations. The relative transfer efficiency (TE) improved an avera...

93

Oral health sensations associated with illicit drug abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate oral health sensations (short term oral health effects) associated with illicit drug abuse. In addition, to identify variations in oral health sensations produced by different illicit drugs.Subject Young adults in a drug rehabilitation programme in Hong Kong, China.Method Self-completed questionnaire about their previous pattern of drug abuse and oral health sensations experienced (recalled).Results All (119) subjects were

B Chan; C McGrath

2005-01-01

94

A capacitive touch controller robust to display noise for ultrathin touch screen displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive touch screens have become widely adopted in mobile applications. Capacitive touch-screen display modules have conventionally been assembled by bonding two separate modules: 1) a touch-screen module with touch panel glass or film attached to the cover window, and 2) a display module, with a small air gap between them as in Fig. 6.4.1 (top). An important role of the

Ki-Duk Kim; San-Ho Byun; Yoon-Kyung Choi; Jong-Hak Baek; Hwa-Hyun Cho; Jong-Kang Park; Hae-Yong Ahn; Chang-Ju Lee; Min-Soo Cho; Joo-Hyeon Lee; Sang-Woo Kim; Hyung-Dal Kwon; Yong-Yeob Choi; Hosuk Na; Yeon-Joong Shin; Kyungsuk Jang; Gyoocheol Hwang; Myunghee Lee

2012-01-01

95

Clinical Examination for the Detection of Protective Sensation in the Feet of Diabetic Patients  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE We compared the reproducibility and accuracy of conventional clinical examination of the diabetic foot to monofilament examination. We also sought to simplify the monofilament examination by reducing it to fewer touch points. METHODS In a cross-sectional study at 10 centers in the United States, Canada, and Switzerland, general internists and residents performed a structured history and physical examination for neuropathy on the feet of diabetic patients. Independent examination by two observers included monofilament sensation, pinprick, vibration, position sense, and ankle reflexes. MAIN RESULTS A total of 304 patients were examined by at least one practitioner, and 200 received duplicate examinations. Monofilament examination and ankle reflexes had the best reproducibility, with moderate agreement (?=0.59); pinprick, position, and vibration sense had fair agreement (?=0.28–0.36). No component of the history or physical examination, singly or in aggregate, was both sensitive and specific for identifying a patient with an abnormal monofilament examination. A simplified monofilament examination using only 4 sites per foot (total 8 sites) detected 90% of patients with an abnormal 16-site monofilament evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Conventional clinical examination had low reproducibility and correlated poorly with monofilament examination for the identification of the at-risk patient. The Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination, a reproducible, valid, and generalizable test of foot sensation, is recommended as the screening procedure of choice for examining diabetic feet.

Smieja, Marek; Hunt, Dereck L; Edelman, David; Etchells, Edward; Cornuz, Jacques; Simel, David L

1999-01-01

96

A sensate liner for biomedical monitoring applications.  

PubMed

This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed. PMID:10180550

Lind, E J; Jayaraman, S; Park, S; Rajamanickam, R; Eisler, R; Burghart, G; McKee, T

1998-01-01

97

A Sensate Liner for personnel monitoring applications.  

PubMed

This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed. PMID:11541614

Lind, E J; Jayaraman, S; Park, S; Rajamanickam, R; Eisler, R; Burghart, G; McKee, T

1998-01-01

98

Design Issues for Collaborative Touch Table Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes underlying principles that inf luence the creation of successful touch table collaboration so ftware. Scott et al's collaborative tabletop guidelines (2003) are u sed as the basis for discussion. A summary of each table guideline is offered, and applied with respect to current touch-table applica tions. Recommendations for authors of table applications a re provided on a

Craig McNulty

99

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy.

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

100

Therapeutic Touch: The Art of Improvisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper is a comparison of the art and practice of Therapeutic Touch with the art and practice of music through improvisation. It is also an exploration of one person's growth from initial learning to a point in lime where expertise is recognized. Students of Therapeutic Touch are often puzzled by their ability to be effective from the first

Anne Hanley Mary

1991-01-01

101

External motivators of self-touching behavior.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that nonverbal self-touching behaviors can be induced by external motivators such as videos and literary passages about insects. This study investigated whether the number of self-touching behaviors differed between presentation of what was assumed to be an anxiety-inducing stimulus (listening to the reading of a passage about leeches and answering questions) or a nonanxiety-inducing stimulus (a passage about canaries). It also investigated whether there was a difference in frequency of self-touching when subjects were passively listening to passages or actively answering questions. The difference in frequency of self-touching between men and women was also observed. Over-all, subjects did not perform significantly more self-touching gestures during the anxiety-inducing stimulus than during the nonanxiety-inducing, as previous research had indicated. Subjects did touch themselves significantly more, however, while answering questions than while listening to the passage. Over-all, men performed significantly more self-touching behaviors than women. And, women touched themselves significantly more during the active anxiety-inducing cell than in any other condition. PMID:10769920

Heaven, L; McBrayer, D

2000-02-01

102

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

103

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

104

Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

105

Spring metals for terminals and connectors in harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper alloy strip used for terminal and connector springs must often provide requisite contact forces in the harsh environments of elevated temperatures, for quite long times. A number of innovative metals and several traditional metals were tested for stress relaxation at temperatures up to 200°C for up to 3000 h. Recognizing that resistance to degradation at elevated temperatures is but

Dale Bender; S. Paul Zarlingo

1992-01-01

106

Piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor and packaging for harsh oceanic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a fabrication and packaging approach for a piezoresistive micro electro mechanical (MEMS) pressure sensor designed to operate up to a depth of hundreds of meters under harsh seawater conditions. The pressure values at such depths would typically be in the range of 3000 psi and the temperature conditions would vary from as low as -5°C to 60°C. The

A. Mohan; A. P. Malshe; Shyam Aravamudhan; S. Bhansali

2004-01-01

107

Infrared and Microwave Effects on Skin Heating and Temperature Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to study the physiological mechanisms of temperature sensation, the forehead area of seven subjects was exposed to controlled heating while the skin temperature was radiometrically measured and recorded. Continuous exposure to variations in far infrared radiation produced temperature sensations which could best be correlated with rates of change of skin temperature. Warmth threshold was accompanied by a rate

E. HENDLERt; J. D. Hardy

1960-01-01

108

The role of plantar cutaneous sensation in unperturbed stance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable evidence shows that sensation from the feet and ankles is important for standing balance control. It remains unclear, however, to what extent specific foot and ankle sensory systems are involved. This study focused on the role of plantar cutaneous sensation in quasi-static balance control. Iontophoretic delivery of anesthesia was used to reduce the sensitivity of the forefoot soles. In

Peter F. Meyer; Lars I. E. Oddsson; Carlo J. De Luca

2004-01-01

109

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY FOR THE SENSATION-SEEKING SCALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXAMINED THE TRAITS MEASURED BY THE SENSATION-SEEKING SCALE (SSS) BY DEFINING FACTORS WITHIN THE SCALE ITSELF AND BY CORRELATING THE SCALE WITH INDEPENDENT MEASURES OF OTHER TRAITS. 4 FACTORS WERE DEFINED IN AN EARLIER EXTENDED VERSION OF THE SSS GIVEN TO MALES: THRILL, SOCIAL, VISUAL, AND ANTISOCIAL SENSATION SEEKING. ONLY THE 1ST 2 FACTORS EMERGED CLEARLY IN THE FEMALE DATA.

MARVIN ZUCKERMAN; KATHRYN LINK

1968-01-01

110

Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes: A candidate system approach  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavior disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to individual differences in sensation seeking, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and non-human animals provide evidence for this relationship. We present here a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation seeking, in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopaminergic genes were analyzed. Using 273 SNPs from eight dopamine genes in a sample of 635 unrelated individuals, we examined the aggregate effects of those SNPs significantly associated with sensation seeking. Multiple SNPs in four dopamine genes accounted for significant variance in sensation seeking. These results suggest that aggregation of multiple SNPs within genes relevant to a specific neurobiological system into a “genetic risk score” may explain a nontrivial proportion of variance in human traits.

Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Bierut, Laura J

2011-01-01

111

Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs.

Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

2013-01-01

112

Miniature in vivo Robots for Remote and Harsh Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term human space exploration will require contingencies for emergency medical procedures including some capability to perform surgery. The ability to perform minimally invasive surgery (MIS) would be an important capability. The use of small incisions reduces surgical risk, but also eliminates the ability of the surgeon to view and touch the surgical environment directly. Robotic surgery, or telerobotic surgery, may

Mark E. Rentschler; Stephen R. Platt; Kyle R. Berg; Jason Dumpert; Dmitry Oleynikov; Shane M. Farritor

2008-01-01

113

Silicon Carbide Sensors and Electronics for Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment (high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation) that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. This is due to its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

Evans, Laura J.

2007-01-01

114

Stay in Touch in Crisis Situations  

MedlinePLUS

... and activated to summon help. Consider also location-tracking devices such as the On-Star system in automobiles or other wireless technology integrated into watches and cell phones. O utline your STAY IN TOUCH plan in ...

115

[The language of touch in care].  

PubMed

At the heart of the care relationship, the hands of the caregiver the body of the patient interact. The language of touch is therefore expressed in addition to the verbal and nonverbal elements of human communication. PMID:23641577

Malaquin-Pavan, Evelyne

2013-03-01

116

Developing Robot Motions by Simulated Touch Sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a very powerful but not much studied communication mean in human-robot interaction. Nonetheless many robots are not\\u000a equipped with touch sensors, because it is often difficult to place such sensors over the robot surface or simply because\\u000a the main task of the robot does not require them. We propose an approach that allows developing motions for a real

Fabio Dalla Libera; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Enrico Pagello; Emanuele Menegatti

2008-01-01

117

Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements  

SciTech Connect

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

1999-09-19

118

Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision  

PubMed Central

We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two “natural” tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two “novel” tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

Wismeijer, Dagmar A.; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Drewing, Knut

2012-01-01

119

Asimadoline, a ?-Opioid Agonist, and Visceral Sensation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Asimadoline is a potent ?-opioid receptor agonist with a diaryl acetamide structure. It has high affinity for the ? receptor, with IC50 of 5.6 nM (guinea pig) and 1.2 nM (human recombinant), and high selectively with ?: ?: ? binding ratios of 1:501:498 in human recombinant receptors. It acts as a complete agonist in in vitro assay. Asimadoline reduced sensation in response to colonic distension at subnoxious pressures in healthy volunteers and in IBS patients without alteration of colonic compliance. Asimadoline reduced satiation and enhanced the postprandial gastric volume (in female volunteers). However, there were no significant effects on gastrointestinal transit, colonic compliance, fasting or postprandial colonic tone. In a clinical trial in 40 patients with functional dyspepsia (Rome II), asimadoline did not significantly alter satiation or symptoms over 8 weeks. However, asimadoline, 0.5 mg, significantly decreased satiation in patients with higher postprandial fullness scores, and daily postprandial fullness severity (over 8 weeks); the asimadoline 1.0 mg group was borderline significant. In a clinical trial in patients with IBS, average pain 2 hours post-on-demand treatment with asimadoline was not significantly reduced. Post-hoc analyses suggest asimadoline was effective in mixed IBS. In a 12-week study in 596 patients, chronic treatment with asimadoline, 0.5 mg and 1.0 mg, was associated with adequate relief of pain and discomfort, improvement in pain score and number of pain free days in patients with IBS-D. The 1.0 mg dose was also efficacious in IBS-alternating. There were also weeks with significant reduction in bowel frequency and urgency. Asimadoline has been well tolerated in human trials to date.

Camilleri, Michael

2009-01-01

120

Hand distinction for multi-touch tabletop interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent multi-touch multi-user tabletop systems offer rich touch contact properties to applications. Not only they provide touch positions, but also finger orientations. Applications can use these properties separated for each finger or derive information by combining the given touch contact data. In this paper, we present an approach to map fingers to their associated joined hand contributing to potential enhancements

Chi Tai Dang; Martin Straub; Elisabeth André

2009-01-01

121

The Development and Nature of the Construct Touch Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch avoidance is a nonverbal communication predisposition that consists of same sex touch avoidance and opposite sex touch avoidance. It is related to communication apprehension, self-disclosure, self-esteem, and a series of cultural role variables. These seem to have the greatest relationship with the measures of touch avoidance. (Author)

Andersen, Peter A.; Leibowitz, Kenneth

1978-01-01

122

Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

2011-01-01

123

Optical fibers with mid and high temperature coatings for harsh environment applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the fastest growing application areas for optical fiber is for use in sensing applications in harsh environments. The designation of harsh environment includes temperatures above 85C, hydrogen atmosphere, tight bending radii, radiation, chemically aggressive environments, etc. Actual operating environments may include a combination of several of the above listed factors. Fibers deployed in a harsh environment require specialized

V. Kozlov; J. Koh; K. Bennett

2010-01-01

124

Deqi Sensations of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Auricular Points  

PubMed Central

Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha.

Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

2013-01-01

125

Sensation of effort is altered in Huntington’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we investigated sensation of effort in Huntington disease (HD). We tested the hypothesis that the basal ganglia are involved in processing effort sensation. The experimental paradigm consisted in a contralateral matching procedure where normal subjects (N=6) and HD patients (N=6) were required to lift a reference weight with their non-dominant index, and then compare the target-weight with

Gilles Lafargue; Angela Sirigu

2002-01-01

126

Reduced plantar sensation causes a cautious walking pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of reduced plantar sensation on gait patterns during walking in 20 healthy subjects (25.9±1.2 years, 61.6±11.5kg, 178±9.5cm) with no history of sensory disorders. Force plate measurements, electromyography (EMG) measurements and a three-dimensional movement analysis were performed simultaneously during barefoot walking before and after reduction of plantar sensation using an ice

Eric Eils; Susann Behrens; Oliver Mers; Lothar Thorwesten; Klaus Völker; Dieter Rosenbaum

2004-01-01

127

Corneal sensation after small incision, sutureless, one-handed phacoemulsification.  

PubMed

Corneal sensitivity was measured in 60 eyes preoperatively and at one day, one week, and one month after small incision, sutureless, one-handed phacoemulsification performed by the same surgeon using the same technique. Corneal sensation remained normal at the center and the 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions. Decreased corneal sensation was found over the width of the scleral tunnel incision at the limbus, extending in a wedge-shaped sector not encompassing the central cornea. PMID:8523287

John, T

1995-07-01

128

Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking in Alcohol Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (n?=?34) and in a group without lifetime substance abuse or dependence (n?=?66). The patients were assessed using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for DSM-III-R disorders, the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS), the Zuckerman seeking sensation scale (SSS), and the physical anhedonia scale (PAS). Results: The mean scores for impulsivity and sensation seeking were higher in the group with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence than in the group without substance abuse or dependence (BIS: 63.4?±?18.7?vs 51.3?±?14.2 respectively, ANOVA: F?=?11.12, p?=?0.001; SSS: 17.6?±?5.9?vs 13.5?±?6.7 respectively, ANOVA: F?=?7.45, p?=?0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups on PAS score. Conclusion: Increased impulsivity or sensation seeking may be a link between schizophrenia and alcohol abuse or dependence.

Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Olie, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

2010-01-01

129

Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (n?=?34) and in a group without lifetime substance abuse or dependence (n?=?66). The patients were assessed using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for DSM-III-R disorders, the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS), the Zuckerman seeking sensation scale (SSS), and the physical anhedonia scale (PAS). Results: The mean scores for impulsivity and sensation seeking were higher in the group with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence than in the group without substance abuse or dependence (BIS: 63.4?±?18.7?vs 51.3?±?14.2 respectively, ANOVA: F?=?11.12, p?=?0.001; SSS: 17.6?±?5.9?vs 13.5?±?6.7 respectively, ANOVA: F?=?7.45, p?=?0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups on PAS score. Conclusion: Increased impulsivity or sensation seeking may be a link between schizophrenia and alcohol abuse or dependence. PMID:21423445

Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

2010-01-01

130

The Sense of Touch: Embodied Simulation in a Visuotactile Mirroring Mechanism for Observed Animate or Inanimate Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown a shared neural circuitry in the somatosensory cortices for the experience of one's own body being touched and the sight of intentional touch. Using func- tional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study aimed to elucidate whether the activation of a visuotactile mirroring mechanism during touch observation applies to the sight of any touch, that is,

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Mauro G. Perrucci; Antonio Ferretti; Cosimo Del Gratta; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

2008-01-01

131

The effect of age on neural processing of pleasant soft touch stimuli  

PubMed Central

Tactile interactions with our environment stimulate afferent fibers within the skin, which deliver information about sensations of pain, texture, itch and other feelings to the brain as a comprehensive sense of self. These tactile interactions can stimulate brain regions involved in interoception and reward processing. This study examined subjective, behavioral, and neural processing as a function of age during stimulation of A-beta (A?) and C tactile (CT) afferents using a soft brush stroke task. 16 adolescents (ages 15–17), 22 young adults (ages 20–28), and 20 mature adults (ages 29–55) underwent a simple continuous performance task while periodically anticipating and experiencing a soft touch to the palm or forearm, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI results showed that adolescents displayed greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults across all conditions and stimulus types. Adolescents also demonstrated greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults specifically in response to the soft touch condition. Adolescents also exhibited greater activation than mature adults in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during the soft touch condition. However, mature adults showed greater striatum activation than adolescents and young adults during anticipation. In the left anterior cingulate cortex, mature adults exhibited greater activation than adolescents and young adults when anticipating the upcoming touch. These results support the hypothesis that adolescents show an exaggerated neural response to pleasant stimulation of afferents, which may have profound effects on how they approach or avoid social and risky situations. In particular, heightened interoceptive reactivity to pleasant stimuli might cause adolescents to seek experiences that are associated with pleasant stimulation.

May, April C.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.

2014-01-01

132

Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

133

Touch feel illusion in schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The rubber hand illusion is a tactile sensation referred to as an alien limb. The illusion has been explained by a spurious reconciliation of visual and tactile inputs reflecting functional connectivity in the brain and was used to explore alterations of functional connectivity in schizophrenia.Methods: The rubber hand illusion was achieved when two paintbrushes simultaneously stroke the hand of

Avi Peled; Michael Ritsner; Shmuel Hirschmann; Amir B Geva; Ilan Modai

2000-01-01

134

Enabling aspects of fiber optic acoustic sensing in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advantages of optical fiber sensing in harsh electromagnetic as well as physical stress environments make them uniquely suited for structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing. In addition to aerospace applications they are making a strong footprint in geophysical monitoring and exploration applications for higher temperature and pressure environments, due to the high temperature resilience of fused silica glass sensors. Deeper oil searches and geothermal exploration and harvesting are possible with these novel capabilities. Progress in components and technologies that are enabling these systems to be fieldworthy are reviewed and emerging techniques summarized that could leapfrog the system performance and reliability.

Saxena, Indu F.

2013-05-01

135

Peripheral Somatosensation: A Touch of Genetics  

PubMed Central

Summary The somatosensory system processes information that organisms “feel”: joint position, muscle stretch, pain, pressure, temperature, and touch. The system is composed of a diverse array of peripheral nerve endings specialized to detect these sensory modalities. Several recent discoveries have shed light on the genetic pathways that control specification and differentiation of these neurons, how they accurately innervate their central and peripheral targets, and the molecules that enable them to detect mechanical stimuli. Here, we review the cadre of genes that control these processes, focusing on mechanosensitive neurons and support cells of the skin that mediate different aspects of the sense of touch.

Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.

2011-01-01

136

Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications.

Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

2013-01-01

137

A Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications  

PubMed Central

High temperature sensors capable of operating in harsh environments are needed in order to prevent disasters caused by structural or system functional failures due to increasing temperatures. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they require either physical contact or a battery power supply for signal communication, and furthermore, neither of them can withstand high temperatures nor rotating applications. This paper presents a novel passive wireless temperature sensor, suitable for working in harsh environments for high temperature rotating component monitoring. A completely passive LC resonant telemetry scheme, relying on a frequency variation output, which has been applied successfully in pressure, humidity and chemical measurement, is integrated with a unique high-k temperature sensitive ceramic material, in order to measure the temperatures without contacts, active elements, or power supplies within the sensor. In this paper, the high temperature sensor design and performance analysis are conducted based on mechanical and electrical modeling, in order to maximize the sensing distance, the Q factor and the sensitivity. In the end, the sensor prototype is fabricated and calibrated successfully up to 235°C, so that the concept of temperature sensing through passive wireless communication is proved.

Wang, Ya; Jia, Yi; Chen, Qiushui; Wang, Yanyun

2008-01-01

138

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition.

Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2010-01-01

139

Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained. PMID:24150543

Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

2014-08-01

140

Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits  

PubMed Central

Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking between 30 sibling pairs of stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological brothers/sisters who did not have a significant drug-taking history and 30 unrelated, nondrug-taking control volunteers. Results Siblings of chronic stimulant users reported significantly higher levels of trait-impulsivity than control volunteers but did not differ from control volunteers with regard to sensation-seeking traits. Stimulant-dependent individuals reported significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking compared with both their siblings and control volunteers. Conclusions These data indicate that impulsivity is a behavioral endophenotype mediating risk for stimulant dependence that may be exacerbated by chronic drug exposure, whereas abnormal sensation-seeking is more likely to be an effect of stimulant drug abuse.

Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T.; Robbins, Trevor W.

2010-01-01

141

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects.

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

142

High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable operation in harsh 500C environments. This has included world record operation of SiC-based transistor technology (including packaging) that has demonstrated continuous electrical operation at 500C for over 2000 hours. Based on SiC electronics, development of high temperature wireless communication has been on-going. This work has concentrated on maturing the SiC electronic devices for communication purposes as well as the passive components such as resistors and capacitors needed to enable a high temperature wireless system. The objective is to eliminate wires associated with high temperature sensors which add weight to a vehicle and can be a cause of sensor unreliability. This paper discusses the development of SiC based electronics and wireless communications technology for harsh environment applications such as propulsion health management systems and in Venus missions. A brief overview of the future directions in sensor technology is given including maturing of near-room temperature "Lick and Stick" leak sensor technology for possible implementation in the Crew Launch Vehicle program. Then an overview of high temperature electronics and the development of high temperature communication systems is presented. The maturity of related technologies such as sensor and packaging will also be discussed. It is concluded that a significant component of efforts to improve the intelligence of harsh environment operating systems is the development and implementation of high temperature wireless technology

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

2007-01-01

143

Novel targeted sensory reinnervation technique to restore functional hand sensation after transhumeral amputation.  

PubMed

We present a case study of a novel variation of the targeted sensory reinnervation technique that provides additional control over sensory restoration after transhumeral amputation. The use of intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials on individual fascicles of the median and ulnar nerves allowed us to specifically target sensory fascicles to reroute to target cutaneous nerves at a distance away from anticipated motor sites in a transhumeral amputee. This resulted in restored hand maps of the median and ulnar nerve in discrete spatially separated areas. In addition, the subject was able to use native and reinnervated muscle sites to control a robotic arm while simultaneously sensing touch and force feedback from the robotic gripper in a physiologically correct manner. This proof of principle study is the first to demonstrate the ability to have simultaneous dual flow of information (motor and sensory) within the residual limb. In working towards clinical deployment of a sensory integrated prosthetic device, this surgical method addresses the important issue of restoring a usable access point to provide natural hand sensation after upper limb amputation. PMID:24760915

Hebert, Jacqueline S; Olson, Jaret L; Morhart, Michael J; Dawson, Michael R; Marasco, Paul D; Kuiken, Todd A; Chan, K Ming

2014-07-01

144

Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

2004-01-01

145

Multi-Touch Tables and Collaborative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of multi-touch tables, an emerging technology for classroom learning, offers valuable opportunities to explore how its features can be designed to support effective collaboration in schools. In this study, small groups of 10- to 11-year-old children undertook a history task where they had to connect various pieces of information…

Higgins, Steve; Mercier, Emma; Burd, Liz; Joyce-Gibbons, Andrew

2012-01-01

146

Evaluation of an Automated Touch Typing System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automated Instruction Touch Typing System, an individualized self-paced instructional method of teaching typewriting skills using the principles of response conditioning, was evaluated. The system is divided into four phases. Phase 1 presents keyboard instruction in four to six hours. These lessons are response conditioning sessions during…

Dierks, Caroll J.

147

Diagnostics hardening for harsh environment in Laser Megajoule (invited).  

PubMed

The diagnostic designs for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will require components to operate in environments far more severe than those encountered in present facilities. This harsh environment will be induced by fluxes of neutrons, gamma rays, energetic ions, electromagnetic radiations, and, in some cases, debris and shrapnel, at levels several orders of magnitude higher than those experienced today on existing facilities. The lessons learned about the vulnerabilities of present diagnostic parts fielded mainly on OMEGA for many years, have been very useful guide for the design of future LMJ diagnostics. The present and future LMJ diagnostic designs including this vulnerability approach and their main mitigation techniques will be presented together with the main characteristics of the LMJ facility that provide for diagnostic protection. PMID:19044614

Bourgade, J L; Marmoret, R; Darbon, S; Rosch, R; Troussel, P; Villette, B; Glebov, V; Shmayda, W T; Gomme, J C; Le Tonqueze, Y; Aubard, F; Baggio, J; Bazzoli, S; Bonneau, F; Boutin, J Y; Caillaud, T; Chollet, C; Combis, P; Disdier, L; Gazave, J; Girard, S; Gontier, D; Jaanimagi, P; Jacquet, H P; Jadaud, J P; Landoas, O; Legendre, J; Leray, J L; Maroni, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Miquel, J L; Marshall, F J; Masclet-Gobin, I; Pien, G; Raimbourg, J; Reverdin, C; Richard, A; Rubin de Cervens, D; Sangster, C T; Seaux, J P; Soullie, G; Stoeckl, C; Thfoin, I; Videau, L; Zuber, C

2008-10-01

148

Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

1993-06-01

149

Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing.  

PubMed

Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

Greve, David W; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J

2013-01-01

150

Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing  

PubMed Central

Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

2013-01-01

151

Advances of SiC-based MOS capacitor hydrogen sensors for harsh environment applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SiC-based hydrogen sensors have attracted much attention due to applications in harsh environments. In this paper, harsh environment is defined. Characteristics of SiC-based hydrogen sensors for harsh environment applications are reviewed. Various types of SiC-based field effect hydrogen sensor in terms of their respective history, structure, advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. SiC-based MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor will be conferred

Mun Teng Soo; Kuan Yew Cheong; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor

2010-01-01

152

Designing Concrete Dams for Especially Harsh Climatic Conditions (Proektirovanii Betonnkh Plotin Dlia Uslovii Osovo Surovogo Klimata).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses the principal aspects of designing concrete dams on rock foundations in regions with especially harsh climates, developed by examining projects carried out at Lengidroproyekt. (Author)

V. I. Teleshev S. A. Frid

1977-01-01

153

The Power of Touch: Nonverbal Communication within Married Dyads  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have suggested that one function of touch in mixed-sex interactions is to exert influence over another person. Yet theories offer different explanations as to when women and men will use touch as an influence strategy. The gender politics hypothesis proposes that men touch more as a way to maintain inequalities present in society. In…

Smith, Joann C. Seeman; Vogel, David L.; Madon, Stephanie; Edwards, Sarah R.

2011-01-01

154

Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

Chare, Nicholas

2013-01-01

155

The role of sensations and feelings under ether  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studied the sensations and feelings under anesthetics of two brothers, one 20 yrs of age, and the other 29 yrs. These cases are significant because they represent experiences from persons of similar temperament, training, habits and heredity. A detailed description is presented, involving external record before complete anesthesia, subject's account, and external record of the experimenter from observations after complete

Charles Hughes Johnston

1909-01-01

156

Sensation Generation using Electrical Stimulation for a Prosthetic System  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the use of electrical stimulation to generate a new sensorial input to the human body to improve the man-machine interfacing, increasing the communication channels between a robot and the human body. This study focus on the sensation generation for a electromyographic (EMG) prosthetic hand, where the need of \\

Alejandro HERNÁNDEZ

157

Flavoured cigarettes, sensation seeking and adolescents’ perceptions of cigarette brands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:This study examined the interactive effects of cigarette package flavour descriptors and sensation seeking on adolescents’ brand perceptions.Methods:High school students (n = 253) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental conditions and sequentially exposed to cigarette package illustrations for three different brands. In the flavour descriptor condition, the packages included a description of the cigarettes as “cherry”, while in

K C Manning; K J Kelly; M L Comello

2009-01-01

158

Sensation Seeking and Targeting of Televised Anti-Drug PSAs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine how to reach out in an effective manner via televised public service announcements (PSAs) to particular at-risk audiences to motivate participation in drug abuse prevention programs. The subjects (207 young adults in Fayette County, Kentucky) responded to the M. Zuckerman sensation-seeking questionnaire. They…

Donohew, Lewis; And Others

159

Effect of Socks on the Assessment of Vibration Sensation  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the difference between the measurement of vibration sensation without and with socks. Material and Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (H group) and 19 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP group) were included. The sites of measurement were the great toe (GT) and medial malleolus (MM). A standard 128?Hz tuning fork was used in the measurements. Results. Mean duration of vibration sensations without and with socks was as follows: in the H group, 19.4 ± 4.2 and 19.5 ± 4.2?s at GT and 15.1 ± 3.3 and 14.6 ± 3.3?s at MM; in the PNP group, 13.4 ± 3.8 and 12.7 ± 4.1?s at GT and 11.9 ± 3.8 and 11.7 ± 3.4?s at MM. No significant difference was found between the measurements without and with socks, except those found at the MM in group H (P = 0.02). This significant difference was further analyzed in terms of effect size which was concluded to be practically insignificant (Cohen's d < 0.2). Shorter mean vibration duration was measured at MM as compared to GT that could be explained by the damping effect. Conclusions. Wearing socks of moderate thickness does not have any important effect on the duration of vibration sensation. This might be considered as a reflection of the remarkable properties of vibration sensation.

Meral, R. C.; Matur, Z.; Dertsiz, B.; Oge, A. E.

2013-01-01

160

Development of a Sensation-Seeking Scale for Preadolescent Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of motivational differences in the school situation and the development of a sensation-seeking scale of preadolescent children rests upon an interactive psycho-biological theory formulated by Farley (1981). Stimulation-seeking and arousal in relation to instructional features are central concepts. As a point of departure for the…

Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

161

Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

Masny, Diana

2012-01-01

162

Inhaled Furosemide Greatly Alleviates the Sensation of Experimentally Induced Dyspnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furosemide is known to influence the activity of vagally mediated mechanoreceptors in the airways. Because vagal afferent fibers may play an important role in modulation of the sensation of dys- pnea, it is possible that inhaled furosemide may modify the sensa- tion of dyspnea. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, we compared the effect of inhaled furosemide on dyspneic sensa-

TAKASHI NISHINO; TOHRU IDE; TOMOKO SUDO; JIRO SATO

163

Cortico-NRM Influences on Trigeminal Neuronal Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the idea that migraine triggers cause cortical activation, which disinhibits craniovascular sensation through the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) and thus produces the headache of migraine. Stimulation of the dura mater and facial skin activated neurons in the NRM and the trigeminal nucleus. Stimulation of the NRM caused suppression of responses of trigeminal neurons to electrical and mechanical stimulation

GA Lambert; KL Hoskin; AS Zagami

2008-01-01

164

Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

2006-05-01

165

Thermal sensations of secondary school children in summer  

PubMed Central

Summer thermal sensations of secondary schoolchildren in England are compared with those earlier published for winter. Heat stress, contrary to expectation, is seen to decrease during the warm months, and neutrality is found to increase by some 6° F. (3·5° C.) air temperature, which is more than double the increases observed for adults under similar circumstances.

Auliciems, A.

1973-01-01

166

Optical communications payload for the Mexican nanosatellite project SENSAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we first present the SATEX 1 microsatellite project, as our initial experience in space optical communications; we then describe the current activities on the design and development of the SENSAT 1 nanosatellite and especially its optical communications payload, consisting of an 830 nm downlink optical transmitter for data communications, with a 532 nm uplink as a beacon

F. J. Mendieta; A. Arvizu; R. Muraoka; Enrique Pacheco; Juan C. Murrieta; J. Sanchez; J. Gutierrez

2011-01-01

167

Touching and feeling: differences in pleasant touch processing between glabrous and hairy skin in humans.  

PubMed

Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in two rare patients, together with microneurography and psychophysical observations in healthy subjects, have demonstrated a system of mechanosensitive C-fiber tactile (CT) afferents sensitive to slowly moving stimuli. They project to the posterior insular cortex and signal pleasant aspects of touch. Importantly, CTs have not been found in the glabrous skin of the hand, yet it is commonly observed that glabrous skin touch is also perceived as pleasant. Here we asked if the brain processing of pleasant touch differs between hairy and glabrous skin by stroking the forearm and glabrous skin of the hand during positron emission tomography. The data showed that, when contrasting slow brush stroking on the forearm with slow brush stroking on the palm, there were significant activations of the posterior insular cortex and mid-anterior orbitofrontal cortex. The opposite contrast showed a significant activation of the somatosensory cortices. Although concurrent psychophysical ratings showed no differences in intensity or pleasantness ratings, a subsequent touch questionnaire in which subjects used a newly developed 'touch perception task' showed significant difference for the two body sites. Emotional descriptors received higher ratings on the forearm and sensory descriptors were rated more highly on the palm. The present findings are consistent with the hypothesis that pleasant touch from hairy skin, mediated by CT afferents, is processed in the limbic-related cortex and represents an innate non-learned process. In contrast, pleasant touch from glabrous skin, mediated by A-beta afferents, is processed in the somatosensory cortex and represents an analytical process dependent on previous tactile experiences. PMID:22594914

McGlone, F; Olausson, H; Boyle, J A; Jones-Gotman, M; Dancer, C; Guest, S; Essick, G

2012-06-01

168

The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch  

PubMed Central

The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator.

Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

2011-01-01

169

Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.  

PubMed

Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

2014-06-01

170

Human perception of shape from touch  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers.

Kappers, Astrid M. L.

2011-01-01

171

R-rated Movie Viewing, Growth in Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Initiation: Reciprocal and Moderation Effects  

PubMed Central

The current study employed parallel process and discrete time hazard regressions to examine the interplay among exposure to R-rated movies, sensation seeking, and initiation of alcohol use in a national U.S. sample (N=6255) of adolescents, ages 10–14, who were followed over four waves spanning 2 years. There was a short-term reciprocal relation between watching R-rated movies and sensation seeking, but over the 2-year observation period, exposure to R-rated movies was associated with increases in sensation seeking and not vice versa. Sensation seeking also moderated the effect of watching R-rated movies on initiation of alcohol consumption such that exposure was associated with greater increases in initiation of alcohol use among low sensation than among high sensation seeking adolescents. The study provides empirical evidence of an environmental media effect on sensation seeking, and important new information about the relations among sensation seeking, media exposure, and adolescent alcohol use.

Stoolmiller, Mike; Gerrard, Meg; Worth, Keilah A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

2010-01-01

172

Polymer\\/ceramic wireless MEMS pressure sensors for harsh environments: High temperature and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents an investigation of miniaturized sensors, designed to wirelessly measure pressure in harsh environments such as high temperature and biomedical applications. Current wireless microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors are silicon-based and have limited high temperature operation, require internal power sources, or have limited packaging technology that restricts their use in harsh environments. Sensor designs in this work are

Michael A. Fonseca

2007-01-01

173

Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

Lee, Yookyong

2009-01-01

174

Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

2013-01-01

175

Maternal Warmth Moderates the Link between Harsh Discipline and Later Externalizing Behaviors for Mexican American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined maternal warmth as a moderator of the relation between harsh discipline practices and adolescent externalizing problems 1year later in low-income, Mexican American families. Design Participants were 189 adolescents and their mothers who comprised the control group of a longitudinal intervention program. Results Maternal warmth protected adolescents from the negative effects of harsh discipline such that, at higher levels of maternal warmth, there was no relation between harsh discipline and externalizing problems after controlling for baseline levels of externalizing problems and other covariates. At lower levels of maternal warmth, there was a positive relation between harsh discipline practices and later externalizing problems. Conclusions To understand the role of harsh discipline in the development of Mexican American youth outcomes, researchers must consider contextual variables that may affect youths’ perceptions of their parents’ behavior such as maternal warmth.

German, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; McClain, Darya Bonds; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger

2012-01-01

176

A novel approach to tribological measurements at harsh conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When dealing with high-tech equipment, accurate positioning is of the utmost importance to ensure durability and a productive lifetime. Unexpected high friction or wear of positioning mechanisms can lead to unnecessary down-time or products that are not up to specification. To ensure a sufficient lifetime, it is necessary to know beforehand how the sliding and rolling contacts will behave over time. This demand becomes more stringent when the machine operates at extreme conditions, e.g. vacuum or extremely low temperatures. Traditional greases and mineral oil based lubricants do not perform adequately in such extreme environments, as they either contaminate the vacuum or do not provide sufficient film thickness. TNO recently developed a unique measuring application, the TNO cryotribometer, in order to measure friction and wear of position mechanisms at harsh conditions. Preliminary results show that the contact pressure and the sliding velocity influenced the friction level greatly. This set-up is currently used to find and analyze different material combinations, which demonstrate a constant friction level under cryogenic vacuum conditions.

Weltevreden, Esther R.; van der Heide, Emile

2011-09-01

177

Wide bandgap semiconductor detectors for harsh radiation environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work two wide bandgap materials, silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN), were investigated for their performance in harsh radiation environments. Schottky devices were fabricated on vanadium doped SiC (V-SiC), Okmetic semi insulating (SI) non-vanadium doped SiC, SI GaN grown by MOCVD (metal organic chemical vapour deposition) and bulk GaN. Completed devices were electrically characterised and the CCE (charge collection efficiency) calculated from pulse height spectra of 241Am ? particles. SI GaN samples were irradiated with estimated neutron fluences of up to 1016 n/cm2 (Ljubljana), proton fluences of 1016 p/cm2 (CERN), and a dose of 600 Mrad of 10 keV X-rays (ICSTM, London). V-SiC samples were irradiated up to 5×1014 ?/cm2 using 300 MeV/c pions (PSI). Electrical characterisation and CCE calculations were repeated after irradiation to observe changes in properties caused by radiation induced damage.

Grant, J.; Cunningham, W.; Blue, A.; O'Shea, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Gaubas, E.; Rahman, M.

2005-07-01

178

Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans.  

PubMed

Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short--cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a 'code of honour'. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social-ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

McCullough, Michael E; Pedersen, Eric J; Schroder, Jaclyn M; Tabak, Benjamin A; Carver, Charles S

2013-01-01

179

Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2012-01-01

180

Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

181

Identification of human brain loci processing esophageal sensation using positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Brain loci that process human esophageal sensation remain unidentified. The aim of this study was to identify the brain loci that process nonpainful and painful human esophageal sensation. METHODS: In 8 healthy subjects (7 men; age range, 24-47 years), distal esophageal stimulation was performed by repeatedly inflating a balloon at volumes that produced either no sensation, definite

Q Aziz; JL Andersson; S Valind; A Sundin; S Hamdy; AK Jones; ER Foster; B Langstrom; DG Thompson

1997-01-01

182

Categorical interoception: perceptual organization of sensations from inside.  

PubMed

Adequate perception of bodily sensations is essential to protect health. However, misinterpretation of signals from within the body is common and can be fatal, for example, in asthma or cardiovascular disease. We suggest that placing interoceptive stimuli into interoceptive categories (e.g., the category of symptoms vs. the category of benign sensations) leads to perceptual generalization effects that may underlie misinterpretation. In two studies, we presented stimuli inducing respiratory effort (respiratory loads) either organized into categories or located on a continuous dimension. We found pervasive effects of categorization on magnitude estimations, affective stimulus evaluations, stimulus recognition, and breathing behavior. These findings indicate the need for broadening perspectives on interoception to include basal processes of stimulus organization, in order for interoceptive bias to be understood. The results are relevant to a wide range of interoception-related phenomena, from emotion to symptom perception. PMID:24570260

Petersen, Sibylle; Schroijen, Mathias; Mölders, Christina; Zenker, Sebastian; Van den Bergh, Omer

2014-05-01

183

The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

2010-11-01

184

Sensation Seeking, Self Forgetfulness, and Computer Game Enjoyment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the relationship between enjoyment of computer game play and two personality traits (sensation seeking\\u000a and self-forgetfulness). Hypotheses were proposed based on a review of computer game enjoyment, game characteristics, personality\\u000a theories, and effects of computer game play. A survey is conducted in two US universities. Results and implica-tions are discussed.

Xiaowen Fang; Fan Zhao

2009-01-01

185

Sensate Media — Multimodal Electronic Skins as Dense Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the concept of building electronic sensate skins as extremely dense, multimodal, systolic sensor networks. In this fashion, the copious signals produced by the skin's receptors are reduced by the network itself, and only high-level features are routed out peer-to-peer, avoiding complex wiring requirements while promising to enable scalability across large areas. Our architectures and algorithms

J A Paradiso; J Lifton; M Broxton

2004-01-01

186

Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.

Toyosawa, Satoshi; Kawai, Takashi

2014-03-01

187

Neural Correlates of Emotional Reactivity in Sensation Seeking  

PubMed Central

High sensation seeking has been linked to increased risk for drug abuse and other negative behavioral outcomes. This study explored the neurobiological basis of this personality trait using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). High sensation seekers (HSSs) and low sensation seekers (LSSs) viewed high- and low-arousal pictures. Comparison of the groups revealed that HSSs showed stronger fMRI responses to high-arousal stimuli in brain regions associated with arousal and reinforcement (right insula, posterior medial orbitofrontal cortex), whereas LSSs showed greater activation and earlier onset of fMRI responses to high-arousal stimuli in regions involved in emotional regulation (anterior medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate). Furthermore, fMRI response in anterior medial orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate was negatively correlated with urgency. Finally, LSSs showed greater sensitivity to the valence of the stimuli than did HSSs. These distinct neurobiological profiles suggest that HSSs exhibit neural responses consistent with an overactive approach system, whereas LSSs exhibit responses consistent with a stronger inhibitory system.

Joseph, Jane E.; Liu, Xun; Jiang, Yang; Lynam, Donald; Kelly, Thomas H.

2011-01-01

188

Losing touch in the era of superbugs?  

PubMed

Nosocomial infections are increasingly multidrug resistant and at times more virulent. As such, they pose real threats to patients and clinicians. In this essay the author discusses his own methacillin-resistant staphylococcus infection and how it has affected his work in the hospital. In so doing, he reflects on the value of touch in the doctor-patient relationship. In particular, he discusses how gloves serve as a barrier to infection but also create a small distance between the doctors and their patients. The implications of contact precautions must be considered as we reflect on balancing patient-centered care with infection control. PMID:20843889

Hass, Leif

2010-01-01

189

Photosynthesis via Mineral Fluorescence in Harsh UV Radiation Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the development of a protective ozone layer about two billion years ago, the surface ultraviolet flux on Earth would have restricted ancient life to environments that offered some protection from direct solar radiation, such as the deep ocean or under or within rocks. In environments where the visible solar radiation would have been reduced to levels too low for photosynthesis, visible fluorescence resulting from UV irradiation of minerals may have provided a useable energy source. We are investigating the possibility that photosynthesis can occur without direct sunlight, if certain minerals are present that can absorb UV radiation and fluoresce in the visible. There are several common minerals(e.g. fluorite, calcite) that emit strong visible radiation under both short- and long-wave UV light, as well as some that only emit visible radiation under specific UV wavelengths. We will test a variety of minerals that fluoresce at wavelengths utilized by microbial chlorophylls and accessory pigments, and by simulating endolithic communities living under a few centimeters or millimeters of rock, we will measure the intensity of fluorescence and UV radiation received at various depths. We plan to simulate a variety of environments where the surface UV radiation may have a significant impact on the survival of life. These include the early Earth and present-day Mars(where the atmosphere would offer little to no protection against biologically damaging UV radiation), as well as extrasolar planets(a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone around an M-type star, for example, would be subject to an intense UV flux due to high flare activity). If mineral fluorescence proves to be a viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic organisms in harsh radiation environments, there are many implications for the study of ancient life on Earth as well as the search for life elsewhere.

Barge, L. M.; Nealson, K.

2005-12-01

190

Pubertal timing and Mexican-origin girls' internalizing and externalizing symptoms: the influence of harsh parenting.  

PubMed

Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Research concerning pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans or the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations has been scarce. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers in 3 waves of data. Measures included girls' self-report of pubertal development and girls' and mothers' report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters' mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls' internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers' and daughters' nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters' report, we found that Mexican American mothers' harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls' internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers' report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

Deardorff, Julianna; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A; White, Rebecca M B; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Wong, Jessie J; Roosa, Mark W

2013-09-01

191

A system for inducing concurrent tactile and nociceptive sensations at the same site using electrocutaneous stimulation.  

PubMed

Studies of the interaction between mechanoception and nociception would benefit from a method for stimulation of both modalities at the same location. For this purpose, we developed an electrical stimulation device. Using two different electrode geometries, discs and needles, the device is capable of inducing two distinct stimulus qualities, dull and sharp, at the same site on hairy skin. The perceived strength of the stimuli can be varied by applying stimulus pulse trains of different lengths. We assessed the perceived stimulus qualities and intensities of the two electrode geometries at two levels of physical stimulus intensity. In a first series of experiments, ten subjects participated in two experimental sessions. The subjects reported the perceived quality and intensity of four different stimulus classes on visual analogue scales (VASs). In a second series, we added a procedure in which subjects assigned descriptive labels to the stimuli. We assessed the reproducibility of the VAS scores by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients. The results showed that subjects perceived stimuli delivered through the disc electrodes as dull and those delivered through the needles as sharp. Increasing the pulse train length increased the perceived stimulus intensities without decreasing the difference in quality between the electrode types. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the VAS scores ranged from .75 to .95. The labels that were assigned for the two electrode geometries corresponded to the descriptors for nociception and touch reported by other researchers. We concluded that our device is capable of reliably inducing tactile and nociceptive sensations of controllable intensity at the same skin site. PMID:22806702

Steenbergen, Peter; Buitenweg, Jan R; Trojan, Jörg; van der Heide, Esther M; van den Heuvel, Teun; Flor, Herta; Veltink, Peter H

2012-12-01

192

Ambient touch: designing tactile interfaces for handheld devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sense of touch as a channel for communicating with miniature handheld devices. We embedded a PDA with a TouchEngineTM --- a thin, miniature lower-power tactile actuator that we have designed specifically to use in mobile interfaces (Figure 1). Unlike previous tactile actuators, the TouchEngine is a universal tactile display that can produce a wide variety of

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama; Jun Rekimoto

2002-01-01

193

Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

Juntao Wu

2008-03-14

194

Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator  

PubMed Central

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8–9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Regression analyses revealed that the association between harsh parenting and externalizing behavior was stronger among children with lower SCLR, as compared to children with higher SCLR. SCLR may be a more robust moderator among boys compared to girls. Results are discussed with regard to theories on antisocial behavior and multiple-domain models of child development.

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

2010-01-01

195

Haptic Touch Reduces Sway by Increasing Axial Tone  

PubMed Central

It is unclear how haptic touch with a stable surface reduces postural sway. We hypothesized that haptic input enhances postural stability due to alterations in axial postural tone. We measured the influence of heavy and light touch of the hands on a stable bar on axial postural tone and postural sway during stance in 14 healthy adults. A unique “Twister” device measured hip torque by fixing the upper body in space while oscillating the surface in yaw ±10 deg at 1deg/s. Subjects were tested while: 1) standing quietly with their arms at their sides, 2) lightly touching a rigid bar in front of them and 3) firmly gripping the bar. Horizontal and vertical sway was not restricted by the device s yaw fixation, therefore, the subjects remained in a state of active postural control during the three touch conditions. Haptic touch significantly increased hip postural tone by 44% during light touch, from 2.5 ± 0.9 to 3.6 ± 1.0 Nm (P=0.005), and by 40% during firm grip to 3.5 ± 0.8 Nm (P=0.005). Increases in hip postural tone were associated with a reduction in postural sway (r=?0.55, P =0.001). This is the first study showing that axial postural tone can be modified by remote somatosensory input and provides a potential explanation for how light touch improves postural stability. Changes in subjects perception from trunk to surface rotation when changing from no touch to haptic touch, suggests that the central nervous system changes from using a global, to a local, trunk reference frame for control of posture during touch. The increase of hip postural tone during touching and gripping can be explained as a suppression of hip muscle shortening reactions that normally assist axial rotation.

Franzen, Erika; Gurfinkel, Victor S; Wright, W. Geoffrey; Cordo, Paul J; Horak, Fay B

2010-01-01

196

Sensation-seeking genes and physical activity in youth.  

PubMed

Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multidetermined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a broader range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study, we focus on one such correlate - sensation-seeking behavior. Participants (N = 1130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation-seeking tendencies in 2008-2009. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males - 37.6% and females - 22.0%) reported ?60 min of PA on 5 of 7 days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation-seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene [ACE; rs8066276 odds ratio (OR) = 1.44; P = 0.012] and tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene (TPH2; rs11615016 OR = 1.73; P = 0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in synaptosomal-associated protein 25 gene (SNAP25; rs363035 OR = 0.53; P = 0.005) and cannabinoid receptor 1 gene (CNR1; rs6454672 OR = 0.62; P = 0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings. PMID:23190435

Wilkinson, A V; Gabriel, K P; Wang, J; Bondy, M L; Dong, Q; Wu, X; Shete, S; Spitz, M R

2013-03-01

197

Relationships among circadian typology, psychological symptoms, and sensation seeking.  

PubMed

Recently, attention has been focused on the relationship among circadian typology, psychiatric symptoms, and personality traits. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on psychological distress, and the sensation-seeking personality trait. Five hundred seventeen college students (173 males), aged 17 to 30, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the General Health Questionnaire 28-item version (GHQ-28), and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The evening-type subjects in our sample scored higher than the neither- and morning- type in the GHQ-28 total score, as well as in the four subscales that composed it (Psychosomatic Symptoms, Anxiety and Insomnia, Social Dysfunction, and Severe Depression) (p<0.02 in all cases). The evening-type subjects also had a larger proportion of psychiatric cases than the other two circadian typologies (p<0.0001 in all cases). Moreover, the evening-type subjects obtained higher scores in the SSS-V total score and in the subscales of Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility (p<0.001 in all cases). A positive correlation was observed between the GHQ-28 and the SSS-V total scores in the total sample, but only for the evening-type group (r=0.217; p<0.027). In the evening group, several relations were also found between the subscales of the GHQ-28 and the subscales of the SSS-V (r>0.206; p<0.036). All these data point to a relationship between evening-type subjects and the level of psychological distress and the sensation-seeking personality trait. They also suggest that eveningness could be related to developing psychological distress and personality traits that could, in turn, be related to developing other problems, such as drug consumption. PMID:23806000

Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana

2013-08-01

198

Aesthesiometry: quantification of cutaneous pressure sensation in diabetic peripheral neuropathy.  

PubMed

The Semmes-Weinstein pressure aesthesiometer, which measures cutaneous pressure sensation, was used for quantifying sensory loss in diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Eighty subjects comprising four groups were tested: nondiabetic controls (Group C); non-neuropathic, diabetic controls (Group DC); diabetic subjects with neuropathy and without a history of pedal ulcerations (Group DN); and, diabetic subjects with a history of or active pedal ulceration (Group DU). Cutaneous pressure sensation of 10 dorsal and plantar sites on the foot were tested, using a method of interval comparison modeled after the two-alternative forced choice algorithm. The sensitivity threshold level was defined as the lightest probe in which the subject accurately chose the correct interval in at least 2 out of 3 trials. The mean sensitivity threshold level for Group DC was not significantly increased (p greater than .05) compared to Group C. In contrast, patients with neuropathy (Group DN or DU) showed a significantly higher mean sensitivity threshold (p less than .001) than either Group C or DC. In addition, this technique demonstrated that patients in Group DU had a mean sensitivity threshold that was statistically higher (p less than .001) than Group DN, although both groups of patients had symptomatic neuropathy. This study provides a direct demonstration that decreased sensation of pressure occurs in the feet of diabetic patients with a history of ulceration. The best discrimination between groups is obtained by requiring that three of the six plantar forefoot sites have a sensitivity threshold level of greater than 5.07 log (0.1 mg) force as the risk discriminator level. Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometry should now be tested in a prospective study to demonstrate its effectiveness in determining those patients at great risk of developing foot ulcers. PMID:3361455

Holewski, J J; Stess, R M; Graf, P M; Grunfeld, C

1988-01-01

199

Representations of Pleasant and Painful Touch in the Human Orbitofrontal and Cingulate Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortical areas that represent affectively positive and negative aspects of touch were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by comparing activations produced by pleasant touch, painful touch produced by a stylus, and neutral touch, to the left hand. It was found that regions of the orbitofrontal cortex were activated more by pleasant touch and by painful stimuli than

E. T. Rolls; J. O'Doherty; M. L. Kringelbach; S. Francis; R. Bowtell; F. McGlone

2003-01-01

200

A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.

201

Ionic Signaling in Plant Responses to Gravity and Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing

Jeremiah M. Fasano; Gioia D. Massa; Simon Gilroy

2002-01-01

202

Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

Rand, Michael R.; And Others

203

Magic desk: bringing multi-touch surfaces into desktop work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the prominence of multi-touch technologies, there has been little work investigating its integration into the desktop environment. Bringing multi-touch into desktop computing would give users an additional input channel to leverage, enriching the current interaction paradigm dominated by a mouse and keyboard. We provide two main contributions in this domain. First, we describe the results from a study we

Xiaojun Bi; Tovi Grossman; Justin Matejka; George W. Fitzmaurice

2011-01-01

204

Cross-Cultural Differences in Self-Reported Touch Avoidance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two hundred forty-eight male and female subjects from United States, Mediterranean, Near East, and Far East cultures completed a touch avoidance measure in a study examining cultural differences in touching behavior. Factor analysis of the instrument yielded four factors: opposite sex, other-directed same sex, kissing, and self-directed same sex.…

Jones, Tricia S.; Remland, Martin S.

205

Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in the…

Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

2011-01-01

206

Provoking the city—touch installations for urban space  

Microsoft Academic Search

How should one design a media art installation on a public multi-touch screen? Our article presents a case study of the installation At Hand, which was produced for the Media Facades Festival Europe 2010. In the installation touch became the interaction metaphor for an embodied encounter. The installation pilot is understood as a place in which two research projects come

Heidi Tikka; Sandra Viña; Giulio Jacucci; Teemu Korpilahti

2011-01-01

207

Touch Sensor Assembly Using Infrared Radiations and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses about a novel technology for introducing a touch sensor that can be applied for numerous applications, using optoelectronics. The sensor employed harnesses the attributes of an Infrared LED and an infrared photodiode. The routine touch sensor buttons can be replaced by this cost effective assembly that uses variation in amount of infrared radiations falling upon the photodiode

V. Rana; N. Paliwal; A. Chahar

2009-01-01

208

Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

209

You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.  

PubMed

Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low. PMID:22064490

Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

2012-09-01

210

Sacral Neuromodulation Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity  

PubMed Central

Aims To characterize the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on urethral neuromuscular function. Methods Following IRB approval, women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) underwent standardized urethral testing prior to and after stage 1 SNM implantation. Periurethral sensation was measured using current perception thresholds (CPT). Striated urethral sphincter activity was quantified using concentric needle electromyography (CNE) and Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) analysis software. Nonparametric analyses were used to characterize pre/post changes with intervention. Baseline CPT and CNE findings were compared between SNM responders and non-responders. Results 27 women were enrolled in this pilot study with a mean age of 61±13 years. Twenty of 26 women (76.9%) responded to SNM and went to stage 2 permanent implantation. Four (14.8%) withdrew after stage 1 implantation; 3 of the 4 withdrawals had not had therapeutic responses to SNM. CPT and CNE parameters did not significantly differ from baseline 2 weeks after SNM. Pre-SNM urethral sensation was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, responders had larger amplitude, longer duration and more turns and phases at baseline approaching significance, reflecting more successful urethral reinnervation, than non-responders. Conclusions SNM does not alter urethral neuromuscular function two weeks post Stage 1implantation. Women with more successful urethral reinnervation may be more responsive to SNM.

Gleason, Jonathan L; Kenton, Kimberly; Greer, W. Jerod; Ramm, Olga; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Wilson, Tracey; Richter, Holly E.

2013-01-01

211

‘Kiss, Cuddle, Squeeze’: The Experiences and Meaning of Touch among Parents of Children with Autism Attending a Touch Therapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results

Lesley Cullen; Julie Barlow

2002-01-01

212

Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.  

PubMed

Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

2003-12-01

213

A role for the insula in color-induced nasal thermal sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is the first step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying the intriguing, recently discovered lateralized color-induced nasal thermal sensations. In the presence of color cues and complete absence of thermal stimulus, larger sensitivity of the left nostril\\/right hemisphere (RH) for warming sensations and larger right nostril\\/left hemisphere (LH) for cooling sensations were replicated several times. It was suggested that

George A. Michael; Solveig Relland; Céline Borg; Roland Peyron; Catherine Thomas-Anterion

2010-01-01

214

Differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between early- and late-onset alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The personality traits of impulsivity and sensation seeking have been proposed as important features of early-onset alcoholism. Early-onset (EOA, n=62) and late-onset (LOA, n=68 ) alcoholic inpatients were compared as to the severity of their substance use and related problems, and self-report scales measuring impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11), sensation seeking (Sensation Seeking Scale), and aggressiveness (Buss Durkee Hostility

G. Dom; W. Hulstijn; B. G. C. C. Sabbe

2006-01-01

215

From urothelial signalling to experiencing a sensation related to the urinary bladder  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms underlying bladder sensation and the way we experience sensations during normal voiding and in pathology is complex and not well understood. During storage and emptying, mechanical changes occurring in number of cell types within the bladder wall (i.e. the uroepithelium and bladder afferents) can have a major influence on our sensory systems. In this review, we discuss bladder sensation with a focus on coding events in the periphery.

Birder, L.; Wyndaele, J.-J.

2014-01-01

216

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological\\u000a gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured\\u000a with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied\\u000a on the SSS-V total score, the current

Erica E. Fortune; Adam S. Goodie

2010-01-01

217

Brain encoding of acupuncture sensation — Coupling on-line rating with fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture-induced sensations have historically been associated with clinical efficacy. These sensations are atypical, arising from sub-dermal receptors, and their neural encoding is not well known. In this fMRI study, subjects were stimulated at acupoint PC-6, while rating sensation with a custom-built, MR-compatible potentiometer. Separate runs included real (ACUP) and sham (SHAM) acupuncture, the latter characterized by non-insertive, cutaneous stimulation. FMRI

Vitaly Napadow; Rupali P. Dhond; Jieun Kim; Lauren LaCount; Mark Vangel; Richard E Harris; Norman Kettner

2009-01-01

218

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

219

'Kiss, cuddle, squeeze': the experiences and meaning of touch among parents of children with autism attending a Touch Therapy Programme.  

PubMed

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results suggested that children were controlling the experience of touch. Parents felt 'hurt' in response to the 'aloof nature of autism, and natural parenting instincts (e.g. spontaneous cuddles) were restricted. Post-programme results suggested that children appeared to tolerate touch. Parents reported that routine tasks (e.g. dressing) were accomplished more easily and that children appeared generally more relaxed. Parents reported feeling 'closer' to their children and felt that the touch therapy had opened a communication channel between themselves and their children. PMID:12224834

Cullen, Lesley; Barlow, Julie

2002-09-01

220

Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean-levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person change in delinquent behavior and whether genetically influenced differences in rate of personality change accounted for this association. Sensation seeking and delinquent behavior were assessed biennially between ages 10–11 and 16–17 in a nationally representative sample of 7,675 youths from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth: Children and Young Adults (CNLSY). Analyses using latent growth curve modeling found that within-person change in sensation seeking was significantly and positively correlated with within-person change in delinquency from childhood to adolescence. Furthermore, behavioral genetic analyses of a subset of 2,562 sibling pairs indicated that there were substantial genetic influences on both initial levels of sensation seeking and change in sensation seeking during early adolescence, with over 80% of individual differences in change due to genetic factors. Finally, these genetically driven increases in sensation seeking were most important for predicting increases in delinquency, whereas environmental paths between sensation seeking and delinquency were not significant. These results suggest that developmental changes in delinquent behaviors during adolescence are driven by a genetically governed process of personality change.

Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2011-01-01

221

Changes in respiratory sensations induced by lobeline after human bilateral lung transplantation  

PubMed Central

The sensations evoked by the injection of lobeline into the right antecubital vein were studied in 8 subjects after bilateral lung transplantation and 10 control subjects. In control subjects, two distinct sensations were experienced. There was an early noxious sensation (onset ?10 s) followed by a late sensation of breathlessness (onset ?26 s) associated with involuntary hyperventilation. The early sensation was accompanied by respiratory and cardiovascular changes. In contrast to control subjects, the early respiratory events and the noxious sensations evoked by injections of lobeline (18–60 ?g kg?1) did not occur in subjects with recent bilateral lung transplantation. This suggests that the early respiratory sensations are mediated by the discharge of receptors in the lungs. The late hyperventilation and the accompanying sensation of breathlessness occurred in both transplant and control subjects and are therefore likely to be mediated by receptors elsewhere in the body, presumably systemic arterial chemoreceptors stimulated by lobeline. In control subjects, but not transplant subjects, there was a consistent decrease in mean arterial pressure associated with the lobeline injection. This suggests that pulmonary afferents mediate the hypotension. For transplant subjects studied more than a year after transplantation, there was some evidence that the noxious respiratory sensations evoked by lobeline had returned. This suggests that some functional reinnervation of pulmonary afferents may occur.

Butler, J E; Anand, A; Crawford, M R; Glanville, A R; McKenzie, D K; Paintal, A S; Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

2001-01-01

222

Variants in the Dopamine-4-Receptor Gene Promoter Are Not Associated with Sensation Seeking in Skiers  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (?1106T/C, ?906T/C, ?809G/A, ?291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n?=?599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population.

Thomson, Cynthia J.; Rajala, Amelia K.; Carlson, Scott R.; Rupert, Jim L.

2014-01-01

223

Acupuncture needling sensation: the neural correlates of deqi using fMRI.  

PubMed

The needling sensation of deqi is considered by most acupuncturists to be an important component of acupuncture, yet neuroimaging research that investigates this needle sensation has been limited. In this study we have investigated the effect of deqi and acute pain needling sensations upon brain fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Seventeen right-handed participants who received acupuncture at the right LI-4 (Hegu) acupoint were imaged in a 3T MRI scanner. fMRI datasets were classified, on the basis of psychophysical participants' reports of needling scores, into those that were associated with predominantly deqi sensations versus those with predominantly acute pain sensations. Brain areas showing changes in BOLD signal increases (activations) and decreases (deactivations) were identified. Differences were demonstrated in the pattern of activations and deactivations between groupings of scans associated with deqi versus pain sensations. For the deqi grouping, significant deactivations occurred, whereas significant activations did not. In contrast, the predominantly acute pain grouping was associated with a mixture of activations and deactivations. For the comparison between the predominately deqi sensation grouping and the acute pain sensation grouping (deqi>pain contrast), only negative Z value voxels resulted (mainly from deactivations in the deqi grouping and activations in the pain grouping) in the limbic/sub-cortical structures and the cerebellum regions of interest. Our results show the importance of collecting and accounting for needle sensation data in neuroimaging studies of acupuncture. PMID:20025853

Asghar, Aziz U R; Green, Gary; Lythgoe, Mark F; Lewith, George; MacPherson, Hugh

2010-02-22

224

Aging and Curvature Discrimination from Static and Dynamic Touch  

PubMed Central

Two experiments evaluated the ability of 30 older and younger adults to discriminate the curvature of simple object surfaces from static and dynamic touch. The ages of the older adults ranged from 66 to 85 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 20 to 29 years. For each participant in both experiments, the minimum curvature magnitude needed to reliably discriminate between convex and concave surfaces was determined. In Experiment 1, participants used static touch to make their judgments of curvature, while dynamic touch was used in Experiment 2. When static touch was used to discriminate curvature, a large effect of age occurred (the thresholds were 0.67 & 1.11/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). However, when participants used dynamic touch, there was no significant difference between the ability of younger and older participants to discriminate curvature (the thresholds were 0.58 & 0.59/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults can accurately discriminate surface curvature from dynamic touch, they possess significant impairments for static touch.

Norman, J. Farley; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Ronning, Cecilia; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Baxter, Michael W.; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora N.

2013-01-01

225

Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface.  

PubMed

Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation--information about contact location, pressure, and timing--through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it. PMID:24127595

Tabot, Gregg A; Dammann, John F; Berg, Joshua A; Tenore, Francesco V; Boback, Jessica L; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J

2013-11-01

226

Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface  

PubMed Central

Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation—information about contact location, pressure, and timing—through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it.

Tabot, Gregg A.; Dammann, John F.; Berg, Joshua A.; Tenore, Francesco V.; Boback, Jessica L.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

2013-01-01

227

Quantifying touch-feel perception on automotive interiors by a multi-function tribological probe microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we will report the preliminary study of people's subjective feelings on stroking surfaces of different materials and the measured properties of these surfaces, in order to understand exactly what properties matter and to what extent the different factors weight the human perception. Ten specimens with materials ranging from natural wood, leather to engineered plastics and metal were selected for this study. These specimens were first tested by a group of untrained people for describing their subjective feel sensation in terms of smoothrough, soft-hard, slippery-grippy, warm-cold and overall judgement of like and dislike for the sample being touched. Then the same specimens were measured for their surface properties by various techniques. In particular, the multi-function measurement has been carried out on each of specimens by a novel tribological probe microscope (TPM). The TPM is capable of measuring four functions in a single scan to provide area mappings of topography, friction, Young's modulus and hardness. As the TPM mapping is based on a point-by-point scanning so values of the four measured functions are linked in space and in time, therefore cross correlation between functions can be established. Although the TPM measured area is small compared to fingertip, the results show that the perception is influenced by nano- and microscale structure of surfaces.

Liu, X.; Chan, M. K.; Hennessey, B.; Rübenach, T.; Alay, G.

2005-01-01

228

Optical characterization of OLED displays with touch screens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brightness and color resolution, wider viewing angles, lower power consumption, and a thin aspect ratio are all well understood physical characteristics of organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, an up-and-coming flat panel displays. Increasing numbers of applications of flat panel displays are being commercialized with touch screens. This paper will describe the optical characteristics of mating a touch screen with a full-color active matrix OLED display. We will quantify the OLED optical properties with respect to touch screens with matte finishes and anti-reflective topcoats, and with and without the use of a polarizer on the OLEDs top glass.

Cropper, A. D.; Feldman, Rodney D.; Siwinski, Michael; Kilmer, Kathleen

2002-02-01

229

Improved liquid-crystal thermometry excluding human color sensation  

SciTech Connect

A new liquid-crystal thermometry method is described to determine an isothermal map on a heat transfer surface coated with a cholesteric liquid-crystal layer that changes color according to temperature. This method is based on the use of a set of sharp band-pass optical filters, one of which is attached to a black-and-white video camera to take a monochromatic image having a specified color. From the image, and isothermal line was drawn with the aid of a digital image processing techniques that excludes human color sensation. The authors obtain as many isothermal lines as band-pass filters and can determine an isothermal map. An experiment is presented as an application of the present method to measure temperature distributions on a heated surface cooled by air flow and disturbed by a short attached cylinder.

Akino, N.; Kunugi, T. (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaragi (Japan)); Ichimiya, K.; Mitsushiro, K. (Yamanashi Univ., (Japan)); Ueda, M. (Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan))

1989-05-01

230

Thirst in Critically Ill Patients: From Physiology to Sensation  

PubMed Central

Critically ill patients often have distressful episodes of severe thirst, but the underlying complex biochemical, neurohormonal regulatory controls that regulate this primal sensation have rarely been addressed by clinicians. Subtle changes in plasma osmolality are the most potent stimulus for thirst. In response to increases in osmolality, osmoreceptors activate release of the neurohormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). The released vasopressin acts on the kidneys to conserve water to correct the hyperosmolar state. If this compensatory mechanism is unsuccessful, thirst arises to promote drinking. Thirst induced by marked volume loss, in contrast, is more closely related to the volemic and pressure changes regulated by the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Understanding the physiological mechanisms of thirst will help in understanding the pathophysiological consequences of underlying thirst-related disease and treatments in critically ill patients. Further clinical research is needed to elucidate the multiple inhibitory and excitatory neurohormonal stimuli that motivate patients’ intense desire for water.

Arai, Shoshana; Stotts, Nancy; Puntillo, Kathleen

2013-01-01

231

Quantifying touch feel perception: tribological aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch-feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings.

Liu, X.; Yue, Z.; Cai, Z.; Chetwynd, D. G.; Smith, S. T.

2008-08-01

232

Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

Page, Michael

2013-02-01

233

Relationship between ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking.  

PubMed

High- and low-avoidance Roman inbred rat strains (RHA-I, RLA-I) were selected for extreme differences in two-way active avoidance. RHA-I rats also express less anxiety than RLA-I rats. This study compared male Roman rats in ethanol preference and sensation/novelty seeking. Rats were first exposed in counterbalanced order to the hole-board test (forced exposure to novelty) and the Y-maze and emergence tests (free choice between novel and familiar locations). Then, rats were tested in 24-h, two-bottle preference tests with water in one bottle and ethanol (2, 4, 6, 8, or 10% in successive days). Compared to RLA-I rats, RHA-I rats showed (1) higher frequency and time in head dipping, (2) higher activity, and (3) lower frequency of rearing and grooming in the hole-board test, and (4) remained in the novel arm longer in the Y-maze test. No strain differences were observed in the emergence test. RHA-I rats exhibited higher preference for and consumed more ethanol than RLA-I rats at all concentrations. However, both strains preferred ethanol over water for 2-4% concentrations, but water over ethanol for 6-10% concentrations. Factorial analysis with all the rats pooled identified a two-factor solution, one grouping preferred ethanol concentrations (2-4%) with head dipping and grooming in the hole board, and another factor grouping the nonpreferred ethanol concentrations (6-10%) with activity in the hole board and novel-arm time in the Y-maze test. These results show that preference for ethanol is associated with different aspects of behavior measured in sensation/novelty-seeking tests. PMID:24825783

Manzo, Lidia; Gómez, M A José; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Donaire, Rocío; Sabariego, Marta; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Cañete, Antoni; Blázquez, Gloria; Papini, Mauricio R; Torres, Carmen

2014-06-22

234

Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression  

PubMed Central

This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers’ harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n=89) and non-alcoholic (n=94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers’ alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression.

Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

2013-01-01

235

Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

Frankenberger, Kristina D.

2004-01-01

236

Associations Between Message Features and Subjective Evaluations of the Sensation Value of Antidrug Public Service Announcements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies message design features that show the greatest promise for developing message high in sensation value for anti-drug campaigns and other interventions aimed at sensation-seeking risky behaviors. Investigates certain features of drug prevention Public Service Announcements (PSAs) associated with viewers' subjective responses to them.…

Morgan, Susan E.; Palmgreen, Philip; Stephenson, Michael T.; Hoyle, Rick H.; Lorch, Elizabeth P.

2003-01-01

237

Sensations of Gas and Pain and their Relationship to Compliance during Distension in Human Colon  

PubMed Central

Background Colonic mechanosensory afferents “in parallel” to circular muscle activate prevertebral ganglion reflexes; “in series” afferents convey visceral sensation to the central nervous system; and pain receptors are activated with muscle distension. Our aim was to analyze the relationships of gas and pain sensations during graded distensions and the association of sensations with colonic compliance in conscious humans. Methods The data were acquired in a prior study performed in 60 healthy volunteers (aged 18–75 y) under baseline conditions... Colonic compliance was measured in response to 4mmHg stepwise balloon distensions to estimate pressure at half-maximum volume (Pr50%). Sensation ratings for gas and pain were averaged over distensions at 16, 24, 30 and 36mmHg above baseline operating pressure. Associations between mean gas and pain ratings, and colonic compliance were assessed with Pearson correlations. Key Results Gas and pain sensations were significantly correlated at all levels of distension (all p<0.001). Significant inverse correlations between Pr50% and sensations of gas and pain were observed, suggesting that lower compliance was associated with lower sensations. Up to 25% of the variance in sensation may be attributed to colonic compliance. Conclusions and Inferences These data are consistent with the hypothesis that, if circumferential colonic receptors are stimulated by distension to mediate gas and pain in humans, they are, at least partly, arranged “in parallel” to the muscle layer.

Iturrino, Johanna; Camilleri, Michael; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

2012-01-01

238

Thermal sensation. A comparison of rating scales and cross modality matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of thermal sensation in man commonly use a 7 point category scale. Such scales have disadvantages, and an experiment was carried out to apply the methods of the new psychophysics to whole body thermal sensation. Ten sedentary subjects were exposed singly to a temperature To near their comfort level, then to (To + 3) and (To -3)°C. The subject

D. A. McIntyre

1976-01-01

239

Crime Shows and Sensational Interests: An Exploratory Examination of Students in Criminal Justice Related Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been assumed for many years that people who commit sadistic or other violent crime possess an unhealthy fascination with violence and death. Numerous studies have focused on levels of such sensational interests among criminal populations with a view to rehabilitation. What appears to be missing from current literature is an examination of sensational interests among those who work

Monica L. P. Robbers

240

Shortest path based splitting line finding for touching cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortest path based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cells. Firstly, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. Then, the initial splitting line is separated into different line segments if necessary, and the start and end points of these line segments act as the start and end points of shortest path. Finally, the shortest path algorithm is used to find the splitting line between the start and end points, and the final result of touching cells splitting can be formed by the contour of the touching cells and the splitting lines. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for different types of touching cells.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Sun, Changming; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Fugen

2013-10-01

241

inTouch: A Medium for Haptic Interpersonal Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a new approach for applying haptic feedback technology to interpersonal communication. We present the design of our prototype inTouch system which provides a physical link between users separated by distance.

Scott Brave; Andrew Dahley

1997-01-01

242

piezo2b regulates vertebrate light touch response.  

PubMed

The sense of touch allows an organism to detect and respond to physical environmental stimuli. Mechanosensitive proteins play a crucial role in this process by converting the mechanical cue into a biological response. Recently, the Piezo family of stretch-activated ion channels has been identified as genuine mechanosensitive proteins. We set out to determine whether any of these genes are involved in touch response during zebrafish development. In situ hybridization indicates that piezo2b is specifically expressed in a subset of neurons (Rohon-Beard cells) responsible for detecting light touch. Using morpholino-mediated knockdown, we specifically targeted piezo2b and determined that it is involved in mediating touch-evoked response. PMID:24155313

Faucherre, Adèle; Nargeot, Joël; Mangoni, Matteo E; Jopling, Chris

2013-10-23

243

Integrated Vision Touch-Probe System for Dimensional Inspection Tasks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper discusses the integration of vision and touch sensors in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) controller used for dimensional inspection tasks. A real-time hierarchical control system is presented in which a vision system extracts positions of f...

M. Herman M. Nashman T. H. Hong W. Rippey

1995-01-01

244

The Interactive Effects of Affect Lability, Negative Urgency, and Sensation Seeking on Young Adult Problematic Drinking  

PubMed Central

Prior studies have suggested that affect lability might reduce the risk for problematic drinking among sensation seekers by compensating for their deficiencies in emotional reactivity and among individuals high on negative urgency by disrupting stable negative emotions. Due to the high prevalence of college drinking, this study examined whether affect lability interacted with sensation seeking and negative urgency to influence college student problematic drinking. 414 college drinkers (mean age: 20, 77% female, and 74% Caucasian) from a US Midwestern University completed self-administered questionnaires online. Consistent with our hypotheses, our results indicated that the effects of sensation seeking and negative urgency on problematic drinking weakened at higher levels of affect lability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering specific emotional contexts in understanding how negative urgency and sensation seeking create risk for problematic drinking among college students. These findings might also help us better understand how to reduce problematic drinking among sensation seekers and individuals high on negative urgency.

Karyadi, Kenny; Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.

2013-01-01

245

Soybean growth rate response to touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A time-lapse video showing differential growth rates for touch-treated seedlings and control seedlings. This would be appropriate for lessons about plant growth responses to environmental stress and graphing growth rate. Plants were grown in a vermiculite soilless medium with calcium-enhanced water. No other minerals or nutrients were used. Plants were grown in a dark room with specially-filtered green light. The plants did not grow by cellular reproduction but only by expansion of existing cells in the hypocotyl region below the 'hook'. Video contains three plants in total. The first two plants to emerge from the vermiculite medium are the control (right) and treatment (left) plants. A third plant emerges in front of these two but is removed at the time of treatment and is not relevant except to help indicate when treatment was applied (watch for when it disappears). When that plant disappears, the slowed growth rate of the treatment plant is apparent. Treatment included a gentle flexing of the hypocotyl region of the treatment seedling for approximately 5 seconds. A rubber glove was used at this time to avoid an contamination of the plant tissue. Some video players allow users to 'scrub' the playback back and forth. This would help teachers or students isolate particular times (as indicated by the watch) and particular measurements (as indicated by the cm scale). A graph could be constructed by first creating a data table and then plotting the data points from the table. Multiple measurements from the video could be taken to create an accurate graph of the plants' growth rates (treatment vs control). Instructions for graphing usage: The scale in the video is in centimeters (one cm increments). Students could observe the initial time on the watch in the video and use that observation to represent time (t) = 0. For that value, a mark could be made to indicate the height of the seedlings. As they advance and pause the video repeatedly, the students would mark the time (+2.5 hours for example) and mark the related seedling heights. It is not necessary to advance the video at any regular interval but is necessary to mark the time and related heights as accurately as possible. Students may use different time values and would thus have different data sets but should find that their graphs are very similar. (Good opportunity to collect data from real research and create their own data sets) It is advised that the students collect multiple data points around the time where the seedling growth slows in response to touch to more accurately collect information around that growth rate slowing event. The resulting graph should have an initial growth rate slope, a flatter slope after stress treatment, and a return to approximately the same slope as seen pre-treatment. More data points should yield a more thorough view of this. This would be a good point to discuss. Students can use some of their data points to calculate approximate pre-treatment, immediate post-treatment, and late post-treatment slopes for both the control and treatment seedlings. This video was created by the submitter and is original content. Full screen playback should be an option for most video players. Video quality may appear degraded with a larger image but this may aid viewing the watch and scale for data collection.

Data, Adam S.

2012-03-23

246

Sphere: multi-touch interactions on a spherical display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sphere is a multi-user, multi-touch-sensitive spherical dis- play in which an infrared camera used for touch sensing shares the same optical path with the projector used for the display. This novel configuration permits: (1) the enclosure of both the projection and the sensing mechanism in the base of the device, and (2) easy 360-degree access for mul- tiple users, with

Hrvoje Benko; Andrew D. Wilson; Ravin Balakrishnan

2008-01-01

247

Genetic Interactions Affecting Touch Sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of

Guoqiang Gu; Guy A. Caldwell; Martin Chalfie

1996-01-01

248

ComTouch: design of a vibrotactile communication device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of ComTouch, a device that augments remote voice communication with touch, by converting hand pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real-time. The goal of this work is to enrich inter-personal communication by complementing voice with a tactile channel. We present preliminary user studies performed on 24 people to observe possible uses of the tactile channel

Angela Chang; Sile O'Modhrain; Robert J. K. Jacob; Eric Gunther; Hiroshi Ishii

2002-01-01

249

Eye position affects the perceived location of touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we demonstrate a systematic shift in the perceived location of a tactile stimulus on the arm toward where the eye is\\u000a looking. Participants reported the perceived position of touches presented between the elbow and the wrist while maintaining\\u000a eye positions at various eccentricities. The perceived location of the touch was shifted by between 1 and 5 cm (1.9°–9.5°\\u000a visual angle)

Vanessa Harrar; Laurence R. Harris

2009-01-01

250

Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation.  

PubMed

Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001. PMID:24252879

Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

2013-01-01

251

Brain encoding of acupuncture sensation--coupling on-line rating with fMRI.  

PubMed

Acupuncture-induced sensations have historically been associated with clinical efficacy. These sensations are atypical, arising from sub-dermal receptors, and their neural encoding is not well known. In this fMRI study, subjects were stimulated at acupoint PC-6, while rating sensation with a custom-built, MR-compatible potentiometer. Separate runs included real (ACUP) and sham (SHAM) acupuncture, the latter characterized by non-insertive, cutaneous stimulation. FMRI data analysis was guided by the on-line rating timeseries, thereby localizing brain correlates of acupuncture sensation. Sensation ratings correlated with stimulation more (p<0.001) for SHAM (r=0.63) than for ACUP (r=0.32). ACUP induced stronger and more varied sensations with significant persistence into no-stimulation blocks, leading to more run-time spent rating low and moderate sensations compared to SHAM. ACUP sensation correlated with activation in regions associated with sensorimotor (SII, insula) and cognitive (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)) processing, and deactivation in default-mode network (DMN) regions (posterior cingulate, precuneus). Compared to SHAM, ACUP yielded greater activity in both anterior and posterior dmPFC and dlPFC. In contrast, SHAM produced greater activation in sensorimotor (SI, SII, insula) and greater deactivation in DMN regions. Thus, brain encoding of ACUP sensation (more persistent and varied, leading to increased cognitive load) demonstrated greater activity in both cognitive/evaluative (posterior dmPFC) and emotional/interoceptive (anterior dmPFC) cortical regions. Increased cognitive load and dmPFC activity may be a salient component of acupuncture analgesia--sensations focus attention and accentuate bodily awareness, contributing to enhanced top-down modulation of any nociceptive afference and central pain networks. Hence, acupuncture may function as a somatosensory-guided mind-body therapy. PMID:19500677

Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali P; Kim, Jieun; LaCount, Lauren; Vangel, Mark; Harris, Richard E; Kettner, Norman; Park, Kyungmo

2009-09-01

252

Piezoelectric touch-sensitive flexible hybrid energy harvesting nanoarchitectures.  

PubMed

In this work, we report a flexible hybrid nanoarchitecture that can be utilized as both an energy harvester and a touch sensor on a single platform without any cross-talk problems. Based on the electron transport and piezoelectric properties of a zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured thin film, a hybrid cell was designed and the total thickness was below 500 nm on a plastic substrate. Piezoelectric touch signals were demonstrated under independent and simultaneous operations with respect to photo-induced charges. Different levels of piezoelectric output signals from different magnitudes of touching pressures suggest new user-interface functions from our hybrid cell. From a signal controller, the decoupled performance of a hybrid cell as an energy harvester and a touch sensor was confirmed. Our hybrid approach does not require additional assembly processes for such multiplex systems of an energy harvester and a touch sensor since we utilize the coupled material properties of ZnO and output signal processing. Furthermore, the hybrid cell can provide a multi-type energy harvester by both solar and mechanical touching energies. PMID:20829570

Choi, Dukhyun; Lee, Keun Young; Lee, Kang Hyuck; Kim, Eok Su; Kim, Tae Sang; Lee, Sang Yoon; Kim, Sang-Woo; Choi, Jae-Young; Kim, Jong Min

2010-10-01

253

Role of sex in externally motivated self-touching gestures.  

PubMed

Self-touching gestures can be externally induced by the verbal presentation of anxiety-inducing stimuli and the active discussion of a passage. The frequency of these self-touching gestures appears to be affected by the individual interacting with the topic, the type of discourse (listening or discussing), the type of stimulus (canaries or leeches), and the interaction between the types of discourse and stimulus. This study assessed these variables as well as the sex of the participant and the order of presentation of stimulus type, neither of which were statistically significant. Participants were read two passages, one about a topic (leeches) expected to produce anxiety and the other about a topic (canaries) not expected to do so, and asked to answer questions about the passages. The number of self-touches was counted by an observer in another room. Each participant had both types of discourse (listening and discussing) and both types of stimulus (canaries and leeches). There was no significant difference between the number of self-touches by participants with either the male or female reader. Discussion as a method of discourse was associated with a significantly greater number of self-touches than listening. The interaction between discourse type and stimulus type was also significant. The combination of the anxiety-producing stimulus and the active discourse (discussion) produced the highest average number of self-touches. PMID:12365266

Heaven, Laura; McBrayer, Dan; Prince, Bob

2002-08-01

254

100,000,000 Taps: Analysis and Improvement of Touch Performance in the Large  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touchscreens became the dominant input device for smartphones. Users' touch behaviour has been widely studied in lab studies with a relative low number of participants. In contrast, we published a game in the Android Market that records the touch behaviour when executing a controlled task to collect large amounts of touch events. Players' task is to simply touch circles appearing

Niels Henze; Enrico Rukzio; Susanne Boll

2011-01-01

255

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2009-12-01

256

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants.

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

257

Performance and water requirement of young olives (Olea europaea L.) in the harsh environment of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the harsh environmental conditions of Kuwait, plants are frequently exposed to high temperatures, low relative humidity and drought. Because water resources available for agriculture are limited, an efficient irrigation strategy is vital for sustainable olive production. In view of these facts, a study to determine the behavior and water requirement of young olive plants under Kuwait's environmental conditions was

Narayana R. Bhat; Habibah Al-Manaie; Majda K. Suleiman; Laila Al-Mulla; Franco Famiani; Gladson DCruz; Binson Thomas

2012-01-01

258

Performance and water requirement of young olives (Olea europaea L.) in the harsh environment of Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the harsh environmental conditions of Kuwait, plants are frequently exposed to high temperatures, low relative humidity and drought. Because water resources available for agriculture are limited, an efficient irrigation strategy is vital for sustainable olive production. In view of these facts, a study to determine the behavior and water requirement of young olive plants under Kuwait's environmental conditions was

Narayana R. Bhat; Habibah Al-Manaie; Majda K. Suleiman; Laila Al-Mulla; Franco Famiani; Gladson DCruz; Binson Thomas

2011-01-01

259

Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences.  

PubMed

Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N = 42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants' experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants' whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues. PMID:22037689

Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Riem, Madelon M E; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A

2012-11-01

260

Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensors for Health and Performance Monitoring of Aerospace Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in transportation costs and the push for cleaner emissions demands advancements in aerospace technology. The current instrumentation used in aerospace applications is costly, and indirect measurement approaches are often employed due to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. Health monitoring technologies for the development of a distributed sensor network can be utilized to improve engine

Debbie G. Senesky; Babak Jamshidi; Kan Bun Cheng; A. P. Pisano

2009-01-01

261

Conformal thin film packaging for sic sensor circuits in harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 º C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for

Maximilian C. Scardelletti; David A. Karnick; George E. Ponchak; Christian A. Zorman

2011-01-01

262

New techniques to apply an optical fiber image guide to harsh radiation environments in nuclear facilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

To apply optical fiber image guide (IG) to harsh radiation environments, we have developed two new techniques. One technique is a visible type IG with a color correcting system and the other technique is an IR type IG. We irradiated the IGs utilizing a 60Co gamma source. Measured Images with the visible type IG became dark and yellowish because of

Atsushi Kimura; Eiji Takada; Yoneichi Hosono; Masaharu Nakazawa; Hiroyuki Takahashi; Hiroyuki Hayami

1999-01-01

263

Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveHarsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in

Akemi Tomoda; Hanako Suzuki; Keren Rabi; Yi-Shin Sheu; Ann Polcari; Martin H. Teicher

2009-01-01

264

WSN application in the harsh industrial environment of the oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design and implementation of a unique WSN platform specifically researched to monitor the health conditions of the vibration screens used by Oil Sand operators in Canada. Previous to WSN, wired sensing solutions have been attempted for this project, but failed to sustain integrity in the harsh conditions imposed by the environment. The researched platform allowed, for

Ahmad El Kouche; Louai Al-Awami; Hossam Hassanein; Khaled Obaia

2011-01-01

265

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison  

PubMed Central

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared to those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and 1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, 2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and 3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical.

Chancellor, Leia V.; Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2011-01-01

266

Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

2009-01-01

267

Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences  

PubMed Central

Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N?=?42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants’ experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants’ whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues.

van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Riem, Madelon M. E.; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

2012-01-01

268

Thresholds of microwave-evoked warmth sensations in human skin.  

PubMed

We measured thresholds for microwave-evoked skin sensations of warmth at frequencies of 2.45, 7.5, 10, 35, and 94 GHz. In the same subjects, thresholds of warmth evoked by infrared radiation (IR) were also measured for comparison. Detection thresholds were measured on the skin in the middle of the back in 15 adult male human subjects at all microwave (MW) frequencies and with IR. Long duration (10-s), large area (327-cm2) stimuli were used to minimize any differential effects of temporal or spatial summation. Sensitivity increased monotonically with frequency throughout the range of microwave frequencies tested. The threshold at 94 GHz (4.5 +/- 0.6 mW/cm2) was more than an order of magnitude less than at 2.45 GHz (63.1 +/- 6.7 mW/cm2), and it was comparable to the threshold for IR (5.34 +/- 1.07 mW/cm2). PMID:9261536

Blick, D W; Adair, E R; Hurt, W D; Sherry, C J; Walters, T J; Merritt, J H

1997-01-01

269

Effect of Biofeedback Therapy in Constipation According to Rectal Sensation  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The pathophysiologic mechanism of rectal hyposensitivity (RH) is not well documented, and the significance of RH in biofeedback therapy (BFT) has not been evaluated. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of BFT in constipated patients according to the presence of RH. Methods Five hundred and ninety constipated patients (238 males and 352 females) underwent anorectal physiologic assessments. Of these, anorectal manometry was performed before and after BFT in 244 patients (63 RH and 181 non-RH patients). Results The success rate of BFT was 56% in the RH and 61% in the non-RH group (p=0.604). The measurements of resting pressure, squeezing pressure, desire to defecate volume, urge to defecate volume, and maximum volume were decreased after BFT in the RH group (p<0.05), whereas only resting and squeezing pressures were decreased in the non-RH group (p<0.05). Among the RH group, individuals who responded to BFT showed decreased resting pressure, squeezing pressure, desire to defecate, urge to defecate, and maximum volume and increased balloon expulsion rate; among those who did not respond to BFT, only desire to defecate volume was improved. Conclusions In constipated patients with RH, changes of anorectal manometric findings differed in comparison to patients without RH. The responses to BFT showed both anorectal muscle relaxation and restoration of rectal sensation.

Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Kee Wook; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Koo, Hyun Sook; Seo, So Young; Yoon, In Ja; Kim, Kyung Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

2013-01-01

270

iPhone\\/iPod Touch as Input Devices for Navigation in Immersive Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

iPhone and iPod Touch are multi-touch handheld devices that pro- vide new possibilities for interaction techniques. We describe iPhone\\/iPod Touch implementation of a navigation interaction tech- nique originally developed for a larger multi-touch device (i.e. Lemur). The interaction technique implemented on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch was used for navigation tasks in a CAVE virtual environ- ment. We performed a pilot study

Ji-sun Kim; Denis Gracanin; Kresimir Matkovic; Francis K. H. Quek

2009-01-01

271

Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does it Change Over Time?  

PubMed Central

The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change in sensation seeking among 868 urban, minority youth (53% female), followed longitudinally across middle school (6th–8th grades). Group-based trajectory analysis identified a stable low group (20%), a moderate increasing group (60%), and a stable high group (20%) each of which demonstrated unique associations with changes in problem behaviors. Stable low sensation seekers reported consistently low levels of aggression, delinquency, and substance use across middle school. Moderate increasing sensation seekers reported significant increases in these risk behaviors over time from levels near zero in the 6th grade. Stable high sensation seekers reported high, stable levels of aggression and delinquency upon entry into middle school as well as significant increases in substance use across middle school. These results lend support to both theories and highlight a need for caution when categorizing adolescents as high or low sensation seekers.

Graber, Julia A.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Botvin, Gilbert J.

2013-01-01

272

Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes. A candidate-system approach.  

PubMed

Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavioral disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to variations in sensation seeking between different individuals, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and nonhuman animals provide evidence for the involvement of the dopamine system in sensation-seeking behavior. In this study, we took a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation-seeking behavior. We analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopaminergic genes. Using 273 SNPs from eight dopamine genes in a sample of 635 unrelated individuals, we examined the aggregate effect of SNPs that were significantly associated with sensation-seeking behavior. Multiple SNPs in four dopamine genes accounted for significant variance in sensation-seeking behavior between individuals. These results suggest that multiple SNPs, aggregated within genes that are relevant to a specific neurobiological system, form a genetic-risk score that may explain a significant proportion of observed variance in human traits such as sensation-seeking behavior. PMID:20732903

Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Bierut, Laura J

2010-09-01

273

MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

2014-01-01

274

The representation of social facial touch in rat barrel cortex.  

PubMed

Controlled presentation of stimuli to anesthetized [1] or awake [2] animals suggested that neurons in sensory cortices respond to elementary features [3, 4], but we know little about neuronal responses evoked by social interactions. Here we investigate processing in the barrel cortex of rats engaging in social facial touch [5, 6]. Sensory stimulation by conspecifics differs from classic whisker stimuli such as deflections, contact poles [7, 8], or textures [9, 10]. A large fraction of barrel cortex neurons responded to facial touch. Social touch responses peaked when animals aligned their faces and contacted each other by multiple whiskers with small, irregular whisker movements. Object touch was associated with larger, more regular whisker movements, and object responses were weaker than social responses. Whisker trimming abolished responses. During social touch, neurons in males increased their firing on average by 44%, while neurons in females increased their firing by only 19%. In females, socially evoked and ongoing firing rates were more than 1.5-fold higher in nonestrus than in estrus. Barrel cortex represented socially different contacts by distinct firing rates, and the variation of activity with sex and sexual status could contribute to the generation of gender-specific neural constructs of conspecifics. PMID:24361064

Bobrov, Evgeny; Wolfe, Jason; Rao, Rajnish P; Brecht, Michael

2014-01-01

275

Optical touch sensing: practical bounds for design and performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch sensitive screens are used in many applications ranging in size from smartphones and tablets to display walls and collaborative surfaces. In this study, we consider optical touch sensing, a technology best suited for large-scale touch surfaces. Optical touch sensing utilizes cameras and light sources placed along the edge of the display. Within this framework, we first find a sufficient number of cameras necessary for identifying a convex polygon touching the screen, using a continuous light source on the boundary of a circular domain. We then find the number of cameras necessary to distinguish between two circular objects in a circular or rectangular domain. Finally, we use Matlab to simulate the polygonal mesh formed from distributing cameras and light sources on a circular domain. Using this, we compute the number of polygons in the mesh and the maximum polygon area to give us information about the accuracy of the configuration. We close with summary and conclusions, and pointers to possible future research directions.

Bläßle, Alexander; Janbek, Bebart; Liu, Lifeng; Nakamura, Kanna; Nolan, Kimberly; Paraschiv, Victor

2013-02-01

276

Haptic rendering: programming touch interaction with virtual objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptic rendering is the process of computing and generating forces in response to user interactions with virtual objects. Recent efforts by our team at MIT's AI laboratory have resulted in the development of haptic interface devices and algorithms for generating the forces of interaction with virtual objects. This paper focuses on the software techniques needed to generate sensations of contact

K. Salisbury; David L. Brock; Thomas Massie; Nick Swarup; Craig B. Zilles

1995-01-01

277

Clinical administration of microneedles: skin puncture, pain and sensation.  

PubMed

Injections using hypodermic needles cause pain, discomfort, localised trauma and apprehension. Additionally, careful use and disposal of needles is required to avoid transmission of blood-borne pathogens. As an alternative, microneedles can facilitate drug delivery without significantly impacting on pain receptors or blood vessels that reside beneath the skin outer layers. In this study we aim to determine the pain and sensory response to the application of wet-etch silicon microneedles, when used in such a way as to reliably penetrate skin, and provide a preliminary indication of how skin responds to microneedle injury with time. Twelve subjects received single-blinded insertions of a 25-G hypodermic needle and two microneedle arrays (36 needles of 180 and 280 mum height). The optimal method for microneedle application was determined in a pilot study. Pain intensity was scored using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and sensory perception determined using an adapted McGill Pain Questionnaire Short Form. Skin penetration was determined by external staining and measurement of trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Mean VAS scores, verbal descriptions and questionnaire responses showed that the 180 and 280 mum microneedles caused significantly less pain and discomforting sensation in participants than the hypodermic needle. Methylene blue staining and TEWL analysis confirmed that microchannels were formed in the skin following microneedle application. Evidence of microchannel repair and resealing was apparent at 8-24 h post-application. In summary, this study shows that pyramidal wet-etch microneedles can penetrate human skin with minimal pain and sensory discomfort, creating transient pathways for potential drug, vaccine and DNA delivery. PMID:18663579

Haq, M I; Smith, E; John, D N; Kalavala, M; Edwards, C; Anstey, A; Morrissey, A; Birchall, J C

2009-02-01

278

Evidence for a protein tether involved in somatic touch  

PubMed Central

The gating of ion channels by mechanical force underlies the sense of touch and pain. The mode of gating of mechanosensitive ion channels in vertebrate touch receptors is unknown. Here we show that the presence of a protein link is necessary for the gating of mechanosensitive currents in all low-threshold mechanoreceptors and some nociceptors of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Using TEM, we demonstrate that a protein filament with of length ?100 nm is synthesized by sensory neurons and may link mechanosensitive ion channels in sensory neurons to the extracellular matrix. Brief treatment of sensory neurons with non-specific and site-specific endopeptidases destroys the protein tether and abolishes mechanosensitive currents in sensory neurons without affecting electrical excitability. Protease-sensitive tethers are also required for touch-receptor function in vivo. Thus, unlike the majority of nociceptors, cutaneous mechanoreceptors require a distinct protein tether to transduce mechanical stimuli.

Hu, Jing; Chiang, Li-Yang; Koch, Manuel; Lewin, Gary R

2010-01-01

279

Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

Gaudette, Claude

2008-05-01

280

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

281

An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

2014-06-01

282

Gentle touch activates the anterior prefrontal cortex: an NIRS study.  

PubMed

Gentle touching of the hand activates emotion- and reward-related regions of the brain. The present study investigated activation of the prefrontal cortex by gentle sweeps of the palm or forearm with three materials (wood, velvet, paintbrush) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Sweeps of the left palm with a sensuous velvet fabric increased the oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) concentration in the frontal-polar cortex (FPC) and a part of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), compared to a neutral touch produced by rounded wood. Pleasantness ratings were higher for the velvet than wood. In conclusion, the present study revealed the involvement of the FPC/OFC in pleasant emotion produced by gentle touch to the hand. PMID:23538146

Kida, Tetsuo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

2013-01-01

283

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the resulting skin temperature during contact, which depends on the object s initial temperature, its material properties and its ability to transfer heat. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of most designs. A new approach is being used in new NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2009-01-01

284

Cocaine Exposure and Children's Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3?years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother–infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7?months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother–toddler interactions at 2?years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3?years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and children’s self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal harshness or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, ?2 (23)?=?34.36, p?>?0.05, Comparative Fit Index?=?0.95, RMSEA?=?0.05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of harshness toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2?years of age (??=?0.23, p?harshness at 2?years was predictive of lower self-regulation at 3?years (??=??0.36, p?harshness among cocaine using mothers is predictive of child self-regulatory outcomes in the preschool period.

Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Veira, Yvette; Cox, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Johns, Josephine M.

2011-01-01

285

Differences in impulsivity and sensation seeking between early- and late-onset alcoholics.  

PubMed

The personality traits of impulsivity and sensation seeking have been proposed as important features of early-onset alcoholism. Early-onset (EOA, n=62) and late-onset (LOA, n=68 ) alcoholic inpatients were compared as to the severity of their substance use and related problems, and self-report scales measuring impulsivity (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, version 11), sensation seeking (Sensation Seeking Scale), and aggressiveness (Buss Durkee Hostility Inventory). The symptom severity of the EOAs' alcohol-use disorder and related problems was higher than that of the LOAs. Furthermore, the EOAs had higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and aggression relative to the LOAs. The differences in impulsivity remained after an analysis controlling for the effect of aggressiveness. Finally, cigarette smoking was positively correlated with impulsiveness across alcoholic subgroups. Active screening for impulsive traits in treatment-seeking alcohol-abusing populations is recommended to improve treatment planning and prevent early drop-out. PMID:15949898

Dom, G; Hulstijn, W; Sabbe, B

2006-02-01

286

Television campaigns and adolescent marijuana use: tests of sensation seeking targeting.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effectiveness of targeted televised public service announcement campaigns in reducing marijuana use among high-sensation-seeking adolescents. METHODS: The study used a controlled interrupted time-series design in 2 matched communities. Two televised antimarijuana campaigns were conducted in 1 county and 1 campaign in the comparison community. Personal interviews were conducted with 100 randomly selected teenagers monthly in each county for 32 months. RESULTS: All 3 campaigns reversed upward developmental trends in 30-day marijuana use among high-sensation seekers (P < .002). As expected, low-sensation seekers had low use levels, and no campaign effects were evident. CONCLUSIONS: Televised campaigns with high reach and frequency that use public service announcements designed for and targeted at high-sensation-seeking adolescents can significantly reduce substance use in this high-risk population.

Palmgreen, P; Donohew, L; Lorch, E P; Hoyle, R H; Stephenson, M T

2001-01-01

287

Somatic aphasia: Mismatch of body sensations with autonomic stress reactivity in psychopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Although one of the main characteristics of psychopaths is a deficit in emotion, it is unknown whether they show a fundamental impairment in appropriately recognizing their own body sensations during an emotion-inducing task. Method Skin conductance and heart rate were recorded in 138 males during a social stressor together with subjective reports of body sensations. Psychopathic traits were assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R) 2nd edition (Hare, 2003). Results Nonpsychopathic controls who reported higher body sensations showed higher heart rate reactivity, but this verbal-autonomic consistency was not found in psychopathic individuals. This mind-body disconnection is particularly associated with the interpersonal-affective factor of psychopathy. Conclusions Findings are the first to document this body sensations– autonomic mismatch in psychopaths, and suggest that somatic aphasia the inaccurate identification and recognition of one‘s own somatic states may partly underlie the interpersonal-affective features of psychopaths.

Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

2012-01-01

288

Study on reconstruction of rectal sensation based on wavelet packet analysis and SVM strategy.  

PubMed

To control anal incontinence, we have developed an artificial anal sphincter system with sensor feedback. The artificial anal sphincter system is a novel hydraulic-electric muscle which mainly comprises an artificial anal sphincter, a wireless power supply subsystem, and a rectal sensation reconstruction subsystem. To investigate the features of the patients' rectal sensation, we have developed an in vitro experimental platform of artificial anal sphincter. In vitro experiments have been performed, and demonstrate that the traditional threshold method is not suitable for predicting the time for defecation. The traditional threshold method only uses single-dimensional pressure time series which may contain a few interdependent components simultaneously. A wavelet packet analysis algorithm is employed to extract the feature vector of the rectal pressure signal, then the rectal sensation prediction model is constructed based on a support vector machine for defecation pattern recognition. The results show that the proposed method is an effective approach for the reconstruction of patients' rectal sensation. PMID:22455610

Zan, P; Ren, P; Shao, Y; Jiang, E; Zhu, X

2012-05-01

289

Examination of Force Discrimination in Human Upper Limb Amputees With Reinnervated Limb Sensation Following Peripheral Nerve Transfer  

PubMed Central

Artificial limbs allow amputees to manipulate objects, but the loss of a limb severs the sensory link between a subject and objects they touch. A novel surgical technique we term targeted reinnervation (TR) allows severed cutaneous nerves to reinnervate skin on a different portion of the body. This technique provides a physiologically appropriate portal to the sensory pathways of the missing limb through the reinnervated skin. This study quantified the ability of three amputee subjects who had undergone TR surgery on the chest (two subjects) and upper arm (one subject) to discriminate changes in graded force on their reinnervated skin over a range of 1–4 N using a stochastic staircase approach. These values were compared to those from sites on their intact contralateral skin and index fingers, and from the chests and index fingers of a control population (n = 10). Weber’s ratio (WR) was used to examine the subjects’ abilities to discriminate between a baseline force and subsequent forces of different magnitudes. WRs of 0.22, 0.25, and 0.12 were measured on the reinnervated skin of the three TR subjects, whereas WRs of 0.25,0.23, and 0.12 were measured on their contralateral skin. TR subjects did not have substantially different WRs on their reinnervated versus their contralateral normal side and did not appear to exhibit a trend towards impaired sensation. No significant difference was found between the WR of the chest and index finger of the control subjects, which ranged between 0.09 and 0.21. WR of reinnervated skin for TR subjects were within the 95% confidence interval of the control group. These data suggest that subjects with targeted reinnervation have unimpaired ability to discriminate gradations in force.

Sensinger, Jonathon W.; Schultz, Aimee E.; Kuiken, Todd A.

2011-01-01

290

Sensory nerve repair in perforator flaps for autologous breast reconstruction: sensational or senseless?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY. The spontaneous return of sensation in autologously reconstructed breasts, especially in the Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, generated the belief that sensory reinnervation by nerve repair of the flap would be superfluous.This study compares the sensation of the following non-reconstructed and reconstructed breasts: (1) non-operated breasts; (2) flaps of patients reconstructed with the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP)

P. N. Blondeel; M. Demuynck; D. Mete; S. J. Monstrey; K. Van Landuyt

1999-01-01

291

Relationship between impulsive sensation seeking traits, smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake, and Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An inverse relation exists between smoking and coffee intake and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study explored whether this is explained by low sensation seeking, a personality trait believed to characterise PD.Methods: A total of 106 non-demented patients with PD and 106 age and sex matched healthy controls completed a short version of Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), the

A H Evans; A D Lawrence; J Potts; L MacGregor; R Katzenschlager; K Shaw; J Zijlmans; A J Lees

2006-01-01

292

Differential Contributions of Vision, Touch and Muscle Proprioception to the Coding of Hand Movements  

PubMed Central

To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration, this study examines the controversial issue of whether congruent inputs from three different sensory sources can enhance the perception of hand movement. Illusory sensations of clockwise rotations of the right hand were induced by either separately or simultaneously stimulating visual, tactile and muscle proprioceptive channels at various intensity levels. For this purpose, mechanical vibrations were applied to the pollicis longus muscle group in the subjects’ wrists, and a textured disk was rotated under the palmar skin of the subjects’ right hands while a background visual scene was projected onto the rotating disk. The elicited kinaesthetic illusions were copied by the subjects in real time and the EMG activity in the adductor and abductor wrist muscles was recorded. The results show that the velocity of the perceived movements and the amplitude of the corresponding motor responses were modulated by the nature and intensity of the stimulation. Combining two sensory modalities resulted in faster movement illusions, except for the case of visuo-tactile co-stimulation. When a third sensory input was added to the bimodal combinations, the perceptual responses increased only when a muscle proprioceptive stimulation was added to a visuo-tactile combination. Otherwise, trisensory stimulation did not override bimodal conditions that already included a muscle proprioceptive stimulation. We confirmed that vision or touch alone can encode the kinematic parameters of hand movement, as is known for muscle proprioception. When these three sensory modalities are available, they contribute unequally to kinaesthesia. In addition to muscle proprioception, the complementary kinaesthetic content of visual or tactile inputs may optimize the velocity estimation of an on-going movement, whereas the redundant kinaesthetic content of the visual and tactile inputs may rather enhance the latency of the perception.

Blanchard, Caroline; Roll, Regine; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Kavounoudias, Anne

2013-01-01

293

Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate-a comparison of linear and ordinal models.  

PubMed

A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism. PMID:24113737

Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

2014-08-01

294

Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System  

PubMed Central

The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83?cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27?cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to “jump” between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians.

Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

2012-01-01

295

Effects of acupuncture needling with specific sensation on cerebral hemodynamics and autonomic nervous activity in humans.  

PubMed

Effective therapeutic factors in acupuncture therapy include specific stimulation points, called acupoints, and specific sensations, called de-qi, that are induced by needling manipulation. Human neuroimaging studies have reported that acupuncture stimulation with de-qi sensations induced specific activity patterns in the brain and modulated autonomic nervous activity. However, acupoints and nonacupoints have been reported to induce de-qi sensations. Thus, it remains unclear whether these physiological responses induced by acupuncture and associated with therapeutic efficacy are related to specific stimulation sites (acupoints) or unique de-qi sensations. This review focuses on the cerebral hemodynamic responses and autonomic nervous activity changes induced by acupuncture stimulation at acupoints and nonacupoints with and without de-qi sensations. We argue that the specific sensations induced by acupuncture are more important than the specific stimulation sites for inducing cerebral hemodynamic and autonomic responses and that autonomic responses during acupuncture, which might be important for therapeutic efficacy, might be mediated though the brain activity changes exemplified by the cerebral hemodynamic responses during acupuncture. PMID:24215916

Takamoto, Kouich; Urakawa, Susumu; Sakai, Kazushige; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

2013-01-01

296

Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

2013-10-01

297

Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics.

Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He-Hau, Jr.

2014-03-01

298

Resistive memory for harsh electronics: immunity to surface effect and high corrosion resistance via surface modification.  

PubMed

The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

2014-01-01

299

Effects of Harsh and Unpredictable Environments in Adolescence on Development of Life History Strategies  

PubMed Central

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood.

Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Ellis, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

300

Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers' harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n=89) and non-alcoholic (n=94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36months. Moreover, after

Brent Finger; Lorig K. Kachadourian; Danielle S. Molnar; Rina D. Eiden; Ellen P. Edwards; Kenneth E. Leonard

2010-01-01

301

Line-of-sight sealed silicon carbide diaphragms for harsh environment sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide (SiC) is currently being developed as a platform material for micro scale devices that operate in harsh environments. One vision of the future is an all-SiC sensor chip composed of crystalline SiC substrate, doped polycrystalline SiC structures, and sputtered amorphous SiC sealing layers. Such a chip would have minimal internal stresses over a wide thermal range. The chemical

Debbie Gahaton Jones

2007-01-01

302

Real time NDE 3D image sensor for harsh electromagnetic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vital demand for contemporary industry of real time NDE sensors is in field operation, which often surrounded by harsh electromagnetic environment such as high level EMI fields or high level of X-Ray or nuclear radiation. Contemporary CCD image sensors are highly vulnerable even for 0.5 volt EMI fields and highly vulnerable for x-ray and gamma radiation. The high lever

Michal Bodnar; Joseph Prokop; George Dovgalenko; Ying Wu

2010-01-01

303

Harsh parenting and fearfulness in toddlerhood interact to predict amplitudes of preschool error-related negativity.  

PubMed

Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children's risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

2014-07-01

304

A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics  

PubMed Central

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines.

Yang, Jie

2013-01-01

305

A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.  

PubMed

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

Yang, Jie

2013-01-01

306

Effects of sexual arousal on genital and non-genital sensation: a comparison of women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and healthy controls.  

PubMed

The relationship between sexual arousal and sensory perception has been a topic largely neglected within the realm of human sexuality research. The present study assessed the influence of sexual arousal on genital and non-genital sensation in women. It also examined the theory that painful intercourse is associated with insufficient sexual arousal. A total of 20 healthy women and 20 women with Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS) underwent genital and non-genital sensory testing at baseline and in response to erotic and neutral stimulus films. Touch and pain thresholds were assessed at the vulvar vestibule, inside the labia minora, and on the volar surface of the forearm. Sexual arousal was assessed via the measurement of surface skin temperature changes of the labia minora using a labial thermistor clip. Participants also completed questionnaires pertaining to mood, pain, and sexual functioning. In response to the erotic stimulus, both groups evidenced a significant increase in physiological sexual arousal and vulvar sensitivity. Women with VVS reported a significantly lower desire to engage in intercourse after having viewed the erotic film and reported lower levels of desire and arousal on questionnaire measures. Women with VVS also exhibited significantly more genital and non-genital pain sensitivity than healthy women across all conditions, in addition to more catastrophizing, hypervigilance, and fear of pain. Contrary to some theories, these data suggest that women with VVS are not lacking in physiological sexual arousal, and that physiological sexual arousal may actually increase vulvar sensation. Lack of subjective sexual arousal, however, may yet be implicated in vulvar pain during intercourse. PMID:17136588

Payne, Kimberley A; Binik, Yitzchak M; Pukall, Caroline F; Thaler, Lea; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir

2007-04-01

307

Active touch in orthopteroid insects: behaviours, multisensory substrates and evolution‡  

PubMed Central

Orthopteroid insects (cockroaches, crickets, locusts and related species) allow examination of active sensory processing in a comparative framework. Some orthopteroids possess long, mobile antennae endowed with many chemo- and mechanoreceptors. When the antennae are touched, an animal's response depends upon the identity of the stimulus. For example, contact with a predator may lead to escape, but contact with a conspecific may usually not. Active touch of an approaching object influences the likelihood that a discrimination of identity will be made. Using cockroaches, we have identified specific descending mechanosensory interneurons that trigger antennal-mediated escape. Crucial sensory input to these cells comes from chordotonal organs within the antennal base. However, information from other receptors on the base or the long antennal flagellum allows active touch to modulate escape probability based on stimulus identity. This is conveyed, at least to some extent, by textural information. Guidance of the antennae in active exploration depends on visual information. Some of the visual interneurons and the motor neurons necessary for visuomotor control have been identified. Comparisons across Orthoptera suggest an evolutionary model where subtle changes in the architecture of interneurons, and of sensorimotor control loops, may explain differing levels of vision–touch interaction in the active guidance of behaviour.

Comer, Christopher; Baba, Yoshichika

2011-01-01

308

Collaboration and interference: Awareness with mice or touch input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch surfaces are becoming increasingly popular. An assumed benefit is that they can facilitate collaborative interactions in co-located groups. In particular, being able to see another's physical actions can enhance awareness, which in turn can support fluid interaction and coordination. However, there is a paucity of empirical evidence or measures to support these claims. We present an analysis of different

Eva Hornecker; Paul Marshall; Nick Sheep Dalton; Yvonne Rogers

2008-01-01

309

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

310

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-01

311

Web-Based Spatial Training Using Handheld Touch Screen Devices  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to harness the opportunities for mobility and the new user interfaces that handheld touch screen devices offer, in a non-formal learning context, with a view to developing spatial ability. This research has addressed two objectives: first, analyzing the effects that training can have on spatial visualisation using the…

Martin-Dorta, Norena; Saorin, Jose Luis; Contero, Manuel

2011-01-01

312

Cane Technique: Modifying the Touch Technique for Full Path Coverage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measurements of height of cane hand, cane length, step size, and forearm length of 17 cane using blind (14-21 years old) Ss were taken for the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the touch technique does not provide 100 percent path coverage. (Author)

Uslan, Mark M.

1978-01-01

313

Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

2006-01-01

314

Interviewing Young Children about Body Touch and Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children ages 3-6 years were interviewed following a scheduled pediatric clinic visit to assess their ability to remember and report incidents of body touch. Follow-up interviews were conducted after one and six months. Results suggest that children actively and accurately process their experiences and that the quality and quantity of their…

Steward, Margaret S.; Steward, David S.

1996-01-01

315

Therapeutic Massage and Healing Touch Improve Symptoms in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary therapies are increasingly used to reduce side effects of cancer treatment, without evidence for their effectiveness. In a randomized, prospective, 2-period, crossover intervention study, the authors tested the effects of therapeutic massage (MT) and healing touch (HT), in comparison to presence alone or standard care, in inducing relaxation and reducing symptoms in 230 subjects. MT and HT lowered blood

Janice Post-White; Mary Ellen Kinney; Kay Savik; Joanna Berntsen Gau; Carol Wilcox; Irving Lerner

2003-01-01

316

Career and Technical Education with a Delicate Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There are some professions in which tradition holds strong, in which one generation schools the next in the techniques of the trade. These services help us maintain some of our dearest possessions--such as an antique watch or a prized violin--with their specialized skill and delicate touch. But not all of these technicians enter the field through…

Predmore, Sarah R.

2005-01-01

317

Human Figure Drawings and Children's Recall of Touching  

PubMed Central

In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions.

Bruck, Maggie

2010-01-01

318

Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

2013-01-01

319

Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion.

Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

2014-01-01

320

Rubber Hands Feel Touch, but Not in Blind Individuals  

PubMed Central

Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n?=?10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n?=?12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

Ehrsson, H. Henrik

2012-01-01

321

Sensory nerve repair in perforator flaps for autologous breast reconstruction: sensational or senseless?  

PubMed

The spontaneous return of sensation in autologously reconstructed breasts, especially in the Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous (TRAM) flap, generated the belief that sensory reinnervation by nerve repair of the flap would be superfluous. This study compares the sensation of the following non-reconstructed and reconstructed breasts: (1) non-operated breasts; (2) flaps of patients reconstructed with the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) flap with sensory nerve repair; (3) flaps of patients reconstructed with the Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator (DIEP) flap without nerve repair; and (4) flaps of patients reconstructed with the free TRAM flap without nerve repair. Statistically significant lower pressure thresholds were found for DIEP flaps with nerve repair through Semmes-Weinstein testing. More segments of the DIEP flaps with nerve repair reacted to cold, warm and vibratory stimuli compared to flaps without nerve repair. Delayed but satisfactory sensory evoked potential responses were obtained for all reconstructed breasts, but in 46% of TRAM flaps no response could be registered compared with 23% and 0% for DIEP flaps without and with nerve repair, respectively. Questionnaires confirmed the objective data and showed return of erogenous sensation in 30% of the patients with DIEP flaps with nerve repair. Our data reconfirm the possibility of spontaneous return of sensation in pedicled and/or free lower abdominal flaps without nerve repair. Nerve repair in free DIEP flaps nevertheless does restore sensation earlier postoperatively, increases the quality and quantity of sensation in the flap and has a higher chance of providing erogenous sensation. The benefits obtained outweigh the disadvantages of the increased operating time. PMID:10343589

Blondeel, P N; Demuynck, M; Mete, D; Monstrey, S J; Van Landuyt, K; Matton, G; Vanderstraeten, G G

1999-01-01

322

Dopamine Modulates Risk-Taking as a Function of Baseline Sensation-Seeking Trait  

PubMed Central

Trait sensation-seeking, defined as a need for varied, complex, and intense sensations, represents a relatively underexplored hedonic drive in human behavioral neuroscience research. It is related to increased risk for a range of behaviors including substance use, gambling, and risky sexual practice. Individual differences in self-reported sensation-seeking have been linked to brain dopamine function, particularly at D2-like receptors, but so far no causal evidence exists for a role of dopamine in sensation-seeking behavior in humans. Here, we investigated the effects of the selective D2/D3 agonist cabergoline on performance of a probabilistic risky choice task in healthy humans using a sensitive within-subject, placebo-controlled design. Cabergoline significantly influenced the way participants combined different explicit signals regarding probability and loss when choosing between response options associated with uncertain outcomes. Importantly, these effects were strongly dependent on baseline sensation-seeking score. Overall, cabergoline increased sensitivity of choice to information about probability of winning; while decreasing discrimination according to magnitude of potential losses associated with different options. The largest effects of the drug were observed in participants with lower sensation-seeking scores. These findings provide evidence that risk-taking behavior in humans can be directly manipulated by a dopaminergic drug, but that the effectiveness of such a manipulation depends on baseline differences in sensation-seeking trait. This emphasizes the importance of considering individual differences when investigating manipulation of risky decision-making, and may have relevance for the development of pharmacotherapies for disorders involving excessive risk-taking in humans, such as pathological gambling.

Manohar, Sanjay; Rogers, Robert D.; Husain, Masud

2013-01-01

323

Performance and subjective effects of diazepam and d-amphetamine in high and low sensation seekers  

PubMed Central

Although sensation-seeking status is associated with age of initiation and amount of drug use among adolescents, and sensitivity to the behavioral and reinforcing effects of drugs among young adults, it is unclear whether sensation-seeking status among adolescents is predictive of sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of drugs (i.e. abuse potential) as adults. This study examined the acute behavioral effects of oral diazepam and d-amphetamine in young adults, ages 18–21 years, who had consistently scored in the highest or lowest third of their grade-based cohort on a modified Sensation Seeking Scale that was completed annually between ages 10 and 14 years. Healthy participants completed 16 7.5-h test days, with test days separated by a minimum of 48 h. Each day, assessments consisting of computer task performance, verbal report of drug effects, and cardiovascular measures were completed 0, 50, 110, 170, 230, and 290 min after drug administration. Placebo and three active doses of diazepam and d-amphetamine (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/70 kg) were tested under double-blind conditions according to a randomized-block design. Typical stimulant and sedative effects were obtained with d-amphetamine and diazepam, respectively. Drug effects varied as a function of sensation-seeking status, with magnitude of effects on cardiovascular function, task performance, and report of positive drug effects being greater among high sensation seekers, and report of negative drug effects being greater among low sensation seekers. Adolescents who report high levels of sensation seeking on a consistent basis are more sensitive to pharmacological effects of stimulant and sedative drugs that are associated with abuse potential as young adults.

Kelly, Thomas H.; Delzer, Timothy A.; Martin, Catherine A.; Harrington, Nancy G.; Hays, Lon R.; Bardo, Michael T.

2011-01-01

324

Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

2013-01-01

325

The Suggestibility of Children's Memory for Being Touched: Planting, Erasing, and Changing Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates recent claims that it is relatively easy to suggestively plant false memories in children, by comparing the relative vulnerability to suggestibility of changed, planted, and erased memories. 80 4-year-olds and 80 10-year-olds either were touched in a specific way or were not touched at all, and it was later suggested that a different touch, a completely new touch, or

Kathy Pezdek; Chantal Roe

1997-01-01

326

Grooming and touching behaviour in captive ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of grooming and touching behaviours was recorded in a group of captive ring-tailed lemurs. Grooming was found\\u000a to be performed chiefly by older, higher ranking animals; touching (i.e., “reach out and touch” behaviour) was directed primarily\\u000a by younger, low ranking animals to older, high ranking individuals. It is suggested that such touching is a submissive gesture\\u000a in this

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Robin J. Thompson

1985-01-01

327

Remote Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) Imaging of Space Plasma and Neurtal Gas in Harsh Radiation Environments: Applications to Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss requirements and general solutions to remotely image space plasma and neutral gas in the presence of harsh background radiation using Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA). Focusing on applications for ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission.

Brandt, P. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Westlake, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Mauk, C. P.; Krimigis, S. M.

2012-10-01

328

Harsh Discipline, Childhood Sexual Assault, and MAOA Genotype: An Investigation of Main and Interactive Effects on Diverse Clinical Externalizing Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms\\u000a (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota\\u000a Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there\\u000a a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh

Jaime DerringerRobert; Robert F. Krueger; Daniel E. Irons; William G. Iacono

2010-01-01

329

Let's clean up this mess: exploring multi-touch collaborative play  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multi-touch play is inherently collaborative, but little work currently explores this aspect. We present preliminary observations of multi-touch collaborative gameplay, focusing on the physical-social environment of a multi-touch surface and its technical issues.

Rilla Khaled; Pippin Barr; Hannah Johnston; Robert Biddle

2009-01-01

330

[An approach to touching while providing high-quality affective health care to hospitalized elderly patients].  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to verify the important factors of tacesics that should be observed while touching the elderly. This qualitative and exploratory field of study was developed using 117 undergraduate students and healthcare professionals who participated in a training course regarding nonverbal communication in gerontology. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to identify at least one care factor that must be respected when touching the elderly. The discourses allowed for the construction of nine categories indicating the conditions that are necessary for high-quality affective care provided within the tacesics context; these conditions included the authorization for the touch to occur, location of the touch, intensity of the touch, condition of the elderly person, intentionality and type of touch, duration of the touch, gender and age of the person who touches and of the person being touched, frequency of the touch, and characteristics of the hands that touch. Touch is part of the quotidian practice of healthcare professionals and expresses their dedication and its related emotions, thereby revealing the quality of the care that is provided. PMID:23743911

Schimidt, Teresa Cristina Gioia; da Silva, Maria Julia Paes

2013-04-01

331

Enhancing the Entertainment Experience of Blind and Low-Vision Theatregoers through Touch Tours  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we demonstrate how universal design theory and the research available on museum-based touch tours can be used to develop a touch tour for blind and low-vision theatregoers. We discuss these theoretical and practical approaches with reference to data collected and experience gained from the creation and execution of a touch tour for…

Udo, J. P.; Fels, D. I.

2010-01-01

332

Computer Analysis of the Indirect Piano Touch: Analysis Methods and Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect touches - touches that originate from above the key - play an important role in piano technique. Analysis methods are presented and applied in a study with piano students performing different touches in slow motion. Colored markers that were attached to the players' fingers were tracked and the angles in the joints were determined. Methods to judge the regularity

Aristotelis Hadjakos; TU Darmstadt; Erwin Aitenbichler; Bernhard Wetz; Max Mühlhäuser

333

Sensation-seeking predicts initiation of daily smoking behavior among American Indian high school students  

PubMed Central

Purpose American Indian (AI) youth have a high risk of smoking initiation. Sensation-seeking, defined as the tendency to seek novel and thrilling experiences, has been associated with smoking initiation in other groups but has never been examined in AI youth. Methods Data were from the Voices of Indian Teens Project (VOICES), a longitudinal study of AI youth from seven high schools in four AI communities in the western United States. Participants completed annual surveys in school over a three-year period. Our sample comprised 764 students who were non-smokers at baseline. Smoking initiation was defined as endorsement of daily smoking after baseline. We used binary logistic regression to evaluate the association of baseline sensation-seeking with odds of daily smoking initiation, stratified by gender Results Participants were 353 males and 411 females aged 13 to 21 years at baseline. After adjusting for covariates, baseline sensation-seeking correlated with smoking initiation differently in males and females. Sensation-seeking did not predict daily smoking in males. Among females, however, higher sensation-seeking scores at baseline predicted daily smoking in both the unadjusted (odds ratio = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1 – 1.8; p = 0.005) and covariate-adjusted (odds ratio = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0 – 1.6; p = 0.04) models Conclusion Gender-specific prevention programs may be warranted in addressing different risk-factor profiles in this high-risk population

Spillane, Nichea S.; Muller, Clemma J.; Noonan, Carolyn; Goins, R. Turner; Mitchell, Christina M.; Manson, Spero

2013-01-01

334

The effects of facial fanning on thermal comfort sensation during hyperthermia.  

PubMed

We studied how facial fanning during hyperthermia improves the thermal comfort sensation. Experiments were carried out on ten male subjects. They were immersed in hot water at 40 degrees C for 45 min. At 20 min and 35 min, fanning (1 m x s(-1)) was applied to their faces for 5 min. Core temperature (Tc) measured as esophageal temperature (Tes) and tympanic temperature (Tty) continued to rise during the immersion, but temporarily decreased during fanning with a delay of 2 or 3 min. Skin temperatures (Ts) on the forehead and cheek continued to increase slightly during immersion, but decreased immediately after the start of fanning. During immersion before face fanning, the time trend of thermal sensation towards the warm level was similar to that of skin temperature on the face, whereas the time trend of thermal comfort ratings towards the uncomfortable level was similar to that of Tc. The scores of both thermal sensation and thermal comfort were reduced significantly immediately after the start of fanning, and their time courses were different to those of Ts and Tty. These results support previous reports that thermal sensation depends on skin temperature, and that thermal comfort depends on both the skin and core temperatures. Moreover, they indicate that both thermal sensation and comfort ratings are affected by the dynamic responses of the cutaneous thermoreceptors when fanning is applied to the face during hyperthermia. PMID:11713641

Kato, M; Sugenoya, J; Matsumoto, T; Nishiyama, T; Nishimura, N; Inukai, Y; Okagawa, T; Yonezawa, H

2001-11-01

335

Internal sensations as a source of fear: exploring a link between hypoxia and flight phobia.  

PubMed

Although flight phobia is very common in the general population, knowledge of the underlying mechanisms is limited. The aim of the current study is to determine whether hypoxia is selectively associated with flight anxiety. We wanted to explore levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) and the associated subjective somatic sensations in flight phobics and controls. The data collected in this study were obtained from 103 participants: 54 had flight phobia, 49 were controls. SpO2 as well as a subjective report of somatic sensations and anxiety were measured during short haul flights, both at ground level and at cruising altitude. Results indicated that both flight phobics and controls showed a comparable clinical significant decrease in SpO2 from sea level to cruising altitude. Next, at ground level the flight phobic group reported more somatic sensations, most likely due to the elevated levels of anxiety at that point. However, at cruising altitude the flight phobic group still reported more somatic sensations while the level of anxiety was no longer significantly different from controls. This finding points to altered symptom perception in flight phobia and stresses the importance of somatic sensations in this particular phobia. PMID:22574671

Vanden Bogaerde, Anouk; De Raedt, Rudi

2013-01-01

336

Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.  

PubMed

Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective. PMID:23836807

Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

2013-11-01

337

Characterization of the Vectron PX-570 Crystal Oscillator for Use in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computing hardware, data-acquisition systems, communications systems, and many electronic control systems require well-controlled timing signals for proper and accurate operation. These signals are, in most cases, provided by circuits that employ crystal oscillators due to availability, cost, ease of operation, and accuracy. In some cases, the electronic systems are expected to survive and operate under harsh conditions that include exposure to extreme temperatures. These applications exist in terrestrial systems as well as in aerospace products. Well-logging, geothermal systems, and industrial process control are examples of ground-based applications, while distributed jet engine control in aircraft, space-based observatories (such as the James Webb Space Telescope), satellites, and lunar and planetary landers are typical environments where electronics are exposed to harsh operating conditions. To ensure these devices produce reliable results, the digital heartbeat from the oscillator must deliver a stable signal that is not affected by external temperature or other conditions. One such solution is a recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) oscillator, the PX-570 series from Vectron International. The oscillator was designed for high-temperature applications and as proof, the crystal oscillator was subjected to a wide suite of tests to determine its ruggedness for operation in harsh environments. The tests performed by Vectron included electrical characterization under wide range of temperature, accelerated life test/aging, shock and vibration, internal moisture analysis, ESD threshold, and latch-up testing. The parametric evaluation was performed on the oscillator's frequency, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current over the temperature range of -125 C to +230 C. The evaluations also determined the effects of thermal cycling and the oscillator's re-start capability at extreme hot and cold temperatures. These thermal cycling and restart tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Overall, the crystal oscillator performed well and demonstrated very good frequency stability. This paper will discuss the test procedures and present details of the performance results.

Li, Jacob; Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

2012-01-01

338

Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese - Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Assessment  

PubMed Central

International behavioral research requires instruments that are not culturally-biased to assess sensation seeking. In this study we described a culturally adapted version of the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Chinese (BSSS-C) and its psychometric characteristics. The adapted scale was assessed using an adult sample (n=238) with diverse educational and residential backgrounds. The BSSS-C (Cronbach alpha=0.90) was correlated with the original Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (r = 0.85, p<0.01) and fitted the four-factor model well (CFI=0.98, SRMR=0.03). The scale scores significantly predicted intention to and actual engagement in a number of health risk behaviors, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and sexual risk behaviors. In conclusion, the BSSS-C has adequate reliability and validity, supporting its utility in China and potential in other developing countries.

Chen, Xinguang; Li, Fang; Nydegger, Liesl; Gong, Jie; Ren, Yuanjing; Dinaj-Koci, Veronica; Sun, Huiling; Stanton, Bonita

2012-01-01

339

Supermicrosurgical free sensate intercostal artery perforator flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch for plantar reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap has recently become popular in reconstructive surgery. We have developed a novel free sensate ICAP flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch (LCB) and applied it to a case with a plantar defect. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first to describe a free sensate ICAP flap based on the LCB. This method has several advantages: (1) a sensate flap is possible because the LCB neurovascular bundle is consistently available; (2) the long neurovascular pedicle can be harvested in the supine position without the risk of pneumothorax; (3) the donor-site morbidity is low; and (4) conversion or combination with a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) or a superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap is readily possible. We believe that this method represents a new option for soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24491457

Iida, Takuya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Koshima, Isao

2014-07-01

340

Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions.  

PubMed

To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

2014-01-01

341

Multi-parameter harsh environment sensing using asymmetric Bragg gratings inscribed by IR femtosecond irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we review our recent work on multi-parameter harsh environment sensing using asymmetric Bragg gratings inscribed by IR femtosecond irradiation, which includes the investigations of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed by graded-index silica multimode fibers and polarization maintaining (PM) single mode fibers. The unique features of this type of grating are: (1) formed by multi-photon ionization, this kind of grating can withstand temperature as high as 1000 °C, which makes it suitable for harsh environment sensing; (2) bending (or pressure, strain) and ambient temperature fluctuations affect the shapes of multiple transmission dips in different ways, which enables multi-parameter sensing capability. The principle of multi-parameter sensing of the multimode fiber gratings is based on the fact that multimode fiber gratings have multiple resonant dips in spectrum and the change of spectral shape is different for different types of perturbations (e.g., temperature and pressure). The main challenge of sensing using multimode fiber is that the shape of spectrum also depends on the excitation condition, which makes the analysis of the sensing data complicated. On the other hand, the PM single mode fiber supports only two linearly polarized modes, which results in two resonant dips in the transmission spectrum. Since measured parameters such as the temperature and bending affect the transmission spectrum of two dips in different ways, one can implement multi-parameter sensing in harsh environment using PM fiber. Note that it is much easier to analyze the data of two dips (in the case of PM fibers) instead of multiple dips (in the case of multimode fibers). Finally, we also investigate the ultra thin multimode and PM single mode harsh environment fiber gratings for multi-parameter sensing applications. After etching the most part of the cladding, both multimode and PM single mode fiber grating spectra become sensitive to ambient refractive index changes, and their sensitivity to bending and strain is also enhanced. This enables the application for multi-parameter chemical/bio and pressure sensing.

Zhan, Chun; Zhu, Yong; Yin, Shizhuo; Ruffin, Paul

2007-04-01

342

Measurement of micro gears with a touch-trigger probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of micro gears with a touch-trigger probe will be introduced in this paper. Due to the small size and complex geometry of micro gears, it is difficult to measure them by traditional instruments like coordinate measuring machines (CMM) or laser displacement sensors. This study focuses on this topic and proposes an approach to measure the three dimensional profile of micro gears. The methodology is based on coordinate measurement. A special touch-trigger probe which detects the moment of contact is employed in the measuring system. The diameter of the probe tip is smaller than 2µm and therefore small enough for measuring micro structures. All the calibration and error compensation for the measuring system are discussed in the view of micro metrology. The comparison of measured profiles from both coordinate and image measurement is discussed. Results of experiments show that the proposed approach is worth of further development in the future.

Liu, YenChih; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; An, Nia-Chun; Yan, Sheng-Zhan; Tsai, Hsiu-An

2013-01-01

343

Corneal sensation after myopic and hyperopic LASIK: clinical and confocal microscopic study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To assess the long term (1 year) effect of myopic and hyperopic LASIK on corneal sensation and innervation. Methods: 83 eyes of 43 patients having LASIK were evaluated. According to the preoperative spherical equivalent, the eyes were divided into three groups: group 1, myopia from ?0.75 to ?6.00 D; group 2, myopia from ?6.25 to ?11.50 D; and group 3, hyperopia from 1.25 to 5.00 D. Corneal sensation was measured and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) was done at the central cornea before, and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after LASIK. Results: The mean corneal sensation in group 1 was greater than in groups 2 and 3 at all postoperative measurements. The difference between group 1 on one hand and groups 2 and 3 on the other hand was statistically significant at 1 month and 3 months after LASIK and was not statistically significant afterwards. IVCM study of 27 eyes revealed that the number and length of nerve fibre bundles in the sub-basal region decreased after LASIK and was significantly lower at all times after surgery despite the return of corneal sensation to preoperative level. Conclusion: After LASIK, central corneal sensitivity is decreased for as long as 6 months or more. The results suggest that lamellar cutting of the cornea during LASIK impairs corneal sensitivity and is related to the ablation depth. The diameter of ablation too may contribute to this drop in sensitivity. The return of corneal sensations does not directly correlate with the regeneration of nerve fibres as determined by confocal imaging. Sensations return to normal values before complete restoration of normal innervation if this indeed ever occurs.

Bragheeth, M A; Dua, H S

2005-01-01

344

Interacting with mouse and touch devices on horizontal interactive displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents and discusses findings on collaborative interaction on horizontal interactive displays using touch and\\u000a mouse input devices. Tabletop interaction environments are suitable for small computer-supported group collaboration, and\\u000a usually allow for concurrent interaction by multiple users. The appropriate support of interaction on horizontal interactive\\u000a displays is crucial to the successful design and adoption of digital tabletops for work,

Christian Müller-Tomfelde

345

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

346

Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch.  

PubMed

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response. PMID:12016507

Fasano, Jeremiah M; Massa, Gioia D; Gilroy, Simon

2002-06-01

347

The multi-touch SoundScape renderer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce a direct manipulation tabletop multi-touch user interface for spatial audio scenes. Although spatial audio rendering existed for several decades now, mass market applications have not been developed and the user interfaces still address a small group of expert users. We im- plemented an easy-to-use direct manipulation interface for multiple users, taking full advantage of the

Katharina Bredies; Nick Alexander Mann; Jens Ahrens; Matthias Geier; Sascha Spors; Michael Nischt

2008-01-01

348

Ionic signaling in plant responses to gravity and touch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Touch and gravity are two of the many stimuli that plants must integrate to generate an appropriate growth response. Due to the mechanical nature of both of these signals, shared signal transduction elements could well form the basis of the cross-talk between these two sensory systems. However, touch stimulation must elicit signaling events across the plasma membrane whereas gravity sensing is thought to represent transformation of an internal force, amyloplast sedimentation, to signal transduction events. In addition, factors such as turgor pressure and presence of the cell wall may also place unique constraints on these plant mechanosensory systems. Even so, the candidate signal transduction elements in both plant touch and gravity sensing, changes in Ca2+, pH and membrane potential, do mirror the known ionic basis of signaling in animal mechanosensory cells. Distinct spatial and temporal signatures of Ca2+ ions may encode information about the different mechanosignaling stimuli. Signals such as Ca2+ waves or action potentials may also rapidly transfer information perceived in one cell throughout a tissue or organ leading to the systemic reactions characteristic of plant touch and gravity responses. Longer-term growth responses are likely sustained via changes in gene expression and asymmetries in compounds such as inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and calmodulin. Thus, it seems likely that plant mechanoperception involves both spatial and temporal encoding of information at all levels, from the cell to the whole plant. Defining this patterning will be a critical step towards understanding how plants integrate information from multiple mechanical stimuli to an appropriate growth response.

Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Massa, Gioia D.; Gilroy, Simon

2002-01-01

349

Hand Vein Biometric Authentication in Optical Multi-touch Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multi-touch systems and their applications are entering a mainstream phase where fast access to visual data and collaborative\\u000a environments are key factors for an informational age. However, most systems are envisioned as public workstations where resources\\u000a are shared equally between the users with few or no restrictions on the content delivered by the applications. While real-time\\u000a identification of the users

S. Crisan; I. G. Tarnovan; B. Tebrean; T. E. Crisan

350

An interactive, multi-touch videowall for scientific data exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of videowalls for scientific data exploration is rising as hardware becomes cheaper and the availability of software and multimedia content grows. Most videowalls are used primarily for outreach and communication purposes, but there is increasing interest in using large display screens to support exploratory visualization as an integral part of scientific research. In this PICO presentation we will present a brief overview of a new videowall system at the University of Reading, which is designed specifically to support interactive, exploratory visualization activities in climate science and Earth Observation. The videowall consists of eight 42-inch full-HD screens (in 4x2 formation), giving a total resolution of about 16 megapixels. The display is managed by a videowall controller, which can direct video to the screen from up to four external laptops, a purpose-built graphics workstation, or any combination thereof. A multi-touch overlay provides the capability for the user to interact directly with the data. There are many ways to use the videowall, and a key technical challenge is to make the most of the touch capabilities - touch has the potential to greatly reduce the learning curve in interactive data exploration, but most software is not yet designed for this purpose. In the PICO we will present an overview of some ways in which the wall can be employed in science, seeking feedback and discussion from the community. The system was inspired by an existing and highly-successful system (known as the "Collaboratorium") at the Netherlands e-Science Center (NLeSC). We will demonstrate how we have adapted NLeSC's visualization software to our system for touch-enabled multi-screen climate data exploration.

Blower, Jon; Griffiths, Guy; van Meersbergen, Maarten; Lusher, Scott; Styles, Jon

2014-05-01

351

Sensation seeking and drunk driving: The mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. PMID:24878692

González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, M Ángeles

2014-10-01

352

Sensations evoked by intraneural microstimulation of single mechanoreceptor units innervating the human hand.  

PubMed Central

Intraneural microstimulation (i.n.m.s.) was performed in awake human volunteers, using tungsten micro-electrodes inserted into median and ulnar nerve fascicles supplying the skin of the hand. The same electrodes were used alternatively to record impulse activity from single nerve fibres at the i.n.m.s. sites. Monitoring occasionally, with a proximal electrode, the impulse traffic evoked by i.n.m.s. distally in the same fascicle, established that the stimulation procedure could be made selective enough to activate single myelinated fibres in isolation, while also permitting multifibre recruitment. Monitoring propagated impulses also established that i.n.m.s. of a single myelinated fibre supplying a low-threshold mechanoreceptor in the hand might evoke an elementary sensation. Such sensations were fully endowed with cognitive attributes amenable to psychophysical estimation: quality, magnitude and localized projection. Psychophysical tests were made during i.n.m.s. at intraneural sites where single-unit activity was recorded from classified RA, PC, SA I or SA II mechanoreceptors. Changes in excitability of the nerve fibre of an identified unit, induced by further i.n.m.s., certified that the recorded unit had been stimulated during psychophysical tests. Comparing physical location of the receptive field of a recorded unit and localization of the projected field of the corresponding elementary sensation, revealed that either predicted the other accurately. This further assisted identification of the unit activated by i.n.m.s. The type of a recorded unit and the quality of the elementary sensation evoked by its activation were also reciprocally predictive. RA units evoked intermittent tapping, PC units vibration or tickle and SA I units evoked pressure. SA II units evoked no sensation when activated in isolation. Afferent impulse frequency determined magnitude of pressure in the SA I system, and frequency of vibration in the PC system. In the RA system, stimulation frequency determined frequency of tapping-flutter-vibration sensation at relatively low rates and subjective intensity of sensation at high rates. These findings endorse the concept that quality of sensation is coded in specific sensory systems. Further, they provide novel evidence that sensory quality, magnitude and localization can be exquisitely resolved at cognitive levels on the basis of input initiated in a single mechanoreceptor unit.

Ochoa, J; Torebjork, E

1983-01-01

353

Acupuncture treatment of phantom limb pain and phantom limb sensation in a primary care setting.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man presented with phantom limb pain and phantom limb sensation 12 weeks after an above-elbow amputation of his right arm. He underwent seven sessions of acupuncture at weekly intervals carried out by his general practitioner on his intact left arm, with complete relief of the phantom limb pain and considerable improvement of the phantom limb sensation of his right arm. This case demonstrates the possible benefits from the use of short acupuncture sessions for a potentially chronic condition undertaken within the constraints of a busy general medical practice. PMID:23220713

Davies, Arwel

2013-03-01

354

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

355

Glycine Inhibitory Dysfunction Turns Touch into Pain through PKCgamma Interneurons  

PubMed Central

Dynamic mechanical allodynia is a widespread and intractable symptom of neuropathic pain for which there is a lack of effective therapy. During tactile allodynia, activation of the sensory fibers which normally detect touch elicits pain. Here we provide a new behavioral investigation into the dynamic component of tactile allodynia that developed in rats after segmental removal of glycine inhibition. Using in vivo electrophysiological recordings, we show that in this condition innocuous mechanical stimuli could activate superficial dorsal horn nociceptive specific neurons. These neurons do not normally respond to touch. We anatomically show that the activation was mediated through a local circuit involving neurons expressing the gamma isoform of protein kinase C (PKC?). Selective inhibition of PKC? as well as selective blockade of glutamate NMDA receptors in the superficial dorsal horn prevented both activation of the circuit and allodynia. Thus, our data demonstrates that a normally inactive circuit in the dorsal horn can be recruited to convert touch into pain. It also provides evidence that glycine inhibitory dysfunction gates tactile input to nociceptive specific neurons through PKC?-dependent activation of a local, excitatory, NMDA receptor-dependent, circuit. As a consequence of these findings, we suggest that pharmacological inhibition of PKC? might provide a new tool for alleviating allodynia in the clinical setting.

Miraucourt, Lois S.; Dallel, Radhouane; Voisin, Daniel L.

2007-01-01

356

Superior facial expression, but not identity recognition, in mirror-touch synesthesia.  

PubMed

Simulation models of expression recognition contend that to understand another's facial expressions, individuals map the perceived expression onto the same sensorimotor representations that are active during the experience of the perceived emotion. To investigate this view, the present study examines facial expression and identity recognition abilities in a rare group of participants who show facilitated sensorimotor simulation (mirror-touch synesthetes). Mirror-touch synesthetes experience touch on their own body when observing touch to another person. These experiences have been linked to heightened sensorimotor simulation in the shared-touch network (brain regions active during the passive observation and experience of touch). Mirror-touch synesthetes outperformed nonsynesthetic participants on measures of facial expression recognition, but not on control measures of face memory or facial identity perception. These findings imply a role for sensorimotor simulation processes in the recognition of facial affect, but not facial identity. PMID:21289192

Banissy, Michael J; Garrido, Lúcia; Kusnir, Flor; Duchaine, Bradley; Walsh, Vincent; Ward, Jamie

2011-02-01

357

Vulnerability of CMOS image sensors in Megajoule Class Laser harsh environment.  

PubMed

CMOS image sensors (CIS) are promising candidates as part of optical imagers for the plasma diagnostics devoted to the study of fusion by inertial confinement. However, the harsh radiative environment of Megajoule Class Lasers threatens the performances of these optical sensors. In this paper, the vulnerability of CIS to the transient and mixed pulsed radiation environment associated with such facilities is investigated during an experiment at the OMEGA facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY, USA. The transient and permanent effects of the 14 MeV neutron pulse on CIS are presented. The behavior of the tested CIS shows that active pixel sensors (APS) exhibit a better hardness to this harsh environment than a CCD. A first order extrapolation of the reported results to the higher level of radiation expected for Megajoule Class Laser facilities (Laser Megajoule in France or National Ignition Facility in the USA) shows that temporarily saturated pixels due to transient neutron-induced single event effects will be the major issue for the development of radiation-tolerant plasma diagnostic instruments whereas the permanent degradation of the CIS related to displacement damage or total ionizing dose effects could be reduced by applying well known mitigation techniques. PMID:23037056

Goiffon, V; Girard, S; Chabane, A; Paillet, P; Magnan, P; Cervantes, P; Martin-Gonthier, P; Baggio, J; Estribeau, M; Bourgade, J-L; Darbon, S; Rousseau, A; Glebov, V Yu; Pien, G; Sangster, T C

2012-08-27

358

Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

2013-05-01

359

Line-of-sight sealed silicon carbide diaphragms for harsh environment sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) is currently being developed as a platform material for micro scale devices that operate in harsh environments. One vision of the future is an all-SiC sensor chip composed of crystalline SiC substrate, doped polycrystalline SiC structures, and sputtered amorphous SiC sealing layers. Such a chip would have minimal internal stresses over a wide thermal range. The chemical inertness, as well as the electrical and mechanical properties of SiC in harsh environments overcomes the limitations of traditional silicon-based platforms. The development of robust SiC devices requires fabrication techniques and a materials system that are compatible with the thermal budget and operational environment. This thesis describes a process for depositing wafer-level, SiC sealing layers for harsh environment sensors. An emerging method of diaphragm fabrication is a sealing technique that utilizes deposition of two thin films: a porous scaffold layer and a second sealing layer. This approach offers many advantages in comparison to traditional bulk etch methods such as improved wafer-level uniformity and reduction in die size. This work describes a novel approach for the fabrication of diaphragms by the utilization of an ion beam sputter deposition of amorphous SiC for line-of-sight sealing. The approach was developed to be compatible with harsh environment specifications and can be applied to applications such as vacuum encapsulation and pressure sensing. This thesis also presents the etching of SiC films and substrates, which is important for device feature definition. A high density plasma etch system was used to further explore the etching of SiC with SiO2 etch masks in HBr/Cl2 etch chemistries. An etch recipe was developed for the fabrication of a thin film SiC resonant strain gauge. In addition, the use of aluminum nitride (AlN) as an etch mask with SF6/O2 was investigated for the first time and demonstrated improved etch rates, selectivities and sidewall slopes. The characteristics of ion beam, sputter deposited SiC were investigated for the development of a low temperature, directional deposition technique. Amorphous SiC thin films were sputter deposited at low temperature (below 430°C), high vacuum (order of 10--6 Torr) conditions. The material properties such as uniformity, composition, residual stress, strain gradient, and stoichiometry were investigated. The results demonstrated that low temperature and ion-bombarded films resulted in high compressive stresses and strain gradients. Therefore, annealing was used to reduce the film stresses and gradients. The deposition process also demonstrated that controllable SiC stoichiometries could be obtained with this process as well as low temperature pinhole free films. In addition to the film properties, the film deposition topography was observed with substrate tilting. The results confirmed line-of-sight deposition topology which can be utilized as vacuum scaling films. The integrity of the sealing was tested with a high temperature chemical etch. In addition, a fabrication process to obtain line-of-sight sealed SiC diaphragms to be used for vacuum encapsulation and pressure sensing applications was demonstrated. The techniques developed in this work add to the library of SiC processes for harsh environment applications.

Jones, Debbie Gahaton

360

Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A multiple rework processes may be implemented with CCGA packaging technology to understand the effect of number of reworks on the reliability of this technology for harsh thermal environments. In general, reliability of the assembled electronic packages reduces as a function of number of reworks and the extent is not known yet. A CCGA rework process has been tried and implemented to design a daisy-chain test board consists of 624 and 717 packages. Reworked CCGA interconnect electronic packages of printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging and optical microscope techniques. The assembled boards after 1st rework and 1st reflow were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space JPL/NASA for moderate to harsh thermal mission environments. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling to determine intermittent failures. This paper provides the experimental reliability test results to failure of assemblies for the first time of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages under extreme harsh thermal environments.

Ramesham, Rajeshuni

2013-03-01

361

Relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with sexual risk behavior in young Urban women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the relationships of sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking with HIV sexual risk behavior in 257 young urban women. Interviews were conducted using Audio Computer- Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that sexual imposition, dyadic trust, and sensation seeking explained 18.3% of the variance in sexual risk behavior. Although sexual imposition was

Rachel Jones

2004-01-01

362

Twins with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV with preserved periodontal sensation.  

PubMed

Turkish twin brothers affected with hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV (HSAN IV) are reported. Their clinical findings were generally typical for HSAN IV. Interestingly they both had preserved periodontal sensation. Mutation analysis of the NTRK1 gene showed a homozygous c.2001C>T substitution in exon 15 in both twins. This base substitution is predicted to change a polar, positively charged amino acid arginine to the highly active amino acid cystein at position 654 (p.Arg654Cys). The parents were heterozygous for the mutation. This mutation has been reported previously in one Japanese and one Arab patients. The preserved periodontal sensation has not previously been reported in patients affected with HSAN IV. This preserved sensation in our patients might have been through Ruffini endings, the periodontal mechanoreceptors which have been reported to be present in TrkA knockout mice. Here we report the first twins affected with HSAN IV and the observation that periodontal sensation is not affected by mutation in NTRK1. PMID:24631696

Guven, Yeliz; Altunoglu, Umut; Aktoren, Oya; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Kayserili, Hulya; Kaewkahya, Massupa; Kantaputra, Piranit Nik

2014-04-01

363

Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: The Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments

Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher

1984-01-01

364

I Am What I Watch: Voyeurism, Sensation Seeking, and Television Viewing Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the role of viewers' personality traits, sensation-seeking, and voyeurism in relation to reported consumption of voyeuristic program content in various television genres. A uses and gratifications approach was employed to identify factors predicting appeal of particular TV programs. The study combines two types of media research: survey and content analysis. Results were combined to create the Voyeurism

Zhanna Bagdasarov; Kathryn Greene; Smita C. Banerjee; Marina Krcmar; Itzhak Yanovitzky; Dovile Ruginyte

2010-01-01

365

Effects of Spontaneous and Hypercapnic Hyperventilation on Inspiratory Effort Sensation in Normal Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to elucidate if the inspiratory effort sensation (IES) associated with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is independent of the concomitant increase in the ventilation, we studied 23 normal resting volunteers (mean age 34 6 11 yr) during CO 2 rebreathing. Our main goal was to compare the IES at the same ventilation level under hypercapnic and isocapnic conditions.

E. L. DE VITO; A. J. RONCORONI; E. E. A. BERIZZO; F. PESSOLANO

1998-01-01

366

Reliability and Validity of the Sensation-Seeking Scale: Psychometric Problems in Form V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale were examined. Evidence supported the theoretical notion of an individual difference variable in arousal-seeking. Other evidence, however, suggested that measurement problems continue to hamper research: the total score was moderately reliable, but the subscales were only marginally…

Ridgeway, Doreen; Russell, James A.

1980-01-01

367

Hazard Adjustment, Locus of Control, and Sensation Seeking: Some Null Findings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews were carried out with 328 residents of London, Ontario, to test the hypothesis that locus of control and sensation seeking are related to the tendency to adjust to natural and nonnatural hazards. Possible explanations for the findings are offered, and directions for future research are suggested. (Editor/BT)

Schiff, Myra

1977-01-01

368

Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined

Takao Fukui; Toshitaka Kimura; Koji Kadota; Shinsuke Shimojo; Hiroaki Gomi; Jan Lauwereyns

2009-01-01

369

Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

2008-01-01

370

Appetite Sensations and Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: An Overview of the Explanations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review information about the potential mechanisms underlying nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP), food cravings, and\\/or aversions in pregnancy. In addition to providing overviews about genetic predispositions and hormonal associations with appetite sensations and NVP, we review two functional explanations: the “maternal and embryo protection” and the “placental growth and development” hypotheses. We conclude with a discussion about the

Crystal L. Patil; Elizabeth T. Abrams; Alexis R. Steinmetz; Sera L. Young

2012-01-01

371

Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

Stanton, H. E.

1976-01-01

372

Predicted and reported thermal sensation in climate chambers, offices and homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past thermal comfort research has shown differences in the thermal sensation votes given in field and laboratory settings. However, such research tends to compare the votes of different groups of people in different environments rather than comparing the same people in each environment. Therefore, a two-phase study was conducted of the thermal comfort of 30 BRE employees in their home,

Nigel A. Oseland

1995-01-01

373

Painful and non-painful pressure sensations from human skeletal muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Painful and non-painful pressure sensations from muscle are generally accepted to exist but the peripheral neural correlate has not been clarified. The aim of the present human study was to assess the non-painful and painful pressure sensitivity with (1) anaesthetised skin, and (2) anaesthetised skin combined with a block of large diameter muscle afferents. The skin was anaesthetised by a

Thomas Graven-Nielsen; Siegfried Mense; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

2004-01-01

374

Effect of Cashew Nut Processing on the Burning Sensation Caused by Anacardic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the shelling process cashew nuts can be contaminated by the caustic phenolic lipids from the nut shell, impairing its appearance and palatability. Samples from either mechanized and semi-mechanized shelling processes were evaluated, in both natural and roasted forms, for anacardic acid content and sensory sensations in the mouth and throat. In general, cashew nuts from semi-mechanized process showed higher

Santos Garruti; Maria Elisabeth Barros de Oliveira; Tânia da Silveira; Agostini Costa; Katiane Arrais Jales; Laura de Oliveira Andrade; Marcelo Victor Lima

2003-01-01

375

Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure to Health Risk Behavior in Adolescence: Motivation to Cope and Sensation Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined two potential mechanisms linking violence exposure and health risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: sensation seeking and coping with stress through escape behavior. Method: Male (59%) and female adolescents (N = 251), ages 12 to 19 years, from diverse ethnic backgrounds (61% African American, 19%…

Brady, Sonya S.; Donenberg, Geri R.

2006-01-01

376

Development of Artificial Finger Skin with Static Friction Sensation Imitating Human Finger Using PVDF Film  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th eg oal of our study is development of a sensor which has static friction sensation using paired pieces of PVDF film strips. In order to develop the sensor, we recall that the sensing function is supposed to be attained through incipient slip detection. First is designed the artificial finger whose characteristics are associated with those of a human finger

Isao Fujimoto; Tetsuya Morizono; Yoji Umetani

2004-01-01

377

Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

2004-01-01

378

Trend: Sensationalism versus public affairs content of local TV news: Pennsylvania revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research replicated a study by Adams (1978) in which he reported that the bulk of the news hole in local television newscasts was devoted to coverage of local public affairs and not to sensationalism or human interest stories as critics suggested. In 1992, a random sample of newscasts from the same 10 Pennsylvania stations reveals that news organizations devoted

Karen L. Slattery; Ernest A. Hakanen

1994-01-01

379

Touch in primary care consultations: qualitative investigation of doctors' and patients' perceptions  

PubMed Central

Background Good communication skills are integral to successful doctor–patient relationships. Communication may be verbal or non-verbal, and touch is a significant component, which has received little attention in the primary care literature. Touch may be procedural (part of a clinical task) or expressive (contact unrelated to a procedure/examination). Aim To explore GPs’ and patients’ experiences of using touch in consultations. Design and setting Qualitative study in urban and semi-rural areas of north-west England. Method Participating GPs recruited registered patients with whom they felt they had an ongoing relationship. Data were collected by semi-structured interviews and subjected to constant comparative qualitative analysis. Results All participants described the importance of verbal and non-verbal communication in developing relationships. Expressive touch was suggested to improve communication quality by most GPs and all patients. GPs reported a lower threshold for using touch with older patients or those who were bereaved, and with patients of the same sex as themselves. All patient responders felt touch on the hand or forearm was appropriate. GPs described limits to using touch, with some responders rarely using anything other than procedural touch. In contrast, most patient responders believed expressive touch was acceptable, especially in situations of distress. All GP responders feared misinterpretation in their use of touch, but patients were keen that these concerns should not prevent doctors using expressive touch in consultations. Conclusion Expressive touch improves interactions between GPs and patients. Increased educational emphasis on the conscious use of expressive touch would enhance clinical communication and, hence, perhaps patient wellbeing and care.

Cocksedge, Simon; George, Bethan; Renwick, Sophie; Chew-Graham, Carolyn A

2013-01-01

380

The effects of whole body vibration on balance, joint position sense and cutaneous sensation.  

PubMed

Whole body vibration (WBV) may enhance muscular strength and power but little is known about its influence on sensory-motor function. Vibration of a single muscle or tendon affects the afferent system in a manner that depends on amplitude and frequency. WBV stimulates many muscle groups simultaneously and the frequencies and amplitudes used are different from many of the studies on single musculotendinous units. We investigated the effects of WBV at two amplitudes on balance, joint position sense (JPS) and cutaneous sensation in young healthy subjects. Eighteen adults (24.3 ± 1.5 years, 15 females) were assessed before WBV (five 1 min bouts, 30 Hz) then immediately, 15 and 30 min afterwards. Two amplitudes (4 and 8 mm peak to peak) were investigated on different occasions. Standing balance was assessed with feet together and eyes closed, and standing on one leg with eyes open and closed. JPS at the knee and ankle was assessed by repositioning tasks while cutaneous sensation was recorded from six sites in the lower limb using pressure aesthesiometry. Neither amplitude affected JPS (P > 0.05). There were minimal effects on balance only in the vertical plane and only 30 min after WBV (P < 0.05). Low amplitude vibration only reduced sensation at the foot and ankle immediately after WBV (P < 0.008). High amplitude vibration impaired sensation at the foot, ankle and posterior shank for the entire test period (P < 0.008). In young healthy individuals WBV did not affect JPS or static balance, but reduced cutaneous sensation. These data may have implications for older and clinical populations with compromised postural control. PMID:21455611

Pollock, Ross D; Provan, Sally; Martin, Finbarr C; Newham, Di J

2011-12-01

381

Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

2003-01-01

382

Technical advancements in submersible-pump power cable for harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

In artificial-lift systems, such as electrical submersible pumps, the power cable provides the link between the surface equipment and the pumping unit. New cable designs are constantly being introduced. This paper discusses these designs and their materials. Information on a new approach to cable manufacturing and on use of downhole materials in harsh environments is also provided. This paper includes work on cable designs that incorporate a new, unique, elastomeric composition that resists rupture of jacketing materials used on downhole cables, eliminating the need for tape and braid. Cable history is also reviewed, classifying the cables by use temperatures and relative cost. Criteria for selecting materials suitable for the entire range of downhole environments are included.

Guzy, R.; Vandevier, J.

1987-05-01

383

A Harsh Environment-Oriented Wireless Passive Temperature Sensor Realized by LTCC Technology  

PubMed Central

To meet measurement needs in harsh environments, such as high temperature and rotating applications, a wireless passive Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) temperature sensor based on ferroelectric dielectric material is presented in this paper. As a LC circuit which consists of electrically connected temperature sensitive capacitor and invariable planar spiral inductor, the sensor has its resonant frequency shift with the variation in temperature. Within near-filed coupling distance, the variation in resonant frequency of the sensor can be detected contactlessly by extracting the impedance parameters of an external antenna. Ferroelectric ceramic, which has temperature sensitive permittivity, is used as the dielectric. The fabrication process of the sensor, which differs from conventional LTCC technology, is described in detail. The sensor is tested three times from room temperature to 700 °C, and considerable repeatability and sensitivity are shown, thus the feasibility of high performance wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology is demonstrated.

Tan, Qiulin; Luo, Tao; Xiong, Jijun; Kang, Hao; Ji, Xiaxia; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

2014-01-01

384

A Wireless Passive Pressure Microsensor Fabricated in HTCC MEMS Technology for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

A wireless passive high-temperature pressure sensor without evacuation channel fabricated in high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) technology is proposed. The properties of the HTCC material ensure the sensor can be applied in harsh environments. The sensor without evacuation channel can be completely gastight. The wireless data is obtained with a reader antenna by mutual inductance coupling. Experimental systems are designed to obtain the frequency-pressure characteristic, frequency-temperature characteristic and coupling distance. Experimental results show that the sensor can be coupled with an antenna at 600 °C and max distance of 2.8 cm at room temperature. The senor sensitivity is about 860 Hz/bar and hysteresis error and repeatability error are quite low.

Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Xiong, Jijun; Qin, Li; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Chen; Ding, Liqiong; Zhang, Xiansheng; Yang, Mingliang

2013-01-01

385

Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

Ruzicka, Jakub; Houzvicka, Jindrich; Bok, Jiri; Praus, Petr; Mojzes, Peter

2011-12-20

386

Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments.  

PubMed

One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest. PMID:22193189

R?ži?ka, Jakub; Houžvi?ka, Jind?ich; Bok, Ji?í; Praus, Petr; Mojzeš, Peter

2011-12-20

387

Rayleigh Scattering Diagnostic for Measurement of Temperature and Velocity in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A molecular Rayleigh scattering system for temperature and velocity measurements in unseeded flows is described. The system is capable of making measurements in the harsh environments commonly found in aerospace test facilities, which may have high acoustic sound levels, varying temperatures, and high vibration levels. Light from an argon-ion laser is transmitted via an optical fiber to a remote location where two flow experiments were located. One was a subsonic free air jet; the second was a low-speed heated airjet. Rayleigh scattered light from the probe volume was transmitted through another optical fiber from the remote location to a controlled environment where a Fabry-Perot interferometer and cooled CCD camera were used to analyze the Rayleigh scattered light. Good agreement between the measured velocity and the velocity calculated from isentropic flow relations was demonstrated (less than 5 m/sec). The temperature measurements, however, exhibited systematic errors on the order of 10-15%.

Seasholtz, Richard G.; Greer, Lawrence C., III

1998-01-01

388

Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments.

Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

2013-01-01

389

Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents’ lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents’ poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents’ wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents’ poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences.

East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

390

A harsh environment-oriented wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology.  

PubMed

To meet measurement needs in harsh environments, such as high temperature and rotating applications, a wireless passive Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) temperature sensor based on ferroelectric dielectric material is presented in this paper. As a LC circuit which consists of electrically connected temperature sensitive capacitor and invariable planar spiral inductor, the sensor has its resonant frequency shift with the variation in temperature. Within near-filed coupling distance, the variation in resonant frequency of the sensor can be detected contactlessly by extracting the impedance parameters of an external antenna. Ferroelectric ceramic, which has temperature sensitive permittivity, is used as the dielectric. The fabrication process of the sensor, which differs from conventional LTCC technology, is described in detail. The sensor is tested three times from room temperature to 700 °C, and considerable repeatability and sensitivity are shown, thus the feasibility of high performance wireless passive temperature sensor realized by LTCC technology is demonstrated. PMID:24594610

Tan, Qiulin; Luo, Tao; Xiong, Jijun; Kang, Hao; Ji, Xiaxia; Zhang, Yang; Yang, Mingliang; Wang, Xiaolong; Xue, Chenyang; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Wendong

2014-01-01

391

A wireless passive pressure microsensor fabricated in HTCC MEMS technology for harsh environments.  

PubMed

A wireless passive high-temperature pressure sensor without evacuation channel fabricated in high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) technology is proposed. The properties of the HTCC material ensure the sensor can be applied in harsh environments. The sensor without evacuation channel can be completely gastight. The wireless data is obtained with a reader antenna by mutual inductance coupling. Experimental systems are designed to obtain the frequency-pressure characteristic, frequency-temperature characteristic and coupling distance. Experimental results show that the sensor can be coupled with an antenna at 600 °C and max distance of 2.8 cm at room temperature. The senor sensitivity is about 860 Hz/bar and hysteresis error and repeatability error are quite low. PMID:23917261

Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Xiong, Jijun; Qin, Li; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Chen; Ding, Liqiong; Zhang, Xiansheng; Yang, Mingliang

2013-01-01

392

Micro packaging of hermetic seal laser diode module for the harsh environment of aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes micro soldering method of hermetic DIL (dual in line) laser diode module packaging. Normally, reliable, reproducible, high-yield packaging technologies are essential for meeting the cost, performance, and service objectives for the harsh environment of aerospace applications. For this package a new novel technique incorporating microscope with twin micro tweezers, a CCD image captured camera as monitoring probe and preformed rings of Pb-Sn and In-Sn alloys for hermetic sealing using a micro-soldering process was developed. The procedure is able to confine the solder seal to a small region inside the ferrule near the fiber feed-through hole on the wall of the DIL package. After completing the development, which included temperature and thermal cycling and analysis showed the improved method using lead-tin alloy had no fiber damage after the micro-soldering seal. The new process resulted in 100% success in our packaging design.

Kazemi, Alex A.

2013-05-01

393

Ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes as pressure sensors for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass and diamond are suitable materials for harsh environments. Here, a procedure for fabricating ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes on glass, acting as an electrically insulating substrate, is presented. In order to investigate the pressure sensing properties of such membranes, a circular, highly conductive boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond membrane with a resistivity of 38 m? cm, a thickness of 150 nm, and a diameter of 555 ?m is fabricated in the middle of a Hall bar structure. During the application of a positive differential pressure under the membrane (0-0.7 bar), four point piezoresistive effect measurements are performed. From these measurements, it can be concluded that the resistance response of the membrane, as a function of differential pressure, is highly linear and sensitive.

Janssens, S. D.; Drijkoningen, S.; Haenen, K.

2014-02-01

394

Development of a durable fiber-optic oxygen sensor for harsh underground environments.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on effects of protection with a silicone resin to develop a fiber-optic oxygen sensor with long-term stability and durability in harsh underground environments. Ruthenium (II) complexes were used as oxygen-sensing compounds. A uniform composite film composed of silicone resin and the Ru complex was prepared with spin coating technique. A comparison of dissolved-oxygen (DO) sensitivity between the composite film and a Ru complex film was made by exposing to hot water (80 degrees C). The result of the accelerated degradation test showed that sensitivity of the Ru complex film was stable; meanwhile that of the composite film increased with exposure time in a short period. In order to improve stability, the Ru complex film overcoated with silicone resin was prepared. Differences in sensitivity for saturated DO (8.5 ppm) between with and without the silicone resin overcoating on the Ru complex film were investigated by exposing to the hot water and simulated underground water. These results revealed that the sensitivities and response times of the overcoated films were stable and slow, respectively, compared to those of non-overcoated films. Then, optodes were evaluated for effects of the overcoating on sensing properties by exposing to 100 vol.% oxygen gas. The experiment showed that: (1) the response time was significantly influenced by the thickness of the overcoating; and (2) response speed of the overcoated optode was slow by a factor of about 35 compared to that of the non-overcoated. We concluded that the overcoating was effective in the application to mid- and long-term oxygen monitoring in the harsh environments. PMID:20801362

Koshiba, Yusuke; Nakamura, Yuki; Ito, Daisuke; Yokoyama, Takashi; Okazaki, Shinji; Nakagawa, Hidemoto; Arai, Takashi

2010-09-15

395

3D touch trigger probe based on fiber Bragg gratings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a 3D touch trigger probe based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG). The sensing principle is Bragg equation ?=2n?. Mutative strain and temperature outside alter both the refractive index (n) and grating pitches (?) of the fiber core, so the Bragg wavelength ? will change accordingly. The probe adopts FBG sensor system which has four FBGs provided with same parameter (three as sensor FBG and one as match FBG). Laser beam from broadband light source enter sensor FBGs through one coupler, the reflected light is imported to match FBG via another coupler, eventually captured by a high precision optoelectronic detector which monitors energy of the laser reflected by match FBG. The tip ball swings when it contact work pieces, and causes rotation of the plank by rigid connection, the displacement of the tip ball will be transferred to strain exerting on sensor FBGs. Consequently the strain results in Bragg wavelength shift of the reflected laser beam. The displacement of the probe leads to shift of Bragg wavelength of the sensor FBG, therefore, results in energy change of reflected light from the matching FBG. The probe based on FBG sensor brings an untouched branch of the application of Fiber grating sensors. It is also studied on key points of a touch trigger probe such as repeatability, trigger force and resolution.

Ding, Bangzhou; Fei, Yetai; Fan, Zheguang

2009-03-01

396

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism.

Bjornsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Hakan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

397

Discriminative and affective touch in human experimental tactile allodynia.  

PubMed

Recently, several studies have suggested a role for unmyelinated (C-tactile, CT) low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents in the allodynic condition. In this psychophysical study we explored the integrity of both A? and CT afferent processing following application of the heat capsaicin model of tactile allodynia on the left forearm in healthy subjects (n=40). We measured tactile direction discrimination (TDD) to target the integrity of A? processing (n=20). The TDD accuracy was significantly lower in the allodynic compared to a control zone. In addition, we measured the perceived pleasantness and pain of brush stroking at CT targeted (slow) and CT sub-optimal (fast) stroking velocities to investigate the integrity of CT processing (n=20). When comparing touch pleasantness in the allodynic and control zone, there was a significantly larger difference in ratings for CT targeted compared to CT suboptimal stimulation. The results suggest a disturbance in both A?-mediated discriminative and CT-mediated affective touch processing in human experimental tactile allodynia. Our findings support the canonical view that tactile allodynia is signaled by A? afferents but that CTs seem to contribute by the loss of a pain inhibiting role. PMID:24486839

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Marshall, Andrew; Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan

2014-03-20

398

Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

2012-02-01

399

High tech. High touch. John Naisbett's world view.  

PubMed

History will record that 20 years ago, a man named John Naisbett made a contribution which literally changed the world, with his book Megatrends. It changed the way that we think about the world. It changed the way that we think about ourselves. A distinguished scholar, John Naisbett has worked in many different settings, including at the White House under Lyndon B. Johnson. He spent many years at Harvard University, and is best known for introducing a quantitative analysis of the major trends affecting America. One of those, of course, was demographics. Another was the aging of the planet. Another was technology. He recently authored a new book, High Tech, High Touch. Home care has "high touch" down to a science: that's the kind of care for which home care is famous. It is also important, however, that we introduce technology. As technology changes and offers the ability to provide new and more efficient ways of providing care, we need to embrace that opportunity. History will record that 20 years ago, a man named John Naisbett made a contribution which literally changed the world, with his book Megatrends. It changed the way that we think about the world. It changed the way that we think about ourselves. He delivered the following speech at the 2001 National Association for Home Care Annual Meeting. PMID:11957853

Naisbett, John

2002-04-01

400

Investigation of limbal touch sensitivity using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer.  

PubMed Central

Following the observation of complex sensory receptors concentrated within the palisade zone of the human conjunctiva, this study sought to measure limbal touch sensitivity using a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Touch sensitivity was found to be significantly higher in the palisade zone compared with the adjacent conjunctiva. A comparison between temporal and inferior limbus showed a greater median sensitivity for the temporal zone. There was a significant reduction in touch sensitivity with age, but not with iris colour or contact lens wear. These data, showing a higher touch sensitivity for the palisade zone, provide indirect evidence for a role of complex nerve endings in mechanoreception. Images

Lawrenson, J G; Ruskell, G L

1993-01-01

401

Cerebral hemodynamic responses induced by specific acupuncture sensations during needling at trigger points: a near-infrared spectroscopic study.  

PubMed

Acupuncture stimulation at specific points, or trigger points (TPs), elicits sensations called "de-qi". De-qi sensations relate to the clinical efficacy of the treatment. However, it is neither clear whether de-qi sensations are associated with TPs, nor clear whether acupuncture effects on brain activity are associated with TPs or de-qi. We recorded cerebral hemodynamic responses during acupuncture stimulation at TPs and non-TPs by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. The acupuncture needle was inserted into both TPs and non-TPs within the right extensor muscle in the forearm. Typical acupuncture needle manipulation was conducted eight times for 15 s. The subjects pressed a button if they felt a de-qi sensation. We investigated how hemodynamic responses related to de-qi sensations induced at TPs and non-TPs. We observed that acupuncture stimulations producing de-qi sensations significantly decreased the Oxy-Hb concentration in the supplementary motor area (SMA), pre-supplementary motor area, and anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex regardless of the point stimulated. The hemodynamic responses were statistically analyzed using a general linear model and a boxcar function approximating the hemodynamic response. We observed that hemodynamic responses best fit the boxcar function when an onset delay was introduced into the analyses, and that the latency of de-qi sensations correlated with the onset delay of the best-fit function applied to the SMA. Our findings suggest that de-qi sensations favorably predict acupuncture effects on cerebral hemodynamics regardless of the type of site stimulated. Also, the effect of acupuncture stimulation in producing de-qi sensation was partly mediated by the central nervous system including the SMA. PMID:20502956

Takamoto, Kouich; Hori, Etsuro; Urakawa, Susumu; Sakai, Shigekazu; Ishikawa, Akihiro; Kohno, Satoru; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

2010-09-01

402

Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

2013-12-01

403

Sexual Sensation Seeking, Transactional Sex, and Rural African American Cocaine Users.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M; Wright, Patricia B; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E

2014-01-01

404

The Role of Harsh Discipline in Explaining Sex Differences in Conduct Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, two hypotheses about the role of harsh discipline (HD) in explaining the sex difference in the prevalence of conduct disorder (CD) were evaluated: that boys exhibit more CD than girls because (1) they are exposed to more HD and/or (2) there is a greater association between HD and CD in boys. These hypotheses were evaluated in…

Meier, Madeline H.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

2009-01-01

405

Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment. Report from July 25, 2005, to March 14, 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully sy...

2008-01-01

406

The Link between Harsh Home Environments and Negative Academic Trajectories Is Exacerbated by Victimization in the Elementary School Peer Group  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a prospective investigation focusing on the moderating role of peer victimization on associations between harsh home environments in the preschool years and academic trajectories during elementary school. The participants were 388 children (198 boys, 190 girls) who we recruited as part of an ongoing multisite longitudinal…

Schwartz, David; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

2013-01-01

407

Hot colors: The nature and specificity of color-induced nasal thermal sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of the recently discovered color-induced nasal thermal sensations was investigated in four Experiments. Subjects were required to fixate a bottle containing a red or green solution presented centrally (Exp1 and Exp4) or laterally (Exp2) and to sniff another bottle, always the same one, but which they were not allowed to see, containing 10ml of a colorless, odorless and

George A. Michael; Hélène Galich; Solveig Relland; Sabine Prud’hon

2010-01-01

408

Memory for Physiological Feedback in Social Anxiety Disorder: The Role of Fear of Bodily Sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether individuals with social anxiety disorder have a memory bias for bodily sensations associated with\\u000a anxiety. Using a false feedback paradigm, 33 individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and 34 non-anxious control (NAC)\\u000a participants completed a performance task while monitoring stimuli they were told provided feedback on whether their physiological\\u000a response was changing or stable. On measures

Andrea R. Ashbaugh; Adam S. Radomsky

2011-01-01

409

Spatial summation of thermal sensations depends on skin type and skin sensitivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to examine the extent to which spatial summation (SS) of thermal senses is affected\\u000a by skin type and skin thermal sensitivity. A total of 19 healthy subjects underwent measurements of warm- and cold-sensation\\u000a threshold (WST and CST) with a large (9 cm2) and small (2.25 cm2) stimulation area, within the glabrous (palm) and hairy skin

Ruth Defrin; Laura Petrini; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

2009-01-01

410

Inhibitory effect of capsaicin evoked trigeminal pain on warmth sensation and warmth evoked potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of tonic pain evoked by topical application of capsaicin on the somatosensory sensation of warmth. The warmth pathways were studied in ten healthy subjects by recording the scalp potentials evoked by non-painful warm laser stimuli delivered on both the right and left perioral region (warmth C-fiber related laser-evoked potentials (C-LEPs)).

Massimiliano Valeriani; Michele Tinazzi; Domenica Le Pera; Domenico Restuccia; Liala De Armas; Toni Maiese; Pietro Tonali; Lars Arendt-Nielsen

2005-01-01

411

Evaluation of thermal, pain, and vibration sensation thresholds in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small and large fibre function was studied in 40 non-ketotic, newly diagnosed Type 1 diabetic patients and 48 age-matched controls, using 12 quantitative tests for assessment of cutaneous sensation. Patients were aged 10-39 years and had been treated with insulin for 4-31 days. Thermal discrimination (foot), warm and cold thermal perception (thenar eminence and foot), and heat and cold pain

D Ziegler; P Mayer; F A Gries

1988-01-01

412

Effects of different light intensities during the forenoon on the afternoon thermal sensation in mild cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.1. The study aimed at knowing whether thermal sensation during afternoon cool exposure could be influenced by bright light (4000 lx) or dim light (200 lx) in the forenoon.2.2. The subjects felt cooler after exposure to dim light than to bright light.3.3. Melatonin in the urine was significantly higher in bright light than in dim light at 10:30 h and

Yumiko Teramoto; Hiromi Tokura; Kaori Ohkura; Yasue Ohmasa; Satsuki Suho; Ryo Inoshiri; Masaaki Masuda

1996-01-01

413

Appetite sensations and eating behaviors to complete fasting in obese and non-obese individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the response of appetite sensations and eating behaviors to fasting in obese and non-obese individuals.Design: Prospective study on inpatients enrolled in weight loss program including fasting at the obesity clinic, an oriental medical center in Seoul, Korea.Subjects and measurements: For seven obese (body mass index BMI?30) and 11 non-obese (BMI<30) patients, the modified visual analog scale (VAS)

S-Y Oh; BS Kim; R Choue

2002-01-01

414

Polymer/ceramic wireless MEMS pressure sensors for harsh environments: High temperature and biomedical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents an investigation of miniaturized sensors, designed to wirelessly measure pressure in harsh environments such as high temperature and biomedical applications. Current wireless microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors are silicon-based and have limited high temperature operation, require internal power sources, or have limited packaging technology that restricts their use in harsh environments. Sensor designs in this work are based on passive LC resonant circuits to achieve wireless telemetry without the need for active circuitry or internal power sources. A cavity, which is embedded into the substrate, is bound by two pressure-deformable plates that include a parallel-plate capacitor. Deflection of the plates from applied pressure changes the capacitance, thus, the resonance frequency varies and is a function of the applied pressure. The LC resonant circuit and pressure-deformable plates are fabricated into a monolithic housing that servers as the final device package (i.e. intrinsically packaged). This co-integration of device and package offers increased robustness and the ability to operate wirelessly in harsh environments. To intrinsically packaged devices, the fabrication approach relies on techniques developed for MEMS and leverage established lamination-based manufacturing processes, such as ceramic and flexible-circuit-board (flex-circuit) packaging technologies. The sensor concept is further developed by deriving the electromechanical model describing the sensor behavior. The model is initially divided into the electromagnetic model, used to develop the passive wireless telemetry, and the mechanical model, used to develop the pressure dependence of the sensor, which are then combined to estimate the sensor resonance frequency dependence as a function of applied pressure. The derived analytical model allows parametric optimization of sensor designs. The sensor concept is demonstrated in two applications: high temperature and biomedical applications. To demonstrate operation under pressure at temperatures greater than 300°, the current limits for silicon-based MEMS sensors, devices fabricated from low temperature co-fireable ceramics (LTCC) and high temperature co-fireable ceramics (HTCC) using Ag and Pt metallization, respectively, were fabricated and characterized as a function of pressure and temperature. LTCC pressure sensors were operated up to 450° and up to 5 bars of pressure while HTCC devices demonstrated electrical functionality up to 600°. To demonstrate operation in biomedical implantable applications, polymer-based flexible designs were fabricated and characterized. The pressure sensors were fabricated from LCP, polyimide, PTFE substrates using Cu metallization. The sensors were bench-tested in simulated environments for body temperature and fluid, with results exhibiting resonance frequency drift due to the non-hermetic pressure-reference cavities and the polymer moisture absorption. Additionally, the resonance frequency and quality factor of the sensors were significantly reduced when operated in high-permittivity and high-loss dielectric environments. To reduce this performance degradation, a method to passivate the sensors was developed, which used an additional dielectric layer of low permittivity and dielectric loss was introduced. To minimize the sensor drift, this work investigated an alternate design by creating a composite polymer-ceramic sensor. The device retained the flexibility of the external polymeric package while incorporating a hermetic chamber to house the reference pressure and pressure-dependent capacitor. Furthermore, PTFE polymers were selected due to their low moisture absorption. The polymer and polymer-ceramic sensors where characterized for reliability in hydrostatic air, fluid, and pulse pressure (>300 millions cycles simulating more than 7 years of pulse pressure cycles) fluid environments. Testing confirmed the reduction of frequency drift for polymer-ceramic pressure sensors compared to purely polymer-based pressure sensors

Fonseca, Michael A.

415

Evaluation of tapelifting as a collection method for touch DNA.  

PubMed

The use of tapelifting for collection of touch DNA from fabrics is routine in many jurisdictions. However, there is a paucity of data relating to the effectiveness of different types of tapes for tapelifting, the amount of tapelifting required to generate a useful profile, and whether or not tapelifting is more effective than swabbing from various substrates. This research investigates these questions by comparing two tapes of different adhesive strength currently used in forensic casework (Scotch Magic tape and Scenesafe FAST minitapes), for sampling from touch deposits on four different fabrics-cotton flannelette, cotton drill woven fabric, polyester/cotton plain woven fabric and polyester strapping. Touch DNA was deposited on four replicates of each substrate. Separate areas of each substrate replicate were sampled, either by taping with one of the two tapes or by wet/dry swabbing with cotton swabs. Tape was applied over the defined sampling area once or repeatedly for various numbers of applications. DNA was extracted, quantified and profiled from all tape and swab samples as well as the corresponding sampled substrates. Significantly more DNA was extracted, and a higher proportion of alleles detected, from Scenesafe FAST tape than from Scotch Magic tape. The amount of DNA and number of donor alleles detected generally increased as the tape was reapplied to the surface, although a threshold of collection was seen for both types of tape. For two out of four substrates, taping with Scenesafe FAST collected more DNA than swabbing and, for three substrates, generated a greater median number of donor alleles. There was no significant difference in numbers of alleles between swabbing and taping from flannelette. Based on these findings, it is recommended that a tape with stronger adhesion (such as Scenesafe FAST tapelifters) is generally preferable; that more than one application of tape is suggested (however, increasing the amount of times the area is sampled can diminish collection efficiency); and that there is an advantage using tapelifting rather than swabbing for fabrics unless, such as with flannelette, there are many loose fibres easily removed during the sampling process. PMID:24315606

Verdon, Timothy J; Mitchell, R John; van Oorschot, Roland A H

2014-01-01

416

Deqi sensation in placebo acupuncture: a crossover study on chinese medicine students.  

PubMed

Objective. To evaluate the similarity of deqi sensation of real and noninvasive placebo acupuncture in healthy people with knowledge of Chinese medicine. Methods. In a crossover design, volunteers recruited from Chinese medicine college students were randomized to two groups to receive two phases of intervention with a one-week washout interval. In Group A, the participants were firstly treated by real acupuncture and then by sham needle, and the treatment sequence was reversed in Group B. VAS for pain intensity and deqi sensation was evaluated as outcomes. Results. Sixty-three volunteers were recruited and 60 were included and finished the study. In Group A, VAS was higher in Phase I than in Phase II (P = 0.017). Only treatment methods were selected as factor to VAS difference (P = 0.046) in ANOVA test. More positive deqi was reported in Group A in Phase I when treated by real acupuncture (P = 0.039), but the difference was not significant in Phase II (P = 0.301). Conclusion. The noninvasive placebo acupuncture device can effetely simulate the deqi sensation as real acupuncture, but it is less likely to evoke the active effect of deqi in real practice. This trial is registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-ORC-09000505. PMID:23983794

Liang, Zhao-Hui; Xie, Chang-Cai; Li, Zi-Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Ping; Lu, Ai-Ping; Fu, Wen-Bin

2013-01-01

417

Assessment of the methods available for testing sensation in leprosy patients in a rural setting.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy, practicality and patient understanding of 5 methods used for testing sensation in leprosy patients, in a rural setting. The tests used were the WHO test, cottonwool, pin-prick, monofilaments and the biothesiometer. We concentrated on testing sensation in the hands, and the various tests were carried out on 75 patients and 32 controls, all taken from villagers living at Kindwitwi Leprosy Village, Tanzania. Our results showed that although the WHO test, cottonwool and pin-prick were all easy to use, cheap and well accepted they were not sensitive enough to be of any practical value. We found that the monofilaments, as well as being cheap and easy to use, had great potential value, as the 2-g monofilament could be used as a threshold value (indicative of leprosy, but not diagnostic) for protective sensation with a combined false-positive and false-negative value of only 4%. Finally, the biothesiometer was found to be a precise test that can accurately identify leprosy patients from controls and identify patients at risk of ulceration. It was, however, associated with its own problems, chiefly those of expense and its need of electricity, although we found this latter problem could be easily and relatively cheaply solved by the use of a solar powered recharger (Appendix). PMID:7731342

Owen, B M; Stratford, C J

1995-03-01

418

Rikkunshito improves globus sensation in patients with proton-pump inhibitor-refractory laryngopharyngeal reflux  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of rikkunshito on laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms and gastric emptying in patients with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory LPR. METHODS: In total, 22 patients with LPR were enrolled. Following a 2-wk treatment with PPI monotherapy, PPI-refractory LPR patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups (rikkunshito alone or rikkunshito plus the PPI, lansoprazole). LPR symptoms were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) score, gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed using the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), and gastric emptying was assessed using the radio-opaque marker method prior to and 4 wk following treatments. RESULTS: The 4-wk treatment with rikkunshito alone and with rikkunshito plus the PPI significantly decreased the globus sensation VAS scores. The VAS score for sore throat was significantly decreased following treatment with rikkunshito plus PPI but not by rikkunshito alone. Neither treatment significantly changed the GSRS scores. Rikkunshito improved delayed gastric emptying. We found a significant positive correlation between improvements in globus sensation and in gastric emptying (r2 = 0.4582, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rikkunshito improved globus sensation in patients with PPI-refractory LPR, in part, because of stimulation of gastric emptying. Thus, rikkunshito is an effective treatment for PPI-refractory LPR.

Tokashiki, Ryoji; Okamoto, Isaku; Funato, Nobutoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

2013-01-01

419

The Relationship Between Pathological Gambling and Sensation Seeking: The Role of Subscale Scores  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the relationship between gambling and sensation seeking has yet to establish conclusively whether pathological gamblers (PGs) are more or less sensation seeking than nonpathological gamblers (NPGs). Sensation seeking is usually measured with the Zuckerman et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 46:139–149, 1978) SS Scale form V (SSS-V). Whereas previous studies relied on the SSS-V total score, the current study uses two samples to demonstrate the importance of the SSS-V subscales, which include Thrill and Adventure Seeking (TA), Experience Seeking (ES), Disinhibition (DS), and Boredom Susceptibility (BS). In two samples, strong intrascale correlations between DS and BS, and between TA and ES, suggest that certain subscales reflect similar underlying characteristics. In both samples PGs displayed higher scores than NPGs on the DS and BS subscales, with mean differences in Sample 2 reaching significant levels for both DS and BS. Results support the notion that the SSS-V can be divided into concepts reflecting actual behavior, based on the DS and BS subscales, and hypothetical behavior, based on the TA and ES subscales. Furthermore, PGs appear to have a preference for the more behavioral subscales while NPGs show a preference for the more hypothetical subscales. Reasons for the subscale divisions and preferences are discussed.

Fortune, Erica E.

2010-01-01

420

Experience of unpleasant sensations in the mouth after injection of saline from prefilled syringes  

PubMed Central

Background Nurses at The Norwegian Radium Hospital have reported that some patients notice an unpleasant smell or taste in accordance with flushing of intravenous lines with commercially available prefilled syringes. We have conducted a study in healthy volunteers to investigate the occurrence, consistency and intensity of this phenomenon. Methods A randomised, blinded, crossover study comparing commercial available prefilled saline 9 mg/ml syringes to saline 9 mg/ml for injection in polyethylene package was performed in 10 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were given intravenous injections of varying volume and speed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, and also Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test to compare groups. Results After intravenous injection, 2 of 15 recordings demonstrated any sensation of smell or taste after injection of saline from polyethylene package, while 14 of 15 recordings noted a sensation after injection of saline from prefilled syringes. The intensity of the unpleasant sensation was rated significantly higher after injection of saline from prefilled syringes compared to saline from polyethylene (p = 0.001). Conclusions Injection of saline from prefilled syringes in healthy volunteers resulted in an experience of bad taste or smell. It is important that nurses and health workers are aware of the phenomenon as described in this article in order to choose the preferred product for a given patient.

2010-01-01

421

Nipple-sparing mastectomy: evaluation of patient satisfaction, aesthetic results, and sensation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to describe our experience with nipple-sparing mastectomy and immediate reconstruction, with particular attention to patient satisfaction, aesthetic results, and nipple sensation. Immediate reconstruction was performed on 17 breasts in 10 patients, using either implants or autologous tissue flaps. Assessment of outcomes was performed through patient interviews, a self-reported patient satisfaction survey and review of postoperative photographs. Short-term complications included partial loss of the nipple-areolar complex requiring debridement (n = 3) and removal of the nipple-areolar complex (n = 2) for occult ductal carcinoma in situ. While all patients with completed breast reconstructions were satisfied with their general reconstructive experience, 6 of 9 patients were aesthetically satisfied with their breast reconstruction. Postoperative nipple sensation was reported in 75% of patients, although sensation was low (mean of 2.8 of 10). As nipple-sparing mastectomy is becoming an increasing patient preference, preoperative discussion needs to address expectations, aesthetic satisfaction, and long-term cancer control. PMID:19387167

Yueh, Janet H; Houlihan, Mary Jane; Slavin, Sumner A; Lee, Bernard T; Pories, Susan E; Morris, Donald J

2009-05-01

422

Distant touch hydrodynamic imaging with an artificial lateral line.  

PubMed

Nearly all underwater vehicles and surface ships today use sonar and vision for imaging and navigation. However, sonar and vision systems face various limitations, e.g., sonar blind zones, dark or murky environments, etc. Evolved over millions of years, fish use the lateral line, a distributed linear array of flow sensing organs, for underwater hydrodynamic imaging and information extraction. We demonstrate here a proof-of-concept artificial lateral line system. It enables a distant touch hydrodynamic imaging capability to critically augment sonar and vision systems. We show that the artificial lateral line can successfully perform dipole source localization and hydrodynamic wake detection. The development of the artificial lateral line is aimed at fundamentally enhancing human ability to detect, navigate, and survive in the underwater environment. PMID:17132735

Yang, Yingchen; Chen, Jack; Engel, Jonathan; Pandya, Saunvit; Chen, Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Coombs, Sheryl; Jones, Douglas L; Liu, Chang

2006-12-12

423

Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-02-01

424

Integrated Modeling of Spacecraft Touch-and-Go Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated modeling tool has been developed to include multi-body dynamics, orbital dynamics, and touch-and-go dynamics for spacecraft covering three types of end-effectors: a sticky pad, a brush-wheel sampler, and a pellet gun. Several multi-body models of a free-flying spacecraft with a multi-link manipulator driving these end-effectors have been tested with typical contact conditions arising when the manipulator arm is to sample the surface of an asteroidal body. The test data have been infused directly into the dynamics formulation including such information as the mass collected as a function of end-effector longitudinal speed for the brush-wheel and sticky-pad samplers, and the mass collected as a function of projectile speed for the pellet gun sampler. These data represent the realistic behavior of the end effector while in contact with a surface, and represent a low-order model of more complex contact conditions that otherwise would have to be simulated. Numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of these multibody models for spacecraft and manipulator- arm control design. The work contributes to the development of a touch-and-go testbed for small body exploration, denoted as the GREX Testbed (GN&C for Rendezvous-based EXploration). The GREX testbed addresses the key issues involved in landing on an asteroidal body or comet; namely, a complex, low-gravity field; partially known terrain properties; possible comet outgassing; dust ejection; and navigating to a safe and scientifically desirable zone.

Quadrelli, Marco

2009-01-01

425

The cuetable: cooperative and competitive multi-touch interaction on a tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explain how we built cueTable, a multi-touch interactive tabletop, as a base technology to explore new interaction concepts for cooperative and competitive multi-touch applications. We present the Puh game application. And most of all we report on user feedback to the cueTable and the Puh game.

Tom Gross; Mirko Fetter; Sascha Liebsch

2008-01-01

426

It does not Fitts my data! Analysing large amounts of mobile touch data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touchscreens are the dominant input device for smartphones and learning about smartphone users' touch behaviour became even more important. We developed a game for Android phones to collect a truly large amount of touch data from diverse devices and players. A part of the game is designed as what we expected to be a Fitts' law task. By publishing the

Niels Henze; Susanne Boll

427

Development of a touch trigger probe for micro\\/nano CMM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs) restrict the possibilities for measuring micro mechanical products and noncontact optical measuring methods are not suitable for true three-dimensional measurements. The integrated combination of optical sensors and mechanical transducers employed in this research makes an ideal low cost and high precision touch trigger probe possible to measure miniature components. This touch probe is composed of

Wei-Li Wang; Kuang-Chao Fan; Ye-Jin Chen; Ye-Tai Fei

2008-01-01

428

Lovers in Touch: Inoperative Community in Nancy, Duras and India Song  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article takes as its point of departure Maurice Blanchot's pairing of Marguerite Duras and Jean-Luc Nancy in The Unavowable Community, and reads India Song, a film by Duras, through Nancy's work on community. Just as Nancy articulates a thinking of community in terms of touch, so Duras develops her own filmic vocabulary of touch to examine questions of being-with,

Laura McMahon

2008-01-01

429

User performance on typing tasks involving reduced-size, touch screen keyboards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of using a touch screen to interact with navigation displays led us to develop and evaluate three reduced-size, touch screen keyboards. One keyboard had a standard QWERTY layout; another had a modified QWERTY layout with keys aligned in a matrix; the third had a matrix of keys arranged in alphabetical order. Twenty adults varying in age and typing

Marilyn F. Coleman; Beth A. Loring; Michael E. Wiklund

1991-01-01

430

Photonics Applications: From Simple Optical Touch Switches and Fiber-Optic Switches, to Optical Sensing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This talks will highlight the exploitation of photonics for the implementations of optical touch switches (1), 2x2 fiber-optic switches (2), tunable contrast interferometers (3), and digitally controlled optical beam shapers (4). Our optical touch switches are based on the use of total internal reflection concept that can prevent the leakage light perturbing the user eyes and the ability to adjust

Sarun Sumriddetchkajorn

431

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

432

CLSI On-Line Public Catalog Touch Terminal Manual: Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual developed by the Public Access Subcommittee of the Reference Department of Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) provides instructions for using the library's online public catalog by means of a touch terminal which accepts commands in the form of a touch on a particular part of the terminal screen. Author and…

California State Univ., Chico.

433

Development of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) touch probe using a multi-axis force sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional touch trigger probes are widely used on most commercial coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). However, the CMMs with these probes have a systematic error due to the shape of the probe tip and elastic deformation of the stylus resulting from contact pressure with the specimen. In this paper, a new touch probe with a three degrees-of-freedom force sensor is proposed.

Jae-jun Park; Kihwan Kwon; Nahmgyoo Cho

2006-01-01

434

Modelling of pretravel for touch trigger probes on indexable probe heads on coordinate measuring machines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a pretravel model for touch trigger probes mounted on indexable probe heads, which can rotate and tilt the probe into a number of orientations for coordinate measurements on coordinate measuring machines (CMMs). Pretravel accounts for the majority of touch trigger probe errors and is caused by bending deflection of the stylus shaft. A trigger force model is

Yin-Lin Shen; Xianping Zhang

1997-01-01

435

Smile Intensity and Warm Touch as Thin Slices of Child and Family Affective Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the claim that thin slices of expressive behavior serve as reliable indicators of affective style in children and their families. Using photographs, the authors assessed smile intensity and tactile contact in kindergartners and their families. Consistent with claims that smiling and touch communicate positive emotion, measures of children’s smile intensity and warm family touch were correlated across

Christopher Oveis; June Gruber; Dacher Keltner; Juliet L. Stamper; W. Thomas Boyce

2009-01-01

436

The control system of belt grinder which based on the touch screen and PLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduced the core control system for belt grinder was the PLC, and the touch screen as the man-machine interface. Through the touch screen we can set up the parameters of grinding, and show the grinding process on dynamic condition and realtime. Adopt the USS protocol to control the frequency converter, which can realize the belt grinder speed to

Wang Huiqiang; Xing Yanqiu; Xiao Tao

2010-01-01

437

Functional parcellation of the human primary somatosensory cortex to natural touch.  

PubMed

Despite the significance of human touch, brain responses to interpersonal manual touch have been rarely investigated. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study brain activity in eight healthy adults whose left hand was touched by two individuals, in separate runs and in 20-s blocks, either by holding, smoothing, or poking. Acceleration was measured from both the subject's and the touching person's hands for postimaging control of the stimuli. Independent component analysis of the functional magnetic resonance imaging data unraveled three functional networks involving the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). One network comprised the contralateral and another the ipsilateral Brodmann area 3. The third network included area 2 bilaterally, left-hemisphere middle temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal regions, ventral prefrontal cortices bilaterally, and middle cingulate cortex. The response shapes and polarities varied between the three networks. The contralateral area 3 differentiated the responses between the three types of touch stimuli, and the response magnitudes depended on the variability of the touch within each block. However, the responses of the other two networks were strikingly similar to all stimuli. The subjects' reports on the pleasantness of the touch did not correlate with the characteristics of the SI responses. These findings imply area-specific processing of the natural human touch in three networks including the SI cortex, with only area 2 connected to a functional network of brain areas that may support social interaction. PMID:24447026

Malinen, Sanna; Renvall, Ville; Hari, Riitta

2014-03-01

438

Differential Involvement of Somatosensory and Interoceptive Cortices during the Observation of Affective Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that the observation of other individuals' somatosensory experiences also activates brain circuits processing one's own somatosensory experiences. However, it is unclear whether cortical regions involved with the elementary stages of touch processing are also involved in the automatic coding of the affective consequences of observed touch and to which extent they show overlapping activation for somatosensory experiences

Sjoerd J. H. Ebisch; Francesca Ferri; Anatolia Salone; Mauro Gianni Perrucci; Luigi D'Amico; Filippo Maria Ferro; Gian Luca Romani; Vittorio Gallese

2011-01-01

439

Viewing One's Own Face Being Touched Modulates Tactile Perception: An fMRI Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The perception of tactile stimuli on the face is modulated if subjects concurrently observe a face being touched; this effect, termed visual remapping of touch (VRT), is maximum for observing one's own face. In the present fMRI study, we investigated the neural basis of the VRT effect. Participants in the scanner received tactile stimuli, near the perceptual threshold, on their

Flavia Cardini; Marcello Costantini; Gaspare Galati; Gian Luca Romani; Elisabetta Làdavas; Andrea Serino

2011-01-01

440

Design of the 3D Input Method Based on Touch Device for Mobile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis describes the technology to express 3D gesture as an input from common 2-dimension touch input panel without additional hardware development or change to provide near real 3D UI and algorithm to implement such technology. It introduces how 3D user interface has become the major issues among the major mobile vendors and briefly describes existing