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1

The neural circuits and sensory channels mediating harsh touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most animals can distinguish two distinct types of touch stimuli: gentle (innocuous) and harsh (noxious\\/painful) touch, however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model for the study of gentle touch sensation. However, little is known about harsh touch sensation in this organism. Here we characterize harsh touch sensation in C. elegans. We show that

Wei Li; Lijun Kang; Beverly J. Piggott; Zhaoyang Feng; X. Z. Shawn Xu

2011-01-01

2

Prevalence of touch sensation (sparshanendriya-vyapaktva).  

PubMed

There are much more topics in our Ayurvedic classics about which we have limited knowledge. Like this an another topic is Indriya. We don't know what is indriya or what are their sites. Are the organs by which we perceive sensation called Indriya or different from them? Acharya Charaka has told five types of Indriyas, Sparshanendriya, Chakshurendriya, Ghranendriya, Rasanendriya & Shravanendriya. He also described their sites, functions, composition, and their properties. But he also told that Sparshanendriya is the main Indriya and it is present in all Indriyas. Why Charaka told that Sparshanendriya is Vyapak in all Indriyas. Is this concept wrong or right? The answer is right & this concept can be proved by following means as described in this paper. PMID:22131695

Kumar, Ajay; Singhal, Tina; Upadhyay, B N

2010-01-01

3

Prevalence of Touch Sensation (Sparshanendriya-Vyapaktva)  

PubMed Central

There are much more topics in our Ayurvedic classics about which we have limited knowledge. Like this an another topic is Indriya. We don’t know what is indriya or what are their sites. Are the organs by which we perceive sensation called Indriya or different from them? Acharya Charaka has told five types of Indriyas, Sparshanendriya, Chakshurendriya, Ghranendriya, Rasanendriya & Shravanendriya. He also described their sites, functions, composition, and their properties. But he also told that Sparshanendriya is the main Indriya and it is present in all Indriyas. Why Charaka told that Sparshanendriya is Vyapak in all Indriyas. Is this concept wrong or right? The answer is right & this concept can be proved by following means as described in this paper.

Kumar, Ajay; Singhal, Tina; Upadhyay, B. N.

2010-01-01

4

[Experimental studies on the transitional characteristics from touch sensation to pressure sensation in the mechanoreceptive sensation of periodontium].  

PubMed

Many studies have made on the physiological significance of the periodontium in relation to oral functions. But, although its importance to oral functions has been pointed out, few investigations have been carried out on the periodontal pressoreceptive information system. To help rectify this situation, as a link in investigations of soft-food textures, the author attempted to determine how a sense of pressure was perceived when loads gradually increasing from very small were applied to the tooth surface. In addition, the author attempted to clarify the way the periodontium discerns differences between initial and secondary loadings in a range of small loads between the touch sensation and the pressure sensation. Subjects were 10 males with sound, natural dentition and no disorders in mandibular functions. In order to eliminate intervention from pressoreceptors in the masticatory muscles and the mandibular joints, the upper first premolar was chosen as the test tooth. Small loads were applied in 2 directions: parallel to the first premolar vertical axis (vertical) and from the lingual to the buccal sides parallel to the occlusal plane (horizontal). For vertical loading, the mesial pit on the occlusal surface was chosen as the loading point. The middle point on the lingual surface was chosen as loading point for horizontal loading. First, loading on the tooth surface was gradually increased to obtain (1) threshold value for touch sensation; that is, minimal load required to incite a touch sensation, and (2) critical value for pressure sensation; that is, minimal load required to incite the pressure sensation subsequent to the touch sensation. Each subject was requested to press a hand switch in the moment he experienced the sensation of being touched and then again when, during increases of load, the touch sensation changed to the pressure sensation. The loading device was built into an electric strain gauge. Loads were increased gradually from 0 g to 60 g, with an increase ratio of about 10 g/sec. Loading wave and switching signal were simultaneously recorded on an oscillograph. Second, in order to determine the ability to discriminate small loads, with the same loading device, initial load was applied to the tooth. This load served as control. As soon as the load was sensed, it was removed. Then the secondary (testing) load was applied. Subjects were requested to say whether the secondary load was larger, smaller than or same as the initial one.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2135498

Ogumi, I

1990-04-01

5

A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.  

PubMed

For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the no-touch rubber hand paradigm. PMID:22445446

Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

2012-01-30

6

The mammalian sodium channel BNC1 is required for normal touch sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Of the vertebrate senses, touch is the least understood at the molecular level. The ion channels that form the core of the mechanosensory complex and confer touch sensitivity remain unknown. However, the similarity of the brain sodium channel 1 (BNC1) to nematode proteins involved in mechanotransduction indicated that it might be a part of such a mechanosensor. Here we show

Margaret P. Price; Gary R. Lewin; Sabrina L. McIlwrath; Chun Cheng; Jinghui Xie; Paul A. Heppenstall; Cheryl L. Stucky; Anne G. Mannsfeldt; Timothy J. Brennan; Heather A. Drummond; Jing Qiao; Christopher J. Benson; Deirdre E. Tarr; Ron F. Hrstka; Baoli Yang; Roger A. Williamson; Michael J. Welsh

2000-01-01

7

Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Humans are able to feel things touching them because of the nerve endings and different receptors embedded in their skin. Skin covers and protects the body, but it can also detect touch, pressure, heat, cold, and pain.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-30

8

TRPC1 contributes to light-touch sensation and mechanical responses in low-threshold cutaneous sensory neurons.  

PubMed

The cellular proteins that underlie mechanosensation remain largely enigmatic in mammalian systems. Mechanically sensitive ion channels are thought to distinguish pressure, stretch, and other types of tactile signals in skin. Transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) is a candidate mechanically sensitive channel that is expressed in primary afferent sensory neurons. However, its role in the mechanical sensitivity of these neurons is unclear. Here, we investigated TRPC1-dependent responses to both innocuous and noxious mechanical force. Mechanically evoked action potentials in cutaneous myelinated A-fiber and unmyelinated C-fiber neurons were quantified using the ex vivo skin-nerve preparation to record from the saphenous nerve, which terminates in the dorsal hairy skin of the hindpaw. Our data reveal that in TRPC1-deficient mice, mechanically evoked action potentials were decreased by nearly 50% in slowly adapting A?-fibers, which largely innervate Merkel cells, and in rapidly adapting A?-Down-hair afferent fibers compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, differences were not found in slowly adapting A?-mechanoreceptors or unmyelinated C-fibers, which primarily respond to nociceptive stimuli. These results suggest that TRPC1 may be important in the detection of innocuous mechanical force. We concurrently investigated the role of TRPC1 in behavioral responses to mechanical force to the plantar hindpaw skin. For innocuous stimuli, we developed a novel light stroke assay using a "puffed out" cotton swab. Additionally, we used repeated light, presumably innocuous punctate stimuli with a low threshold von Frey filament (0.68 mN). In agreement with our electrophysiological data in light-touch afferents, TRPC1-deficient mice exhibited nearly a 50% decrease in behavioral responses to both the light-stroke and light punctate mechanical assays when compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, TRPC1-deficient mice exhibited normal paw withdrawal response to more intense mechanical stimuli that are typically considered measures of nociceptive behavior. PMID:22072513

Garrison, Sheldon R; Dietrich, Alexander; Stucky, Cheryl L

2011-11-09

9

TRPC1 contributes to light-touch sensation and mechanical responses in low-threshold cutaneous sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

The cellular proteins that underlie mechanosensation remain largely enigmatic in mammalian systems. Mechanically sensitive ion channels are thought to distinguish pressure, stretch, and other types of tactile signals in skin. Transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) is a candidate mechanically sensitive channel that is expressed in primary afferent sensory neurons. However, its role in the mechanical sensitivity of these neurons is unclear. Here, we investigated TRPC1-dependent responses to both innocuous and noxious mechanical force. Mechanically evoked action potentials in cutaneous myelinated A-fiber and unmyelinated C-fiber neurons were quantified using the ex vivo skin-nerve preparation to record from the saphenous nerve, which terminates in the dorsal hairy skin of the hindpaw. Our data reveal that in TRPC1-deficient mice, mechanically evoked action potentials were decreased by nearly 50% in slowly adapting A?-fibers, which largely innervate Merkel cells, and in rapidly adapting A?-Down-hair afferent fibers compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, differences were not found in slowly adapting A?-mechanoreceptors or unmyelinated C-fibers, which primarily respond to nociceptive stimuli. These results suggest that TRPC1 may be important in the detection of innocuous mechanical force. We concurrently investigated the role of TRPC1 in behavioral responses to mechanical force to the plantar hindpaw skin. For innocuous stimuli, we developed a novel light stroke assay using a “puffed out” cotton swab. Additionally, we used repeated light, presumably innocuous punctate stimuli with a low threshold von Frey filament (0.68 mN). In agreement with our electrophysiological data in light-touch afferents, TRPC1-deficient mice exhibited nearly a 50% decrease in behavioral responses to both the light-stroke and light punctate mechanical assays when compared with wild-type controls. In contrast, TRPC1-deficient mice exhibited normal paw withdrawal response to more intense mechanical stimuli that are typically considered measures of nociceptive behavior.

Garrison, Sheldon R.; Dietrich, Alexander

2012-01-01

10

Use of Decision Support for Clothing Products on the Web Results in No Difference in Perception of Tactile Sensation Than Actually Touching the Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of decision support through visualization to increase tactile sensations (physical sensations) of clothing products. Gap and Anthropologie e-commerce Web sites were selected, and 160 participants (80 for Gap and 80 for Anthropologie) took part in this study. For each brand, the 80 participants were divided into two groups. One group

K. Jeong; S. Jang; J. Chae; G. Cho; Gavriel Salvendy

2008-01-01

11

In Vivo Imaging of C. elegans Mechanosensory Neurons Demonstrates a Specific Role for the MEC-4 Channel in the Process of Gentle Touch Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nematode C. elegans, genes encoding components of a putative mechanotransducing channel complex have been identified in screens for light-touch-insensitive mutants. A long-standing question, however, is whether identified MEC proteins act directly in touch transduction or contribute indirectly by maintaining basic mechanoreceptor neuron physiology. In this study, we used the genetically encoded calcium indicator cameleon to record cellular responses

Hiroshi Suzuki; Rex Kerr; Laura Bianchi; Christian Frøkjær-Jensen; Dan Slone; Jian Xue; Beate Gerstbrein; Monica Driscoll; William R. Schafer

2003-01-01

12

Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation.

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurelie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

2012-01-01

13

Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

14

Therapeutic Touch  

MedlinePLUS

... Ashford RL. Therapeutic touch for healing acute wounds. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD002766. Robinson J, ... FC, Dolk H. Therapeutic touch for anxiety disorders. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD006240. ...

15

FuSA2 Touch Display: A furry and scalable multi-touch display  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a furry and scalable multi-touch display called the “FuSA2 Touch Display.” The furry type of tactile sensation of this surface affords various interactions such as stroking or clawing. The system utilizes plastic fiber optic bundles to realize a furry-type texture. The system can show visual feedback by projection and detects multi-touch input. We implemented a 24-inch display, and

Kosuke Nakajima; Yuichi Itoh; Takayuki Tsukitani; Kazuyuki Fujita; Kazuki Takashima; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino

2012-01-01

16

Physiology of rectal sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The first awareness of balloon inflation (first sensation (FS)), flatus sensation (constant sensation (CS)), urge to defecate (UD), and maximum tolerated threshold (MTT) are the four commonly evaluated rectal sensations. The traditional view that these sensations are attributable to pelvic floor mechanoreceptor stimulation is challenged by current evidence in favor of rectal wall mechanoreceptors. The aim of this study

G. N. Rao; P. J. Drew; J. R. T. Monson; G. S. Duthie

1997-01-01

17

A pilot study on simulating continuous sensation with two vibrating motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a pilot study to present a continuous touch sensation with low-resolution array of a vibrotactile device on human skin using funneling illusion. The funneling illusion occurs when two loud stimuli presented simultaneously to adjacent locations on the skin, and they are funneled to form a sensation between the two stimulators rather than felt separately. This sensation is

Jongeun Cha; Lara Rahal; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik

2008-01-01

18

Transient Receptor Potential Ion Channels and Animal Sensation: Lessons from Drosophila Functional Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion channels of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily are non-selective cationic channels with six transmembrane domains. The TRP channel made its first debut as a light-gated Ca 2+ channel in Drosophila. Recently, research on animal sensation in Drosophila disclosed other members of the TRP family that are required for touch sensation and hearing as well as the sensation of

Changsoo Kim

2004-01-01

19

Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Is Associated with Fatigue Sensation  

PubMed Central

Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H2 15O positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11). Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue.

Tajima, Seiki; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yosky; Iwase, Masao; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tsukada, Hideo; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

2010-01-01

20

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch.  

PubMed

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions among whisker movement, neural activity and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in a closed loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of the spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. The illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior, consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O'Connor, Daniel H; Hires, S Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-06-02

21

The relative timing of active and passive touch.  

PubMed

Tactile stimulation usually occurs as a combination of an active movement (reaching out to touch a surface) and a sensation (actually feeling the surface against the skin). The brain has information about the active component (the motor command) before it occurs because of efference copy, while the passive component must be transduced before it can be processed. Since the active and passive tactile components are available to the brain at different times, determining the time of touch requires calculation worked backwards from the passive sensation, and/or worked forward from the active motor command. In order to determine which touch process is perceived more quickly, we varied the relative delay between an active and a passive touch signal and determined the relative time perceived as simultaneous. A passive touch needed to be presented before an active key was pressed in order for the two touches to be perceived as simultaneous, but this timing difference was not significant. In order to test the plasticity of the active and passive touch systems, we exploited the fact that the point of subjective simultaneity between two stimuli can sometimes be altered by repeated exposure to asynchronous presentation. We exposed subjects to an active key press/ passive touch pair delayed by 250 ms. This exposure increased the range of relative delays between active and passive touches at which the pairs were judged as simultaneous. This is consistent with an adaptive change in the processing of active touch. PMID:18634764

Winter, Rebecca; Harrar, Vanessa; Gozdzik, Marta; Harris, Laurence R

2008-07-02

22

Lateral Facilitation between Primary Mechanosensory Neurons Controls Nose Touch Perception in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Summary The nematode C. elegans senses head and nose touch using multiple classes of mechanoreceptor neurons that are electrically coupled through a network of gap junctions. Using in vivo neuroimaging, we have found that multidendritic nociceptors in the head respond to harsh touch throughout their receptive field but respond to gentle touch only at the tip of the nose. Whereas the harsh touch response depends solely on cell-autonomous mechanosensory channels, gentle nose touch responses require facilitation by additional nose touch mechanoreceptors, which couple electrically to the nociceptors in a hub-and-spoke gap junction network. Conversely, nociceptor activity indirectly facilitates activation of the nose touch neurons, demonstrating that information flow across the network is bidirectional. Thus, a simple gap-junction circuit acts as a coincidence detector that allows primary sensory neurons to integrate information from neighboring mechanoreceptors and generate somatosensory perception.

Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Schafer, William R.

2011-01-01

23

Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing

K. Carrie Armel; V. S. Ramachandran

2003-01-01

24

Dimensions of sensation seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 63 new items for the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) in an attempt to develop new scales representative of hypothesized dimensions of sensation seeking. An experimental form was given to 332 and 92 undergraduates at 2 universities. Data from the 1st university was factor analyzed separately for males and females. Besides the general factor running through diverse items, 4 factors

Marvin Zuckerman

1971-01-01

25

Charles Reade's Sensational Realism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation fiction, which flourished in England from the 1850s to the 1880s, was viewed by Victorian establishment figures as a threat to prevailing social values. This dissertation focuses on the work of Charles Reade, who along with Wilkie Collins and Mary Elizabeth Braddon, was among the most well-known sensation novelists. While several novels by Collins and Braddon have been rediscovered

Richard Fantina

2007-01-01

26

Harsh humour: a therapeutic discourse.  

PubMed

Humour research in healthcare has tended to focus on rehearsed as opposed to spontaneous humour. This paper reports an empirical example of spontaneous humour in healthcare interactions: a negative case analysis from a constructivist grounded theory study. Twenty Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)-patient interactions and CNS pre- and postinteraction audio diaries provided the baseline data corpus. Follow-up interviews, field notes, focus groups and observations serviced theory generation with a constant comparison approach to data collection and analyses. Interpretative and illustrative frameworks incorporating humour theories, non-laughter humour support, discursive features and prosodical features of speech were applied to all data. This paper is based upon the negative case comprising a 90-minute follow-up interview and 10 hours of field note observations. The negative case - a CNS working with female drug users' sexual and reproductive health needs - contradicted emerging findings from the baseline data corpus. First, the negative case had greater awareness of humour, deliberately initiated humour and recognised parameters and exclusion zones. Second, a good patient personal was evident in the baseline data corpus but the negative case worked with 'bad' patients. Accordingly, a specific type of humour - harsh humour - was evident in the negative case. Harsh humour used areas of potential discord (e.g. drug use) as a focus of humour creation and maintenance. The deliberate initiation of harsh humour enabled the negative case and her colleagues to achieve their aims by engaging effectively with unpredictable, reluctant and recalcitrant patients. The negative case demonstrates how humour can be used to therapeutically enhance healthcare interactions with disenfranchised individuals. Humour is not superficial but integral to the accomplishment of key aspects of interactions. Health and social care workers should consider the potential for therapeutic humour to engage and maintain all patients - disenfranchised or otherwise - in healthcare interactions. PMID:20561075

McCreaddie, May

2010-11-01

27

Merkel cell-neurite complexes in touch domes of hamster cheek pouch.  

PubMed

Morphological study has been done in touch domes of hamster cheek pouch as a preparation for further electrophysiological study. The touch domes were examined by light and electron microscopy. There were one or two primary ridges (epithelial ridges) in the center of the touch dome, and each dome was supplied by one to three nerve fibres. Tactile cells (Merkel cells) were localized within primary ridges of touch domes and Merkel cell-neurite complexes were observed in every one. Since Merkel cell-neurite complexes are slow adapting mechanoreceptors, these results suggest that they might be involved in touch sensation. PMID:7987970

Tazaki, M; Sakada, S

1994-05-01

28

Prevalence, characteristics and a neurocognitive model of mirror-touch synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In so-called ‘mirror-touch synaesthesia’, observing touch to another person induces a subjective tactile sensation on the\\u000a synaesthete’s own body. It has been suggested that this type of synaesthesia depends on increased activity in neural systems\\u000a activated when observing touch to others. Here we report the first study on the prevalence of this variant of synaesthesia.\\u000a Our findings indicate that this

Michael J. Banissy; Roi Cohen Kadosh; Gerrit W. Maus; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward

2009-01-01

29

Tactile Sensation for Robots  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we provide a brief discussion of the relationship of tactile sensation to other sensory modalities currently showing prominence in industrial robots. A tactile sensor is presented which provides a matrix of the forces existing between it and the object with which it is in contact. The possible uses of this information in the control of the manipulation

Kenneth J. Overton; Thomas Williams

1981-01-01

30

The Sensation of Colour  

Microsoft Academic Search

PROF. CLERK MAXWELL in his valuable paper on Colour in NATURE (vol. iv. p. 13) commits himself to the opinion that there must be three distinct sets of retinal nerves, one for each of the three primary sensations of colour. It is obvious that demonstrative proof or disproof of this is unattainable : we can only reason analogically. The analogy

Joseph John Murphy

1871-01-01

31

Color-sensation theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this discussion the author comments on Dr. Sanford's review of her paper on the color-sensation theory. In the article Franklin mentions briefly (1) that she has considered the reviewer's objection to her explanation of simultaneous contrast to be well taken, and that she shall hereafter attribute that phenomenon to a purposeful reflex action, which is also Hering's explanation of

Christine Ladd Franklin

1894-01-01

32

Inferring another's expectation from action: the role of peripheral sensation.  

PubMed

It is unclear how knowledge of one's actions and one's body contribute to the understanding of others' actions. Here we show that two subjects lacking cutaneous touch and sense of movement and position show a selective deficit in interpreting another person's anticipation of weight when seeing him lifting boxes. We suggest that this ability occurs through mental simulation of action dependent on internal motor representations, which require peripheral sensation for their maintenance. PMID:16136040

Bosbach, Simone; Cole, Jonathan; Prinz, Wolfgang; Knoblich, Günther

2005-08-28

33

Haptics: Touch Command  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience haptic (the sense of touch) feedback by using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and touch sensors to emulate touch feedback recognition. With four touch sensors connected to LEGO NXTs, they design sensor attachments that feel physically distinguishable from each another. Then students answer questions and communicate their answers to the NXT by pressing the touch sensor that is associated with the right multiple-choice answer letter. Haptics becomes essential when students must use the NXT sensors to answer the next set of questions without the aid of their vision. This challenges them to rely solely on the tactile feeling of each unique touch sensor attachment that they created in order to choose the correct peripheral slot. Students also learn about real-world applications of haptics technology.

Applying Mechatronics to Promote Science (AMPS) GK-12 Program,

34

Incidental haptic sensations influence social judgments and decisions.  

PubMed

Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth puzzles, and touching hard or soft objects nonconsciously influenced impressions and decisions formed about unrelated people and situations. Among other effects, heavy objects made job candidates appear more important, rough objects made social interactions appear more difficult, and hard objects increased rigidity in negotiations. Basic tactile sensations are thus shown to influence higher social cognitive processing in dimension-specific and metaphor-specific ways. PMID:20576894

Ackerman, Joshua M; Nocera, Christopher C; Bargh, John A

2010-06-25

35

Painful and non-painful pressure sensations from human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed

Painful and non-painful pressure sensations from muscle are generally accepted to exist but the peripheral neural correlate has not been clarified. The aim of the present human study was to assess the non-painful and painful pressure sensitivity with (1) anaesthetised skin, and (2) anaesthetised skin combined with a block of large diameter muscle afferents. The skin was anaesthetised by a topically applied anaesthetic cream and later lidocaine was administrated subcutaneously. The pressure sensitivity was assessed quantitatively by computer-controlled pressure stimulation on the anterior tibial muscle. Thresholds to detection, pain and pain tolerance were assessed. In the first experiment, computer-controlled needle insertion depths evoking touch and pain sensations were used to assess the efficacy of cutaneous anaesthesia. Touch and pain sensations evoked during needle insertions were found to be superficial in intact skin but when anaesthetised, touch sensation was occasionally evoked at depths related to penetration of the fascia. With the skin completely anaesthetised to brush and von Frey hair pinprick stimulation, skin indentation with the strongest von Frey hair caused a sensation described as a deep touch sensation. Simultaneously, pressure detection and pain thresholds increased but it was still possible to elicit non-painful and painful pressure sensation in all subjects. In a second experiment, a differential nerve block of group I and II afferent fibres was obtained by full-leg ischaemia simultaneously with cutaneous anaesthesia. The efficacy of the tourniquet block was continuously assessed by a battery of somatosensory tests (heat, brush, vibration, electrical and movement detection) applied at the foot simultaneously with pressure stimulation on the anterior tibial muscle. After 20 min of ischaemia, group II afferent fibres mediating the sensations of movement detection, vibration and brush on the foot was blocked but the heat pain threshold was not affected. In this condition (anaesthetised skin and block of group I and II fibres from deep tissue) a pressure sensation was evoked in 70% of subjects although the pressure detection threshold was increased. The pressure pain sensitivity was decreased, which, however, might indicate a partial block of group III and IV muscle afferents. In a third experiment, the tactile sensations elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior muscle and skin at the lower leg were significantly decreased after 20 min of ischaemia, validating the blocking effects of group I and II nerve fibres. The present data show a marginal contribution of cutaneous afferents to the pressure pain sensation that, however, is relatively more dependent on contributions from deep tissue group III and IV afferents. Moreover, a pressure sensation can be elicited from deep tissue probably mediated by group III and IV afferents involving low-threshold mechanoreceptors. PMID:15480607

Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Mense, Siegfried; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

2004-10-12

36

Touch and Situatedness  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the phenomenology of touch and proposes that the structure of touch serves to cast light on the more general way in which we ‘find ourselves in a world’. Recent philosophical work on perception tends to emphasize vision. This, I suggest, motivates the imposition of a distinction between externally directed perception of objects and internally directed perception of

Matthew Ratcliffe

2008-01-01

37

Subjective experience of sensation in anorexia nervosa.  

PubMed

The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n = 20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n = 15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n = 24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r(2) = -.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r(2) = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

Zucker, Nancy L; Merwin, Rhonda M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer E; Groh, Jennifer

2013-02-27

38

The chill sensation in fever  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven men were almost totally immersed in water at a neutral temperature (34.5o) and given an intravenous injection of exogenous pyrogen. Five subjects who exhibited fever and visible shivering all reported sensations of chill at the time of shivering. Two subjects who did not shiver reported neutral sensation throughout.

J.-D. Guieu; R. F. Hellon

1980-01-01

39

Paperworks: The Human Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paperworks: The Human Touch\\u000aan exhibition of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers\\u000aSOUTH EUCLID, Ohio—8 August 2012—In conjunction with Octavofest, a celebration of the book and paper arts, and Watermarks 2012, Notre Dame College’s (NDC’s) Clara Fritzsche Library will host “Paperworks: The Human Touch,” a showing of works by the Western Reserve Calligraphers. An opening reception will be held

2012-01-01

40

Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world.

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

2011-01-01

41

Touch Preference Shifts for Fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this high-tech society, understanding the substance of high touch is an imperative aptitude for successful design professionals (Pink, 2006). Especially in the apparel industry, discerning consumers' desire for personal touch, namely high touch, is key for engaging the current consumer market. Touch preferences play a critical role not only in consumers' decision-making process when purchasing apparel products, but also

Marilyn Delong

2009-01-01

42

Mechanotransduction: Touch and Feel at the Molecular Level as Modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of an organism depends on its ability to respond to its environment through its senses. The sense of touch is\\u000a one of the most vital; still, it is the least understood. In the process of touch sensation, a mechanical stimulus is converted\\u000a into electrical signals. Groundbreaking electrophysiological experiments in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals have\\u000a suggested that

Laura Bianchi

2007-01-01

43

Touch-sensing input devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can touch things, and our senses tell us when our hands aretouching something. But most computer input devices cannot detectwhen the user touches or releases the device or some portion of thedevice. Thus, adding touch sensors to input devices offers manypossibilities for novel interaction techniques. We demonstrate theTouchTrackball and the Scrolling TouchMouse, which use unobtrusivecapacitance sensors to detect contact

Ken Hinckley; Mike Sinclair

1999-01-01

44

Recovery of sensation in the skin of non-innervated radial flaps after subfascial and suprafascial dissection.  

PubMed

We compared the extent of recovery of sensation in 40 non-innervated radial free flaps, 20 of which had been raised subfascially and 20 suprafascially. We found no significant difference in sensory recovery between the two groups. The mean extent of sensory recovery was light touch (68%); sharp touch (84%); warm (29%) and cold (40%) temperature; and static (25%) and moving (31%) two-point discrimination. Nearly all the flaps responded to at least one stimulus (excluding two-point discrimination) and half of them to three or more. Sharp touch sensation in the flap was similar to that in the surrounding tissues and light touch was less sensitive. There was no dysaesthesia. Recovery was not related to sex, age, alcohol consumption, or site of reconstruction. Smoking and radiotherapy had a slight effect. PMID:16061309

Avery, C M E; Iqbal, M; Hayter, J P

2005-08-02

45

A new method for assessing self-touch enhancement of the foot in stroke patients with mobility problems.  

PubMed

Patient NG is the first reported case of lower-limb 'self-touch enhancement' following stroke. Mobility problems prevented NG from reaching to touch her foot, thus we used a self-touch rubber-hand paradigm to mimic the conditions of self-administered touch. With vision precluded, NG administered stimulation to a prosthetic limb while the Examiner administered synchronous stimulation to NG's affected left foot. NG detected all stimulation administered with our self-touch paradigm, whereas in the control condition (with NG not involved in administering stimulation), NG had failed to detect one-third of Examiner-administered stimulation. When mobility problems are a barrier to investigating self-touch enhancement, the self-touch paradigm can be used to demonstrate residual tactile sensation following stroke. PMID:23866560

White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M

2013-01-01

46

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

47

NP-Harsh Problems in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of ideas in complexity theory are reviewed and then it is shown that all known classes of complexity of really unmanageable problems have instances in education. These are common problems in the teaching of every branch of science, knowledge and human culture. Selected pedagogic problems classify as NP-harsh problems, i.e. NP-hard…

Rodriguez, Jose

2003-01-01

48

Teaching Motions by Touching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Literature presents several examples of employment of touch in human-robot interaction, dating back to teaching by playback of robotic arms or interpretat ion of tactile gestures 1 . Recently kinesthetic demonstration has drawn particular attention in the field of humanoid robots 2 . In these works the robot is just a passive entity. Conversely, in our works 3,4 the

Fabio DallaLibera; Takashi Minato; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Enrico Pagello; Emanuele Menegatti

2009-01-01

49

Controversies in therapeutic touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most puzzling areas covered under the umbrella of integrative medicine is the field of energy healing. Based on the notion of a subtle vital force which is presumed to be the source of health, many ancient healing techniques have been evolved within this paradigm, including the modern American variant called Therapeutic Touch (TT). This article reviews the

Eric Leskowitz

2003-01-01

50

DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to

Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh

2001-01-01

51

The Harshness Objection: Is Luck Egalitarianism Too Harsh on the Victims of Option Luck?  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to luck egalitarianism, inequalities are justified if and only if they arise from choices for which it is reasonable\\u000a to hold agents responsible. This position has been criticised for its purported harshness in responding to the plight of individuals\\u000a who, through their own choices, end up destitute. This paper aims to assess the Harshness Objection. I put forward a

Kristin Voigt

2007-01-01

52

From sensation to cognition.  

PubMed

Sensory information undergoes extensive associative elaboration and attentional modulation as it becomes incorporated into the texture of cognition. This process occurs along a core synaptic hierarchy which includes the primary sensory, upstream unimodal, downstream unimodal, heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic zones of the cerebral cortex. Connections from one zone to another are reciprocal and allow higher synaptic levels to exert a feedback (top-down) influence upon earlier levels of processing. Each cortical area provides a nexus for the convergence of afferents and divergence of efferents. The resultant synaptic organization supports parallel as well as serial processing, and allows each sensory event to initiate multiple cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Upstream sectors of unimodal association areas encode basic features of sensation such as colour, motion, form and pitch. More complex contents of sensory experience such as objects, faces, word-forms, spatial locations and sound sequences become encoded within downstream sectors of unimodal areas by groups of coarsely tuned neurons. The highest synaptic levels of sensory-fugal processing are occupied by heteromodal, paralimbic and limbic cortices, collectively known as transmodal areas. The unique role of these areas is to bind multiple unimodal and other transmodal areas into distributed but integrated multimodal representations. Transmodal areas in the midtemporal cortex, Wernicke's area, the hippocampal-entorhinal complex and the posterior parietal cortex provide critical gateways for transforming perception into recognition, word-forms into meaning, scenes and events into experiences, and spatial locations into targets for exploration. All cognitive processes arise from analogous associative transformations of similar sets of sensory inputs. The differences in the resultant cognitive operation are determined by the anatomical and physiological properties of the transmodal node that acts as the critical gateway for the dominant transformation. Interconnected sets of transmodal nodes provide anatomical and computational epicentres for large-scale neurocognitive networks. In keeping with the principles of selectively distributed processing, each epicentre of a large-scale network displays a relative specialization for a specific behavioural component of its principal neurospychological domain. The destruction of transmodal epicentres causes global impairments such as multimodal anomia, neglect and amnesia, whereas their selective disconnection from relevant unimodal areas elicits modality-specific impairments such as prosopagnosia, pure word blindness and category-specific anomias. The human brain contains at least five anatomically distinct networks. The network for spatial awareness is based on transmodal epicentres in the posterior parietal cortex and the frontal eye fields; the language network on epicentres in Wernicke's and Broca's areas; the explicit memory/emotion network on epicentres in the hippocampal-entorhinal complex and the amygdala; the face-object recognition network on epicentres in the midtemporal and temporopolar cortices; and the working memory-executive function network on epicentres in the lateral prefrontal cortex and perhaps the posterior parietal cortex. Individual sensory modalities give rise to streams of processing directed to transmodal nodes belonging to each of these networks. The fidelity of sensory channels is actively protected through approximately four synaptic levels of sensory-fugal processing. The modality-specific cortices at these four synaptic levels encode the most veridical representations of experience. Attentional, motivational and emotional modulations, including those related to working memory, novelty-seeking and mental imagery, become increasingly more pronounced within downstream components of unimodal areas, where they help to create a highly edited subjective version of the world. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED) PMID:9648540

Mesulam, M M

1998-06-01

53

Touch Interventions Positively Affect Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater and more loving types of touch are expected to enhance the relationship between dyads. While touch behaviors have been shown to have a positive impact on infants’ physiological and psychological development (Field et al., 1996), only recently have empirical studies investigated the mechanisms and systems involved in touch behaviors that impact infant and child development. This chapter will explore

Nancy Aaron Jones; Krystal D. Mize

54

Sensation Based Clothes Search System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research aims to develop an automatic sensational clothes search system. It is an application of visual-based knowledge extraction and cognitive science, helping women choose a garment which matches the desired visual impression using all what have already been in their closets. All garment essentials and fashion knowledge are from visual images. Users simply submit the desired image keywords, such

Damon Shing-Min Liu; Ching-I Cheng

2008-01-01

55

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments.

Mihailov, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

56

Touching on translation.  

PubMed

During the last decade, the idea of a "translational" approach has become commonplace within the field of neuroscience. Despite the rapid adaptation of this theoretical framework, few examples of hypothesis-driven translation start with a pre-clinical finding and end with a positive clinical result and no examples of a novel medication have been developed in this way for the treatment of cognition-related disorders. Whereas instances of successful translation exist, most of these are the result of post-hoc hypothesis testing, rather than a priori hypothesis creation. Indeed, part of this disconnection between pre-clinical and clinical results has been driven by paradigms used at both the pre-clinical level (measurement of behaviors that might not be relevant to a patient population) and the clinical level (use of test batteries that cannot be modeled in a pre-clinical environment). However, automated cognition batteries that require responses to stimuli displayed upon a video monitor are decreasing the distance between pre-clinical and clinical behavioral studies. In the last 5 years, numerous papers have been published demonstrating that cognitive functions can be measured in a similar manner in the rodent as in a clinical setting via touch-screen-equipped operant boxes. Here, we argue that the touch-screen approach has the potential of being a powerful tool for the translation of pre-clinical hypotheses into positive clinical findings. PMID:23949375

Talpos, John; Steckler, Thomas

2013-08-16

57

Light Energy and Brightness Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

I AM encouraged to note that Hunt finds my data on brightness magnitude1 in broad agreement with his deductions, from a consideration of the neural responses, about the basic sensation-stimulus relations for the eye; but I would not wish to read too much into this agreement. My communication contained only a brief report of these recent brightness-estimate experiments; but I

R. G. Hopkinson

1957-01-01

58

Keep in touch: The importance of touch in infant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a great number of cultures in the world, touch, through the medium of massage, has been understood as being vital for the development of young infants (and often their mothers too). However it is only within the last few decades that Western scientists, professionals and developmentalists have understood the power of touch in illness and health, stress reduction, brain

Lynn Barnett

2005-01-01

59

Empathic Touch by Relational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

2010-01-01

60

Acquisition of a Touching Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel

1999-01-01

61

Therapeutic Touch —The Caring Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: A case study of one nurse's experience of Therapeutic Touch is presented. The major themes of the interview data are discussed by the researcher. The study provides a deeper insight into the caring relationship of the nurse during the time the nurse treats her patient with Therapeutic Touch.Summary: In this case study one nurse presents her experiences while administering

Rose Heidt Patricia

1991-01-01

62

Acquisition of a Touching Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study used focus groups to allow students, general-dentistry residents, and dental faculty to discuss issues related to learning to use touch in dental treatment. Analysis of group interactions indicated that learning to touch dental patients was often trial-and-error, and uncomfortable for students. A fine line exists between preventing…

Schifter, Catherine C.; Bogert, Meredith; Boston, Daniel

1999-01-01

63

Touch relieves stress and pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few systematic investigations of the potential benefits of incidental touch as it occurs in medical health care settings. In the present laboratory study 60 college students participated in two testing sessions 1 month apart. These sessions involved counterbalanced conditions of baseline, pulse palpation (touch), cold pressor test (stressor), and combined cold pressor\\/pulse palpation. Heart rate and systolic and

Eric Fishman; Eric Turkheimer; Douglas E. DeGood

1995-01-01

64

Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations.

Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiss, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

2011-01-01

65

Solar-Blind Photodetectors for Harsh Electronics  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200?V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1?nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 1013?cm?2 of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110?ms (the rise time) and ~ 80?ms (the fall time) at 5?V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments.

Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G.; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P.; He, Jr-Hau

2013-01-01

66

Solar-blind photodetectors for harsh electronics.  

PubMed

We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200?V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1?nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 10(13)?cm(-2) of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110?ms (the rise time) and ~ 80?ms (the fall time) at 5?V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments. PMID:24022208

Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P; He, Jr-Hau

2013-09-11

67

Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance.  

PubMed

Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

2013-09-18

68

The "how to's" of touch.  

PubMed

Touch, described as the most important of all the senses (Clement, 1987), confirms the reality perceived through the other senses and is a central part of the communication process (Montague, 1971; Mintz, 1969). Touch can be a tremendously supportive nursing technique. A pat on the shoulder, a hug, or a squeeze of the hand can create warmth and closeness that facilitates communication, decreases anxiety, and enables patients to tolerate discomfort. However, touch needs to be used deliberatively, with empathy, and with close attention to each person's unique needs. It is a nursing intervention that needs to be tailored to the patient's needs and responses. PMID:1930592

Davidhizar, R

69

The trigger for rectal filling sensation.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate whether rectal volume, weight or pressure is the main trigger for rectal sensation, their respective values were determined at each of the rectal filling sensation thresholds (first, constant, urge, maximum) in 12 adult control subjects. The rectal balloon was filled at 60 ml/min in sitting position using water (twice), air and mercury consecutively. Pressure values were corrected for the elastic properties of the balloon, while the volume of inflated air was recalculated taking into account the prevalent rectal pressure and temperature. The results obtained using water, air and mercury demonstrated a constant relationship between a given rectal sensation level and the pressure recorded in the distending balloon, but not its volume or weight. Pressure values recorded at each sensation level were constant during repeated determinations of rectal sensation, the volume of rectal distension increased, probably because the rectum had already been dilated by previous testing. Balloon distension using air with the patient in the lateral position were found to be most practical for routine evaluation of rectal sensation. It is therefore concluded that any disturbance of rectal sensation will be reflected by changes in pressure and not by changes in the volume needed to produce a given sensation level. The location of the receptors involved has to be elucidated, but it seems that the pelvic floor can be excluded since the weight of the rectal contents was not related to sensation. PMID:8027617

Broens, P M; Penninckx, F M; Lestár, B; Kerremans, R P

1994-04-01

70

Fundamental Study on Quantification of Tactile Sensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study is to quantify the tactile sensation by physical indexes for material design of cosmetics or fabrics. We tried to indicate the sensory scores of tactile sensation as a combination of physical indexes. In order to extract the principal factors of tactile sensation, factor analysis was applied to the sensory evaluation data of skin lotions, whose tactile sensation is designed experimentally. Extracted factors were related to physical indexes by multiple regression analysis, and the sensory score was estimated by using the physical indexes such as viscosity, contact angle, friction coefficient and weight loss by temperature increase.

Akiyama, Yoko; Mishima, Fumihito; Nishijima, Shigehiro

71

Laryngeal Sensation Before and After Clearing Behaviors  

PubMed Central

Purpose People frequently present to voice clinics with complaints of irritating laryngeal sensations. Clinicians attempt to reduce the irritating sensations and their common sequela, coughing and throat clearing, by advocating for techniques that remove the irritation with less harm to the vocal fold tissue. Despite the prevalence of patients with these complaints, it is not known if the less harmful techniques recommended by clinicians are effective at clearing irritating laryngeal sensations or that irritating laryngeal sensations are, in fact, more frequent in people with voice disorders than people without voice disorders. Method Assessments of participant reported laryngeal sensation, pre- and post- clearing task, were obtained from 22 people with and 24 people without a voice disorder. Six clearing tasks were used to preliminarily evaluate the differing effects of tasks believed to be deleterious and ameliorative. Results People with and without voice disorders reported pre-clear laryngeal sensation at a similar rate. Post-clear sensation was less likely to be completely or partially removed in people with voice disorders than in the non-voice disordered group. Hard throat clear and swallow with water were the most effective techniques at removing laryngeal sensation. Conclusions The findings provide initial evidence for some of the clinical practices common to treating patients with voice disorders and chronic clearing such as advocating for swallowing a sip of water as a replacement behavior instead of coughing or throat clearing. However, the findings raise questions about other practices such as associating irritating laryngeal sensation with a voice disorder.

Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Gerlach, Terri Treman; Sutton, Lori Ellen; Dawson, Amy Elizabeth; Nietert, Paul J

2013-01-01

72

The color of touch: A case of tactile–visual synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a single-case study, EB, who experiences synaesthetic sensations of color from tactile stimulation. Developmental synaesthesia is typically characterized by the consistency of synaesthetic pairings over time, in that stimuli tend to generate the same synaesthetic responses on different occasions. Here we demonstrate that EB's touch–color associations are significantly more consistent over time compared to a group of non-synaesthete

Julia Simner; Vera U. Ludwig

2012-01-01

73

The color of touch: A case of tactile–visual synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a single-case study, EB, who experiences synaesthetic sensations of color from tactile stimulation. Developmental synaesthesia is typically characterized by the consistency of synaesthetic pairings over time, in that stimuli tend to generate the same synaesthetic responses on different occasions. Here we demonstrate that EB's touch–color associations are significantly more consistent over time compared to a group of non-synaesthete

Julia Simner; Vera U. Ludwig

2011-01-01

74

Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

PubMed Central

Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion.

2010-01-01

75

Sensation seeking, message sensation value and sexual risk taking: Implications for teen pregnancy prevention campaigns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the relationship between the personality trait sensation seeking and sexual risk taking behaviors. It aimed to determine whether high sensation seekers prefer poster presentations that differ in message sensation value (MSV). The goal was to inform the design and evaluation of sex education and teen pregnancy prevention campaigns. A random sample of 151 undergraduate students from a

Jeremy John Schweitzer

2011-01-01

76

Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

Microsoft Academic Search

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching

Kunio Sakamoto; Hiroyuki Morimoto

2008-01-01

77

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

78

Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

Carlson, Frances M.

2005-01-01

79

Touch: Its Communicative Functions in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communicative functions that the tactile modality serves in infancy have been severely neglected by researchers. The present article highlights the importance of touch by addressing two questions. First, what is communicated to infants by touch from their caregivers? In addition to the common notion that touch regulates arousal levels, it is argued that touch is capable of communicating valenced

Matthew J. Hertenstein

2002-01-01

80

Transfections of animal touch, techniques of biosecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal touch – in the broadest sense, biological touch across species lines – emerges as a biosecurity threat within contemporary contexts of pandemic alert. At the same time, animal touch is increasingly invested with therapeutic, healing value within neoliberal economies of affect. This article develops two genealogies of animal touch toward historicizing the way it has come to mean and

Nicole Shukin

2011-01-01

81

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

82

The trigger for rectal filling sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate whether rectal volume, weight or pressure is the main trigger for rectal sensation, their respective values were determined at each of the rectal filling sensation thresholds (first, constant, urge, maximum) in 12 adult control subjects. The rectal balloon was filled at 60 ml\\/min in sitting position using water (twice), air and mercury consecutively. Pressure values were

P. M. A. Broens; F. M. Penninckx; B. Lestfir; R. P. Kerremans

1994-01-01

83

Pressure distribution beneath sensate and insensate feet  

Microsoft Academic Search

To quantify the differences in foot pressure-time relationships between the sensate foot and diabetic insensate foot, the authors have collected foot pressure data from five sensate subjects and three diabetic insensate subjects during 4 min. of continuous walking for multiple trials. They used an insole instrumented with seven pressure sensors under the heel, metatarsal heads, and hallux and a microprocessor-based

Hongsheng Zhu; Jacqueline J. Wertsch; Gerald F. Harris; Melvin B. Price; Henry M. Alba

1989-01-01

84

Sensation seeking and involvement in chess  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationship between scores on the Sensation Seeking Scale [SSS; Zuckerman, M. (1979). Sensation seeking; beyond the optimal level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.] and involvement in chess within a sample of 112 college students. Students who reported having played chess, and those with more chess experience, evidenced higher scores on both the Total SSS and

Jeffrey A. Joireman; Christopher S. Fick; Jonathan W. Anderson

2002-01-01

85

Compact harsh environment energy conversion systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quest for energy is leading the industry into drilling deeper wells. Typically, a temperature gradient of 1°C/150 ft can be expected, with bottom hole temperatures reaching beyond 200°C in many areas of the world. Moreover, the increased recovery benefits and cost reductions possible with the use of horizontal and multilateral wells has triggered a need for higher power energy conversion systems in bottom hole assemblies, such as rotary steerable tools and downhole tractors. The concepts developed throughout this work address some of these new needs. This research investigated improvements, novel solutions and considerations that will lead to significant advantages in terms of reliability, extended temperature operation, increased power capability and reduced size and cost of compact harsh environment energy conversion systems. Improvements to both the electromechanical subsystem and the power electronic subsystem are introduced. Air gap viscous losses were shown to a have a significant effect on the optimal design of submersible PM (permanent magnet) machines, and a design procedure to account for this loss component in the design was developed. The application of a dual winding exterior rotor PM machine in a downhole environment enabled a significant increase in the application's torque capability, provided protection against generator winding over voltage, and reduced parts count. Comprehensive switching device qualification, testing, and simulation lead to a simple failure mitigation technique for the operation of the most suitable devices at elevated temperature. A flying capacitor multilevel inverter was then successfully constructed and temperature tested. A novel motor drive concept suited for elevated temperature oil filled environment applications concluded the research.

Ahmed, Shehab

86

The Virtual Midas Touch: Helping Behavior After a Mediated Social Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief touch on the upper arm increases people's altruistic behavior and willingness to comply with a request. In this paper, we investigate whether this Midas touch phenomenon would also occur under mediated conditions (i.e., touching via an arm strap equipped with electromechanical actuators). Helping behavior was more frequently endorsed in the touch, compared to the no-touch condition, but this

Antal Haans; Wijnand A. Ijsselsteijn

2009-01-01

87

The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes.

Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-01-01

88

Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

Michael Carpenter

2012-01-15

89

Laser Interferometry for Harsh Environment MEMS Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-based MEMS technology has enabled the fabrication of a broad range of sensor and actuator systems that are having a great impact in areas that benefit from miniaturization and increased functionality. The main advantage of Si-based MEMS technologies is their possibility of integration with microelectronics thus allowing the economical production of smart microsystems. In the automotive industry for example, there is a need for inexpensive smart MEMS sensors for engine control applications. For instance, smart MEMS sensors capable of operating ``in cylinder'', where temperatures are around 400 C, could continuously monitor the combustion quality of the cylinders of automotive engines thus leading to reduced emissions and improved fuel economy. However, when the environment temperature is too high (>180 C), conventional Si-based microelectronics suffer from severe performance degradation, thus making smart Si-based MEMS impractical. Hence, further development, in terms of new MEMS materials and/or new technologies, is needed especially where high temperature capability is crucial to realizing improved electronic control. Remote sensing through optical signal detection has major advantages for safe signal transmission in harsh environments. It is highly resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) and at the same time, it eliminates the necessity of on-board electronics, which has been one of the main obstacles in the development of smart MEMS sensors for high temperature applications. An economical way to deal with higher temperatures and other aggressive environmental conditions is to build MEMS sensors out of robust materials (e.g. Silicon nitride, SiC) and integrate them with optical signal detection techniques to form MOEMS. In this paper, we review recent trends for the use of laser interferometry for MEMS sensors in the context of using them for high temperature applications. Technological challenges faced in the development of these sensors, including sensitivity to measurement errors, packaging and cost reduction are also outlined. Finally, an overview of Fabry-Perot like MEMS sensors for high temperature applications is presented and issues facing their future progress and economical implementation are discussed.

Nieva, Patricia

2008-03-01

90

Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

91

Process monitoring with optical fibers and harsh environment sensors  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains 35 papers presented at the symposium. Some of the topics covered are: sensors for the energy industry; sensors for materials evaluation and structural monitoring; sensors for engine industry; and other harsh environments sensors.

Marcus, M.A.; Wang, A. [eds.

1999-06-01

92

HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME  

EPA Science Inventory

Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

93

Economic Recession Tied to 'Harsh' Parenting from Mothers  

MedlinePLUS

... On the other hand, Garfinkel pointed out, once economic conditions stabilized and started to show small improvements, mothers with the sensitive gene were actually using harsh punishment less often than mothers with the insensitive variant. ...

94

Quantitative assessment of facial sensation in leprosy.  

PubMed

The trigeminal and great auricular nerves which supply sensation to the face are affected in leprosy. No objective sensory testing methods have been devised for testing sensation in the face. Testing for corneal sensation to ascertain trigeminal nerve or visualization and palpation of the great auricular nerve alone may not be enough to establish the involvement of these nerves. In a sample of leprosy patients, face sensation threshold measurements were done using a set of three Semmes-Weinstein (SW) monofilaments that gave a force of 0.05-0.07, 0.2 and 2 g. Sensation was tested by three examiners and intra- and inter-observer testing was used as a means to validate the findings. Within the limitations of this study, the results indicate that use of SW monofilaments is a fairly reliable and repeatable method for sensory testing in the face. During follow up, a single filament with a force of 0.5-0.7 g (2.83 marking number in SW filament or any other filament with a corresponding gram force) could be used to assess sensation. A simple procedure of quantifying sensation in these nerves is suggested. A method to incorporate trigeminal or great auricular nerve sensory testing into the existing sensory assessment charts is also discussed. PMID:9934361

Premkumar, R; Daniel, E; Suneetha, S; Yovan, P

1998-09-01

95

Protracted delay in taste sensation recovery after surgical lingual nerve repair: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lingual nerve injury is sometimes caused by dental treatment. Many kinds of treatment have been reported, but many have exhibited poor recovery. Here the authors report changes in somatosensory and chemosensory impairments during a long-term observation after lingual nerve repair. Case presentation A 30-year-old Japanese woman claimed dysesthesia and difficulty eating. Quantitative sensory test results indicated complete loss of sensation in the right side of her tongue. She underwent a repair surgery involving complete resection of her lingual nerve using a polyglycolic acid tube containing collagen 9 months after the injury. A year after the operation, her mechanical touch threshold recovered, but no other sensations recovered. Long-term observation of her somatosensory and chemosensory function after the nerve repair suggested that recovery of taste sensation was greatly delayed compared with that of somatosensory function. Conclusion This case shows characteristic changes in somatosensory and chemosensory recoveries during 7 postoperative years and suggests that taste and thermal sensations require a very long time to recover after repair surgery.

2013-01-01

96

Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany

2010-01-01

97

Touch for socioemotional and physical well-being: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed showing activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate cortex

Tiffany Field

2010-01-01

98

Touching Your Photos and Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter introduced you to the iPod touch’s Photos app and showed you how to navigate your photo collections in a variety\\u000a of ways. We also showed you how your iPod’s wide-screen video features and interactive touchscreen are in a class of their\\u000a own. They offer clear, easy-to-watch video on a (relatively) large screen. In this chapter, you’ve seen how

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

99

To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen

2011-01-01

100

Direct Learning in Dynamic Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A dynamic touch paradigm in which participants judged the lengths of rods and pipes was used to test the D. M. Jacobs and C. F. Michaels (2007) theory of perceptual learning. The theory portrays perception as the exploitation of a locus on an information manifold and learning as continuous movement across that manifold to a new locus, as guided…

Michaels, Claire F.; Arzamarski, Ryan; Isenhower, Robert W.; Jacobs, David M.

2008-01-01

101

Sensation Seekers as a Healthcare Marketing Metasegment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses “sensation seekers” as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and\\/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these

Donald R. Self; Carolyn Sara Findley

2010-01-01

102

The DEG/ENaC protein MEC-10 regulates the transduction channel complex in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons.  

PubMed

Gentle touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the MEC-4/MEC-10 channel complex, which is expressed exclusively in six touch receptor neurons (TRNs). The complex contains two pore-forming subunits, MEC-4 and MEC-10, as well as the accessory subunits MEC-2, MEC-6, and UNC-24. MEC-4 is essential for channel function, but beyond its role as a pore-forming subunit, the functional contribution of MEC-10 to the channel complex and to touch sensation is unclear. We addressed this question using behavioral assays, in vivo electrophysiological recordings from TRNs, and heterologous expression of mutant MEC-10 isoforms. Animals with a deletion in mec-10 showed only a partial loss of touch sensitivity and a modest decrease in the size of the mechanoreceptor current (MRC). In contrast, five previously identified mec-10 alleles acted as recessive gain-of-function alleles that resulted in complete touch insensitivity. Each of these alleles produced a substantial decrease in MRC size and a shift in the reversal potential in vivo. The latter finding indicates that these mec-10 mutations alter the ionic selectivity of the transduction channel in vivo. All mec-10 mutant animals had properly localized channel complexes, indicating that the loss of MRCs was not attributable to a dramatic mislocalization of transduction channels. Finally, electrophysiological examination of heterologously expressed complexes suggests that mutant MEC-10 proteins may affect channel current via MEC-2. PMID:21880930

Arnadóttir, Jóhanna; O'Hagan, Robert; Chen, Yushu; Goodman, Miriam B; Chalfie, Martin

2011-08-31

103

The DEG/ENaC Protein MEC-10 Regulates The Transduction Channel Complex in C. elegans Touch Receptor Neurons  

PubMed Central

Gentle touch sensation in Caenorhabditis elegans is mediated by the MEC-4/MEC-10 channel complex, which is expressed exclusively in six touch receptor neurons (TRNs). The complex contains two pore-forming subunits, MEC-4 and MEC-10, as well as the accessory subunits MEC-2, MEC-6 and UNC-24. MEC-4 is essential for channel function, but beyond its role as a pore-forming subunit, the functional contribution of MEC-10 to the channel complex and to touch sensation is unclear. We addressed this question using behavioral assays, in vivo electrophysiological recordings from TRNs, and heterologous expression of mutant MEC-10 isoforms. Animals with a deletion in mec-10 showed only a partial loss of touch sensitivity and a modest decrease in the size of the mechanoreceptor current (MRC). In contrast, five previously identified mec-10 alleles acted as recessive gain-of-function alleles that resulted in complete touch insensitivity. Each of these alleles produced a substantial decrease in MRC size and a shift in the reversal potential in vivo. The latter finding indicates that these mec-10 mutations alter the ionic selectivity of the transduction channel in vivo. All mec-10 mutant animals had properly localized channel complexes, indicating that the loss of MRCs was not due to a dramatic mislocalization of transduction channels. Finally, electrophysiological examination of heterologously expressed complexes suggests that mutant MEC-10 proteins may affect channel current via MEC-2.

Arnadottir, Johanna; O'Hagan, Robert; Chen, Yushu; Goodman, Miriam B.; Chalfie, Martin

2011-01-01

104

TouchCuts and TouchZoom: enhanced target selection for touch displays using finger proximity sensing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although touch-screen laptops are increasing in popularity, users still do not comfortably rely on touch in these environments, as current software interfaces were not designed for being used by the finger. In this paper, we first demonstrate the benefits of using touch as a complementary input modality along with the keyboard and mouse or touchpad in a laptop setting. To

Xing-Dong Yang; Tovi Grossman; Pourang Irani; George W. Fitzmaurice

2011-01-01

105

Multi-touch surface as input device  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the rapid development of displays and multi-touch technologies, many workspaces could feature integrated multi-touch displays in the near future and therefore the possibility of using them as input devices for other computers needs to be reviewed. The idea is, to get rid of many different input devices (e.g. keyboard, mouse, multi-touch-pad) by using a single multi-touch display.

Andreas Dippon

2010-01-01

106

Paper-based, capacitive touch pads.  

PubMed

Metallized paper is patterned to create touch pads of arrayed buttons that are sensitive to contact with both bare and gloved fingers. The paper-based keypad detects the change in capacitance associated with the touch of a finger to one of its buttons. Mounted on an alarmed cardboard box, the keypad requires the appropriate sequence of touches to disarm the system. PMID:22539155

Mazzeo, Aaron D; Kalb, William B; Chan, Lawrence; Killian, Matthew G; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Mazzeo, Brian A; Whitesides, George M

2012-04-27

107

Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate

Shaun K. Kane; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Jacob O. Wobbrock

2008-01-01

108

Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems  

PubMed Central

Background Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that 1) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those with better executive function, and 2) this mechanism would be further moderated by the degree of household chaos. Methods The socioeconomically diverse sample included 147 mothers of 3-to-7 year old children. Mothers completed questionnaires and a laboratory assessment of executive function. Results Consistent with hypotheses, harsh parenting was linked with child conduct problems only among mothers with poorer executive function. This effect was particularly strong in calm, predictable environments, but was not evident in chaotic environments. Conclusion Maternal executive function is critical to minimizing harsh parenting in the context of challenging child behavior, but this self-regulation process may not operate well in chaotic environments.

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

109

DiamondTouch SDK: Support for Multi-User, Multi-Touch Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

DiamondTouch is a multi-touch input technology that supports multiple, simultaneous users; it can distinguish who is touching where. We present the DiamondTouch SDK; it provides sup- port for the development of applications that utilize DiamondTouch s capabilities to implement computer-supported collaboration and rich input modalities (such as gestures). Our first demo illustrates the basic utilities and functionality of our system.

Alan Esenther; Cliff Forlines; Kathy Ryall; Sam Shipman

2002-01-01

110

Care at just a touch.  

PubMed

As NHS trusts across the UK strive to make better use of information technology to improve patient safety, some nurses are using an electronic observation system called Wardware on iPod Touch devices. It not only saves time on paperwork and reduces errors, but alerts nurses when action needs to be taken and allows patient data to be shared at once with doctors. PMID:23940936

Clare, Lomas

111

Using Touch and Gesture Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch, like many portable devices nowadays, uses the finger as the only pointing device. Apple’s\\u000a devices even support several simultaneous contact points, which, along with a simple, intuitive graphical interface, makes\\u000a their use fluid, efficient, and overall pleasing for the user. As we have explained in earlier chapters, this entails a close,\\u000a almost intimate connection

Chris Apers; Daniel Paterson

112

Collaboration with DiamondTouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the performance of collaborative spatial\\/visual tasks under dieren t input congurations. The congurations used are a traditional mouse-monitor, a shared-monitor with multiple-mice, and a multi-user input device (DiamondTouch). Our experiments indicate that there is a signican t variation in performance for the dieren t congura- tions with pairs of users, while there is no such variation with individual

Stephen G. Kobourov; Kyriacos Pavlou; Justin Cappos; Michael Stepp; Mark Miles; Amanda Wixted

2005-01-01

113

Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.  

PubMed

This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues. PMID:20155549

Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

2010-01-01

114

Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

115

Harsh Parenting in Relation to Child Emotion Regulation and Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a model of harsh parenting that has an indirect effect, as well as a direct effect, on child aggression in the school environment through the mediating process of child emotion regulation. Tested on a sample of 325 Chinese children and their parents, the model showed adequate goodness of fit. Also investigated were interaction effects between parents' and

Lei Chang; David Schwartz; Kenneth A. Dodge; Catherine McBride-Chang

2003-01-01

116

Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

117

Improved Scleroglucan for Polymer Flooding Under Harsh Reservoir Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymer flooding is commonly used to improve water sweep efficiency in oil reserves. Successful application of this method, however, has been restricted to low-temperature reservoirs because suitable polymers are not available for harsh conditions. Scleroglucan, a polymer produced by fermentation that shows promising properties, forms solutions that are very viscous and highly resistant to shear. Viscosity is insensitive to both

R. C. Rivenq; Alain Donche; Christine Nolk

1992-01-01

118

Robust designed capacitive gas pressure sensor for harsh environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a gas pressure sensing device based on stainless steel diaphragm and titanium substrate for use at harsh environment is presented. To illustrate these principles, array type capacitive gas pressure sensors based on a stainless steel and titanium have been designed and fabricated. For the fabrication of the sensor, both of bulk and surface micromachined techniques are used

Heung-Shik Lee; Chongdu Cho; Sung Pil Chang

2009-01-01

119

Harsh environment microtechnologies for NASA and terrestrial applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although tremendous progress has been made in recent years in the development of microtechnologies for use in harsh environments, these technologies are mostly in the research domain. Space exploration missions provide a rich application area for these technologies, given the diversity of interesting planetary exploration targets identified by NASA. Also, miniaturization is very important for NASA missions and many terrestrial

T. George; K. A. Son; R. A. Powers; L. Y. Del Castillo; R. Okojie

2005-01-01

120

Screening for Harsh Punishment in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine: (1) the prevalence of harsh punishment among parents in a pediatric clinic, and (2) the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and stability of a brief screening measure. Methods: A subset of families involved in a study of child maltreatment prevention were recruited for this study. Two items in a parent screening…

Feigelman, Susan; Dubowitz, Howard; Lane, Wendy; Prescott, Leslie; Meyer, Walter; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Kim, Jeongeun

2009-01-01

121

IC design considerations for the harsh automotive electrical environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides the reader with an overview of automotive industry standards for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electrostatic discharge (ESD) and the thermal environment. Integrated circuit designers who work on automotive products must be technically aware of the harsh electrical environment that their ICs must not only survive, but often operate within specification. The many sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and

David P. Laude

1994-01-01

122

"Two novel DEG/ENaC channel subunits expressed in glia are needed for nose touch sensitivity in C. elegans"  

PubMed Central

Summary Neuronal DEG/ENaC Na+ channels have been implicated in touch sensation. For example, MEC-4 is expressed in touch neurons in C. elegans and mediates gentle touch response. Similarly, homologous mammalian ASIC2 and ASIC3 are expressed in sensory neurons and produce touch phenotypes when knocked out in mice. Here, we show that novel DEG/ENaC subunits DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons in C. elegans and that their knock-out causes defects in mechanosensory behaviors related to nose touch and foraging, which are mediated by OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons. Cell-specific rescue supports that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are required cell-autonomously in glia to orchestrate mechanosensory behaviors. Electron microscopy reveals that in delm-1 knockouts, OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons and associated glia are structurally normal. Furthermore, we show that knockout of DELM-1 and DELM-2 does not disrupt the expression or cellular localization of TRPA-1, a TRP channel needed in OLQ and IL1 neurons for touch behaviors. Rather, rescue of the delm-1 nose-touch insensitive phenotype by expression of a K+ channel in socket glia and of a cationic channel in OLQ neurons suggests that DELM channels set basal neuronal excitability. Taken together, our data show that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons where they are not needed for neuronal structural integrity or cellular distribution of neuronal sensory channels, but rather for their function.

Han, Lu; Wang, Ying; Sangaletti, Rachele; D'Urso, Giulia; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Bianchi, Laura

2013-01-01

123

Cerebral cortical somatosensory evoked responses, multiple unit activity and current source-densities: their interrelationships and significance to somatic sensation as revealed by stimulation of the awake monkey's hand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In awake monkeys, electrical pulse stimuli which mimic touch stimulation were delivered to the thenar eminence while electrophysiologic recordings were made from surface to depth in postcentral gyrus. Cortical depth profiles of somatosensory evoked responses (SEPs), multiple unit activity (MUA) and current source-densities (CSDs) were analyzed to gain insight into the neural process underlying the SEP and somatic sensation. The

A. T. Kulics; L. J. Cauller

1986-01-01

124

A Figurative Measure of Subjective Hunger Sensations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to better characterize the subjective experience of hunger, we assessed the locus and extent of sensations associated with varying degrees of hunger. In the first study, 83 subjects indicated by marking on a drawing of a human figure where they felt hungry under hypothetical conditions of slight to extreme hunger. Approximately 55% of subjects indicated an abdominal

M. I. FRIEDMAN; P. ULRICH; R. D. MATTES

1999-01-01

125

"The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

Springgay, Stephanie

2011-01-01

126

Prescribing sensate focus without proscribing intercourse  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper challenges the need in sex therapy to routinely proscribe or forbid intercourse, viewing it as an excessive restriction for many couples, with side effects frequently causing a flight from treatment and other treatment failures. An alternative, more moderate proposal is presented which emphasizes the couple's doing sensate focus not as a prelude to orgasm or intercourse and not

Steven H. Lipsius

1987-01-01

127

ComTouch: A Vibrotactile Communication Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new haptic interface called ComTouch to augment remote voice communication by integrating a touch-to-vibration mapping into a cellular phone. The goal of this work is to enrich interpersonal communication by complementing voice with a new tactile channel. ComTouch, a one -handed device, converts pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real -time. We present preliminary user

Angela Chang; Zahra Kanji; Hiroshi Ishii

128

Generating STR profile from "Touch DNA".  

PubMed

As forensic DNA technology has become a common tool in criminal investigations, scientists have attempted to obtain DNA evidence from what were once considered unlikely sources. "Touch DNA" refers to the DNA that is left behind from skin cells when a person touches or comes into contact with an item. This present study shows, DNA profiling of touched evidence materials is reported employing a combination of LCN typing and miniSTRs. The technology is highly valuable for increasing the scope of DNA profiling to large number touched evidence materials. PMID:21907930

Aditya, Sangeeta; Sharma, A K; Bhattacharyya, C N; Chaudhuri, Keya

2011-10-01

129

Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repairs may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service.

Lloyd, W. Randolph; Reuter, Walter G.; Weinberg, David M.

1999-12-01

130

Should nurses practice therapeutic touch? Should nursing schools teach therapeutic touch?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article argues that in the current setting of nursing practice, therapeutic touch should be treated as a religious practice. The article examines the religious sources of the ideas and documents the connection with the teachings of particular religious groups. Recognizing therapeutic touch as a religious issue requires new kinds of approaches in the practice and teaching of therapeutic touch

Vern L. Bullough; Bonnie Bullough

1998-01-01

131

Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell

Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

2007-01-01

132

Fabrication of a CMOS compatible pressure sensor for harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fabrication and characteristics of CMOS compatible absolute pressure sensors for harsh environments are presented in this paper. The sensor which was fabricated using post-processing surface micromachining consists of 100 circular membranes with a total capacity of 14 pF. PECVD SiC was used due to its good mechanical properties, but since SiC has high resistivity, aluminium layers were used for

L S Pakula; H Yang; H T M Pham; P J French; P M Sarro

2004-01-01

133

Sensation seeking, television viewing motives, and home television viewing patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between sensation seeking and television viewing motives and home TV viewing preferences. A total of 189 participants completed a sensation seeking scale, rated the importance of several global television viewing motives, and indicated viewing frequency for 18 categories of TV programming. Findings indicated that, contrary to previously-reported results, high sensation seekers did not watch less

Richard Potts; Angela Dedmon; Jeff Halford

1996-01-01

134

Cortical Processing of Human Somatic and Visceral Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic sensation can be localized precisely, whereas local- ization of visceral sensation is vague, possibly reflecting differ- ences in the pattern of somatic and visceral input to the cere- bral cortex. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the cortical processing of sensation arising from the proximal (somatic) and distal (visceral) esophagus in six healthy male subjects. Esophageal stimulation

Q. Aziz; D. G. Thompson; V. W. K. Ng; S. Hamdy; S. Sarkar; M. J. Brammer; E. T. Bullmore; A. Hobson; I. Tracey; L. Gregory; A. Simmons; S. C. R. Williams

2000-01-01

135

Microflown based sound pressure microphone suitable for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several cases where a sound field reconstruction or prediction is required under harsh conditions such as high temperature, humidity or chemical attack. A regular pressure microphone will not last long under these conditions. Electret based pressure microphones stop working well above 70 degrees centigrade and other type of pressure microphones often operate with a built in amplifier that does not function above 120 degrees centigrade. The functionality of a MEMS based Microflown acoustic particle velocity sensor in air lies in the use of two heated platinum wires that are resistant to high temperatures and chemical attack. The wires are supported by silicon that has no other function than provide support. A pressure microphone is made based upon the Microflown principle by putting it in the opening of an enclosure. In this paper a silicon and platinum based sound probe for harsh environments is created, combining particle velocity and pressure measurements in a harsh environment. Use of this sensor is possible up to 250 degrees centigrade, in humid and under most chemical environments. The probe realization as well as calibration measurements are presented.

Yntema, D. R.; de Bree, Hans-Elias

2005-09-01

136

Crack Growth Monitoring in Harsh Environments by Electric Potential Measurements  

SciTech Connect

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique applicable is many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

Lloyd, Wilson Randolph; Reuter, Walter Graham; Weinberg, David Michael

1999-09-01

137

Crack growth monitoring in harsh environments by electrical potential measurements  

SciTech Connect

Electric potential measurement (EPM) technology offers an attractive alternative to conventional nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for monitoring crack growth in harsh environments. Where conventional NDE methods typically require localized human interaction, the EPM technique developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) can be operated remotely and automatically. Once a crack-like defect is discovered via conventional means, EPM can be applied to monitor local crack size changes. This is of particular interest in situations where an identified structural defect is not immediately rejectable from a fitness-for-service viewpoint, but due to operational and environmental conditions may grow to an unsafe size with continuing operation. If the location is in a harsh environment where periodic monitoring by normal means is either too costly or not possible, a very expensive repair may be immediately mandated. However, the proposed EPM methodology may offer a unique monitoring capability that would allow for continuing service. INEEL has developed this methodology, supporting equipment, and calibration information to apply EPM in a field environment for just this purpose. Laboratory and pilot scale tests on full-size engineering structures (pressure vessels and piping) have been successfully performed. The technique is applicable to many severe environments because the sensitive equipment (electronics, operators) can be situated in a remote location, with only current and voltage probe electrical leads entering into the harsh environment. Experimental results showing the utility of the methodology are presented, and unique application concepts that have been examined by multiple experiments are discussed.

W. R. Lloyd; W. G. Reuter; D. M. Weinberg

1999-09-19

138

Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting.…

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

2009-01-01

139

Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

2011-01-01

140

Touch & Share: RFID based ubiquitous file containers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here, we present Touch & Share, an application for sharing multimedia content in our everyday environment. Our main design criterion is ease of use. Visual icons placed in the environment act as data storage (file containers). Users can drop multimedia files into the containers and pick files from them by touching the icons with their mobile terminals. The icons are

Iván Sánchez; Jukka Riekki; Jarkko Rousu; Susanna Pirttikangas

2008-01-01

141

The performance of touch screen soft buttons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of a new generation of attractive touch screen-based devices raises many basic usability questions whose answers may influence future design and market direction. With a set of current mobile devices, we conducted three experiments focusing on one of the most basic interaction actions on touch screens: the operation of soft buttons. Issues investigated in this set of experiments

Seungyon Lee; Shumin Zhai

2009-01-01

142

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

143

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

144

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

145

Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments, part III: Whole-body sensation and comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local thermal comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort (Part III) that result from combinations of local sensation and comfort. The models apply to sedentary activities in a range of environments: uniform and

Hui Zhang; Edward Arens; Charlie Huizenga; Taeyoung Han

2010-01-01

146

Sensation seeking, risky driving and behavioral adaptation.  

PubMed

A study on the relationship between sensation seeking (SS) and risky driving, aggressive driving and behavioral adaptation is reported on. College students completed a questionnaire concerning their driving behavior and level of sensation seeking. Results indicated that high SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to speed, not wear belts, drink frequently, drive after drinking, perceive a low risk of detection for impaired driving, and perceive that they could drink more beer before being impaired. High SS's were also more likely to report aggressive driving habits. High SS's were significantly more likely than low SS's to say that they would drive faster on highways and on wet roads and drive after drinking, if operating a vehicle equipped with anti-lock brakes. The results are consistent with previous research. PMID:11491249

Jonah, B A; Thiessen, R; Au-Yeung, E

2001-09-01

147

Pain Syndromes and Disorders of Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although routine clinical neurological examination generally does not reveal any abnormality of sensation in persons with\\u000a Parkinson’s disease (PD), subjective sensory symptoms are quite frequently present, and objective abnormalities of proprioceptive\\u000a function and sensorimotor integration have been demonstrated with sophisticated testing. Primary sensory symptoms of PD may\\u000a include paresthesias of varied descriptions (numbness, tingling, and burning).\\u000a \\u000a Painful symptoms in PD

Blair Ford; Ronald F. Pfeiffer

148

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2011-11-29

149

Understanding others' feelings: the role of the right primary somatosensory cortex in encoding the affective valence of others' touch.  

PubMed

Brain imaging studies in humans have shown the existence of a shared somatosensory representation in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), putatively involved in understanding others' sensations (Keysers et al., 2010); however, the role of S1 in such a high-level process is still unknown. To ascertain the causal involvement of S1, and its possible hemispheric lateralization, in encoding the affective valence of emotional scenes, depicting, or not, a tactile event, we gave to healthy participants a picture-based affective go/no-go task and low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was chosen as control site. rTMS over the right, but not the left, S1 selectively increased the participants' latencies in the affective go/no-go task, but only when the affective state was conveyed by touch; intriguingly, this interfering effect was associated with the empathic ability to adopt the subjective perspective of others. The left, not the right, DLPFC is also involved in affective go/no-go performance, but regardless of the sight of touch, and independently of empathic abilities. This novel evidence demonstrates the crossmodal role of right S1 in encoding the pleasant and aversive consequences of others' sensations evoked by touch. PMID:23447627

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Convento, Silvia; Vallar, Giuseppe

2013-02-27

150

Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments.  

PubMed

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

Knobloch, Aaron J; Ahmad, Faisal R; Sexton, Dan W; Vernooy, David W

2013-10-21

151

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition.

Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2010-01-01

152

Sexualizing men's touch: male nurses and the use of intimate touch in clinical practice.  

PubMed

Drawn from a larger study, this article reports the experiences of a group of male nurses regarding the use of intimate physical touch. Using discourse analysis, interview data from 18 male nurses were analyzed and related to existing text on men as nurses. The analysis reveals that although touch is important in nursing care, it is problematic for men because discourses have normalized women's use of touch as a caring behavior and have sexualized men's touch. Participants described their vulnerability, how they protected themselves from risk, and the resulting stress. The complicity of nurses in sexualizing men's touch and the neglect of educators in preparing men for providing intimate care are revealed. A paradox emerged whereby the very measures employed to protect both patients and men as nurses exacerbate the perceived risk posed by men carrying out intimate care. Deconstructing and reframing prevailing discourses around nursing, gender, and caring involving touch can help to legitimize men's involvement in physical caring. PMID:18578219

Harding, Thomas; North, Nicola; Perkins, Rod

2008-01-01

153

New Defibrillator Works without Wires Touching Heart  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. New Defibrillator Works Without Wires Touching Heart Device is ... Implantable Defibrillators MONDAY, Aug. 26 (HealthDay News) -- A new implantable defibrillator accurately detects abnormal heart rhythms and ...

154

Nociceptive sensations evoked from 'spots' in the skin by mild cooling and heating  

PubMed Central

It was recently found that nociceptive sensations (stinging, pricking, or burning) can be evoked by cooling or heating the skin to innocuous temperatures (e.g., 29°, 37°C). Here we show that this low-threshold thermal nociception (LTN) can be traced to sensitive ‘spots’ in the skin equivalent to classically defined warm spots and cold spots. Because earlier work had shown that LTN is inhibited by simply touching a thermode to the skin, a spatial search procedure was devised that minimized tactile stimulation by sliding small thermodes (16 mm2 and 1 mm2) set to 28° or 36°C slowly across the lubricated skin of the forearm. The procedure uncovered three types of temperature-sensitive sites (thermal, bimodal and nociceptive) that contained one or more thermal, nociceptive or (rarely) bimodal spots. Repeated testing indicated that bimodal and nociceptive sites were less stable over time than thermal sites, and that mechanical contact differentially inhibited nociceptive sensations. Intensity ratings collected over a range of temperatures showed that LTN increased monotonically on heat-sensitive sites but not on cold-sensitive sites. These results provide psychophysical evidence that stimulation from primary afferent fibers with thresholds in the range of warm fibers and cold fibers is relayed to the pain pathway. However, the labile nature of LTN implies that these low-threshold nociceptive inputs are subject to inhibitory controls. The implications of these findings for the roles of putative temperature receptors and nociceptors in innocuous thermoreception and thermal pain are discussed.

Green, Barry G.; Roman, Carolyn; Schoen, Kate; Collins, Hannah

2009-01-01

155

Touch Screen User Interfaces for Older Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This study investigated the optimal numbers of blocks and tactile targets for touch screen user interfaces intended for use\\u000a by all (reference and older population). Three independent variables (number of targets, number of interaction blocks on the\\u000a touch screen and number of hands used) were studied in our experiment. Huge amount of data were stored. In this paper, we\\u000a will

Guillaume Lepicard; Nadine Vigouroux

2010-01-01

156

Touch-typing with a stylus  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the attractive features of keyboards is that they support novice as well as expert users. Novice users enter text using “hunt-and-peck,” experts use touch-typing. Although it takes time to learn touch-typing, there is a large payoff in faster operation. In contrast to keyboarda, pen-based computers have only a novice mode for text entry in which users print text

David Goldberg; Cate Richardson

1993-01-01

157

Experiences with Interactive Multi-touch Tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactive multi-touch tables can be a powerful means of communication for collaborative work as well as an engaging environment for competition. Through enticing gameplay we have evaluated user experience on competitive gameplay, collaborative work and musical expression. In addition, we report on our extensive experiences with two types of interactive multi-touch tables and we introduce a software framework that abstracts from their technical differences.

Fikkert, Wim; Hakvoort, Michiel; van der Vet, Paul; Nijholt, Anton

158

What is the sensation seeker? Personality trait and experience correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in 7 studies and 2 replications using undergraduate Ss (N = 1,145). The SSS, or particular subscales of the SSS, were related to an MMPI triad of F, Pd, and Ma and to a cluster of scales of the l6 PF which indicated an uninhibited, nonconforming, impulsive, dominant type of extraversion, but not

Marvin Zuckerman

1972-01-01

159

Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

2011-01-01

160

Evaluation and comparison of 50 Hz current threshold of electrocutaneous sensations using different methods  

PubMed Central

Leakage currents, tiny currents flowing from an everyday-life appliance through the body to the ground, can cause a non-adequate perception (called electrocutaneous sensation, ECS) or even pain and should be avoided. Safety standards for low-frequency range are based on experimental results of current thresholds of electrocutaneous sensations, which however show a wide range between about 50 ?A (rms) and 1000 ?A (rms). In order to be able to explain these differences, the perception threshold was measured repeatedly in experiments with test persons under identical experimental setup, but by means of different methods (measuring strategies), namely: direct adjustment, classical threshold as amperage of 50% perception probability, and confidence rating procedure of signal detection theory. The current is injected using a 1 cm2 electrode at the highly touch sensitive part of the index fingertip. These investigations show for the first time that the threshold of electrocutaneous sensations is influenced both by adaptation to the non-adequate stimulus and individual, emotional factors. Therefore, classical methods, on which the majority of the safety investigations are based, cannot be used to determine a leakage current threshold. The confidence rating procedure of the modern signal detection theory yields a value of 179.5 ?A (rms) at 50 Hz power supply net frequency as the lower end of the 95% confidence range considering the variance in the investigated group. This value is expected to be free of adaptation influences, and is distinctly lower than the European limits and supports the stricter regulations of Canada and USA.

Lindenblatt, G.; Silny, J.

2006-01-01

161

Learning from vision-to-touch is different than learning from touch-to-vision  

PubMed Central

We studied whether vision can teach touch to the same extent as touch seems to teach vision. In a 2 × 2 between-participants learning study, we artificially correlated visual gloss cues with haptic compliance cues. In two “natural” tasks, we tested whether visual gloss estimations have an influence on haptic estimations of softness and vice versa. In two “novel” tasks, in which participants were either asked to haptically judge glossiness or to visually judge softness, we investigated how perceptual estimates transfer from one sense to the other. Our results showed that vision does not teach touch as efficient as touch seems to teach vision.

Wismeijer, Dagmar A.; Gegenfurtner, Karl R.; Drewing, Knut

2012-01-01

162

How Haptic Size Sensations Improve Distance Perception  

PubMed Central

Determining distances to objects is one of the most ubiquitous perceptual tasks in everyday life. Nevertheless, it is challenging because the information from a single image confounds object size and distance. Though our brains frequently judge distances accurately, the underlying computations employed by the brain are not well understood. Our work illuminates these computions by formulating a family of probabilistic models that encompass a variety of distinct hypotheses about distance and size perception. We compare these models' predictions to a set of human distance judgments in an interception experiment and use Bayesian analysis tools to quantitatively select the best hypothesis on the basis of its explanatory power and robustness over experimental data. The central question is: whether, and how, human distance perception incorporates size cues to improve accuracy. Our conclusions are: 1) humans incorporate haptic object size sensations for distance perception, 2) the incorporation of haptic sensations is suboptimal given their reliability, 3) humans use environmentally accurate size and distance priors, 4) distance judgments are produced by perceptual “posterior sampling”. In addition, we compared our model's estimated sensory and motor noise parameters with previously reported measurements in the perceptual literature and found good correspondence between them. Taken together, these results represent a major step forward in establishing the computational underpinnings of human distance perception and the role of size information.

Battaglia, Peter W.; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R.

2011-01-01

163

On the recall of vestibular sensations.  

PubMed

Functional neuroimaging studies on the recall or imagination of a distinctive task in the motor network or of sensations in sensory systems (visual, acoustic, nociceptive, gustatory, and olfactory) demonstrated that the respective primary cortex is often involved in the mental imagery process. Our aim was to examine this phenomenon in the vestibular system using fMRI. Sixteen healthy subjects were asked to remember the feeling of a rotatory chair procedure in contrast to an identical situation at rest. Shortly afterwards they were asked to recall the vestibular experience in a 1.5-T scanner. The resulting activations were then compared with the responses of a galvanic vestibular control experiment and a rest condition. The vestibular recall showed significant bihemispheric activations in the inferior frontal gyri, the anterior operculum, the middle cingulate, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the premotor motor cortex, and the anterior insula. We found activations in regions known to play a role in spatial referencing, motor programs, and attention in the recall of vestibular sensations. But important known relay stations for the cortical processing of vestibular information showed neither relevant activations nor deactivations. PMID:22367249

zu Eulenburg, Peter; Müller-Forell, W; Dieterich, M

2012-02-25

164

How haptic size sensations improve distance perception.  

PubMed

Determining distances to objects is one of the most ubiquitous perceptual tasks in everyday life. Nevertheless, it is challenging because the information from a single image confounds object size and distance. Though our brains frequently judge distances accurately, the underlying computations employed by the brain are not well understood. Our work illuminates these computions by formulating a family of probabilistic models that encompass a variety of distinct hypotheses about distance and size perception. We compare these models' predictions to a set of human distance judgments in an interception experiment and use Bayesian analysis tools to quantitatively select the best hypothesis on the basis of its explanatory power and robustness over experimental data. The central question is: whether, and how, human distance perception incorporates size cues to improve accuracy. Our conclusions are: 1) humans incorporate haptic object size sensations for distance perception, 2) the incorporation of haptic sensations is suboptimal given their reliability, 3) humans use environmentally accurate size and distance priors, 4) distance judgments are produced by perceptual "posterior sampling". In addition, we compared our model's estimated sensory and motor noise parameters with previously reported measurements in the perceptual literature and found good correspondence between them. Taken together, these results represent a major step forward in establishing the computational underpinnings of human distance perception and the role of size information. PMID:21738457

Battaglia, Peter W; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R

2011-06-30

165

Interpersonal Touch among Residents of Homes for the Elderly.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on observations of interpersonal touching behavior patterns among residents of homes for the elderly. Analyzes behavior for Blacks and Whites, males and females, in terms of who initiates touching and parts of the body touched and used for touching. (JMF)|

Rinck, Christine M.; And Others

1980-01-01

166

Touch key design for target selection on a mobile phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile phones with a touch screen replacing traditional keypads have been introduced to the market. Few studies, however, have been conducted on the touch interface design for a mobile phone. This study investigated the effects of touch key sizes and locations on the one-handed thumb input that is popular in mobile phone interactions. Three different touch key sizes (i.e. square

Yong S. Park; Sung Ho Han; Jaehyun Park; Youngseok Cho

2008-01-01

167

Ratings of the appropriateness of touch among family members  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased awareness of inappropriate touch with children may discourage positive parent-child touch. The present study was designed to assess the extent of agreement regarding the appropriateness of various types of parent-child touch. Respondents were 83 men and 121 women who were shopping in an open air market in a metropolitan area. Touches involving parents and children in several settings were

Karen Harrison-Speake; Frank N. Willis

1995-01-01

168

Development and characterization of touch sensing devices for robotic applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the development of touch sensing chips for robotic applications and the experimental results from touch sensing elements on the chip. The high resolution tactile sensing chips have overall dimension of 1.5 cm ?? 1.5 cm and consist of 25 touch sensing elements. The touch sensing elements on the chip are the POSFET (Piezoelectric Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect

Ravinder S. Dahiya; Maurizio Valle; Roberto Oboe; Davide Cattin

2009-01-01

169

Two novel DEG/ENaC channel subunits expressed in glia are needed for nose-touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Neuronal DEG/ENaC (degenerin and epithelial Na(+) channel) Na(+) channels have been implicated in touch sensation. For example, MEC-4 is expressed in touch neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans and mediates gentle-touch response. Similarly, homologous mammalian ASIC2 and ASIC3 are expressed in sensory neurons and produce touch phenotypes when knocked out in mice. Here, we show that novel DEG/ENaC subunits DELM-1 and DELM-2 (degenerin-like channel mechanosensory linked-1 and degenerin-like channel mechanosensory linked-2) are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons in C. elegans and that their knock-out causes defects in mechanosensory behaviors related to nose touch and foraging, which are mediated by OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons. Cell-specific rescue supports that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are required cell-autonomously in glia to orchestrate mechanosensory behaviors. Electron microscopy reveals that in delm-1 knock-outs, OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons and associated glia are structurally normal. Furthermore, we show that knock-out of DELM-1 and DELM-2 does not disrupt the expression or cellular localization of TRPA-1, a TRP channel needed in OLQ and IL1 neurons for touch behaviors. Rather, rescue of the delm-1 nose-touch-insensitive phenotype by expression of a K(+) channel in socket glia and of a cationic channel in OLQ neurons suggests that DELM channels set basal neuronal excitability. Together, our data show that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons where they are not needed for neuronal structural integrity or cellular distribution of neuronal sensory channels, but rather for their function. PMID:23325233

Han, Lu; Wang, Ying; Sangaletti, Rachele; D'Urso, Giulia; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Bianchi, Laura

2013-01-16

170

Advances of SiC-based MOS capacitor hydrogen sensors for harsh environment applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

SiC-based hydrogen sensors have attracted much attention due to applications in harsh environments. In this paper, harsh environment is defined. Characteristics of SiC-based hydrogen sensors for harsh environment applications are reviewed. Various types of SiC-based field effect hydrogen sensor in terms of their respective history, structure, advantages and disadvantages have been discussed. SiC-based MOS capacitor hydrogen sensor will be conferred

Mun Teng Soo; Kuan Yew Cheong; Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor

2010-01-01

171

Reliably Powering Remote Seismic Stations in a Harsh Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three decades of experience in the operation of remote seismic stations in Alaska has demonstrated the need for reliable power systems in a harsh arctic environment. Legacy remote power systems have included Edison Aircells, a primary battery; Gel Cells, a secondary (rechargeable battery) and photovoltaic panels; wind generators; and propane TEG (thermal electric generators). The most reliable were the primary battery system but they were expensive, needed replacement every year and increasingly became a hazardous waste disposal problem. We have combined several of these power technologies to provide reliable, cost effective power for our current generation of analog and digital remotely powered seismic stations in Alaska with the use of a power controller. The features of the power controller are: to provide redundant power system control, solar panel voltage regulation, secondary battery charge regulation, state-of-heath output, and a primary battery "fuel gauge". Results of operations are presented.

Estes, S. A.; Rukick, R.; Hansen, R. A.

2002-12-01

172

Diagnostics hardening for harsh environment in Laser Megajoule (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic designs for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will require components to operate in environments far more severe than those encountered in present facilities. This harsh environment will be induced by fluxes of neutrons, gamma rays, energetic ions, electromagnetic radiations, and, in some cases, debris and shrapnel, at levels several orders of magnitude higher than those experienced today on existing facilities. The lessons learned about the vulnerabilities of present diagnostic parts fielded mainly on OMEGA for many years, have been very useful guide for the design of future LMJ diagnostics. The present and future LMJ diagnostic designs including this vulnerability approach and their main mitigation techniques will be presented together with the main characteristics of the LMJ facility that provide for diagnostic protection.

Bourgade, J. L.; Marmoret, R.; Darbon, S.; Rosch, R.; Troussel, P.; Villette, B.; Aubard, F.; Baggio, J.; Bazzoli, S.; Bonneau, F.; Boutin, J. Y.; Caillaud, T.; Chollet, C.; Combis, P.; Disdier, L.; Gazave, J.; Girard, S.; Gontier, D.; Jacquet, H. P.; Jadaud, J. P. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, Bruyeres le Chatel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)] (and others)

2008-10-15

173

Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing  

PubMed Central

Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity.

Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

2013-01-01

174

Surface acoustic wave devices for harsh environment wireless sensing.  

PubMed

Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

Greve, David W; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J

2013-05-24

175

Rugged spinel windows and optics for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spinel is a rugged ceramic transparent from ultraviolet to midwave infrared (0.18 - 5.5 ?m) wavelengths. It has the best transmission from 4-5 ?m among the competing materials ALON and sapphire with comparable mechanical properties. We have developed low absorption loss spinel as an exit window aperture for High Energy Laser systems. We demonstrated that spinel possesses excellent thermo-optical characteristics required for the High Energy Laser systems and at the same time it can provide the necessary ruggedness desired for the realistic and harsh battlefield environment. We have demonstrated through testing that spinel can withstand very adverse conditions of rain, sand storms and salt fog conditions without any change in its optical performance. We have also developed rugged anti-reflective coatings and anti-reflective surface structures to maintain high optical transmission in adverse environment.

Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Busse, Lynda; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Aggarwal, Ishwar

2013-05-01

176

Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

1993-06-01

177

Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

2006-01-01

178

A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

179

Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

180

Influences of Aging on Taste Perception and Oral Somatic Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Many elderly persons report reduced taste perception of the foods they eat. Any disturbance of taste and oral somatic sensations can induce this phenomenon. To determine the cause of decreased taste perception in older persons, the authors investigated age-related changes in taste perception and somatic sensations in the anterior tongue. Methods. Thirty healthy young and elderly persons participated in

Akiko Fukunaga; Hiroshi Uematsu; Kumiko Sugimoto

2005-01-01

181

Sensation Seekers as a Target Market for Volunteer Tourism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if sensation seeking and consumer innovativeness are useful characteristics in identifying a productive target market for volunteer tourism offerings. Sensation seeking and consumer innovativeness are trait characteristics describing needs for new experiences, risk taking, simulation, and consumer willingness to integrating these needs into their consumption of products and services. Extreme sports enthusiasts,

Walter W. Wymer Jr; Donald R. Self; Carolyn Sara Findley

2010-01-01

182

Tone Sensation produced by Repetitive Trains of Auditory `Click' Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT is well known that a sensation of continuous tone may be produced by presenting to the ear regularly repeated trains of sinusoidal waves, although each train may consist of only a few oscillations followed by a relatively long `blank' period1. I have observed that a sensation of tone may arise by the presentation of trains of very short pulses,

W. T. Catton

1951-01-01

183

Sensation seeking and risk taking in mortality salience  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to examine responses of sensation seekers concerning their tendency to take risks in driving in mortality salience. Ss completed the Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking scale (SSS). Two weeks later Ss were divided into two groups; the experimental group, which was exposed to a terrifying video film dealing with consequences of risky driving and a control group with a

Tova Rosenbloom

2003-01-01

184

Sensation seeking and the use of television for arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on how the personality trait of sensation seeking influences television viewers to be selective. Specifically, hypotheses predicted that high sensation seekers (HSS) would use television as a source of environmental arousal. Questionnaires were completed by 342 adult cable subscribers who also owned a remote control device. Results revealed that although there were no differences in the amount

Elizabeth M. Perse

1996-01-01

185

Sensation Seeking and the Use of Television for Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reveals that, although there were no differences in the amount of television watched by high sensation seekers (HSS) or low sensation seekers (LSS), HSS preferred music formats and action-adventure programs, and used television to increase the complexity and arousal in their environment. (SR)|

Perse, Elizabeth M.

1996-01-01

186

Sexual fantasies and sensation seeking among psychopathic sexual offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between psychopathy, sensation seeking behavior and sexual fantasies in a sample of 199 participants from a maximum security forensic hospital. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R), and several sensation seeking and sexual fantasy measures were utilized. Results indicated that, in agreement with previous research, sexually deviant psychopaths are more likely to offend

Leah C. Skovran; Matthew T. Huss; Mario J. Scalora

2010-01-01

187

Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes: A candidate system approach  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavior disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to individual differences in sensation seeking, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and non-human animals provide evidence for this relationship. We present here a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation seeking, in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopaminergic genes were analyzed. Using 273 SNPs from eight dopamine genes in a sample of 635 unrelated individuals, we examined the aggregate effects of those SNPs significantly associated with sensation seeking. Multiple SNPs in four dopamine genes accounted for significant variance in sensation seeking. These results suggest that aggregation of multiple SNPs within genes relevant to a specific neurobiological system into a “genetic risk score” may explain a nontrivial proportion of variance in human traits.

Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Bierut, Laura J

2011-01-01

188

Sensation seeking and startle modulation by physically threatening images.  

PubMed

The potential moderating effect of sensation seeking on anxious reactivity to threatening experiences was assessed using the affective modulation of startle-blink paradigm. Startle blinks, as measured by electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to loud (100 dB) white-noise stimuli, were elicited during the presentation of positive, neutral, and threatening visual images. Unlike participants low in sensation seeking who showed blink potentiation during threatening versus neutral images, participants high in sensation seeking showed equal magnitudes of startle to neutral and threatening images. The results suggest that individuals high compared with low on sensation seeking are less anxiously reactive to physically threatening visual stimuli. No attenuation in startle magnitude was elicited by positive images among low or high sensation seekers suggesting that the positive images employed in the current study were not arousing enough to activate the appetitive arousal system. PMID:12738407

Lissek, Shmuel; Powers, Alice Schade

2003-05-01

189

Thermal sensation and comfort models for non-uniform and transient environments: Part I: Local sensation of individual body parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-part series presents the development of models for predicting the local thermal sensation (Part I) and local comfort (Part II) of different parts of the human body, and also the whole-body sensation and comfort responses (Part III). The models predict these subjective responses to the environment from thermophysiological measurements or predictions (skin and core temperatures). The models apply to

Hui Zhang; Edward Arens; Charlie Huizenga; Taeyoung Han

2010-01-01

190

Peripheral Somatosensation: A Touch of Genetics  

PubMed Central

Summary The somatosensory system processes information that organisms “feel”: joint position, muscle stretch, pain, pressure, temperature, and touch. The system is composed of a diverse array of peripheral nerve endings specialized to detect these sensory modalities. Several recent discoveries have shed light on the genetic pathways that control specification and differentiation of these neurons, how they accurately innervate their central and peripheral targets, and the molecules that enable them to detect mechanical stimuli. Here, we review the cadre of genes that control these processes, focusing on mechanosensitive neurons and support cells of the skin that mediate different aspects of the sense of touch.

Reed-Geaghan, Erin G.

2011-01-01

191

Acoustic Characteristics of Vocal Tension/Harshness in the Speech of the Hearing Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The investigation calculated signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) and average fundamental vocal frequency (Fo) for 20 hearing impaired young adults and correlated acoustic measures with degree of perceived vocal tension/harshness. Results indicated significant correlations between S/N ratios and degree of perceived vocal tension/harshness, as well…

Whitehead, Robert L.; Whitehead, Brenda H.

1985-01-01

192

Polymer\\/ceramic wireless MEMS pressure sensors for harsh environments: High temperature and biomedical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents an investigation of miniaturized sensors, designed to wirelessly measure pressure in harsh environments such as high temperature and biomedical applications. Current wireless microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensors are silicon-based and have limited high temperature operation, require internal power sources, or have limited packaging technology that restricts their use in harsh environments. Sensor designs in this work are

Michael A. Fonseca

2007-01-01

193

Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child…

Lee, Yookyong

2009-01-01

194

Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

Lee, Yookyong

2009-01-01

195

Adaptation of an epilithic ecosystem to harsh high altitude environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epilithic ecosystems in high mountains are exposed to an extreme microclimate characterized by intense solar UV radiation, high temperature fluctuations and high aridity. Using the epilithic ecosystem Rhizocarpon geographicum, the most abundant lichen at the Plataforma de Gredos (Sierra de Gredos, Central Spain, 1.895 m a.s.l.) as model system, we have investigated whether the cortex protects the photobiont against impacts by this extreme environment. The UV radiation climate was measured optoelectronically as well by use of the biological dosimeter DLR-Biofilm, and the microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, PAR) by a microclimatic station (Squirrel, U.K.). The photosynthetic activity of the lichens was periodically determined by use of a photosynthesis yield analyser MINI PAM. Using lichen samples with- and without cortex during different periods of a growing season, showed a substantial protection by the cortex against environmental stress conditions, especially at summer solstice. Solar UV radiation and desiccation exerted the most damaging effects in lichens without cortex. Because of the high resistance of the intact lichen against the harsh high altitude climate, R. geographicum has been selected as test system for survival studies in space to be performed during the upcoming BIOPAN mission of ESA.

de La Torre Noetzel, R.; Horneck, G.; García Sancho, L.; Scherer, K.; Facius, R.; Urlings, T.; Rettberg, P.; Reina, M.; Pintado, A.

2003-04-01

196

Radio-frequency plasma transducer for use in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

We describe a compact transducer used to generate and modulate low-intensity radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma (RF-APP) for high temperature gap measurement and generation of air-coupled ultrasound. The new transducer consists of a quarter-wave transmission line where the ground return path is a coaxial solenoid winding. The RF-APP is initiated at the open end of the transmission line and stabilized by passive negative feedback between the electrical impedance of the plasma and the energy stored in the solenoid. The electrical impedance of the plasma was measured at the lower-voltage source end of the transducer, eliminating the need to measure kilovolt-level voltages near the discharge. We describe the use of a 7 MHz RF-APP prototype as a harsh-environment clearance sensor to demonstrate the suitability of plasma discharges for a common nondestructive inspection application. Clearance measurements of 0-5 mm were performed on a rotating calibration target with a measurement precision of 0.1 mm and a 20 kHz sampling rate.

May, Andrew; Andarawis, Emad [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, New York 12309 (United States)

2007-10-15

197

Improved scleroglucan for polymer flooding under harsh reservoir conditions  

SciTech Connect

Polymer flooding is commonly used to improve water sweep efficiency in oil reserves. Successful application of this method, however, has been restricted to low-temperature reservoirs because suitable polymers are not available for harsh conditions. Scleroglucan, a polymer produced by fermentation that shows promising properties, forms solutions that are very viscous and highly resistant to shear. Viscosity is insensitive to both salts and pH and only slightly affected by temperature. To facilitate industrial development of scleroglucan polymer, improvements in the filterability of the solutions and better knowledge of their behavior in porous media are necessary. A high-quality scleroglucan was obtained by eliminating the impurities responsible for polymer aggregation. This allowed evaluation of the intrinsic properties of the polymer molecules. Complete elimination of impurities from the polymer solution led to a scleroglucan without any aggregation tendency and with a good filterability, particularly at high temperatures. The performance of this improved scleroglucan in porous media was evaluated by coreflood experiments in Berea cores at temperatures ranging from 30 to 90{degrees} C. Results provided in this paper showed low permeability reduction and a mobility reduction close to relative viscosity. Injection of successive slugs into a Berea core under anaerobic conditions indicated low polymer retention at high temperatures (30 {mu}g/g at 90{degrees} C).

Rivenq, R.C.; Donche, A. (Elf Aquitaine (FR))

1992-02-01

198

Progress of laser diode arrays operating under harsh conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High Power Laser Diodes (HPLD) are increasingly used in different fields of applications such as Industry, Medical and Defense. Significant improvements of performances (especially in efficiency) and a reproducible manufacturing process have led to reliable, highly robust components. For defense and security applications these devices are used predominantly for pumping of solid state lasers (range finders, designators and countermeasures) but also as direct light source (illuminator, pointer,...). For these applications the devices not only have to show outstanding electro optical performances but the packaging must also be robust enough to sustain the harsh environmental requirements. Due to recent progress in both semiconductor technology and packaging, QLD was able to push the peak power up to 400W per bar at 808nm. At this wavelength QLD has achieved record high efficiencies close to 65% in production. Thanks to a very small bar to bar pitch down to 330?m our stacks deliver peak power densities as high as 12 kW/cm². Even at 400 ?m pitch the bars can be collimated in order to improve the beam quality.

Kohl, Andreas; Fillardet, Thierry; Moisan, Herve; Brousse, Eric

2010-10-01

199

Characterization of optical components for use in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies for survivability in harsh environments is crucial for the development of robust laser-optical firing systems. Customized mounts, bonded assemblies and packaging strategies were utilized for each of the laser resonator optics with the goal of developing and fielding a reliable initiation system for use in extreme conditions. Specific components were selected for initial testing based on past experience, material properties and optical construction. Shock, vibration and temperature testing was performed on three mounted optical components; polarizing cube beam splitters, Q-switch assemblies and xenon flashlamps. Previously, flashlamps of a solder-sealed construction type were successfully tested and characterized. This test regiment characterized the more fragile glass-to-metal seal constructed flashlamps. Components were shock-tested to a maximum impulse level of 5700 G's with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three axes. During each test, components were functionally tested and visually inspected at a specified point to verify survival. Temperature tests were performed over a range extending from a maximum of 75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for a two hour soak at each temperature set point. Experimental results obtained from these tests will be discussed as will their impact on future component mounting strategies.

Bright, Michelle; Morelli, Gregg

2006-09-01

200

Brain mapping of digestive sensations elicited by cortical electrical stimulations.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain a comprehensive map of cortical areas from where digestive sensations during intracerebral electrical stimulations (ES) in epileptic patients are elicited. Direct cortical ESs were performed in 339 medically intractable epileptic patients selected to presurgical evaluation using chronically stereotaxically implanted intracerebral electrodes and audio-video-EEG monitoring system. Digestive sensations were electrically induced on 723 different anatomical sites in 172 subjects (51%). According to the exclusion criteria, the final analysis includes 174 relevant stimulations evoked in 87 patients. The reported sensations referred predominantly to the upper part of the digestive tract including the epigastria and area over the periumbilical (n = 83; 48%), retrosternal (n = 17; 10%), pharyngeal (n = 31; 18%) and oral (n = 18; 10%) regions. The temporal pole (BA 38), hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC; BA 24/BA 32) were the typical anatomical locations connected with epigastric sensations. Retrosternal sensations were preferentially related to the ACC, while oro-pharyngeal sensations were most related to the suprasylvian opercular cortex and the insula. Cortical ESs are followed by a great variability of induced digestive and associated symptoms corresponding to a widely distributed cortical network of visceral sensation processing, in which the limbic and paralimbic structures play a critical role. PMID:18208482

Mulak, A; Kahane, P; Hoffmann, D; Minotti, L; Bonaz, B

2008-01-15

201

Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.

202

Evaluating capacitive touch input on clothes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wearable computing and smart clothing have attracted a lot of attention in the last years. For a variety of applications, it can be seen as potential future direction of mobile user interfaces. In this paper, we concentrate on usability and applicability issues concerned with capacitive touch input on clothing. To be able to perform user studies, we built a generic

Paul Holleis; Albrecht Schmidt; Susanna Paasovaara; Arto Puikkonen; Jonna Häkkilä

2008-01-01

203

The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as “I am not retarded,” using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a “telepathy game” using a rod with an attached strain gauge.

Emiko Kezuka

1997-01-01

204

Experiencing 'Touch' in Mobile Mixed Reality Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss player experiences relating to the interaction with objects included as part of mobile mixed reality games. In particular we focus on the player experience of a touch based reality interface using mobile phones equipped with RFID\\/NFC reader\\/writers for interaction with the RFID tagged objects used in three different mobile mixed reality games. The player experience

Paul Coulton; Omer Rashid; Will Bamford

2006-01-01

205

The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)|

Kezuka, Emiko

1997-01-01

206

Area touch sensor for dextrous manipulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel touch sensor for robots is described which continuously reports location and magnitude of contact within the area of the sensor. The sensor can be made in many forms, including a flexible membrane which may be applied to planar, cylindrical, or conical surfaces of any size. The sensor is novel in that the location of contact within the large

C. Marc Bastuscheckl

1989-01-01

207

Adding Interactivity: Active Touch in Broadcast Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite continual consumer demand for richer broadcast media, there have been few examinations of senses other than vision and hearing in this domain. This demonstration paper considers the role that touch may be able to play in future broadcast systems. We have begun to explore the addition of haptic cues to children's cartoons, and through this process unearthed a number

M. Sile O'modhrain; Ian Oakley

2004-01-01

208

Vector Keyboard for Touch Screen Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paper introduces a vector keyboard for touch screen devices. Characters are typed by drawing a vector starting from a dedicated\\u000a area. The typing area is divided into three clusters, each containing 9 characters. Measurement of typing speed and of number\\u000a of typos reveals that the keyboard is comparable to ABCDEF virtual keyboard.

Martin Klima; Vaclav Slovacek

2009-01-01

209

Localization of Curved Parts Through Continual Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple system that localizes two-dimensional curved shapes through touch sensing, offering computational and experimental studies. The idea lies in determining the placement of a manipulator on a curved object during some special motion—rolling. A geometric algorithm is introduced to locate the boundary segment traced out by their contact using tactile data. Both completeness and local convergence have

Yan-Bin Jia

2005-01-01

210

Patients' Perceptions of Touch during Labor.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory study using interviews of 150 postpartum patients was conducted to determine their perceptions of the touching they received during labor. Answers to the interview questions were analyzed in terms of overall perceptions, positive experiences, and negative experiences, and selected demographic variables were examined for differences…

Penny, Karen M. Stolte; Friedman, Paul G.

211

FuSA2 touch display  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touching, stroking and pulling are important ways to communicate with fibratus material. Above all, stroking is one of the most representative ways to interact with fibratus material because stroking lets people feel its direction, hardness and thickness. We propose a fibratus visual and tactile display, \\

Kosuke Nakajima; Yuichi Itoh; Ai Yoshida; Kazuki Takashima; Yoshifumi Kitamura; Fumio Kishino

2010-01-01

212

[Depressive disorder with pathological body sensations].  

PubMed

A group of patients with depressive disorder, depressive episode (DE) according to the ICD-10, with episodic or recurrent course and the presence of pathological body sensations (PBS) in the form of senestoalgic, senestoalgic-senestopathic and senestopathic syndromes has been studied. The study group consisted of 65 patients with PBS and the control one--of 30 patients without PBS. More than a half of patients with DE and PBS had severe DE without psychotic symptoms. Modality of hypothymia was assessed by depressed mood with presence/absence of melancholy and permanent anxiety appearing as generalized anxiety disorder. The study group was divided into 2 subgroups: DE with monolocal (39 patients) and DE with bi- or polylocal (26 patients) PBS. Initial, manifest and active stages of the disease course were singled out and PBS dynamics and appearances of depressive disorders per se on each stage were studied. The presence of comorbid disorders such as panic disorder (full and symptomatically poor variants) was found. Continuum is suggested in manifestations of monopolar depression as a borderline variant of affective psychosis: depression without PBS--depression with bi- and polylocal PBS--depression with monoclonal PBS. PMID:16972593

Ivanova, L A

2006-01-01

213

Single units and sensation: a retrospect.  

PubMed

The single-neuron doctrine is reexamined, and the search for causal links between single units and sensation reviewed. Although several decades of single-unit recording have been very successful in elucidating physiological mechanisms, linking signals from a single cell and perception has progressed at a slower rate. Nevertheless, analysing the activity of single neurons has achieved significant gains and remains the most promising level for elucidation of processing algorithms in the visual system. At the subcortical level, the conclusion that signals from just a single cell can carry enough information for some kinds of performance remains (almost) valid. Under carefully controlled conditions, just a few impulses in a few retinal ganglion cells are an adequate signal for the cortex to initiate a behavioural response. Elucidating cortical codes has been more difficult, and evidence exists suggesting the sharing of responsibility for a task among cell assemblies; how large these assemblies are, and how to test for them neurophysiologically, remains a challenge. PMID:10793883

Lee, B B

1999-01-01

214

An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others.  

PubMed

Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm) and hairy (arm) skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area (BA) 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signaling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch. PMID:22891054

Ackerley, Rochelle; Hassan, Eusra; Curran, Andrew; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Håkan; McGlone, Francis

2012-08-07

215

An fMRI study on cortical responses during active self-touch and passive touch from others  

PubMed Central

Active, self-touch and the passive touch from an external source engage comparable afferent mechanoreceptors on the touched skin site. However, touch directed to glabrous skin compared to hairy skin will activate different types of afferent mechanoreceptors. Despite perceptual similarities between touch to different body sites, it is likely that the touch information is processed differently. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the cortical differences in the neural signal of touch representations during active, self-touch and passive touch from another, to both glabrous (palm) and hairy (arm) skin, where a soft brush was used as the stimulus. There were two active touch conditions, where the participant used the brush in their right hand to stroke either their left palm or arm. There were two similar passive, touch conditions where the experimenter used an identical brush to stroke the same palm and arm areas on the participant. Touch on the left palm elicited a large, significant, positive blood-oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) signal in right sensorimotor areas. Less extensive activity was found for touch to the arm. Separate somatotopical palm and arm representations were found in Brodmann area (BA) 3 of the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and in both these areas, active stroking gave significantly higher signals than passive stroking. Active, self-touch elicited a positive BOLD signal in a network of sensorimotor cortical areas in the left hemisphere, compared to the resting baseline. In contrast, during passive touch, a significant negative BOLD signal was found in the left SI. Thus, each of the four conditions had a unique cortical signature despite similarities in afferent signaling or evoked perception. It is hypothesized that attentional mechanisms play a role in the modulation of the touch signal in the right SI, accounting for the differences found between active and passive touch.

Ackerley, Rochelle; Hassan, Eusra; Curran, Andrew; Wessberg, Johan; Olausson, Hakan; McGlone, Francis

2012-01-01

216

RemoteTouch: touch-screen-like interaction in the tv viewing environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explored the possibility of touch-screen-like interaction with a remote control in the TV-viewing environment. A shadow representing the user's thumb touches the screen, presses a button, flicks a cover-flow list, and draws a simple stroke, while the thumb stays and moves on and above the touchpad. In order to implement the concept we developed an optical touchpad for tracking

Sangwon Choi; Jaehyun Han; Geehyuk Lee; Narae Lee; Woohun Lee

2011-01-01

217

Teleoperation of robot partners through iPod touche  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with human interface for iPod touch used for the tele-operation of robot partners. We develop a tele-operation system based on touch interface of iPod touch. The environmental information is measured through the sensor network, and is stored in the remote host computer. The iPod touch accesses the environment information through wireless LAN, and sends the control outputs

Naoyuki Kubota; Shiho Wakisaka; Akihiro Yorita

2009-01-01

218

Investigation of fingertip blobs on optical multi-touch screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, multi-touch tabletop displays provided the Natural User Interface (NUI). Humans use the bare finger as a pointing device for manipulation of interactive elements on multi-touch surface. However, fingertip size occupies the large space instead of appropriate target point and creates ambiguity in touch detection. To overcome issue possibly, we develop an optical multi-touch screen using the Frustrated Total Internal

Ahsanullah; A. K. B. Mahmood; Suziah Sulaiman

2010-01-01

219

Skin conductance level reactivity moderates the association between harsh parenting and growth in child externalizing behavior.  

PubMed

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. PMID:21142369

Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Cummings, E Mark

2011-05-01

220

Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior  

PubMed Central

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood.

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

2011-01-01

221

The effects of touch on depressed and vocationally undecided clients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed the differential impact of a counselor's touch on depressed and vocationally undecided clients in an initial interview. Specifically, the effects of the counselor's touch on the S's appraisal of the counselor's empathy, unconditional regard, level of regard, congruence, and resistance were investigated. The counselor's touch was also evaluated for its influence on the S's request for a 2nd interview

Christopher N. Bacorn; David N. Dixon

1984-01-01

222

The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

1981-01-01

223

Virtual Interpersonal Touch: Expressing and Recognizing Emotions Through Haptic Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the phenomenon of Virtual Interpersonal Touch (VIT), people touching one another via force-feedback haptic devices. As collaborative virtual environments become utilized more effectively, it is only natural that interactants will have the ability to touch one another. In the work presented here, we used relatively basic devices to begin to explore the expression of emotion through VIT.

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee; Scott Brave; Dan Merget; David Koslow

2007-01-01

224

78 FR 37998 - Electronic One Touch Bingo System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of server based electronic bingo system games that can be played utilizing only one touch...touch bingo is a Class II or Class III game. DATES: The agency must receive comments...touch bingo as a Class II or a Class III game pursuant to the Indian Gaming...

2013-06-25

225

The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)|

Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

1981-01-01

226

Grips and gestures on a multi-touch pen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the interaction possibilities enabled when the barrel of a digital pen is augmented with a multi-touch sensor. We present a novel multi-touch pen (MTPen) prototype and discuss its alternate uses beyond those of a standard stylus, such as allowing new touch gestures to be performed using the index finger or thumb and detecting how users grip the

Hyunyoung Song; Hrvoje Benko; François Guimbretière; Shahram Izadi; Xiang Cao; Ken Hinckley

2011-01-01

227

Issues and techniques in touch-sensitive tablet input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-sensitive tablets and their use in human-computer interaction are discussed. It is shown that such devices have some important properties that differentiate them from other input devices (such as mice and joysticks). The analysis serves two purposes: (1) it sheds light on touch tablets, and (2) it demonstrates how other devices might be approached. Three specific distinctions between touch tablets

William Buxton; Ralph Hill; Peter Rowley

1985-01-01

228

Double-side multi-touch input for mobile devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new mobile interaction model, called double-side multi-touch, based on a mobile device that receives simultaneous multi-touch input from both the front and the back of the device. This new double-sided multi-touch mobile interaction model enables intuitive finger gestures for manipulating 3D objects and user interfaces on a 2D screen.

Erh-li Early Shen; Sung-sheng Daniel Tsai; Hao-hua Chu; Yung-jen Jane Hsu; Chi-wen Euro Chen

2009-01-01

229

Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on auricular points.  

PubMed

Deqi sensation, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous research works have investigated the component of Deqi response upon acupuncture on acupoints on the trunk and limbs. However, the characteristics of Deqi sensations of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on auricular points are seldom reported. In this study, we investigated the individual components of Deqi during TENS on auricular concha area and the superior scapha using quantitative measurements in the healthy subjects and depression patients. The most striking characteristics of Deqi sensations upon TENS on auricular points were tingling, numbness, and fullness. The frequencies of pressure, warmness, heaviness, and soreness were relatively lower. The dull pain and coolness are rare. The characteristics of Deqi were similar for the TENS on concha and on the superior scapha. PMID:23935663

Wang, Xiaoling; Fang, Jiliang; Zhao, Qing; Fan, Yangyang; Liu, Jun; Hong, Yang; Wang, Honghong; Ma, Yunyao; Xu, Chunhua; Shi, Shan; Kong, Jian; Rong, Peijing

2013-07-10

230

Correlation Factors Describing Primary and Spatial Sensations of Sound Fields  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of subjective preference of the sound field in a concert hall is established based on the model of human auditory-brain system. The model consists of the autocorrelation function (ACF) mechanism and the interaural crosscorrelation function (IACF) mechanism for signals arriving at two ear entrances, and the specialization of human cerebral hemispheres. This theory can be developed to describe primary sensations such as pitch or missing fundamental, loudness, timbre and, in addition, duration sensation which is introduced here as a fourth. These four primary sensations may be formulated by the temporal factors extracted from the ACF associated with the left hemisphere and, spatial sensations such as localization in the horizontal plane, apparent source width and subjective diffuseness are described by the spatial factors extracted from the IACF associated with the right hemisphere. Any important subjective responses of sound fields may be described by both temporal and spatial factors.

Ando, Y.

2002-11-01

231

Reliability and validity of a brief measure of sensation seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a self-report measure of sensation seeking, a dispositional risk factor for various problem behaviors. In two studies, we administered the Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS) to more than 7000 adolescents. Study 1 participants completed a paper-and-pencil form of the BSSS in mass-testing sessions. Psychometric analyses of the resultant data revealed suitable item characteristics and internal consistency of responses

Rick H. Hoyle; Michael T. Stephenson; Philip Palmgreen; Elizabeth Pugzles Lorch; R. Lewis Donohew

2002-01-01

232

Sensation seeking and startle modulation by physically threatening images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential moderating effect of sensation seeking on anxious reactivity to threatening experiences was assessed using the affective modulation of startle-blink paradigm. Startle blinks, as measured by electromyographic (EMG) activity in response to loud (100 dB) white-noise stimuli, were elicited during the presentation of positive, neutral, and threatening visual images. Unlike participants low in sensation seeking who showed blink potentiation

Shmuel Lissek; Alice Schade Powers

2003-01-01

233

Sensation Seeking as a Factor in Police Pursuit  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sensation Seeking Scale was administered to 69 patrol officers of a suburban police department to investigate the relationship between sensation seeking and officers' tendencies to engage in high-speed vehicular pursuit. Pursuit tendencies were measured by official departmental records, self-reports of previous pursuits, and responses to two hypothetical situations. The official records and self-report measures of pursuit were found to

ROBERT J. HOMANT; DANIEL B. KENNEDY; JIMMY D. HOWTON

1993-01-01

234

Illusory persistence of touch after right parietal damage: neural correlates of tactile awareness.  

PubMed

We studied a patient who experienced 'palinaesthesia', an illusion of persistent touch following tactile stimulation on the left hand, subsequent to a right parietal meningioma affecting primary somatosensory regions in the postcentral gyrus (SI) and superior parietal gyrus (Brodmann area 7), but preserving the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII) in the upper lateral sulcus. This subjective sensation was accompanied by transient increases in objective measures of tactile threshold. The patient had mild deficits in superficial tactile perception, but showed severe left-sided extinction for offsets of tactile stimuli during bilateral stimulation, but not for onsets of stimuli. Functional MRI revealed increased neural activity during palinaesthesia selectively arising within the ipsilesional-right SI cortex, but no abnormality within left SI and bilateral SII. Right SI responded to the onset of new tactile stimuli on the left hand but not to their offset. By contrast, any tactile events on either hand modulated activity in contralateral SII regions, even undetected left-sided offsets. These data demonstrate that illusory persistence of touch following stimulation on the hand may result from sustained neural activity in a restricted region of the SI cortex outlasting the offset of the actual tactile stimuli. These findings also provide direct evidence for a critical role of SI in mediating conscious somatosensory experience on contralateral parts of the body. PMID:15548555

Schwartz, Sophie; Assal, Frédéric; Valenza, Nathalie; Seghier, Mohamed L; Vuilleumier, Patrik

2004-11-17

235

Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scores have remained stable across years, as have sex differences in Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility. In contrast, the sex difference in Thrill and Adventure Seeking has declined, possibly due to changes in social norms or out-dated questions on this sub-scale. Our results support the view that men and women differ in their propensity to report sensation-seeking characteristics, while behavioural manifestations of sensation-seeking vary over time. Sex differences in sensation-seeking could reflect genetically influenced predispositions interacting with socially transmitted information.

Cross, Catharine P.; Cyrenne, De-Laine M.; Brown, Gillian R.

2013-01-01

236

Gender, fashion innovativeness and opinion leadership, and need for touch : Effects on multi-channel choice and touch\\/non-touch preference in clothing shopping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine whether gender, fashion innovativeness and opinion leadership, and need for touch have effects on consumers' multi-channel choice and touch\\/non-touch shopping channel preference in clothing shopping. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A survey was conducted using a convenience sample of 123 male and 154 female US college students. Data were analyzed using PASW Statistics 18 and Analysis

Siwon Cho; Jane Workman

2011-01-01

237

Associations Between Message Features and Subjective Evaluations of the Sensation Value of Antidrug Public Service Announcements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective targeting of high sensation-seeking adolescents, who are most at risk for drug abuse, requires the creation of high sensation value messages. Whereas previous research has focused on subjective reactions of receivers as the primary way to define message sensation value (MSV), we conceptualize message sensation value as the formal and content features (audio, visual, and format) of a

Susan E. Morgan; Philip Palmgreen; Michael T. Stephenson; Rick H. Hoyle; Elizabeth P. Lorch

2003-01-01

238

Beyond a youthful behavior style – Age and sex differences in sensation seeking based on need theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies examining sex and age-related differences in sensation seeking have mainly focused on specific patterns of behaviour that can be described as a youthful behaviour style. In contrast, the present study assessed age and sex differences in sensation seeking using the need inventory of sensation seeking (NISS). This instrument measures sensation seeking without items which are descriptive of concrete

Marcus Roth; Philipp Hammelstein; Elmar Brähler

2007-01-01

239

Initial study for creating linearly moving vibrotactile sensation on mobile device  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the feasibility of creating spatially moving vibrotactile sensations using two vibrotactile actuators in a mobile device. The idea is based on well-known tactile illusions of apparent tactile motion and ¿phantom¿ sensation. The phantom sensation refers to a perceptual phenomenon where spatially separated vibrotactile actuators that stimulate different skin zones induce a single tactile sensation midway between the

Jongman Seo; Seungmoon Choi

2010-01-01

240

Program Context, Sensation Seeking, and Attention to Televised Anti-Drug Public Service Announcements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the effects of message and program sensation value, sensation seeking, and drug use on visual attention to televised antidrug public service announcements among 18- to 22-year-olds. Indicates that program sensation value and sensation seeking are important factors in televised drug abuse prevention messages. (HB)

Lorch, Elizabeth Pugzles; And Others

1994-01-01

241

Getting Started with MonoTouch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a When most people think about developing applications for the iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch, they think of writing applications\\u000a in a low-level language like Objective-C. But the truth is, as the iOS ecosystem has matured, a number of ways to develop\\u000a apps for it has emerged.

Bryan Costanich

242

Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

Juntao Wu

2008-03-14

243

Human perception of shape from touch  

PubMed Central

In this paper, I focus on the role of active touch in three aspects of shape perception and discrimination studies. First an overview is given of curvature discrimination experiments. The most prominent result is that first-order stimulus information (that is, the difference in attitude or slope over the stimulus) is the dominant factor determining the curvature threshold. Secondly, I compare touch under bimanual and two-finger performance with unimanual and one-finger performance. Consistently, bimanual or two-finger performance turned out to be worse. The most likely explanation for the former finding is that a loss of accuracy during intermanual comparisons is owing to interhemispheric relay. Thirdly, I address the presence of strong after-effects after just briefly touching a shape. These after-effects have been measured and studied in various conditions (such as, static, dynamic, transfer to other hand or finger). Combination of the results of these studies leads to the insight that there are possibly different classes of after-effect: a strong after-effect, caused by immediate contact with the stimulus, that does only partially transfer to the other hand, and one much less strong after-effect, caused by moving over the stimulus for a certain period, which shows a full transfer to other fingers.

Kappers, Astrid M. L.

2011-01-01

244

Harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior: skin conductance level reactivity as a moderator.  

PubMed

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8-9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Regression analyses revealed that the association between harsh parenting and externalizing behavior was stronger among children with lower SCLR, as compared to children with higher SCLR. SCLR may be a more robust moderator among boys compared to girls. Results are discussed with regard to theories on antisocial behavior and multiple-domain models of child development. PMID:19467012

Erath, Stephen A; El-Sheikh, Mona; Mark Cummings, E

245

Harsh Parenting and Child Externalizing Behavior: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Moderator  

PubMed Central

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and child externalizing behavior. Participants were 251 boys and girls (8–9 years). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Regression analyses revealed that the association between harsh parenting and externalizing behavior was stronger among children with lower SCLR, as compared to children with higher SCLR. SCLR may be a more robust moderator among boys compared to girls. Results are discussed with regard to theories on antisocial behavior and multiple-domain models of child development.

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Cummings, E. Mark

2010-01-01

246

Stochastic facilitation of artificial tactile sensation in primates.  

PubMed

Artificial sensation via electrical or optical stimulation of brain sensory areas offers a promising treatment for sensory deficits. For a brain-machine-brain interface, such artificial sensation conveys feedback signals from a sensorized prosthetic limb. The ways neural tissue can be stimulated to evoke artificial sensation and the parameter space of such stimulation, however, remain largely unexplored. Here we investigated whether stochastic facilitation (SF) could enhance an artificial tactile sensation produced by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Two rhesus monkeys learned to use a virtual hand, which they moved with a joystick, to explore virtual objects on a computer screen. They sought an object associated with a particular artificial texture (AT) signaled by a periodic ICMS pattern delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) through a pair of implanted electrodes. During each behavioral trial, aperiodic ICMS (i.e., noise) of randomly chosen amplitude was delivered to S1 through another electrode pair implanted 1 mm away from the site of AT delivery. Whereas high-amplitude noise worsened AT detection, moderate noise clearly improved the detection of weak signals, significantly raising the proportion of correct trials. These findings suggest that SF could be used to enhance prosthetic sensation. PMID:23055496

Medina, Leonel E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2012-10-10

247

Muscle pain inhibits cutaneous touch perception.  

PubMed

The processing of noxious and non-noxious sensations differs between chronic pain syndromes, and we believe that studies of sensory processing in the presence of pain will help to clarify the aetiology of the conditions. Here we measured in humans the threshold-level mechanosensitivity in tonic experimental muscle pain. We found (1) that muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline reduced cutaneous threshold-level mechanosensitivity at the site of pain and at the mirror site in the contralateral face, (2) that this effect outlasted the sensation of pain, (3) that it was more pronounced when the painful area was reported to be large, and (4) that the loss of mechanosensitivity was greater in males than females. Comparing our findings to results obtained with other pain models, all classes of nociceptors do not seem to have the same effect on cutaneous mechanosensitivity. The observed threshold-level hypoesthesia is consistent with the hypothesis that the increased mechanical thresholds found in clinic cases of temporomandibular disorders and cervicobrachialgia are a direct result of the activation of muscle nociceptors. PMID:11376905

Stohler, C S; Kowalski, C J; Lund, J P

2001-06-01

248

Conjoint Analysis for Causal Relationship among Thermal Sensation Votes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To analyze the causal relationships between thermal comfort and thermal sensation votes, this paper presents how conjoint analysis works in experimentation. The samples for the experimentation consisted of 1,584 (22 subjects x 9 conditions x 8 times) questionnaire data and the thermal sensations are voted for face, chest, hands, buttocks, and soles of the foot. To use conjoint analysis, the samples are preprocessed such that each thermal sensation vote is either OK or NG and the combination of OK and NG covers as variety as possible. Using SPSS for the votes, we have confirmed the lower body is more important than the upper body in controlling thermal comfort. The comparison with multi-regression analysis is also shown.

Nakano, Masayuki; Kubo, Shingo; Koretsune, Akihiro; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Jinno, Yukihiro; Mimura, Eiji

249

The role of touch in facilitated communication.  

PubMed

Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as "I am not retarded," using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. A force from the assistant, which controlled what was spelled through physical support, was measured. It was thus completely possible for any message to appear to be typed with FC regardless of the autistic child's actual knowledge or language ability. PMID:9403373

Kezuka, E

1997-10-01

250

Haptic Interaction of Touch and Proprioception: Implications for Neuroprosthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatosensation is divided into multiple discrete modalities that we think of separably: e.g., tactile, proprioceptive, and temperature sensation. However, in processes such as hap- tics, those modalities all interact. If one intended to artificially generate a sensation that could be used for stereognosis, for example, it would be crucial to understand these interactions. We are presently examining the relationship between

Liliana Rincon-Gonzalez; Jay P. Warren; David M. Meller; Stephen Helms Tillery

2011-01-01

251

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasingly, the movements of players’ physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games.\\u000a This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control\\u000a by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed,\\u000a the best practices for creating video games

Cody Watts; Ehud Sharlin; Peter Woytiuk

2010-01-01

252

Midas: a declarative multi-touch interaction framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past few years, multi-touch user interfaces emerged from research prototypes into mass market products. This evolution has been mainly driven by innovative devices such as Apple's iPhone or Microsoft's Surface tabletop computer. Unfortunately, there seems to be a lack of software engineering abstractions in existing multi-touch development frameworks. Many multi-touch applications are based on hard-coded procedural low level

Christophe Scholliers; Lode Hoste; Beat Signer; Wolfgang De Meuter

2011-01-01

253

Ambient touch: designing tactile interfaces for handheld devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sense of touch as a channel for communicating with miniature handheld devices. We embedded a PDA with a TouchEngineTM --- a thin, miniature lower-power tactile actuator that we have designed specifically to use in mobile interfaces (Figure 1). Unlike previous tactile actuators, the TouchEngine is a universal tactile display that can produce a wide variety of

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama; Jun Rekimoto

2002-01-01

254

AirTouch: Interacting with computer systems at a distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present AirTouch, a new vision-based interaction system. AirTouch uses computer vision techniques to extend commonly used interaction metaphors, such as multitouch screens, yet removes any need to physically touch the display. The user interacts with a virtual plane that rests in between the user and the display. On this plane, hands and fingers are tracked and gestures are recognized

Daniel R. Schlegel; Albert Y. C. Chen; Caiming Xiong; Jeffrey A. Delmerico; Jason J. Corso

2011-01-01

255

Multi-touch Table as Conventional Input Device  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In order to improve the functionality of multi-touch devices, the possibility of using them as input devices for other computers\\u000a needs to be reviewed. The idea is, to get rid of many different peripherals (e.g. keyboard, mouse, multi-touch pad) by using\\u000a a single multi-touch display. Furthermore the display can be used as an additional monitor to show for example toolbars,

Andreas Dippon; Florian Echtler; Gudrun Klinker

256

Interaction Design for Multi-touch Interactive Walls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent times, following the increasing affordability of large-scale display and multi-touch technologies, the market has seen the development and increasing deployment of multi-touch interactive walls. This new medium offers a unique mix of information density, direct interactivity, and collaboration support, and these new features have radical effects on the interaction design for the multi-touch wall device. Designers and developers

Wang Chen; Song-Yang Lao; Hyowon Lee; Alan F. Smeaton

2012-01-01

257

Novel optical sensors for high-temperature measurement in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate measurement of temperature is essential for the safe and efficient operation and control of a vast range of industrial processes. Many of these processes involve harsh environments, such as high temperature, high pressure, chemical corrosion, toxicity, strong electromagnetic interference, and high-energy radiation exposure. These extreme physical conditions often prevent conventional temperature sensors from being used or make them difficult to use. Novel sensor systems should not only provide accurate and reliable temperature measurements, but also survive the harsh environments through proper fabrication material selections and mechanical structure designs. This dissertation presents detailed research work on the design, modeling, implementation, analysis, and performance evaluation of novel optical high temperature sensors suitable for harsh environment applications. For the first time to our knowledge, an optical temperature sensor based on the broadband polanmetric differential interferometric (BPDI) technology is proposed and tested using single crystal sapphire material. With a simple mechanically structured sensing probe, in conjunction with an optical spectrum-coded interferometric signal processing technique, the proposed single crystal sapphire optical sensor can measure high temperature up to 1600°C in the harsh environments with high accuracy, corrosion resistance, and long-term measurement stability. Based on the successfully demonstrated sensor prototype in the laboratory, we are confident of the next research step on sensor optimization and scale-up for full field implementations. The goal for this research has been to bring this temperature sensor to a level where it will become commercially viable for harsh environment applications associated with industries.

Zhang, Yibing

258

Is There Touch in the Game of Twister ® ? The Effects of Innocuous Touch and Suggestive Questions on Children's Eyewitness Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preschool children (ages 48–70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister® and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct (“Did Amy kiss you?”) or suggestive “tag” questions (“Amy kissed you, didn't she?”) equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched

Elisa Krackow; Steven Jay Lynn

2003-01-01

259

Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

Masny, Diana

2012-01-01

260

Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, sensation, resonance and becoming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky, 2003). In this paper, MLT

Diana Masny

2012-01-01

261

Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects resting in a 39°C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water cooled thermode. This local cooling produced decreases in sweating rate measured at the thigh and increases in magnitude estimates of the cold sensation. The area of cold stimulation varied from 122 cm2 to 384 cm2. Sensitivity coefficients of the changes in sweating rate and magnitude

L. I. Crawshaw; E. R. Nadel; J. A. J. Stolwijk; B. A. Stamford

1975-01-01

262

Sensation seeking and collegiate vulnerability to internet dependence.  

PubMed

Past research on Internet dependence has suggested that those who are Internet dependent spend more time on-line, use chat rooms more frequently, play MUDs more often, and web surf more than nondependent Internet users, but few studies have examined how personality characteristics interact with Internet dependence. This study investigates how Internet usage, preferences, attitudes toward the Internet, and Internet behaviors are correlated with sensation seeking. It was predicted that participants who were higher in Internet usage and Internet behaviors would be higher in sensation seeking. Results indicated that Internet dependents tended to spend more time online, use E-mail, surf the web, use chat rooms, use MUDs, and visit cybersex sites more often than nondependent Internet users. However, dependents scored significantly lower on sensation seeking, thrill and adventure seeking, and excitement seeking than nondependent Internet users. It was concluded that dependents interact with the internet using a motivation scheme dissimilar to the physical thrill and excitement that typically characterize sensation seeking archetypes. PMID:19178215

Lavin, M; Marvin, K; McLarney, A; Nola, V; Scott, L

1999-01-01

263

Sound quality evaluation of the booming sensation for passenger cars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automotive booming noise due to powertrain occurs when pure or narrow band tones related to the firing frequency of engine and its harmonics excite the passenger cavity, which entails a prominent increase of sound intensity. The booming sensation has been considered as very important to the acoustic comfort of passengers. In this study, a sound quality index which can objectively

Sung-Hwan Shin; Jeong-Guon Ih; Takeo Hashimoto; Shigeko Hatano

2009-01-01

264

Comparison between temporal dominance of sensations and time intensity results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal dominance of sensations (TDS) and time intensity (TI) were used to characterize specific organoleptic properties of six beverage products. Results from these two sensory techniques were compared by using three different statistical approaches. Firstly, both TI and TDS results were analysed by parametric modelling, to determine key parameters of each individual curve. Average parameters over judges and repetitions were

Fanny M. Le Révérend; Claire Hidrio; Angela Fernandes; Victoire Aubry

2008-01-01

265

Camera Motions Improve the Sensation of Walking in Virtual Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of camera motions, in order to improve the sensation of walking in a Virtual Environment. A simple model of camera motion is first proposed. This model uses: (1) oscillating motions for the position of the camera, and (2) a compensation motion which changes the orientation of the camera and simulate oculomotor compensation to keep a

Anatole Lécuyer; Jean-Marie Burkhardt; Jean-Marie Henaff; S. Donikian

2006-01-01

266

Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

267

Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

268

Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Taiwanese high school adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined excessive Internet use of Taiwanese adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents. Seven hundred and fifty three Taiwanese high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users. Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line

Sunny S. J. Lin; Chin-Chung Tsai

2002-01-01

269

Study on postburn hand sensation using a personal test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using clinical tests, the authors have studied the recovery of sensation following third degree burns after excision to the subdermal area or the “fascia”. This study is comprised of 57 hands. The part of the body to be examined was deliberately limited: the hand was selected because of its unique anatomical and functional features. Most frequently, the burns were on

M. Ledoux; A. Jouret; P. Lecocq

1994-01-01

270

Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

2010-01-01

271

A NOVEL MICROVIBRATION ACTUATOR AND THE PRESENTATION OF TACTILE SENSATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel micro-vibration actuator using a shape- memory alloy for the presentation of various tactile sensations to a human skin is introduced in this paper. The authors paid attention to the characteristics of a shape- memory alloy formed into a thread, which changes its length according to its temperature, and developed a vibration- generating actuator electrically driven by periodic signals

Keishi Fukuyama; Yohsuke Mizukami; Hideyuki Sawada

272

Persistent pain and uncomfortable sensations in persons with multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experience of pain has been documented in small studies of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The present study examines the prevalence of persistent pain and uncomfortable sensations among participants in the large North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Patient Registry. Registrants (10,176) responded to a questionnaire on pain and 7579 reported experiencing some level of pain during the

Olympia Hadjimichael; Robert D. Kerns; Marco A. Rizzo; Gary Cutter; Timothy Vollmer

2007-01-01

273

Inhaled Furosemide Greatly Alleviates the Sensation of Experimentally Induced Dyspnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Furosemide is known to influence the activity of vagally mediated mechanoreceptors in the airways. Because vagal afferent fibers may play an important role in modulation of the sensation of dys- pnea, it is possible that inhaled furosemide may modify the sensa- tion of dyspnea. In a double-blind, randomized, crossover study, we compared the effect of inhaled furosemide on dyspneic sensa-

TAKASHI NISHINO; TOHRU IDE; TOMOKO SUDO; JIRO SATO

274

Thermal sensations of secondary school children in summer  

PubMed Central

Summer thermal sensations of secondary schoolchildren in England are compared with those earlier published for winter. Heat stress, contrary to expectation, is seen to decrease during the warm months, and neutrality is found to increase by some 6° F. (3·5° C.) air temperature, which is more than double the increases observed for adults under similar circumstances.

Auliciems, A.

1973-01-01

275

Thermal sensations of secondary school children in summer.  

PubMed

Summer thermal sensations of secondary schoolchildren in England are compared with those earlier published for winter. Heat stress, contrary to expectation, is seen to decrease during the warm months, and neutrality is found to increase by some 6 degrees F. (3.5 degrees C.) air temperature, which is more than double the increases observed for adults under similar circumstances. PMID:4518344

Auliciems, A

1973-09-01

276

The Communication of Sensation and Affect Amongst Dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing from current anthropological theory of affect, this thesis explores the communication of sensation and affect amongst professional dancers. According to Brian Massumi, affect is about the body's ability to be affected and to affect others. Affecting others opens one to being personally affected and visa versa. Teresa Brennan argues that bodies are porous and receptive to affective non-verbal transmissions.

Evadne Kelly

2008-01-01

277

Are social networking profiles reliable indicators of sensational interests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensational interests are sometimes reported on the personal profiles of social networking web sites such as Facebook. Can these reports be validated against established psychometric tools used by forensic psychologists? Given that web sites and personal profiles can be used as evidence of a person’s ‘character’ in legal contexts, evaluating their reliability and validity is important. This study evaluated the

Gareth Hagger-Johnson; Vincent Egan; David Stillwell

2011-01-01

278

Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.  

PubMed

Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

2006-12-01

279

The development of reproductive strategy in females: early maternal harshness --> earlier menarche --> increased sexual risk taking.  

PubMed

To test a proposition central to J. Belsky, L. Steinberg, and P. Draper's (1991) evolutionary theory of socialization-that pubertal maturation plays a role in linking early rearing experience with adolescent sexual risk taking (i.e., frequency of sexual behavior) and, perhaps, other risk taking (e.g., alcohol, drugs, delinquency)-the authors subjected longitudinal data on 433 White, 62 Black, and 31 Hispanic females to path analysis. Results showed (a) that greater maternal harshness at 54 months predicted earlier age of menarche; (b) that earlier age of menarche predicted greater sexual (but not other) risk taking; and (c) that maternal harshness exerted a significant indirect effect, via earlier menarche, on sexual risk taking (i.e., greater harshness --> earlier menarche --> greater sexual risk taking) but only a direct effect on other risk taking. Results are discussed in terms of evolutionary perspectives on human development and reproductive strategy, and future directions for research are outlined. PMID:20053011

Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence; Houts, Renate M; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L

2010-01-01

280

Harsh voice quality and its association with blackness in popular american media.  

PubMed

Performers use various laryngeal settings to create voices for characters and personas they portray. Although some research demonstrates the sociophonetic associations of laryngeal voice quality, few studies have documented or examined the role of harsh voice quality, particularly with vibration of the epilaryngeal structures (growling). This article qualitatively examines phonetic properties of vocal performances in a corpus of popular American media and evaluates the association of voice qualities in these performances with representations of social identity and stereotype. In several cases, contrasting laryngeal states create sociophonetic contrast, and harsh voice quality is paired with the portrayal of racial stereotypes of black people. These cases indicate exaggerated emotional states and are associated with yelling/shouting modes of expression. Overall, however, the functioning of harsh voice quality as it occurs in the data is broader and may involve aggressive posturing, comedic inversion of aggressiveness, vocal pathology, and vocal homage. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:24060966

Moisik, Scott Reid

2013-09-18

281

Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity  

PubMed Central

Individuals with Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete’s body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the ‘Enfacement Illusion’ to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant’s face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using ‘morphed’ images containing varying proportions of the participant’s face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations.

Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-01-01

282

A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation  

PubMed Central

Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of non-histaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in non-histaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: 1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a sub-group of subjects with A-fiber dominated itch, 2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber versus C-fiber dominated itch, 3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, 4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, 5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and 6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that non-histaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents.

Ringkamp, M.; Schepers, R. J.; Shimada, S.G.; Johanek, L.M.; Hartke, T.V.; Borzan, J.; Shim, B.; LaMotte, R.H.; Meyer, R.A.

2011-01-01

283

A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation.  

PubMed

Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of nonhistaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in nonhistaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: (1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a subgroup of subjects with A-fiber-dominated itch, (2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber- versus C-fiber-dominated itch, (3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, (4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, (5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber-dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and (6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber-dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that nonhistaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

Ringkamp, Matthias; Schepers, Raf J; Shimada, Steven G; Johanek, Lisa M; Hartke, Timothy V; Borzan, Jasenka; Shim, Beom; LaMotte, Robert H; Meyer, Richard A

2011-10-19

284

The importance of touch in development  

PubMed Central

Developmental delay is common in children deprived of normal sensory stimulation – for example, in premature neonates and some institutionalized children. Touch has emerged as an important modality for the facilitation of growth and development; positive effects of supplemental mechanosensory stimulation have been demonstrated in a wide range of organisms, from worm larvae to rat pups to human infants. Animal models are being used to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. In rats, the amount of maternal licking received as a pup has a profound impact on the behaviour and physiology of the adult; in the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, physical interactions with other worms promote growth and increase adult responsiveness to mechanosensory stimuli. By understanding the underlying mechanisms, as well as the timing and degree of stimulation required to fully reverse the effects of early childhood deprivation, strategies can be developed to best help those in need.

Ardiel, Evan L; Rankin, Catharine H

2010-01-01

285

Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

2012-01-01

286

A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

Slotnick, Burton

2009-01-01

287

Noninformative vision improves the spatial resolution of touch in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on sensory perception now often considers more than one sense at a time. This approach reflects real-world situations, such as when a visible object touches us. Indeed, vision and touch show great interdependence: the sight of a body part can reduce tactile target detection times [1], visual and tactile attentional systems are spatially linked [2], and the texture of

Steffan Kennett; Marisa Taylor-Clarke; Patrick Haggard

2001-01-01

288

Hand occlusion on a multi-touch tabletop  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the shape of hand and forearm occlusion on a multi-touch table for different touch contact types and tasks. Individuals have characteristic occlusion shapes, but with commonalities across tasks, postures, and handedness. Based on this, we create templates for designers to justify occlusion-related decisions and we propose geometric models capturing the shape of occlusion. A model using diffused illumination

Daniel Vogel; Géry Casiez

2012-01-01

289

A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.

290

Effect of robot's active touch on people's motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the effect of a robot's active touch for improving people's motivation. For services in the education and healthcare fields, a robot might be useful for improving the motivation of performing such repetitive and monotonous tasks as exercising or taking medicine. Previous research demonstrated with a robot the effect of user touch on improving its impressions, but they

Kayako Nakagawa; Masahiro Shiomi; Kazuhiko Shinozawa; Reo Matsumura; Hiroshi Ishiguro; Norihiro Hagita

2011-01-01

291

Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

2012-01-01

292

Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt

2011-01-01

293

Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt

2012-01-01

294

Nonverbal Communication in Classroom Interactions: A Pedagogical Perspective of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper begins by exploring touch as "tactile perception" dimension, which means what human hands could achieve, especially considering the important role of skin receptors. The author moves forward to a description of children's necessity for contact as well as to their touch disorders. Following descriptions further clarify these items in…

Stamatis, Panagiotis J.

2011-01-01

295

Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

296

Touch Sensor Assembly Using Infrared Radiations and its Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses about a novel technology for introducing a touch sensor that can be applied for numerous applications, using optoelectronics. The sensor employed harnesses the attributes of an Infrared LED and an infrared photodiode. The routine touch sensor buttons can be replaced by this cost effective assembly that uses variation in amount of infrared radiations falling upon the photodiode

V. Rana; N. Paliwal; A. Chahar

2009-01-01

297

Direct-touch vs. mouse input for tabletop displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the differences - in terms of both quantitative performance and subjective pref- erence - between direct-touch and mouse input for unimanual and bimanual tasks on tabletop displays. The results of two experiments show that for bimanual tasks performed on tabletops, users benefit from direct-touch input. However, our results also indicate that mouse input may be more appropriate for

Clifton Forlines; Daniel Wigdor; Chia Shen; Ravin Balakrishnan

2007-01-01

298

Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

Rand, Michael R.; And Others

299

Safe touch temperatures for hot plates.  

PubMed

A finite difference heat transfer model has been developed to predict the Safe Touch Temperatures (STT) for plates made of different materials. SST can be defined as the highest temperature at which no pain is felt when the surface is touched for a long enough period to allow safe handling of the equipment. The criterion used to quantify damage is the "damage function" that was originally proposed by Henriques and Moritz. There are several uncertainties present in the physiological and thermal properties of the skin that give rise to a solution range rather than a single solution. Certain simplifying assumptions are made that tend to yield solutions for STT that are toward the lower or "safe" end of the solution range. The model developed is a two-dimensional axisymmetric model in cylindrical coordinates. A finite difference scheme that uses the Alternating Direction Implicit method is used to solve the problem. It is a second-order scheme in both space and time domains. A parametric analysis of the model is performed to isolate those factors that affect the STT to the greatest extent. Data are presented for a variety of cases, which cover commonly observed ranges in material and geometric properties. It is found that the material properties, namely thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, and the plate thickness ratio are the three most important parameters. These three parameters account for a range of STT from 56 degrees C-100 degrees C with thick metals at the low end and thin metals and plastics in the high range. This method represents a significant improvement over existing standard practices. PMID:10412456

Subramanian, B; Chato, J C

1998-12-01

300

Brief measures of sensation seeking for screening and large-scale surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation seeking is central to research on the prevention of risky health behaviors, but current measures of sensation seeking are fairly long, thereby reducing their chances of inclusion in some research projects. Hence, we developed and evaluated two brief indices of sensation seeking, a four-item measure that retains the framework of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V (SSS-V) and a shorter

Michael T. Stephenson; Rick H. Hoyle; Philip Palmgreen; Michael D. Slater

2003-01-01

301

Touching character segmentation method for Chinese historical documents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The OCR technology for Chinese historical documents is still an open problem. As these documents are hand-written or hand-carved in various styles, overlapped and touching characters bring great difficulty for character segmentation module. This paper presents an over-segmentation-based method to handle the overlapped and touching Chinese characters in historic documents. The whole segmentation process includes two parts: over-segmented and segmenting path optimization. In the former part, touching strokes will be found and segmented by analyzing the geometric information of the white and black connected components. The segmentation cost of the touching strokes is estimated with connected components' shape and location, as well as the touching stroke width. The latter part uses local optimization dynamic programming to find best segmenting path. HMM is used to express the multiple choices of segmenting paths, and Viterbi algorithm is used to search local optimal solution. Experimental results on practical Chinese documents show the proposed method is effective.

Sun, Xiaolu; Peng, Liangrui; Ding, Xiaoqing

2010-01-01

302

Genetic interactions affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed Central

At least 13 genes (mec-1, mec-2, mec-4-10, mec-12, mec-14, mec-15, and mec-18) are needed for the response to gentle touch by 6 touch receptor neurons in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Several, otherwise recessive alleles of some of these genes act as dominant enhancer mutations of temperature-sensitive alleles of mec-4, mec-5, mec-6, mec-12, and mec-15. Screens for additional dominant enhancers of mec-4 and mec-5 yielded mutations in previously known genes. In addition, some mec-7 alleles showed allele-specific, dominant suppression of the mec-15 touch-insensitive (Mec) phenotype. The dominant enhancement and suppression exhibited by these mutations suggest that the products of several touch genes interact. These results are consistent with a model, supported by the known sequences of these genes, that almost all of the touch function genes contribute to the mechanosensory apparatus.

Gu, G; Caldwell, G A; Chalfie, M

1996-01-01

303

Touch to Play -- Exploring Touch-Based Mobile Interaction with Public Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile interactions with public displays are often indirect and not very convenient for multiple users at the same time. In this paper we use the physical, touch-based interaction with Near Field Communication (NFC) to investigate direct mobile interactions with public displays for multiple users. For that purpose, we adopt the Whack-a-Mole game for dynamic NFC-displays, which combine the physical interaction

Gregor Broll; Roman Graebsch; Maximilian Scherr; Sebastian Boring; Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner

2011-01-01

304

Perception of 3-D location based on vision, touch, and extended touch.  

PubMed

Perception of the near environment gives rise to spatial images in working memory that continue to represent the spatial layout even after cessation of sensory input. As the observer moves, these spatial images are continuously updated. This research is concerned with (1) whether spatial images of targets are formed when they are sensed using extended touch (i.e., using a probe to extend the reach of the arm) and (2) the accuracy with which such targets are perceived. In Experiment 1, participants perceived the 3-D locations of individual targets from a fixed origin and were then tested with an updating task involving blindfolded walking followed by placement of the hand at the remembered target location. Twenty-four target locations, representing all combinations of two distances, two heights, and six azimuths, were perceived by vision or by blindfolded exploration with the bare hand, a 1-m probe, or a 2-m probe. Systematic errors in azimuth were observed for all targets, reflecting errors in representing the target locations and updating. Overall, updating after visual perception was best, but the quantitative differences between conditions were small. Experiment 2 demonstrated that auditory information signifying contact with the target was not a factor. Overall, the results indicate that 3-D spatial images can be formed of targets sensed by extended touch and that perception by extended touch, even out to 1.75 m, is surprisingly accurate. PMID:23070234

Giudice, Nicholas A; Klatzky, Roberta L; Bennett, Christopher R; Loomis, Jack M

2012-10-16

305

Identification of human brain loci processing esophageal sensation using positron emission tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Brain loci that process human esophageal sensation remain unidentified. The aim of this study was to identify the brain loci that process nonpainful and painful human esophageal sensation. METHODS: In 8 healthy subjects (7 men; age range, 24-47 years), distal esophageal stimulation was performed by repeatedly inflating a balloon at volumes that produced either no sensation, definite

Q Aziz; JL Andersson; S Valind; A Sundin; S Hamdy; AK Jones; ER Foster; B Langstrom; DG Thompson

1997-01-01

306

Responses of Human Somatosensory Cortex to Stimuli below Threshold for Conscious Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Averaged evoked responses of somatosensory cortex, recorded subdurally, appeared with stimuli (skin, ventral posterolateral nucleus, cortex) which were subthreshold for sensation. Such responses were deficient in late components. Subthreshold stimuli could elicit sensation with suitable repetition. The primary evoked response was not sufficient for sensation. These facts bear on the problems of neurophysiological correlates of conscious and unconscious experience, and

B. Libet; W. W. Alberts; E. W. Wright Jr.; B. Feinstein

1967-01-01

307

The moderating role of sensation seeking tendency in robotic haptic interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the interaction effects between haptic force feedback and users’ sensation seeking tendency (i.e. need for sensations) on users’ feelings of presence (i.e. the state in which users experience virtual objects and virtual environments as if they were actual) in robotic haptic interfaces. Users with low sensation seeking tendency felt stronger physical presence and spatial presence in response

Seung-A Annie Jin

2012-01-01

308

Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2012-01-01

309

Ecstasy use and self-reported depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there are indications that ecstasy users have higher levels of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking, it is unknown whether these are consequences of ecstasy use or predisposing factors for starting ecstasy use. We prospectively assessed the predictive value of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking on future .rst time ecstasy use. We also assessed whether depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking

Maartje M. L. de Win; Thelma Schilt; Liesbeth Reneman; Hylke Vervaeke; Gerry Jager; Sarah Dijkink; Jan Booij; Wim van den Brink

2006-01-01

310

Anticipatory Public Speaking State Anxiety as a Function of Body Sensations and State of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships among a public speaker's body sensations, state of mind, and anticipatory public speaking state anxiety. A negative relationship was found to exist between speaker state of mind and anticipatory public speaking anxiety, and a positive relationship was found between speaker body sensations and anticipatory public speaking anxiety. Moreover, speaker state of mind and body sensations

Shannon C. McCullough; Shelly G. Russell; Ralph R. Behnke; Chris R. Sawyer; Paul L. Witt

2006-01-01

311

Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.  

PubMed

Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

2003-12-01

312

‘Kiss, Cuddle, Squeeze’: The Experiences and Meaning of Touch among Parents of Children with Autism Attending a Touch Therapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results

Lesley Cullen; Julie Barlow

2002-01-01

313

Do Harsh and Positive Parenting Predict Parent Reports of Deceitful-Callous Behavior in Early Childhood?  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between parenting and the development of antisocial behavior in children is well established. However, evidence for associations between dimensions of parenting and callous unemotional (CU) traits is mixed. As CU traits appear critical to understanding a subgroup of youth with antisocial behavior, more research addressing the link between early parenting and CU traits is needed. Methods The current study investigated longitudinal predictions between measures of harsh and positive parenting, and early CU behavior. Data from mother-child dyads (N=731; 49% female) were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample with young children, and included self-reported and multi-method observed parenting. CU behavior was assessed using a previously validated measure of deceitful-callous behavior (Hyde et al., in press). Results Results suggest that dimensions of harsh parenting, but not positive parenting, contribute to the development of child deceitful-callous behavior. Nevertheless, deceitful-callous behavior showed strong stability over time and the effects of harsh parenting, especially observed harshness, were modest. Conclusions The current findings have implications for developmental psychopathology and early interventions for antisocial behavior. The results also raise a number of issues about measuring emerging CU behavior in very young children, including the interrelation between parent perceptions and reports of child behavior, parent reactions, and the subsequent development of severe antisocial behavior.

Waller, Rebecca; Gardner, Frances; Hyde, Luke W.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

2012-01-01

314

An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation within an Evolutionary Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping…

Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.

2012-01-01

315

Face Re-Lighting from a Single Image under Harsh Lighting Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a new method to change the illumination condition of a face image, with unknown face geometry and albedo information. This problem is partic- ularly difficult when there is only one single image of the subject available and it was taken under a harsh lighting condition. Recent research demonstrates that the set of im- ages of

Yang Wang; Zicheng Liu; Gang Hua; Zhen Wen; Zhengyou Zhang; Dimitris Samaras

2007-01-01

316

A Genetically Informed Study of the Association Between Harsh Punishment and Offspring Behavioral Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions about the effects of harsh parenting on children have been limited by research designs that cannot control for genetic or shared environmental confounds. The present study used a sample of children of twins and a hierarchical linear modeling statistical approach to analyze the consequences of varying levels of punishment while controlling for many confounding influences. The sample of 887

Stacy K. Lynch; Eric Turkheimer; Brian M. DOnofrio; Jane Mendle; Robert E. Emery; Wendy S. Slutske; Nicholas G. Martin

2006-01-01

317

Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

318

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison  

PubMed Central

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared to those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and 1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, 2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and 3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical.

Chancellor, Leia V.; Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2011-01-01

319

Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences.  

PubMed

Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N = 42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants' experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants' whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues. PMID:22037689

Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Riem, Madelon M E; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R A

2011-10-27

320

Neural sensation and actuation of shells using distributed piezoelectric transducers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural identification and control are of importance in modern advanced structures, e.g., aerospace structure, flexible manipulators, etc. In this paper, distributed piezoelectric layers coupled with conventional elastic shell distributed systems are used as distributed 'neurons' (sensors) and 'muscles' (actuators) for structural identification and actuation of the 'active' shells - shells with self-sensation and action/reaction capabilities. New theories on distributed 'neural' sensation and actuation of shells are developed based on a generic shell continuum coupled with piezoelectric neurons and muscles. Open and closed loop system dynamic equations are also derived. Applications of the theories to a cylinder case using four system parameters, two Lame's parameters and two radii of curvature, are demonstrated.

Tzou, H. S.

321

Sensation and action during active and passive movement.  

PubMed

In order to determine the cause of active or passive sensation and action, we studied the effect of perception on gaze and posture control. Normal adults and a patient with bilateral labyrinthine loss underwent whole body rotation seated in a chair (120 degrees/s) or standing on a platform (60 degrees/s), while tilting their head with their vision normal or covered. Eye movements were recorded by a CCD video camera and body sways by a force platform. In normal subjects, gaze and posture became ataxic when head tilting with their vision covered, but they remained skilled under conditions of normal vision. The patient with bilateral labyrinthine loss did not undergo the effect of head tilting with no vision. It seems likely that sensation and action, whether they are skilled or ataxic, are controlled by the perception of an outer world which is integrated from visual and vestibular inputs and functions as a vector in the head. PMID:10320058

Takahashi, M; Watanuki, K; Ikeda, T

1999-03-01

322

Sensate Media — Multimodal Electronic Skins as Dense Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the concept of building electronic sensate skins as extremely dense, multimodal, systolic sensor networks. In this fashion, the copious signals produced by the skin's receptors are reduced by the network itself, and only high-level features are routed out peer-to-peer, avoiding complex wiring requirements while promising to enable scalability across large areas. Our architectures and algorithms

J A Paradiso; J Lifton; M Broxton

2004-01-01

323

Respiratory Sensations Evoked by Activation of Bronchopulmonary C-fibers  

PubMed Central

C-fibers represent the majority of vagal afferents innervating the airways and lung, and can be activated by inhaled chemical irritants and certain endogenous substances. Stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers with selective chemical activators by either inhalation or intravenous injection evokes irritation, burning and choking sensations in the throat, neck and upper chest (mid-sternum region) in healthy human subjects. These irritating sensations are often accompanied by bouts of coughs either during inhalation challenge or when a higher dose of the chemical activator is administered by intravenous injection. Dyspnea and breathless sensation are not always evoked when these afferents are activated by different types of chemical stimulants. This variability probably reflects the chemical nature of the stimulants, as well as the possibility that different subtypes of C-fibers encoded by different receptor proteins are activated. These respiratory sensations and reflex responses (e.g., cough) are believed to play an important role in protecting the lung against inhaled irritants and preventing overexertion under unusual physiological stresses (e.g., during strenuous exercise) in healthy individuals. More importantly, recent studies have revealed that the sensitivity of bronchopulmonary C-fibers can be markedly elevated in acute and chronic airway inflammatory diseases, probably caused by a sensitizing effect of certain endogenously released inflammatory mediators (e.g., prostaglandin E2) that act directly or indirectly on specific ion channels expressed on the sensory terminals. Normal physiological actions such as an increase in tidal volume (e.g., during mild exercise) can then activate these C-fiber afferents, and consequently may contribute, in part, to the lingering respiratory discomforts and other debilitating symptoms in patients with lung diseases.

Lee, Lu-Yuan

2009-01-01

324

The effect of superior pedicle breast reductions on breast sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess nipple, areola and breast skin sensation after breast reductions with two different superior\\u000a pedicle techniques: a short, vertical scar technique compared to a long, inverted-T scar technique. Thirty-six women with\\u000a a vertical technique (group I) and ten women with an inverted-T technique (group II) with a resection weight of ?500 g per\\u000a breast

Konstantina Belouli; Gratiela Iscru; Nathalie Krügel; Sonja Meier; Sandra Baldi; Gertrude M. Beer

2009-01-01

325

Yes, There Is Deqi Sensation in Laser Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Deqi, a composite of unique sensations, is essential for clinical efficacy according to Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is described as a sensory perception of varying character and is mostly ascribed to metal needle acupuncture. However, it can also be elicited by different kinds of laser acupuncture stimulation. This short paper summarizes the current scientific status of deqi in laser stimulation. Different kinds of laser acupuncture are described in a comprehensive form, and the most interesting studies concerning deqi and laser acupuncture are presented.

2013-01-01

326

Alliesthesia in visual and auditory sensations from environmental signals.  

PubMed

'Alliesthesia' describes the fact that sensory stimuli can arouse pleasant or unpleasant sensations according to the internal state of a person. In the present work, the hedonicity aroused by stimuli from the environment in visual and auditory sensations was evaluated in 5 situations: 1) daytime without sensory stimulations (no video-tape); 2) daytime with poor sensory stimulations (uninteresting video-tape film); 3) daytime with rich sensory stimulations (interesting chosen movie on video-tape); 4) night-time without sensory stimulations (no video-tape); 5) night-time with poor sensory stimulations (uninteresting video-tape). During the day, hedonic ratings decreased with time in the no- and uninteresting video-tape film conditions (p<0.01), but increased with the chosen movie (p<0.05). During the night, hedonic ratings decreased similarly to daytime ratings with the uninteresting video-tape film (p<0.01) but rose in the no-video-tape environment (p<0.01). The time course of motivation to leave the environment mirrored that of hedonic ratings. Changes in hedonic ratings as well as motivation to leave the environment correlated with the state of tiredness in the day-no-video and night-no-video situations (r=0.541 and r=-0.593; p<0.01). Thus, alliesthesia occurred in visual and auditory sensations that originated from the environment, and motivated behavior that was not consummatory. Such results suggest that alliesthesia is a general property of all sensations, and emphasizes the fundamental role of pleasure in motivation for all behaviors. PMID:17399746

Brondel, L; Cabanac, M

2007-03-02

327

Aging and Curvature Discrimination from Static and Dynamic Touch  

PubMed Central

Two experiments evaluated the ability of 30 older and younger adults to discriminate the curvature of simple object surfaces from static and dynamic touch. The ages of the older adults ranged from 66 to 85 years, while those of the younger adults ranged from 20 to 29 years. For each participant in both experiments, the minimum curvature magnitude needed to reliably discriminate between convex and concave surfaces was determined. In Experiment 1, participants used static touch to make their judgments of curvature, while dynamic touch was used in Experiment 2. When static touch was used to discriminate curvature, a large effect of age occurred (the thresholds were 0.67 & 1.11/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). However, when participants used dynamic touch, there was no significant difference between the ability of younger and older participants to discriminate curvature (the thresholds were 0.58 & 0.59/m for the younger and older participants, respectively). The results of the current study demonstrate that while older adults can accurately discriminate surface curvature from dynamic touch, they possess significant impairments for static touch.

Norman, J. Farley; Kappers, Astrid M. L.; Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Ronning, Cecilia; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Baxter, Michael W.; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora N.

2013-01-01

328

Assessing decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena in diabetic polyneuropathies.  

PubMed

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Dyck, Peter J; Herrmann, David N; Staff, Nathan P; Dyck, P James B

2013-11-01

329

Referred sensations elicited by video-mediated mirroring of hands.  

PubMed

Humans readily perceive ownership of a limb even when it is artificially induced as in the case of using a mirror reflection. However, mirror reflections are very constrained perceptions which do not allow transformations and varied contexts as often occurs in real life. The extent to which perceived limb ownership occurs with video-mediated manipulations is not known, particularly given the perception would no longer be a precise copy (reflection) of a person's own limb. The present study directly compared referred sensations of the limbs with the use of a mirror reflection to those obtained with a new video-mediated setup to assess perceived ownership. Manipulations that could not be performed with a standard mirror reflection, such as reversal of the spatial positions of the limbs, were also investigated to examine how far the perceived ownership effects could be pushed. Across a series of experiments, data on the quality, intensity and location of referred sensations were collected and analyzed together with measures of hand ownership and participants' experience of the two setups. Results reveal that participants felt referred sensations in both the optical and the video-mediated setup, and that video-mediated manipulations of hand-position reversals produced equal to stronger effects of ownership compared with the mirror reflection. These findings open up new possibilities for scientific experimentation and therapy that are discussed in the paper. PMID:23272080

Hoermann, Simon; Franz, Elizabeth A; Regenbrecht, Holger

2012-12-18

330

Force and touch make video games 'serious' for dexterity rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Computerized interfaces are able to represent 3D immersive simulations. Most of them make use of joystick, mouse, gloves, or grasp pressure transducers. Those have the drawback of 'filtering' the user interaction and/or de-locate the touch with respect to the visual stimulus. To overcome this we developed dexterity rehabilitation games on a novel touch interface that measures also force. The system allows dexterity training through 'direct' manipulation of virtual objects in 3D. Two dimensions via the touch screen, the third by the force channel. Tactile feedback is provided with a vibration device mounted on the screen back. PMID:22942045

Confalonieri, Michele; Guandalini, Giovanni; Da Lio, Mauro; De Cecco, Mariolino

2012-01-01

331

The biobehavioral effects of gentle human touch on preterm infants.  

PubMed

This study examined the physiological and behavioral effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention on medically fragile preterm infants (27 to 32 weeks gestational age). The Roy adaptation model of nursing was the framework for the study. The results of this study suggest that the immediate and short-term effects of a gentle human touch nursing intervention were not aversive or stressful to preterm infants of 27 to 32 weeks gestational age; furthermore, the findings document several positive, beneficial behavioral effects of the intervention on preterm infants and indicate this type of touching may be appropriate for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:12593316

Modrcin-Talbott, Mary Anne; Harrison, Lynda Law; Groer, Maureen W; Younger, Mary Sue

2003-01-01

332

Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori

2006-01-01

333

Cocaine Exposure and Children's Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3?years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother–infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7?months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother–toddler interactions at 2?years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3?years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and children’s self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal harshness or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, ?2 (23)?=?34.36, p?>?0.05, Comparative Fit Index?=?0.95, RMSEA?=?0.05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of harshness toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2?years of age (??=?0.23, p?harshness at 2?years was predictive of lower self-regulation at 3?years (??=??0.36, p?harshness among cocaine using mothers is predictive of child self-regulatory outcomes in the preschool period.

Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Veira, Yvette; Cox, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Johns, Josephine M.

2011-01-01

334

Multi-Touch Interaction for Robot Command and Control.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In emergency response, gathering intelligence is still largely a manual process despite advances in mobile computing and multi-touch interaction. The labor-intensive nature of this process means that the information digested by personnel going into the fi...

M. J. Micire

2010-01-01

335

Shortest path based splitting line finding for touching cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A shortest path based algorithm is proposed in this paper to find splitting lines for touching cells. Firstly, an initial splitting line is obtained through the distance transform of a marker image and the watershed algorithm. Then, the initial splitting line is separated into different line segments if necessary, and the start and end points of these line segments act as the start and end points of shortest path. Finally, the shortest path algorithm is used to find the splitting line between the start and end points, and the final result of touching cells splitting can be formed by the contour of the touching cells and the splitting lines. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is efficient for different types of touching cells.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Sun, Changming; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Fugen

2013-10-01

336

New Implanted Defibrillator Works Well without Touching Heart  

MedlinePLUS

New implanted defibrillator works well without touching heart American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report August 26, 2013 Study Highlights: A new type of defibrillator implanted under the skin can ...

337

Touch Computing: Simplifying Human to Environment Interaction through NFC Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work analyses the use of NFC technology to simplify the interactions of users with context- aware services offered by intelligent environments. Touch Computing is a novel explicit user interaction mechanism in which users accompanied by their NFC-enabled mobile devices request services from the environment by touching tags or other NFC-enabled devices. This paper describes the deployment of three NFC-aware

Diego López-de-Ipiña; Juan Ignacio Vazquez; Iker Jamardo

338

The pedagogic opportunities of touch-screen voting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-screen systems have been used to count votes in a growing number of precincts across the United States. These controversial systems provide an opportunity for valuable classroom discussions both for service courses and courses for computer science majors.This paper begins with an overview of touch-screen voting systems in the United States. It describes ways to productively address this issue with

Mark Jones

2005-01-01

339

ComTouch: design of a vibrotactile communication device  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design of ComTouch, a device that augments remote voice communication with touch, by converting hand pressure into vibrational intensity between users in real-time. The goal of this work is to enrich inter-personal communication by complementing voice with a tactile channel. We present preliminary user studies performed on 24 people to observe possible uses of the tactile channel

Angela Chang; Sile O'Modhrain; Robert J. K. Jacob; Eric Gunther; Hiroshi Ishii

2002-01-01

340

New Interfaces at the Touch of a Fingertip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-screen technology has not been nearly so advanced but instead has been limited to a handful of narrow-use applications with limited functionality such as automated teller machines, gas pumps, museum displays, airline- ticket kiosks, and PDAs. No one is predicting that touch displays will soon replace the traditional keyboard-and-mouse interface for general-purpose computing. However, they are beginning to move into

Steven J. Vaughan-nichols

2007-01-01

341

Touch-less palm print biometrics: Novel design and implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an innovative touch-less palm print recognition system. This project is motivated by the public’s demand for non-invasive and hygienic biometric technology. For various reasons, users are concerned about touching the biometric scanners. Therefore, we propose to use a low-resolution web camera to capture the user’s hand at a distance for recognition. The users do not

Michael Goh Kah Ong; Tee Connie; Andrew Beng Jin Teoh

2008-01-01

342

Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.  

PubMed

Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

2012-01-01

343

Effects of Harsh and Unpredictable Environments in Adolescence on Development of Life History Strategies  

PubMed Central

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood.

Figueredo, Aurelio Jose; Ellis, Bruce J.

2010-01-01

344

photonic sensors review progress of optical fiber sensors and its application in harsh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber sensors have been developed for industry application with significant advantages. In this paper, Fiber sensors for oil field service and harsh environment monitoring which have been investigated in Tsinghua University are demonstrated. By discussing the requirements of practical applications, the key technologies of long-period fiber grating (LPFG) based fiber sensor, optical spectrum analyzer for oil detection, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system for soil contamination monitoring, and seismic sensor arrays are described.

Zhang, Min; Ma, Xiaohong; Wang, Liwei; Lai, Shurong; Zhou, Hongpu; Zhao, Huafeng; Liao, Yanbiao

2011-03-01

345

Influence of harsh environmental conditions on CFRP-aluminum single lap joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of harsh environmental conditions on the fundamental failure mechanisms of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP)-aluminum single lap single-bolted joints under tensile loading. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – CFRP-aluminum single lap joints were aged under extremely hot (60°C), hot and humid (60°C, 95%RH), and freezing cold (?51°C) environments and tensile-tested to measure

Luis Breziner; Parsaoran Hutapea

2008-01-01

346

Support for Harsh Criminal Sanctions and Criminal Justice Beliefs: A Social Dominance Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the criminal justice literature indicates that people’s support for harsh criminal sanctions such as the death penalty\\u000a is strongly related to their beliefs about deterrence and their beliefs about retribution. In this paper, using social dominance\\u000a theory as our organizing framework, we expand upon this literature by showing that social dominance orientation (SDO) is also\\u000a related to support

Jim Sidanius; Michael Mitchell; Hillary Haley; Carlos David Navarrete

2006-01-01

347

Harsh solder joint reliability tests by impact drop and highly accelerated life test (HALT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, board level impact drop test and highly accelerated life test (HALT) were conducted on lead-free soldered assemblies. Harsh solder joint reliability testing are needed for impact drop requirements particularly for portable electronics. Highly accelerated life testing (HALT) is increasingly used for high-end workstation server systems. For drop test, the acceleration and strain were measured for clamped-clamped PCB

F. X. Che; J. H. L. Pang

2004-01-01

348

An Exploratory Study of Touch Zones in College Students on Two Campuses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this exploratory study was to characterize college student beliefs about where it is acceptable to touch and be touched by other students in casual social interactions. Undergraduate students at a residential university (N = 242) and at a local community college (N = 200) completed the Touch Survey. The survey measures beliefs about touching in social interactions.

Mark Tomita

349

Legal and ethical issues of touch in dance\\/movement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a description of the use of touch in dance\\/movement therapy followed by a brief discussion of the social and emotional roles played by various forms of touch. The frequency of touch between patient and therapist is cited and the ethical issues, particularly concerning sexuality and the use of touch as power, are explored. Legal concerns include the

Carlotta Willis

1987-01-01

350

Pathways from harsh parenting to adolescent antisocial behavior: a multidomain test of gender moderation.  

PubMed

We tested for gender moderation within a multidomain model of antisocial behavior (ASB) among community youth, drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study. Youths (N = 1,639) were 9 to 12 years old at baseline and were followed for two additional waves, spaced approximately 2.5 years apart. We hypothesized that harsh and physically coercive parenting, a familial level risk factor, would impact individual level risk factors for ASB, such as childhood temperament ratings of emotionality and inhibitory control, and preadolescent externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as involvement with antisocial peers. We further hypothesized that this process and its impact on ASB would be moderated by gender. We used both multiple indicator multiple causes and multiple group analyses to test for gender moderation and a structural equation modeling multiple mediation framework to evaluate the strength of indirect effects. We tested the role of family, individual, and peer level influences on ASB, after accounting for the role of known contextual factors, including poverty, race, and neighborhood. Our overall model fit the data well for males and females, indicating harsh parenting, disinhibition, emotionality, and peers exert a strong influence on risk for ASB. Gender moderated the pathway from harsh parenting to externalizing behavior, such that this was a significant pathway for girls, but not boys. We discussed the importance of these findings with regard to intervention planning for youth at risk for ASB and future gender-informed models of ASB. PMID:22781859

Burnette, Mandi L; Oshri, Assaf; Lax, Rachael; Richards, Dayton; Ragbeer, Shayne N

2012-08-01

351

A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics  

PubMed Central

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines.

Yang, Jie

2013-01-01

352

A harsh environment wireless pressure sensing solution utilizing high temperature electronics.  

PubMed

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

Yang, Jie

2013-02-27

353

Relationships among circadian typology, psychological symptoms, and sensation seeking.  

PubMed

Recently, attention has been focused on the relationship among circadian typology, psychiatric symptoms, and personality traits. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on psychological distress, and the sensation-seeking personality trait. Five hundred seventeen college students (173 males), aged 17 to 30, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the General Health Questionnaire 28-item version (GHQ-28), and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The evening-type subjects in our sample scored higher than the neither- and morning- type in the GHQ-28 total score, as well as in the four subscales that composed it (Psychosomatic Symptoms, Anxiety and Insomnia, Social Dysfunction, and Severe Depression) (p<0.02 in all cases). The evening-type subjects also had a larger proportion of psychiatric cases than the other two circadian typologies (p<0.0001 in all cases). Moreover, the evening-type subjects obtained higher scores in the SSS-V total score and in the subscales of Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility (p<0.001 in all cases). A positive correlation was observed between the GHQ-28 and the SSS-V total scores in the total sample, but only for the evening-type group (r=0.217; p<0.027). In the evening group, several relations were also found between the subscales of the GHQ-28 and the subscales of the SSS-V (r>0.206; p<0.036). All these data point to a relationship between evening-type subjects and the level of psychological distress and the sensation-seeking personality trait. They also suggest that eveningness could be related to developing psychological distress and personality traits that could, in turn, be related to developing other problems, such as drug consumption. PMID:23806000

Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana

2013-06-27

354

Performance and touch characteristics of disabled and non-disabled participants during a reciprocal tapping task using touch screen technology.  

PubMed

Touch screens are becoming more prevalent in everyday environments. Therefore, it is important that this technology is accessible to those with varying disabilities. The objective of the current study was to evaluate performance and touch characteristics (forces, impulses, and dwell times) of individuals with and without a movement disorder during a reciprocal tapping touch screen task. Thirty-seven participants with a motor control disability and 15 non-disabled participants participated. Outcome measures include number of correct taps, dwell time, exerted force, and impulse. Results indicate non-disabled participants had 1.8 more taps than participants with fine motor control disabilities and 2.8 times more than those with gross motor impairments (p<0.05). Additionally, people with gross motor control disabilities demonstrated longer dwell times and greater impulses (p<0.05). The average force used to activate the buttons was 6.2 N, although the button activation force was 0.98 N. Differences in reciprocal tapping and touch characteristics exist between those with and without motor control disabilities. Understanding how people (including those with disabilities) interact with touch screens may allow designers and engineers to ultimately improve usability of touch screen technology. PMID:22483677

Irwin, Curt B; Sesto, Mary E

2012-04-06

355

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2007-08-06

356

Typing on flat glass: examining ten-finger expert typing patterns on touch surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch screen surfaces large enough for ten-finger input have become increasingly popular, yet typing on touch screens pales in comparison to physical keyboards. We examine typing patterns that emerge when expert users of physical keyboards touch-type on a flat surface. Our aim is to inform future designs of touch screen keyboards, with the ultimate goal of supporting touch-typing with limited

Leah Findlater; Jacob O. Wobbrock; Daniel Wigdor

2011-01-01

357

Three-dimensional touch interface for medical education.  

PubMed

We present the technical principle and evaluation of a multimodal virtual reality (VR) system for medical education, called a touch simulator. This touch simulator comes with an innovative three-dimensional (3-D) touch sensitive input device. The device comprises a six-axis force-torque sensor connected to a tangible object representing the shape of an anatomical structure. Information related to the point of contact is recorded by the sensor, processed, and audiovisually displayed. The touch simulator provides a high level of user-friendliness and fidelity compared to other purely graphically oriented simulation environments. In this paper, the touch simulator has been realized as an interactive neuroanatomical training simulator. The user can visualize and manipulate graphical information of the brain surface or different cross-sectional slices by a finger-touch on a brain-like shaped tangible object. We evaluated the system by theoretical derivations, experiments, and subjective questionnaires. In the theoretical analysis, we could show that the contact point estimation error mainly depends on the accuracy and the noise of the sensor, the amount and direction of the applied force, and the geometry of the tangible object. The theoretical results could be validated by experiments: applying a normal force of 10 N on a 120 mm x 120 mm x 120 mm cube causes a maximum error of 2.5 +/- 0.7 mm. This error becomes smaller when increasing the contact force. Based on the survey results, the touch simulator may be a useful tool for assisting medical schools in the visualization of brain image data and the study of neuroanatomy. PMID:17521075

Panchaphongsaphak, Bundit; Burgkart, Rainer; Riener, Robert

2007-05-01

358

Sensation seeking and risky driving: a review and synthesis of the literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sensation seeking and risky behaviour has been observed since the 1970s. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, road safety researchers have examined the relationship between sensation seeking and risky driving (e.g. driving while impaired, speeding, following too closely), as well as its consequences (e.g. collisions, violations). There is also growing evidence that sensation seeking may also

Brian A Jonah

1997-01-01

359

Evaluation of nonnociceptive sensation in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by lack of pain\\u000a and thermal sensation, anhidrosis, thermodysregulation, and mental retardation. Although nonnociceptive sensation, which is\\u000a mediated by large-caliber myelinated A? fibers, is reported to be normal in CIPA patients, precise clinical assessments of\\u000a this type of sensation have yet to be performed. The aim

Masahiro Iijima; Nobuhiko Haga

2010-01-01

360

Revisiting Sugar-Fat Mixtures: Sweetness and Creaminess Vary with Phenotypic Markers of Oral Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation in oral sensation presumably influences ingestive behaviors through sensations arising from foods and bev- erages. Here, we investigated the influence of taste phenotype (6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness, fungiform papillae (FP) density) on sweet and creamy sensations from sugar\\/fat mixtures. Seventy-nine subjects (43 males) reported the sweetness and creaminess of water or milk (skim, whole, heavy cream) varying in sucrose

John E. Hayes; Valerie B. Duffy

2007-01-01

361

Brain encoding of acupuncture sensation — Coupling on-line rating with fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acupuncture-induced sensations have historically been associated with clinical efficacy. These sensations are atypical, arising from sub-dermal receptors, and their neural encoding is not well known. In this fMRI study, subjects were stimulated at acupoint PC-6, while rating sensation with a custom-built, MR-compatible potentiometer. Separate runs included real (ACUP) and sham (SHAM) acupuncture, the latter characterized by non-insertive, cutaneous stimulation. FMRI

Vitaly Napadow; Rupali P. Dhond; Jieun Kim; Lauren LaCount; Mark Vangel; Richard E Harris; Norman Kettner

2009-01-01

362

The Relationships Between Sensation Seeking and Gender Role Orientations Among Turkish University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between sensation seeking and gender role orientation were examined among 325 Turkish university students.\\u000a The Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V; Zuckerman, Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1994) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 42:155–162, 1974) were used for data collection. The

Demet Erol Öngen

2007-01-01

363

Quantitative Sensation and Autonomic Test Abnormalities in Transthyretin Amyloidosis Polyneuropathy  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the value of standard quantitative autonomic (QAT) and sensation (QST) tests in detecting, characterizing, and quantitating the severity of transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-A-PN). This information is needed for prospective therapeutic trials, epidemiologic surveys and medical practice. We reviewed thirty six patients with TTR-A-PN who were evaluated between 1997 and 2007. They had neurologic, genetic, electrodiagnostic, and autonomic reflex screen evaluations and allowed their medical records and test results to be evaluated for research purposes. Of these, 22 patients had also been tested by quantitative sensation tests (QSTs). The median symptom duration was 4 years (range 1 to 30 years). Among quantitative nerve tests evaluated, composite scores of nerve conduction (? 5 NC nds), a composite score of QSTs (?3QST nds), and quantitative autonomic tests (QSART, HRdb, and CASS) gave high frequencies of abnormality. These results show that peripheral autonomic and small fiber sensory dysfunction is prominent and characteristic of most of the patients we studied. However this involvement was not selective for small-diameter sensory and autonomic nerve fibers; large motor and sensory fibers were also shown to be dysfunctional. Dysfunction of large fibers was approximately as frequent as that of small fibers. This study provides a rationale for use of QAT, QST, and ? 5 NC nds as standard, objective and quantitative measures for quantitating the severity of TTR-A-PN in epidemiologic surveys, therapeutic trials and medical practice.

Kim, Dong Hwee; Zeldenrust, Steven R.; Low, Phillip A.; Dyck, Peter J.

2009-01-01

364

Quantitative sensation and autonomic test abnormalities in transthyretin amyloidosis polyneuropathy.  

PubMed

This study assesses the value of standard quantitative autonomic (QAT) and sensation (QST) tests in detecting, characterizing, and quantitating the severity of transthyretin amyloid polyneuropathy (TTR-A-PN). This information is needed for prospective therapeutic trials, epidemiologic surveys, and medical practice. We reviewed 36 patients with TTR-A-PN who were evaluated between 1997 and 2007. They had neurologic, genetic, electrodiagnostic, and autonomic reflex screen evaluations and allowed their medical records and test results to be evaluated for research purposes. Of these, 22 patients had also been tested by quantitative sensation tests (QSTs). The median symptom duration was 4 years (range 1-30 years). Among quantitative nerve tests evaluated, composite scores of nerve conduction (Sigma5 NC nds), a composite score of QSTs (Sigma3 QST nds), and quantitative autonomic tests (QSART, HR(db), and CASS) gave high frequencies of abnormality. The results show that peripheral autonomic and small-fiber sensory dysfunction was prominent and characteristic of most of the patients we studied. However, this involvement was not selective for small-diameter sensory and autonomic nerve fibers; large motor and sensory fibers were also shown to be dysfunctional. Dysfunction of large fibers was approximately as frequent as that of small fibers. This study provides a rationale for the use of QAT, QST, and Sigma5 NC nds as standard, objective, and quantitative measures for assessing the severity of TTR-A-PN in epidemiologic surveys, therapeutic trials, and medical practice. PMID:19618439

Kim, Dong Hwee; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Low, Phillip A; Dyck, Peter J

2009-09-01

365

Neighborhood disadvantage as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting and toddler-aged children's internalizing and externalizing problems  

PubMed Central

Neighborhood dangerousness and belongingness were expected to moderate associations between harsh parenting and toddler-aged children’s problem behaviors. Fifty-five predominantly African American mothers participated with their 2-year old children. Neighborhood danger, neighborhood belongingness, and children’s problem behaviors were measured with mothers’ reports. Harsh parenting was measured with observer ratings. Analyses considered variance common to externalizing and internalizing problems, using a total problems score, and unique variance, by controlling for internalizing behavior when predicting externalizing behavior, and vice-versa. Regarding the common variance, only the main effects of neighborhood danger and harsh parenting were significantly associated with total problem behavior. In contrast, after controlling for externalizing problems, the positive association between harsh parenting and unique variance in internalizing problems became stronger as neighborhood danger increased. No statistically significant associations emerged for the models predicting the unique variance in externalizing problems or models considering neighborhood belongingness.

Callahan, Kristin L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Laird, Robert D.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.

2011-01-01

366

Remote Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) Imaging of Space Plasma and Neurtal Gas in Harsh Radiation Environments: Applications to Jupiter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss requirements and general solutions to remotely image space plasma and neutral gas in the presence of harsh background radiation using Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA). Focusing on applications for ESA JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) mission.

Brandt, P. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Westlake, J.; Mauk, B. H.; Mauk, C. P.; Krimigis, S. M.

2012-10-01

367

Harsh Discipline, Childhood Sexual Assault, and MAOA Genotype: An Investigation of Main and Interactive Effects on Diverse Clinical Externalizing Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms\\u000a (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota\\u000a Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there\\u000a a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh

Jaime DerringerRobert; Robert F. Krueger; Daniel E. Irons; William G. Iacono

2010-01-01

368

Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.  

PubMed

Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective. PMID:23836807

Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

2013-07-08

369

Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

Gaudette, Claude

2008-05-01

370

Development of a heat flux dew-point hygrometer for harsh and fouling environments: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program summarized in this report was initiated for the purpose of developing a practical economic hygrometer for use in high temperature harsh and fouling industrial driving environments. The need for such a sensor was based on the fact that a successful measurement of the moisture content of the air in such environments could greatly improve drying efficiencies with attendant significant energy saving. At the time of the initiation of the program there were no sensors commercially available for such measurements. 4 refs., 9 figs.

Not Available

1988-06-01

371

Chimeric avidin shows stability against harsh chemical conditions--biochemical analysis and 3D structure.  

PubMed

Avidin and its bacterial analog streptavidin have been widely used in applications in life sciences. Recently, we described a highly thermostable engineered avidin, called chimeric avidin, which is a hybrid of avidin and avidin-related protein 4. Here, we report a protocol for pilot-scale production in E. coli and the X-ray structure of chimeric avidin. The ligand-binding properties of chimeric avidin were explored with isothermal titration calorimetry. We found chimeric avidin to be more stable against various harsh organic solvents at elevated temperatures compared to avidin and streptavidin. The properties of chimeric avidin make it a potential tool for new applications in biotechnology. PMID:20939005

Määttä, Juha A E; Eisenberg-Domovich, Yael; Nordlund, Henri R; Hayouka, Ruchama; Kulomaa, Markku S; Livnah, Oded; Hytönen, Vesa P

2010-11-24

372

Thirst in Critically Ill Patients: From Physiology to Sensation  

PubMed Central

Critically ill patients often have distressful episodes of severe thirst, but the underlying complex biochemical, neurohormonal regulatory controls that regulate this primal sensation have rarely been addressed by clinicians. Subtle changes in plasma osmolality are the most potent stimulus for thirst. In response to increases in osmolality, osmoreceptors activate release of the neurohormone vasopressin (also known as antidiuretic hormone). The released vasopressin acts on the kidneys to conserve water to correct the hyperosmolar state. If this compensatory mechanism is unsuccessful, thirst arises to promote drinking. Thirst induced by marked volume loss, in contrast, is more closely related to the volemic and pressure changes regulated by the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system. Understanding the physiological mechanisms of thirst will help in understanding the pathophysiological consequences of underlying thirst-related disease and treatments in critically ill patients. Further clinical research is needed to elucidate the multiple inhibitory and excitatory neurohormonal stimuli that motivate patients’ intense desire for water.

Arai, Shoshana; Stotts, Nancy; Puntillo, Kathleen

2013-01-01

373

Thermal sensations of surgeons during work in surgical gowns.  

PubMed

Standards for surgical procedures and medical clothing, designed for use in the operating theatre, have been gradually developed with the progress in science and technology. Standard No. EN 13795:2011, determining the requirements concerning materials for production of surgical gowns, was introduced in 2003. It concerns, e.g., resistance to microbial penetration. Little attention is given to thermal comfort, even though it is well known that thermal discomfort can have an adverse effect on the quality and efficiency of work. During a real-life test and laboratory tests, 2 male surgeons and 8 male volunteers were asked to describe their subjective sensations before and after work. The results of the real-life test and the laboratory tests are comparable. They show a clear lack of thermal comfort when medical clothing designed for the operating theatre is used. PMID:24034872

Zwoli?ska, Magdalena; Bogdan, Anna

2013-01-01

374

Individual differences in susceptibility to experimentally induced phantom sensations.  

PubMed

We investigated individual differences in susceptibility to two vibration-induced phantom illusions, i.e. illusory arm extension and nose prolongation ("Pinocchio illusion"). Vibration was applied to the biceps brachii tendon of 32 healthy participants. Susceptibility to the illusions was quantified by vividness ratings and by ratings of the amount of illusory position changes of the arm and illusory shape changes of the nose. Participants also completed the Perceptual Aberration (PA) and the Need for Cognition (NFC) inventories. PA reflects the frequency of spontaneously experienced body schema alterations and NFC a person's tendency to cognitively structure experiences. PA was positively correlated with participants' susceptibility to illusory arm extension and, exclusively for men, also to nose elongation. A high NFC was weakly associated with a high susceptibility for the Pinocchio illusion. By inference, these findings indicate a physiological basis of PA and a cognitive mediation of experimentally induced phantom sensations. PMID:18089197

Burrack, Anna; Brugger, Peter

2005-08-26

375

Sensation of nasal patency compared to rhinomanometric results after septoplasty.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the subjective sensation of nasal airflow resistance, the rhinoscopic findings and the objective measures of nasal obstruction in patients followed up after septoplasty. A further goal was to determine which of the above modalities is most suitable for assessment of the severity of nasal obstruction and which best indicates the need for surgery. 86 patients who had previously undergone septoplastic surgery were recruited. Objective and subjective measures of nasal obstruction were recorded by using active anterior rhinomanometry, rhinoscopy and a visual analogue scale. The Spearman rank order correlation model revealed a significant correlation between the VAS score and the airway resistance of the more obstructed nasal cavity (r = 0.24); furthermore, between the VAS score and rhinoscopic findings (r = 0.35). By applying the generalized linear model, we also found significant relation between the VAS score and the rhinomanometric data, and between the rhinoscopic findings and the airway resistance of the more obstructed nasal cavity (p = 0.02). The correlation between the subjective sensation of nasal airflow resistance, the rhinoscopic findings, and the rhinomanometric data proved to be significant, but weak even in the group of patients that underwent septoplasty. Every postoperative complaint should therefore be evaluated carefully. Rhinomanometry is an appropriate diagnostic tool with which to determine the measure of obstruction caused by nasal pathological factors. It is suitable for making objective the patients' complaints. Rhinoscopy, beyond the assessment of the degree of obstruction, is capable of analysis of its cause. The decision as to the need for surgery should be based on rhinoscopy, or nasal endoscopy, and can be supported by pathologically elevated resistance of the more obstructed nasal cavity. PMID:20544355

Tompos, Tamás; Garai, Tibor; Zemplén, Béla; Gerlinger, Imre

2010-06-11

376

Behavioral study of whisker-mediated vibration sensation in rats  

PubMed Central

Rats use their vibrissal sensory system to collect information about the nearby environment. They can accurately and rapidly identify object location, shape, and surface texture. Which features of whisker motion does the sensory system extract to construct sensations? We addressed this question by training rats to make discriminations between sinusoidal vibrations simultaneously presented to the left and right whiskers. One set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher frequency (f1 vs. f2) when amplitudes were equal. Another set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher amplitude (A1 vs. A2) when frequencies were equal. Although these results indicate that both elemental features contribute to the rats’ sensation, a further test found that the capacity to discriminate A and f was reduced to chance when the difference in one feature was counterbalanced by the difference in the other feature: Rats could not discriminate amplitude or frequency whenever A1f1 = A2f2. Thus, vibrations were sensed as the product Af rather than as separable elemental features, A and f. The product Af is proportional to a physical entity, the mean speed. Analysis of performance revealed that rats extracted more information about differences in Af than predicted by the sum of the information in elemental differences. These behavioral experiments support the predictions of earlier physiological studies by demonstrating that rats are “blind” to the elemental features present in a sinusoidal whisker vibration; instead, they perceive a composite feature, the speed of whisker motion.

Adibi, Mehdi; Diamond, Mathew E.; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

2012-01-01

377

Swallowing function and upper airway sensation in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether impaired upper airway (UA) mucosal sensation contributes to altered swallowing function in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We determined UA two-point discrimination threshold (2PDT) and vibratory sensation threshold (VST) in 15 men with untreated OSA and 9 nonapneic controls (CL). We then assessed swallowing responses to oropharyngeal fluid boluses delivered via a catheter. The threshold volume required to provoke swallowing and the mean latency to swallowing were determined, as was the phase of the respiratory cycle in which swallowing occurred [expressed as percentage of control cycle duration (%CCD)] and the extent of prolongation of the respiratory cycle after swallowing [inspiratory suppression time (IST)]. 2PDT and VST were significantly impaired in OSA patients compared with CL subjects. 2PDT was positively correlated with swallowing latency and threshold volume in CL subjects, but not in OSA patients. Threshold volume did not differ between the groups [median value = 0.1 ml (95% confidence interval = 0.1-0.2) for OSA and 0.15 ml (95% confidence interval = 0.1-0.16) for CL], whereas swallowing latency was shorter for OSA patients [3.3 (SD 0.7) vs. 3.9 (SD 0.8) s, P = 0.04]. %CCD and IST were similar for OSA patients and CL subjects. However, among OSA patients there was a significant inverse relation between VST and IST. These findings suggest that oropharyngeal sensory impairment in OSA is associated with an attenuation of inhibitory modulating inputs to reflex and central control of UA swallowing function. PMID:17185498

Jobin, Vincent; Champagne, Victoria; Beauregard, Josée; Charbonneau, Isabelle; McFarland, David H; Kimoff, R John

2006-12-21

378

The Entertaining PressSensationalism in Eighteenth-Century Boston Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, a study of sensationalism In the early Boston press, presents the thesis that the colonial press, especially in Boston, catered to a mass literate audience by stressing stories of sensation, human interest and scandal. It attacks the conventional view that the modern press, which emphasizes entertainment, was born In the mid-nineteenth century in the form of the \\

Kenneth D. Nordin

1979-01-01

379

Effects of accurate expectations about sensations on the sensory and distress components of pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predicted that accurate expectations about the physical sensations to be experienced will reduce the distress caused by painful stimuli. Expectations were manipulated by giving male undergraduates a description of the sensations to expect from ischemic pain or a control message which described the procedure used to produce ischemic pain. In Exp. I and II 68 Ss rated separately the intensity

Jean E. Johnson

1973-01-01

380

Effects of preparatory information about sensations, threat of pain, and attention on cold pressor distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments with 170 male undergraduates investigated pain experience conceptualized as a combination of stimulus sensations (e.g., aching) and emotional distress. In Exp I, less distress was reported to cold pressor stimulation by Ss first told about stimulus sensations than by Ss who were uninformed or were told about symptoms of bodily arousal (e.g., tension). Adding a pain warning to

Howard Leventhal; Donald Brown; Saya Shacham; Gretchen Engquist

1979-01-01

381

Thermal response of cutaneous thermoreceptors: A new criterion for the human body thermal sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

So far, all of the thermal sensation models have been developed on the basis of energy balance equations for each compartment of the human body. But, the human body feels thermal environment by response of cutaneous thermoreceptors, not by balance of energy. Therefore, the mentioned models are not in conformity with the physiology of thermal sensation and because of this,

Alireza Zolfaghari; Mehdi Maerefat

2010-01-01

382

The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

2013-01-01

383

Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

Frankenberger, Kristina D.

2004-01-01

384

A system of interpreting somatic sensations for use with artificial hands and limbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to develop a prototype of an artificial arm system capable of sensing mechanical stimuli and then transferring these stimuli to the subject so that the subject experience the stimuli as the corresponding somatic sensations. In this system, the virtual sensations were evoked by electrically stimulating a sensory nerve fiber which innervates a single mechanoreceptor unit using a

K. Mabuchi; T. Suzuki; M. Kunimoto; M. Shimojo; N. Kakuta; T. Saito; H. Nishimura; M. Inami; M. Ishikawa

1999-01-01

385

Relation between rectal sensation and anal function in normal subjects and patients with faecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between sensory perception of rapid balloon distension of the rectum and the motor responses of the rectum and external and internal anal sphincters in 27 normal subjects and 16 patients with faecal incontinence who had impaired rectal sensation but normal sphincter pressures was studied. In both patients and normal subjects, the onset and duration of rectal sensation correlated

W M Sun; N W Read; P B Miner

1990-01-01

386

Mass Media Strategies Targeting High Sensation Seekers: What Works and Why  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To examine strategies for using the mass media effectively in drug prevention campaigns targeting high sensation seekers. Methods: Both experimental lab and field studies were used to develop a comprehensive audience segmentation strategy targeting high sensation seekers. Results: A 4-pronged targeting strategy employed in an…

Stephenson, Michael T.

2003-01-01

387

Crime Shows and Sensational Interests: An Exploratory Examination of Students in Criminal Justice Related Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been assumed for many years that people who commit sadistic or other violent crime possess an unhealthy fascination with violence and death. Numerous studies have focused on levels of such sensational interests among criminal populations with a view to rehabilitation. What appears to be missing from current literature is an examination of sensational interests among those who work

Monica L. P. Robbers

388

The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

2010-01-01

389

Sensations of Gas and Pain and their Relationship to Compliance during Distension in Human Colon  

PubMed Central

Background Colonic mechanosensory afferents “in parallel” to circular muscle activate prevertebral ganglion reflexes; “in series” afferents convey visceral sensation to the central nervous system; and pain receptors are activated with muscle distension. Our aim was to analyze the relationships of gas and pain sensations during graded distensions and the association of sensations with colonic compliance in conscious humans. Methods The data were acquired in a prior study performed in 60 healthy volunteers (aged 18–75 y) under baseline conditions... Colonic compliance was measured in response to 4mmHg stepwise balloon distensions to estimate pressure at half-maximum volume (Pr50%). Sensation ratings for gas and pain were averaged over distensions at 16, 24, 30 and 36mmHg above baseline operating pressure. Associations between mean gas and pain ratings, and colonic compliance were assessed with Pearson correlations. Key Results Gas and pain sensations were significantly correlated at all levels of distension (all p<0.001). Significant inverse correlations between Pr50% and sensations of gas and pain were observed, suggesting that lower compliance was associated with lower sensations. Up to 25% of the variance in sensation may be attributed to colonic compliance. Conclusions and Inferences These data are consistent with the hypothesis that, if circumferential colonic receptors are stimulated by distension to mediate gas and pain in humans, they are, at least partly, arranged “in parallel” to the muscle layer.

Iturrino, Johanna; Camilleri, Michael; Busciglio, Irene; Burton, Duane; Zinsmeister, Alan R.

2012-01-01

390

Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high “sensation value” ads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. “Message sensation value” (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to

Daniel D. Langleben; James W. Loughead; Kosha Ruparel; Jonathan G. Hakun; Samantha Busch-Winokur; Matthew B. Holloway; Andrew A. Strasser; Joseph N. Cappella; Caryn Lerman

2009-01-01

391

High-risk sexual behaviour & sensation seeking among heavy alcohol users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives : An association has been shown between alcohol use and high-risk sexual behaviour. One of the important variables that might mediate risky sexual behaviour among alcohol users is the sensation-seeking dimension of personality. This study was undertaken with the aim to assess the relationship between sensation seeking and sexual risk taking among heavy alcohol users admitted to

P. S. Chandra; V. A. S. Krishna; Vivek Benegal; Jayashree Ramakrishna

2003-01-01

392

Recherche de sensations et sur-éveil corporel à l'adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the different behavioural and affective outward signs coming out during adolescence, sensation seeking has a prominent role. Indeed, consumption behaviour for (tobacco, alcohol, drugs) and risk taking behaviour (non protected sexual intercourse, dangerous mopped driving …) as well as the practise of gliding or extreme sports (stake board, bungee jumping, …) can be analysed through the sensation they yield.

G Michel

2001-01-01

393

Interactively Determined Generative Sound Design for Sensate Environments: Extending Cyborg Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensate environments provide a medium for humans to interact with space. This interaction includes ambient\\/passive triggering, performative artistic interaction and physical sensate spaces used for games and interactive entertainment. This paper examines aural representations of data activated by interaction, shaped by user activities and social environmental behaviours. Generative art forms, for example genetic algorithms and evolutionary design systems, provide methodologies

Kirsty Beilharz

394

On the Location of the Sensation Seeking Construct in the Personality Domain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine the location of Zukerman's sensation seeking (SS) construct in the personality domain as measured by Cattell's 16 personality factors (16PF). Results of the factor analytic study indicated that the global construct of sensation seeking is related to the broad personality factor of independence.…

Birenbaum, Menucha; Montag, Itzhak

1986-01-01

395

Sensation seeking scales and traits delineating personality disorders in a sample of Chinese students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scores on the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scales (SSS) are consistently elevated in samples of psychopathic patients or prisoners suggesting that sensation seeking is an aspect of antisocial personality disorder. This was investigated in a sample of 171 Chinese university students (102 women and 69 men) who also completed the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology – Basic Questionnaire (DAPP) which assesses

Xueqin Ke; Xujun Ye; Yi Xu; Mowei Shen; Xian Gao; Yuqing Zhang; W. John Livesley; Kerry L. Jang; Wei Wang

2007-01-01

396

Differential Contributions of Vision, Touch and Muscle Proprioception to the Coding of Hand Movements  

PubMed Central

To further elucidate the mechanisms underlying multisensory integration, this study examines the controversial issue of whether congruent inputs from three different sensory sources can enhance the perception of hand movement. Illusory sensations of clockwise rotations of the right hand were induced by either separately or simultaneously stimulating visual, tactile and muscle proprioceptive channels at various intensity levels. For this purpose, mechanical vibrations were applied to the pollicis longus muscle group in the subjects’ wrists, and a textured disk was rotated under the palmar skin of the subjects’ right hands while a background visual scene was projected onto the rotating disk. The elicited kinaesthetic illusions were copied by the subjects in real time and the EMG activity in the adductor and abductor wrist muscles was recorded. The results show that the velocity of the perceived movements and the amplitude of the corresponding motor responses were modulated by the nature and intensity of the stimulation. Combining two sensory modalities resulted in faster movement illusions, except for the case of visuo-tactile co-stimulation. When a third sensory input was added to the bimodal combinations, the perceptual responses increased only when a muscle proprioceptive stimulation was added to a visuo-tactile combination. Otherwise, trisensory stimulation did not override bimodal conditions that already included a muscle proprioceptive stimulation. We confirmed that vision or touch alone can encode the kinematic parameters of hand movement, as is known for muscle proprioception. When these three sensory modalities are available, they contribute unequally to kinaesthesia. In addition to muscle proprioception, the complementary kinaesthetic content of visual or tactile inputs may optimize the velocity estimation of an on-going movement, whereas the redundant kinaesthetic content of the visual and tactile inputs may rather enhance the latency of the perception.

Blanchard, Caroline; Roll, Regine; Roll, Jean-Pierre; Kavounoudias, Anne

2013-01-01

397

Vulnerability of CMOS image sensors in Megajoule Class Laser harsh environment.  

PubMed

CMOS image sensors (CIS) are promising candidates as part of optical imagers for the plasma diagnostics devoted to the study of fusion by inertial confinement. However, the harsh radiative environment of Megajoule Class Lasers threatens the performances of these optical sensors. In this paper, the vulnerability of CIS to the transient and mixed pulsed radiation environment associated with such facilities is investigated during an experiment at the OMEGA facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), Rochester, NY, USA. The transient and permanent effects of the 14 MeV neutron pulse on CIS are presented. The behavior of the tested CIS shows that active pixel sensors (APS) exhibit a better hardness to this harsh environment than a CCD. A first order extrapolation of the reported results to the higher level of radiation expected for Megajoule Class Laser facilities (Laser Megajoule in France or National Ignition Facility in the USA) shows that temporarily saturated pixels due to transient neutron-induced single event effects will be the major issue for the development of radiation-tolerant plasma diagnostic instruments whereas the permanent degradation of the CIS related to displacement damage or total ionizing dose effects could be reduced by applying well known mitigation techniques. PMID:23037056

Goiffon, V; Girard, S; Chabane, A; Paillet, P; Magnan, P; Cervantes, P; Martin-Gonthier, P; Baggio, J; Estribeau, M; Bourgade, J-L; Darbon, S; Rousseau, A; Glebov, V Yu; Pien, G; Sangster, T C

2012-08-27

398

Plastic optical fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems for harsh environment in aerospace application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the 1st successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and Glass Optical Fiber (GOF) hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Evolved Expandable Lunch Vehicle (EELV) Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the possible leak of rocket prior launch to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. Due to harsh environment of launch vehicle, we developed the first combination of 100 m POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. The hydrogen sensor consisted of optrodes distributed at multiple locations along a fiber optic cable-based network. These hydrogen sensors were used on the Common Booster Core (CBC) of Delta IV had to perform in temperatures between -18° C and +60° C. The hydrogen sensor sensitive chemistry was fully reversible and had demonstrated a response to hydrogen gas in the range of 0% to 10% with a resolution of 0.1 % and a response time of 5 seconds measured at a gas flow rate of 1 cc/mm. The optical signature of the optrode in the visible spectrum varied proportionally to the local hydrogen gas concentration. To qualify the POF and fiber optic cables, performed detail investigation for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy. Extensive networking using LabView were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Goswami, Kish; Mendoza, Edward; Kempen, Lothar

2012-05-01

399

Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A multiple rework processes may be implemented with CCGA packaging technology to understand the effect of number of reworks on the reliability of this technology for harsh thermal environments. In general, reliability of the assembled electronic packages reduces as a function of number of reworks and the extent is not known yet. A CCGA rework process has been tried and implemented to design a daisy-chain test board consists of 624 and 717 packages. Reworked CCGA interconnect electronic packages of printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging and optical microscope techniques. The assembled boards after 1st rework and 1st reflow were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space JPL/NASA for moderate to harsh thermal mission environments. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling to determine intermittent failures. This paper provides the experimental reliability test results to failure of assemblies for the first time of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages under extreme harsh thermal environments.

Ramesham, Rajeshuni

2013-03-01

400

Brain encoding of acupuncture sensation - coupling on-line rating with fMRI  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture-induced sensations have historically been associated with clinical efficacy. These sensations are atypical, arising from sub-dermal receptors, and their neural encoding is not well known. In this fMRI study, subjects were stimulated at acupoint PC-6, while rating sensation with a custom-built, MR-compatible potentiometer. Separate runs included real (ACUP) and sham (SHAM) acupuncture, the latter characterized by non-insertive, cutaneous stimulation. FMRI data analysis was guided by the on-line rating timeseries, thereby localizing brain correlates of acupuncture sensation. Sensation ratings correlated with stimulation more (p<0.001) for SHAM (r=0.63) than for ACUP (r=0.32). ACUP induced stronger and more varied sensations with significant persistence into no-stimulation blocks, leading to more runtime spent rating low and moderate sensations compared to SHAM. ACUP sensation correlated with activation in regions associated with sensorimotor (SII, insula) and cognitive (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)) processing, and deactivation in default-mode network (DMN) regions (posterior cingulate, precuneus). Compared to SHAM, ACUP yielded greater activity in both anterior and posterior dmPFC and dlPFC. In contrast, SHAM produced greater activation in sensorimotor (SI, SII, insula) and greater deactivation in DMN regions. Thus, brain encoding of ACUP sensation (more persistent and varied, leading to increased cognitive load) demonstrated greater activity in both cognitive/evaluative (posterior dmPFC) and emotional/interoceptive (anterior dmPFC) cortical regions. Increased cognitive load and dmPFC activity may be a salient component of acupuncture analgesia - sensations focus attention and accentuate bodily awareness, contributing to enhanced top-down modulation of any nociceptive afference and central pain networks. Hence, acupuncture may function as a somatosensory-guided mind-body therapy.

Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali P.; Kim, Jieun; LaCount, Lauren; Vangel, Mark; Harris, Richard E; Kettner, Norman; Park, Kyungmo

2009-01-01

401

Brain encoding of acupuncture sensation--coupling on-line rating with fMRI.  

PubMed

Acupuncture-induced sensations have historically been associated with clinical efficacy. These sensations are atypical, arising from sub-dermal receptors, and their neural encoding is not well known. In this fMRI study, subjects were stimulated at acupoint PC-6, while rating sensation with a custom-built, MR-compatible potentiometer. Separate runs included real (ACUP) and sham (SHAM) acupuncture, the latter characterized by non-insertive, cutaneous stimulation. FMRI data analysis was guided by the on-line rating timeseries, thereby localizing brain correlates of acupuncture sensation. Sensation ratings correlated with stimulation more (p<0.001) for SHAM (r=0.63) than for ACUP (r=0.32). ACUP induced stronger and more varied sensations with significant persistence into no-stimulation blocks, leading to more run-time spent rating low and moderate sensations compared to SHAM. ACUP sensation correlated with activation in regions associated with sensorimotor (SII, insula) and cognitive (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC)) processing, and deactivation in default-mode network (DMN) regions (posterior cingulate, precuneus). Compared to SHAM, ACUP yielded greater activity in both anterior and posterior dmPFC and dlPFC. In contrast, SHAM produced greater activation in sensorimotor (SI, SII, insula) and greater deactivation in DMN regions. Thus, brain encoding of ACUP sensation (more persistent and varied, leading to increased cognitive load) demonstrated greater activity in both cognitive/evaluative (posterior dmPFC) and emotional/interoceptive (anterior dmPFC) cortical regions. Increased cognitive load and dmPFC activity may be a salient component of acupuncture analgesia--sensations focus attention and accentuate bodily awareness, contributing to enhanced top-down modulation of any nociceptive afference and central pain networks. Hence, acupuncture may function as a somatosensory-guided mind-body therapy. PMID:19500677

Napadow, Vitaly; Dhond, Rupali P; Kim, Jieun; LaCount, Lauren; Vangel, Mark; Harris, Richard E; Kettner, Norman; Park, Kyungmo

2009-06-13

402

Courtship compliance: The effect of touch on women's behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that light tactile contact increases compliance to a wide variety of requests. However, the effect of touch on compliance to a courtship request has never been studied. In this paper, three experiments were conducted in a courtship context. In the first experiment, a young male confederate in a nightclub asked young women to dance with him

Nicolas Guéguen

2007-01-01

403

Human Figure Drawings and Children's Recall of Touching  

PubMed Central

In 2 studies, children ages 3 to 7 years were asked to recall a series of touches that occurred during a previous staged event. The recall interview took place 1 week after the event in Study 1 and immediately after the event in Study 2. Each recall interview had 2 sections: In 1 section, children were given human figure drawings (HFDs) and were asked to show where the touching took place; in the other section, the same questions were asked without the HFDs (verbal condition). Children were randomly assigned to 2 different conditions: HFD 1st/verbal 2nd or verbal 1st/HFD 2nd. There were 2 major findings. First, HFDs elicited more errors than the verbal condition when used to probe for information that the child had already been asked. Second, regardless of interview method, children had poor recall of the touches even when these occurred minutes before the interview. It is suggested that cognitive mechanisms involving memory and semantics underlie children’s poor recall of touching in both verbal and HFD conditions.

Bruck, Maggie

2010-01-01

404

Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

405

Music-touch shoes: vibrotactile interface for hearing impaired dancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hearing handicapped children show a penchant for dancing and dance plays an essential part in education of deaf children. This paper introduces the Music-touch Shoes, a pair of shoes particularly designed for hearing handicapped dancers: The rhythm and tempo of music can be communicated and perceived through the vibrotactile interaction. The vibrotactile interface is applied to shoes because feet

Lining Yao; Yan Shi; Hengfeng Chi; Xiaoyu Ji; Fangtian Ying

2010-01-01

406

Capacitive touch sensing : signal and image processing algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive touch sensors have been in use for many years, and recently gained center stage with the ubiquitous use in smart-phones. In this work we will analyze the most common method of projected capacitive sensing, that of absolute capacitive sensing, together with the most common sensing pattern, that of diamond-shaped sensors. After a brief introduction to the problem, and the

Zachi Baharav; Ramakrishna Kakarala

2011-01-01

407

A Touch Screen Interface Design with Tactile Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various information displays are becoming available for implementing new kinds of human computer interaction (HCI) methods. Touch screen devices become the most popular choice among many types and models. They have been used in wide range of applications and are proven to be a useful infrastructure for creating intuitive HCI. In spite of their popularity, there are some weak points.

Hiroaki Nishino; Ryotaro Goto; Tsuneo Kagawa; Kazuyuki Yoshida; Kouichi Utsumiya; Junji Hirooka; Toshihiko Osada; Nobuhiro Nagatomo; Eiji Aoki

2011-01-01

408

All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user

F. Kneissl; R. Rottger; U. Sandner; J. M. Leimeister; H. Krcmar

2009-01-01

409

Touching Text Character Localization in Graphical Documents Using SIFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of graphical document images is a challenging task as it requires proper understanding of text/graphics symbols present in such documents. Difficulties arise in graphical document recognition when text and symbol overlapped/touched. Intersection of text and symbols with graphical lines and curves occur frequently in graphical documents and hence separation of such symbols is very difficult.

Roy, Partha Pratim; Pal, Umapada; Lladós, Josep

410

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

411

Adult Communications with Infants through Touch: The Forgotten Sense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite unequivocal evidence for its importance, the study of touch as a communication channel remains one of the least researched areas in the infant interaction literature. Hertenstein’s lament (this issue) about the lack of research on tactile communication is in accord with a point we made 10 years ago [see Kisilevsky, Stack, and Muir, 1991]. The continued lack is surprising

Darwin W. Muir

2002-01-01

412

Unicursal gesture interface for TV remote with touch screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new gesture interface based on unicursal figures for TV control via touch-screen personal devices. The interface is a powerful but simple way of accessing the multiple functions of modern TVs. Unicursal figures are made without lifting the thumb from the screen and sequences of commands can be issued without needing to confirm the thumb's position. Trial use

Ryosuke Aoki; Masayuki Ihara; Atsuhiko Maeda; Minoru Kobayashi; Shingo Kagami

2011-01-01

413

Mobile music touch: mobile tactile stimulation for passive learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile Music Touch (MMT) helps teach users to play piano melodies while they perform other tasks. MMT is a lightweight, wireless haptic music instruction system consisting of fingerless gloves and a mobile Bluetooth enabled computing device, such as a mobile phone. Passages to be learned are loaded into the mobile phone and are played repeatedly while the user performs other

Kevin Huang; Thad Starner; Ellen Do; Gil Weinberg; Daniel Kohlsdorf; Claas Ahlrichs; Ruediger Leibrandt

2010-01-01

414

Influence of imaging on touch imprint cytology of breast lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Touch imprint cytology (TIC) facilitates rapid diagnosis of breast diseases in women attending triple assessment clinics. Some pathologists, in our centre, feel that pathological interpretation of TIC slides is contentious when the lesions are radiologically indeterminate (R3), as these can lead to potentially higher false positive or false negative cytology results. We hypothesised that: ‘(R3) lesions are more likely

Vimal Raj; T. Sivashanmugam; S. Gupta; K. Clarkson; E. Denton; M. Al-Attar

2010-01-01

415

An avionics touch screen-based control display concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark

2012-05-01

416

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

417

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-09

418

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-01

419

Touching Tales: Design Issues in Creating Haptic Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite continual consumer demand for richer broadcast media, there have been few examinations of senses other than vision and hearing in this domain. This paper considers the role that touch may be able to play in future broadcast systems. We have begun to explore the addition of haptic cues to children's cartoons, and through this process unearthed a number of

Ian Oakley; Sile O'Modhrain; Glorianna Davenport; Alison Wood; Steven Davy; David Wall

2003-01-01

420

Rubber Hands Feel Touch, but Not in Blind Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand

Valeria I. Petkova; Hedvig Zetterberg; H. Henrik Ehrsson

2012-01-01

421

Touch perception throughout working life: effects of age and expertise.  

PubMed

Fine motor skills including precise tactile and haptic perception are essential to the manipulation of objects. With increasing age, one's perception decreases; however, little is known about the state of touch perception in middle-aged adults. This study investigated the extent to which the decline in touch perception affects adults throughout their working life. In addition, the influence of work-related expertise on tactile and haptic perception was examined in an attempt to determine whether expertise, in the form of the frequent use of the fingers, affects perception and counters age-related losses. The study was conducted with subjects from three age groups (18-25, 34-46, and 54-65 years) with two levels of expertise. Expertise was classified by the subjects' occupations. Five sensory tasks of touch perception were conducted. The results confirmed age-related changes in tactile perception over the span of one's working life. Older workers were proven to have lower tactile performance than younger adults. However, middle-aged workers were hardly affected by the perception losses and did not differ significantly from younger adults. Work-related expertise was not proven to either affect tactile and haptic perception or counteract age-related declines. We conclude that the age-related decline gets steeper in the late working life and that specific work-related expertise does not lead to generally improved touch perception that would result in lower thresholds and improved performance in non-expertise specific tasks. PMID:22080104

Reuter, Eva-Maria; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Vieluf, Solveig; Godde, Ben

2011-11-12

422

Hippocampal volumes and neuron numbers increase along a gradient of environmental harshness: a large-scale comparison.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions may provide specific demands for memory, which in turn may affect specific brain regions responsible for memory function. For food-caching animals, in particular, spatial memory appears to be important because it may have a direct effect on fitness via the accuracy of cache retrieval. Animals living in more harsh environments should rely more on cached food, and thus theoretically should have better memory to support cache retrieval, which may be crucial for survival. Consequently, animals in harsh environments may benefit from more neurons within a larger hippocampus (Hp), a part of the brain involved in spatial memory. Here, we present the first large-scale test of the hypothesis that Hp structure is related to the severity of the environment within a single food-caching species (the black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus) with a large range encompassing a great diversity of climatic conditions. Hp size in birds collected at five locations along a gradient of environmental harshness from Alaska to Kansas ranked perfectly with climatic severity. Birds from more harsh northern climates (defined by lower ambient temperature, shorter day length and more snow cover) had significantly larger Hp volumes and more Hp neurons (both relative to telencephalon volume) than those from more mild southern latitudes. Environmental pressures therefore seem capable of influencing specific brain regions independently, which may result in enhanced memory, and hence survival, in harsh climates. PMID:18945667

Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2009-02-01

423

Hippocampal volumes and neuron numbers increase along a gradient of environmental harshness: a large-scale comparison  

PubMed Central

Environmental conditions may provide specific demands for memory, which in turn may affect specific brain regions responsible for memory function. For food-caching animals, in particular, spatial memory appears to be important because it may have a direct effect on fitness via the accuracy of cache retrieval. Animals living in more harsh environments should rely more on cached food, and thus theoretically should have better memory to support cache retrieval, which may be crucial for survival. Consequently, animals in harsh environments may benefit from more neurons within a larger hippocampus (Hp), a part of the brain involved in spatial memory. Here, we present the first large-scale test of the hypothesis that Hp structure is related to the severity of the environment within a single food-caching species (the black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus) with a large range encompassing a great diversity of climatic conditions. Hp size in birds collected at five locations along a gradient of environmental harshness from Alaska to Kansas ranked perfectly with climatic severity. Birds from more harsh northern climates (defined by lower ambient temperature, shorter day length and more snow cover) had significantly larger Hp volumes and more Hp neurons (both relative to telencephalon volume) than those from more mild southern latitudes. Environmental pressures therefore seem capable of influencing specific brain regions independently, which may result in enhanced memory, and hence survival, in harsh climates.

Roth, Timothy C.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2008-01-01

424

Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.  

PubMed

Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals. PMID:22558268

Petkova, Valeria I; Zetterberg, Hedvig; Ehrsson, H Henrik

2012-04-27

425

19 CFR 4.15 - Fishing vessels touching and trading at foreign places.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Before any vessel documented with a fishery license endorsement shall touch and trade at a foreign port or place, the master shall obtain from the port director a permit on Customs Form 1379 to touch and...

2013-04-01

426

It's Mine, Don't Touch!: interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present data from detailed observations of CityWall, a large multi-touch display installed in a central location in Helsinki, Finland. During eight days of installation, 1199 persons interacted with the system in various social con- figurations. Videos of these encounters were examined qualitatively as well as quantitatively based on human cod- ing of events. The data convey phenomena that arise

Peter Peltonen; Esko Kurvinen; Antti Salovaara; Giulio Jacucci; Tommi Ilmonen; John Evans; Antti Oulasvirta; Petri Saarikko

2008-01-01

427

FuSA2 Touch Display: Fur-like Surface Acting As Touch Display using Plastic Optical Fiber Bundles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a fibratus visual display using a plastic optical fiber (POF) bundles for visual and tactile communication. The proposal system has arrayed POF bundles as flexible and pliable hairs. The surface that is composed of tips of the POF bundles can display visual information (colors, shapes, and so on.). This surface also can detect multi-touch input

KOSUKE NAKAJIMA; YUICHI ITOH; KANA YAMADAKI; AI YOSHIDA; KAZUKI TAKASHIMA; YOSHIFUMI KITAMURA; FUMIO KISHINO

428

Grooming and touching behaviour in captive ring-tailed lemurs ( Lemur catta L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of grooming and touching behaviours was recorded in a group of captive ring-tailed lemurs. Grooming was found\\u000a to be performed chiefly by older, higher ranking animals; touching (i.e., “reach out and touch” behaviour) was directed primarily\\u000a by younger, low ranking animals to older, high ranking individuals. It is suggested that such touching is a submissive gesture\\u000a in this

Geoffrey R. Hosey; Robin J. Thompson

1985-01-01

429

The Suggestibility of Children's Memory for Being Touched: Planting, Erasing, and Changing Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigates recent claims that it is relatively easy to suggestively plant false memories in children, by comparing the relative vulnerability to suggestibility of changed, planted, and erased memories. 80 4-year-olds and 80 10-year-olds either were touched in a specific way or were not touched at all, and it was later suggested that a different touch, a completely new touch, or

Kathy Pezdek; Chantal Roe

1997-01-01

430

Appraisal of touching behavior, shame and disgust: a cross-cultural-study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study investigated differences concerning the appraisal of one's own skin between people from Germany, Italy, France and Syria. A sample of 3360 subjects completed the Touch-Shame-Disgust-Questionnaire (TSD-Q: Kupfer, Brosig, Niemeier, & Gieler, 2005), which measures physical pleasure of touching oneself, touching in a partnership and parental touching during childhood, as well as (skin-related) shame and disgust. The factorial structure

Christina Schut; Dennis Linder; Burkhard Brosig; Volker Niemeier; Catharina Ermler; Kathrin Madejski; Simon Saad; Uwe Gieler; Jörg Kupfer

2011-01-01

431

TouchInteract: An Interaction Technique with Large Displays Using Touchscreen-Phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, more and more large-scale displays appear in public and semi-public places, but very few of them have interaction capabilities. We present Touch Interact: a novel interaction technique with large displays using touch screen-phone. Touch Interact allows users to remotely control the large displays using their touch screen mobile phone. Users can sliding or tapping on the mobile phone's

Hanqing Ruan; Yi Qian; Yong Zhang; Min Zhou

2010-01-01

432

Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch - i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia. PMID:23921098

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

2013-08-03

433

Sensation seeking, augmenting-reducing, and absolute auditory threshold: A strength-of-the-nervous-system perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 40 male and female high school and college students on the General and the Disinhibition subscales of the Sensation Seeking Scale (Form IV), the Reducer-Augmenter Scale (RAS), and the absolute auditory threshold (AAT). General sensation seeking correlated significantly with the RAS and the AAT. Both results were general across sex. These findings, that high-sensation seekers tend to be reducers

Danny Goldman; Paul M. Kohn; Robert W. Hunt

1983-01-01

434

Risk-Taking Behaviour and Criminal Offending: An Investigation of Sensation Seeking and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated relationships between hostility, Zuckerman’s sensation seeking, and Eysenck and Eysenck’s personality scales within a prison population, to explore whether they could be conceptualized in terms of two socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking factors. Participants included 79 incarcerated adult male offenders (age range = 18- 62). Findings support the distinction between socialized and unsocialized sensation seeking and suggest

Sonja Knust; Anna L. Stewart

2002-01-01

435

Mediated social touch: a review of current research and future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review research and applications in the area of mediated or remote social touch. Whereas current communication media rely predominately on vision and hearing, mediated social touch allows people to touch each other over a distance by means of haptic feedback technology. Overall, the reviewed applications have interesting potential, such as the communication of simple ideas (e.g.,

Antal Haans; Wijnand Ijsselsteijn

2006-01-01

436

Self-revealing gestures: teaching new touch interactions in windows 8  

Microsoft Academic Search

The touch language we use to interact with computers and devices is still developing. How can we teach users of our systems new touch gestures without interfering with their user experience? A team of user experience designers and researchers went through an iterative process to design a teaching method for two new touch interactions. This case study describes the designs

Kay Hofmeester; Jennifer Wolfe

2012-01-01

437

Physically touching and tasting virtual objects enhances the realism of virtual experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment 1 explored the impact of physically touching a virtual object on how realistic the virtual environment (VE) seemed to the user. Subjects in a ‘no touch’ group picked up a 3D virtual image of a kitchen plate in a VE, using a traditional 3D wand. ‘See and touch’ subjects physically picked up a virtual plate possessing solidity and weight,

H. G. Hoffman; A. Hollander; K. Schroder; S. Rousseau; T. Furness

1998-01-01

438

Touching Behavior in Sport: Functional Components, Analysis of Sex Differences, and Ethological Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little research exists regarding sex differences in touching behavior in sport or recreational settings. This study investigates sex differences in amounts, types, and factors influencing same-sex touching in a sport context. Subjects were 119 members of four men's college varsity baseball teams and 52 members of three women's college varsity softball teams. All touches performed on-field between team members were

Linda M. Kneidinger; Terry L. Maple; Stuart A. Tross

2001-01-01

439

Arranging touch screen software keyboard split-keys based on contact surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch screen devices, which have become ubiquitous in our daily lives, offer users flexible input and output operations. Typical operation methods for touch screen devices include the use of a stylus or a finger. A touch screen user can select a stylus or finger depending on the user's situation and preference. In this paper, we propose a dynamic method of

Kentaro Go; Leo Tsurumi

2010-01-01

440

Simplifying Touch Data from Tri-axial Sensors Using a New Data Visualization Tool  

PubMed Central

Quantification and evaluation of palpation is a growing field of research in medicine and engineering. A newly developed tri-axial touch sensor has been designed to capture a multi-dimensional profile of touch-loaded forces. We have developed a data visualization tool as a first step in simplifying interpretation of touch for assessing hands-on clinical performance.

SALUD, Lawrence H.; KWAN, Calvin; PUGH, Carla M.

2013-01-01

441

Differentiating Comfortable from Uncomfortable Teacher-Student Touches II: Hugs, Hits, and Handshakes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch is an important and powerful form of communication that is often avoided for fear of negative interpretations. However touch has also been associated with positive relational and educational outcomes. In this study, descriptions of touch, elicited from students, that occurred between teachers and students were sorted using S.E. Jones' (1994)…

Frymier, Ann Bainbridge; Mongeau, Paul A.

442

Is sensation seeking a stable trait or does it change over time?  

PubMed

The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed, in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change in sensation seeking among 868 urban, minority youth (53% female), followed longitudinally across middle school (6th-8th grades). Group-based trajectory analysis identified a stable low group (20%), a moderate increasing group (60%), and a stable high group (20%) each of which demonstrated unique associations with changes in problem behaviors. Stable low sensation seekers reported consistently low levels of aggression, delinquency, and substance use across middle school. Moderate increasing sensation seekers reported significant increases in these risk behaviors over time from levels near zero in the 6th grade. Stable high sensation seekers reported high, stable levels of aggression and delinquency upon entry into middle school as well as significant increases in substance use across middle school. These results lend support to both theories and highlight a need for caution when categorizing adolescents as high or low sensation seekers. PMID:20354775

Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D; Graber, Julia A; Nichols, Tracy R; Botvin, Gilbert J

2010-03-31

443

Sensation Seeking Predicts Brain Responses in the Old-New Task: Converging Multimodal Neuroimaging Evidence  

PubMed Central

Novel images and message content enhance visual attention and memory for high sensation seekers, but the neural mechanisms associated with this effect are unclear. To investigate the individual differences in brain responses to new and old (studied) visual stimuli, we utilized Event-related Potentials (ERP) and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) measures to examine brain reactivity among high and low sensation seekers during a classic old-new memory recognition task. Twenty low and 20 high sensation seekers completed separate, but parallel, ERP and fMRI sessions. For each session, participants initially studied drawings of common images, and then performed an old-new recognition task during scanning. High sensation seekers showed greater ERP responses to new objects at the frontal N2 ERP component, compared to low sensation seekers. The ERP Novelty-N2 responses were correlated with fMRI responses in the orbitofrontal gyrus. Sensation seeking status also modulated the FN400 ERP component indexing familiarity and conceptual learning, along with fMRI responses in the caudate nucleus, which correlated with FN400 activity. No group differences were found in the late ERP positive components indexing classic old-new amplitude effects. Our combined ERP & fMRI results suggest that sensation-seeking personality affects the early brain responses to visual processing, but not the later stage of memory recognition.

Lawson, Adam L.; Liu, Xun; Joseph, Jane; Vagnini, Victoria L.; Kelly, Thomas H.; Jiang, Yang

2012-01-01

444

Neural encoding of acupuncture needling sensations: evidence from a FMRI study.  

PubMed

Deqi response, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous neuroimaging research works have investigated the neural correlates of an overall deqi response by summating the scores of different needling sensations. However, the roles of individual sensations in brain activity and how they interact with each other remain to be clarified. In this study, we applied fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of individual components of deqi during acupuncture on the right LV3 (Taichong) acupoint. We selected a subset of deqi responses, namely, pressure, heaviness, fullness, numbness, and tingling. Using the individual components of deqi of different subjects as covariates in the analysis of percentage change of bold signal, pressure was found to be a striking sensation, contributing to most of negative activation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN). The similar or opposite neural activity in the heavily overlapping regions is found to be responding to different needling sensations, including bilateral LPNN, right orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral posterior parietal cortex. These findings provide the neuroimaging evidence of how the individual needle sensations interact in the brain, showing that the modulatory effects of different needling sensations contribute to acupuncture modulations of LPNN network. PMID:24062782

Wang, Xiaoling; Chan, Suk-Tak; Fang, Jiliang; Nixon, Erika E; Liu, Jing; Kwong, Kenneth K; Rosen, Bruce R; Hui, Kathleen K S

2013-08-25

445

Neural Encoding of Acupuncture Needling Sensations: Evidence from a fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Deqi response, a psychophysical response characterized by a spectrum of different needling sensations, is essential for Chinese acupuncture clinical efficacy. Previous neuroimaging research works have investigated the neural correlates of an overall deqi response by summating the scores of different needling sensations. However, the roles of individual sensations in brain activity and how they interact with each other remain to be clarified. In this study, we applied fMRI to investigate the neural correlates of individual components of deqi during acupuncture on the right LV3 (Taichong) acupoint. We selected a subset of deqi responses, namely, pressure, heaviness, fullness, numbness, and tingling. Using the individual components of deqi of different subjects as covariates in the analysis of percentage change of bold signal, pressure was found to be a striking sensation, contributing to most of negative activation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN). The similar or opposite neural activity in the heavily overlapping regions is found to be responding to different needling sensations, including bilateral LPNN, right orbitofrontal cortex, and bilateral posterior parietal cortex. These findings provide the neuroimaging evidence of how the individual needle sensations interact in the brain, showing that the modulatory effects of different needling sensations contribute to acupuncture modulations of LPNN network.

Wang, Xiaoling; Chan, Suk-Tak; Fang, Jiliang; Nixon, Erika E.; Liu, Jing; Kwong, Kenneth K.; Rosen, Bruce R.; Hui, Kathleen K. S.

2013-01-01

446

Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents’ lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents’ poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents’ wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents’ poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences.

East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

447

Adolescents' Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting.  

PubMed

The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents' pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents' lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents' poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents' wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents' poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences. PMID:22544975

East, Patricia L; Chien, Nina C; Barber, Jennifer S

2012-01-11

448

Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

Ruzicka, Jakub; Houzvicka, Jindrich; Bok, Jiri; Praus, Petr; Mojzes, Peter

2011-12-20

449

Harsh-environment motor renovation - the only alternative in an emergency  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult for utilities to obtain identical replacements for safety-related motors in an emergency because of the limited number of renovation facilities and the utilities' understanding of the renovation process. This paper addresses the renovation of motors installed in harsh environments. It also applies to mild-environment safety-related materials, wherein improperly related electrical materials could affect seismic qualification and catastrophic failures while operating at the motor's temperature extreme. The purpose of this paper is to provide utilities with insight into today's renovation process and its complexity when dealing with issues such as regulatory guides 10CFR50.49, 10CFR50 Appendix B, and 10CFR21.

Hendricks, J.R.; Farwell, C.R. Jr.

1988-01-01

450

A Wireless Passive Pressure Microsensor Fabricated in HTCC MEMS Technology for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

A wireless passive high-temperature pressure sensor without evacuation channel fabricated in high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) technology is proposed. The properties of the HTCC material ensure the sensor can be applied in harsh environments. The sensor without evacuation channel can be completely gastight. The wireless data is obtained with a reader antenna by mutual inductance coupling. Experimental systems are designed to obtain the frequency-pressure characteristic, frequency-temperature characteristic and coupling distance. Experimental results show that the sensor can be coupled with an antenna at 600 °C and max distance of 2.8 cm at room temperature. The senor sensitivity is about 860 Hz/bar and hysteresis error and repeatability error are quite low.

Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Xiong, Jijun; Qin, Li; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Chen; Ding, Liqiong; Zhang, Xiansheng; Yang, Mingliang

2013-01-01

451

Vulvar pruritus and burning sensation in women with psoriasis.  

PubMed

Approximately 80% of psoriatic individuals experience pruritus, of varying intensity. This study evaluated the frequency of vulvar itching and burning and its influence on well-being in women with psoriasis. A total of 93 women were included in the study. Psoriasis severity was assessed according to the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, the intensity of vulvar discomfort by visual analogue scale and depressive symptoms by Beck's Depression Inventory. On admission 41 (44.1%) women experienced vulvar discomfort, 18 (19.4%) itching, 10 (10.8%) burning and 13 (14.0%) both itching and burning sensations. Psoriatic lesions on the vulva were found in 22 (23.7%) women. No significant correlation was found between burning or itching intensity and global psoriasis severity (r = 0.19, p = 0.26). Patients with vulvar discomfort had psoriatic lesions on the vulva more often than women without discomfort (43.6% vs. 8.2%, p < 0.001). In addition, patients with vulvar discomfort more frequently demonstrated depressive symptoms (p < 0.05). We conclude that vulvar discomfort is an important clinical problem in women with psoriasis and should be taken into consideration during treatment. PMID:18311439

Zamirska, Aleksandra; Reich, Adam; Berny-Moreno, Joanna; Salomon, Joanna; Szepietowski, Jacek C

2008-01-01

452

Jozef Zwislocki's contribution to the understanding of cutaneous sensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whereas Professor Zwislocki is well known for his theoretical and experimental activities that discovered many principles about the auditory system as outlined in this special session, his influence on research efforts and contributions to the knowledge base of the cutaneous sensory system has not been as widely appreciated. Philosophically, he believes that all of the sensory systems have common, as well as different capabilities, and it is this philosophy which led him to explore many of the underlying factors behind somatosensation. This presentation will outline his scientific and philosophical input to the understanding of somatosensation from the level of receptor function to higher cognitive aspects. For example, he has influenced various views regarding tactile psychophysical thresholds and the relationships between sensation magnitude and the Differenz Limen. His theories on temporal summation and thoughts regarding independent tactile channels of communication originating in the periphery and passing on to the central nervous system will also be discussed. Physiologically he was a prominent player in determining transduction mechanisms of one of the prototypical mechanoreceptors found within the skin, the Pacinian corpuscle. Indeed, how somatosensation comes about has progressed greatly from his oftentimes unrealized influence.

Bolanowski, Stanley J.

2003-04-01

453

Impaired osmotic sensation in mice lacking TRPV4.  

PubMed

The Ca2+-permeable cation channel TRPV4, which is part of the Trp family located in the circumventricular organs, is activated by cell swelling. To investigate the role of TRPV4 in osmotic sensation, we disrupted the TRPV4 gene in mice and examined the effect on osmotic metabolism. Disruption of the mouse TRPV4 gene did not influence either water intake behavior or serum osmolality. Short-term salt ingestion, however, seemed to impair the transient free water clearance. The level of serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) of TRPV4-/- mice was not significantly changed under normal conditions but was significantly increased under stimulated conditions. Incubation of brain slices with graded hyperosmolality suggested an exaggerated response of AVP secretion in TRPV4-/- mice. Thus TRPV4 in the brain may transmit a negative signal to AVP secretion similar to an inhibitory pass through the baroregulatory system. Thus, in the regulation of serum osmolality, TRPV4 is a swell-activated channel that appears to play a role in reversion toward hyposmolality. PMID:12777254

Mizuno, Atsuko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Imai, Masashi; Suzuki, Makoto

2003-07-01

454

Effect of Biofeedback Therapy in Constipation According to Rectal Sensation  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The pathophysiologic mechanism of rectal hyposensitivity (RH) is not well documented, and the significance of RH in biofeedback therapy (BFT) has not been evaluated. Thus, we aimed to assess the effect of BFT in constipated patients according to the presence of RH. Methods Five hundred and ninety constipated patients (238 males and 352 females) underwent anorectal physiologic assessments. Of these, anorectal manometry was performed before and after BFT in 244 patients (63 RH and 181 non-RH patients). Results The success rate of BFT was 56% in the RH and 61% in the non-RH group (p=0.604). The measurements of resting pressure, squeezing pressure, desire to defecate volume, urge to defecate volume, and maximum volume were decreased after BFT in the RH group (p<0.05), whereas only resting and squeezing pressures were decreased in the non-RH group (p<0.05). Among the RH group, individuals who responded to BFT showed decreased resting pressure, squeezing pressure, desire to defecate, urge to defecate, and maximum volume and increased balloon expulsion rate; among those who did not respond to BFT, only desire to defecate volume was improved. Conclusions In constipated patients with RH, changes of anorectal manometric findings differed in comparison to patients without RH. The responses to BFT showed both anorectal muscle relaxation and restoration of rectal sensation.

Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Kee Wook; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Koo, Hyun Sook; Seo, So Young; Yoon, In Ja; Kim, Kyung Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

2013-01-01

455

Altered sensation caused by peri-implantitis: a case report.  

PubMed

Frequently reported is a case wherein a lesion caused by periodontitis or periapical lesion in a natural tooth enlarged, invaded the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and induced paresthesia. Cases wherein paresthesia occurred because of peri-implantitis have been rarely reported. The patient in this case report had experienced transient paresthesia after implant placement and recovered normal sensation 3 months later. Thirteen years later, this patient visited the authors' hospital with paresthesia in the same region because the peri-implantitis progressed to the apex of the implant. One week after removal of the implant, sense recovery and pain relief started, and 15 days after removal, the paresthesia and pain completely disappeared. For patients who experience transient paresthesia and recovery owing to nerve damage caused by the placement of an implant in the mandibular molar or premolar area, or in patients in whom the implant is close to the inferior alveolar nerve canal or the mental nerve, the spread of inflammation caused by peri-implantitis can induce paresthesia. PMID:22749709

Kim, Jong-Eun; Shim, Ji-Suk; Huh, Jung-Bo; Rim, Jae-Suk; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Shin, Sang-Wan

2012-06-29

456

The conduction velocities of peripheral nerve fibres conveying sensations of warming and cooling.  

PubMed Central

With the current practice of measuring thresholds for warming and cooling separately, the question of the exact nature of afferents subserving these sensations assumes new importance. Experiments to measure reaction times to warming and cooling stimuli at two sites on the lower limb are described. The conduction velocity for each sensation was estimated from the conduction distance and conduction time in the limb. The estimated mean conduction velocity for warming was 0.5, SD 0.2 m/s and cooling 2.1, SD 0.8 m/s. These figures confirm that the sensation of warming is conveyed in unmyelinated and cooling in small myelinated peripheral nerve fibres.

Fowler, C J; Sitzoglou, K; Ali, Z; Halonen, P

1988-01-01

457

Cognition, but not sensation, mediates age-related changes in the ability to monitor the environment.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine which age-related changes in sensation and cognition are associated with age-related changes in the ability to monitor the environment. To that end, a proxy measure of the ability to monitor the environment (useful field of view, UFOV) and measures of sensation and cognition were collected from young adult (N = 61) and older adult subjects (N = 79). Although UFOV performance was expected to be mediated primarily by cognition rather than by sensation, it was somewhat unexpected to find no reliable associations between UFOV and sensory functioning beyond those of age and cognition. PMID:18808255

Fiorentino, Dary D

2008-09-01

458

A possible link between sensation-seeking status and positive subjective effects of oxycodone in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is linked to use and abuse of drugs. Laboratory studies have established that high sensation seekers, as measured by different instruments, are more likely to report abuse liability-related subjective effects from drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, and d-amphetamine than low sensation seekers. One class of drugs that has not been studied to date in this fashion is opioids. Accordingly, a retrospective analysis encompassing five studies that examined oxycodone effects, including its abuse liability-related effects, was conducted in subjects categorized as high or low sensation seekers. In addition, because there appear to be sex differences in how males and females respond to opioids, this factor was taken into account in the analysis. Seventy one subjects who scored on the lower end (15 and 19 low sensation seeking males and females, respectively) or the higher end (23 and 14 high sensation seeking males and females) of the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V were studied for their responses to 0, 10, and 20 mg of oral oxycodone. Ratings of “pleasant bodily sensations” were significantly higher after oxycodone administration than placebo only in male and female high sensation seekers. Ratings of “take again,” “drug liking,” “carefree,” and “elated (very happy)” also tended to differentiate high from low sensation seekers although Group × Dose interactions were only marginally significant with the latter three ratings. Male and female low sensation seekers and female high sensation seekers reported dysphoric effects (e.g., ratings of nauseated) particularly after administration of the 20-mg oxycodone dose. The results of this analysis provide suggestive evidence that high sensation seekers are more likely to experience greater positive subjective effects from oxycodone than low sensation seekers, but likelihood of experiencing negative effects is more complex (involving both sensation seeking status and sex).

Zacny, James P.

2010-01-01

459

Plastic optical touch panels for large-scale flexible display.  

PubMed

A plastic optical touch panel applicable for large-scale flexible display is demonstrated based on a vertical directional coupling between arrayed channel waveguides and a flexible planar waveguide. When a contact force is applied to the surface, the flexible planar waveguide is bent toward the channel waveguide, and then, the guided mode in the channel waveguide is coupled into the flexible planar waveguide, causing an output power drop. An index-matching liquid is used to fill the gap between the channel and the flexible planar waveguide in order to enhance the transparency of the waveguide touch panel. By applying a force of 1.0 N, the output intensity is decreased by 17 dB, which is sufficiently large for producing a contact signal. PMID:23482006

Cheon, Beom-Jun; Kim, Jun-Whee; Oh, Min-Cheol

2013-02-25

460

Light touch contribution to balance in normal bipedal stance.  

PubMed

It has previously been shown that light contact with the finger tip on a fixed surface reduces centre of pressure (CoP) fluctuations in the frontal plane when standing in an unstable posture with the feet in line (tandem Romberg stance). Positive cross-correlations between horizontal finger forces and CoP fluctuations with finger forces exhibiting a phase lead suggest the hand provides sensory input for postural stability. The present study investigates whether this is the case for normal posture. We report reduced CoP fluctuations in the sagittal plane when light touch is permitted during normal bipedal stance. Moreover, we find positive crosscorrelations between finger tip forces and CoP fluctuations which are of similar magnitude and phase lag to those observed in tandem Romberg stance. This shows the utility of hand touch input for regulation of normal upright posture as well as inherently unstable postures such as tandem Romberg. PMID:10323300

Clapp, S; Wing, A M

1999-04-01

461

RI-MINACE filters to augment segmentation of touching objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Circular harmonic function (CHF) filters are used to determine the number of objects in a cluster in which multiple objects ar touching and to provide estimates of the center of each object. The objects are agricultural products, pistachio nuts, and the senor is x-ray. The nuts can have any orientation. Each nut is basically elliptical, but shape, size and edge smoothness vary plus significant internal gray-scale variations are present; these variations are distortions. To detect such objects, we consider rotation-invariant RI-MINACE filters. To detect the separate correlation peaks, we use peaksorting with a window and minimum threshold. New filter design issues that arise in this application of rotation-invariant touching object detection include: use of gray scale or binary images; the CHF order to use; selection of the reference object, the size of the filter,t he MINACE control parameter c, and the size of the window and threshold in peaksorting.

Casasent, David P.; Cox, Westley

1997-03-01

462

Maternal touch at 1st contact with the newborn infant.  

PubMed

Human mothers have been reported to exhibit a species-characteristic pattern of tactile contact with their newborn infants that begins with fingertip touch of infant extremities and progresses to palmar massaging of the infant trunk. This study presents data on maternal tactile interaction during 10 min of contact following each of 66 deliveries. Most of the women in the study were of Hispanic origin and delivered with midwives in an El Paso, Texas maternity center. Time-sampling techniques were used with tactile behaviors recorded every 10 sec. Most observations began less than 10 min after birth. The statistical analysis revealed that maternal tactile behavior in the 1st 10 min of active interaction is more variable than previously reported. No evidence was offered of a pattern of touch progression: active tactile exploration appeared to vary with the gender of the infant and parity and socioeconomic or sociocultural background of the mother. PMID:7297766

Trevathan, W R

1981-12-01

463

Gender and situational differences in children's smiles, touch, and proxemics  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was hypothesized that gender differences in nonverbal behaviors which are often considered to be affiliative may represent systematic differences between males and females in self-presentation. Smiling, touching, and interpersonal distance were studied with 256 White adolescents and preadolescents, who were randomly assigned to same-sex grade-level pairs. Self-presentation was made more salient by asking each subject pair to pose for

Phyllis W. Berman; Vicki L. Smith

1984-01-01

464

Independent effects of endogenous and exogenous attention in touch.  

PubMed

Abstract Endogenous and exogenous attention in touch have typically been investigated separately. Here we use a double-cueing paradigm manipulating both types of orienting in each trial. Bilateral endogenous cues induced long-lasting facilitation of endogenous attention up to 2?s. However, the exogenous cue only elicited an effect at short intervals. Our results favour a supramodal account of attention and this study provides new insight into how endogenous and exogenous attention operates in the tactile modality. PMID:23590842

Jones, Alexander; Forster, Bettina

2013-04-16

465

Sharetouch: a multi-touch social platform for the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sharetouch, which is a multi-touch social interaction system, aims to enable the elderly to engage the benefits of IT and enhance their social interaction among those older persons living in the community. Unlike most of the in-the-market digital devices, the Sharetouch attempts to merge the digital desktop and physical table into one, and has extra capabilities. Hence, a 52-inch

Tsai-hsuan Tsai; Hsien-tsung Chang

2009-01-01

466

Dynamic and predictive links between touch and vision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated crossmodal links between vision and touch for moving objects. In experiment 1, observers discriminated visual\\u000a targets presented randomly at one of five locations on their forearm. Tactile pulses simulating motion along the forearm preceded\\u000a visual targets. At short tactile-visual ISIs, discriminations were more rapid when the final tactile pulse and visual target\\u000a were at the same location. At

Rob Gray; Hong Z. Tan

2002-01-01

467

Integration of Touch and Sound in Auditory Cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary To form a coherent percept of the environment, our brain combines information from different senses. Such multisensory integration occurs in higher asso- ciation cortices; butsupposedly, italso occurs inearly sensory areas. Confirming the latter hypothesis, we unequivocally demonstrate supra-additive integration of touch and sound stimulation at the second stage of the auditory cortex. Using high-resolution fMRI of the macaque monkey,

Christoph Kayser; Christopher I. Petkov; Mark Augath; Nikos K. Logothetis

2005-01-01

468

“No-Touch” submuscular saline breast augmentation technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article represents a retrospective view of the author's 17-year experience with 2863 saline implants in 1327 patients and details his “no-touch” technique. The experience included almost an equal number of submammary and subpectoral procedures. The submammary procedures were done early on and were replaced with subpectoral procedures, done exclusively at the present time. There were significantly less complications-capsules, wrinkling

Richard A. Mladick

1993-01-01

469

Experimental Evaluations of Touch Interaction Considering Automotive Requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Three different usability studies present evaluation methods for cross-domain human-computer-interaction. The first study\\u000a compares different input devices like touch screen, turn-push-controller or handwriting recognition under regard of human\\u000a error probability, input speed and subjective usability assessment. The other experiments had a focus on typical automotive\\u000a issues: interruptibility and the influence of oscillations of the cockpit on the interaction.

Andreas Haslbeck; Severina Popova; Michael Krause; Katrina Pecot; Jürgen Mayer; Klaus Bengler

470

Interface Design for Graphics Editor on Multi Touch Point Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of the project is to use the touch sensitive device capability of the iPad to give a better user experience and functionalities for the artists. In this project, I have explored different interactions that can give a better experience for artist when compared to traditional computer-mouse interaction. In the traditional Computer-mouse interaction it is very difficult for

Srujitha Mullapudi

2011-01-01

471

A Multi-modal interface with speech and touch screen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-modal input method by combining speech and touch-screen was studied. Since these two methods are complementary to each other, they can be used together to create more user-friendly human interface.To illustrate this, a multi-modal robot control simulation system was built on the Sun Sparc10 using the attached AD converter with 11.025kHz sampling rate. The task was defined as follows:

Seiichi Nakagawa; Jian Xim Zhang; Wicha Chengcharoen

1995-01-01

472

Separation of single- and double-touching handwritten numeral strings based on structural analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a new method to separate touching handwritten numeral pairs using structural analysis. The string is preprocessed with an efficient algorithm for smoothing, linearization, and detection of structural points of image contours. The structural region of the string is determined. Some left- or right-side numerals of the string are recognized. The property of each hole contour in a string is detected. The touching model of a string is determined, whether single- or double-touching. For double-touching, the touching hole contour is determined. For the two touching models, the touching point is preselected, its position is corrected, and the corresponding match touching point is found. The string is separated based on all touching points. All processing procedures are based on morphological structural analyses. We have tested our method on image samples taken from the U.S. National Institute of Science and Technology database. We used 500 sample images to design the required models. For 3287 test samples the correct-separation rate was 97.2% for single- touching strings, and 97% for double-touching strings.

Yu, Donggang; Hu, Jianming; Yan, Hong

1999-03-01

473

Temporal frequency channels are linked across audition and touch  

PubMed Central

Summary Temporal frequency is a fundamental sensory dimension in audition and touch. In audition, analysis of temporal frequency is necessary for speech and music perception [1]; in touch, the spectral analysis of vibratory signals has been implicated in texture perception [2, 3] and in sensing the environment through tools [4–7]. Environmental oscillations impinging upon the ear are generally thought to be processed independently of oscillations impinging upon the skin. Here, we show that frequency channels are perceptually linked across audition and touch. In a series of psychophysical experiments, we demonstrate that auditory stimuli interfere with tactile frequency perception in a systematic manner. Specifically, performance on a tactile frequency-discrimination task is impaired when an auditory distractor is presented with the tactile stimuli, but only if the frequencies of the auditory and tactile stimuli are similar. The frequency-dependent interference effect is observed whether the distractors are pure tones or band-pass noise, so an auditory percept of pitch is not required for the effect to be produced. Importantly, distractors that strongly impair frequency discrimination do not interfere with judgments of tactile intensity. This surprisingly specific crosstalk between different modalities reflects the importance of supramodal representations of fundamental sensory dimensions.

Yau, Jeffrey M.; Olenczak, Jonathon B.; Dammann, John F.; Bensmaia, Sliman J.

2009-01-01

474

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

475

Hierarchical multi-touch selection techniques for collaborative geospatial analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In time critical visual analytic environments collaboration between multiple expert users allows for rapid knowledge discovery and facilitates the sharing of insight. New collaborative display technologies, such as multi-touch tables, have shown great promise as the medium for such collaborations to take place. However, under such new technologies, traditional selection techniques, having been developed for mouse and keyboard interfaces, become inconvenient, inefficient, and in some cases, obsolete. We present selection techniques for multi-touch environments that allow for the natural and efficient selection of complex regions-of-interest within a hierarchical geospatial environment, as well as methods for refining and organizing these selections. The intuitive nature of the touch-based interaction permits new users to quickly grasp complex controls, while the consideration for collaboration coordinates the actions of multiple users simultaneously within the same environment. As an example, we apply our simple gestures and actions mimicking real-world tactile behaviors to increase the usefulness and efficacy of an existing urban growth simulation in a traditional GIS-like environment. However, our techniques are general enough to be applied across a wide range of geospatial analytical applications for both domestic security and military use.

Butkiewicz, Thomas; Jeong, Dong Hyun; Wartell, Zachary; Ribarsky, William; Chang, Remco

2009-05-01

476

Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.  

PubMed

This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245

Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

477

Effects of modeling and topic stimulus on self-referent touching.  

PubMed

Self-touching is defined as self-directed touches, e.g., scratching or rubbing, that have no apparent conscious motivation. Earlier research on self-touching focused on internal processes associated with self-touching, e.g., mental conflict, while more recent research has considered external motivators, such as an auditory or visual presentation of a provocative stimulus, e.g., leeches. Here, 110 undergraduate psychology students (68 women, 42 men; M age = 18.7 yr., SD = 1.0) were shown a video about chiggers to replicate previous findings, while simultaneously studying the social influence of self-touching modeled by the presenter. A significant interaction was found as modeled self-touching significantly increased participants' self-touching when they were also attending to the video about chiggers. The results are discussed in terms of potential processes underlying this behavior and directions for research. PMID:16383073

Butzen, Nathan David; Bissonnette, Victor; McBrayer, Dan

2005-10-01

478

Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Marijuana Use: Early Sensation Seeking, Deviant Peer Affiliation, and Social Images  

PubMed Central

This study examined psychosocial mechanisms by which children’s early sensation seeking may influence their later marijuana use. In a longitudinal study, 4th and 5th grade elementary school children (N = 420) were followed until they were in 11th and 12th grades in high school with annual or biennial assessments. Sensation seeking (assessed over the first 4 assessments) predicted affiliating with deviant peers and level of favorable social images of kids who use marijuana (both assessed over the subsequent 3 assessments). Affiliation with deviant peers and the growth in social images predicted marijuana use in 11th and 12th grades. Affiliation with deviant peers mediated the effect of early sensation seeking on subsequent marijuana use. The theoretical and applied significance of this influence of early sensation seeking is discussed.

Hampson, Sarah E.; An