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1

A sensational illusion: vision-touch synaesthesia and the rubber hand paradigm.  

PubMed

For individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia, the sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation on the observer's own body. Here we used the traditional rubber hand paradigm (Botvinick and Cohen, 1998) and a no-touch rubber hand paradigm to investigate and to authenticate synaesthetic tactile sensation. In the traditional rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner while the participant's hand - hidden from view - is also touched by the Examiner. Synchronous stimulation of the prosthetic hand and the participant's hidden hand elicits the rubber hand illusion. It may seem to the participant that she is feeling touch at the location of the viewed prosthetic hand - visual capture of touch, and that the prosthetic hand is the participant's own hand - illusion of ownership. Thus, for participants who experience the traditional rubber hand illusion, tactile sensation on the participant's hidden hand is referred to the prosthetic hand. In our no-touch rubber hand paradigm, the participant views a prosthetic hand being touched by the Examiner but the participant's hand - hidden from view - is not touched by the Examiner. Questionnaire ratings indicated that only individuals with vision-touch synaesthesia experienced the no-touch rubber hand illusion. Thus, synaesthetic tactile sensation on the (untouched) hidden hand was referred to the prosthetic hand. These individuals also demonstrated proprioceptive drift (a change, from baseline, in proprioceptively perceived position) of the hidden hand towards the location of the prosthetic hand, and a pattern of increased proprioceptive drift with increased trial duration (60 sec, 180 sec, 300 sec). The no-touch rubber hand paradigm was an excellent method to authenticate vision-touch synaesthesia because participants were naïve about the rubber hand illusion, and they could not have known how they were expected to perform on either the traditional or the no-touch rubber hand paradigm. PMID:22445446

Aimola Davies, Anne M; White, Rebekah C

2013-03-01

2

Pressure sensors based on MEMS, operating in harsh environments (touch-mode)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Poly-crystalline silicon carbide (poly-sic) Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) capacitive pressure sensor operating in harsh environment in touch mode is proposed, The principle of the paper is to design, obtain analytical solution and compare the results with the simulation for a circular diaphragm deflection before and after touch point. The sensor demonstrated a high temperature sensing capability up to

M. N. Hamidon; A. R. Bahadorimehr

2008-01-01

3

Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice.  

PubMed

The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals. It is postulated that mechanically activated cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting, mechanically activated ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel-cell-neurite complexes. It has been demonstrated that Merkel cells have a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by the innervating sensory neuron; however, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity. Here we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low-threshold mechanoreceptors that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2 conditional knockout mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that the mechanosensitivity of low-threshold mechanoreceptors strongly depends on Piezo2. This cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioural phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light-touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most low-threshold mechanoreceptor subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Notably, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that as-yet-unknown mechanically activated ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

Ranade, Sanjeev S; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E; Moshourab, Rabih A; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A J; Francisco, Allain G; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N; Lewin, Gary R; Patapoutian, Ardem

2014-12-01

4

Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors’ fingertips via stochastic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Methods Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Results Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p?touch sensation, independent of noise location and intensity. Vibrotactile noise at the wrist and dorsal hand may have enhanced the fingertips’ light touch sensation via stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks. PMID:24112371

2013-01-01

5

A new perceptual paradigm to investigate the visual remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto one’s own body shows “mirror touch” for the hands  

PubMed Central

The last two decades have seen a multitude of publications showing the activation of an observer’s somatosensory cortical system during the observation of touch on another person. Behavioral demonstrations of “mirror touch,” however, have been slow in coming forward, and have so far primarily been shown as “visual remapping of touch” on the face. The present study uses a new paradigm to investigate the mirroring of others’ tactile sensations: a 2-AFC task of intensity judgment for touch on the observer’s left and right index finger pads. Observers viewed a left and right hand in an egocentric position, which were either touched passively (pencil moving to touch index finger pad) or actively sought touch (index finger moving to touch pencil). Touch and no-touch events for the two viewed hands were designed to eliminate confounding effects of spatial attention. Felt touches were either concurrent with viewed touch or no-touch events, or were delayed in time to assess potential response bias. The findings demonstrate visual remapping of touch for touch on the hands. If touch was shown on one of the hands only (e.g., left), observers were more likely to perceive touch on the same hand (i.e., their own left hand) as more intense than touch on the other hand even if tactile intensities did not differ, compared to touch shown on both or neither hand. These remapping effects occurred only when viewed and felt touches were concurrent, they were strongly modulated by the way in which viewed touch was incurred, and they were more reliable for touch on the left hand. A second, control experiment, in which touch observation was replaced by bright dots shown on or next to the finger pads, confirmed that these effects were largely due to genuine tactile mirroring rather than to somatotopic cueing. This 2-AFC tactile intensity judgment task may be a useful paradigm to investigate the remapping of others’ tactile sensations onto an observer’s own body. PMID:24575070

Gillmeister, Helge

2014-01-01

6

KCNQ4 K(+) channels tune mechanoreceptors for normal touch sensation in mouse and man.  

PubMed

Mutations inactivating the potassium channel KCNQ4 (K(v)7.4) lead to deafness in humans and mice. In addition to its expression in mechanosensitive hair cells of the inner ear, KCNQ4 is found in the auditory pathway and in trigeminal nuclei that convey somatosensory information. We have now detected KCNQ4 in the peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous rapidly adapting hair follicle and Meissner corpuscle mechanoreceptors from mice and humans. Electrophysiological recordings from single afferents from Kcnq4(-/-) mice and mice carrying a KCNQ4 mutation found in DFNA2-type monogenic dominant human hearing loss showed elevated mechanosensitivity and altered frequency response of rapidly adapting, but not of slowly adapting nor of D-hair, mechanoreceptor neurons. Human subjects from independent DFNA2 pedigrees outperformed age-matched control subjects when tested for vibrotactile acuity at low frequencies. This work describes a gene mutation that modulates touch sensitivity in mice and humans and establishes KCNQ4 as a specific molecular marker for rapidly adapting Meissner and a subset of hair follicle afferents. PMID:22101641

Heidenreich, Matthias; Lechner, Stefan G; Vardanyan, Vitya; Wetzel, Christiane; Cremers, Cor W; De Leenheer, Els M; Aránguez, Gracia; Moreno-Pelayo, Miguel Ángel; Jentsch, Thomas J; Lewin, Gary R

2012-01-01

7

An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors  

E-print Network

Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

2008-01-01

8

The C. elegans EMAP-like protein, ELP-1 is required for touch sensation and associates with microtubules and adhesion complexes  

PubMed Central

Background The founding member of the EMAP-like protein family is the Echinoderm Microtubule-Associated Protein (EMAP), so-named for its abundance in sea urchin, starfish, and sand dollar eggs. The EMAP-like protein family has five members in mammals (EML1 through EML5) and only one in both Drosophila (ELP-1) and C. elegans (ELP-1). Biochemical studies of sea urchin EMAP and vertebrate EMLs implicate these proteins in the regulation of microtubule stability. So far, however, the physiological function of this protein family remains unknown. Results We examined the expression pattern of C. elegans ELP-1 by means of transgenic gene expression in living embryos and adults, and by immunolocalization with an ELP-1-specific antibody in fixed tissues. In embryos, ELP-1 is expressed in the hypodermis. In larvae and adults, ELP-1 is expressed in the body wall, spermatheca and vulval muscles, intestine, and hypodermal seam cells. In muscle, ELP-1 is associated with adhesion complexes near the cell surface and is bound to a criss-crossing network of microtubules in the cytoplasm. ELP-1 is also expressed in a subset of mechanoreceptor neurons, including the ray neurons in the male tail, microtubule-rich touch receptor neurons, and the six ciliated IL1 neurons. This restricted localization in the nervous system implies that ELP-1 plays a role in mechanotransmission. Consistent with this idea, decreasing ELP-1 expression decreases sensitivity to gentle touch applied to the body wall. Conclusion These data imply that ELP-1 may play an important role during the transmission of forces and signals between the body surface and both muscle cells and touch receptor neurons. PMID:19014691

Hueston, Jennifer L; Herren, Gina Purinton; Cueva, Juan G; Buechner, Matthew; Lundquist, Erik A; Goodman, Miriam B; Suprenant, Kathy A

2008-01-01

9

Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

2012-01-01

10

"That's not a real body": identifying stimulus qualities that modulate synaesthetic experiences of touch.  

PubMed

Mirror-touch synaesthesia is a condition where observing touch to another's body induces a subjective tactile sensation on the synaesthetes body. The present study explores which characteristics of the inducing stimulus modulate the synaesthetic touch experience. Fourteen mirror-touch synaesthetes watched videos depicting a touch event while indicating (i) whether the video induced a tactile sensation, (ii) on which side of their body they felt this sensation and (iii) the intensity of the experienced sensation. Results indicate that the synaesthetes experience stronger tactile sensations when observing touch to real bodies, whereas observing touch to dummy bodies, pictures of bodies and disconnected dummy body parts elicited weaker sensations. These results suggest that mirror-touch synaesthesia is not entirely bottom-up driven, but top-down information, such as knowledge about real and dummy body parts, also modulate the intensity of the experience. PMID:21237676

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael; Wright, Thomas; Bowling, Natalie; Ward, Jamie

2011-09-01

11

Sensational Seaweed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this culinary activity, learners use multiple senses (sight, smell, touch, and taste!) to explore real seaweed samples. They will compare and contrast land plants with kelp to review the structures and functions of parts, understand that algae is an important producer in aquatic environments, and learn how kelp is adapted to live along the California Coast. They will also explore various types of algae and discuss how the types differ from each other. This lesson guide is standards-based, and includes key vocabulary and wrap-up suggestions.

California Academy of Sciences

2008-01-01

12

Mirror-touch synaesthesia in the phantom limbs of amputees.  

PubMed

In mirror-touch synaesthesia merely observing another person being touched will cause the observers to experience a touch sensation on their own body. The current study investigates whether this, normally a developmental condition, might be acquired following amputation. Twenty-eight amputees observed 67 videos of touch events and indicated a) whether the video elicited tactile sensations, b) where on the body this was located, c) the intensity of the sensation, and d) whether it was painful. Almost a third of amputees report a tactile sensation on their amputated phantom limb when watching someone else being touched. In this particular group the sensations tend to be localised on the phantom limb or stump, but are rarely reported elsewhere on the body. This occurs irrespective of the body part seen. The synaesthetic sensations were more intense when real bodies were observed relative to dummies or objects, and when the observed touch is mildly painful relative to non-painful. Although frequency, intensity and cause of phantom limb pain do not appear to determine whether an amputee will report mirror-touch sensations, those who do report it show greater empathic emotional reactivity. These results suggest that acquired synaesthesia may be linked with sensory loss, arising after amputation, and that highly empathic individuals could be predisposed to strengthening existing pathways between observed touch and felt touch. PMID:22981809

Goller, Aviva I; Richards, Kerrie; Novak, Steven; Ward, Jamie

2013-01-01

13

2. Sensations and Attention Brian Whitworth  

E-print Network

? © Brian Whitworth 3 Aristotle's view Sight sense Hearing sense Smell sense Touch sense Taste sense than 5 senses Link: Aristotle © Brian Whitworth 4 Sensation is reality · Perception is a physical change in the body senses · Aristotle thought external changes create a mirror copy of the real world

Whitworth, Brian

14

The Emerging Role of TRP Channels in Mechanisms of Temperature and Pain Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is universal and vital to survival. It is an essential component of our sense of touch; together, touch and pain have evolved to enable our awareness of the intricacies of our environment and to warn us of danger and possible in- jury. There is a clear link between temperature sensation and pain—painful temperature sensations occur acutely and are a

Gina M. Story

2006-01-01

15

Specular vision-touch synaesthesia: two reference frames.  

PubMed

Two subtypes of vision-touch synaesthesia (VTS) have been identified. For anatomical VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the same location on the observer's own body (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's left cheek). For specular VTS, sight of touch on another person elicits synaesthetic tactile sensation at the mirror-reflected location (e.g., viewed touch on the left cheek elicits sensation on the observer's right cheek). Here we report two distinctly different patterns of sensation within the specular subtype. Both participants experienced synaesthetic tactile sensation on their right hand when they viewed unidirectional brushstrokes administered to a prosthetic left hand (positioned with fingers pointing toward the participant), but the direction of sensation matched the viewed touch in a hand-centred (spatial) reference frame for RS and in an external (viewer-centred) reference frame for NC. Competing reference frames affect how individuals with specular VTS experience synaesthetic tactile sensation. PMID:23155738

White, Rebekah C; Aimola Davies, Anne M

2012-01-01

16

Touch Affordances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The workshop “Touch Affordances” addresses a concept relevant to human computer interactions based on touch. The main topic is the challenge of applying the notion of affordances to domains related to touch interactions (e.g. (multi)touch screens, RFID & NFC, ubiquitous interfaces). The goals of this workshop are to launch a community of researchers, designers, etc. interested in this topic, to create a common understanding of the field of touch affordances and to generate ideas for new research areas for intuitive touch interactions. The workshop will be highly interactive and will have a creative, generative character.

Slegers, Karin; de Roeck, Dries; Arnall, Timo

17

Sharing social touch in the primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Touch has an emotional and communicative meaning, and it plays a crucial role in social perception and empathy. The intuitive link between others' somatosensations and our sense of touch becomes ostensible in mirror-touch synesthesia, a condition in which the view of a touch on another person's body elicits conscious tactile sensations on the observer's own body [1]. This peculiar phenomenon may implicate normal social mirror mechanisms [2]. Here, we show that mirror-touch interference effects, synesthesia-like sensations, and even phantom touches can be induced in nonsynesthetes by priming the primary somatosensory cortex (SI) directly or indirectly via the posterior parietal cortex. These results were obtained by means of facilitatory paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (ppTMS) contingent upon the observation of touch. For these vicarious effects, the SI is engaged at 150 ms from the onset of the visual touch. Intriguingly, individual differences in empathic abilities, assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index [3], drive the activity of the SI when nonsynesthetes witness others' tactile sensations. This evidence implies that, under normal conditions, touch observation activates the SI below the threshold for perceptual awareness [4]; through the visual-dependent tuning of SI activity by ppTMS, what is seen becomes felt, namely, mirror-touch synesthesia. On a broader perspective, the visual responsivity of the SI may allow an automatic and unconscious transference of the sensation that another person is experiencing onto oneself, and, in turn, the empathic sharing of somatosensations [2]. PMID:24954046

Bolognini, Nadia; Rossetti, Angela; Fusaro, Martina; Vallar, Giuseppe; Miniussi, Carlo

2014-07-01

18

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch  

PubMed Central

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O’Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-01-01

19

Mechanical control of the sense of touch by ?-spectrin.  

PubMed

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all, animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of Caenorhabditis elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane crosslinker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through atomic force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pre-tension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R; Goodman, Miriam B

2014-03-01

20

Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin  

PubMed Central

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

2014-01-01

21

Lateral Facilitation between Primary Mechanosensory Neurons Controls Nose Touch Perception in C. elegans  

PubMed Central

Summary The nematode C. elegans senses head and nose touch using multiple classes of mechanoreceptor neurons that are electrically coupled through a network of gap junctions. Using in vivo neuroimaging, we have found that multidendritic nociceptors in the head respond to harsh touch throughout their receptive field but respond to gentle touch only at the tip of the nose. Whereas the harsh touch response depends solely on cell-autonomous mechanosensory channels, gentle nose touch responses require facilitation by additional nose touch mechanoreceptors, which couple electrically to the nociceptors in a hub-and-spoke gap junction network. Conversely, nociceptor activity indirectly facilitates activation of the nose touch neurons, demonstrating that information flow across the network is bidirectional. Thus, a simple gap-junction circuit acts as a coincidence detector that allows primary sensory neurons to integrate information from neighboring mechanoreceptors and generate somatosensory perception. PMID:21521615

Chatzigeorgiou, Marios; Schafer, William R.

2011-01-01

22

SAW sensors for harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors are rugged components made on highly stable substrate materials. In addi- tion, by their operating principle they lend themselves to wireless readout by radio signals. For these reasons, they are a first choice for sensing in harsh environments. A review is given on SAW device design, instrumentation of sensor systems, and on the physical interactions

Ulrich Wolff; Franz Ludwig Dickert; Gerhard K. Fischerauer; Wolfgang Greibl; Clemens C. W. Ruppel

2001-01-01

23

A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.  

PubMed

Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss. PMID:25298320

Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

2014-10-01

24

Haptics: Touch Command  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience haptic (the sense of touch) feedback by using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and touch sensors to emulate touch feedback recognition. With four touch sensors connected to LEGO NXTs, they design sensor attachments that feel physically distinguishable from each another. Then students answer questions and communicate their answers to the NXT by pressing the touch sensor that is associated with the right multiple-choice answer letter. Haptics becomes essential when students must use the NXT sensors to answer the next set of questions without the aid of their vision. This challenges them to rely solely on the tactile feeling of each unique touch sensor attachment that they created in order to choose the correct peripheral slot. Students also learn about real-world applications of haptics technology.

AMPS GK-12 Program,

25

Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

Stansfield, S.A.

1990-03-01

26

Music by Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of how robotic touch sensors work is reinforced through a hands-on design challenge involving LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT intelligent bricks, motors and touch sensors. They learn programming skills and logic design in parallel as they program robot computers to play sounds and rotate a wheel when a touch sensor is pressed, and then produce different responses if a different touch sensor is activated. Students see first-hand how robots can take input from sensors and use it to make decisions to move as programmed, including simultaneously moving a motor and playing music. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

27

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia  

PubMed Central

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2–4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9–14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

Chun, Charlotte A.; Hupé, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

28

Mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences in synesthesia.  

PubMed

A fundamental question in the field of synesthesia is whether it is associated with other cognitive phenomena. The current study examined synesthesia's connections with phenomenal traits of mirror-touch and ticker tape experiences, as well as the representation of the three phenomena in the population, across gender and domain of work/study. Mirror-touch is the automatic, involuntary experience of tactile sensation on one's own body when others are being touched. For example, seeing another person's arm being stroked can evoke physical touch sensation on one's own arm. Ticker tape is the automatic visualization of spoken words or thoughts, such as a teleprompter. For example, when spoken to, a ticker taper might see mentally the spoken words displayed in front of his face or as coming out of the speaker's mouth. To explore synesthesia's associations with these phenomena, a diverse group (n = 3743) was systematically recruited from eight universities and one public museum in France to complete an online screening. Of the 1017 eligible respondents, synesthetes (across all subtypes) reported higher rates of mirror-touch and ticker tape than non-synesthetes, suggesting that synesthesia is associated with these phenomenal traits. However, effect sizes were small and we could not rule out that response bias influenced these associations. Mirror-touch and ticker tape were independent. No differences were found across gender or domain of work and study in prevalence of synesthesia, mirror-touch or ticker tape. The prevalence of ticker tape, unknown so far, was estimated at about 7%, an intermediate rate between estimates of grapheme-color (2-4%) and sequence-space synesthesia (9-14%). Within synesthesia, grapheme-personification, also called ordinal-linguistic personification (OLP) was the most common subtype and was estimated around 12%. Co-occurences of the different types of synesthesia were higher than chance, though at the level of small effect sizes. PMID:24223561

Chun, Charlotte A; Hupé, Jean-Michel

2013-01-01

29

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

PubMed Central

Background When scanning surfaces, humans perceive some of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We therefore hypothesized that aspects of the mechanical activity induced by scanning surfaces with fingertips could be objectively associated with a pleasantness sensation. Previously, we developed a unidimensional measure of pleasantness, the Pleasant Touch Scale, quantifying the pleasantness level of 37 different materials. Findings of this study suggested that the sensation of pleasantness was influenced by the average magnitude of the frictional forces brought about by sliding the finger on the surface, and by the surface topography. In the present study, we correlated (i) characteristics of the fluctuations of frictional forces resulting from the interaction between the finger and the surface asperities as well as (ii) the average friction with the sensation of pleasantness. Results Eight blindfolded participants tactually explored twelve materials of the Pleasant Touch Scale through lateral sliding movements of their index fingertip. During exploration, the normal and tangential interaction force components, fN and fT, as well as the fingertip trajectory were measured. The effect of the frictional force on pleasantness sensation was investigated through the analysis of the ratio fT to fN, i.e. the net coefficient of kinetic friction, ?. The influence of the surface topographies was investigated through analysis of rapid fT fluctuations in the spatial frequency domain. Results showed that high values of ? were anticorrelated with pleasantness. Furthermore, surfaces associated with fluctuations of fT having higher amplitudes in the low frequency range than in the high one were judged to be less pleasant than the surfaces yielding evenly distributed amplitudes throughout the whole spatial frequency domain. Conclusion Characteristics of the frictional force fluctuations and of the net friction taking place during scanning can reliably be correlated with the pleasantness sensation of surfaces. PMID:24244425

Klöcker, Anne; Wiertlewski, Michael; Théate, Vincent; Hayward, Vincent; Thonnard, Jean-Louis

2013-01-01

30

Harsh environments electronics : downhole applications.  

SciTech Connect

The development and operational sustainment of renewable (geothermal) and non-renewable (fossil fuel) energy resources will be accompanied by increasingly higher costs factors: exploration and site preparation, operational maintenance and repair. Increased government oversight in the wake of the Gulf oil spill will only add to the cost burden. It is important to understand that downhole conditions are not just about elevated temperatures. It is often construed that military electronics are exposed to the upper limit in terms of extreme service environments. Probably the harshest of all service conditions for electronics and electrical equipment are those in oil, gas, and geothermal wells. From the technology perspective, advanced materials, sensors, and microelectronics devices are benefificial to the exploration and sustainment of energy resources, especially in terms of lower costs. Besides the need for the science that creates these breakthroughs - there is also a need for sustained engineering development and testing. Downhole oil, gas, and geothermal well applications can have a wide range of environments and reliability requirements: Temperature, Pressure, Vibration, Corrosion, and Service duration. All too frequently, these conditions are not well-defifined because the application is labeled as 'high temperature'. This ambiguity is problematic when the investigation turns to new approaches for electronic packaging solutions. The objective is to develop harsh environment, electronic packaging that meets customer requirements of cost, performance, and reliability. There are a number of challenges: (1) Materials sets - solder alloys, substrate materials; (2) Manufacturing process - low to middle volumes, low defect counts, new equipment technologies; and (3) Reliability testing - requirements documents, test methods and modeling, relevant standards documents. The cost to develop and sustain renewable and non-renewable energy resources will continue to escalate within the industry. Downhole electronics can provide a very cost-effective approach for well exploration and sustainment (data logging). However, the harsh environments are a 'game-changer' in terms defining materials, assembly processes and the long-term reliability of downhole electronic systems. The system-level approach will enable the integration of each of these contributors - materials, processes, and reliability - in order to deliver cost-effective electronics that meet customer requirements.

Vianco, Paul Thomas

2011-03-01

31

Mechanotransduction: Touch and Feel at the Molecular Level as Modeled in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The survival of an organism depends on its ability to respond to its environment through its senses. The sense of touch is\\u000a one of the most vital; still, it is the least understood. In the process of touch sensation, a mechanical stimulus is converted\\u000a into electrical signals. Groundbreaking electrophysiological experiments in organisms ranging from bacteria to mammals have\\u000a suggested that

Laura Bianchi

2007-01-01

32

SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH  

E-print Network

1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University Psychology 3270, WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/3270/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisites: 2220 (Sensation and Perception I) and a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics: Section 1 Principles

Harris, Laurence R.

33

The relation of sensation in the anal canal to the functional anal sphincter: a possible factor in anal continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal subjects the length of the functional anal sphincter has been compared with the extent of sensation to light touch in the anal canal. At rest, the sphincteric zone was the longer. On distension of the rectum, a decrease in pressure in the anal canal so shortened the functional sphincter that intrarectal pressure extended down to contact the sensory

H. L. Duthie; R. C. Bennett

1963-01-01

34

Bodily illusions disrupt tactile sensations.  

PubMed

To accurately interpret tactile information, the brain needs to have an accurate representation of the body to which to refer the sensations. Despite this, body representation has only recently been incorporated into the study of tactile perception. Here, we investigate whether distortions of body representation affect tactile sensations. We perceptually altered the length of the arm and the width of the waist using a tendon vibration illusion and measured spatial acuity and sensitivity. Surprisingly, we found reduction in both tactile acuity and sensitivity thresholds when the arm or waist was perceptually altered, which indicates a general disruption of low-level tactile processing. We postulate that the disruptive changes correspond to the preliminary stage as the body representation starts to change and may give new insights into sensory processing in people with long-term or sudden abnormal body representation such as are found in eating disorders or following amputation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25485660

D'Amour, Sarah; Pritchett, Lisa M; Harris, Laurence R

2015-02-01

35

Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.  

PubMed

Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry - the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation - and that of adaptation - the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25201560

Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

2014-09-01

36

Genetics of Human Gastrointestinal Sensation  

PubMed Central

The objective is to review the genetics of human visceral pain with particular emphasis on pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The biomarkers most commonly employed in identifying visceral hypersensitivity are sensation ratings and thresholds or brain imaging during viscus (e.g. rectal) distension. Genetic studies suggest that variation in the control of candidate genes involved in ion channel function, neurotransmitter synthesis, reuptake or receptor functions, and inflammatory disease susceptibility loci may impact variations in prevalence of the symptom phenotype of abdominal pain or IBS, or quantitative traits (intermediate phenotypes) of rectal sensation. The candidate genes include SLC6A4, CNR1, and TNFSF15 reflecting serotonin reuptake, cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory-barrier functions. However, other than TNFSF15, the other candidate genes are only univariately associated with pain, IBS symptom complex or quantitative traits of sensation. These data have generated hypotheses and present opportunities for study of mechanisms and treatment of visceral pain in humans, which remains an unmet clinical need in patients with IBS and functional abdominal pain. PMID:23594334

Camilleri, Michael

2013-01-01

37

Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

2011-01-01

38

"The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'. PMID:22822610

Smith, Roger

2011-01-01

39

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

Exploratorium, The

2011-12-07

40

Muon-induced visual sensations.  

PubMed

The visual phenomena induced by the passage of a pulse of extremely relativistic muons through the vitreous humor have been studied at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The visual phenomena include flashes that range from small crescents of light in the peripheral field of view to large clouds of light that fill the entire field of view as well as bright flashes with dark centers. Three subjects have been exposed to date. Arguments are given to show that the physical mechanism behind these flashes is Cerenkov radiation. Standard psychophysical techniques are used to determine the threshold for muoninduced visual sensations for one subject. Comparison is made with his pion treshold measured under the same condition. PMID:1245896

McNulty, P J; Pease, V P; Bond, V P

1976-01-01

41

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

42

SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH  

E-print Network

1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University; Psychology 2220; WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/2220/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisite: a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics Introduction to perception The eye and seeing

Harris, Laurence R.

43

ThepowerofTouch Howweconnectwith  

E-print Network

in health and sustainability to exploring how touch can shape technology, interaction and emotional is unique about research at UTS is that it's underpinned by technology and creativity. This year, to the exhibition itself ­ impact is apparent. Likewise, this year's exhibition shows how art, design, music (in

University of Technology, Sydney

44

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

45

Environmental harshness, heat stress, and Marmota flaviventris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were studied at three sites in central Oregon. Juveniles substantially reduced their foraging activity when equivalent black-body temperatures exceeded their upper critical temperature. Inclusion of heat stress into estimates of environmental harshness drastically reduced the differences in available foraging time between high elevation and low elevation sites.

D. R. Webb

1979-01-01

46

Touch Satiety: Differential Effects of Stroking Velocity on Liking and Wanting Touch Over Repetitions  

PubMed Central

A slow, gentle caress of the skin is a salient hedonic stimulus. Low threshold, unmyelinated C-tactile afferents fire preferentially to this type of touch, where slow (<1 cm/s) and fast (>10 cm/s) stroking velocities produce lower firing frequencies and are rated as less pleasant. The current aim was to investigate how the experience of tactile pleasantness changes with repeated exposure (satiety to touch). A further aim was to determine whether tactile satiety varied with different stroking velocities. The experimental paradigm used a controlled brush stroke to the forearm that was delivered repeatedly for ?50 minutes. In Experiment 1, brush strokes were administered at three different velocities (0.3 cm/s, 3 cm/s and 30 cm/s), which were presented in a pseudo-randomised order. In Experiment 2, brush strokes were applied using only one velocity (either 3 or 30 cm/s). After each stroke, the participants rated both subjective pleasantness (liking) and wanting (the wish to be further exposed to the same stimulus) for each tactile sensation. In Experiment 1, both pleasantness and wanting showed a small, but significant, decrease over repetitions during stroking at 3 cm/s only, where the mean values for pleasantness and wanting were similar. Conversely, slower (0.3 cm/s) and faster (30 cm/s) stroking showed no decrease in ratings over time, however pleasantness was rated higher than wanting. In Experiment 2, both pleasantness and wanting showed a significant decrease over repetitions for both applied velocities, with a larger decrease in ratings for stroking at 3 cm/s. In conclusion, satiety to touch occurred with a slow onset and progression, where pleasantness and wanting ratings to stroking at 3 cm/s were affected more than at the slower or faster velocities. Tactile satiety appears to differ compared to appetitive and olfactory satiety, because the hedonic and rewarding aspects of touch persist for some time. PMID:25405620

Triscoli, Chantal; Ackerley, Rochelle; Sailer, Uta

2014-01-01

47

The Emerging Role of TRP Channels in Mechanisms of Temperature and Pain Sensation  

PubMed Central

Pain is universal and vital to survival. It is an essential component of our sense of touch; together, touch and pain have evolved to enable our awareness of the intricacies of our environment and to warn us of danger and possible injury. There is a clear link between temperature sensation and pain—painful temperature sensations occur acutely and are a hallmark of inflammatory and chronic pain disorders of the nervous system. Mounting evidence suggests a subset of Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) ion channels activated by temperature (thermoTRPs) are important molecular players in acute, inflammatory and chronic pain states. Varying degrees of heat activate four of these channels (TRPV1-4), while cooling temperatures ranging from pleasant to painful activate two distantly related thermoTRP channels (TRPM8 and TRPA1). ThermoTRP channels are also chemosensitive, being activated and or modulated by plant-derived small molecules and endogenous inflammatory mediators. All thermoTRPs are expressed in tissues essential to cutaneous thermal and pain sensation. This review examines the contribution of thermoTRP channels to our understanding of temperature and pain transduction at the molecular level. PMID:18615141

Story, Gina M

2006-01-01

48

Testimony of touch  

E-print Network

terror and adoration. Color and form operate as key components of visual movement in the composition of Testimony of Touch while the voice of the sublime whispers an abundant unbroken beauty. The eye is encouraged to explore while forging, delicate... unexpected yet needed conversations of color. One day, after flipping a panel upside down, the warmth of green suddenly brought life into a cold cluster of abstracted bones. Blue continually flowed into more open spaces expressing surprise, peace...

Swim, Carrie Leigh

2012-05-31

49

Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation  

PubMed Central

Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

2014-01-01

50

PIEZO2 is required for mechanotransduction in human stem cell-derived touch receptors.  

PubMed

Human sensory neurons are inaccessible for functional examination, and thus little is known about the mechanisms mediating touch sensation in humans. Here we demonstrate that the mechanosensitivity of human embryonic stem (hES) cell-derived touch receptors depends on PIEZO2. To recapitulate sensory neuron development in vitro, we established a multistep differentiation protocol and generated sensory neurons via the intermediate production of neural crest cells derived from hES cells or human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. The generated neurons express a distinct set of touch receptor-specific genes and convert mechanical stimuli into electrical signals, their most salient characteristic in vivo. Strikingly, mechanosensitivity is lost after CRISPR/Cas9-mediated PIEZO2 gene deletion. Our work establishes a model system that resembles human touch receptors, which may facilitate mechanistic analysis of other sensory subtypes and provide insight into developmental programs underlying sensory neuron diversity. PMID:25469543

Schrenk-Siemens, Katrin; Wende, Hagen; Prato, Vincenzo; Song, Kun; Rostock, Charlotte; Loewer, Alexander; Utikal, Jochen; Lewin, Gary R; Lechner, Stefan G; Siemens, Jan

2015-01-01

51

Silicon carbide MEMS for harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon carbide (SiC) is a promising material for the development of high-temperature solid-state electronics and transducers, owing to its excellent electrical, mechanical, and chemical properties. This paper is a review of silicon carbide for microelectromechanical systems (SiC MEMS). Current efforts in developing SiC MEMS to extend the silicon-based MEMS technology to applications in harsh environments are discussed. A summary is

MEHRAN MEHREGANY; CHRISTIAN A. ZORMAN; NARAYANAN RAJAN; Chien Hung Wu

1998-01-01

52

Sensors Increase Productivity in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California's San Juan Capistrano-based Endevco Corporation licensed three patents covering high-temperature, harsh-environment silicon carbide (Si-C) pressure sensors from Glenn Research Center. The company is exploring their use in government markets, as well as in commercial markets, including commercial jet testing, deep well drilling applications where pressure and temperature increase with drilling depth, and in automobile combustion chambers.

2008-01-01

53

More than a rhythm of life: Breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation  

PubMed Central

When rodents engage in the exploration of novel stimuli, breathing occurs at an accelerated rate that is synchronous with whisking. We review the recently observed relationships between breathing and the sensations of smell and vibrissa-based touch. We consider the hypothesis that the breathing rhythm serves not only as a motor drive signal but also as a common clock that binds these two senses into a common percept. This possibility may be extended to include taste through the coordination of licking with breathing. The status of experimental evidence that pertains to this hypothesis is evaluated. PMID:24762718

Kleinfeld, David; Deschênes, Martin; Wang, Fan; Moore, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

54

More than a rhythm of life: breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation.  

PubMed

When rodents engage in the exploration of novel stimuli, breathing occurs at an accelerated rate that is synchronous with whisking. We review the recently observed relationships between breathing and the sensations of smell and vibrissa-based touch. We consider the hypothesis that the breathing rhythm serves not only as a motor drive signal, but also as a common clock that binds these two senses into a common percept. This possibility may be extended to include taste through the coordination of licking with breathing. Here we evaluate the status of experimental evidence that pertains to this hypothesis. PMID:24762718

Kleinfeld, David; Deschênes, Martin; Wang, Fan; Moore, Jeffrey D

2014-05-01

55

Heightened motor and sensory (mirror-touch) referral induced by nerve block or topical anesthetic.  

PubMed

Mirror neurons allow us to covertly simulate the sensation and movement of others. If mirror neurons are sensory and motor neurons, why do we not actually feel this simulation- like "mirror-touch synesthetes"? Might afferent sensation normally inhibit mirror representations from reaching consciousness? We and others have reported heightened sensory referral to phantom limbs and temporarily anesthetized arms. These patients, however, had experienced illness or injury of the deafferented limb. In the current study we observe heightened sensory and motor referral to the face after unilateral nerve block for routine dental procedures. We also obtain double-blind, quantitative evidence of heightened sensory referral in healthy participants completing a mirror-touch confusion task after topical anesthetic cream is applied. We suggest that sensory and motor feedback exist in dynamic equilibrium with mirror representations; as feedback is reduced, the brain draws more upon visual information to determine- perhaps in a Bayesian manner- what to feel. PMID:23791606

Case, Laura K; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

2013-08-01

56

Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

2004-01-01

57

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments. PMID:22438744

Mihailov, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

58

Harsh environment fiber optic connectors/testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic systems are used frequently in military, aerospace and commercial aviation programs. There is a long history of implementing fiber optic data transfer for aircraft control, for harsh environment use in local area networks and more recently for in-flight entertainment systems. The advantages of fiber optics include high data rate capacity, low weight, immunity to EMI/RFI, and security from signal tapping. Technicians must be trained particularly to install and maintain fiber systems, but it is not necessarily more difficult than wire systems. However, the testing of the fiber optic interconnection system must be conducted in a standardized manner to assure proper performance. Testing can be conducted with slight differences in the set-up and procedure that produce significantly different test results. This paper reviews various options of interconnect configurations and discusses how these options can affect the performance, maintenance required and longevity of a fiber optic system, depending on the environment. Proper test methods are discussed. There is a review of the essentials of proper fiber optic testing and impact of changing such test parameters as input launch conditions, wavelength considerations, power meter options and the basic methods of testing. This becomes important right from the start when the supplier test data differs from the user's data check upon receiving the product. It also is important in periodic testing. Properly conducting the fiber optic testing will eliminate confusion and produce meaningful test results for a given harsh environment application.

Parker, Douglas A.

2014-09-01

59

KCNQ4 K+ channels tune mechanoreceptors for normal touch sensation in mouse and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations inactivating the potassium channel KCNQ4 (Kv7.4) lead to deafness in humans and mice. In addition to its expression in mechanosensitive hair cells of the inner ear, KCNQ4 is found in the auditory pathway and in trigeminal nuclei that convey somatosensory information. We have now detected KCNQ4 in the peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous rapidly adapting hair follicle and Meissner

Matthias Heidenreich; Stefan G Lechner; Vitya Vardanyan; Christiane Wetzel; C. W. R. J. Cremers; Els M De Leenheer; Gracia Aránguez; Miguel Ángel Moreno-Pelayo; Thomas J Jentsch; Gary R Lewin

2011-01-01

60

TRPV1-lineage neurons are required for thermal sensation  

PubMed Central

The ion-channel TRPV1 is believed to be a major sensor of noxious heat, but surprisingly animals lacking TRPV1 still display marked responses to elevated temperature. In this study, we explored the role of TRPV1-expressing neurons in somatosensation by generating mice wherein this lineage of cells was selectively labelled or ablated. Our data show that TRPV1 is an embryonic marker of many nociceptors including all TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons as well as many Mrg-expressing neurons. Mutant mice lacking these cells are completely insensitive to hot or cold but in marked contrast retain normal touch and mechanical pain sensation. These animals also exhibit defective body temperature control and lose both itch and pain reactions to potent chemical mediators. Together with previous cell ablation studies, our results define and delimit the roles of TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons in thermosensation, thermoregulation and nociception, thus significantly extending the concept of labelled lines in somatosensory coding. PMID:21139565

Mishra, Santosh K; Tisel, Sarah M; Orestes, Peihan; Bhangoo, Sonia K; Hoon, Mark A

2011-01-01

61

Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

PubMed Central

Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion. PMID:20195378

2010-01-01

62

Huggy Pajama: A Remote Interactive Touch and Hugging System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huggy Pajama is a novel wearable system aimed at promoting physical interaction in remote communication between parent and child. This system enables parents and children to hug one another through a hugging interface device and a wearable, hug reproducing pajama connected through the Internet. The hug input device is a small, mobile doll with an embedded pressure sensing circuit that is able to accurately sense varying levels of pressure along the range of human touch produced from natural touch. This device sends hug signals to a haptic jacket that simulates the feeling of being hugged to the wearer. It features air pocket actuators that reproduce hug sensations, heating elements to produce warmth that accompanies hugs, and a color changing pattern and accessory to indicate distance of separation and communicate expressions. In this chapter, we present the system design of Huggy Pajama. We also show results from quantitative and qualitative user studies which show the effectiveness of the system simulating an actual human touch. Results also indicate an increased sense of presence between parents and children when used as an added component to instant messaging and video chat communication.

Cheok, Adrian David

63

"The Chinatown Foray" as Sensational Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thinking through affective theories by Alfred North Whitehead, Giles Deleuze, and Brian Massumi, this paper proposes an understanding of pedagogy that is sensational. To consider affective theories and their implications for educational research, I engage with a relational artwork, "The Chinatown Foray," by Toronto-based artist Diane Borsato. In…

Springgay, Stephanie

2011-01-01

64

Touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first organism for which touch insensitive mutants were obtained. The study of the genes defective in these mutants\\u000a has led to the identification of components of a mechanosensory complex needed for specific cells to sense gentle touch to\\u000a the body. Multiple approaches using genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology have characterized a channel\\u000a complex,

Alexander Bounoutas; Martin Chalfie

2007-01-01

65

Instructor Touch Enhanced College Students' Evaluations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch between people is associated with several outcomes, including reduced stress, more positive mood, enhanced feelings of closeness, and positive behavioral change. However, the potential utility of touch rarely has been examined in a college sample, with teachers touching their students. In the present study, we used instrumental touch

Legg, Angela M.; Wilson, Janie H.

2013-01-01

66

Pain Syndromes and Disorders of Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although routine clinical neurological examination generally does not reveal any abnormality of sensation in persons with\\u000a Parkinson’s disease (PD), subjective sensory symptoms are quite frequently present, and objective abnormalities of proprioceptive\\u000a function and sensorimotor integration have been demonstrated with sophisticated testing. Primary sensory symptoms of PD may\\u000a include paresthesias of varied descriptions (numbness, tingling, and burning).\\u000a \\u000a Painful symptoms in PD

Blair Ford; Ronald F. Pfeiffer

67

Redirected Touching: Training and Adaptation in Warped Virtual Spaces  

PubMed Central

Redirected Touching is a technique in which virtual space is warped to map many virtual objects onto one real object that serves as a passive haptic prop. Recent work suggests that this mapping can often be predictably unnoticeable and have little effect on task performance. We investigated training and adaptation on a rapid aiming task in a real environment, an unwarped virtual environment, and a warped virtual environment. Participants who experienced a warped virtual space reported an initial strange sensation, but adapted to the warped space after short repeated exposure. Our data indicate that all the virtual training was less effective than real-world training, but after adaptation, participants trained as well in a warped virtual space as in an unwarped one.

Kohli, Luv; Whitton, Mary C.; Brooks, Frederick P.

2014-01-01

68

Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing ?-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

2014-09-01

69

The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-01-01

70

Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the Radiation Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack (RTIMS).

2008-01-01

71

Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany

2010-01-01

72

HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME  

EPA Science Inventory

Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

73

Laser Interferometry for Harsh Environment MEMS Sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-based MEMS technology has enabled the fabrication of a broad range of sensor and actuator systems that are having a great impact in areas that benefit from miniaturization and increased functionality. The main advantage of Si-based MEMS technologies is their possibility of integration with microelectronics thus allowing the economical production of smart microsystems. In the automotive industry for example, there is a need for inexpensive smart MEMS sensors for engine control applications. For instance, smart MEMS sensors capable of operating ``in cylinder'', where temperatures are around 400 C, could continuously monitor the combustion quality of the cylinders of automotive engines thus leading to reduced emissions and improved fuel economy. However, when the environment temperature is too high (>180 C), conventional Si-based microelectronics suffer from severe performance degradation, thus making smart Si-based MEMS impractical. Hence, further development, in terms of new MEMS materials and/or new technologies, is needed especially where high temperature capability is crucial to realizing improved electronic control. Remote sensing through optical signal detection has major advantages for safe signal transmission in harsh environments. It is highly resistant to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI) and at the same time, it eliminates the necessity of on-board electronics, which has been one of the main obstacles in the development of smart MEMS sensors for high temperature applications. An economical way to deal with higher temperatures and other aggressive environmental conditions is to build MEMS sensors out of robust materials (e.g. Silicon nitride, SiC) and integrate them with optical signal detection techniques to form MOEMS. In this paper, we review recent trends for the use of laser interferometry for MEMS sensors in the context of using them for high temperature applications. Technological challenges faced in the development of these sensors, including sensitivity to measurement errors, packaging and cost reduction are also outlined. Finally, an overview of Fabry-Perot like MEMS sensors for high temperature applications is presented and issues facing their future progress and economical implementation are discussed.

Nieva, Patricia

2008-03-01

74

Imaging Systems For Application In Harsh Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging systems operating in the wavelength domain between the near UV and the mid IR (about 300 nm to > 5 (m) play a crucial role in remote sensing from orbiters and in-situ lander measurements of planetary exploration space missions. Wide-angle and high-resolution cameras, IR imagers, and imaging spectrographs provide carto- graphic information on the morphology and topography of planetary surfaces, serve to characterize landing sites with their geological features like soils and rocks, de- liver data on the spectrophotometric characteristics of minerals, and contribute to at- mospheric reasearch. Moreover, imaging systems have the important task to present scientific missions to the general public. As resources during planetary missions are usually very limited imaging payloads have to be designed to have low mass and size, low power consumption, and to effectively handle the imaging data taking into ac- count the limited computing powers, mass memories and telemetry data rates (image data compression). Furthermore, the design has to cope with extremely harsh environ- ments such as, for example, high and very low temperatures, large temperature varia- tions and gradients, high mechanical loads (shocks), e.g. during landing on a planetary surface, a hostile particle radiation environment, and dusty or chemically aggressive atmospheres. The presentation discusses the requirements to be set up for planetary mission imaging systems, and gives an overview of the most important design mea- sures to be taken in order to be compliant with these requirements (e.g. miniatur- ization of electronics, light-weight materials, athermal and radiation tolerant design). The discussion comprises all subunits of imaging systems starting with the optics / the spectrograph and the detector unit, continuing with the data processing unit, and ending with peripheral equipment like e.g. drives, deployable booms, and illumina- tion devices for lander cameras. Examples are given of already existing hardware (e.g. for Mars Pathfinder, Rosetta and MarsExpress), hardware under development (e.g. for NetLander PanCam), and hardware planned for future missions. Finally, some impli- cations and spin-offs for terrestrial geophysical research are also briefly discussed.

Grothues, H.-G.; Michaelis, H.; Behnke, T.; Bresch, W.; Koldewey, E.; Lichopoj, A.; Tschentscher, M.; Alicke, P.

75

Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

Michael Carpenter

2012-01-15

76

Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

2011-01-01

77

Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

2013-01-01

78

Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

2013-05-01

79

SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION Finishing Touches  

E-print Network

SPACE SHUTTLE MISSION STS-132 Finishing Touches PRESS KIT/May 2010 www.nasa.gov National ....................................... 57 HISTORY OF SPACE SHUTTLE ATLANTIS .................................................................................................. 101 #12;MAY 2010 MISSION OVERVIEW 1 STS-132/ULF4 MISSION OVERVIEW The space shuttle Atlantis' crew

80

How Haptic Size Sensations Improve Distance Perception  

PubMed Central

Determining distances to objects is one of the most ubiquitous perceptual tasks in everyday life. Nevertheless, it is challenging because the information from a single image confounds object size and distance. Though our brains frequently judge distances accurately, the underlying computations employed by the brain are not well understood. Our work illuminates these computions by formulating a family of probabilistic models that encompass a variety of distinct hypotheses about distance and size perception. We compare these models' predictions to a set of human distance judgments in an interception experiment and use Bayesian analysis tools to quantitatively select the best hypothesis on the basis of its explanatory power and robustness over experimental data. The central question is: whether, and how, human distance perception incorporates size cues to improve accuracy. Our conclusions are: 1) humans incorporate haptic object size sensations for distance perception, 2) the incorporation of haptic sensations is suboptimal given their reliability, 3) humans use environmentally accurate size and distance priors, 4) distance judgments are produced by perceptual “posterior sampling”. In addition, we compared our model's estimated sensory and motor noise parameters with previously reported measurements in the perceptual literature and found good correspondence between them. Taken together, these results represent a major step forward in establishing the computational underpinnings of human distance perception and the role of size information. PMID:21738457

Battaglia, Peter W.; Kersten, Daniel; Schrater, Paul R.

2011-01-01

81

Touch in Dance Therapy in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors explore the use of touch within the cultural context of Japanese society, psychotherapy and a dance therapy session. The assumption is that touch stimulates a variety of responses, and, that to understand the feelings that it evokes, it is essential to view its meaning within a cultural context. They discuss implications for using touch in a dance therapy

Yukari Sakiyama; Nana Koch

2003-01-01

82

Requesting Pervasive Services by Touching RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a general framework for requesting pervasive services by touching RFID tags. The tags conne ct the physical and digital environments. Visual symbols c ommunicate to users the objects that can be touched and the services that can be activated. When a user touches such a symbol with a mobile phone, the data stored in the tag and other

Jukka Riekki; Timo Salminen; Ismo Alakärppä

2006-01-01

83

Paper-based, capacitive touch pads.  

PubMed

Metallized paper is patterned to create touch pads of arrayed buttons that are sensitive to contact with both bare and gloved fingers. The paper-based keypad detects the change in capacitance associated with the touch of a finger to one of its buttons. Mounted on an alarmed cardboard box, the keypad requires the appropriate sequence of touches to disarm the system. PMID:22539155

Mazzeo, Aaron D; Kalb, William B; Chan, Lawrence; Killian, Matthew G; Bloch, Jean-Francis; Mazzeo, Brian A; Whitesides, George M

2012-06-01

84

Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.  

PubMed

Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. PMID:25392175

Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

2015-02-01

85

“Two novel DEG/ENaC channel subunits expressed in glia are needed for nose touch sensitivity in C. elegans”  

PubMed Central

Summary Neuronal DEG/ENaC Na+ channels have been implicated in touch sensation. For example, MEC-4 is expressed in touch neurons in C. elegans and mediates gentle touch response. Similarly, homologous mammalian ASIC2 and ASIC3 are expressed in sensory neurons and produce touch phenotypes when knocked out in mice. Here, we show that novel DEG/ENaC subunits DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons in C. elegans and that their knock-out causes defects in mechanosensory behaviors related to nose touch and foraging, which are mediated by OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons. Cell-specific rescue supports that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are required cell-autonomously in glia to orchestrate mechanosensory behaviors. Electron microscopy reveals that in delm-1 knockouts, OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons and associated glia are structurally normal. Furthermore, we show that knockout of DELM-1 and DELM-2 does not disrupt the expression or cellular localization of TRPA-1, a TRP channel needed in OLQ and IL1 neurons for touch behaviors. Rather, rescue of the delm-1 nose-touch insensitive phenotype by expression of a K+ channel in socket glia and of a cationic channel in OLQ neurons suggests that DELM channels set basal neuronal excitability. Taken together, our data show that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons where they are not needed for neuronal structural integrity or cellular distribution of neuronal sensory channels, but rather for their function. PMID:23325233

Han, Lu; Wang, Ying; Sangaletti, Rachele; D’Urso, Giulia; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Bianchi, Laura

2013-01-01

86

Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

2008-03-01

87

Plant sensing: gravity and touch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Roots must integrate many stimuli in order to direct their growth as they explore the soil. Gravitropism leads to downward growth but other stimuli such as gradients in nutrients, water, biotic and abiotic stresses and physical obstacles such as rocks all act on the roots sensory systems to modify this gravitropic response. We have therefore investigated the interaction of gravity signaling and response to other stimuli such as a mechanical obstruction to downward growth. A gravitropically directed primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana (growing vertically) senses an obstacle such as a glass plate placed in its direction of growth and initiates an avoidance growth response upon contacting the barrier. This response appears to be caused by an interaction of gravitropic and thigmotropic sensory systems. The touch stimulation of the root cap leads to alteration in growth, initially in the central and later in the distal elongation zone of the root. These growth responses maintain the root tip at an angle of 136 degrees to the barrier as the root grows across the obstacle's surface. Removal of cells in the root cap by laser ablation indicate that all root cap cells are required for this growth response to the barrier. Once the end of the barrier is reached and the root can grow off the obstruciton, gravitropism appears to occur faster than in roots that did not interact with an obstacle, suggesting that the touch stimulation of the barrier may alter gravitropic signaling or response. Touch stimulation of the root cap inhibited the pH-dependent gravity signaling events that are known to be required for gravitropic response. These results imply a transient suppression of gravisensing or graviresponse by touch. Touch stimulation of root cap cells elicited an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ that appears to propagate from cell to cell throughout the cap, suggesting Ca2+ signaling may underlie the communication between gravity and touch sensing cells. Although the pgm1 -1 starch deficient mutant exhibits reduced gravity sensing due to reduced mass of statoliths in its root cap, this mutant exhibited normal bending upon contact with the barrier. This observation implies the reduced gravisensing in the mutant is sufficient to allow the gravitropic component of obstacle avoidance. However, pgm1 -1 develops a more random orientation to the barrier with time, suggesting that sustained tracking over the barrier requires continued input by the gravisensor. The growth response of roots where the root cap has been removed by laser ablation, also suggest that the root cap may be sensing a range of other, non-mechanical stimuli that are interacting with the gravity sensor to direct root growth. This work was supported by grants from NASA and NSF.

Gilroy, S.; Swanson, S.; Massa, G.

88

Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

2006-01-01

89

Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2012-01-01

90

The color of touch: a case of tactile-visual synaesthesia.  

PubMed

We report a single-case study, EB, who experiences synaesthetic sensations of color from tactile stimulation. Developmental synaesthesia is typically characterized by the consistency of synaesthetic pairings over time, in that stimuli tend to generate the same synaesthetic responses on different occasions. Here we demonstrate that EB's touch-color associations are significantly more consistent over time compared to a group of non-synaesthete controls, but that this comes in the face of surprisingly high consistency among non-synaesthetes themselves, for certain tactile stimuli. We show, too, that EB's touch-color correspondences are guided by an implicit rule system, and that this system is shared by non-synaesthetes. Both synaesthetes and non-synaesthetes are sensitive to tactile qualities such as smoothness and softness, and these qualities are systematically related to the luminance and chroma of associated colors. PMID:21787247

Simner, Julia; Ludwig, Vera U

2012-01-01

91

Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations  

PubMed Central

Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

2014-01-01

92

Taste Sensation: Influences on Human Ingestive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Taste sensations serve multiple feeding-related functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are inherent likes and dislikes for taste qualities, but all are modifiable through dietary experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Mere exposure to the taste of food elicits numerous physiological responses that may prime the body to efficiently absorb\\u000a and utilize ingested nutrients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Gustatory disorders can increase an individual’s risk to environmental toxin exposure,

Bridget A. Cassady; Richard D. Mattes

93

A sensate liner for personnel monitoring applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This program develops and demonstrates technologies useful for implementing a manageable cost effective systems approach to monitoring the medical condition of personnel by way of an instrumented uniform hereafter referred to as a Sensate Liner (SL). The SL consists of a form fitting garment which contains and interconnects sensing elements and devices to an electronics pack containing a processor and transmitter. The SL prototype requires fiber, textile, garment and sensor development. The SL textile consists of a mesh of electrically and optically conductive fibers integrated into the normal structure (woven or knitted) of fibers and yarns selected for comfort and durability. A suite of SL garment compatible embedded biological and physical sensors are then integrated into the SL. The initial SL sensor suite is selected to improve triage for combat casualties. Additional SL sensor concepts for medical monitoring will be discussed.

Lind, Eric J.; Jayaraman, Sundaresan; Park, Ms. Sungmee; Rajamanickam, Rangaswamy; Eisler, Robert, , Dr.; Burghart, Mr. George; McKee, Mr. Tony

94

Sexual fantasies and sensation seeking among psychopathic sexual offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between psychopathy, sensation seeking behavior and sexual fantasies in a sample of 199 participants from a maximum security forensic hospital. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL-R), and several sensation seeking and sexual fantasy measures were utilized. Results indicated that, in agreement with previous research, sexually deviant psychopaths are more likely to offend

Leah C. Skovran; Matthew T. Huss; Mario J. Scalora

2010-01-01

95

CONSTRUCT VALIDITY FOR THE SENSATION-SEEKING SCALE  

Microsoft Academic Search

EXAMINED THE TRAITS MEASURED BY THE SENSATION-SEEKING SCALE (SSS) BY DEFINING FACTORS WITHIN THE SCALE ITSELF AND BY CORRELATING THE SCALE WITH INDEPENDENT MEASURES OF OTHER TRAITS. 4 FACTORS WERE DEFINED IN AN EARLIER EXTENDED VERSION OF THE SSS GIVEN TO MALES: THRILL, SOCIAL, VISUAL, AND ANTISOCIAL SENSATION SEEKING. ONLY THE 1ST 2 FACTORS EMERGED CLEARLY IN THE FEMALE DATA.

MARVIN ZUCKERMAN; KATHRYN LINK

1968-01-01

96

Influences of Aging on Taste Perception and Oral Somatic Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Many elderly persons report reduced taste perception of the foods they eat. Any disturbance of taste and oral somatic sensations can induce this phenomenon. To determine the cause of decreased taste perception in older persons, the authors investigated age-related changes in taste perception and somatic sensations in the anterior tongue. Methods. Thirty healthy young and elderly persons participated in

Akiko Fukunaga; Hiroshi Uematsu; Kumiko Sugimoto

2005-01-01

97

Appetite Sensations in Pregnancy among Agropastoral Women in Rural Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women all over the globe report physical and appetite sensations in early pregnancy, and this study contributes to this growing literature by reporting on the appetite sensations experienced by pregnant women from rural Tanzania. Appetite changes associated with 545 pregnancies were compiled from surveys conducted to report on the prevalence of appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, joint pain, cravings, aversions,

Crystal L. Patil

2012-01-01

98

Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

1994-01-01

99

Pain relief by touch: a quantitative approach.  

PubMed

Pain relief by touch has been studied for decades in pain neuroscience. Human perceptual studies revealed analgesic effects of segmental tactile stimulation, as compared to extrasegmental touch. However, the spatial organisation of touch-pain interactions within a single human dermatome has not been investigated yet. In 2 experiments we tested whether, how, and where within a dermatome touch modulates the perception of laser-evoked pain. We measured pain perception using intensity ratings, qualitative descriptors, and signal detection measures of sensitivity and response bias. Touch concurrent with laser pulses produced a significant analgesia, and reduced the sensitivity in detecting the energy of laser stimulation, implying a functional loss of information within the ascending A? pathway. Touch also produced a bias to judge laser stimuli as less painful. This bias decreased linearly when the distance between the laser and tactile stimuli increased. Thus, our study provides evidence for a spatial organisation of intrasegmental touch-pain interactions. PMID:24361816

Mancini, Flavia; Nash, Thomas; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Haggard, Patrick

2014-03-01

100

Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes: A candidate system approach  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavior disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to individual differences in sensation seeking, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and non-human animals provide evidence for this relationship. We present here a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation seeking, in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopaminergic genes were analyzed. Using 273 SNPs from eight dopamine genes in a sample of 635 unrelated individuals, we examined the aggregate effects of those SNPs significantly associated with sensation seeking. Multiple SNPs in four dopamine genes accounted for significant variance in sensation seeking. These results suggest that aggregation of multiple SNPs within genes relevant to a specific neurobiological system into a “genetic risk score” may explain a nontrivial proportion of variance in human traits. PMID:20732903

Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I; Hesselbrock, Victor M; Kramer, John R; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Bierut, Laura J

2011-01-01

101

Optical fiber sensors for high temperature harsh environment applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper summarizes our recent research progresses in developing optical fiber harsh environment sensors for various high temperature harsh environment sensing applications such as monitoring of the operating conditions in a coal-fired power plant and in-situ detection of key gas components in coal-derived syngas. The sensors described in this paper include a miniaturized inline fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) fabricated by one-step fs laser micromachining, a long period fiber grating (LPFG) and a fiber inline core-cladding mode interferometer (CMMI) fabricated by controlled CO2 laser irradiations. Their operating principles, fabrication methods, and applications for measurement of various physical and chemical parameters in a high temperature and high pressure coexisting harsh environment are presented.

Xiao, Hai; Wei, Tao; Lan, Xinwei; Zhang, Yinan; Duan, Hongbiao; Han, Yukun; Tsai, Hai-Lung

2010-04-01

102

THE MULTIFACETED NATURE OF IMPULSIVE SENSATION-SEEKING: DIFFERENTIAL RELATIONSHIPS WITH PERSONALITY, DEVIANCE, AND LABORATORY TASKS.  

E-print Network

??The current study examined divergences among impulsivity and sensation seeking items from the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire Impulsive Sensation Seeking scale in terms of their relations… (more)

Miller, Drew J.

2007-01-01

103

How Does a Touch Sensor Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

104

How do terrestrial Antarctic organisms survive in their harsh environment?  

PubMed Central

Anhydrobiosis, or extreme desiccation tolerance, is one of the strategies that allows terrestrial Antarctic organisms to survive in a harsh environment. A new study in BMC Genomics analyses gene expression in an Antarctic nematode during desiccation, and sheds new light on this phenomenon. PMID:19439040

Wharton, David A; Marshall, Craig J

2009-01-01

105

The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat living in harsh environments represents a climax in the capacity of domestic ruminants to adjust to such areas. This ability is multifactorial: low body mass, and low metabolic requirements of goats can be regarded as an important asset to them for it minimise their maintenance and water requirements, in areas where water sources are widely distributed and food sources

Nissim Silanikove

2000-01-01

106

Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

2008-01-01

107

Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns  

PubMed Central

This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

Smaldino, Paul E.

2013-01-01

108

Oxytocin facilitates the sensation of social stress.  

PubMed

Essentially all social species experience social stress which can be a catalyst for detriments in mental and physical health. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to produce anxiolytic and antistress effects, thereby qualifying the OXT system as a promising drug target in the treatment of stress-related disorders. However, recently it has been shown that OXT can have anxiogenic effects as well. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 60 healthy men while they were exposed to social stress after they received either intranasal OXT (24 IU) or placebo treatment. Although OXT administration did not alter salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate marker of stress axis activity, our participants initially reported an increment in perceived social stress. This behavioral effect was paralleled on the neural level by increased activity in the precuneus and cingulate cortex. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that OXT can induce a self-referential processing bias which facilitates the sensation of social stress in the absence of altered endocrine responses. PMID:24659430

Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Weber, Kristina; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

2014-09-01

109

Sensation and experience of pain in children.  

PubMed

The study explored children's self-assessment of the pain experience and to understood the relative factors that influence the words used to represent children's pain. Using an outline of a human figure and a section of the open questionnaire to study, 106 nine- to sixteen-year-old children marked their pain location using colors to represent pain. They rated the intensity and duration of their pain, and described their experience of pain (sensation, causes, and ways to manage pain). The results showed that children clearly described pain, that there were appreciable differences between feelings of headache, leg pain, backache, and shoulder pain with pain intensity and duration of pain; that explained the difference of occurrence of abdominal pain in cross effect between age and sex; that explained the difference of the occurrence of toothache in cross effect among triangle of hospitalized experience, age, and sex; that there was significant relationship between abdominal pain and family structure. For severe abdominal pain or toothache the children could ask doctors for pain relief. For the others, they could take medication or rest for their middle or mild abdominal pain. The ways to manage leg pain were injection and massage. Change of position was applied to relieve backache. From the children's self-reports, we understand that causes of children's pain were derived from bad sleep, food, decayed teeth, exercising, and hitting. Pain avoidance is best achieved by accident prevention, cultivation of good health habits, and integration of daily living skills. PMID:8320754

Chen, J Y

1993-04-01

110

Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

2013-01-01

111

TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfacesu Olivier Bau1,2  

E-print Network

TeslaTouch: Electrovibration for Touch Surfacesu Olivier Bau1,2 , Ivan Poupyrev1 , Ali Israr1, PA 15213 chris.harrison@cs.cmu.edu Figure 1: TeslaTouch uses electrovibration to control actuators such as piezoelectric bending motors, voice coils, and solenoids [10, 27]. The actuation can

Poupyrev, Ivan

112

The Sound of Touch: On-body Touch and Gesture Sensing Based on Transdermal Ultrasound Propagation  

E-print Network

The Sound of Touch: On-body Touch and Gesture Sensing Based on Transdermal Ultrasound Propagation an interest- ing interaction platform. We propose a novel sensing tech- nique based on transdermal low an adaptive threshold is Figure 1. We proposed a novel on-body touch sensing method based on transdermal

Rajamani, Sriram K.

113

Individual differences and choice of information source: Sensation seeking in drug abuse prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationship between sensation seeking and the information source an individual may select to (1) find exciting alternatives to drugs and (2) resist peer pressure to use drugs. Both high and low sensation seekers chose friends as the most preferred source of information. However, high sensation seekers, compared to low sensation seekers, were less likely to: talk

Margaret Usha Dsilva

1999-01-01

114

Age Differences in Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity as Indexed by Behavior and Self-Report  

E-print Network

Age Differences in Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity as Indexed by Behavior and Self Georgetown University Developmental Psychology, in press. #12;Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity 2 Author Note@temple.edu. #12;Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity 3 Abstract It has been hypothesized that sensation

Banich, Marie T.

115

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

116

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept  

E-print Network

Touching numeral segmentation using water reservoir concept U. Pal a,*, A. Belaiid b , Ch. Choisy b is mainly based on features obtained from a concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

Belaïd, Abdel

117

Hall position encoder-based touch surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

We can note that in these days touch screen technology began to flourish and it is more widely used both in hardware and in different applications. A touch screen based interface is beginning to be a basic requirement in almost every mobile appliance, and at the same time demand to equip other products with this technology is on the rise.

Norbert Hoz; Jozsef Veres; Gyorgy Cserey

2011-01-01

118

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners  

PubMed Central

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

119

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

120

Silicon Carbide Sensors and Electronics for Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment (high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation) that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. This is due to its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

Evans, Laura J.

2007-01-01

121

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

Levesque, Vincent

122

Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd\\/Silica),

Juntao Wu

2008-01-01

123

Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDespite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and

Hyoun K. Kim; Katherine C. Pears; Philip A. Fisher; Cynthia D. Connelly; John A. Landsverk

2010-01-01

124

Trajectories of Maternal Harsh Parenting in the First 3 Years of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their…

Kim, Hyoun K.; Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John A.

2010-01-01

125

High Temperature Electronics for Intelligent Harsh Environment Sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of intelligent instrumentation systems is of high interest in both public and private sectors. In order to obtain this ideal in extreme environments (i.e., high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation), both sensors and electronics must be developed concurrently in order that the entire system will survive for extended periods of time. The semiconductor silicon carbide (SiC) has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. The advantages of SiC over conventional materials include its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical properties in harsh environments, and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

Evans, Laura J.

2008-01-01

126

Using Sensation Seeking to Target Adolescents for Substance Use Interventions  

PubMed Central

Aims This study examines the predictive validity of sensation seeking as a predictor of adolescent substance use, in order to optimize targeting for substance use prevention programmes. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Random digit dial telephone survey. Participants 6522 U.S. adolescents aged 10–14 years at baseline, resurveyed at 8-month intervals for 3 subsequent waves. Measurements Two outcomes were assessed--onset of binge drinking (more than 5 drinks in a short time) and established smoking (>100 cigarettes lifetime). Sensation seeking level was assessed at baseline. Logistic regression was used to predict onset of substance use at any follow-up wave as a function of sensation seeking. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to illustrate how well sensation seeking predicted substance use as a function of different cut-off points for defining high sensation seeking, and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AROC) was the metric of predictive validity. Findings Of 5854 participants with one or more follow up assessments, 5634 reported no binge drinking and 5802 were not established smokers at baseline, of whom 717 (12.7% of 5634) reported binge drinking and 144 (2.5% of 5802) reported established smoking at one or more follow up interviews. Sensation seeking predicted binge drinking moderately well (AROC = 0.71 [95% CI 0.69, 0.73]) and was a significantly better predictor of established smoking onset (AROC = 0.80 [0.76, 0.83)). For binge drinking, predictive validity was significantly lower in Blacks; for established smoking it was significantly higher for Hispanics. Implications for two targeting interventions are discussed. Conclusions Sensation seeking works moderately well at identifying adolescents at risk for onset of binge drinking and established smoking. This study offers a guide for determining the appropriate targeting cut-off value, based on intervention efficacy, costs and risks. PMID:20402995

Sargent, James D.; Tanski, Susanne; Stoolmiller, Mike; Hanewinkel, Reiner

2009-01-01

127

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2013-04-01

128

Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own temperaments, their marital relationship quality, and harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers’ (but not adoptive mothers’) harsh parenting was inversely related to an index of birth mother positive temperament (reward dependence), indicating evocative rGE. Higher marital quality was associated with less harsh parenting, but only for adoptive fathers. Adoptive parents’ negative temperamental characteristics (harm avoidance) were related to hostile parenting. Findings suggest the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

2014-01-01

129

Serious delinquent behavior, sensation seeking, and electrodermal arousal.  

PubMed

Low tonic skin conductance level (SCL) has been related, inconsistently, to both delinquency and sensation-seeking. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an interaction such that high sensation seeking delinquents, in particular, have low SCLs. Participants consisted of 335 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study classified as serious delinquents or controls based upon 10 years of prospectively collected self-report delinquency data. Participants' skin conductance was evaluated at age 16 along with several personality and neuropsychological measures. Both delinquency and sensation seeking were characterized by low SCL. However, there was no evidence to suggest that the presence of both of these factors together lead to especially low skin conductance levels. This finding is not explained by differences between the groups on measures of negative emotionality, IQ, socioeconomic status, or impulsivity. PMID:12403151

Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Raine, Adrian; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Steinhauer, Stuart R

2002-10-01

130

Lucid touch: a see-through mobile device  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a compelling input modality for interactive devices; however, touch input on the small screen of a mobile device is problematic because a user's fingers occlude the graphical elements he wishes to work with. In this paper, we present LucidTouch, a mobile device that addresses this limitation by allowing the user to control the application by touching the back

Daniel Wigdor; Clifton Forlines; Patrick Baudisch; John Barnwell; Chia Shen

2007-01-01

131

Remote driven and read MEMS sensors for harsh environments.  

PubMed

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

Knobloch, Aaron J; Ahmad, Faisal R; Sexton, Dan W; Vernooy, David W

2013-01-01

132

Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

2013-01-01

133

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2010-10-22

134

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2010-01-01

135

A Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications  

PubMed Central

High temperature sensors capable of operating in harsh environments are needed in order to prevent disasters caused by structural or system functional failures due to increasing temperatures. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they require either physical contact or a battery power supply for signal communication, and furthermore, neither of them can withstand high temperatures nor rotating applications. This paper presents a novel passive wireless temperature sensor, suitable for working in harsh environments for high temperature rotating component monitoring. A completely passive LC resonant telemetry scheme, relying on a frequency variation output, which has been applied successfully in pressure, humidity and chemical measurement, is integrated with a unique high-k temperature sensitive ceramic material, in order to measure the temperatures without contacts, active elements, or power supplies within the sensor. In this paper, the high temperature sensor design and performance analysis are conducted based on mechanical and electrical modeling, in order to maximize the sensing distance, the Q factor and the sensitivity. In the end, the sensor prototype is fabricated and calibrated successfully up to 235°C, so that the concept of temperature sensing through passive wireless communication is proved.

Wang, Ya; Jia, Yi; Chen, Qiushui; Wang, Yanyun

2008-01-01

136

Serious delinquent behavior, sensation-seeking and electrodermal arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low tonic skin conductance level (SCL) has been related, inconsistently, to both delinquency and sensation-seeking. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an interaction such that high sensa- tion seeking delinquents, in particular, have low SCLs. Participants consisted of 335 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study classified as serious delinquents or controls based upon 10 years of prospec- tively

Lisa M. Gatzke-Kopp; Adrian Raine; Rolf Loeber; Magda Stouthamer-Loeber; Stuart R. Steinhauer

2002-01-01

137

Gravity Grabber: Wearable Haptic Display to present Virtual Mass Sensation  

E-print Network

devices Virtual world: the user can perceive the weight of the virtual water Figure 1: Conceptual, the user can feel the augmented weight and inertia of the water that is virtually filled in the actuallyGravity Grabber: Wearable Haptic Display to present Virtual Mass Sensation Kouta Minamizawa*1

Tachi, Susumu

138

Salad Sensations Turkey, Monterey Jack cheese* and spring mix  

E-print Network

Salad Sensations Turkey, Monterey Jack cheese* and spring mix Turkey Bliss Will Roger's Pride & Joy Chef Salad Turkey and honey ham, Monterey Jack cheese*, cherry tomatoes, and ranch dressing Ham Honey ham, Monterey Jack cheese*, cherry tomatoes, and honey mustard dressing Turkey Turkey, cucumbers

Oklahoma, University of

139

Original Research Mitigating Cutaneous Sensation Differences During tDCS  

E-print Network

Original Research Mitigating Cutaneous Sensation Differences During tDCS: Comparing Sham Versus Low. Methods: We used a 4 Ã? 1 high-definition ring electrode transcranial direct current (HD-tDCS) system Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is gaining popu- larity as a means for non-invasively enhancing

Patel, Aniruddh D.

140

Interpretive bias for benign sensations in panic disorder with agoraphobia.  

PubMed

The present study further examines the cognitive model of panic disorder by investigating two questions. The first is whether panic patients misinterpret bodily sensations which are symptoms of either nonanxious states or harmless events. The second is whether panic patients are able to provide benign subsequent explanations for bodily sensations which have initially been interpreted in an anxiety-related manner. Two groups of subjects were used, 15 panic disorder patients with agoraphobia and 15 controls, matched on verbal fluency, age and gender. Compared to controls, patients failed to identify overt explanations for bodily sensations which are due to nonanxious states or harmless events. Patients also misinterpreted bodily sensations in ambiguous scenarios by providing more anxiety-related initial interpretations than controls. Furthermore, compared to controls, patients provided significantly more anxiety-related initial interpretations which they were unable to subsequently reinterpret in a benign manner. These results provide support for the cognitive theory of panic disorder as authored by Clark and his colleagues. PMID:9168339

Kamieniecki, G W; Wade, T; Tsourtos, G

1997-01-01

141

Are social networking profiles reliable indicators of sensational interests?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensational interests are sometimes reported on the personal profiles of social networking web sites such as Facebook. Can these reports be validated against established psychometric tools used by forensic psychologists? Given that web sites and personal profiles can be used as evidence of a person’s ‘character’ in legal contexts, evaluating their reliability and validity is important. This study evaluated the

Gareth Hagger-Johnson; Vincent Egan; David Stillwell

2011-01-01

142

Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

Masny, Diana

2012-01-01

143

Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

2010-01-01

144

Effect of Socks on the Assessment of Vibration Sensation  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the difference between the measurement of vibration sensation without and with socks. Material and Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (H group) and 19 patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP group) were included. The sites of measurement were the great toe (GT) and medial malleolus (MM). A standard 128?Hz tuning fork was used in the measurements. Results. Mean duration of vibration sensations without and with socks was as follows: in the H group, 19.4 ± 4.2 and 19.5 ± 4.2?s at GT and 15.1 ± 3.3 and 14.6 ± 3.3?s at MM; in the PNP group, 13.4 ± 3.8 and 12.7 ± 4.1?s at GT and 11.9 ± 3.8 and 11.7 ± 3.4?s at MM. No significant difference was found between the measurements without and with socks, except those found at the MM in group H (P = 0.02). This significant difference was further analyzed in terms of effect size which was concluded to be practically insignificant (Cohen's d < 0.2). Shorter mean vibration duration was measured at MM as compared to GT that could be explained by the damping effect. Conclusions. Wearing socks of moderate thickness does not have any important effect on the duration of vibration sensation. This might be considered as a reflection of the remarkable properties of vibration sensation. PMID:24282644

Meral, R. C.; Matur, Z.; Dertsiz, B.; Öge, A. E.

2013-01-01

145

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects. PMID:24416318

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

146

Touch Sensitive Apparel TouchSensitive is a haptic apparel that allows massage  

E-print Network

Touch · Sensitive Apparel Abstract Touch·Sensitive is a haptic apparel that allows massage therapy Apparel, Wearable, Haptic, Massage Therapy, Modular Design, Sensory Interface, Fashion Design ACM Tangible Media Group MIT Media Laboratory http://architectradure.blogspot.com cati@media.mit.edu auth4

Ishii, Hiroshi

147

Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

148

Perception of touch quality in piano tones.  

PubMed

Both timbre and dynamics of isolated piano tones are determined exclusively by the speed with which the hammer hits the strings. This physical view has been challenged by pianists who emphasize the importance of the way the keyboard is touched. This article presents empirical evidence from two perception experiments showing that touch-dependent sound components make sounds with identical hammer velocities but produced with different touch forms clearly distinguishable. The first experiment focused on finger-key sounds: musicians could identify pressed and struck touches. When the finger-key sounds were removed from the sounds, the effect vanished, suggesting that these sounds were the primary identification cue. The second experiment looked at key-keyframe sounds that occur when the key reaches key-bottom. Key-bottom impact was identified from key motion measured by a computer-controlled piano. Musicians were able to discriminate between piano tones that contain a key-bottom sound from those that do not. However, this effect might be attributable to sounds associated with the mechanical components of the piano action. In addition to the demonstrated acoustical effects of different touch forms, visual and tactile modalities may play important roles during piano performance that influence the production and perception of musical expression on the piano. PMID:25373983

Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Fujinaga, Ichiro

2014-11-01

149

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.  

PubMed

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

2011-11-12

150

Genetically Influenced Change in Sensation Seeking Drives the Rise of Delinquent Behavior during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensation seeking is associated with an increased propensity for delinquency, and emerging research on personality change suggests that mean levels of sensation seeking increase substantially from childhood to adolescence. The current study tested whether individual differences in the rate of change of sensation seeking predicted within-person…

Harden, K. Paige; Quinn, Patrick D.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

2012-01-01

151

The Relationship between Sensation-Seeking and Eysenck's Dimensions of Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were administered to 219 American undergraduates and 879 English twins. Sensation-seeking was positively correlated to EPQ-measured traits of extraversion and psychoticism. There was no relationship between sensation-seeking and the trait dimension of neuroticism.…

Eysenck, Sybil; Zuckerman, Marvin

1978-01-01

152

Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

153

Diagnostics hardening for harsh environment in Laser Megajoule (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic designs for the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) will require components to operate in environments far more severe than those encountered in present facilities. This harsh environment will be induced by fluxes of neutrons, gamma rays, energetic ions, electromagnetic radiations, and, in some cases, debris and shrapnel, at levels several orders of magnitude higher than those experienced today on existing facilities. The lessons learned about the vulnerabilities of present diagnostic parts fielded mainly on OMEGA for many years, have been very useful guide for the design of future LMJ diagnostics. The present and future LMJ diagnostic designs including this vulnerability approach and their main mitigation techniques will be presented together with the main characteristics of the LMJ facility that provide for diagnostic protection.

Bourgade, J. L.; Marmoret, R.; Darbon, S.; Rosch, R.; Troussel, P.; Villette, B.; Aubard, F.; Baggio, J.; Bazzoli, S.; Bonneau, F.; Boutin, J. Y.; Caillaud, T.; Chollet, C.; Combis, P.; Disdier, L.; Gazave, J.; Girard, S.; Gontier, D.; Jacquet, H. P.; Jadaud, J. P. [CEA/DAM Ile de France, Bruyeres le Chatel, 91297 Arpajon Cedex (France)] (and others)

2008-10-15

154

The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation  

PubMed Central

It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

2013-01-01

155

Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

2001-01-01

156

Trajectories of maternal harsh parenting in the first 3 years of life  

PubMed Central

Objective Despite the high prevalence rates of harsh parenting, the nature of developmental change in this domain early in life and the factors that contribute to changes in harsh parenting over time are not well understood. The present study examined developmental patterns in maternal harsh parenting behavior from birth to age 3 years and their related longitudinal risk factors (contextual and intrapersonal). Partner aggression was also tested as a time-varying predictor to examine its time-specific influence on maternal harsh parenting. Methods Longitudinal data from four assessments of a community sample of 488 at-risk mothers were analyzed using latent growth curve modeling. Maternal risk factors and harsh parenting behaviors were assessed at birth and at ages 1, 2, and 3 years. Results There was a significant increase in maternal harsh parenting from birth to age 3, particularly between ages 1 and 2. There was a significant direct effect of maternal alcohol use and abuse history on maternal harsh parenting at age 3, and maternal age was positively associated with change in maternal harsh parenting over time. In addition, partner aggression was significantly and positively associated with maternal harsh parenting at each time point. Conclusions The findings suggest possible developmental trends in the emergence of maternal harsh parenting during infancy and toddlerhood. Further investigation is needed to elucidate individual differences in the developmental patterns and to differentiate predictive factors that persist across time and factors that are unique to specific developmental stages. Practice implications The overall high prevalence rates of harsh parenting behavior and growth of such behavior in infancy and toddlerhood support the need for developmentally sensitive early intervention programs. PMID:21030081

Pears, Katherine C.; Fisher, Philip A.; Connelly, Cynthia D.; Landsverk, John L.

2010-01-01

157

The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing  

PubMed Central

Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10–20 Hz) – and a beta-band response (25–30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements. PMID:25426047

Singh, Harsimrat; Bauer, Markus; Chowanski, Wojtek; Sui, Yi; Atkinson, Douglas; Baurley, Sharon; Fry, Martin; Evans, Joe; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

2014-01-01

158

Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

2013-01-01

159

Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations  

PubMed Central

We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

160

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures  

E-print Network

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

Chen, Sheng-Wei

161

Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

2015-01-01

162

Criss Cross Heel and Toe Touch  

E-print Network

-a-Picture/Perspectives Duct Tape Adventure Egg Drop Electric Fence Escape from the Planet "What" Eyes Voice Body Fire Fighting1 GAMES BOOK Stretches All Over Criss Cross Crow Hop Fried Egg Heel and Toe Touch Heel Clicker Hop Clam Free Clock Dead Ant Tag Dragon Tail Tag Drip Drip Drop Earth Air Water Fire (E) Ecological Values

Royer, Dana

163

Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

2014-10-01

164

Performance of two-step thermoelectric-adsorption heat pump for harsh environment electronics cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance of a two-stage thermoelectric adsorption heat pump for electronics cooling in a thermally harsh environment has been presented. Adsorption heat pumps have few moving parts, which make them suitable for use in harsh environments that are prone to mechanical shock and high temperatures. Use of a thermoelectric device for heat regeneration during the adsorption-desorption process promises to make the

Ashish Sinha; Yogendra Joshi

2010-01-01

165

Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

Lee, Yookyong

2009-01-01

166

Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

2013-01-01

167

Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments  

E-print Network

Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution, Richerson PJ (2013) Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh

Richerson, Peter J.

168

Art & Games: Sensational Activities for Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet offers learning activities for children with disabilities grouped into art activities, activities that encourage interaction, and activities that encourage movement. The activities emphasize touch, smell, sight, and hearing to allow children to utilize their strongest senses. Each activity is presented with possible goals, materials,…

Dell, Susan J.; McNerney, Peg

169

Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

Greenspan, Marlene

1994-01-01

170

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

E-print Network

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

Boyer, Edmond

171

Turret mooring system design and analysis for harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses key factors that must be considered in the design and analysis of internal turret mooring systems for ship-shaped FPSO vessels in harsh environments. Peculiarities of this type of mooring system, such as extreme sensitivity to non-collinear environments, excessive vertical motions at the fairleads, and complicated thruster control strategies, require that design and analysis of the mooring system be closely interrelated to other subsystems such as turret and riser systems, as well as to the vessel itself. In addition, the selection of the mooring design code that will be followed can have a significant impact on the final mooring lime tensions derived, and it is important to understand the types of analytical approaches that can be used as well as their limitations when applied to turret moored vessels. Model testing, especially for turret moored FPSOs, can prove particularly beneficial if properly planned. With advance knowledge and understanding of the possible implications of all these factors, trade-offs in the FPSO mooring system design can be properly evaluated.

Huang, K.; Judge, S.

1996-12-31

172

Radio-frequency plasma transducer for use in harsh environments.  

PubMed

We describe a compact transducer used to generate and modulate low-intensity radio-frequency atmospheric pressure plasma (RF-APP) for high temperature gap measurement and generation of air-coupled ultrasound. The new transducer consists of a quarter-wave transmission line where the ground return path is a coaxial solenoid winding. The RF-APP is initiated at the open end of the transmission line and stabilized by passive negative feedback between the electrical impedance of the plasma and the energy stored in the solenoid. The electrical impedance of the plasma was measured at the lower-voltage source end of the transducer, eliminating the need to measure kilovolt-level voltages near the discharge. We describe the use of a 7 MHz RF-APP prototype as a harsh-environment clearance sensor to demonstrate the suitability of plasma discharges for a common nondestructive inspection application. Clearance measurements of 0-5 mm were performed on a rotating calibration target with a measurement precision of 0.1 mm and a 20 kHz sampling rate. PMID:17979443

May, Andrew; Andarawis, Emad

2007-10-01

173

Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensors in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Fabry-Perot fiber optic sensor utilizes a unique interferometric mechanism and signal processing technique. It employs a Fizeau interferometer and a Charge-Coupled Device to locate the position of the maximum interference fringe intensity rather than absolute light intensity, which is most likely affected by external stressors such as irradiation and high pressure/temperature. A Fabry-Perot fiber optic temperature sensor was investigated for potential application in harsh environments expected in nuclear power plants. The sensor design and simulation of its signal processing are fully described in this paper. A methodology was developed based on IEEE-323 and ISA-dS67.06 to evaluate the sensors in normal and abnormal design basis accident environments. The experimental results of radiation and environmental qualification tests are summarized. Two sensors exhibited no failure and acceptable performance when exposed to gamma radiation to doses of 15 kGy and 1.33 MGy, respectively. Three sensors were irradiated to a total neutron fluence of 2.6x1016 neutrons/cm2 and a total gamma dose of 1.09MGy. These demonstrated a temperature shift of about 34°F but responded linearly to temperature, and the offset was reduced by approximately 63% through annealing the sensors.

Liu, Hanying; Miller, Don W.; Talnagi, Joseph

2002-10-01

174

Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans.  

PubMed

Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short--cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a 'code of honour'. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social-ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

McCullough, Michael E; Pedersen, Eric J; Schroder, Jaclyn M; Tabak, Benjamin A; Carver, Charles S

2013-01-01

175

Polish parliament votes to reform harsh abortion law.  

PubMed

On June 30, the Polish senate voted to liberalize the country's abortion law, ratifying a provision adopted by the lower House of Parliament (Sejm) on June 10. Based on a model measure prepared by women deputies, the new proposal allows women facing economic or personal hardship to obtain legal abortions. In contrast, the current law only allows abortions when a woman's life is endangered or when the pregnancy resulted from rape or incest. Last year, the Polish anti-choice campaign successfully pressured members of Parliament to restrict abortion by appealing to Catholic doctrine and associating more liberal abortion laws with the Communist regime, which had left access to abortion essentially unfettered. Since enactment of the harsh law last year, Polish women have been forced to travel abroad for abortions, to resort to often unsafe procedures by providers operating illegally within the country, or to attempt self-abortion. Although President Walesa has indicated that he will veto the measure, his executive action could be overridden by a two-thirds vote of the Parliament. Poland is one of the many countries in Eastern and Central Europe that have experienced a surge in anti-choice organizing since the collapse of Communist governments. Groups seeking to impose additional restrictions on abortion in the region are often supported by US-based organizations. Human Life International, for example, recently sponsored a conference for anti-abortion activists in Moscow, Russia. For more information, contact Urszula Nowakowska, visiting attorney in CRLP's International Program. PMID:12287709

1994-07-01

176

Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans  

PubMed Central

Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

2013-01-01

177

Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association Between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior  

PubMed Central

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children’s externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh parenting. SCLR was assessed in response to a socioemotional stress task and a problem-solving challenge task. Latent growth modeling revealed that boys with higher harsh parenting in conjunction with lower SCLR exhibited relatively high and stable levels of externalizing behavior during late childhood. Boys with higher harsh parenting and higher SCLR exhibited relatively low to moderate levels of externalizing behavior at age 8, but some results suggested that their externalizing behavior increased over time, approaching the same levels as boys with higher harsh parenting and lower SCLR by age 10. For the most part, girls and boys with lower harsh parenting were given relatively low and stable ratings of externalizing behavior throughout late childhood. Results are discussed from a developmental psychopathology perspective with reference to models of antisocial behavior in childhood. PMID:21142369

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

2011-01-01

178

Sensation seeking genes and physical activity in youth  

PubMed Central

Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multi-determined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a boarder range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study we focus on one such correlate – sensation seeking behavior. Participants (N=1,130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation seeking tendencies in 2008–09. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males – 37.6%; females – 22.0%) reported ?60 minutes of PA on five out of seven days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in ACE (rs8066276 OR=1.44; p=0.012) and TPH2 (rs11615016 OR=1.73; p=0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in SNAP25 (rs363035 OR=0.53; p=0.005) and CNR1 (rs6454672 OR=0.62; p=0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings. PMID:23190435

Wilkinson, Anna V.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Wang, Jian; Bondy, Melissa L.; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xifeng; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret R.

2012-01-01

179

Relationships among circadian typology, psychological symptoms, and sensation seeking.  

PubMed

Recently, attention has been focused on the relationship among circadian typology, psychiatric symptoms, and personality traits. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on psychological distress, and the sensation-seeking personality trait. Five hundred seventeen college students (173 males), aged 17 to 30, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the General Health Questionnaire 28-item version (GHQ-28), and the Sensation Seeking Scale-V (SSS-V). The evening-type subjects in our sample scored higher than the neither- and morning- type in the GHQ-28 total score, as well as in the four subscales that composed it (Psychosomatic Symptoms, Anxiety and Insomnia, Social Dysfunction, and Severe Depression) (p<0.02 in all cases). The evening-type subjects also had a larger proportion of psychiatric cases than the other two circadian typologies (p<0.0001 in all cases). Moreover, the evening-type subjects obtained higher scores in the SSS-V total score and in the subscales of Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility (p<0.001 in all cases). A positive correlation was observed between the GHQ-28 and the SSS-V total scores in the total sample, but only for the evening-type group (r=0.217; p<0.027). In the evening group, several relations were also found between the subscales of the GHQ-28 and the subscales of the SSS-V (r>0.206; p<0.036). All these data point to a relationship between evening-type subjects and the level of psychological distress and the sensation-seeking personality trait. They also suggest that eveningness could be related to developing psychological distress and personality traits that could, in turn, be related to developing other problems, such as drug consumption. PMID:23806000

Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana

2013-08-01

180

Yes, There Is Deqi Sensation in Laser Acupuncture  

PubMed Central

Deqi, a composite of unique sensations, is essential for clinical efficacy according to Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is described as a sensory perception of varying character and is mostly ascribed to metal needle acupuncture. However, it can also be elicited by different kinds of laser acupuncture stimulation. This short paper summarizes the current scientific status of deqi in laser stimulation. Different kinds of laser acupuncture are described in a comprehensive form, and the most interesting studies concerning deqi and laser acupuncture are presented. PMID:23533464

2013-01-01

181

Touch-Based Services' Catalogs for AAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Elderly people living alone at home need support for daily activities. For this reason, the AAL initiative promotes technological\\u000a adaptabilities but bearing in mind that it is crucial serving users in terms of usability. In this paper, we present a position\\u000a paper for supporting elderly needs by simple touches of services’ catalogs. Further, we propose a generalization of these\\u000a services

José Bravo; Ramón Hervás; Jesús Fontecha

2010-01-01

182

Touch Therapies across the Life Span  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ayur-Veda, the earliest known medical text from India (around 1800 b.c.), lists touch therapy (massage therapy), diet, and exercise as primary healing practices of that time. As Jules Older notes,\\u000a even the English word shampoo comes from the word champna, which is an ancient Indian word meaning to press (Older, 1982). From early times, massage has been effectively used

Tiffany M. Field

183

Is Sensation Seeking a Stable Trait or Does it Change Over Time?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of sensation seeking has conceptualized this construct as a stable personality trait associated with a variety\\u000a of problem behaviors. Reckless behavior theory posits that increases in reckless behavior during adolescence can be attributed,\\u000a in part, to increases in sensation seeking. This study evaluated patterns of stability and change in sensation seeking among\\u000a 868 urban, minority youth (53% female),

Sarah D. Lynne-LandsmanJulia; Julia A. Graber; Tracy R. Nichols; Gilbert J. Botvin

2011-01-01

184

Acupuncture needling sensation: The neural correlates of deqi using fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The needling sensation of deqi is considered by most acupuncturists to be an important component of acupuncture, yet neuroimaging research that investigates this needle sensation has been limited. In this study we have investigated the effect of deqi and acute pain needling sensations upon brain fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals. Seventeen right-handed participants who received acupuncture at the right

Aziz UR Asghar; Gary Green; Mark F. Lythgoe; George Lewith; Hugh MacPherson

2010-01-01

185

Cognitive influences on the affective representation of touch and the sight of touch in the human brain  

PubMed Central

We show that the affective experience of touch and the sight of touch can be modulated by cognition, and investigate in an fMRI study where top-down cognitive modulations of bottom-up somatosensory and visual processing of touch and its affective value occur in the human brain. The cognitive modulation was produced by word labels, ‘Rich moisturizing cream’ or ‘Basic cream’, while cream was being applied to the forearm, or was seen being applied to a forearm. The subjective pleasantness and richness were modulated by the word labels, as were the fMRI activations to touch in parietal cortex area 7, the insula and ventral striatum. The cognitive labels influenced the activations to the sight of touch and also the correlations with pleasantness in the pregenual cingulate/orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum. Further evidence of how the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in affective aspects of touch was that touch to the forearm [which has C fiber Touch (CT) afferents sensitive to light touch] compared with touch to the glabrous skin of the hand (which does not) revealed activation in the mid-orbitofrontal cortex. This is of interest as previous studies have suggested that the CT system is important in affiliative caress-like touch between individuals. PMID:19015100

McCabe, Ciara; Bilderbeck, Amy; McGlone, Francis

2008-01-01

186

Twilight States: Sleepwalking, Liminal Consciousness, and Sensational Selfhood in Victorian Literature and Culture.  

E-print Network

??Twilight States: Sleepwalking, Liminal Consciousness, and Sensational Selfhood in Victorian Literature and Culture argues that sleepwalking was everywhere in nineteenth-century culture, both as a topic… (more)

Wigginton, Rebecca

2015-01-01

187

Uniformity of stratum-ventilated thermal environment and thermal sensation.  

PubMed

Three human test series were conducted to evaluate the uniformity of the thermal environments in a stratum-ventilated chamber with dimensions of 8.8 m (L) × 5.1 m (W) × 2.4 m (H). In all, nineteen conditions were generated by adjusting the room temperature, supply airflow rate, and supply terminal type. An air diffuser performance index (ADPI) of at least 80% was achieved for most cases. This result shows that the air velocity and temperature in the occupied zone are reasonably uniform. Subjective assessments using the ASHRAE 7-point scale indicate that the thermal sensations of the subjects in stratum ventilation are also uniform. This study examines the applicability of the predicted mean vote (PMV) model for evaluating stratum ventilation. When compared to the actual mean thermal sensation votes (ATS), the PMV values are acceptable. The PMV results at a height of 1.1 m above the floor show better agreement with the ATS than at a height of 0.1 m. PMID:24438214

Cheng, Y; Fong, M L; Yao, T; Lin, Z; Fong, K F

2014-10-01

188

Design and operation of a harsh-climate observatory for amateur astrophotography.  

E-print Network

Design and operation of a harsh-climate observatory for amateur astrophotography. Bruneau, S.1 for amateur astronomers is becoming available at the retail level and at affordable prices. A significant

Bruneau, Steve

189

Central neural mechanisms of touch and proprioception.  

PubMed

The argument is made that somesthesia is not strictly passive process, and its central neuronal mechanisms cannot be studied in all their complexity and subtlety by applying passive stimuli to uninterested or unconscious animals. The case is clear for kinesthesia. Peripheral proprioceptive signals are altered by active muscle contractions, and the central mechanisms of kinesthetic sensations should be studied during active movements. A similar case can be made for tactile discrimination. Ascending tactile afferents are subject to modulation during movement. Moreover, the generation of a central neural representation of the mechanical stimulus is only part of the tactile perceptual process. It is also influenced by the behavioral, attentive, and motivational state of the animal, whose effects can only be revealed in awake animals actively participating in discrimination tasks. PMID:7954084

Kalaska, J F

1994-05-01

190

Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples.  

PubMed

In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music-groove-we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

2014-01-01

191

Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples  

PubMed Central

In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

2014-01-01

192

A Novel Behavioral Assay for Measuring Cold Sensation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Behavioral models of cold responses are important tools for exploring the molecular mechanisms of cold sensation. To complement the currently cold behavioral assays and allow further studies of these mechanisms, we have developed a new technique to measure the cold response threshold, the cold plantar assay. In this assay, animals are acclimated on a glass plate and a cold stimulus is applied to the hindpaw through the glass using a pellet of compressed dry ice. The latency to withdrawal from the cooled glass is used as a measure of the cold response threshold of the rodents, and the dry ice pellet provides a ramping cold stimulus on the glass that allows the correlation of withdrawal latency values to rough estimates of the cold response threshold temperature. The assay is highly sensitive to manipulations including morphine-induced analgesia, Complete Freund's Adjuvant-induced inflammatory allodynia, and Spinal Nerve Ligation-induced neuropathic allodynia. PMID:22745825

Brenner, Daniel S.; Golden, Judith P.; Gereau, Robert W.

2012-01-01

193

Habituation of Premonitory Sensations during Exposure and Response Prevention Treatment in Tourette's Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exposure to premonitory sensations and response prevention of tics (ER) has been shown to be a promising new treatment for Tourette's syndrome (TS). The present study tested the hypothesis that habituation to unpleasant premonitory sensations associated with the tic is an underlying mechanism of change in ER. Patients rated the severity of…

Verdellen, Cara W. J.; Hoogduin, Cees A. L.; Kato, Bernet S.; Keijsers, Ger P. J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Hoijtink, Herbert B.

2008-01-01

194

Adolescent Egocentrism, Risk Perceptions, and Sensation Seeking among Smoking and Nonsmoking Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey compared adolescents (ages 14 to 18) who have never tried smoking, smoke infrequently, or smoke regularly on three characteristics: adolescent egocentrism, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking. Sensation seeking exhibited the expected result by increasing with smoking experience. Contrary to past research findings, perceptions of…

Frankenberger, Kristina D.

2004-01-01

195

Wearable Haptic Display to present Virtual Mass Sensation Kouta Minamizawa*1  

E-print Network

of the water that is virtually filled in the actually empty glass. Figure 2: Our proposed method for generatingWearable Haptic Display to present Virtual Mass Sensation Kouta Minamizawa*1 Souichiro Fukamachi*2 haptic display to present the weight sensation of a virtual object, which is based on our novel insight

Tachi, Susumu

196

The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

2010-01-01

197

The Association between Sensation Seeking and Well-Being among College-Attending Emerging Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensation seeking is a known risk factor for unsafe and reckless behavior among college students, but its association with well-being is unknown. Given that exploration plays an important psychosocial role during the transition to adulthood, we examined the possibility that sensation seeking is also associated with psychological well-being. In a…

Ravert, Russell D.; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J.; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Ham, Lindsay S.; Donnellan, M. Brent; Bersamin, Melina M.

2013-01-01

198

Behavioral study of whisker-mediated vibration sensation in rats  

PubMed Central

Rats use their vibrissal sensory system to collect information about the nearby environment. They can accurately and rapidly identify object location, shape, and surface texture. Which features of whisker motion does the sensory system extract to construct sensations? We addressed this question by training rats to make discriminations between sinusoidal vibrations simultaneously presented to the left and right whiskers. One set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher frequency (f1 vs. f2) when amplitudes were equal. Another set of rats learned to reliably identify which of two vibrations had higher amplitude (A1 vs. A2) when frequencies were equal. Although these results indicate that both elemental features contribute to the rats’ sensation, a further test found that the capacity to discriminate A and f was reduced to chance when the difference in one feature was counterbalanced by the difference in the other feature: Rats could not discriminate amplitude or frequency whenever A1f1 = A2f2. Thus, vibrations were sensed as the product Af rather than as separable elemental features, A and f. The product Af is proportional to a physical entity, the mean speed. Analysis of performance revealed that rats extracted more information about differences in Af than predicted by the sum of the information in elemental differences. These behavioral experiments support the predictions of earlier physiological studies by demonstrating that rats are “blind” to the elemental features present in a sinusoidal whisker vibration; instead, they perceive a composite feature, the speed of whisker motion. PMID:22219358

Adibi, Mehdi; Diamond, Mathew E.; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

2012-01-01

199

Chemesthesis and taste: evidence of independent processing of sensation intensity.  

PubMed

The ability to perceive taste from temperature alone ("thermal taste") was recently shown to predict higher perceptual responsiveness to gustatory and olfactory stimuli. This relationship was hypothesized to be due in part to individual differences in CNS processes involved in flavor perception. Here we report three experiments that tested whether subjects who differ in responsiveness to thermal taste and/or chemical taste also differ in responsiveness to oral chemesthesis. In experiment 1, subjects identified as 'thermal tasters' (TTs) or 'thermal non-tasters' (TnTs) used the general Labeled Magnitude Scale to rate the intensity of sensations produced on the tongue tip by capsaicin, menthol, sucrose, NaCl, citric acid, and QSO4. TTs rated all four taste stimuli higher than did TnTs, whereas sensations of burning/stinging/pricking and temperature from capsaicin and menthol did not differ significantly between groups. In experiment 2, testing with capsaicin on both the front and back of the tongue confirmed there was no difference in ratings of burning/stinging/pricking when subjects were grouped according to the ability to perceive thermal taste. In experiment 3, subjects were classified as high- or low-tasters according to their ratings of sucrose sweetness rather than thermal taste. No group difference was found for perception of capsaicin even when presented in mixture with sucrose or NaCl. The results are discussed in the context of previous evidence of an association between chemesthesis and sensitivity to the bitter tastant PROP, and in terms of the various peripheral and central neural processes that may underlie intensity perception in taste and chemesthesis. PMID:16199067

Green, Barry G; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; George, Pravin; Akirav, Carol

2005-11-15

200

Topographical distribution of warmth, burning and itch sensations in healthy humans.  

PubMed

To gain information on the topographical distribution of warmth, burning and itch sensations in healthy humans, we delivered laser stimuli to elicit sensations of warmth, applied capsaicin cream for burning, and pricked histamine for itch on the skin of the face, shoulder, hand, thigh and foot in 12 healthy subjects. We found that whereas warm and burning sensations progressively increased from foot to face, itch sensation increased from face to foot (P<0.0001). Hence our findings indicate that unlike thermal and pain receptors, itch receptors are denser at distal than at proximal body sites. Our psychophysical study provides new information supporting the idea that specific unmyelinated neuronal pathways mediate sensations of warmth, burning and itch. PMID:21396428

Truini, A; Leone, C; Di Stefano, G; Biasiotta, A; La Cesa, S; Teofoli, P; Padua, L; Cruccu, G

2011-04-25

201

Mirror-touch synaesthesia changes representations of self-identity.  

PubMed

Individuals with mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS) experience touch on their own bodies when observing another person being touched. Whilst somatosensory processing in MTS has been extensively investigated, the extent to which the remapping of observed touch on the synaesthete's body can also lead to changes in the mental representation of the self remains unknown. We adapted the experimental paradigm of the 'enfacement illusion' to quantify the changes in self-face recognition as a result of synaesthetic touch. MTS and control participants observed the face of an unfamiliar person being touched or not, without delivering touch on the participant's face. Changes in self-representation were quantified with a self-face recognition task, using 'morphed' images containing varying proportions of the participant's face and the face of the unfamiliar other. This task was administered before and after the exposure to the other face. While self-recognition performance for both groups was similar during pre-test, MTS individuals showed a significant change in self-recognition performance following the observation of touch delivered to the other face. Specifically, the images that participants had initially perceived as containing equal quantities of self and other became more likely to be recognised as the self after viewing the other being touched. These results suggest that observing touch on others not only elicits a conscious experience of touch in MTS, but also elicits a change in the mental representation of the self, blurring self-other boundaries. This is consistent with a multisensory account of the self, whereby integrated multisensory experiences maintain or update self-representations. PMID:23391559

Maister, Lara; Banissy, Michael J; Tsakiris, Manos

2013-04-01

202

Harsh discipline and behavior problems: The moderating effects of cortisol and alpha-amylase.  

PubMed

Numerous studies link harsh discipline to adjustment problems in youth, yet not all individuals exposed to harsh discipline develop behavior problems. Contemporary theory suggests that this relationship could be moderated by individual differences in environmentally sensitive biological systems. This study investigated whether the interaction between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal moderated the link between harsh discipline and behavior problems. Three saliva samples were collected on a single day from 425 inner city youth (50% male, age 11-12 years, 80% African American) and were later assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Problem behavior was assessed by self- and parent-report using the Child Behavior Checklist. Youth also reported the level of harsh discipline that they experienced. Harsh discipline was positively associated with externalizing and internalizing problems only when there were asymmetrical profiles of HPA activity and ANS arousal. This pattern was evident for boys but not girls. Findings are discussed in relation to prevailing theories suggesting that biological susceptibility translates adversity into risk for behavior problems. PMID:25451383

Chen, Frances R; Raine, Adrian; Rudo-Hutt, Anna S; Glenn, Andrea L; Soyfer, Liana; Granger, Douglas A

2015-01-01

203

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with variable surface friction. In a series of four studies, we first confirm that variable friction gives significant performance advantages in low

Levesque, Vincent

204

Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher  

E-print Network

· Tight Impedance control #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. ® ACP Series Probe Block #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. ® 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0 1000 2000 3000

Anlage, Steven

205

Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics  

E-print Network

Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics Eve Hoggan1 , John Williamson2 , Antti multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics; gestures; ergonomics. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. User Interfaces: Evaluation/Methodology, Input De

206

TapTap: A Haptic Wearable for Asynchronous Distributed Touch  

E-print Network

in video game controllers [7]. Few of these devices take advantage of the emotionally and physically haptic system that allows nurturing human touch to be recorded, broadcast and played back for emotional touch is fundamental to physical and emotional development. Artificial devices can simulate human

Ishii, Hiroshi

207

In touch - the molecular basis of mechanosensory transduction  

PubMed Central

Nearly all species employ mechanosensitive channels to detect mechanical cues, such as touch and sound waves, and convert these mechanical forces into electrochemical signals. Genetic, biochemical and electrophysiological studies of touch-insensitive mutants in model organisms such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster provide insights into the molecular basis of mechanosensory transduction.

Kang, Lijun; Wescott, Seth; Li, Wei; Xu, X.Z. Shawn

2014-01-01

208

Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

209

Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1-Do NOT Touch!  

E-print Network

Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1- Do NOT Touch! 1. Do not touch, pick up, or feed the animal: NMFS Northwest Region Marine Mammal Stranding Network hotline (800) 853-1964 www.nwr.noaa.gov/marine-mammals Marine Mammal Standing Network (800) 562-8832 http://161.58.53.200/programs/mmsn.html Second: NMFS

Acevedo, Alejandro

210

Touch in Therapy: An Effort to Make the Unknown Known  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is an exploratory study based on interviews with four psycho-analytically-oriented therapists who touched their patients. It examines how the therapists and their patients conceptualized their experience. The therapists reported that the decision to touch, in the five cases presented here, was guided by the specific needs of their patients and their patient's circumstances rather than by their orientation

Bassya Pinson

2002-01-01

211

Increased microvascular flow and foot sensation with mild continuous external compression  

PubMed Central

Abstract Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and foot increases inflow to the popliteal artery and skin. We hypothesize that mild, continuous pneumatic compression of the lower extremities of type 2 diabetic patients increases microvascular blood flow to skin (SBF) and muscle (MBF) and improves sensation in feet. Data were collected on 19 healthy volunteers and 16 type 2 diabetic patients. Baseline values of SBF, MBF, and foot sensation were recorded in one leg. The lower extremity was then subjected to 30 mmHg of continuous external air pressure for 30 min, whereas SBF and MBF were continuously monitored. Sensation was reassessed after pressure was released. During 30 mmHg continuous external compression, the healthy control group significantly increased MBF by 39.8% (P < 0.01). Sensation of the foot in this group improved significantly by 49.8% (P < 0.01). In the diabetic group, there was a significant increase in MBF of 17.7% (P = 0.03). Also sensation improved statistically by 40.2% (P = 0.03). Importantly and counterintuitively, MBF and foot sensation both increase after 30 min of leg compression at 30 mmHg. Therefore, mild, continuous pneumatic compression may be a new approach for treating diabetic patients with compromised leg perfusion and sensation. PMID:24744851

Rosales?Velderrain, Armando; Padilla, Michael; Choe, Charles H.; Hargens, Alan R.

2013-01-01

212

Quantifying touch-feel perception on automotive interiors by a multi-function tribological probe microscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we will report the preliminary study of people's subjective feelings on stroking surfaces of different materials and the measured properties of these surfaces, in order to understand exactly what properties matter and to what extent the different factors weight the human perception. Ten specimens with materials ranging from natural wood, leather to engineered plastics and metal were selected for this study. These specimens were first tested by a group of untrained people for describing their subjective feel sensation in terms of smoothrough, soft-hard, slippery-grippy, warm-cold and overall judgement of like and dislike for the sample being touched. Then the same specimens were measured for their surface properties by various techniques. In particular, the multi-function measurement has been carried out on each of specimens by a novel tribological probe microscope (TPM). The TPM is capable of measuring four functions in a single scan to provide area mappings of topography, friction, Young's modulus and hardness. As the TPM mapping is based on a point-by-point scanning so values of the four measured functions are linked in space and in time, therefore cross correlation between functions can be established. Although the TPM measured area is small compared to fingertip, the results show that the perception is influenced by nano- and microscale structure of surfaces.

Liu, X.; Chan, M. K.; Hennessey, B.; Rübenach, T.; Alay, G.

2005-01-01

213

Touch to Play -- Exploring Touch-Based Mobile Interaction with Public Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile interactions with public displays are often indirect and not very convenient for multiple users at the same time. In this paper we use the physical, touch-based interaction with Near Field Communication (NFC) to investigate direct mobile interactions with public displays for multiple users. For that purpose, we adopt the Whack-a-Mole game for dynamic NFC-displays, which combine the physical interaction

Gregor Broll; Roman Graebsch; Maximilian Scherr; Sebastian Boring; Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner

2011-01-01

214

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

215

‘Kiss, Cuddle, Squeeze’: The Experiences and Meaning of Touch among Parents of Children with Autism Attending a Touch Therapy Programme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences and meaning of touch between parents and children with autism before and after attending a Touch Therapy Programme. The sample comprised 12 parents (1 father and 11 mothers) of children (1 female and 11 male) with autism. Parents were interviewed before and immediately after the 8-week programme. Pre-programme results

Lesley Cullen; Julie Barlow

2002-01-01

216

A possible link between sensation-seeking status and positive subjective effects of oxycodone in healthy volunteers  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a personality trait that is linked to use and abuse of drugs. Laboratory studies have established that high sensation seekers, as measured by different instruments, are more likely to report abuse liability-related subjective effects from drugs such as nicotine, alcohol, and d-amphetamine than low sensation seekers. One class of drugs that has not been studied to date in this fashion is opioids. Accordingly, a retrospective analysis encompassing five studies that examined oxycodone effects, including its abuse liability-related effects, was conducted in subjects categorized as high or low sensation seekers. In addition, because there appear to be sex differences in how males and females respond to opioids, this factor was taken into account in the analysis. Seventy one subjects who scored on the lower end (15 and 19 low sensation seeking males and females, respectively) or the higher end (23 and 14 high sensation seeking males and females) of the Disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V were studied for their responses to 0, 10, and 20 mg of oral oxycodone. Ratings of “pleasant bodily sensations” were significantly higher after oxycodone administration than placebo only in male and female high sensation seekers. Ratings of “take again,” “drug liking,” “carefree,” and “elated (very happy)” also tended to differentiate high from low sensation seekers although Group × Dose interactions were only marginally significant with the latter three ratings. Male and female low sensation seekers and female high sensation seekers reported dysphoric effects (e.g., ratings of nauseated) particularly after administration of the 20-mg oxycodone dose. The results of this analysis provide suggestive evidence that high sensation seekers are more likely to experience greater positive subjective effects from oxycodone than low sensation seekers, but likelihood of experiencing negative effects is more complex (involving both sensation seeking status and sex). PMID:20045020

Zacny, James P.

2010-01-01

217

The Molecular and Cellular Basis of Cold Sensation  

PubMed Central

Of somatosensory modalities, cold is one of the more ambiguous percepts, evoking the pleasant sensation of cooling, the stinging bite of cold pain, and welcome relief from chronic pain. Moreover, unlike the precipitous thermal thresholds for heat activation of thermosensitive afferent neurons, thresholds for cold fibers are across a range of cool to cold temperatures that spans over 30 °C. Until recently, how cold produces this myriad of biological effects has been poorly studied, yet new advances in our understanding of cold mechanisms may portend a better understanding of sensory perception as well as provide novel therapeutic approaches. Chief among these was the identification of a number of ion channels that either serve as the initial detectors of cold as a stimulus in the peripheral nervous system, or are part of rather sophisticated differential expression patterns of channels that conduct electrical signals, thereby endowing select neurons with properties that are amenable to electrical signaling in the cold. This review highlights the current understanding of the channels involved in cold transduction as well as presents a hypothetical model to account for the broad range of cold thermal thresholds and distinct functions of cold fibers in perception, pain, and analgesia. PMID:23421674

2012-01-01

218

Hydrostatic pressure sensation in cells: integration into the tensegrity model.  

PubMed

Hydrostatic pressure (HP) is a mechanical stimulus that has received relatively little attention in the field of the cell biology of mechanotransduction. Generalized models, such as the tensegrity model, do not provide a detailed explanation of how HP might be detected. This is significant, because HP is an important mechanical stimulus, directing cell behaviour in a variety of tissues, including cartilage, bone, airways, and the vasculature. HP sensitivity may also be an important factor in certain clinical situations, as well as under unique environmental conditions such as microgravity. While downstream cellular effects have been well characterized, the initial HP sensation mechanism remains unclear. In vitro evidence shows that HP affects cytoskeletal polymerization, an effect that may be crucial in triggering the cellular response. The balance between free monomers and cytoskeletal polymers is shifted by alterations in HP, which could initiate a cellular response by releasing and (or) activating cytoskeleton-associated proteins. This new model fits well with the basic tenets of the existing tensegrity model, including mechanisms in which cellular HP sensitivity could be tuned to accommodate variable levels of stress. PMID:17901896

Myers, Kenneth A; Rattner, Jerome B; Shrive, Nigel G; Hart, David A

2007-10-01

219

Multiple spatial representations determine touch localization on the fingers.  

PubMed

Touch location can be specified in different anatomical and external reference frames. Temporal order judgments (TOJs) in touch are known to be sensitive to conflict between reference frames. To establish which coordinates are involved in localizing touch to a finger, participants performed TOJ on tactile stimuli to 2 out of 4 possible fingers. We induced conflict between hand- and finger-related reference frames, as well as between anatomical and external spatial coding, by selectively crossing 2 fingers. TOJ performance was impaired when both stimuli were applied to crossed fingers, indicating conflict between anatomical and external finger coordinates. In addition, TOJs were impaired when stimuli were mapped to the same hand based on either anatomical or external spatial codes. Accordingly, we observed a benefit rather than impairment with finger crossing when both stimuli were applied to 1 hand. Complementary, participants systematically mislocalized touch to nonstimulated fingers of the targeted hand. The results indicate that touch localization for the fingers involves integration of several sources of spatial information: the anatomical location of the touched finger, its position in external space, the stimulated hand, and the hand to which the touch is (re)mapped in external space. PMID:24364704

Badde, Stephanie; Röder, Brigitte; Heed, Tobias

2014-04-01

220

CargoNet : micropower sensate tags for supply-chain management and security  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a system of sensate active RFID tags for supply-chain management and security applications, necessitated by the current lack of commercial platforms capable of monitoring the state ...

Malinowski, Mateusz Ksawery

2007-01-01

221

S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin  

E-print Network

The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

2006-01-01

222

The Prevalence and Magnitude of Impaired Cutaneous Sensation across the Hand in the Chronic Period Post-Stroke  

PubMed Central

Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ?3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40–84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (p<0.05). When the stroke patient data were pooled cutaneous sensation fell within the healthy range, although ?1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke. PMID:25121607

Bowden, Jocelyn L.; Lin, Gaven G.; McNulty, Penelope A.

2014-01-01

223

[Changes in tactile sensation, wicking and moisture content of cotton-blend textiles with washing].  

PubMed

In the present study, we examined how wicking and moisture content and tactile sensation of textiles are altered with change in spinning rate and washing. On polyester cotton-blend textiles, moisture was found to increase with the amount of cotton. The evaluated scores of the tactile sensation for the washed textiles were different from those for the original. With the addition of cotton to the polyester textile, the scores greatly approached to the score of the cotton textile. PMID:17898479

Yanaka, Mutsumi

2007-01-01

224

Perceived Harmfulness Predicts Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among College Students: Interactions with Sensation-Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the level of perceived harmfulness of nonmedical prescription stimulant and analgesic use in a sample\\u000a of college students, and examines the prospective relationship between perceived harmfulness and subsequent nonmedical use.\\u000a In addition, we explore whether the association between perceived harmfulness and nonmedical use varies by level of sensation-seeking.\\u000a Personal interviews, including questions on sensation-seeking and drug use,

Amelia M. Arria; Kimberly M. Caldeira; Kathryn B. Vincent; Kevin E. O’Grady; Eric D. Wish

2008-01-01

225

Ecstasy use and self-reported depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Although there are indications that ecstasy users have higher levels of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking, it is unknown whether these are consequences of ecstasy use or predisposing factors for starting ecstasy use. We prospectively assessed the predictive value of depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking on future first time ecstasy use. We also assessed whether depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking had changed after first ecstasy use. Depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking were assessed using self-report questionnaires in 188 ecstasy-naive volunteers with high probability for future ecstasy use. After a mean follow-up of 17 months, measurements were repeated in 59 incident ecstasy users (mean 6.0 tablets) and 61 matched persistent ecstasy-naive volunteers. Only experience seeking (subscale of the sensation seeking scale) predicted future ecstasy use (OR -- 1.05, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.10), but after adjustment for potential confounders this was not significant anymore. At follow-up, significant effects of ecstasy use on the general and the disinhibition subscale of the sensation seeking scale were observed (after adjustment for potential confounders: regression coefficient B 0.51, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.83 and B -- 3.25, 95% CI 1.74 to 4.76, respectively). These data indicate that depression, impulsivity, and sensation seeking do not predict first time ecstasy use in a population of young adults with the intention to start using ecstasy and that low level ecstasy use does not seem to cause depression or impulsivity. However, low level ecstasy use may increase (certain aspects of) sensation seeking. PMID:16510480

de Win, Maartje M L; Schilt, Thelma; Reneman, Liesbeth; Vervaeke, Hylke; Jager, Gerry; Dijkink, Sarah; Booij, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

2006-03-01

226

Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present…

Belsky, Jay; Schlomer, Gabriel L.; Ellis, Bruce J.

2012-01-01

227

Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment  

E-print Network

Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

Fiore, S

2015-01-01

228

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison  

PubMed Central

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared to those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and 1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, 2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and 3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

Chancellor, Leia V.; Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2011-01-01

229

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.  

PubMed

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2011-03-01

230

Conformal thin film packaging for sic sensor circuits in harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 º C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for

Maximilian C. Scardelletti; David A. Karnick; George E. Ponchak; Christian A. Zorman

2011-01-01

231

Oxytocin decreases handgrip force in reaction to infant crying in females without harsh parenting experiences  

PubMed Central

Infant crying can elicit sensitive caregiving as well as hostility and harsh parenting responses. In the current study (N?=?42 females) with a double-blind experimental design, we tested the effect of intranasal oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force using a hand-grip dynamometer during listening to infant cry sounds. Participants’ experiences with harsh parental discipline during childhood were found to moderate the effect of oxytocin administration on the use of excessive force. Participants’ whose parents did not discipline them harshly used less excessive force in the oxytocin condition, but for participants who were disciplined harshly there was no difference between the oxytocin and placebo condition. Such effects were not found during listening to infant laughter. We conclude that early caregiving experiences constitute an important moderator of the prosocial and/or stress-reducing effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin administration may increase trust and cooperation in individuals with supportive backgrounds, but not generate this effect in individuals who as a consequence of unfavorable early caregiving experiences may have a bias toward negative interpretation of social cues. PMID:22037689

van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Riem, Madelon M. E.; Tops, Mattie; Alink, Lenneke R. A.

2012-01-01

232

Fault detection of a flight control computer in a harsh electromagnetic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verifying functional integrity of flight control computers (FCC) in harsh electromagnetic environments is a key issue in development, certification, and operation of systems performing flight critical functions. A strategy is being developed for real-time detection of control command errors caused by electromagnetic environments in FCCs during validation testing. A system level approach to FCC fault detection and mitigation in real

Kenneth W. Eure

2001-01-01

233

Harsh Environment Silicon Carbide Sensors for Health and Performance Monitoring of Aerospace Systems: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent increase in transportation costs and the push for cleaner emissions demands advancements in aerospace technology. The current instrumentation used in aerospace applications is costly, and indirect measurement approaches are often employed due to the inability to locate sensors in harsh environments. Health monitoring technologies for the development of a distributed sensor network can be utilized to improve engine

Debbie G. Senesky; Babak Jamshidi; Kan Bun Cheng; A. P. Pisano

2009-01-01

234

Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

2014-08-01

235

The tickly homunculus and the origins of spontaneous sensations arising on the hands.  

PubMed

Everyone has felt those tingling, tickly sensations occurring spontaneously all over the body in the absence of stimuli. But does anyone know where they come from? Here, right-handed subjects were asked to focus on one hand while looking at it (convergent focusing) and while looking away (divergent focusing) and subsequently to map and describe the spatial and qualitative attributes of sensations arising spontaneously. The spatial distribution of spontaneous sensations followed a proximo-distal gradient, similar to the one previously described for the density of receptive units. The intensity and spatial extent of the reported sensations were modulated by the focusing condition, especially in respect of the left hand. Convergent focusing acted upon the conscious perception of sensations by enhancing or suppressing them. To our knowledge, this is the first ever study of spontaneous sensations, and it offers considerable insight into their sources. The presence of the proximo-distal distributional gradient is a clear sign that receptive units are involved. The enhancement/suppression effects also confirm the involvement of attention. Finally, left-hand dominance suggests several right-hemisphere processes may be involved, such as spatial and tactile perception, and probably interoception. PMID:21190869

Michael, George A; Naveteur, Janick

2011-09-01

236

The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology  

PubMed Central

Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

2013-01-01

237

Neural mechanisms of scanned and stationary touch.  

PubMed

The neural mechanisms subserving the sense of touch set the limits for the acquisition of information regarding the spatial and temporal characteristics of stimuli impinging on the skin surface. The results of three different psychophysical experiments imply that the skin of the finger pad can resolve the elements of a stimulus separated by 0.9 mm when the stimulus is applied to the skin and held stationary. This resolution limit is only slightly improved (to about 0.7 mm) when movement between the stimulus and skin is allowed. Single-unit recordings from three classes of primary mechanoreceptive afferents in anesthetized monkeys shows that only one class, the slowly adapting afferents, resolve spatial detail of stationary stimuli near the resolution limit. In addition, slow adaptors appear to resolve moving stimuli (e.g., Braille-dot patterns) more effectively than do the other two classes. However, these observations do not explain the extraordinary capacity of the finger-pad skin for discriminating between fine textures. Neurophysiological evidence suggests that information about such textures (i.e., surfaces with spatial details below the resolution limit) may be conveyed by a code based on the relative engagement of the three receptor populations. PMID:3919074

Phillips, J R; Johnson, K O

1985-01-01

238

Haptic Holography/Touching the Ethereal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Haptic Holography, was perhaps, first proposed by workers at MIT in the 90s. The Media Lab, headed up by Dr. Stephen Benton, with published papers by Wendy Plesiak and Ravi Pappuh. -1 Recent developments in both the technology of digital holography and haptics have made it practical to conduct further investigations. Haptic holography is auto-stereoscopic and provides co-axial viewing for the user. Haptic holography may find application in medical & surgical training and as a new form of synthetic reality for artists and designers. At OCAD's PHASE Lab (Prototypes for Holographic Art and Science Explorations) workers are exploring hybrid forms of augmented reality, that combine haptics, interactivity and auto-stereoscopic imagery. Conventional Haptic environments, while presenting a 3D physics environment, typically provide a 2D visual work/play space. Orienteering in such an environment creates an uncertain spatial relationship for the user. Our group creates 3d models from which we create holographic constructs. The same model is used to create the physics environment. The two models are super-imposed. The result: Holograms you can touch.

Page, Michael

2013-02-01

239

Healing Touch and Fertility: A Case Report  

PubMed Central

Fertility and conception have been a concern through the ages. This case report documents the use of healing touch (HT), a noninvasive energy-field therapy, with the intent to facilitate conception and a healthy pregnancy. After 18 months of being unsuccessful in conceiving, a 40-year-old female sought HT to enhance the possibility of conceiving naturally. She had normal menstrual cycles, and both she and her husband had normal fertility tests. The client conceived after several months of HT therapy, which also included stimulating reflexology points on the ankle designed to affect the uterus and ovaries and encouraging positive affirmations. HT therapy continued throughout a trouble-free pregnancy and during birth. The client gave birth to a healthy baby boy without the use of pain-relieving medications. Perinatal educators and other health-care practitioners who work with women having difficulty conceiving or experiencing difficult pregnancies may wish to consider recommending the use of HT and/or other complementary therapies with the goal of fostering more positive reproductive outcomes.

Kissinger, Jeanette; Kaczmarek, Lori

2006-01-01

240

MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

2014-01-01

241

An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques  

E-print Network

. As we attempt to design for more complex operations, the effectiveness of spatial manipulation as a metaphor becomes weak. We introduce two new platforms for multi-touch computing: a gesture recognition system, and a new interaction technique. I...

Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

2013-08-16

242

Touch interface for markless AR based on Kinect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an augmented reality (AR) environment with hidden-marker via touch interface using Kinect device, and then also set up a touch painting game with the AR environment. This environment is similar to that of the touch screen interface which allows user to paint picture on a tabletop with his fingers, and it is designed with depth image information from Kinect device setting up above a tabletop. We incorporate support vector machine (SVM) to classify painted pictures which correspond to the inner data and call out its AR into the tabletop in color images information from Kinect device. Because users can utilize this similar touch interface to control AR, we achieve a marker-less AR and interactive environment.

Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Kuo, Tai-Ku; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Yeh-Kuang; Chang, Liung-Chun

2014-01-01

243

The C. elegans EMAP-like protein, ELP-1 is required for touch sensation and associates with microtubules and adhesion complexes  

E-print Network

(exon ?11–16)::nls::gfp (pKA99-1); rol-6(su1006)] (KA15-17), (lin-15(n765); lkEx1[Pelp-1::elp-1::gfp (pKA99-2); lin-15(+)]) (KA6-8), (lin- 15(n765); lkEx3[Pelp-1::gfp (pKA99-3); lin-15(+)]), (KA14) and deg-1(u38)X;lkEx4[Pelp-1::elp-1::gfp (pKA99-2); rol... QYLRGQSIGAHLLFWTKAGEICDGTSVKDVKWGSSRVKIGFETALVAHSSNGQVTAVAQ CEDISACGMENGTIRIYKNPVTSVTAGFVELLGHGRIIKSVAFSNKIQLFSCSPTDNSV FEWCLE D E 1105 bp Mr N2 o k 3 4 7 1.5 1.0 0.75 2.0 3.0 2.5 Mr N2 o k 3 4 7 ~2676 bp ~2595 bp ~2200 bp ~2100 bp pKA99-1 pKA99-2 pKA99-3 Pelp-1::GFP ELP-1r::GFP ELP-1::GFPPage 4 of 16...

Hueston, Jennifer L.; Herren, Gina Purinton; Cueva, Juan G.; Buechner, Matthew; Lundquist, Erik A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

2008-11-17

244

Touching Sharp Virtual Objects Produces a Haptic Illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Top down perceptual processing implies that much of what we perceive is based on prior knowledge and expectation. It has been\\u000a argued that such processing is why Virtual Reality works at all - the brain filling in missing information based on expectation.\\u000a We investigated this with respect to touch. Seventeen participants were asked to touch different objects seen in a

Andrea Brogni; Darwin G. Caldwell; Mel Slater

245

Effects and after-effects of voluntary intermittent light finger touch on body sway.  

PubMed

Effects of light touch on body sway have usually been investigated with some form of constant contact. Only two studies investigated transient sway dynamics following the addition or withdrawal of light touch. This study adopted a paradigm of intermittent touch and assessed body sway during as well as following short periods of touch of varying durations to investigate whether effects and after-effects of touch differ as a function of touch duration. In a modified heel-to-toe posture, 15 blindfolded participants alternated their index finger position between no-touching and touching on a strain gauge in response to low- and high-pitched auditory cues. Five trials of 46 s duration were segmented into 11 sections: a 6-s no-touching period was followed by five pseudo-randomly ordered touching periods of 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2-, and 5-s duration, each of which was followed by another 6-s no-touching interval. Consistent with previous research, compared to no-touching intervals sway was reduced during touch periods with touch durations greater than 2 s. Progressive reductions in sway were evident after touch onset. After touch withdrawal in the 2-s touch condition, postural sway increased and returned to baseline level nearly immediately. Interestingly, in the 5-s touch condition, reductions in sway persisted even after touch withdrawal in the medio-lateral and antero-posterior plane for around 2.5 s and 5.5 s, respectively. Our intermittent touch paradigm resulted in duration-dependent touch effects and after-effects; the latter is a novel finding and may result from a more persistent postural set involved in proactive sway control. PMID:25088757

Johannsen, Leif; Lou, Shu-Zon; Chen, Hui-Ya

2014-09-01

246

Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200?µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10?s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3?aq, and O2?aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

2014-11-01

247

Legal and ethical issues of touch in dance\\/movement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper includes a description of the use of touch in dance\\/movement therapy followed by a brief discussion of the social and emotional roles played by various forms of touch. The frequency of touch between patient and therapist is cited and the ethical issues, particularly concerning sexuality and the use of touch as power, are explored. Legal concerns include the

Carlotta Willis

1987-01-01

248

Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification  

PubMed Central

The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

2014-01-01

249

Gender Differences in Itch and Pain-related Sensations Provoked by Histamine, Cowhage and Capsaicin.  

PubMed

Cowhage, capsaicin and histamine, all applied via spicules, were used to induce itch and pain-related sensations in 15 male and 15 female subjects. Sensory qualities were assessed by questionnaire; intensities and time courses of the "itching" and "burning" sensation were measured alternately, but continuously on a VAS. In addition, axon reflexes were assessed. Only histamine and capsaicin produced a clear axon reflex flare (histamine?>?capsaicin, male?=?female). The 3 types of spicules caused mixed burning and itching sensations with different time courses. In the beginning burning prevailed, in the following minutes histamine induced mostly itching, capsaicin predominantly burning, cowhage both sensory components equally. Female subjects experienced more pain-related sensations (questionnaire), and their ratings leaned more toward burning than those of males. These findings indicate that the mixed itching and burning sensations are differentially processed by both genders. No indications were found for gender specific differential processing in the primary afferents as reflected by nearly identical flare responses. PMID:24819823

Hartmann, Elisabeth M; Handwerker, Herman O; Forster, Clemens

2015-01-15

250

The Impulsivity and Sensation-Seeking Mediators of the Psychological Consequences of Pathological Gambling in Adolescence.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

2013-12-01

251

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

252

Fiber optic connectors for harsh environment of aviation and aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic connector technology is making significant advances for use in aviation and aerospace applications. This increasingly user friendly system has contributed to more novel extremely small multifiber connectors for fiber optic interconnection. With low insertion loss and excellent environmental endurance in harsh environments they meet the requirements of higher integration in optical backplanes. There are two main methods of transmitting an optical signal between two fibers: (1) Physical Contact (PC) and (2) Non-Physical Contact Connectors, Expanded Beam (EB). Expanded beam connectors have been shown to withstand extreme environments without the need for special servicing or cleaning equipment. Protecting the optical fibers behind the lenses ensures that no damage or degradation can occur to the fiber ends. Severe conditions, extreme surroundings, rough weather, rugged and unforgiving environment call for the use of high-performance fiber optic connectors. Appropriate connector selection is essential to assure adequate optical, environmental and mechanical performance. The choice of these items should be specific to the requirements of the system when considering environmental and mechanical limitations. Proper installation, maintenance and repair training is essential. This paper outlines the attributes, environments, requirements, technologies and solutions of fiber optic connectors for harsh environment for aviation and aerospace applications. Furthermore, it describes various state-of-the-art technologies, particularly for aviation industry. Discussion will also place emphasis on physical contact and expanded beam designs which are the fiber optic technologies being used in harsh environments of aviation and aerospace applications. Key

Kazemi, Alex A.

2014-09-01

253

Harsh Parenting and Fearfulness in Toddlerhood Interact to Predict Amplitudes of Preschool Error-Related Negativity  

PubMed Central

Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children’s risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

254

Fiber-optic photo-acoustic spectroscopy sensor for harsh environment gas detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-acoustic spectroscopy (PAS) has been successfully applied to detect various gases and chemicals due to its high selectivity and sensitivity. However, the performance of the conventional acoustic sensors prohibits the application of PAS for harsh environment gas species real-time monitoring. By replacing conventional acoustic sensors, such as microphone and piezo-transducers, with a high-temperature Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) vibration sensor, we developed a fiber-optic PAS sensing system that can be used in high-temperature and high-pressure harsh environments for gas species identification and concentration measurement. A resonant acoustic chamber is designed, and FBG vibration sensor is embedded in the molybdenum membrane. An OPO laser is used for spectrum scanning. Preliminary test on water vapor has been conducted, and the result is analyzed. This sensing technology can be adapted into harsh environments, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant, and provide on-line real-time monitoring of gases species, such as CO, H IIO, and O II. Presently, our FBG-based vibration sensor can withstand the high temperature up to 800°C.

Wu, Juntao; Deng, Kung-Li; Guida, Renato; Lee, Boon

2007-09-01

255

A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics  

PubMed Central

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

Yang, Jie

2013-01-01

256

Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

2014-01-01

257

Triple touch sperm immobilization vs. single touch sperm immobilization in ICSI - a randomised trial  

PubMed Central

Background Although different techniques for sperm immobilization have been described, their value has not been assessed in an adequately powered randomized study. The aim of this study was to compare two types of sperm immobilization methods prior to ICSI and to test the hypothesis that triple touch immobilization (TTIm) would lead to a higher (5% -65% up to 70%) fertilization rate (FR) than single touch immobilization (STIm). Methods A total of 3056 metaphase II (MII) oocytes, from 290 patients, were randomly assigned to the STIm group (n?=?1528 oocytes; 145 cycles) or to the TTIm group (n?=?1528 oocytes; 138 cycles). A total of 1478 oocytes (STIm group) and 1476 oocytes (TTIm group) were used in the statistical analysis. The primary outcome variable was FR. Secondary outcome variables included: number of good quality embryos (GQE) on day 2 and day 3, implantation rate (IR) and implantation with foetal heart beat rate (FHB). Statistical analysis was done using the Fisher Exact test with a significance level of 0.05. Results The results showed no differences in FR between both groups. The proportion of good quality embryos on day 3, was significantly higher in the STIm group (37.5%) compared to the TTIm group (31.8%; p?=?0.02). Conclusions In this RCT, the hypothesis that the post-ICSI FR would be higher after TTIm than after STIm was not confirmed and the number of good quality embryos on day 3 was significantly lower in the TTIm group than in the STIm group. These data suggest that more ‘aggressive’ TTIm technique has no advantages compared to the STIm technique. PMID:22929301

2012-01-01

258

The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.  

PubMed

In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

Klempe, Sven Hroar

2011-01-01

259

Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.  

PubMed

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable the motor control is. This dissociation appears to yield an attribution conflict, resulting in the odd sensation. PMID:19492054

Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

2009-01-01

260

["Irritative" pathology of the external auditory canal and decreased sound sensation].  

PubMed

We have not found in the literature an explanation for the intermittent and transient decreased lesser hearing sensation in patients with dysesthesia of the external auditory canal (EAC). In this paper we offer a possible explanation for it. Our hypothesis is that the stimulation of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal and facial nerves in the EAC is able to increase the stiffness of the ossicular chain by means of a reflex stimulation of malleus and stapes muscles. This intermittent and transient increase of the ossicular stiffness could explain the intermittent and transient decrease of hearing sensation in these patients. PMID:12185874

Rosell Cervilla, A; García Purriños, F J; Calvo Moya, J

2002-05-01

261

Monitoring emotion through body sensation: a review of awareness in Goenka's Vipassana.  

PubMed

Awareness is one of the two most important abilities cultivated in Goenka's Vipassana meditation, which refers to sensitivity to subtle bodily sensations and the associated psychological processes. This sensitivity and its derived function of monitoring emotion are not of notable concern in modern mindfulness-based psychotherapies. Evidence supports that Vipassana meditation truly enhances sensitivity to bodily sensations, but further study is required to assess the awareness of psychological processes. The value of monitoring mental processing has been widely accepted in psychology, as has enhanced sensitivity along with the potential dangers to mental health. Implications for practice and future studies are discussed. PMID:23846450

Zeng, Xianglong; Oei, Tian P S; Liu, Xiangping

2014-12-01

262

An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

2014-06-01

263

Observing the touched body magnified alters somatosensory homunculus.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate effects of observing the own body being touched on the functional topography of the somatosensory homunculus. We used neuromagnetic source imaging to map the topography in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) while manipulating the visibility of a touched hand. Participants were either able to observe the stimulation in real size or strongly magnified. Results demonstrated a significant shift in SI when participants viewed their stimulated body compared with a rest state or with viewing a neutral object. The magnification of the seen stimulated hand similarly resulted in a shift of the cortical representation zone in SI. We discuss the results as dynamic interactions between vision and touch in SI via back projections from multimodal cortical areas. PMID:18520990

Schaefer, Michael; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rotte, Michael

2008-06-11

264

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

265

Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.  

PubMed

The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes. PMID:25640075

Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

2015-02-18

266

Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: Results from a nationally representative United States sample.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

2014-12-01

267

Maternal overreactive sympathetic nervous system responses to repeated infant crying predicts risk for impulsive harsh discipline of infants.  

PubMed

Physiological reactivity to repeated infant crying was examined as a predictor of risk for harsh discipline use with 12-month-olds in a longitudinal study with 48 low-income mother-infant dyads. Physiological reactivity was measured while mothers listened to three blocks of infant cry sounds in a standard cry paradigm when their infants were 3 months old. Signs of harsh discipline use were observed during two tasks during a home visit when the infants were 12 months old. Mothers showing signs of harsh discipline (n = 10) with their 12-month-olds were compared to mothers who did not (n = 38) on their sympathetic (skin conductance levels [SCL]) and parasympathetic (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) reactivity to the cry sounds. Results showed a significant interaction effect for sympathetic reactivity only. Mean SCL of harsh-risk mothers showed a significant different response pattern from baseline to crying and onward into the recovery, suggesting that mean SCL of mothers who showed signs of harsh discipline continued to rise across the repeated bouts of cry sounds while, after an initial increase, mean SCL level of the other mothers showed a steady decline. We suggest that harsh parenting is reflected in physiological overreactivity to negative infant signals and discuss our findings from a polyvagal perspective. PMID:23836807

Joosen, Katharina J; Mesman, Judi; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H

2013-11-01

268

Examining the Role of Trait Reactance and Sensation Seeking on Perceived Threat, State Reactance, and Reactance Restoration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present investigation sought to advance Psychological Reactance Theory (PRT) by examining whether trait reactance and sensation seeking influence the magnitude of a perceived threat, state reactance, and reactance restoration. Results revealed that high trait reactant (HTR) and low trait reactant (LTR) individuals and high sensation seekers…

Quick, Brian L.; Stephenson, Michael T.

2008-01-01

269

Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

2004-01-01

270

Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.  

PubMed

One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

2004-01-01

271

Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

Stanton, H. E.

1976-01-01

272

Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Season of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system. Methodology\\/Principal Findings. Based on a sample of

Dan T. A. Eisenberg; Benjamin Campbell; James MacKillop; J. Koji Lum; David S. Wilson

2007-01-01

273

A comparison of sensation seeking among different groups of athletes and nonathletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major purpose of this study was to compare the sensation seeking needs of different groups of athletes and nonathletes of both sexes. Athletes from four male sport teams (lacrosse, rugby, crew and soccer) and five female sport teams (soccer, Volleyball, softball, tennis and golf) from a local university participated in the study. Male and female nonathletes also served as

Marvin L. Schroth

1995-01-01

274

Great Sensations: A Program to Encourage Heart Healthy Snacking by High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classroom instruction, parent outreach, and media campaigns were strategies used by the Great Sensations program, designed to teach high school students good snacking habits. The program focused on salt and high blood pressure. Program design and results are discussed. (Author/DF)

Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; And Others

1984-01-01

275

Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

2013-01-01

276

Re-deflning the Victorian Ideal: the Productive Transnormative Family in Sensation Fiction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines two of the most popular sensation novels of the 1860s, Lady Audley's Secret by Mary Elizabeth Braddon and East Lynne by Ellen Wood, and their respective treatments of the Victorian family. Building on the work of critics who question and challenge the cohesiveness of the domestic ideal and the complete family within Victorian ideology, this project explores

2009-01-01

277

Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: The Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments

Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher

1984-01-01

278

Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

2008-01-01

279

Gait and Posture 16 (2002) 2030 Contributions of altered sensation and feedback responses to  

E-print Network

Gait and Posture 16 (2002) 20­30 Contributions of altered sensation and feedback responses in the elderly. Our results show that sway coordination and amplitude both change with age, but that changes in overall feedback gains do not explain these differences. We propose that increased sway of elderly

280

Maximum tolerable dose of red pepper decreases fat intake independently of spicy sensation in the mouth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary red pepper suppresses energy intake and modifies macronutrient intake. We have investigated whether a stimulus in the mouth and the sensation of spiciness are necessary for red pepper-induced changes in energy and macronutrient intake in human volunteers. In a preliminary test, sixteen Japanese male volunteers tasted samples of a soup with graded doses of red pepper in order to

Mayumi Yoshioka; Makoto Imanaga; Hiromi Ueyama; Miya Yamane; Yoshiko Kubo; André Boivin; Jonny St-Amand; Hiroaki Tanaka; Akira Kiyonaga

2004-01-01

281

Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the factor structure of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in English and American samples, and constructed a new form of the SSS, applicable to both groups. The English Ss consisted of 254 males and 639 females from the Maudsley Twin Register, ages 15–70 yrs. The American sample included 97 male and female undergraduates. Three of the 4 factors showed good

Marvin Zuckerman; Sybil B. Eysenck; H. J. Eysenck

1978-01-01

282

Scene Consistency and Spatial Presence Increase the Sensation of Self-Motion in Virtual Reality  

E-print Network

Scene Consistency and Spatial Presence Increase the Sensation of Self-Motion in Virtual Reality--Artificial, augmented, and virtual realities H.5.2 [Information Interfaces and Presentation, (e.g. HCI]: User Interfaces, ego-motion simulation, human factors, psy- chophysics, spatial presence, Virtual Reality, spatial

283

Sensation seeking, exposure to psychosocial stressors, and body modifications in a college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 281 (females=160) college students with body modifications completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about body modification practices, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V; Zuckerman, 1994), the Impulsivity subscale of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ; Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993), and a selected portion of the History of Psychosocial Stressors (HPS; Scotti, 1992, 1999). Gender differences were found

Jonathan W. Roberti; Eric A. Storch; Erica A. Bravata

2004-01-01

284

Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment for Panic Disorder with Moderate to Severe Agoraphobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article presents a detailed description of an intensive treatment program for panic disorder with moderate to severe levels of agoraphobia (PDA), called Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment (SFIT). Although the efficacy of traditional CBT treatment programs has been well established for the treatment of PDA, patients with moderate to…

Morissette, Sandra Baker; Spiegel, David A.; Heinrichs, Nina

2005-01-01

285

A New Analytical System Applying 6 DOF Parallel Link Manipulator for Evaluating Motion Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6 DOF motion system using a new parallel link mechanism is developed for purposes of evaluating human motion sensation. This motion system is made up of three five-bar mechanisms, each of which has 2 degrees of freedom (DOF) and is driven by AC servo motors. Therefore, this system is very small and low cost, but its motion area is

Nobuharu Mimura; Yasuyuki Funahashi

1995-01-01

286

The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

2010-01-01

287

John Locke on Obligation: Sensation, Reflection, and the Natural Duty to Consent  

Microsoft Academic Search

DISSERTATION ABSTRACT: John Locke on Obligation: Sensation, Reflection, and the Natural Duty to Consent By Emily Marie Crookston Doctor of Philosophy in Philosophy Washington University in St. Louis, 2009 Professor Larry May, Chairperson Locke's theories of moral and political obligation are instructive both in their successes and in their failures. Writing during a time in which previous assumptions were being

Emily Crookston

2009-01-01

288

Testosterone exposure, dopaminergic reward, and sensation-seeking in young men Benjamin C. Campbell a,  

E-print Network

been implicated in many "male-typical" behaviors, including impulsivity and sensation-seeking. Studies of prison inmates have reported a significant association of T with impulsivity [1], as well as aggression T (highly related to bioavailable T [11,12]) and SSS among 68 male college students. Others found

Little, Tony

289

Characterization of the Vectron PX-570 Crystal Oscillator for Use in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computing hardware, data-acquisition systems, communications systems, and many electronic control systems require well-controlled timing signals for proper and accurate operation. These signals are, in most cases, provided by circuits that employ crystal oscillators due to availability, cost, ease of operation, and accuracy. In some cases, the electronic systems are expected to survive and operate under harsh conditions that include exposure to extreme temperatures. These applications exist in terrestrial systems as well as in aerospace products. Well-logging, geothermal systems, and industrial process control are examples of ground-based applications, while distributed jet engine control in aircraft, space-based observatories (such as the James Webb Space Telescope), satellites, and lunar and planetary landers are typical environments where electronics are exposed to harsh operating conditions. To ensure these devices produce reliable results, the digital heartbeat from the oscillator must deliver a stable signal that is not affected by external temperature or other conditions. One such solution is a recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) oscillator, the PX-570 series from Vectron International. The oscillator was designed for high-temperature applications and as proof, the crystal oscillator was subjected to a wide suite of tests to determine its ruggedness for operation in harsh environments. The tests performed by Vectron included electrical characterization under wide range of temperature, accelerated life test/aging, shock and vibration, internal moisture analysis, ESD threshold, and latch-up testing. The parametric evaluation was performed on the oscillator's frequency, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current over the temperature range of -125 C to +230 C. The evaluations also determined the effects of thermal cycling and the oscillator's re-start capability at extreme hot and cold temperatures. These thermal cycling and restart tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Overall, the crystal oscillator performed well and demonstrated very good frequency stability. This paper will discuss the test procedures and present details of the performance results.

Li, Jacob; Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

2012-01-01

290

GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

2010-01-01

291

Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions  

PubMed Central

To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

2014-01-01

292

Meet Mike and Debi Grillo: "A Child's Touch..."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Mike and Debi Grillo's journey in realizing their dream, of making a lasting difference in young lives.They began a small Christian school in a mobile home park and naming it "A Child's Touch...". Their mission statement says that they seek "to provide a quality education, maximizing the development of their children…

Exchange: The Early Childhood Leaders' Magazine Since 1978, 2007

2007-01-01

293

Heat-Induced Pain Diminishes Vibrotactile Perception: A Touch Gate  

E-print Network

Heat- Induced Pain Diminishes Vibrotactile Perception: A Touch Gate A. Vania Apkarian,*.t-1 Richard Abstract The gate control theory of pain (Melzack and Wall, 1965) suggeststhat tactile stimuli can decrease the perception of pain. We have found the reverse effect: Heat at levels that induce pain can substantially

Apkarian, A. Vania

294

UNCORRECTED Virtual Fetal Touch Through a Haptic Interface  

E-print Network

increases gradually during gestation and mainly after the first perception of fetal movements.2 A recent of haptic devices. Haptic devices (from Greek Haptesthai, "touch") are small robotic structures that allow Subjects Healthy pregnant women (n 12; age range, 25 to 35 years) were enrolled between 30 and 32 weeks

Siena, Università di

295

Coaching, Caring and the Politics of Touch: A Visual Exploration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper has three principal purposes. The first involves locating the "politics of touch" as related to coaching within Noddings' theory of pedagogical caring. Noddings' framework is presented not so much as a prescription of "good practice", but as a potential way to raise the profile and somewhat problematise the…

Jones, Robyn L.; Bailey, Jake; Santos, Sofia

2013-01-01

296

Losing touch: pedagogies of incorporation and the ability to write  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of “touch” is often used to point to the exemplary performance of skilful actions. While such a notion seemingly references the sensuous nature of that skill, it tends to mask the embodied acquisition of that capacity, implying intuitive ability rather than technique perfected through practice. Ironically, it also masks the significance of tactility in the process of developing

Megan Watkins; Greg Noble

2011-01-01

297

Touch & Interact: Applied to a Tourist Guide Prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing issue for mobile application developers is the limited output capabilities of mobile phones (1). For this reason, current mobile phones may still fail to fully address the requirements of map, multimedia and information browsing applications. This paper presents Touch & Interact: an NFC (Near Field Communication) interaction technique that utilizes the capabilities of mobile phones and the screen

Robert Hardy; Enrico Rukzio; Matthias Wagner; Massimo Paolucci

298

All-I-Touch as Combination of NFC and Lifestyle  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this paper we developed the concept and implemented a fully working prototype of a snowboarder community platform based on Near Field Communication. All-I-Touch is a service which provides product information at the point of sale and additionally connects the user with his social community in Facebook. Through this combination it is possible to increase incentives for the end user

F. Kneissl; R. Rottger; U. Sandner; J. M. Leimeister; H. Krcmar

2009-01-01

299

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine  

E-print Network

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine Anna Flagg Department in the context of a furry artificial lap-pet, with the ultimate goal of creating ther- apeutic interactions group has developed the Haptic Creature [27], a furry lap-sized social robot that perceives the world

MacLean, Karon

300

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

301

An avionics touch screen-based control display concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark

2012-06-01

302

Courtship compliance: The effect of touch on women's behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has shown that light tactile contact increases compliance to a wide variety of requests. However, the effect of touch on compliance to a courtship request has never been studied. In this paper, three experiments were conducted in a courtship context. In the first experiment, a young male confederate in a nightclub asked young women to dance with him

Nicolas Guéguen

2007-01-01

303

Trajectory Design Considerations for Small Body Touch-and-Go  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Outline: (1) Trajectory Description (2) Design Drivers: (2a) Dynamics (2b) Environment (2c) Spacecraft and Ground and System Capabilities (2d) Mission Objectives (3) Design Choices (4) Historical Precedents (5) Case Studies. What is Touch-and-Go (TAG)? (1) Descent to the surface (2) Brief contact (3) Ascends to a safe distance

Wallace, Mark; Broschart, Stephen; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Bhaskharan, Shyam; Cangahuala, Alberto

2011-01-01

304

TOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR  

E-print Network

-directed surgery, Neurosurgery, Robot, Robotic technology Neurosurgery 56:421-433, 2005 DOI: 10.1227/01.NEUTOPIC REVIEW IN TOUCH WITH ROBOTICS: NEUROSURGERY FOR THE FUTURE Narendra Nathoo, M.D., Ph.D. Brain for the discipline of neurological surgery. Driven primarily by synergistic developments in science and engineering

Cavusoglu, Cenk

305

Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

2006-01-01

306

This is just one of the many touching stories  

E-print Network

This is just one of the many touching stories from Camp Tiger. All money raised at the Camp Tiger Auction will go towards funding Camp Tiger, a week-long summer camp put on by LSUHSC first year medical students for children with special health care needs. Need more information on the Camp Tiger Benefit

307

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-01

308

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

Wpsu

2010-02-09

309

The combination of vision and touch depends on spatial proximity  

E-print Network

The combination of vision and touch depends on spatial proximity Vision Science Program, School combines visual and haptic information about object properties such that the combined estimate is more precise than with vision or haptics alone. We examined how the system determines when to combine

Burge, Johannes

310

Explaining variability in sodium intake through oral sensory phenotype, salt sensation and liking  

PubMed Central

Our sodium-rich food supply compels investigation of how variation in salt sensation influences liking and intake of high-sodium foods. While supertasters (those with heightened propylthiouracil (PROP) bitterness or taste papillae number) report greater saltiness from concentrated salt solutions, the non-taster/supertaster effect on sodium intake is unclear. We assessed taster effects on salt sensation, liking and intake among 87 healthy adults (45 men). PROP bitterness showed stronger associations with perceived saltiness in foods than did papillae number. Supertasters reported: greater saltiness in chips/pretzels and broth at levels comparable to regular-sodium products; greater sensory and/or liking changes to growing sodium concentration in cheeses (where sodium ions mask bitterness) and broths; and less frequently salting foods. PROP effects were attenuated in women. Compared with men, women reported more saltiness from high-sodium foods and greater liking for broth at salt levels comparable to regular-sodium products. Across men and women, Structural Equation Models showed PROP and papillae number independently explained variability in consuming high-sodium foods by impacting salt sensation and/or liking. PROP supertasters reported greater changes in sensation when more salt was added to broth, which then associated with greater changes in broth liking, and finally with more frequent high-sodium food intake. Greater papillae number was associated with less frequent high-sodium food intake via reduced liking for high-fat/high-sodium foods. In summary, variation in sensations from salt was associated with differences in hedonic responses to high-sodium foods and thus sodium intake. Despite adding less salt, PROP supertasters consumed more sodium through food, as salt was more important to preference, both for its salty taste and masking of bitterness. PMID:20380843

Hayes, John E.; Sullivan, Bridget S.; Duffy, Valerie B.

2010-01-01

311

Crossing the Hands Increases Illusory Self-Touch  

PubMed Central

Manipulation of hand posture, such as crossing the hands, has been frequently used to study how the body and its immediately surrounding space are represented in the brain. Abundant data show that crossed arms posture impairs remapping of tactile stimuli from somatotopic to external space reference frame and deteriorates performance on several tactile processing tasks. Here we investigated how impaired tactile remapping affects the illusory self-touch, induced by the non-visual variant of the rubber hand illusion (RHI) paradigm. In this paradigm blindfolded participants (Experiment 1) had their hands either uncrossed or crossed over the body midline. The strength of illusory self-touch was measured with questionnaire ratings and proprioceptive drift. Our results showed that, during synchronous tactile stimulation, the strength of illusory self-touch increased when hands were crossed compared to the uncrossed posture. Follow-up experiments showed that the increase in illusion strength was not related to unfamiliar hand position (Experiment 2) and that it was equally strengthened regardless of where in the peripersonal space the hands were crossed (Experiment 3). However, while the boosting effect of crossing the hands was evident from subjective ratings, the proprioceptive drift was not modulated by crossed posture. Finally, in contrast to the illusion increase in the non-visual RHI, the crossed hand postures did not alter illusory ownership or proprioceptive drift in the classical, visuo-tactile version of RHI (Experiment 4). We argue that the increase in illusory self-touch is related to misalignment of somatotopic and external reference frames and consequently inadequate tactile-proprioceptive integration, leading to re-weighting of the tactile and proprioceptive signals.The present study not only shows that illusory self-touch can be induced by crossing the hands, but importantly, that this posture is associated with a stronger illusion. PMID:24699795

Pozeg, Polona; Rognini, Giulio; Salomon, Roy; Blanke, Olaf

2014-01-01

312

Functional and structural brain differences associated with mirror-touch synaesthesia.  

PubMed

Observing touch is known to activate regions of the somatosensory cortex but the interpretation of this finding is controversial (e.g. does it reflect the simulated action of touching or the simulated reception of touch?). For most people, observing touch is not linked to reported experiences of feeling touch but in some people it is (mirror-touch synaesthetes). We conducted an fMRI study in which participants (mirror-touch synaesthetes, controls) watched movies of stimuli (face, dummy, object) being touched or approached. In addition we examined whether mirror touch synaesthesia is associated with local changes of grey and white matter volume in the brain using VBM (voxel-based morphometry). Both synaesthetes and controls activated the somatosensory system (primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, SI and SII) when viewing touch, and the same regions were activated (by a separate localiser) when feeling touch--i.e. there is a mirror system for touch. However, when comparing the two groups, we found evidence that SII seems to play a particular important role in mirror-touch synaesthesia: in synaesthetes, but not in controls, posterior SII was active for watching touch to a face (in addition to SI and posterior temporal lobe); activity in SII correlated with subjective intensity measures of mirror-touch synaesthesia (taken outside the scanner), and we observed an increase in grey matter volume within the SII of the synaesthetes' brains. In addition, the synaesthetes showed hypo-activity when watching touch to a dummy in posterior SII. We conclude that the secondary somatosensory cortex has a key role in this form of synaesthesia. PMID:23921098

Holle, Henning; Banissy, Michael J; Ward, Jamie

2013-12-01

313

Finding the Right Touch: Extending the Right-Touch Regulation Approach to the Accreditation of Voluntary Registers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is "right-touch regulation"? In this article we explain why the Professional Standards Authority for Health and Social Care (the Authority) has focussed much of its policy work in recent times on seeking an answer to this question, and why it wants to know. We explain why the Authority's predecessor body, the Council for Healthcare Regulatory…

Bilton, Douglas; Cayton, Harry

2013-01-01

314

iTouch, uTouch, Welcome to Bug Bytes, a bimonthly podcast from Texas A&M University's  

E-print Network

on a recipe on my iPhone and get a taste of the dish before I commit to cooking it? Genius. Alright now let a touch phone whilst wearing gloves) and it's like trying to make a phone call with a rock. It's because

Behmer, Spencer T.

315

Food as Touch/Touching the Food: The Body In-Place and Out-of-Place in Preschool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article explores the need to eat as a biological and social practice among children in a preschool in Norway. The children in this preschool are aged from one to two years of age, and some of them have just started there. Different events from mealtimes relate to Derrida's concept of touch and Grosz's notion of bodies in-place and…

Rossholt, Nina

2012-01-01

316

Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

2013-05-01

317

Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

2014-06-01

318

New techniques to apply an optical fiber image guide to harsh radiation environments in nuclear facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To apply optical fiber image guide (IG) to harsh radiation environments, we have developed two new techniques. One technique is a visible type IG with a color correcting system and the other technique is an IR type IG. We irradiated the IGs utilizing a 60Co gamma source. Measured Images with the visible type IG became dark and yellowish because of radiation induced loss. By using a color correction system, the original color of the images can be obtained. In the case of IR type IG, because of low radiation induced loss in the IR region, the degree of darkening was less than half of that for the visible type of IG. For a fixed irradiated length of 2.5m, the dose limit for using IG was estimated to be 4.6 X 108 with the visible type IG and 1.2 X 109 with the IR type IG. These radiation resistivities were more than 103 times of that for usual CCD cameras. With these techniques, IG can be applied to harsh radiation environment.

Kimura, Atsushi; Takada, Eiji; Hosono, Yoneichi; Nakazawa, Masaharu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hayami, Hiroyuki

1999-01-01

319

Surface-micromachined double-sided touch mode capacitive pressure sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Double sided touch mode capacitive pressure sensor offered better performance than that of single sided one. Double-sided touch mode capacitive pressure sensor almost has the same character of the single sided one, which can be divided into four regions (normal region, transition region, linear region, saturation region). In the linear region, the diaphragm of the capacitive pressure sensor touches the

Gaopan Xu; Guangwen Chen; Guoqing Hu

2001-01-01

320

Touch & Compose: Physical User Interface for Application Composition in Smart Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we sketch a model for interaction between smart environment and their inhabitants. We also introduce Touch & Compose, a concept for composing applications which utilizes this interaction model. The basic idea of Touch & Compose is to assemble applications from the resources that the user has selected manually by touching them with her mobile terminal. Resources (devices,

Iván Sánchez; Jukka Riekki; Mikko Pyykkönen

2009-01-01

321

The Use of Touch in Counseling: An Ethical Decision-Making Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although some counselors have advocated for the limited use of touch in counseling, others have argued that touch has no place within the counseling relationship. Despite the controversy, the use of touch has been shown to have a number of therapeutic benefits; however, there are few ethical decision-making models that are appropriate for…

Calmes, Stephanie A.; Piazza, Nick J.; Laux, John M.

2013-01-01

322

A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto,  

E-print Network

LED LED FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR FTIR LED LED A Touch Panel using Silicone Rubber with embedded IR-LEDs Yuichiro Sakamoto, Takuto Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito Oe, Ryuji Hori, Yuichi Murata, Buntarou IR-LEDs We have used the FTIR-based method for multi-touch sensing. Our novel touch panel is made

Tanaka, Jiro

323

Life testing of reflowed and reworked advanced CCGA surface mount packages in harsh thermal environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life testing/qualification of reflowed (1st reflow) and reworked (1st reflow, 1st removal, and then 1st rework) advanced ceramic column grid array (CCGA) surface mount interconnect electronic packaging technologies for future flight projects has been studied to enhance the mission assurance of JPL-NASA projects. The reliability of reworked/reflowed surface mount technology (SMT) packages is very important for short-duration and long-duration deep space harsh extreme thermal environmental missions. The life testing of CCGA electronic packages under extreme thermal environments (for example: -185°C to +125°C) has been performed with reference to various JPL/NASA project requirements which encompass the temperature range studied. The test boards of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages (717 Xilinx package, 624, 1152, and 1272 column Actel Packages) were selected for the study to survive three times the total number of expected temperature cycles resulting from all environmental and operational exposures occurring over the life of the flight hardware including all relevant manufacturing, ground operations, and mission phases or cycles to failure to assess the life of the hardware. Qualification/life testing was performed by subjecting test boards to the environmental harsh temperature extremes and assessing any structural failures, mechanical failures or degradation in electrical performance solder-joint failures due to either overstress or thermal cycle fatigue. The large, high density, high input/output (I/O) electronic interconnect SMT packages such as CCGA have increased usage in avionics hardware of NASA projects during the last two decades. The test boards built with CCGA packages are expensive and often require a rework to replace a reflowed, reprogrammed, failed, redesigned, etc., CCGA packages. Theoretically speaking, a good rework process should have similar temperature-time profile as that used for the original manufacturing process of solder reflow. A multiple rework processes may be implemented with CCGA packaging technology to understand the effect of number of reworks on the reliability of this technology for harsh thermal environments. In general, reliability of the assembled electronic packages reduces as a function of number of reworks and the extent is not known yet. A CCGA rework process has been tried and implemented to design a daisy-chain test board consists of 624 and 717 packages. Reworked CCGA interconnect electronic packages of printed wiring polyimide boards have been assembled and inspected using non-destructive x-ray imaging and optical microscope techniques. The assembled boards after 1st rework and 1st reflow were subjected to extreme temperature thermal atmospheric cycling to assess their reliability for future deep space JPL/NASA for moderate to harsh thermal mission environments. The resistance of daisy-chained interconnect sections were monitored continuously during thermal cycling to determine intermittent failures. This paper provides the experimental reliability test results to failure of assemblies for the first time of reflowed and reworked CCGA packages under extreme harsh thermal environments.

Ramesham, Rajeshuni

2013-03-01

324

Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator  

PubMed Central

When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

2014-01-01

325

Hippocampal volumes and neuron numbers increase along a gradient of environmental harshness: a large-scale comparison.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions may provide specific demands for memory, which in turn may affect specific brain regions responsible for memory function. For food-caching animals, in particular, spatial memory appears to be important because it may have a direct effect on fitness via the accuracy of cache retrieval. Animals living in more harsh environments should rely more on cached food, and thus theoretically should have better memory to support cache retrieval, which may be crucial for survival. Consequently, animals in harsh environments may benefit from more neurons within a larger hippocampus (Hp), a part of the brain involved in spatial memory. Here, we present the first large-scale test of the hypothesis that Hp structure is related to the severity of the environment within a single food-caching species (the black-capped chickadee, Poecile atricapillus) with a large range encompassing a great diversity of climatic conditions. Hp size in birds collected at five locations along a gradient of environmental harshness from Alaska to Kansas ranked perfectly with climatic severity. Birds from more harsh northern climates (defined by lower ambient temperature, shorter day length and more snow cover) had significantly larger Hp volumes and more Hp neurons (both relative to telencephalon volume) than those from more mild southern latitudes. Environmental pressures therefore seem capable of influencing specific brain regions independently, which may result in enhanced memory, and hence survival, in harsh climates. PMID:18945667

Roth, Timothy C; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2009-02-01

326

Quantifying the sensory and emotional perception of touch: differences between glabrous and hairy skin  

PubMed Central

The perception of touch is complex and there has been a lack of ways to describe the full tactile experience quantitatively. Guest et al. (2011) developed a Touch Perception Task (TPT) in order to capture such experiences, and here we used the TPT to examine differences in sensory and emotional aspects of touch at different skin sites. We compared touch on three skin sites: the hairy arm and cheek, and the glabrous palm. The hairy skin contains C-tactile (CT) afferents, which play a role in affective touch, whereas glabrous skin does not contain CT afferents and is involved in more discriminative touch. In healthy volunteers, three different materials (soft brush, sandpaper, fur) were stroked across these skin sites during self-touch or experimenter-applied touch. After each stimulus, participants rated the tactile experience using descriptors in the TPT. Sensory and emotional descriptors were analyzed using factor analyses. Five sensory factors were found: Texture, Pile, Moisture, Heat/Sharp and Cold/Slip, and three emotional factors: Positive Affect, Arousal, and Negative Affect. Significant differences were found in the use of descriptors in touch to hairy vs. glabrous skin: this was most evident in touch on forearm skin, which produced higher emotional content. The touch from another was also judged as more emotionally positive then self-touch, and participants readily discriminated between the materials on all factors. The TPT successfully probed sensory and emotional percepts of the touch experience, which aided in identifying skin where emotional touch was more pertinent. It also highlights the potentially important role for CTs in the affective processing of inter-personal touch, in combination with higher-order influences, such as through cultural belonging and previous experiences. PMID:24574985

Ackerley, Rochelle; Saar, Karin; McGlone, Francis; Backlund Wasling, Helena

2014-01-01

327

Problem 1. Eleven cogwheels are linked in a circular order (so that the first touches the second, the second touches the third, etc., the eleventh touches the first). Can  

E-print Network

the second, the second touches the third, etc., the eleventh touches the first). Can the cogwheels rotate? Problem 2. Can a line not containing vertices of a (non-convex) 11-gon intersect all its edges? Problem 3. Can one draw a curve on the surface of a dodecaherdon that intersects each edge once? (A dodecahedron

Timorin, Vladlen

328

Stance stability with unilateral and bilateral light touch of an external stationary object.  

PubMed

Unilateral light fingertip touch of a stationary object has a significant stabilizing effect on postural sway during stance. The purpose of this study was to find out if this effect is enhanced by bilateral light touch of parallel stationary objects. The postural sway of 54 healthy subjects was tested in four stance conditions: no touch; unilateral left light touch of the left handle of a walker; unilateral right light touch of the right handle of the same walker; and bilateral light touch of the two handles. During testing, subjects stood blindfolded on two foam pads placed on the left and right force plates of the Tetrax balance system. Testing in each condition lasted 45 s and was executed twice in a random order. As expected, postural sway was significantly reduced by unilateral left or right light fingertip touch. It was significantly further decreased by bilateral light touch. In addition, light touch conditions were associated with a reduction in pressure fluctuations between the heel and forefoot of the same foot as well as those of the contralateral foot, with a concomitant increase in weight shift fluctuations between the two feet. The decrease in postural sway with bilateral light touch suggests cortical modulation of the bilateral touch inputs, with enhancement of the stabilizing response. PMID:16503584

Dickstein, Ruth

2005-12-01

329

Light touch and medio-lateral postural stability during short distance gait.  

PubMed

While standing, light fingertip touch on an external stable object attenuates sway and improves balance in healthy adults as well as in individuals with poor postural control. The effect of light touch on balance during gait is, however, not well known. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study the effects of light fingertip touch on balance during gait. We hypothesized that similar to its effect during stance light touch would increase postural stability. Forty healthy young adults were tested under four gait conditions: (1) eyes open (EO), (2) eyes closed (EC), (3) eyes closed while lightly touching a static object on the right side of the walking lane (ECLTS), (4) eyes closed while lightly touching a dynamic object, namely, a stick that was moved forwards by the subject with the right hand (ECLTD). The main outcome measure was medio-lateral step width variability, a well established indicator of gait balance in the medio-lateral plane. During the EC condition, light touch of an external static object (ECLTS) decreased medio-lateral variability (i.e., balance improved); however, this stabilizing effect was not observed with light touch on the stick. The availability of self positional and spatial cues when touching a static external reference, and their absence when touching a stick that is moved forwards by the subject as he walks, can explain the different effects of light touch in the ECLTS vs the ECLTD gait conditions. PMID:25450148

Kodesh, E; Falash, F; Sprecher, E; Dickstein, R

2015-01-01

330

Infant Imitation from Television Using Novel Touch Screen Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Infants learn less from a televised demonstration than from a live demonstration, the "video deficit effect." The present study employs a novel approach, using touch screen technology to examine 15-month olds' transfer of learning. Infants were randomly assigned either to within-dimension (2D/2D or 3D/3D) or cross-dimension (3D/2D or 2D/3D)…

Zack, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel; Gerhardstein, Peter; Dickerson, Kelly; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

2009-01-01

331

Cocaine impairs acquisition of an autoshaped lever-touch response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of daily peripheral (IP) post-session injection of cocaine on the development of an autoshaped lever-touch response\\u000a in rats were investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received ten daily pairings of a retractable lever (conditioned stimulus;\\u000a CS) and food delivery (unconditioned stimulus; UCS). Food delivery occurred if the subjects contacted the extended lever within\\u000a 10 s, or, if the subjects failed

P. H. Janak; Ward A. Rodriguez; Joe L. Martinez Jr

1997-01-01

332

Season of Birth and Dopamine Receptor Gene Associations with Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking and Reproductive Behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundSeason of birth (SOB) has been associated with many physiological and psychological traits including novelty seeking and sensation seeking. Similar traits have been associated with genetic polymorphisms in the dopamine system. SOB and dopamine receptor genetic polymorphisms may independently and interactively influence similar behaviors through their common effects on the dopaminergic system.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsBased on a sample of 195 subjects, we

Dan T. A. Eisenberg; Benjamin Campbell; James MacKillop; J. Koji Lum; David S. Wilson; Daphne Soares

2007-01-01

333

The relationship between bioclimatic thermal stress and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian spaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Outdoor thermal comfort has important implications for urban planning and energy consumption in the built environment. To better understand the relation of subjective thermal experience to bioclimatic thermal stress in such contexts, this study compares micrometeorological and perceptual data from urban spaces in the hot-arid Negev region of Israel. Pedestrians reported on their thermal sensation in these spaces, whereas radiation and convection-related data were used to compute the Index of Thermal Stress (ITS) and physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). The former is a straightforward characterization of energy exchanges between the human body and its surroundings, without any conversion to an "equivalent temperature." Although the relation of ITS to subjective thermal sensation has been analyzed in the past under controlled indoor conditions, this paper offers the first analysis of this relation in an outdoor setting. ITS alone can account for nearly 60 % of the variance in pedestrians' thermal sensation under outdoor conditions, somewhat more than PET. A series of regressions with individual contextual variables and ITS identified those factors which accounted for additional variance in thermal sensation, whereas multivariate analyses indicated the considerable predictive power ( R-square = 0.74) of models including multiple contextual variables in addition to ITS. Our findings indicate that pedestrians experiencing variable outdoor conditions have a greater tolerance for incremental changes in thermal stress than has been shown previously under controlled indoor conditions, with a tapering of responses at high values of ITS. However, the thresholds of ITS corresponding to thermal "neutrality" and thermal "acceptability" are quite consistent regardless of context.

Pearlmutter, David; Jiao, Dixin; Garb, Yaakov

2014-12-01

334

Influence of Sensation Seeking on Response to Alcohol Versus Placebo: Implications for the Acquired Preparedness Model  

PubMed Central

Objective: Previous research has identified several aspects of behavioral undercontrol that are associated with heavy drinking and problems. Further, research on the acquired preparedness model (Smith and Anderson, 2001) has identified biased learning as a potential mechanism of these effects. Traits like sensation seeking have been linked to stronger positive and weaker negative expectancies, which, in turn, contribute to increased risk for heavy drinking and problems. Although expectancies are thought to represent potentially biased expectations about drinking outcomes, they may also reflect individual differences in alcohol response. The present study examined the strength of associations between sensation seeking and both expectancies (response to placebo) and subjective response under alcohol. Method: Using a between-subjects design, young adult social drinkers (N = 236) were randomly assigned to receive alcohol (target breath alcohol concentration of .08%) or placebo, after which they reported on subjective experiences of stimulation and sedation. Results: Sensation seeking was significantly related to stimulant response, and the strength of this association did not differ by beverage condition (alcohol vs. placebo). Conclusions: The findings argue against a pharmacological explanation for results of prior studies of the acquired preparedness model and support a biased learning interpretation of relations between sensation seeking and positive expectancies. Results also extend the findings on the acquired preparedness model to an implicit measure of positive alcohol expectancies (subjective response to placebo). Future studies using additional measures of implicit expectancies (e.g., Implicit Association Test) would be helpful in determining the relative strength of implicit and explicit expectancies as mediators within the acquired preparedness model. PMID:24411805

Scott, Caitlin; Corbin, William R.

2014-01-01

335

The meaning of the virtual Midas touch: An ERP study in economic decision making.  

PubMed

The Midas touch refers to the altruistic effects of a brief touch. Though these effects have often been replicated, they remain poorly understood. We investigate the psychophysiology of the effect using remotely transmitted, precisely timed, tactile messages in an economic decision-making game called Ultimatum. Participants were more likely to accept offers after receiving a remotely transmitted touch. Furthermore, we found distinct effects of touch on event-related potentials evoked by (a) feedback regarding accepted and rejected offers, (b) decision cues related to proposals, and (c) the haptic and auditory cues themselves. In each case, a late positive effect of touch was observed and related to the P3. Given the role of the P3 in memory-related functions, the results indicate an indirect relationship between touch and generosity that relies on memory. This hypothesis was further tested and confirmed in the positive effects of touch on later proposals. PMID:25265874

Spapé, Michiel M; Hoggan, Eve E; Jacucci, Giulio; Ravaja, Niklas

2014-09-30

336

Touch the Universe : A NASA Braille Book of Astronomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Touch the Universe is a unique and innovative astronomy book that will help visually impaired people see the wonders of our universe. Using a combination of Braille and large-print captions that face 14 pages of brilliant Hubble Space Telescope photos, it is embossed with shapes that represent various astronomical objects such as stars, gas clouds, and jets of matter streaming into space. Universally designed for both the sighted and visually impaired reader, Touch the Universe takes readers on a voyage of discovery, starting at Earth, proceeding through the solar system, and ending with the most distant image taken by Hubble, the mind-boggling Hubble Deep Field photo -- the first telescope image ever to bring home to human consciousness in a deeply fundamental way the literally infinite reaches of our universe of galaxies. As the author puts it, A visually impaired person can still touch and smell a flower, or a tree, or an animal, but he or she could only imagine what an astronomical object is like ... until now.

2002-01-01

337

A closed-loop neurobotic system for fine touch sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Fine touch sensing relies on peripheral-to-central neurotransmission of somesthetic percepts, as well as on active motion policies shaping tactile exploration. This paper presents a novel neuroengineering framework for robotic applications based on the multistage processing of fine tactile information in the closed action-perception loop. Approach. The integrated system modules focus on (i) neural coding principles of spatiotemporal spiking patterns at the periphery of the somatosensory pathway, (ii) probabilistic decoding mechanisms mediating cortical-like tactile recognition and (iii) decision-making and low-level motor adaptation underlying active touch sensing. We probed the resulting neural architecture through a Braille reading task. Main results. Our results on the peripheral encoding of primary contact features are consistent with experimental data on human slow-adapting type I mechanoreceptors. They also suggest second-order processing by cuneate neurons may resolve perceptual ambiguities, contributing to a fast and highly performing online discrimination of Braille inputs by a downstream probabilistic decoder. The implemented multilevel adaptive control provides robustness to motion inaccuracy, while making the number of finger accelerations covariate with Braille character complexity. The resulting modulation of fingertip kinematics is coherent with that observed in human Braille readers. Significance. This work provides a basis for the design and implementation of modular neuromimetic systems for fine touch discrimination in robotics.

Bologna, L. L.; Pinoteau, J.; Passot, J.-B.; Garrido, J. A.; Vogel, J.; Ros Vidal, E.; Arleo, A.

2013-08-01

338

Processing load impairs coordinate integration for the localization of touch.  

PubMed

To perform an action toward a touch, the tactile spatial representation must be transformed from a skin-based, anatomical reference frame into an external reference frame. Evidence suggests that, after transformation, both anatomical and external coordinates are integrated for the location estimate. The present study investigated whether the calculation and integration of external coordinates are automatic processes. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) of two tactile stimuli, one applied to each hand, in crossed and uncrossed postures. The influence of the external coordinates of touch was indicated by the performance difference between crossed and uncrossed postures, referred to as the crossing effect. To assess automaticity, the TOJ task was combined with a working memory task that varied in difficulty (size of the working memory set) and quality (verbal vs. spatial). In two studies, the crossing effect was consistently reduced under processing load. When the load level was adaptively adjusted to individual performance (Study 2), the crossing effect additionally varied as a function of the difficulty of the secondary task. These modulatory effects of processing load on the crossing effect were independent of the type of working memory. The sensitivity of the crossing effect to processing load suggests that coordinate integration for touch localization is not fully automatic. To reconcile the present results with previous findings, we suggest that the genuine remapping process-that is, the transformation of anatomical into external coordinates-proceeds automatically, whereas their integration in service of a combined location estimate is subject to top-down control. PMID:24550040

Badde, Stephanie; Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

2014-05-01

339

Relationships between the paradoxical painful and nonpainful sensations induced by a thermal grill.  

PubMed

The simultaneous application of innocuous cutaneous warm and cold stimuli with a thermal grill can induce both paradoxical pain and paradoxical warmth (heat). The goal of this study was to investigate further the relationships between these paradoxical sensations. Stimuli were applied to the palms of the right hands of 21 volunteers with a thermode consisting of 6 bars, the temperature of which was controlled by Peltier elements. We assessed the quality and intensity of the sensations evoked by series of stimuli consisting of progressively colder temperatures combined with a series of given warm temperatures. We applied a total of 116 series of stimuli, corresponding to 785 combinations of warm and cold temperatures. The 2 paradoxical phenomena were reported for most of the series of stimuli (n=66). In each of these series, the 2 phenomena occurred in the same order: paradoxical warmth followed by paradoxical pain. The difference between the cold-warm temperatures eliciting paradoxical warmth was significantly smaller than that producing paradoxical pain. The intensities of the warmth and unpleasantness evoked by the stimuli were directly related to the magnitude of the warm-cold differential. Our results suggest that there is a continuum between the painful and nonpainful paradoxical sensations evoked by the thermal grill that may share pathophysiological mechanisms. These data also confirm the existence of strong relationships between the thermoreceptive and nociceptive systems and the utility of the thermal grill for investigating these relationships. PMID:25267212

Adam, Frédéric; Alfonsi, Pascal; Kern, Delphine; Bouhassira, Didier

2014-12-01

340

Rikkunshito improves globus sensation in patients with proton-pump inhibitor-refractory laryngopharyngeal reflux  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the effect of rikkunshito on laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) symptoms and gastric emptying in patients with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory LPR. METHODS: In total, 22 patients with LPR were enrolled. Following a 2-wk treatment with PPI monotherapy, PPI-refractory LPR patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups (rikkunshito alone or rikkunshito plus the PPI, lansoprazole). LPR symptoms were assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) score, gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed using the gastrointestinal symptom rating scale (GSRS), and gastric emptying was assessed using the radio-opaque marker method prior to and 4 wk following treatments. RESULTS: The 4-wk treatment with rikkunshito alone and with rikkunshito plus the PPI significantly decreased the globus sensation VAS scores. The VAS score for sore throat was significantly decreased following treatment with rikkunshito plus PPI but not by rikkunshito alone. Neither treatment significantly changed the GSRS scores. Rikkunshito improved delayed gastric emptying. We found a significant positive correlation between improvements in globus sensation and in gastric emptying (r2 = 0.4582, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Rikkunshito improved globus sensation in patients with PPI-refractory LPR, in part, because of stimulation of gastric emptying. Thus, rikkunshito is an effective treatment for PPI-refractory LPR. PMID:23964146

Tokashiki, Ryoji; Okamoto, Isaku; Funato, Nobutoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru

2013-01-01

341

Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions.

Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

2015-01-01

342

Thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in pedestrian streets in Chengdu, China.  

PubMed

The outdoor thermal environment of a public space is highly relevant to the thermal perception of individuals, thereby affecting the use of space. This study aims to connect thermal human biometeorological conditions and subjective thermal sensation in hot and humid regions and to find its influence on street use. We performed a thermal comfort survey at three locations in a pedestrian precinct of Chengdu, China. Meteorological measurements and questionnaire surveys were used to assess the thermal sensation of respondents. The number of people visiting the streets was counted. Meanwhile, mean radiant temperature (T mrt) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) index were used to evaluate the thermal environment. Analytical results reveal that weather and street design drive the trend of diurnal micrometeorological conditions of the street. With the same geometry and orientation, a street with no trees had wider ranges of meteorological parameters and a longer period of discomfort. The neutral temperature in Chengdu (24.4 °C PET) is similar to that in Taiwan, demonstrating substantial human tolerance to hot conditions in hot and humid regions. Visitors' thermal sensation votes showed the strongest positive relationships with air temperature. Overall comfort level was strongly related to every corresponding meteorological parameter, indicating the complexity of people's comfort in outdoor environments. In major alleys with multiple functions, the number of people in the street decreased as thermal indices increased; T mrt and PET had significant negative correlations with the number of people. This study aids in understanding pedestrian street use in hot and humid regions. PMID:25112452

Zeng, YuLang; Dong, Liang

2015-01-01

343

Longitudinal trajectories of sensation seeking, risk taking propensity, and impulsivity across early to middle adolescence.  

PubMed

Adolescent substance use and abuse show associations with increases in disinhibitory constructs, including sensation seeking, risk taking propensity, and impulsivity. However, the longitudinal trajectories of these constructs from early to middle adolescence remain largely unknown. Thus, the current study examined these developmental trajectories in 277 adolescents (Mage=11.00 at Wave 1), over five consecutive yearly waves. Controlling for age, Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses showed that sensation seeking increased linearly, whereas risk taking propensity and impulsivity demonstrated curvilinear changes. Specifically, risk taking propensity increased in the first four waves of assessment but did not evidence changes at the last assessment wave. Impulsivity, on the other hand peaked at wave four before subsequently declining. A comparison between females and males and Black and White adolescents suggested that these groups' trajectories were similar. Black adolescents' sensation seeking trajectory differed from adolescents who belonged to the "Other" racial group (i.e., adolescents who neither self-identified as Black or White). Generally, the study findings replicate and extend earlier work indicating that these risk factors increase across early adolescence and begin to level-off during middle adolescence. The importance of understanding the natural course of these core constructs is of great importance for directing future relevant prevention and intervention work. PMID:24566195

Collado, Anahi; Felton, Julia W; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, C W

2014-11-01

344

Circadian preference and trait impulsivity, sensation-seeking and response inhibition in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Circadian preference has been considered related with impulsivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between circadian typology and impulsivity measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS), sensation-seeking measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale - Form V (SSS-V) and response inhibition elicited by the GO/NO-GO paradigm. A total of 503 Korean healthy college students (288 males and 215 females) completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) for circadian typology and the BIS and SSS-V for impulsivity and risk taking, respectively. A subset of 142 subjects additionally performed the computerized GO/NO-GO task for motor response inhibition. A significant association was found between the circadian typology of the CSM and impulsivity of the BIS and disinhibition of SSS-V. In addition, there was a difference in trend level between the circadian typology and response inhibition elicited by the GO/NO-GO test. Regarding circadian preference, evening types were significantly associated with higher impulsivity on the BIS, disinhibition on the SSS-V and lower rate of successful inhibition on the GO/NO-GO task compared to morning types. The present results showed significant relationships between circadian preference and impulsivity and sensation-seeking personality traits. In particular, our findings suggest that high impulsivity, disinhibition and impaired response inhibition are more related to evening types. Circadian preference might be associated with psychiatric problems interacting with some aspects of personality traits such as inhibitory control. PMID:25286137

Kang, Jee In; Park, Chun Il; Sohn, Sung-Yun; Kim, Hae Won; Namkoong, Kee; Kim, Se Joo

2014-10-01

345

Adsorption of a Protein Monolayer via Hydrophobic Interactions Prevents Nanoparticle Aggregation under Harsh Environmental Conditions  

PubMed Central

We find that citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles aggregate and precipitate in saline solutions below the NaCl concentration of many bodily fluids and blood plasma. Our experiments indicate that this is due to complexation of the citrate anions with Na+ cations in solution. A dramatically enhanced colloidal stability is achieved when bovine serum albumin is adsorbed to the gold nanoparticle surface, completely preventing nanoparticle aggregation under harsh environmental conditions where the NaCl concentration is well beyond the isotonic point. Furthermore, we explore the mechanism of the formation of this albumin ‘corona’ and find that monolayer protein adsorption is most likely ruled by hydrophobic interactions. As for many nanotechnology-based biomedical and environmental applications, particle aggregation and sedimentation are undesirable and could substantially increase the risk of toxicological side-effects, the formation of the BSA corona presented here provides a low-cost bio-compatible strategy for nanoparticle stabilization and transport in highly ionic environments. PMID:23914342

Dominguez-Medina, Sergio; Blankenburg, Jan; Olson, Jana; Landes, Christy F.; Link, Stephan

2013-01-01

346

A Wireless Passive Pressure Microsensor Fabricated in HTCC MEMS Technology for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

A wireless passive high-temperature pressure sensor without evacuation channel fabricated in high-temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC) technology is proposed. The properties of the HTCC material ensure the sensor can be applied in harsh environments. The sensor without evacuation channel can be completely gastight. The wireless data is obtained with a reader antenna by mutual inductance coupling. Experimental systems are designed to obtain the frequency-pressure characteristic, frequency-temperature characteristic and coupling distance. Experimental results show that the sensor can be coupled with an antenna at 600 °C and max distance of 2.8 cm at room temperature. The senor sensitivity is about 860 Hz/bar and hysteresis error and repeatability error are quite low. PMID:23917261

Tan, Qiulin; Kang, Hao; Xiong, Jijun; Qin, Li; Zhang, Wendong; Li, Chen; Ding, Liqiong; Zhang, Xiansheng; Yang, Mingliang

2013-01-01

347

Investigation on harsh environmental effects on polymer fiber optic link for aircraft systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To integrate polymer fiber based physical layer for avionic data network, it is necessary to understand the impact and cause of harsh environments on polymer fiber optic components and harnesses. Since temperature and vibration have a significant influence, we investigate the variation in optical transmittance and monitor the endurance of different types of connector and splices under extreme aircraft environments. Presently, there is no specific aerospace standard for the application of polymer fiber and components in the aircraft data network. Therefore, in the paper we examine and define the thermal cycling and vibration measurement set up and methods to evaluate the performance capability of the physical layer of the data network. Some of the interesting results observed during the measurements are also presented.

Cherian, Sandy; Spangenberg, Holger; Caspary, Reinhard

2014-09-01

348

Micro packaging of hermetic seal laser diode module for the harsh environment of aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes micro soldering method of hermetic DIL (dual in line) laser diode module packaging. Normally, reliable, reproducible, high-yield packaging technologies are essential for meeting the cost, performance, and service objectives for the harsh environment of aerospace applications. For this package a new novel technique incorporating microscope with twin micro tweezers, a CCD image captured camera as monitoring probe and preformed rings of Pb-Sn and In-Sn alloys for hermetic sealing using a micro-soldering process was developed. The procedure is able to confine the solder seal to a small region inside the ferrule near the fiber feed-through hole on the wall of the DIL package. After completing the development, which included temperature and thermal cycling and analysis showed the improved method using lead-tin alloy had no fiber damage after the micro-soldering seal. The new process resulted in 100% success in our packaging design.

Kazemi, Alex A.

2013-05-01

349

Adolescents’ Pregnancy Intentions, Wantedness, and Regret: Cross-Lagged Relations With Mental Health and Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

The authors used cross-lagged analyses to examine the across-time influences on and consequences of adolescents’ pregnancy intentions, wantedness, and regret. One hundred pregnant Latina adolescents were studied during pregnancy and at 6 and 12 months postpartum. The results revealed 4 main findings: (a) similar to what has been found in adult women, adolescents’ lower prenatal pregnancy intendedness and wantedness predicted initial difficulties in parenting; (b) frequent depression symptoms predicted subsequent lower pregnancy intendedness and wantedness; (c) adolescents’ poor mental health and harsh parenting of their child predicted subsequent higher childbearing regret, and (d) high childbearing regret and parenting stress were reciprocally related across time. In addition, adolescents’ wantedness of their pregnancy declined prenatally to postbirth, and strong pregnancy intendedness and wantedness were not concurrently related to adolescents’ poor prenatal mental health. The findings reveal how adolescents’ thoughts and feelings about their pregnancies are influenced by and predictive of their mental health and parenting experiences. PMID:22544975

East, Patricia L.; Chien, Nina C.; Barber, Jennifer S.

2011-01-01

350

Femtosecond laser induced fiber Bragg gratings for harsh environment sensing applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber Bragg grating sensors have been developed beyond a laboratory curiosity to become a mainstream sensing technology because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to simultaneously measure multiple physical parameters such as temperature, strain and pressure. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This presentation will give a review of some of the more recent developments of femtosecond laser induced fiber Bragg gratings.

Mihailov, S. J.; Grobnic, D.; Walker, R. B.; Lu, P.; Ding, H.

2014-09-01

351

Single-crystal sapphire tubes as economical probes for optical pyrometry in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

One-end-sealed single-crystal sapphire tubes are presented as a simple, robust, and economical alternative for bulky lightpipe probes. Thermal radiation from a blackbody cavity created at the inner surface of the sealed end is gathered by a simple lens-based collecting system and transmitted via optical fiber to the remote detection unit. Simplicity and applicability of the concept are demonstrated by the combination of commercially available sapphire tubes with a common optical pyrometer. Radiation thermometers with sapphire tubes as invasive probes can be useful for applications requiring immunity to electromagnetic interference, resistance to harsh environments, simple replacement in the case of failure, and enhanced mechanical firmness, enabling wider range probe positioning inside the medium of interest.

Ruzicka, Jakub; Houzvicka, Jindrich; Bok, Jiri; Praus, Petr; Mojzes, Peter

2011-12-20

352

Ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes as pressure sensors for harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

Glass and diamond are suitable materials for harsh environments. Here, a procedure for fabricating ultra-thin nanocrystalline diamond membranes on glass, acting as an electrically insulating substrate, is presented. In order to investigate the pressure sensing properties of such membranes, a circular, highly conductive boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond membrane with a resistivity of 38?m??cm, a thickness of 150?nm, and a diameter of 555??m is fabricated in the middle of a Hall bar structure. During the application of a positive differential pressure under the membrane (0–0.7?bar), four point piezoresistive effect measurements are performed. From these measurements, it can be concluded that the resistance response of the membrane, as a function of differential pressure, is highly linear and sensitive.

Janssens, S. D., E-mail: stoffel.d.janssens@gmail.com; Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Drijkoningen, S. [Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)

2014-02-17

353

Emerging GaN-based HEMTs for mechanical sensing within harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gallium nitride based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have been investigated extensively as an alternative to Si-based power transistors by academia and industry over the last decade. It is well known that GaN-based HEMTs outperform Si-based technologies in terms of power density, area specific on-state resistance and switching speed. Recently, wide band-gap material systems have stirred interest regarding their use in various sensing fields ranging from chemical, mechanical, biological to optical applications due to their superior material properties. For harsh environments, wide bandgap sensor systems are deemed to be superior when compared to conventional Si-based systems. A new monolithic sensor platform based on the GaN HEMT electronic structure will enable engineers to design highly efficient propulsion systems widely applicable to the automotive, aeronautics and astronautics industrial sectors. In this paper, the advancements of GaN-based HEMTs for mechanical sensing applications are discussed. Of particular interest are multilayered heterogeneous structures where spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization between the interface results in the formation of a 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Experimental results presented focus on the signal transduction under strained operating conditions in harsh environments. It is shown that a conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMT has a strong dependence of drain current under strained conditions, thus representing a promising future sensor platform. Ultimately, this work explores the sensor performance of conventional GaN HEMTs and leverages existing technological advances available in power electronics device research. The results presented have the potential to boost GaN-based sensor development through the integration of HEMT device and sensor design research.

Köck, Helmut; Chapin, Caitlin A.; Ostermaier, Clemens; Häberlen, Oliver; Senesky, Debbie G.

2014-06-01

354

A Thermal Sensation Index for Real-Time Tuning and Energy-Optimal Control of HVAC Systems  

E-print Network

the thermal sensation index in a way that minimizes power consumption is investigated. The simplified index provides a quantitative means for determining the most energy efficient comfortable conditions. The analysis demonstrates that for low to moderate...

Federspiel, C. C.; Norford, L.

355

ALIENATION, SENSATION SEEKING AND MULTIPHASIC PERSONALITY QUESTIONNAIRE PROFILE IN MEN BEING TREATED FOR ALCOHOL AND/OR OPIOID DEPENDENCE  

PubMed Central

Two hundred and thirty men, being treated for ICD-10 diagnosed dependence on alcohol, opioids or both, were studied 2-4 weeks after the last use of alcohol or opioids. Alienation Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and Muliphasic Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), and selected sociodemographic and family history data were studied. All three groups showed high alienation (more in opioid cases), high sensation seeking (more in alcohol cases, more for boredom susceptibility), and a disturbed MPQ profile. The dual dependence group was similar to opioid group for age, but closer to alcohol group in terms of personality profile. Only alcohol cases showed a significantly positive correlation between alienation and sensation seeking- in terms of total scale, and boredom susceptibility and disinhibition subscales only. Thus, substance specificity was not reflected prominently in the inter-relationships between alienation, sensation seeking and MPQ scores, and sociodemographic variables. PMID:21407879

Mattoo, Surendra K.; Varma, Vijoy K.; Singh, Ram Avatar; Khurana, Hitesh; Kaur, Rajinder; Sharma, Suresh K.

2001-01-01

356

Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days.DESIGN: On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions.SUBJECTS: 55 healthy men (age 25.6±0.6

A Flint; A Raben; JE Blundell; A Astrup

2000-01-01

357

Developing a Brief Sensation Seeking Scale for Children: Establishing Concurrent Validity With Video Game Use and Rule-Breaking Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the importance of life-cycle models to sensation seeking research, past studies have typically focused on adolescents and adults. This is especially problematic for researchers studying the role of media use in the development of risky behaviors (e.g., violent video game consumption and aggressive behavior). To facilitate research with child populations, a brief sensation seeking scale for children (BSSS-C) is

Jakob D. Jensen; Andrew J. Weaver; Rebecca Ivic; Kristen Imboden

2011-01-01

358

Sex differences in the developmental trajectories of impulse control and sensation-seeking from early adolescence to early adulthood.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that high rates of risk-taking in adolescence are partly attributable to patterns of neurobiological development that promote an increase in sensation-seeking tendencies at a time when impulse control is still developing. It is not known, however, whether this pattern is the same for males and females. The present study investigates sex differences in the developmental trajectories of self-reported impulse control and sensation-seeking between the ages of 10 and 25 using longitudinal data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1979 Child and Young Adult Survey (N = 8,270; 49 % female; 33 % Black, 22 % Hispanic, 45 % Non-Black, Non-Hispanic). Prior work has found that, consistent with the dual-systems model of adolescent neurobiological development, sensation-seeking rises and falls across this age span, whereas impulse control increases into the 20s. In the present study, we find that this same general pattern holds for both males and females, but with some key differences. As expected, males exhibit higher levels of sensation-seeking and lower levels of impulse control than females. Differences also emerged in the shapes of the developmental trajectories. Females reach peak levels of sensation-seeking earlier than males (consistent with the idea that sensation-seeking is linked to pubertal development) and decline in sensation-seeking more rapidly thereafter. Also, males increase in impulse control more gradually than females. Consequently, sex differences in both impulse control and sensation-seeking increase with age. The findings suggest that the window of heightened vulnerability to risk-taking during adolescence may be greater in magnitude and more protracted for males than for females. PMID:24682958

Shulman, Elizabeth P; Harden, K Paige; Chein, Jason M; Steinberg, Laurence

2015-01-01

359

Too little, too late or too much, too early? Differential hemodynamics of response inhibition in high and low sensation seekers  

PubMed Central

High sensation seeking is associated with strong approach behaviors and weak avoidance responses. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further characterize the neurobiological underpinnings of this behavioral profile using a Go/No-go task. Analysis of brain activation associated with response inhibition (No-go) versus response initiation and execution (Go) revealed the commonly reported right lateral prefrontal, insula, cingulate, and supplementary motor area network. However, right lateral activation was associated with greater No-go than Go responses only in low sensation seekers. High sensation seekers showed no differential activation in these regions but a more pronounced Go compared to No-go response in several other regions that are involved in salience detection (insula), motor initiation (anterior cingulate) and attention (inferior parietal cortex). Temporal analysis of the hemodynamic response for Go and No-go conditions revealed that the stronger response to Go than No-go trials in high sensation seekers occurred in in the earliest time window in the right middle frontal gyrus, right mid-cingulate and right precuneus. In contrast, the greater No-go than Go response in low sensation seekers occurred in the later time window in these same regions. These findings indicate that high sensation seekers more strongly attend to or process Go trials and show delayed or minimal inhibitory responses on No-go trials in regions that low sensation seekers use for response inhibition. Failure to engage such regions for response inhibition may underlie some of the risky and impulsive behaviors observed in high sensation seekers. PMID:22902769

Collins, Heather R.; Corbly, Christine R.; Liu, Xun; Kelly, Thomas H.; Lynam, Donald; Joseph, Jane E.

2012-01-01

360

A transition from nurse to touch therapist--a study of preparation before giving tactile touch in an intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Tactile touch is a complementary therapy that is rarely undertaken in intensive care units (ICUs) in Sweden. This study was a part of a larger project that examines whether tactile touch can relieve the suffering of patients in the ICU. The aim of this study was to describe nurses' lived experience of preparation before giving tactile touch in an ICU. Four assistant nurses and one registered nurse, each with diplomas in tactile touch working at three different ICUs in Sweden, participated in the study. A phenomenological approach was chosen to achieve experience-based and person-centred descriptions. Data were collected through interviews and analysed following Giorgi's method. The main finding was that before providing tactile touch, the nurses needed to add the new role as touch therapists, to their professional one. The essential aspect being the transition from nurse to touch therapist. Findings included a general structure, with four constituents; a sense of inner balance, an unconditional respect for the patients' integrity, a relationship with the patient characterised by reciprocal trust, and a supportive environment. Furthermore, the study underlines the difficulties to integrate a complementary caring act, such as tactile touch, in a highly technological environment. PMID:16542838

Henricson, Maria; Berglund, Anna-Lena; Määttä, Sylvia; Segesten, Kerstin

2006-08-01

361

Acupuncture Deqi Intensity and Propagated Sensation along Channels May, Respectively, Differ due to Different Body Positions of Subjects  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture as an essential component of complementary and alternative medicine is gradually recognized and accepted by the mainstream of contemporary medicine. For obtaining preferable clinical effectiveness, Deqi is commonly regarded as efficacy predictor and parameter which is necessary to be achieved. Influential factors for acupuncture efficacy, like Deqi sensation as well as propagated sensation along channels (PSCs), enjoyed a long history in acupuncture basic research. Concerning this study, taking into account different positions on acupuncture Deqi sensation and PSCs, we would like to attest whether different body positions for subjects during needling procedure yield differed acupuncture Deqi sensation, particularly in terms of intensity, and PSCs. Methods. We used self-controlled method and selected 30 healthy subjects to perform needle insertion at Futu point (ST32) bilaterally. Then they were instructed to record the value of intensity of acupuncture sensation and the length and width of PSCs after removing the needle. Results. In regard to intensity of Deqi, kneeling seat position is stronger than supine position, accounting for 90% of the total number of subjects. In length of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 56.7%. In width of PSCs, kneeling seat position is greater than supine position, accounting for 66.7%. Conclusion. Our findings show that needle inserting at Futu point (ST32) in kneeling seat position achieve better needle sensation and provide reference for clinical. PMID:24250720

Chen, Xiang-Zhu; Yang, Yun-Kuan; Yang, Ming-Xiao; Feng, Shu-Wei; Hu, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Xiao; Feng, Yue; Liang, Fan-Rong

2013-01-01

362

The ACL2 Sedan Theorem Proving System Harsh Raju Chamarthi, Peter Dillinger, Panagiotis Manolios, and Daron Vroon  

E-print Network

The ACL2 Sedan Theorem Proving System Harsh Raju Chamarthi, Peter Dillinger, Panagiotis Manolios., Boston MA 02115, USA {harshrc,pcd,pete}@ccs.neu.edu, daron.vroon@gmail.com Abstract. The ACL2 Sedan theorem prover (ACL2s) is an Eclipse plug- in that provides a modern integrated development environment

Manolios, Panagiotis "Pete"

363

Ballistic magnetoresistance over 3000% in Ni nanocontacts at room temperature Harsh Deep Chopra* and Susan Z. Hua  

E-print Network

Ballistic magnetoresistance over 3000% in Ni nanocontacts at room temperature Harsh Deep Chopra 2002; published 26 June 2002 This paper reports ballistic magnetoresistance BMR measurements in Ni'' magnetoresistance or GMR effect--a spin-dependent effect discovered just over a decade ago.1 Even higher sensitivity

Chopra, Harsh Deep

364

Reach out to one and you reach out to many: Social touch affects third-party observers.  

PubMed

Casual social touch influences emotional perceptions, attitudes, and behaviours of interaction partners. We asked whether these influences extend to third-party observers. To this end, we developed the Social Touch Picture Set comprising line drawings of dyadic interactions, half of which entailed publicly acceptable casual touch and half of which served as no-touch controls. In Experiment 1, participants provided basic image norms by rating how frequently they observed a displayed touch gesture in everyday life and how comfortable they were observing it. Results implied that some touch gestures were observed more frequently and with greater comfort than others (e.g., handshake vs. hug). All gestures, however, obtained rating scores suitable for inclusion in Experiments 2 and 3. In Experiment 2, participants rated perceived valence, arousal, and likeability of randomly presented touch and no-touch images without being explicitly informed about touch. Image characters seemed more positive, aroused, and likeable when they touched as compared to when they did not touch. Image characters seemed more negative and aroused, but were equally likeable, when they received touch as compared to when there was no physical contact. In Experiment 3, participants passively viewed touch and no-touch images while their eye movements were recorded. Differential gazing at touch as compared to no-touch images emerged within the first 500 ms following image exposure and was largely restricted to the characters' upper body. Gazing at the touching body parts (e.g., hands) was minimal and largely unaffected by touch, suggesting that touch processing occurred outside the focus of visual attention. Together, these findings establish touch as an important visual cue and provide novel insights into how this cue modulates socio-emotional processing in third-party observers. PMID:24628391

Schirmer, Annett; Reece, Christy; Zhao, Claris; Ng, Erik; Wu, Esther; Yen, Shih-Cheng

2015-02-01

365

Possible sensations  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the sensory human experience through the study of facial expression and non-verbal vocal articulation in hopes of better understanding the range of modes of communications possible both interpersonally ...

Shin, Yae Jin

2013-01-01

366

Ionic signaling in plant gravity and touch responses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant roots are optimized to exploit resources from the soil and as each root explores this environment it will encounter a range of biotic and abiotic stimuli to which it must respond. Therefore, each root must possess a sensory array capable of monitoring and integrating these diverse stimuli to direct the appropriate growth response. Touch and gravity represent two of the biophysical stimuli that plants must integrate. As sensing both of these signals requires mechano-transduction of biophysical forces to biochemical signaling events, it is likely that they share signal transduction elements. These common signaling components may allow for cross-talk and so integration of thigmotropic and gravitropic responses. Indeed, signal transduction events in both plant touch and gravity sensing are thought to include Ca(2+)- and pH-dependent events. Additionally, it seems clear that the systems responsible for root touch and gravity response interact to generate an integrated growth response. Thus, primary and lateral roots of Arabidopsis respond to mechanical stimuli by eliciting tropic growth that is likely part of a growth strategy employed by the root to circumvent obstacles in the soil. Also, the mechano-signaling induced by encountering an obstacle apparently down-regulates the graviperception machinery to allow this kind of avoidance response. The challenge for future research will be to define how the cellular signaling events in the root cap facilitate this signal integration and growth regulation. In addition, whether other stimuli are likewise integrated with the graviresponse via signal transduction system cross-talk is an important question that remains to be answered.

Massa, Gioia D.; Fasano, Jeremiah M.; Gilroy, Simon

2003-01-01

367

A menu-driven, touch panel microcomputer for clinical recordkeeping.  

PubMed

Quikchart is a menu-driven, touch-panel input microcomputer system designed for computer-naive physicians active in clinical environments. It enables them to generate patient encounter records, and to store and access them using electronic memory. It also permits printing hard-copy records. The system is designed so that the physician can do all this without resorting to a standard typewriter or computer keyboard. It circumvents the disadvantages of both handwritten records and dictated records. Upward expansion of Quikchart will allow individual systems to be networked into a clinic-wide medical record system. PMID:7231224

Schenker, W J

1980-01-01

368

Touching Text Character Localization in Graphical Documents Using SIFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Interpretation of graphical document images is a challenging task as it requires proper understanding of text\\/graphics symbols\\u000a present in such documents. Difficulties arise in graphical document recognition when text and symbol overlapped\\/touched. Intersection\\u000a of text and symbols with graphical lines and curves occur frequently in graphical documents and hence separation of such symbols\\u000a is very difficult.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Several pattern recognition and

Partha Pratim Roy; Umapada Pal; Josep Lladós

2009-01-01

369

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery smokes its tires as it touches down on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after a successful mission STS-95 lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

370

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery startles a great white egret next to runway 33 as it touches down at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after a successful mission STS-95 lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

371

Reduced plantar cutaneous sensation modifies gait dynamics, lower-limb kinematics and muscle activity during walking.  

PubMed

Peripheral neuropathy is the most common long-term complication in diabetes and is involved in changes in diabetic gait and posture. The regression of nerve function leads to various deficits in the sensory and motor systems, impairing afferent and efferent pathways in the lower extremities. This study aimed to examine how reduced plantar-afferent feedback impacts the gait pattern. Cutaneous sensation in the soles of both feet was experimentally reduced by means of intradermal injections of an anaesthetic solution, without affecting foot proprioception or muscles. Ten subjects performed level walking at a controlled velocity before and after plantar anaesthesia. Muscle activity of five leg-muscles, co-contraction ratios for the knee and ankle joint, ground reaction forces (GRF), spatiotemporal characteristics, joint angles and moments of the hip, knee and ankle were analysed. The intervention significantly lowered plantar sensation, reducing it to the level of sensory neuropathy. Spatiotemporal gait characteristics remained unchanged. The ankle joint was more dorsiflexed which coincided with increased tibialis anterior and decreased gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity during foot flat to mid-stance. In addition, the knee joint was more flexed accompanied by increased biceps femoris activity and higher internal knee-extension moment. With regard to gait dynamics, a delay of the first peak of the vertical GRF was observed. Increased soleus and tibialis anterior muscle activity were found during the end of stance. Short-term loss of plantar sensation affects lower-limb kinematics and gait dynamics, particularly during the first half of stance, and contributes to modified muscle-activation patterns during locomotion. PMID:22391682

Höhne, Angela; Ali, Sufyan; Stark, Christian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter

2012-11-01

372

Artificial sweeteners and salts producing a metallic taste sensation activate TRPV1 receptors.  

PubMed

Throughout the world many people use artificial sweeteners (AS) for the purpose of reducing caloric intake. The most prominently used of these molecules include saccharin, aspartame (Nutrasweet), acesulfame-K, and cyclamate. Despite the caloric advantage they provide, one key concern in their use is their aversive aftertaste that has been characterized on a sensory level as bitter and/or metallic. Recently, it has been shown that the activation of particular T2R bitter taste receptors is partially involved with the bitter aftertaste sensation of saccharin and acesulfame-K. To more fully understand the biology behind these phenomena we have addressed the question of whether AS could stimulate transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptors, as these receptors are activated by a large range of structurally different chemicals. Moreover, TRPV1 receptors and/or their variants are found in taste receptor cells and in nerve terminals throughout the oral cavity. Hence, TRPV1 activation could be involved in the AS aftertaste or even contribute to the poorly understood metallic taste sensation. Using Ca(2+) imaging on TRPV1 receptors heterologously expressed in the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells and on dissociated primary sensory neurons, we find that in both systems, AS activate TRPV1 receptors, and, moreover, they sensitize these channels to acid and heat. We also found that TRPV1 receptors are activated by CuSO(4), ZnSO(4), and FeSO(4), three salts known to produce a metallic taste sensation. In summary, our results identify a novel group of compounds that activate TRPV1 and, consequently, provide a molecular mechanism that may account for off tastes of sweeteners and metallic tasting salts. PMID:17567713

Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; le Coutre, Johannes

2007-08-01

373

Relationship between Oscillatory Neuronal Activity during Reward Processing and Trait Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking  

PubMed Central

Background The processing of reward and punishment stimuli in humans appears to involve brain oscillatory activity of several frequencies, probably each with a distinct function. The exact nature of associations of these electrophysiological measures with impulsive or risk-seeking personality traits is not completely clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate event-related oscillatory activity during reward processing across a wide spectrum of frequencies, and its associations with impulsivity and sensation seeking in healthy subjects. Methods During recording of a 32-channel EEG 22 healthy volunteers were characterized with the Barratt Impulsiveness and the Sensation Seeking Scale and performed a computerized two-choice gambling task comprising different feedback options with positive vs. negative valence (gain or loss) and high or low magnitude (5 vs. 25 points). Results We observed greater increases of amplitudes of the feedback-related negativity and of activity in the theta, alpha and low-beta frequency range following loss feedback and, in contrast, greater increase of activity in the high-beta frequency range following gain feedback. Significant magnitude effects were observed for theta and delta oscillations, indicating greater amplitudes upon feedback concerning large stakes. The theta amplitude changes during loss were negatively correlated with motor impulsivity scores, whereas alpha and low-beta increase upon loss and high-beta increase upon gain were positively correlated with various dimensions of sensation seeking. Conclusions The findings suggest that the processing of feedback information involves several distinct processes, which are subserved by oscillations of different frequencies and are associated with different personality traits. PMID:24376698

Andreou, Christina; Karamatskos, Evangelos; Ertl, Matthias; Naber, Dieter; Mulert, Christoph

2013-01-01

374

Self reported risk taking and risk compensation in skiers and snowboarders are associated with sensation seeking.  

PubMed

In alpine skiing, a controversial discussion has been taking place regarding the potential influence of wearing a ski helmet on the individual level of risk taking behaviour. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether self reported risk taking behaviour and self reported risk compensation are associated with the personality trait sensation seeking (SS) in alpine skiing and snowboarding. In total, 683 persons (36% males and 64% females) completed an online-survey about attitudes and use of protective gear in winter sports including the German version of the sensation seeking scale form V. A logistic regression analysis including gender, age, nationality, preferred winter sport, self reported skiing ability, mean skiing time per season, use of ski helmets, and SS total score was used to estimated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95 CI) for self reported risk taking behaviour. Regression analysis revealed that a more risky behaviour increased with male gender (OR: 2.7), with an age<25 years (OR: 1.6), with skiing (OR: 1.3), higher skill level (OR: 5.7), and a mean skiing time>28 days per season (OR: 2.2). In addition, SS total score was significantly higher in more risky compared to more cautious people (23.8 vs. 20.3, p<.001). Ski helmet use was not found to be predictive for a more risky behaviour (p>.05). Also, skiers and snowboarders with self reported risk compensation while wearing a ski helmet had higher SS total scores compared to those who did not report risk compensation (23.8 vs. 20.9, p=.001). In addition, self reported risk compensation in helmet wearers increased with an age<25 years (OR: 2.2), a higher skill level (OR: 2.5) and a mean skiing time>28 days per season (OR: 2.1). In conclusion, self reported risk taking and self reported risk compensation are associated with higher sensation seeking total scores. The personality trait sensation seeking, not wearing of a ski helmet, appears to be associated with riskier behaviour on the ski slopes. PMID:22664693

Ruedl, Gerhard; Abart, Markus; Ledochowski, Larissa; Burtscher, Martin; Kopp, Martin

2012-09-01

375

Visual sensations during megavoltage radiotherapy to the orbit attributable to Cherenkov radiation  

SciTech Connect

During megavoltage photon and electron beam radiotherapy treatment involving the eye, patients commonly report visual sensations; 'nerve stimulation' is the conventional explanation. We propose that the phenomenon can be attributed to Cherenkov radiation inside the eye. The threshold electron energy for Cherenkov radiation in water is 260 keV. The human retina is able to perceive approximately 5-14 visible photons in 0.001 s. A single 500 keV electron traversing 1 mm of water will induce nearly 15 Cherenkov visible range photons. We propose that a portal image involving the eye will produce sufficient Cherenkov radiation to be detected by the retina.

Newman, Francis; Asadi-Zeydabadi, Masoud; Durairaj, Vikram D.; Ding Meisong; Stuhr, Kelly; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80217 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Hospital, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, Colorado, 80045 (United States)

2008-01-15

376

New constraints for plasma diagnostics development due to the harsh environment of MJ class lasers (invited)  

SciTech Connect

The design of plasma diagnostics for the future MJ class lasers (LMJ-Laser MegaJoule - in France or NIF - National Ignition Facility - in the USA) must take into account the large increased radiation field generated at the target and the effect on the diagnostics components. These facilities will focus up to 1.8 MJ ultraviolet laser light energy into a volume of less than 1 cm{sup 3} in a few nanoseconds. This very high power focused onto a small target will generate a large amount of x rays, debris, shrapnel, and nuclear particles (neutrons and gamma rays) if the DT fuel capsules ignite. Ignition targets will produce a million more of 14 MeV neutrons (10{sup 19} neutrons) by comparison with the present worldwide most powerful laser neutron source facility at OMEGA. Under these harsh environmental conditions the survivability goal of present diagnostic is not clear and many new studies must be carried out to verify which diagnostic measurement techniques, can be maintained, adapted or must be completely changed. Synergies with similar environment studies conducted for magnetic fusion diagnostic design for ITER facility are considered and must be enhanced.

Bourgade, J.L.; Allouche, V.; Baggio, J.; Bayer, C.; Bonneau, F.; Chollet, C.; Darbon, S.; Disdier, L.; Gontier, D.; Houry, M.; Jacquet, H.P.; Jadaud, J.P.; Leray, J.L.; Masclet-Gobin, I.; Negre, J.P.; Raimbourg, J.; Villette, B.; Bertron, I.; Chevalier, J.M.; Favier, J.M. [CEA/DIF, BP No. 12, 91680 Bruyeres le Chatel (France); CEA/CESTA, BP No. 2, 33114 Le Barp (France); Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14523 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [and others

2004-10-01

377

Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300°C and 900°C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

Pilgrim, C. C. [Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ, UK and Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Heyes, A. L. [Energy Technology and Innovation Initiative, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Feist, J. P. [Sensor Coating Systems, Imperial Incubator, Bessemer Building, Level 1 and 2, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2014-02-18

378

Thin film electrodes and passivation coatings for harsh environment microwave acoustic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

°Stable nanostructured ultra-thin electrodes and protective passivation coatings have been developed for langasite (La3Ga5SiO14) based surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors that can successfully operate in harsh high temperature environments up to 1000°C. Ultrathin (<100nm) nanocomposite Pt-Rh/ZrO2 electrode structures were fabricated by electron beam co-evaporation and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), 4-point resistivity, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. It was found that the incorporation of ZrO2 into the Pt-Rh electrode films retards recrystallization and de-wetting, thereby maintaining film continuity and low resistivity up to at least 1000°C. XPS results show that with heating at 800°C, the stoichiometry of the bare langasite SAW sensor surface becomes depleted of Ga in a reducing (vacuum) environment, but remains close to the bulk composition when heated in an oxidizing (air) environment. The incorporation of a thin oxynitride (SiAlON or SiZrON) coating over the entire sensor diminishes high temperature roughening and degradation of both the electrode and bare langasite surfaces. The viability and performance of these sensors was validated by experiments in which the SAW devices were tested in a controlled atmosphere laboratory furnace and also attached to rotating turbine blades within a small turbine engine operating with centripetal acceleration loads and temperatures in excess of 52,000g and 650°C, and under cyclical temperature shock conditions.

Moulzolf, Scott C.; Frankel, David J.; Bernhardt, George P.; Nugent, Bryn; Lad, Robert J.

2011-06-01

379

Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 °C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 ?s, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 ?m depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

Oliveira, R. M.; Fernandes, B. B.; Carreri, F. C.; Gonçalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M. M. N. F.; Silva, M. M.; Pichon, L.; Camargo, E. N.; Otubo, J.

2012-12-01

380

Conformal Thin Film Packaging for SiC Sensor Circuits in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this investigation sputtered silicon carbide annealed at 300 C for one hour is used as a conformal thin film package. A RF magnetron sputterer was used to deposit 500 nm silicon carbide films on gold metal structures on alumina wafers. To determine the reliability and resistance to immersion in harsh environments, samples were submerged in gold etchant for 24 hours, in BOE for 24 hours, and in an O2 plasma etch for one hour. The adhesion strength of the thin film was measured by a pull test before and after the chemical immersion, which indicated that the film has an adhesion strength better than 10(exp 8) N/m2; this is similar to the adhesion of the gold layer to the alumina wafer. MIM capacitors are used to determine the dielectric constant, which is dependent on the SiC anneal temperature. Finally, to demonstrate that the SiC, conformal, thin film may be used to package RF circuits and sensors, an LC resonator circuit was fabricated and tested with and without the conformal SiC thin film packaging. The results indicate that the SiC coating adds no appreciable degradation to the circuits RF performance. Index Terms Sputter, silicon carbide, MIM capacitors, LC resonators, gold etchants, BOE, O2 plasma

Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Karnick, David A.; Ponchak, George E.; Zorman, Christian A.

2011-01-01

381

Environmental harshness is positively correlated with intraspecific divergence in mammals and birds.  

PubMed

Life on Earth is conspicuously more diverse in the tropics. Although this intriguing geographical pattern has been linked to many biotic and abiotic factors, their relative importance and potential interactions are still poorly understood. The way in which latitudinal changes in ecological conditions influence evolutionary processes is particularly controversial, as there is evidence for both a positive and a negative latitudinal gradient in speciation rates. Here, we identify and address some methodological issues (how patterns are analysed and how latitude is quantified) that could lead to such conflicting results. To address these issues, we assemble a comprehensive data set of the environmental correlates of latitude (including climate, net primary productivity and habitat heterogeneity) and combine it with biological, historical and molecular data to explore global patterns in recent divergence events (subspeciation). Surprisingly, we find that the harsher conditions that typify temperate habitats (lower primary productivity, decreased rainfall and more variable and unpredictable temperatures) are positively correlated with greater subspecies richness in terrestrial mammals and birds. Thus, our findings indicate that intraspecific divergence is greater in regions with lower biodiversity, a pattern that is robust to both sampling variation and latitudinal biases in taxonomic knowledge. We discuss possible causal mechanisms for the link between environmental harshness and subspecies richness (faster rates of evolution, greater likelihood of range discontinuities and more opportunities for divergence) and conclude that this pattern supports recent indications that latitudinal gradients of diversity are maintained by simultaneously higher potentials for both speciation and extinction in temperate than tropical regions. PMID:24283535

Botero, Carlos A; Dor, Roi; McCain, Christy M; Safran, Rebecca J

2013-10-28

382

Silicon Carbide Micro/Nano Systems for Demanding and Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro/nano systems enable the development of smart products and systems by augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of sensors and actuators. Micro/nano systems are also known as micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS), and have been commercialized in a wide range of applications including crash sensing, blood pressure measurement, optical projection, and fluid flow control to name a few. Silicon, in single- and polycrystalline forms, has been the platform semiconductor material underpinning the fabrication of the mechanical and electronic elements of micro/nano systems. However, the materials properties of silicon impose limitations on its use in harsh environment and demanding applications--for example, those involving operation in the presence of high temperatures, corrosive media, high shock loads, erosive flows, and/or high radiation, or involving performance requirements for the mechanical elements that are beyond silicon's capabilities. Silicon carbide (SiC) is an alternative platform semiconductor material that enables such applications because of its wider bandgap and higher melting/sublimation temperature, elastic modulus, fracture toughness, hardness, chemical inertness, and thermal conductivity. This talk will highlight our most recent SiC material, process, and device advances to enable sensing and actuation in applications such as propulsion instrumentation/control, power generation, resource exploration, nuclear reactor instrumentation, deep space exploration, and communications.

Mehregany, Mehran

2008-03-01

383

Oligothiol graft-copolymer coatings stabilize gold nanoparticles against harsh experimental conditions.  

PubMed

We report that poly(L-lysine)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG) copolymers that bear multiple thiol groups on the polymer backbone are exceptional ligands for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). In general, these graft copolymer ligands stabilize AuNPs against environments that would ordinarily lead to particle aggregation. To characterize the effect of copolymer structure on AuNP stability, we synthesized thiolated PLL-g-PEGs (PLL-g-[PEG:SH]) with different backbone lengths, PEG grafting densities, and number of thiols per polymer chain. AuNPs were then combined with these polymer ligands, and the stabilities of the resulting AuNP@PLL-g-[PEG:SH] particles against high temperature, oxidants, and competing thiol ligands were characterized using dynamic light scattering, visible absorption spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. Our observations indicate that thiolated PLL-g-PEG ligands combine thermodynamic stabilization via multiple Au-S bonds and steric stabilization by PEG grafts, and the best graft copolymer ligands balance these two effects. We hope that this new ligand system enables AuNPs to be applied to biotechnological applications that require harsh experimental conditions. PMID:22957513

Kang, Jun Sung; Taton, T Andrew

2012-12-11

384

Detection and segmentation of multiple touching product inspection items  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

X-ray images of pistachio nuts on conveyor trays for product inspection are considered. The first step in such a processor is to locate each individual item and place it in a separate file for input to a classifier to determine the quality of each nut. This paper considers new techniques to: detect each item (each nut can be in any orientation, we employ new rotation-invariant filters to locate each item independent of its orientation), produce separate image files for each item [a new blob coloring algorithm provides this for isolated (non-touching) input items], segmentation to provide separate image files for touching or overlapping input items (we use a morphological watershed transform to achieve this), and morphological processing to remove the shell and produce an image of only the nutmeat. Each of these operations and algorithms are detailed and quantitative data for each are presented for the x-ray image nut inspection problem noted. These techniques are of general use in many different product inspection problems in agriculture and other areas.

Casasent, David P.; Talukder, Ashit; Cox, Westley; Chang, Hsuan-Ting; Weber, David

1996-12-01

385

Development of brain mechanisms for processing affective touch  

PubMed Central

Affective tactile stimulation plays a key role in the maturation of neural circuits, but the development of brain mechanisms processing touch is poorly understood. We therefore used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study brain responses to soft brush stroking of both glabrous (palm) and hairy (forearm) skin in healthy children (5–13 years), adolescents (14–17 years), and adults (25–35 years). Adult-defined regions-of-interests in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insular cortex and right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) were significantly and similarly activated in all age groups. Whole-brain analyses revealed that responses in the ipsilateral SII were positively correlated with age in both genders, and that responses in bilateral regions near the pSTS correlated significantly and strongly with age in females but not in males. These results suggest that brain mechanisms associated with both sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational aspects of touch are largely established in school-aged children, and that there is a general continuing maturation of SII and a female-specific increase in pSTS sensitivity with age. Our work establishes a groundwork for future comparative studies of tactile processing in developmental disorders characterized by disrupted social perception such as autism. PMID:24550800

Björnsdotter, Malin; Gordon, Ilanit; Pelphrey, Kevin A.; Olausson, Håkan; Kaiser, Martha D.

2014-01-01

386

Our Sense of Touch: Two-Point Discrimination  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the touch sensory system and discover how to plan and carry out their own experiments. In "CLASS EXPERIMENT," learners find that the ability to tell that two points rather than just one are pressing on the skin depends on two things: the density of skin sensory receptors and the connections that the sensory nerve cells make in the brain. They learn basic facts about sensory receptors and nerve connections, and use their estimates of receptor density to predict the size of the brain areas devoted to input from different skin regions. In "TRY YOUR OWN EXPERIMENT," learners design their own experiments, investigating, for example, how touch information is important in motor tasks, or whether additional sensory input can interfere with two-point discrimination. This lesson plan includes background information and guides for educators and learners. Note: total learning time may be reduced if the number of skin areas tested are limited and you restrict the materials in the second part of the activity.

Marjorie A. Murray Ph.D.

2009-01-01

387

Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor for Passive Tire Monitoring System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Passive Tire Monitoring System (PTMS) enables to detect pressure, temperature and ID number of each tire. And it also can warn drivers about low pressure or flat tires. In our proposal, the sensors to detect tire pressure are implanted in each tire. Therefore, they must have a robust structure enough to withstand against an overload pressure that is applied during curing process of tires, as well as a high sensitivity and its good linearity in their operating range. Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensor(1) seems to be suitable for this system, because it has some advantages such as near linear output, strong endurance against overload pressure and a robust structure compared with other conventional pressure sensors. The purpose of this study is to improve the minimum burst pressure of the Touch Mode Capacitive Pressure Sensors in the high volume production. As a result of observation with AFM and TEM, we found that some etch-pits, which are produced in etching process of the diaphragm of the sensors, make the diaphragm weak. Consequently, we could optimize the etching conditions, and obtain the sensors of which the minimum burst pressure is 3.5MPa and more at a high yield rate.

Yamamoto, Satoshi; Takizawa, Takashi; Nishimura, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Hironari; Nakao, Osamu

388

Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

2013-12-01

389

The influence of executive functions, sensation seeking, and HIV serostatus on the risky sexual practices of substance-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

From a public health standpoint, identifying factors that contribute to risky sexual practices among substance-dependent individuals is critical, particularly in the context of HIV infection. This study examines the respective contributions of executive neurocognitive functions, sensation seeking, and HIV serostatus in predicting risky sexual practices among poly-substance users (with a history of dependence primarily for cocaine or cocaine/heroin). HIV+ (n=109) and HIV- (n=154) substance-dependent individuals were assessed using three neurocognitive tasks of executive functions: Stroop reaction time, delayed non-matching to sample, and the Iowa Gambling Task. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Sensation Seeking Scale-V. Greater sensation seeking was associated with more risky sexual practices among HIV+ participants, particularly among those who performed best on the Iowa Gambling Task. Our findings indicate that continued risk behavior among HIV+ drug users may be driven by sensation seeking (a personality trait common among drug users); however, the impact of executive functions is less clear. PMID:15962700

Gonzalez, Raul; Vassileva, Jasmin; Bechara, Antoine; Grbesic, Silvana; Sworowski, Lisa; Novak, Richard M; Nunnally, Gerald; Martin, Eileen M

2005-03-01

390

The Response of Human Thermal Sensation and Its Prediction to Temperature Step-Change (Cool-Neutral-Cool)  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on studies of the effect of temperature step-change (between a cool and a neutral environment) on human thermal sensation and skin temperature. Experiments with three temperature conditions were carried out in a climate chamber during the period in winter. Twelve subjects participated in the experiments simulating moving inside and outside of rooms or cabins with air conditioning. Skin temperatures and thermal sensation were recorded. Results showed overshoot and asymmetry of TSV due to the step-change. Skin temperature changed immediately when subjects entered a new environment. When moving into a neutral environment from cool, dynamic thermal sensation was in the thermal comfort zone and overshoot was not obvious. Air-conditioning in a transitional area should be considered to limit temperature difference to not more than 5°C to decrease the unacceptability of temperature step-change. The linear relationship between thermal sensation and skin temperature or gradient of skin temperature does not apply in a step-change environment. There is a significant linear correlation between TSV and Qloss in the transient environment. Heat loss from the human skin surface can be used to predict dynamic thermal sensation instead of the heat transfer of the whole human body. PMID:25136808

Du, Xiuyuan; Li, Baizhan; Liu, Hong; Yang, Dong; Yu, Wei; Liao, Jianke; Huang, Zhichao; Xia, Kechao

2014-01-01

391

Symptomization and triggering processes: Ovarian cancer patients' narratives on pre-diagnostic sensation experiences and the initiation of healthcare seeking.  

PubMed

Ovarian cancer is a malignant entity typically diagnosed in advanced stages, with concomitant poor prognosis. Delayed healthcare seeking is commonly explained by the 'vague' character of the disease's symptoms combined with a lack of awareness among patients. However, research on the social contexts of ovarian cancer patients' pre-diagnostic illness experiences and healthcare seeking is scarce. To explore these topics, we initiated a qualitative interview study guided by the principles of grounded theory and based on interviews with 42 ovarian cancer patients. The study was conducted in Germany from September 2011 to February 2013. Our analysis illustrates how, in the narratives, the interviewees struggled to balance specific bodily sensations with aspects of their life-worlds prior to consulting a biomedical professional. We propose a three-phase model to capture these experiences and demonstrate how the developments of pre-diagnostic sensations were catalysed by the dynamic and complex interplay of the sensations with a variety of individual and socio-cultural factors. To conceptualize these interplays, we introduce the analytical notion of a triggering process, and we elaborate on the different ways in which such a process conditioned the transformation of a sensation into a symptom and decisions to seek healthcare. We finally discuss our findings both in relation to current research on sensations, symptoms and healthcare seeking and in their relevance for understanding diagnostic delays in ovarian cancer. PMID:25179810

Brandner, Susanne; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Stritter, Wiebke; Fotopoulou, Christina; Sehouli, Jalid; Holmberg, Christine

2014-10-01

392

Assessment and in vitro experiment of artificial anal sphincter system based on rebuilding the rectal sensation function.  

PubMed

In this paper, a novel artificial anal sphincter (AAS) system based on rebuilding the rectal sensation function is proposed to treat human fecal incontinence. The executive mechanism of the traditional AAS system was redesigned and integrated for a simpler structure and better durability. The novel executive mechanism uses a sandwich structure to simulate the basic function of the natural human anal sphincter. To rebuild the lost rectal sensation function caused by fecal incontinence, we propose a novel method for rebuilding the rectal sensation function based on an Optimal Wavelet Packet Basis (OWPB) using the Davies-Bouldin (DB) index and a support vector machine (SVM). OWPB using a DB index is used for feature vector extraction, while a SVM is adopted for pattern recognition.Furthermore, an in vitro experiment with the AAS system based on rectal sensation function rebuilding was carried out. Experimental results indicate that the novel executive mechanism can simulate the basic function of the natural human anal sphincter, and the proposed method is quite effective for rebuilding rectal sensation in patients. PMID:24619902

Zan, Peng; Liu, Jinding; Jiang, Enyu; Wang, Hua

2014-05-01

393

Equal sensation curves for whole-body vibration expressed as a function of driving force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown that the seated human is most sensitive to whole-body vertical vibration at about 5 Hz. Similarly, the body shows an apparent mass resonance at about 5 Hz. Considering these similarities between the biomechanical and subjective responses, it was hypothesized that, at low frequencies, subjective ratings of whole-body vibration might be directly proportional to the driving force. Twelve male subjects participated in a laboratory experiment where subjects sat on a rigid seat mounted on a shaker. The magnitude of a test stimulus was adjusted such that the subjective intensity could be matched to a reference stimulus, using a modified Bruceton test protocol. The sinusoidal reference stimulus was 8-Hz vibration with a magnitude of 0.5 m/s2 rms (or 0.25 m/s2 rms for the 1-Hz test); the sinusoidal test stimuli had frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 16, and 32 Hz. Equal sensation contours in terms of seat acceleration showed data similar to those in the literature. Equal sensation contours in terms of force showed a nominally linear response at 1, 2, and 4 Hz, but an increasing sensitivity at higher frequencies. This is in agreement with a model derived from published subjective and objective fitted data. .

Mansfield, Neil J.; Maeda, Setsuo

2005-06-01

394

Intracellular Signaling and the Origins of the Sensations of Itch and Pain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The skin is the largest sensory organ of the body. It is innervated by a diverse array of primary sensory neurons, including a heterogeneous subset of unmyelinated afferents called C fibers. C fibers, sometimes classified as nociceptors, can detect various painful stimuli, including temperature extremes. However, it is increasingly evident that these afferents respond to various pruritic stimuli and transmit information to the brain that is perceived as itch; this can subsequently drive scratching behavior. Although itch and pain are distinct sensations, they are closely related and can, under certain circumstances, antagonize each other. However, it is not clear precisely when, where, and how the processes generating these two sensations originate and how they are dissociated. Clues have come from the analysis of the activities of specific ligands and their receptors. New data indicate that specific pruritic ligands carrying both itch and pain information are selectively recognized by different G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), and this information may be transduced through different intracellular circuits in the same neuron. These findings raise questions about the intracellular mechanisms that preprocess and perhaps encode GPCR-mediated signals.

Sang-Kyou Han (University of California at San Diego;Department of Pharmacology REV); Melvin I. Simon (University of California at San Diego;Department of Pharmacology REV)

2011-08-09

395

Threshold of sensation for 60-Hz leakage current: results of a survey.  

PubMed

Canadian regulations have set a limit of 100 microA on leakage currents permitted to flow from patient-applied parts of an electromedical device under single-fault conditions, while international standards, such as International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 601-1, have set the limit of 500 microA under the same conditions. Canadian agencies have suggested that national standards for electromedical devices should harmonize with widely used international standards by increasing the leakage current limit to 500 microA. The authors investigated the question of whether 500 microA would compromise safety, or would be unpleasant or painful for the patient. A survey was conducted on the reactions of 95 adult volunteers to 60-Hz alternating currents ranging from 10 to 500 microA applied through typical ECG electrodes to determine the level at which these volunteers felt a distinctly uncomfortable or painful sensation. Results of this survey confirm that 500 microA currents are more than sufficient to induce pain in healthy adult volunteers, and that currents greater than 100 microA can evoke a definite sensation. Based on these findings, the authors recommend that the maximum allowable leakage current for patient-applied parts under single-fault conditions should not exceed 100 microA. PMID:2344552

Tan, K S; Johnson, D L

1990-01-01

396

Effects of turbulent air on human thermal sensations in a warm isothermal environment.  

PubMed

Air movement can provide desirable cooling in "warm" conditions, but it can also cause discomfort. This study focuses on the effects of turbulent air movements on human thermal sensations through investigating the preferred air velocity within the temperature range of 26 degrees C and 30.5 degrees C at two relative humidity levels of 35% and 65%. Subjects in an environmental chamber were allowed to adjust air movement as they liked while answering a series of questions about their thermal comfort and draft sensation. The results show that operative temperature, turbulent intensity and relative humidity have significant effects on preferred velocities, and that there is a wide variation among subjects in their thermal comfort votes. Most subjects can achieve thermal comfort under the experimental conditions after adjusting the air velocity as they like, except at the relative high temperature of 30.5 degrees C. The results also indicate that turbulence may reduce draft risk in neutral-to-warm conditions. The annoying effect caused by the air pressure and its drying effect at higher velocities should not be ignored. A new model of Percentage Dissatisfied at Preferred Velocities (PDV) is presented to predict the percentage of feeling draft in warm isothermal conditions. PMID:11089332

Xia, Y Z; Niu, J L; Zhao, R Y; Burnett, J

2000-12-01

397

Hearing sensation levels of emitted biosonar clicks in an echolocating Atlantic bottlenose dolphin.  

PubMed

Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of -34, -28, and -22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field) click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation. PMID:22238654

Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E; Breese, Marlee; Supin, Alexander Ya

2012-01-01

398

Hearing Sensation Levels of Emitted Biosonar Clicks in an Echolocating Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin  

PubMed Central

Emitted biosonar clicks and auditory evoked potential (AEP) responses triggered by the clicks were synchronously recorded during echolocation in an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) trained to wear suction-cup EEG electrodes and to detect targets by echolocation. Three targets with target strengths of ?34, ?28, and ?22 dB were used at distances of 2 to 6.5 m for each target. The AEP responses were sorted according to the corresponding emitted click source levels in 5-dB bins and averaged within each bin to extract biosonar click-related AEPs from noise. The AEP amplitudes were measured peak-to-peak and plotted as a function of click source levels for each target type, distance, and target-present or target-absent condition. Hearing sensation levels of the biosonar clicks were evaluated by comparing the functions of the biosonar click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click source level to a function of external (in free field) click-related AEP amplitude-versus-click sound pressure level. The results indicated that the dolphin's hearing sensation levels to her own biosonar clicks were equal to that of external clicks with sound pressure levels 16 to 36 dB lower than the biosonar click source levels, varying with target type, distance, and condition. These data may be assumed to indicate that the bottlenose dolphin possesses effective protection mechanisms to isolate the self-produced intense biosonar beam from the animal's ears during echolocation. PMID:22238654

Li, Songhai; Nachtigall, Paul E.; Breese, Marlee; Supin, Alexander Ya.

2012-01-01

399

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation is required for itch sensation in the spinal cord  

PubMed Central

Background Itch, chronic itch in particular, can have a significant negative impact on an individual’s quality of life. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying itch processing in the central nervous system remain largely unknown. Results We report here that activation of ERK signaling in the spinal cord is required for itch sensation. ERK activation, as revealed by anti-phosphorylated ERK1/2 immunostaining, is observed in the spinal dorsal horn of mice treated with intradermal injections of histamine and compound 48/80 but not chloroquine or SLIGRL-NH2, indicating that ERK activation only occurs in histamine-dependent acute itch. In addition, ERK activation is also observed in 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced itch. Consistently, intrathecal administration of the ERK phosphorylation inhibitor U0126 dramatically reduces the scratching behaviors induced by histamine and DNFB, but not by chloroquine. Furthermore, administration of the histamine receptor H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine decreases the scratching behaviors and ERK activation induced by histamine, but has no effect on DNFB-induced itch responses. Finally, the patch-clamp recording shows that in histamine-, chloroquine- and DNFB-treated mice the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) of dorsal horn neurons is increased, and the decrease of action potential threshold is largely prevented by bathing of U0126 in histamine- and DNFB-treated mice but not those treated with chloroquine. Conclusion Our results demonstrate a critical role for ERK activation in itch sensation at the spinal level. PMID:24708812

2014-01-01

400

Intravenous angiocatheters as a novel alternative to Semmes-Weinstein monofilament evaluation in testing protective sensation.  

PubMed

Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) evaluation for protective sensation in diabetic feet is a widely used tool to guide patient care. Little evidence is available for alternative testing modalities for use when monofilament is not available or is deformed. Multiple varieties of intravenous angiocatheter tubing were subjected to biomechanical testing on a digital scale to assess the force generated once bending was observed by five independently tested raters. A 5.07 SWM (10 g) was tested in similar manner to establish a baseline and validate testing methodology. The 24 gauge × 0.75 in angiocatheter measured the closest to the 5.07 SWM (10 g) at an average force of 22 ± 0.91 g compared with 10.2 ± 0.13 g. Large-gauge angiocatheters measured greater forces. High intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was observed with all values greater than 0.98 (p < 0.001). A 24 gauge × 0.75 in angiocatheter tubing can be used as an alternative to the standard 5.07 SWM (10 g) for testing protective sensation in diabetic feet. Reviewing previously published receiver operating characteristics, this modality would yield estimated sensitivity and specificity values greater than 0.8 and 0.7, respectively, for detecting insensate feet tested at the bilateral metatarsal heads. PMID:24690970

Hire, Justin M; Ramadorai, Uma E; Contractor, Dhruti; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Bojescul, John A; Abell, Brian E

2014-04-01

401

Exploring the Relation of Harsh Parental Discipline with Child Emotional and Behavioral Problems by Using Multiple Informants. The Generation R Study  

PubMed Central

Parental harsh disciplining, like corporal punishment, has consistently been associated with adverse mental health outcomes in children. It remains a challenge to accurately assess the consequences of harsh discipline, as researchers and clinicians generally rely on parent report of young children's problem behaviors. If parents rate their parenting styles and their child's behavior this may bias results. The use of child self-report on problem behaviors is not common but may provide extra information about the relation of harsh parental discipline and problem behavior. We examined the independent contribution of young children's self-report above parental report of emotional and behavioral problems in a study of maternal and paternal harsh discipline in a birth cohort. Maternal and paternal harsh discipline predicted both parent reported behavioral and parent reported emotional problems, but only child reported behavioral problems. Associations were not explained by pre-existing behavioral problems at age 3. Importantly, the association with child reported outcomes was independent from parent reported problem behavior. These results suggest that young children's self-reports of behavioral problems provide unique information on the effects of harsh parental discipline. Inclusion of child self-reports can therefore help estimate the effects of harsh parental discipline more accurately. PMID:25120014

Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Ringoot, Ank P.; van der Ende, Jan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Jansen, Pauline W.; Tiemeier, Henning W.

2014-01-01

402

Fast fiber Bragg grating interrogation system with scalability to support monitoring of large structures in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic sensor systems can alleviate certain challenges faced by electronics sensors faced when monitoring structures subject to marine and other harsh environments. Challenges in implementation of such systems include scalability, interconnection and cabling. We describe a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system architecture based that is scalable to support over 1000 electromagnetic interference immune sensors at high sampling rates for harsh environment applications. A key enabler is a high performance FBG interrogator supporting subsection sampling rates ranging from kHz to MHz. Results are presented for fast dynamic switching between multiple structural sections and the use of this sensing system for dynamic load monitoring as well as the potential for acoustic emission and ultrasonic monitoring on materials ranging from aluminum and composites to concrete subject to severe environments.

Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard J.; Costa, Joannes M.; Edwards, Elizabeth H.; Faridian, Fereydoun; Sotoudeh, Vahid

2014-04-01

403

Harsh discipline, childhood sexual assault, and MAOA genotype: An investigation of main and interactive effects on diverse clinical externalizing outcomes  

PubMed Central

We studied the impact of MAOA genotype, childhood sexual assault, and harsh discipline on clinical externalizing symptoms (substance problems, adult antisocial behavior, and conduct disorder). Participants were 841 individual twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study assessed through age 25. MAOA genotype was not associated with differences in any phenotype, nor was there a significant interaction between MAOA and harsh discipline for any phenotype or a significant interaction between MAOA and childhood sexual assault for substance problems. We found evidence that childhood sexual assault interacted with MAOA genotype to predict antisocial behavior and conduct disorder symptoms. Individuals with the low MAOA activity genotype who reported childhood sexual assault had more symptoms than individuals with either the high MAOA activity genotype and/or no history of childhood sexual assault. These findings suggest that the previously reported interaction between MAOA and childhood maltreatment may be specific to the antisocial subset of externalizing disorders. PMID:20364435

Derringer, Jaime; Krueger, Robert F.; Irons, Daniel E.; Iacono, William G.

2010-01-01

404

Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures  

PubMed Central

Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with positive and—although very limited—negative parenting. Certain aspects of ga-jung-kyo-yuk are positively associated with authoritative style or authoritarian style, or even with both of them simultaneously. They were positively associated with positive parenting (warmth, acceptance, and communication) but not with harsh parenting (rejection and negative discipline). Exceptions to this general pattern were Korean traditional disciplinary practices and the later age of separate sleeping of children. The study discusses implications of these findings and provides suggestions for future research. PMID:23977415

Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

2013-01-01

405

Silicon-glass-based single piezoresistive pressure sensors for harsh environment applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-glass (Si-glass)-based single piezoresistive pressure sensors were designed and fabricated by standard MEMS technology. The single piezoresistive sensing element was designed to be on the lower surface of the silicon diaphragm and be vacuum-sealed in a Si-glass cavity, which form a self-packaging protection structure helpful to the applications of sensors in harsh media. The pressure sensors were fabricated using a Si-glass anodic bonding technique, and the embedded Al feedthrough lines at the Si-glass interface are used to realize the electrical connections between the piezo-sensing element and the electrode-pads, and two larger-size electrode-pads are fabricated for realizing the soldered electrical connection between the sensor and the external circuit. The performance of the pressure sensors was characterized by a pressure test system at different temperature conditions. The temperature compensation was performed by the difference between the output voltage at zero-pressure and the output at operation pressure. The measurement results show that the sensitivity is 24 mV V-1 MPa-1, the coefficient of sensitivity is 0.14%?FS °C-1, and both the zero-point offset and the temperature coefficient of offset are equal to zero, which are able to meet the commercial application requirements. However, a nonlinearity of 5.2%?FS caused by the balloon effect would considerably worsen the accuracy of the pressure sensor. It is suggested to reduce the balloon effect by using a bossed-diaphragm structure in the pressure sensor.

San, Haisheng; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Yuxi; Chen, Xuyuan

2013-07-01

406

Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments  

SciTech Connect

This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance. Validation of the TDL measurement on the EAF was confirmed by comparison with extractive sampling CO measurements.

VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

2006-05-30

407

Development of polypropylene-based ultraviolet-stabilized formulations for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the outdoor weathering performance of ultraviolet (UV)-stabilized polypropylene (PP) products (using PP resins from Saudi Basic Industries Corporation [SABIC]). Different hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) were used to stabilize PP-film-based formulations that were exposed for 10 months in harsh outdoor weather of Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Characterization of the exposed PP film products was done in terms of mechanical and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic properties. HALS are a very effective light stabilizer for polyolefins.[14 16] They do not act by absorbing UV radiation, but by inhibiting degradation of the polymer, which has started the formation of free radicals. They function by scavenging radicals. HALS has low volatility and high extraction resistance. The effectiveness of HALS is independent of product thickness. Another advantage is that it provides a significant level of stabilization at relatively low concentration.[18] Some important types of high molecular weight HALS are Chimassorb 944 and Tinuvin 622, and a low molecular weight HALS is Tinuvin 770. These HALS, together with other UV stabilizers, are commonly used in polyolefin stabilization. The PP film formulations were divided into five categories based on the type of HALS incorporated. This was done to derive meaningful comparison of the various film formulations. The characterization data are presented for an exposure period of 10 months. The unstabilized PP films were degraded within 2.5 months of the exposure period. The performance in terms of decrease in mechanical properties and FTIR spectroscopic properties was assessed as a result of natural weathering for UV-stabilized samples. Following outdoor weathering trials, the lifetimes of certain formulations were determined. On the basis of the FTIR spectroscopic properties, it was determined that generally, the HALS-stabilized PP film formulations delayed the formation of oxidation products including esters, carbonyls, and trans-vinylenes.

Hussain, Ikram; Redhwi, Halim Hamid

2002-06-01

408

Thermoset polymer performance under harsh environments to evaluate glass composite rebars for infrastructure applications  

SciTech Connect

Corrosion of steel bars in concrete infrastructure facilities such as bridges, buildings, marine constructions and chemical plants is a serious problem. Various solutions have been tried in the past to counter the threat of corrosion in steel bars by using epoxy coatings, cathodic protection, increased concrete cover thickness and use of polymer concrete. None of the measures have provided a long term solution. The US Department of Transportation estimates the cost of repairing deteriorated infrastructure facilities to be billions of dollars. Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) bars have the potential to replace steel bars in concrete structures due to their superior mechanical and chemical properties such as non-corrosiveness, non-magnetic properties, high strength and light weight. Long term durability of GFRP under harsh environments needs to be completely understood before their field implementation. This paper describes the accelerated tests conducted on 13 mm and 19 mm (No. 4 and No. 6) E-glass fiber reinforced bars, manufactured with different durable resins, to evaluate the effect of environmental factors. Conditioning schemes consisted of exposing GFRP bars to ambient and freeze-thaw temperature cycles, chemical environments in the liquid form (pH{approximately}7--13) and sustained stress. GFRP bars used in this study were manufactured with five specially selected thermoset polymeric resins, and the conditioned bars were tested in tension to evaluate the changes in strength and stiffness with respect to unconditioned bars. Test results indicate that the GFRP bars with urethane modified bisphenol vinylester have excellent strength and stiffness properties as compared to bars with different resins under five conditioning schemes considered.

Altizer, S.D.; Vijay, P.V.; GangaRao, H.V.S. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States). Constructed Facilities Center; Douglass, N.; Pauer, R. [Reichhold Chemicals Inc., Durham, NC (United States)

1996-11-01

409

Assessment of using unleaded fuel in the harsh environment of the United Arab Emirates.  

PubMed

The service life of lubricating oil produced in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) was examined using a car fueled with leaded or unleaded gasoline of the same grade in harsh local conditions. In addition, the economic impact of using leaded vs. unleaded gasoline via the effects on the useful life of engine oil was investigated. Every 500 km that the car was operated, the physical properties of the oil were examined to determine the optimum oil life before replacement. It was found that relative to unleaded gasoline, leaded gasoline resulted in a faster deterioration of lube oil properties and a reduced useful life of the oil. Many of the effects of use on the physical properties of oil became apparent from the beginning of its service, especially when leaded gasoline was used. Our findings indicate that the recommended useful life of oil when using leaded gasoline is 2500 km. With unleaded gasoline, deterioration of the physical properties of the lubricating oil became a concern after 3000 km. Thus with unleaded gasoline, it is recommended to have an oil change every 3500 km. These findings indicate that the decision of the UAE government to stop using lead compound additives to improve the octane number of gasoline will not only protect the environment from the harmful effects of lead compounds, but will also extend the useful life of oil. This extension will reduce the amount of used oil that is disposed of by up to 4678 tons/year. This reduction in oil use translates to a cost savings of about 23.4 million UAE Dirhams (=$6.37 million US Dollars) per year. PMID:17064840

Ibrahim, Taleb H; Al-Zubaidy, Essam A H

2007-10-01

410

Development of a measurement system for the online inspection of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microscopic imaging techniques are usually applied for the inspection of microstructured surfaces. These techniques require clean measurement conditions. Soilings, e.g. dust or splashing liquids, can disturb the measurement process or even damage instruments. Since these soilings occur in the majority of manufacturing processes, microscopic inspection usually must be carried out in a separate laboratory. We present a measurement system which allows for a microscopic inspection and a 3D reconstruction of microstructured surfaces in harsh industrial conditions. The measurement system also enables precise positioning, e.g. of a grinding wheel, with an accuracy of 5 ?m. The main component of the measurement system is a CCD camera with a high-magnification telecentric lens. By means of this camera it is even possible to measure structures with dimensions in the range of 30 to 50 ?m. The camera and the lens are integrated into a waterproof and dustproof enclosure. The inspection window of the enclosure has an air curtain which serves as a splash guard. The workpiece illumination is crucial in order to obtain good measurement results. The measuring system includes high-power LEDs which are integrated in a waterproof enclosure. The measurement system also includes a laser with a specially designed lens system to form an extremely narrow light section on the workpiece surface. It is possible to obtain a line width of 25 ?m. This line and the camera with the high-magnification telecentric lens are used to perform a laser triangulation of the microstructured surface. This paper describes the system as well as the development and evaluation of the software for the automatic positioning of the workpiece and the automatic three-dimensional surface analysis.

Mueller, Thomas; Langmann, Benjamin; Reithmeier, Eduard

2014-05-01

411

Accumbens functional connectivity during reward mediates sensation-seeking and alcohol use in high-risk youth*  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Differences in fronto-striatal connectivity in problem substance users have suggested reduced influence of cognitive regions on reward-salience regions. Youth with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) have disrupted ventral striatal processing compared with controls with no familial risk (FH?). As sensation-seeking represents an additional vulnerability factor, we hypothesized that functional connectivity during reward anticipation would differ by family history, and would mediate the relationship between sensation-seeking and drinking in high-risk subjects. METHODS Seventy 18–22 year olds (49 FH+/21 FH?) performed a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Group connectivity differences for incentive (reward/loss) vs. neutral conditions were evaluated with psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis, seeded in nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Indirect effects of sensation-seeking on drinking volume through accumbens connectivity were tested. RESULTS NAcc connectivity with paracentral lobule/precuneus and sensorimotor areas was decreased for FH? versus increased for FH+ during incentive anticipation. In FH+, task-related functional coupling between left NAcc and supplementary sensorimotor area (SSMA) and right precuneus correlated positively with sensation-seeking and drinking volume and mediated their relationship. In FH?, left NAcc-SSMA connectivity correlated negatively with sensation-seeking but was not related to drinking. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest preexisting differences in accumbens reward-related functional connectivity in high-risk subjects. NAcc coupling with SSMA, involved in attention and motor networks, and precuneus, a default mode structure, appear to mediate sensation-seeking’s effect on drinking in those most at-risk. Differences in accumbens connectivity with attention/motor/default networks, rather than control systems, may influence the reward system’s role in vulnerability for substance abuse. PMID:22958950

Weiland, Barbara J.; Welsh, Robert C.; Yau, Wai-Ying Wendy; Zucker, Robert A.; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; Heitzeg, Mary M.

2012-01-01

412

EFFECTIVE ENCODING/DECODING OF SPIKING SIGNALS FROM AN ARTIFICIAL TOUCH SENSOR  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVE ENCODING/DECODING OF SPIKING SIGNALS FROM AN ARTIFICIAL TOUCH SENSOR Luca Leonardo touch sensor is presented. Following a neuromimetic approach, we encode the signals from a 24-capacitive sensor fingertip into spik- ing activity through a network of leaky integrate-and- fire neurons

Arleo, Angelo

413

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and  

E-print Network

Research Paper Segmentation of touching insects based on optical flow and NCuts Qing Yao a in paddy fields. This paper focuses on developing a segmentation method for separating the touching insects in the rice light-trap insect image from our imaging system to automatically identify and count rice pests

414

Implications of Sexual Identity and Sexually Identified Situations on Nonverbal Touch.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To determine whether individuals with different sexual identities exhibit different amounts of touching behavior, 199 undergraduates completed the Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) and a modification of the Touch Avoidance Measure (TAM). The BSRI produced scores indicating an individual's degree of association with both masculine and feminine traits.…

Eman, Virginia Ann; And Others

415

CLSI On-Line Public Catalog Touch Terminal Manual: Training Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual developed by the Public Access Subcommittee of the Reference Department of Meriam Library (California State University, Chico) provides instructions for using the library's online public catalog by means of a touch terminal which accepts commands in the form of a touch on a particular part of the terminal screen. Author and…

California State Univ., Chico.

416

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2012-04-01

417

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2011-04-01

418

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2014-04-01

419

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section 4.82 Customs Duties...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A United States...

2010-04-01

420

Promoting caring-healing relationships: bringing healing touch to the bedside in a multihospital health system.  

PubMed

New legislative mandates, evaluation metrics, and patient demand have led acute care organizations to expand their patient-centered care model to include the use of complementary therapies. One multihospital health system is offering Healing Touch training to nurses who will provide Healing Touch to self, colleagues, and patients, promoting a caring-healing consciousness. PMID:25314110

Swengros, Diane; Herbst, Anna M; Friesen, Mary Ann; Mangione, Lucrezia; Anderson, Joel G

2014-01-01

421

Desiring to be in touch in a changing communications landscape: attitudes of older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers an exploration of the attitudes of older adults to keeping in touch with people who are important to them. We present findings from three focus groups with people from 55 to 81 years of age. Themes emerging from the findings suggest that older adults view the act of keeping in touch as being worthy of time and

Siân E. Lindley; Richard H. R. Harper; Abigail Sellen

2009-01-01

422

Dyadic Power Theory, Touch, and Counseling Psychology: A Response to Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards (2011)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smith, Vogel, Madon, and Edwards' (2011) recent article tested dyadic power theory (DPT) by examining the use of touch as a compliance-gaining tactic in the conflicts of married couples. In this response, we raise a methodological issue about the touch behaviors examined by Smith et al. and also pose a theoretical critique that their test of DPT…

Dunbar, Norah E.; Abra, Gordon

2012-01-01

423

Water Reservoir Based Approach for Touching Numeral Segmentation , A. Belad1  

E-print Network

Water Reservoir Based Approach for Touching Numeral Segmentation U. Pal1,2 , A. Belaïd1 and C based on features obtained from a new concept based on water reservoir. A reservoir is a metaphor to illustrate the region where numerals touch. Reservoir is obtained by considering accumulation of water poured

Belaïd, Abdel

424

Towards Designing User Interfaces on Mobile Touch-screen Devices for People with Visual Impairment  

E-print Network

Towards Designing User Interfaces on Mobile Touch- screen Devices for People with Visual Impairment with visual impairment. One of the issues with touch screens is the lack of clear tactile feedback, which is critical for visually-impaired people. We developed SemFeel, a tactile feedback technology that can express

Toronto, University of

425

Reactions to music, touch and object presentation in the final stage of dementia: an exploratory study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two patients in the final stage of dementia of Alzheimer type were stimulated with music, touch and object presentation during 12 consecutive days (16 trials per patient). Evaluations were made by direct observations, analysis of video-taped recordings and registrations of pulse and rate of respiration. Both patients reacted differently to music than to touch and object presentation.

Astrid Norberg; Else Melin; Kenneth Asplund

2003-01-01

426

Impact of healing touch with healing harp on inpatient acute care pain: a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the concomitant use of 2 complementary and alternative medicine modalities, Healing Harp and Healing Touch, to reduce pain, anxiety, and nausea in the postoperative patient population. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of using concomitant Healing Touch and Healing Harp to significantly reduce moderate to severe pain and anxiety in this patient population. Further research is warranted. PMID:24722611

Lincoln, Valerie; Nowak, Emily Witrak; Schommer, Barb; Briggs, Tami; Fehrer, Amy; Wax, Gary

2014-01-01

427

Virtual interpersonal touch: Haptic interaction and copresence in collaborative virtual environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

As digital communication becomes more commonplace and sensory rich, understanding the manner in which people interact with one another is crucial. In the current study, we examined the manners in which people touch digital representations of people, and compared those behaviors to the manner in which they touch digital representations of nonhuman objects. Results demonstrated that people used less force

Jeremy N. Bailenson; Nick Yee

2008-01-01

428

Laterality of foetal self-touch in relation to maternal stress.  

PubMed

This longitudinal observational study investigated whether foetuses change their hand preference with gestational age, and also examined the effects of maternal stress on lateralized foetal self-touch. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy foetuses (eight girls and seven boys) were scanned four times from 24 to 36 weeks gestation. Self-touch behaviours which resulted in a touch of the foetal face/head were coded in 60 scans for 10 min and analysed in terms of frequency of the foetuses using left and right hands to touch their face. The joint effects of foetal age, stress and sex on laterality were assessed. We modelled the proportion of right self-touches for each foetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, taking account of the repeated measures design. There was substantial variability in hand preference between foetuses. However, there was no significant increase in the proportion of right-handed touches with foetal age. No sex differences in handedness were identified. However, maternally reported stress level was significantly positively related to foetal left-handed self-touches (odds ratio 0.915; p < .0001). This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the effect of recent maternal stress on foetal predominant hand use during self-touch. PMID:24889397

Reissland, Nadja; Aydin, Ezra; Francis, Brian; Exley, Kendra

2015-01-01

429

Obama address touches on research, energy, and environmental issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

President Barack Obama's State of the Union message, delivered on 24 January, touched on the need for basic research, energy production, support for clean energy, and environmental protection, but it included just one passing reference to climate change. In addition, the speech made no note of the Administration's recent denial of a controversial application for the Keystone XL pipeline to transport crude oil from Canada to the United States and made just an elliptical reference regarding the bankrupt Solyndra Corporation, which the administration had touted as a clean energy company. Innovation “demands basic research,” Obama said, adding that Congress should not “gut these investments in our budget.” Noting that one promise for innovation is American-made energy, Obama said he is directing the administration to “open more than 75% of our potential offshore oil and gas resources.”

Showstack, Randy

2012-02-01

430

Embodied reflection in practice--'touching the core of caring'.  

PubMed

A study was performed with the aim of clarifying the integration of the caring act of touch with reflection on caring theory. Seven participant nurses in elderly care volunteered as 'coresearchers' and performed a caring act called Rhythmical Embrocation, together with reflective dialogues on caring theory. The project lasted for 6 months and at the end qualitative interviews with participants were used to evaluate the study. The findings showed an opening of awareness, embodied moments of presence and an extended ability to act creatively in caring. In this study, the movement between theory and practice was the integration of the caring act with reflection on basic caring concepts. Implications for praxis development are that implementation and reflection by teams over certain caring acts might open the door to an expanded view of one's own caring ability that in the long run will benefit the patient. PMID:20618533

Ranheim, Albertine; Kärner, Anita; Arman, Maria; Rehnsfeldt, Arne Wilhelm; Berterö, Carina

2010-06-01

431

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery touches down in a cloud of smoke on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The crew members are Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar- observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

432

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery lowers its nose wheel after touching down on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility. Discovery returns to Earth with its crew of seven after successfully completing mission STS-95, lasting nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. The STS-95 crew is composed of Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr., Pilot Steven W. Lindsey, Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski, Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson, Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., senator from Ohio, Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA), and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

433

Discovery touches down after successful mission STS-95  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbiter Discovery touches down on runway 33 at the Shuttle Landing Facility after a successful mission of nearly nine days and 3.6 million miles. Main gear touchdown was at 12:04 p.m. EST, landing on orbit 135. The STS-95 crew consists of Mission Commander Curtis L. Brown Jr.; Pilot Steven W. Lindsey; Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski; Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson; Payload Specialist John H. Glenn Jr., a senator from Ohio; Mission Specialist Pedro Duque, with the European Space Agency (ESA); and Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, M.D., with the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). The mission included research payloads such as the Spartan solar-observing deployable spacecraft, the Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test Platform, the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker, as well as the SPACEHAB single module with experiments on space flight and the aging process.

1998-01-01

434

Integrated Modeling of Spacecraft Touch-and-Go Sampling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated modeling tool has been developed to include multi-body dynamics, orbital dynamics, and touch-and-go dynamics for spacecraft covering three types of end-effectors: a sticky pad, a brush-wheel sampler, and a pellet gun. Several multi-body models of a free-flying spacecraft with a multi-link manipulator driving these end-effectors have been tested with typical contact conditions arising when the manipulator arm is to sample the surface of an asteroidal body. The test data have been infused directly into the dynamics formulation including such information as the mass collected as a function of end-effector longitudinal speed for the brush-wheel and sticky-pad samplers, and the mass collected as a function of projectile speed for the pellet gun sampler. These data represent the realistic behavior of the end effector while in contact with a surface, and represent a low-order model of more complex contact conditions that otherwise would have to be simulated. Numerical results demonstrate the adequacy of these multibody models for spacecraft and manipulator- arm control design. The work contributes to the development of a touch-and-go testbed for small body exploration, denoted as the GREX Testbed (GN&C for Rendezvous-based EXploration). The GREX testbed addresses the key issues involved in landing on an asteroidal body or comet; namely, a complex, low-gravity field; partially known terrain properties; possible comet outgassing; dust ejection; and navigating to a safe and scientifically desirable zone.

Quadrelli, Marco

2009-01-01

435

Physiological and Behavioral Responses Reveal 9-Month-Old Infants’ Sensitivity to Pleasant Touch  

PubMed Central

Caregiving touch has been shown to be essential for the growth and development of human infants. However, the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that underpin infants’ sensitivity to pleasant touch are still poorly understood. In human adults, a subclass of unmyelinated peripheral nerve fibers has been shown to respond preferentially to medium-velocity soft brushing. It has been theorized that this privileged pathway for pleasant touch is used for close affiliative interactions with conspecific individuals, especially between caregivers and infants. To test whether human infants are sensitive to pleasant touch, we examined arousal (heart rate) and attentional engagement (gaze shifts and duration of looks) to varying velocities of brushing (slow, medium, and fast) in 9-month-old infants. Our results provide physiological and behavioral evidence that sensitivity to pleasant touch emerges early in development and therefore plays an important role in regulating human social interactions. PMID:24681587

Fairhurst, Merle T.; Löken, Line; Grossmann, Tobias

2014-01-01

436

Modulation of C. elegans Touch Sensitivity Is Integrated at Multiple Levels  

PubMed Central

Sensory systems can adapt to different environmental signals. Here we identify four conditions that modulate anterior touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans after several hours and demonstrate that such sensory modulation is integrated at multiple levels to produce a single output. Prolonged vibration involving integrin signaling directly sensitizes the touch receptor neurons (TRNs). In contrast, hypoxia, the dauer state, and high salt reduce touch sensitivity by preventing the release of long-range neuroregulators, including two insulin-like proteins. Integration of these latter inputs occurs at upstream neurohormonal cells and at the insulin signaling cascade within the TRNs. These signals and those from integrin signaling converge to modulate touch sensitivity by regulating AKT kinases and DAF-16/FOXO. Thus, activation of either the integrin or insulin pathways can compensate for defects in the other pathway. This modulatory system integrates conflicting signals from different modalities, and adapts touch sensitivity to both mechanical and non-mechanical conditions. PMID:24806678

Chen, Xiaoyin

2014-01-01

437

13/06/2008 18:49MediaGlobal Blog Archive Study shows malaria parasites can adapt to harsh conditions* Page 1 of 2http://mediaglobal.org/index.php/2008/06/10/study-shows-malaria-parasites-can-adapt-to-harsh-conditions/  

E-print Network

13/06/2008 18:49MediaGlobal » Blog Archive » Study shows malaria parasites can adapt to harsh conditions* Page 1 of 2http://mediaglobal.org/index.php/2008/06/10/study-shows-malaria-parasites Disease Hunger Search » Study shows malaria parasites can adapt to harsh conditions By Shipra Prakash 10

Gardner, Andy

438

Do Guyanese mothers' levels of warmth moderate the association between harshness and justness of physical punishment and preschoolers' prosocial behaviours and anger?  

PubMed

This study assessed the moderating role of Indo-Guyanese mothers' warmth and affection on the associations between harshness and justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours and anger in preschoolers. One hundred and thirty-nine rural Indo-Guyanese mothers filled out Rohner's Parental Acceptance-Rejection (PARQ) and Physical Punishment Questionnaires (PPQ). Teachers provided assessments of children's prosocial behaviours and anger in preschool settings. Maternal warmth did not moderate the relationship between harshness of physical punishment and children's prosocial behaviours and anger, but it did moderate the relationship between justness of physical punishment and prosocial behaviours for sons as well as the association between justness of physical punishment and anger for daughters. In Caribbean societies where harsh punishment is normative, maternal warmth may work more effectively with justness, and not with harshness of physical punishment, to lower negative childhood behavioural outcomes. PMID:24990638

Roopnarine, Jaipaul L; Jin, Bora; Krishnakumar, Ambika

2014-08-01

439

Hebbian learning and predictive mirror neurons for actions, sensations and emotions.  

PubMed

Spike-timing-dependent plasticity is considered the neurophysiological basis of Hebbian learning and has been shown to be sensitive to both contingency and contiguity between pre- and postsynaptic activity. Here, we will examine how applying this Hebbian learning rule to a system of interconnected neurons in the presence of direct or indirect re-afference (e.g. seeing/hearing one's own actions) predicts the emergence of mirror neurons with predictive properties. In this framework, we analyse how mirror neurons become a dynamic system that performs active inferences about the actions of others and allows joint actions despite sensorimotor delays. We explore how this system performs a projection of the self onto others, with egocentric biases to contribute to mind-reading. Finally, we argue that Hebbian learning predicts mirror-like neurons for sensations and emotions and review evidence for the presence of such vicarious activations outside the motor system. PMID:24778372

Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria

2014-01-01

440

Sensation in a single neuron pair represses male behavior in hermaphrodites.  

PubMed

Pheromones elicit innate sex-specific mating behaviors in many species. We demonstrate that in C. elegans, male-specific sexual attraction behavior is programmed in both sexes but repressed in hermaphrodites. Repression requires a single sensory neuron pair, the ASIs. To repress attraction in adults, the ASIs must be present, active, and capable of sensing the environment during development. The ASIs release TGF-?, and ASI function can be bypassed by experimental activation of TGF-? signaling. Sexual attraction in derepressed hermaphrodites requires the same sensory neurons as in males. The sexual identity of both these sensory neurons and a distinct subset of interneurons must be male to relieve repression and release attraction. TGF-? may therefore act to change connections between sensory neurons and interneurons during development to engage repression. Thus, sensation in a single sensory neuron pair during development reprograms a common neural circuit from male to female behavior. PMID:22920252

White, Jamie Q; Jorgensen, Erik M

2012-08-23

441

Sensation in a single neuron pair represses male behavior in hermaphrodites  

PubMed Central

Summary Pheromones elicit innate sex-specific mating behaviors in many species. We demonstrate that in C. elegans, male-specific sexual attraction behavior is programmed in both sexes but repressed in hermaphrodites. Repression requires a single sensory neuron pair, the ASIs. To represses attraction in adults, the ASIs must be present, active, and capable of sensing the environment during development. The ASIs release TGF-?, and ASI function can be bypassed by experimental activation of TGF-? signaling. Sexual attraction in de-repressed hermaphrodites requires the same sensory neurons as in males. The sexual identity of both these sensory neurons and a distinct subset of interneurons must be male to relieve repression and release attraction. TGF-? may therefore act to change connections between sensory- and interneurons during development to engage repression. Thus, sensation in a single sensory neuron pair during development reprograms a common neural circuit from male to female behavior. PMID:22920252

White, Jamie Q.; Jorgensen, Erik M.

2012-01-01

442

Age Differences in Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity as Indexed by Behavior and Self-Report: Evidence for a Dual Systems Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been hypothesized that sensation seeking and impulsivity, which are often conflated, in fact develop along different timetables and have different neural underpinnings, and that the difference in their timetables helps account for heightened risk taking during adolescence. In order to test these propositions, the authors examined age differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity in a socioeconomically and ethnically

Laurence Steinberg; Dustin Albert; Elizabeth Cauffman; Marie Banich; Sandra Graham; Jennifer Woolard

2008-01-01

443

Chronic psychological stress impairs recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations over a 96-hour period.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function and somatic sensations: perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness, in a 4-day period after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Undergraduate resistance training students (n = 31; age, 20.26 ± 1.34 years) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and the Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire, a measure of life event stress. At a later visit, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10 repetition maximum [RM] leg press test plus 6 sets: 80-100% of 10RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF), perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness were assessed in approximately 24-hour intervals after exercise. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (p = 0.027) and squared (p = 0.031) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Perceived energy (p = 0.038), fatigue (p = 0.040), and soreness (p = 0.027) all were moderated by life stress. Mean perceived stress modulated linear and squared recovery of MIF (p < 0.001) and energy (p = 0.004) but not fatigue or soreness. In all analyses, higher stress was associated with worse recovery. Stress, whether assessed as life event stress or perceived stress, moderated the recovery trajectories of muscular function and somatic sensations in a 96-hour period after strenuous resistance exercise. Therefore, under conditions of inordinate stress, individuals may need to be more mindful about observing an appropriate length of recovery. PMID:24343323

Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B; Sinha, Rajita

2014-07-01

444

Reduced prefrontal and temporal processing and recall of high “sensation value” ads  

PubMed Central

Public service announcements (PSAs) are non-commercial broadcast ads that are an important part of televised public health campaigns. “Message sensation value” (MSV), a measure of sensory intensity of audio, visual, and content features of an ad, is an important factor in PSA impact. Some communication theories propose that higher message sensation value brings increased attention and cognitive processing, leading to higher ad impact. Others argue that the attention-intensive format could compete with ad's message for cognitive resources and result in reduced processing of PSA content and reduced overall effectiveness. Brain imaging during PSA viewing provides a quantitative surrogate measure of PSA impact and addresses questions of PSA evaluation and design not accessible with traditional subjective and epidemiological methods. We used Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and recognition memory measures to compare high and low MSV anti-tobacco PSAs and neutral videos. In a short-delay, forced-choice memory test, frames extracted from PSAs were recognized more accurately than frames extracted from the NV. Frames from the low MSV PSAs were better recognized than frames from the high MSV PSAs. The accuracy of recognition of PSA frames was positively correlated with the prefrontal and temporal, and negatively correlated with the occipital cortex activation. The low MSV PSAs were associated with greater prefrontal and temporal activation, than the high MSV PSAs. The high MSV PSAs produced greater activation primarily in the occipital cortex. These findings support the “dual processing” and “limited capacity” theories of communication that postulate a competition between ad's content and format for the viewers’ cognitive resources and suggest that the “attention-grabbing” high MSV format could impede the learning and retention of an ad. These findings demonstrate the potential of using neuroimaging in the design and evaluation of mass media public health communications. PMID:19457412

Langleben, Daniel D.; Loughead, James W.; Ruparel, Kosha; Hakun, Jonathan G.; Busch-Winokur, Samantha; Strasser, Andrew; Holloway, Matthew B.; Cappella, Joseph N.; Lerman, Caryn

2010-01-01

445

Development of harsh environment nitrogen oxides solid-state gas sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this dissertation was to study and develop high temperature solid-state sensors for combustion based gases. Specific attention was focused on NOx gases (NO and NO2) as they are of significant importance with respect to the environment and the health of living beings. This work is divided into four sections with the first chapter being an introduction into the effects of NOx gases and current regulations, followed by an introduction to the field of high temperature NOx sensors and finally where and why they will be needed in the future. Chapter 2 focuses on the development of a gas sensor for NOx capable of operation in harsh environments. The basis of the sensor is a mixed potential response at 500/600°C generated by exposure of gases to a platinum-yttria stabilized zirconia (Pt-YSZ) interface. Asymmetry between the two Pt electrodes on YSZ is generated by covering one of the electrodes with a zeolite, which helps to bring NO/NO2 towards equilibrium prior to the gases reaching the electrochemically active interface. Three sensor designs have been examined, including a planar design that is amenable to packaging for surviving automotive exhaust streams. Automotive tests indicated that the sensor is capable of detecting NO in engine exhausts. Chapter 2 concluded that it is difficult to measure NO or NO2 selectively especially when both gases are present at the same time thus we have developed a strategy in chapter 3 to measure the total NOx level (NO + NO2) in a background of O2 and N2 at high temperatures with minimal CO interference by combining a catalytic filter bed with the existing YSZ sensor device. The filter bed was composed of a Pt catalyst dispersed onto a zeolite Y support placed before a YSZ sensor having an air reference with a Cr2O3 or Pt sensing electrode. Chapter 4 explores the reasons for the difference in sensitivity of metal oxide electrodes, Cr2O3 and a mixed conducting perovskite La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2Ox, with the goal of ultimately developing a systematic method of electrode screening as compared to the random screening often found in the literature.

Szabo, Nicholas Frank

446

Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use Predict HIV Transmission Risks: Prospective Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients, Cape Town, South Africa  

PubMed Central

Alcohol is related to HIV risk behaviors in southern Africa and these behaviors are correlated with sensation seeking personality and alcohol outcome expectancies. Here we report for the first time the associations among sensation seeking, substance use, and sexual risks in a prospective study in Africa. Sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town South Africa (157 men and 64 women) completed (a) baseline measures of sensation seeking, sexual enhancement alcohol outcome expectancies, alcohol use in sexual contexts, and unprotected sexual behaviors and (b) 6-month follow-up measures of alcohol use in sexual contexts and unprotected sexual acts. Results confirmed that sensation seeking predicts HIV risk behavior and sensation seeking is related to alcohol outcome expectancies which in turn predict alcohol use in sexual contexts. HIV prevention counseling that addresses drinking in relation to sex is urgently needed in southern Africa. PMID:18790575

Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness; Jooste, Sean; Vermaak, Redwaan; Cain, Demetria

2014-01-01

447

Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity: Combined Associations with Risky Sexual Behavior in a Large Sample of Young Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although prior studies have shown that sensation seeking and impulsive decision-making are related to sexual risk-taking, it is still unclear whether these personality traits operate independently or synergistically. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the joint contribution of these personality traits to HIV and sexually transmitted disease (STD) risk behaviors using data from a large sample of sexually

Richard Charnigo; Seth M. Noar; Christopher Garnett; Richard Crosby; Philip Palmgreen; Rick S. Zimmerman

2012-01-01

448

Learning To Be Saints or Sinners: The Indirect Pathway From Sensation Seeking to Behavior Through Mastery Orientation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a model of learning has been proposed that argues that Sensation Seeking indirectly predicts functional and dysfunc- tional behaviors through Mastery Orientation. Central components of the model were tested across two studies. Study 1 tested the proposed indirect effect in the prediction of functional behavior using an objective learning task. Study 2 tested the proposed indirect effects in the

Peter J. O'Connor; Chris Jackson

2008-01-01

449

Use of the Herb Gymnema sylvestre to Illustrate the Principles of Gustatory Sensation: An Undergraduate Neuroscience Laboratory Exercise  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a laboratory exercise used to illustrate the principles of gustatory sensation. The Indian herb, gymnema sylvestre, is used in this experiment to impair the ability of tasting sugar. As a result the impairment alters the perception of sweetness, which leaves a profound and lasting impression on students and gives them a better comprehension of gustation.

Joseph Schroeder, Ellen Flannery-Schroeder (Conneticut College, University of Rhode Island; )

1999-11-30

450

American Indians and non-Indians playing a slot-machine simulation: effects of sensation seeking and payback percentage.  

PubMed

The research literature on gambling behavior indicates that American Indians (AIs) suffer from pathological gambling at a greater rate than the majority population. The literature also suggests that dispositional factors, such as sensation seeking, can influence gambling. However, situational factors, such as the payback percentage of a slot machine, may not. The present study recruited 12 AI and 12 non-AI participants to play a simulated slot machine in three different sessions. Half of the participants in each group were high sensation seekers. The other half were low sensation seekers. Across the three gambling sessions, the simulation was programmed to pay back at a rate of 85, 95, or 105%. Results showed non-significant differences in gambling behavior between AIs and non-AIs and between high and low sensation seekers. Participants were, however, sensitive to percentage payback, playing more trials and betting more credits when the percentage was 105% than when it was 85 or 95%. The present results question whether ethnicity or certain personality characteristics, in and of themselves, are predictive of differences in individuals' gambling behavior. Results also suggest that people's gambling behavior is sensitive to winning and losing, but not to losing and losing even more. Implications for the study of gambling are discussed. PMID:18493903

Gillis, Angelique; McDonald, J Douglas; Weatherly, Jeffrey N

2008-01-01

451

Sexual Sensation Seeking, Social Stress, and Coping Styles as Predictors of HIV/STD Risk Behaviors in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess whether coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking were predictors of HIV/STD risk behaviours in adolescents. A representative sample of 4,456 female and male Spanish high school students aged 13 to 18 years participated. A stratified random sampling procedure was used. Self-report questionnaires…

Teva, Inmaculada; Bermudez, Maria Paz; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

2010-01-01

452

Evaluation of Genetic Variability in the Dopamine Receptor D2 in Relation to Behavioral Inhibition and Impulsivity/Sensation Seeking  

E-print Network

and Impulsivity/Sensation Seeking: An Exploratory Study With d-Amphetamine in Healthy Participants Ajna Hamidovic in the DRD2 gene (DRD2) in healthy volunteers (N 93). Participants received placebo or d-amphetamine measure of impulsivity. We secondarily evaluated the DRD2 SNPs in relation to response to d-amphetamine

Gilad, Yoav