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1

Mechanical systems biology of C. elegans touch sensation.  

PubMed

The sense of touch informs us of the physical properties of our surroundings and is a critical aspect of communication. Before touches are perceived, mechanical signals are transmitted quickly and reliably from the skin's surface to mechano-electrical transduction channels embedded within specialized sensory neurons. We are just beginning to understand how soft tissues participate in force transmission and how they are deformed. Here, we review empirical and theoretical studies of single molecules and molecular ensembles thought to be involved in mechanotransmission and apply the concepts emerging from this work to the sense of touch. We focus on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a well-studied model for touch sensation in which mechanics can be studied on the molecular, cellular, and systems level. Finally, we conclude that force transmission is an emergent property of macromolecular cellular structures that mutually stabilize one another. PMID:25597279

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R; Goodman, Miriam B

2015-03-01

2

Piezo2 is the major transducer of mechanical forces for touch sensation in mice.  

PubMed

The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals. It is postulated that mechanically activated cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting, mechanically activated ion channel expressed in a subset of sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion and in cutaneous mechanoreceptors known as Merkel-cell-neurite complexes. It has been demonstrated that Merkel cells have a role in vertebrate mechanosensation using Piezo2, particularly in shaping the type of current sent by the innervating sensory neuron; however, major aspects of touch sensation remain intact without Merkel cell activity. Here we show that mice lacking Piezo2 in both adult sensory neurons and Merkel cells exhibit a profound loss of touch sensation. We precisely localize Piezo2 to the peripheral endings of a broad range of low-threshold mechanoreceptors that innervate both hairy and glabrous skin. Most rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in dorsal root ganglion neuronal cultures are absent in Piezo2 conditional knockout mice, and ex vivo skin nerve preparation studies show that the mechanosensitivity of low-threshold mechanoreceptors strongly depends on Piezo2. This cellular phenotype correlates with an unprecedented behavioural phenotype: an almost complete deficit in light-touch sensation in multiple behavioural assays, without affecting other somatosensory functions. Our results highlight that a single ion channel that displays rapidly adapting, mechanically activated currents in vitro is responsible for the mechanosensitivity of most low-threshold mechanoreceptor subtypes involved in innocuous touch sensation. Notably, we find that touch and pain sensation are separable, suggesting that as-yet-unknown mechanically activated ion channel(s) must account for noxious (painful) mechanosensation. PMID:25471886

Ranade, Sanjeev S; Woo, Seung-Hyun; Dubin, Adrienne E; Moshourab, Rabih A; Wetzel, Christiane; Petrus, Matt; Mathur, Jayanti; Bégay, Valérie; Coste, Bertrand; Mainquist, James; Wilson, A J; Francisco, Allain G; Reddy, Kritika; Qiu, Zhaozhu; Wood, John N; Lewin, Gary R; Patapoutian, Ardem

2014-12-01

3

Remote vibrotactile noise improves light touch sensation in stroke survivors’ fingertips via stochastic resonance  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Stroke rehabilitation does not often integrate both sensory and motor recovery. While subthreshold noise was shown to enhance sensory signal detection at the site of noise application, having a noise-generating device at the fingertip to enhance fingertip sensation and potentially enhance dexterity for stroke survivors is impractical, since the device would interfere with object manipulation. This study determined if remote application of subthreshold vibrotactile noise (away from the fingertips) improves fingertip tactile sensation with potential to enhance dexterity for stroke survivors. Methods Index finger and thumb pad sensation was measured for ten stroke survivors with fingertip sensory deficit using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament and Two-Point Discrimination Tests. Sensation scores were measured with noise applied at one of three intensities (40%, 60%, 80% of the sensory threshold) to one of four locations of the paretic upper extremity (dorsal hand proximal to the index finger knuckle, dorsal hand proximal to the thumb knuckle, dorsal wrist, volar wrist) in a random order, as well as without noise at beginning (Pre) and end (Post) of the testing session. Results Vibrotactile noise of all intensities and locations instantaneously and significantly improved Monofilament scores of the index fingertip and thumb tip (p?touch sensation, independent of noise location and intensity. Vibrotactile noise at the wrist and dorsal hand may have enhanced the fingertips’ light touch sensation via stochastic resonance and interneuronal connections. While long-term benefits of noise in stroke patients warrants further investigation, this result demonstrates potential that a wearable device applying vibrotactile noise at the wrist could enhance sensation and grip ability without interfering with object manipulation in everyday tasks. PMID:24112371

2013-01-01

4

An architecture for sensate robots : real time social-gesture recognition using a full body array of touch sensors  

E-print Network

Touch plays a central role in social expression but, so far, research into social touch behaviors for robots has been almost. non-existent. Embodied machines have the unique capability to sense human body language, which ...

Knight, Heather-Marie Callanan

2008-01-01

5

Touch sense  

PubMed Central

Cutaneous mechanoreceptors are localized in the various layers of the skin where they detect a wide range of mechanical stimuli, including light brush, stretch, vibration and noxious pressure. This variety of stimuli is matched by a diverse array of specialized mechanoreceptors that respond to cutaneous deformation in a specific way and relay these stimuli to higher brain structures. Studies across mechanoreceptors and genetically tractable sensory nerve endings are beginning to uncover touch sensation mechanisms. Work in this field has provided researchers with a more thorough understanding of the circuit organization underlying the perception of touch. Novel ion channels have emerged as candidates for transduction molecules and properties of mechanically gated currents improved our understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to tactile stimuli. This review highlights the progress made in characterizing functional properties of mechanoreceptors in hairy and glabrous skin and ion channels that detect mechanical inputs and shape mechanoreceptor adaptation. PMID:23146937

Roudaut, Yann; Lonigro, Aurélie; Coste, Bertrand; Hao, Jizhe; Delmas, Patrick; Crest, Marcel

2012-01-01

6

Touch massage, a rewarding experience.  

PubMed

This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. PMID:24771663

Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

2014-12-01

7

Sensational Seaweed  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this culinary activity, learners use multiple senses (sight, smell, touch, and taste!) to explore real seaweed samples. They will compare and contrast land plants with kelp to review the structures and functions of parts, understand that algae is an important producer in aquatic environments, and learn how kelp is adapted to live along the California Coast. They will also explore various types of algae and discuss how the types differ from each other. This lesson guide is standards-based, and includes key vocabulary and wrap-up suggestions.

2011-10-04

8

2. Sensations and Attention Brian Whitworth  

E-print Network

? © Brian Whitworth 3 Aristotle's view Sight sense Hearing sense Smell sense Touch sense Taste sense than 5 senses Link: Aristotle © Brian Whitworth 4 Sensation is reality · Perception is a physical change in the body senses · Aristotle thought external changes create a mirror copy of the real world

Whitworth, Brian

9

A pilot study on simulating continuous sensation with two vibrating motors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a pilot study to present a continuous touch sensation with low-resolution array of a vibrotactile device on human skin using funneling illusion. The funneling illusion occurs when two loud stimuli presented simultaneously to adjacent locations on the skin, and they are funneled to form a sensation between the two stimulators rather than felt separately. This sensation is

Jongeun Cha; Lara Rahal; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik

2008-01-01

10

Feel the presence: technologies of touch and distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptic devices for computers and video-game consoles aim to reproduce touch and to engage the user with 'force feedback'. Although physical touch is often associated with proximity and intimacy, technologies of touch can reproduce such sensations over a distance, allowing intricate and detailed operations to be conducted through a network such as the Internet. The 'virtual handshake' between Boston and

Mark Paterson

2006-01-01

11

Attenuation of Self-Generated Tactile Sensations Is Predictive, not Postdictive  

PubMed Central

When one finger touches the other, the resulting tactile sensation is perceived as weaker than the same stimulus externally imposed. This attenuation of sensation could result from a predictive process that subtracts the expected sensory consequences of the action, or from a postdictive process that alters the perception of sensations that are judged after the event to be self-generated. In this study we observe attenuation even when the fingers unexpectedly fail to make contact, supporting a predictive process. This predictive attenuation of self-generated sensation may have evolved to enhance the perception of sensations with an external cause. PMID:16402860

Flanagan, J. Randall; Wolpert, Daniel M

2006-01-01

12

Sensations and Perceptions in \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper discusses a model of phenomenology based on the distinction between sensations and perceptions and it proposes an architecture based on a comparison process between the effective and the expected sensations generated by a 3D robot\\/environment simulator. The phenomenal perceptions are thus generated by the simulator driven by the comparison process. The paper contributes to the consciousness research field

Antonio Chella; Irene Macaluso

13

Dimensions of sensation seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 63 new items for the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) in an attempt to develop new scales representative of hypothesized dimensions of sensation seeking. An experimental form was given to 332 and 92 undergraduates at 2 universities. Data from the 1st university was factor analyzed separately for males and females. Besides the general factor running through diverse items, 4 factors

Marvin Zuckerman

1971-01-01

14

Fluoroelastomers for harsh environments  

SciTech Connect

A review of fluoroelastomer materials and service in harsh chemical and thermal applications is provided as part of the Corrosion `96--Managing Corrosion with Plastics Symposium. Principles of material selection, application design, and service environments are defined and industrial applications for fluoroelastomers in seals, linings, tubing, hose, belting, fabrics, caulks, adhesives, laminates, and vibration absorption are discussed. This broad range of applications better enables participants to envision new applications to solve their specific needs.

Ferber, E.P. [DuPont Co., Newark, DE (United States); Alexander, J.E. [DuPont Co., Elkton, MD (United States)

1996-11-01

15

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration  

E-print Network

Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration Anne Klo¨ cker1 , Michael-L (2013) Physical Factors Influencing Pleasant Touch during Tactile Exploration. PLoS ONE 8(11): e79085 of their physical attributes. These percepts are frequently accompanied by a sensation of (un)pleasantness. We

Hayward, Vincent

16

Projecting sensations to external objects: evidence from skin conductance response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects perceived touch sensations as arising from a table (or a rubber hand) when both the table (or the rubber hand) and their own real hand were repeatedly tapped and stroked in synchrony with the real hand hidden from view. If the table or rubber hand was then 'injured', subjects displayed a strong skin conductance response (SCR) even though nothing

K. Carrie Armel; V. S. Ramachandran

2003-01-01

17

Neural coding during active somatosensation revealed using illusory touch  

PubMed Central

Active sensation requires the convergence of external stimuli with representations of body movements. We used mouse behavior, electrophysiology and optogenetics to dissect the temporal interactions between whisker movement, neural activity, and sensation of touch. We photostimulated layer 4 activity in single barrels in closed-loop with whisking. Mimicking touch-related neural activity caused illusory perception of an object at a particular location, but scrambling the timing of spikes over one whisking cycle (tens of milliseconds) did not abolish the illusion, indicating that knowledge of instantaneous whisker position is unnecessary for discriminating object locations. Illusions were induced only during bouts of directed whisking, when mice expected touch, and in the relevant barrel. Reducing activity biased behavior consistent with a spike count code for object detection at a particular location. Our results show that mice integrate coding of touch with movement over timescales of a whisking bout to produce perception of active touch. PMID:23727820

O’Connor, Daniel H.; Hires, S. Andrew; Guo, Zengcai V.; Li, Nuo; Yu, Jianing; Sun, Qian-Quan; Huber, Daniel; Svoboda, Karel

2013-01-01

18

Sensational Stars with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sensory processing refers to the way the brain takes incoming sensory messages, converts them into meaningful messages, then makes a response. If the responses are disorganized or inappropriate given the sensory input, sensory processing disorder (SPD) may co-exist with autism. If a child has an occasional atypical response to sensation, he or she…

Simmons, Karen; Miller, Lucy Jane

2008-01-01

19

Haptics: Gaming's New Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haptics technology can simulate tactile and kinesthetic sensations so that computer interfaces not only look but also feel - in the literal sense of the word - like the interfaces we are accustomed to using in the real world. Although haptics in PC gaming began by focusing on kinesthetics, while haptics in console gaming began by focusing on vibrotactile effects,

Dean Chang

2002-01-01

20

Mechanical Control of the Sense of Touch by ? Spectrin  

PubMed Central

The ability to sense and respond to mechanical stimuli emanates from sensory neurons and is shared by most, if not all animals. Exactly how such neurons receive and distribute mechanical signals during touch sensation remains mysterious. Here, we show that sensation of mechanical forces depends on a continuous, pre-stressed spectrin cytoskeleton inside neurons. Mutations in the tetramerization domain of C. elegans ?-spectrin (UNC-70), an actin-membrane cross-linker, cause defects in sensory neuron morphology under compressive stress in moving animals. Through AFM force spectroscopy experiments on isolated neurons, in vivo laser axotomy and FRET imaging to measure force across single cells and molecules, we show that spectrin is held under constitutive tension in living animals, which contributes to an elevated pre-stress in touch receptor neurons. Genetic manipulations that decrease such spectrin-dependent tension also selectively impair touch sensation, suggesting that such pretension is essential for efficient responses to external mechanical stimuli. PMID:24561618

Krieg, Michael; Dunn, Alexander R.; Goodman, Miriam B.

2014-01-01

21

Reconsidering punitive and harsh discipline.  

PubMed

Corporal punishment and other harsh interventions continue to be widespread despite the fact that the leading theories or models of behavioral management do not support their effectiveness. There is overwhelming evidence that harsh interventions are damaging to children, both emotionally and physically. The effects of such trauma may be compounded when a child has preexisting learning difficulties. When schools respond to these challenges using harsh methods, children can be further traumatized. The authors review principles of childhood neurodevelopment, describe a model to understand children in context, and discuss how exposure to certain noxious sensory experiences can affect children's responses to threat or perceived threat. They also describe implications for school nurses. PMID:12463772

Mohr, Wanda K; Anderson, Jeffrey A

2002-12-01

22

Placebo acupuncture as a form of ritual touch healing: a neurophenomenological model  

PubMed Central

Evidence that placebo acupuncture is an effective treatment for chronic pain presents a puzzle: how do placebo needles appearing to patients to penetrate the body, but instead sitting on the skin’s surface in the manner of a tactile stimulus, evoke a healing response? Previous accounts of ritual touch healing in which patients often described enhanced touch sensations (including warmth, tingling or flowing sensations) suggest an embodied healing mechanism. In this qualitative study, we asked a subset of patients in a randomized trial in irritable bowel syndrome to describe treatment experiences. Analysis focused on patients’ unprompted descriptions of any enhanced touch sensations (e.g., warmth, tingling) and any significance patients assigned to the sensations. We found in 5/6 cases, patients associated sensations including “warmth” and “tingling” with treatment efficacy. The conclusion offers a “neurophenomenological” account of the placebo effect by considering dynamic effects of attentional filtering on early sensory cortices, possibly underlying the phenomenology of placebo acupuncture. PMID:21397519

Kerr, Catherine E.; Shaw, Jessica R; Conboy, Lisa; Kelley, John M.; Jacobson, Eric; Kaptchuk, Ted

2011-01-01

23

Medial orbitofrontal cortex is associated with fatigue sensation.  

PubMed

Fatigue is an indispensable bioalarm to avoid exhaustive state caused by overwork or stresses. It is necessary to elucidate the neural mechanism of fatigue sensation for managing fatigue properly. We performed H(2) ( 15)O positron emission tomography scans to indicate neural activations while subjects were performing 35-min fatigue-inducing task trials twice. During the positron emission tomography experiment, subjects performed advanced trail-making tests, touching the target circles in sequence located on the display of a touch-panel screen. In order to identify the brain regions associated with fatigue sensation, correlation analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping method. The brain region exhibiting a positive correlation in activity with subjective sensation of fatigue, measured immediately after each positron emission tomography scan, was located in medial orbitofrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10/11). Hence, the medial orbitofrontal cortex is a brain region associated with mental fatigue sensation. Our findings provide a new perspective on the neural basis of fatigue. PMID:21188225

Tajima, Seiki; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kataoka, Yosky; Iwase, Masao; Yoshikawa, Etsuji; Okada, Hiroyuki; Onoe, Hirotaka; Tsukada, Hideo; Kuratsune, Hirohiko; Ouchi, Yasuomi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

2010-01-01

24

The perception of materials through oral sensation.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

Howes, Philip D; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J; Miodownik, Mark

2014-01-01

25

The Perception of Materials through Oral Sensation  

PubMed Central

This paper presents the results of a multimodal study of oral perception conducted with a set of material samples made from metals, polymers and woods, in which both the somatosensory and taste factors were examined. A multidimensional scaling analysis coupled with subjective attribute ratings was performed to assess these factors both qualitatively and quantitatively. The perceptual somatosensory factors of warmth, hardness and roughness dominated over the basic taste factors, and roughness was observed to be a less significant sensation compared to touch-only experiments. The perceptual somatosensory ratings were compared directly with physical property data in order to assess the correlation between the perceived properties and measured physical properties. In each case, a strong correlation was observed, suggesting that physical properties may be useful in industrial design for predicting oral perception. PMID:25136793

Howes, Philip D.; Wongsriruksa, Supinya; Laughlin, Zoe; Witchel, Harry J.; Miodownik, Mark

2014-01-01

26

Subjective Experience of Sensation in Anorexia Nervosa  

PubMed Central

The nature of disturbance in body experience in anorexia nervosa (AN) remains poorly operationalized despite its prognostic significance. We examined the relationship of subjective reports of sensitivity to and behavioral avoidance of sensory experience (e.g., to touch, motion) to body image disturbance and temperament in adult women currently diagnosed with AN (n=20), women with a prior history of AN who were weight restored (n=15), and healthy controls with no eating disorder history (n=24). Levels of sensitivity to sensation and attempts to avoid sensory experience were significantly higher in both clinical groups relative to healthy controls. Sensory sensitivity was associated with body image disturbance (r(56) = .51, p < .0001), indicating that body image disturbance increased with increased global sensitivity to sensation. Sensory sensitivity was also negatively and significantly correlated with lowest BMI (r2 = ?.32, p < .001), but not current BMI (r2 = .03, p = .18), and to the temperament feature of harm avoidance in both clinical groups. We discuss how intervention strategies that address sensitization and habituation to somatic experience via conditioning exercises may provide a new manner in which to address body image disturbance in AN. PMID:23523866

Zucker, Nancy L.; Merwin, Rhonda M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Wildes, Jennifer; Groh, Jennifer

2013-01-01

27

The gentle touch receptors of mammalian skin.  

PubMed

The skin is our largest sensory organ, transmitting pain, temperature, itch, and touch information to the central nervous system. Touch sensations are conveyed by distinct combinations of mechanosensory end organs and the low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs) that innervate them. Here we explore the various structures underlying the diverse functions of cutaneous LTMR end organs. Beyond anchoring of LTMRs to the surrounding dermis and epidermis, recent evidence suggests that the non-neuronal components of end organs play an active role in signaling to LTMRs and may physically gate force-sensitive channels in these receptors. Combined with LTMR intrinsic properties, the balance of these factors comprises the response properties of mechanosensory neurons and, thus, the neural encoding of touch. PMID:25414303

Zimmerman, Amanda; Bai, Ling; Ginty, David D

2014-11-21

28

Supplementary data for: Specific roles for DEG/ENaC and TRP channels in touch and  

E-print Network

Supplementary data for: Specific roles for DEG/ENaC and TRP channels in touch and thermosensation bends) during a recording of worms experiencing acute temperature change (20-15º C). For each panel.1038/nn.2581 #12;Supplemental Figure 2: Additional data on harsh body touch response in wild

Schafer, William R.

29

Prevalence, characteristics and a neurocognitive model of mirror-touch synaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In so-called ‘mirror-touch synaesthesia’, observing touch to another person induces a subjective tactile sensation on the\\u000a synaesthete’s own body. It has been suggested that this type of synaesthesia depends on increased activity in neural systems\\u000a activated when observing touch to others. Here we report the first study on the prevalence of this variant of synaesthesia.\\u000a Our findings indicate that this

Michael J. Banissy; Roi Cohen Kadosh; Gerrit W. Maus; Vincent Walsh; Jamie Ward

2009-01-01

30

Neural basis of sensation in intact and injured corneas.  

PubMed

A renewed interest in the characteristics and neural basis of corneal and conjunctival sensations is developing in recent years due to the high incidence of discomfort and altered sensitivity of the cornea following refractive surgery, use of contact lenses and dry eyes. Corneal nerves are functionally heterogeneous: about 20% respond exclusively to noxious mechanical forces (mechano-nociceptors); 70% are additionally excited by extreme temperatures, exogenous irritant chemicals and endogenous inflammatory mediators (polymodal nociceptors), and 10% are cold-sensitive and increase their discharge with moderate cooling of the cornea (cold receptors). Each of these types of sensory fibres contributes distinctly to corneal sensations. Mechano-nociceptors mediate, sharp acute pain produced by touching of the cornea. Polymodal nociceptors elicit the sustained irritation and pain that accompany corneal wounding; cold receptors evoke cooling sensations. Depending on the relative activation by the stimulus of each subpopulation of corneal sensory fibres, different subqualities of irritation and pain sensations are evoked. Corneal sensations can be explored experimentally in humans with a gas esthesiometer that applies controlled mechanical, chemical and thermal stimuli to the corneal surface. When the cornea is wounded, corneal nerves are excited and eventually severed in a variable degree and local inflammation is produced. Activated corneal nerves release neuropeptides (SP, CGRP) that contribute to the inflammatory reaction (neurogenic inflammation). They also become sensitized by local inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins or bradykinin and thus exhibit spontaneous activity, lowered threshold and enhanced responses to new stimuli. This leads to spontaneous pain and hyperalgesia. Nerves destroyed by injury soon start to regenerate and form microneuromas that exhibit abnormal responsiveness and spontaneous discharges, due to an altered expression of ion channel proteins in the soma and in regenerating nerve terminals. Presumably, this altered excitability is the origin of the lowered sensitivity and the spontaneous pain, dry eye sensations and other disaesthesias reported in patients following refractive surgery. PMID:15106930

Belmonte, Carlos; Acosta, M Carmen; Gallar, Juana

2004-03-01

31

A neural interface provides long-term stable natural touch perception.  

PubMed

Touch perception on the fingers and hand is essential for fine motor control, contributes to our sense of self, allows for effective communication, and aids in our fundamental perception of the world. Despite increasingly sophisticated mechatronics, prosthetic devices still do not directly convey sensation back to their wearers. We show that implanted peripheral nerve interfaces in two human subjects with upper limb amputation provided stable, natural touch sensation in their hands for more than 1 year. Electrical stimulation using implanted peripheral nerve cuff electrodes that did not penetrate the nerve produced touch perceptions at many locations on the phantom hand with repeatable, stable responses in the two subjects for 16 and 24 months. Patterned stimulation intensity produced a sensation that the subjects described as natural and without "tingling," or paresthesia. Different patterns produced different types of sensory perception at the same location on the phantom hand. The two subjects reported tactile perceptions they described as natural tapping, constant pressure, light moving touch, and vibration. Changing average stimulation intensity controlled the size of the percept area; changing stimulation frequency controlled sensation strength. Artificial touch sensation improved the subjects' ability to control grasping strength of the prosthesis and enabled them to better manipulate delicate objects. Thus, electrical stimulation through peripheral nerve electrodes produced long-term sensory restoration after limb loss. PMID:25298320

Tan, Daniel W; Schiefer, Matthew A; Keith, Michael W; Anderson, James Robert; Tyler, Joyce; Tyler, Dustin J

2014-10-01

32

TO TOUCH OR NOT TO TOUCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical touch as part of psychodynamic psychotherapy is appropriate and useful under very limited circumstances. The decision is to be based on a careful evaluation of the state of the patient. The patient who is regressed is most likely to experience the touch as an encouragement toward continued regression and dependency. The nondeveloped patient, who has not matured to the

Morris Goodman; Arthur Teicher

1988-01-01

33

Touch screen have become  

E-print Network

Typing { l ABSTRACT Touch screen have become screens pales examine typing physical keybo o inform future Author Keywo Touch-typing, m ACM Classific H.5.2. [Inform nterfaces--inp General Terms Human factors, NTRODUCTIO Touch surfaces he form of m ablets and in Microsoft Surfa ablets and tabl finger text inpu hese

Wobbrock, Jacob O.

34

Haptic perception with an articulated, sensate robot hand  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a series of haptic exploratory procedures, or EPs, implemented for a multi-fingered, articulated, sensate robot hand. These EPs are designed to extract specific tactile and kinesthetic information form an object via their purposive invocation by an intelligent robotic system. Taken together, they form and active robotic touch perception system to be used both in extracting information about the environment for internal representation and in acquiring grasps for manipulation. The haptic system presented utilizes and integrated robotic system consisting of PUMA 560 robot arm, a JPL/Stanford robot hand, with joint torque sensing in the fingers, a wrist force/torque sensor, and 256 element, spatially-resolved fingertip tactile array. We describe the EPs implemented for this system and provide experimental results which illustrate how they function and how the information which they extract may be used. In addition to the sensate hand and arm, the robot also contains structured-lighting vision and a Prolog-based reasoning system capable of grasp generation and object categorization. We present a set of simple tasks which show how both grasping and recognition may be enhanced by the addition of active touch perception. 34 refs., 23 figs.

Stansfield, S.A.

1990-03-01

35

Haptics: Touch Command  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students experience haptic (the sense of touch) feedback by using LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots and touch sensors to emulate touch feedback recognition. With four touch sensors connected to LEGO NXTs, they design sensor attachments that feel physically distinguishable from each another. Then students answer questions and communicate their answers to the NXT by pressing the touch sensor that is associated with the right multiple-choice answer letter. Haptics becomes essential when students must use the NXT sensors to answer the next set of questions without the aid of their vision. This challenges them to rely solely on the tactile feeling of each unique touch sensor attachment that they created in order to choose the correct peripheral slot. Students also learn about real-world applications of haptics technology.

2014-09-18

36

Physical touch in psychotherapy: Why are we not touching more?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the issue of using touch in psychotherapy and addresses the difficulties encountered in discussing the topic. These difficulties include confusion about the purpose of touch, lack of experience among psychotherapists in the use of touch, and misunderstandings about who actually uses touch in psychotherapy. The article then addresses the anxiety psychotherapists feel about using touch such as

Gill Westland

2011-01-01

37

SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH  

E-print Network

1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (II) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University Psychology 3270, WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/3270/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisites: 2220 (Sensation and Perception I) and a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics: Section 1 Principles

Harris, Laurence R.

38

Music by Touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students' understanding of how robotic touch sensors work is reinforced through a hands-on design challenge involving LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT intelligent bricks, motors and touch sensors. They learn programming skills and logic design in parallel as they program robot computers to play sounds and rotate a wheel when a touch sensor is pressed, and then produce different responses if a different touch sensor is activated. Students see first-hand how robots can take input from sensors and use it to make decisions to move as programmed, including simultaneously moving a motor and playing music. A PowerPoint® presentation and pre/post quizzes are provided.

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center,

39

The relation of sensation in the anal canal to the functional anal sphincter: a possible factor in anal continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

In normal subjects the length of the functional anal sphincter has been compared with the extent of sensation to light touch in the anal canal. At rest, the sphincteric zone was the longer. On distension of the rectum, a decrease in pressure in the anal canal so shortened the functional sphincter that intrarectal pressure extended down to contact the sensory

H. L. Duthie; R. C. Bennett

1963-01-01

40

Restoring tactile and proprioceptive sensation through a brain interface.  

PubMed

Somatosensation plays a critical role in the dexterous manipulation of objects, in emotional communication, and in the embodiment of our limbs. For upper-limb neuroprostheses to be adopted by prospective users, prosthetic limbs will thus need to provide sensory information about the position of the limb in space and about objects grasped in the hand. One approach to restoring touch and proprioception consists of electrically stimulating neurons in somatosensory cortex in the hopes of eliciting meaningful sensations to support the dexterous use of the hands, promote their embodiment, and perhaps even restore the affective dimension of touch. In this review, we discuss the importance of touch and proprioception in everyday life, then describe approaches to providing artificial somatosensory feedback through intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). We explore the importance of biomimicry - the elicitation of naturalistic patterns of neuronal activation - and that of adaptation - the brain's ability to adapt to novel sensory input, and argue that both biomimicry and adaptation will play a critical role in the artificial restoration of somatosensation. We also propose that the documented re-organization that occurs after injury does not pose a significant obstacle to brain interfaces. While still at an early stage of development, sensory restoration is a critical step in transitioning upper-limb neuroprostheses from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:25201560

Tabot, Gregg A; Kim, Sung Shin; Winberry, Jeremy E; Bensmaia, Sliman J

2014-09-01

41

Genetics of Human Gastrointestinal Sensation  

PubMed Central

The objective is to review the genetics of human visceral pain with particular emphasis on pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome. The biomarkers most commonly employed in identifying visceral hypersensitivity are sensation ratings and thresholds or brain imaging during viscus (e.g. rectal) distension. Genetic studies suggest that variation in the control of candidate genes involved in ion channel function, neurotransmitter synthesis, reuptake or receptor functions, and inflammatory disease susceptibility loci may impact variations in prevalence of the symptom phenotype of abdominal pain or IBS, or quantitative traits (intermediate phenotypes) of rectal sensation. The candidate genes include SLC6A4, CNR1, and TNFSF15 reflecting serotonin reuptake, cannabinoid receptors and inflammatory-barrier functions. However, other than TNFSF15, the other candidate genes are only univariately associated with pain, IBS symptom complex or quantitative traits of sensation. These data have generated hypotheses and present opportunities for study of mechanisms and treatment of visceral pain in humans, which remains an unmet clinical need in patients with IBS and functional abdominal pain. PMID:23594334

Camilleri, Michael

2013-01-01

42

GNSS Signal Acquisition in Harsh Urban Environments  

E-print Network

GNSS Signal Acquisition in Harsh Urban Environments Matthias Wildemeersch§, Cornelis H. Slump the degradation of the acquisition performance expressed in terms of receiver operating characteristics (ROC). The presented framework allows to realistically evaluate the GNSS acquisition performance by jointly considering

Vellekoop, Michel

43

Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (2007): 277-285 Do crocodiles co-opt their sense of "touch" to "taste"? A possible  

E-print Network

Amphibia-Reptilia 28 (2007): 277-285 Do crocodiles co-opt their sense of "touch" to "taste propose that the flattening of the sensory organ in hyper-osmotic sea water is sensed by the animal external and inter- nal. The sensation of "touch" (mechanorecep- tion), and "taste" (chemoreception

Jackson, Kate

44

Touch & talk: contextualizing remote touch for affective interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is a unique channel in affect conveyance. A significant aspect of this uniqueness is that the relation of touch to affect is immediate, without the need for symbolic encoding and decoding. However, most pioneering research work in developing remote touch technologies, result in the use of touch as a symbolic channel either by design or user decision. We present

Rongrong Wang; Francis K. H. Quek

2010-01-01

45

Pitch sensation involves stochastic resonance  

PubMed Central

Pitch is a complex hearing phenomenon that results from elicited and self-generated cochlear vibrations. Read-off vibrational information is relayed higher up the auditory pathway, where it is then condensed into pitch sensation. How this can adequately be described in terms of physics has largely remained an open question. We have developed a peripheral hearing system (in hardware and software) that reproduces with great accuracy all salient pitch features known from biophysical and psychoacoustic experiments. At the level of the auditory nerve, the system exploits stochastic resonance to achieve this performance, which may explain the large amount of noise observed in the working auditory nerve. PMID:24045830

Martignoli, Stefan; Gomez, Florian; Stoop, Ruedi

2013-01-01

46

Active touch sensing  

PubMed Central

Active sensing systems are purposive and information-seeking sensory systems. Active sensing usually entails sensor movement, but more fundamentally, it involves control of the sensor apparatus, in whatever manner best suits the task, so as to maximize information gain. In animals, active sensing is perhaps most evident in the modality of touch. In this theme issue, we look at active touch across a broad range of species from insects, terrestrial and marine mammals, through to humans. In addition to analysing natural touch, we also consider how engineering is beginning to exploit physical analogues of these biological systems so as to endow robots with rich tactile sensing capabilities. The different contributions show not only the varieties of active touch—antennae, whiskers and fingertips—but also their commonalities. They explore how active touch sensing has evolved in different animal lineages, how it serves to provide rapid and reliable cues for controlling ongoing behaviour, and even how it can disintegrate when our brains begin to fail. They demonstrate that research on active touch offers a means both to understand this essential and primary sensory modality, and to investigate how animals, including man, combine movement with sensing so as to make sense of, and act effectively in, the world. PMID:21969680

Prescott, Tony J.; Diamond, Mathew E.; Wing, Alan M.

2011-01-01

47

"The sixth sense": towards a history of muscular sensation.  

PubMed

This paper outlines the history of knowledge about the muscular sense and provides a bibliographic resource for further research. A range of different topics, questions and approaches have interrelated throughout this history, and the discussion clarifies this rather than presenting detailed research in any one area. Part I relates the origin of belief in a muscular sense to empiricist accounts of the contribution of the senses to knowledge from Locke, via the iddologues and other authors, to the second half of the nineteenth century. Analysis paid much attention to touch, first in the context of the theory of vision and then in its own right, which led to naming a distinct muscular sense. From 1800 to the present, there was much debate, the main lines of which this paper introduces, about the nature and function of what turned out to be a complex sense. A number of influential psycho-physiologists, notably Alexander Bain and Herbert Spencer, thought this sense the most primitive and primary of all, the origin of knowledge of world, causation and self as an active subject. Part II relates accounts of the muscular sense to the development of nervous physiology and of psychology. In the decades before 1900, the developing separation of philosophy, psychology and physiology as specialised disciplines divided up questions which earlier writers had discussed under the umbrella heading of muscular sensation. The term'kinaesthesia' came in 1880 and 'proprio-ception' in 1906. There was, all the same, a lasting interest in the argument that touch and muscular sensation are intrinsic to the existence of embodied being in the way the other senses are not. In the wider culture--the arts, sport, the psychophysiology of labour and so on--there were many ways in which people expressed appreciation of the importance of what the anatomist Charles Bell had called 'the sixth sense'. PMID:22822610

Smith, Roger

2011-01-01

48

Touch & connect and touch & select: interacting with a computer by touching it with a mobile phone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exchanging data between a mobile phone and a computer such as a laptop is still a very cumbersome process. This paper presents two different techniques, touch & connect and touch & select, designed help to overcome this problem and facilitate and speed up spontaneous interactions between such devices. Using touch & connect, the user can physically touch a computer in

Khoovirajsingh Seewoonauth; Enrico Rukzio; Robert Hardy; Paul Holleis

2009-01-01

49

Role of anorectal sensation in preserving continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of anal sensation in preserving continence was studied in nine healthy volunteers. Objective assessment of sphincter function by manometry and rectal saline infusion was carried out during topical anaesthesia of the anal canal using 5% lignocaine gel and during lubrication with the same amount of inert gel. Anaesthesia successfully abolished anal sensation and reduced both the amplitude and

M G Read; N W Read

1982-01-01

50

The Sensation Seeking Motive and Media Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to explore the relationships between sensation seeking--a multidimensional personality trait--and categories of leisure activity choices, mass media uses and gratifications, and television program preferences. It was hypothesized that low sensation seekers would find vicarious media such as television to be attractive leisure…

Broihier, Mary C.; Manning-Miller, Carmen

51

SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH  

E-print Network

1 SENSATION & PERCEPTION (I) FACULTY OF HEALTH York University; Psychology 2220; WINTER TERM 2011://www.yorku.ca/harris/2220/ Course Textbook: Sensation and Perception, Goldstein (8th edition) Course prerequisite: a minimum of C in PSYC 1010. Topics Introduction to perception The eye and seeing

Harris, Laurence R.

52

Touch and Discover  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Student teams identify and categorize various objects using their senses of touch and sight. One student chooses five objects for his/her blindfolded partner to describe and identify based solely on touch. Then they switch. Both students record their observations, describing the objects as: human-made or natural, living or non-living, as well as any other physical/sensory characteristics. Students become familiar with different classification systems and sharpen their vocabulary to describe the physical characteristics of different objects. They learn why engineers have a need to categorize materials.

Center for Engineering Educational Outreach,

53

Touch the Spring (Lightbulb)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, a lightbulb is placed in front of a concave mirror. The actual lightbulb is not visible to the viewer, but the viewer can see the mirror image of the lightbulb formed in space. When the viewer tries to touch the lightbulb, they are attempting to touch an image. Their hand moves right through what seems to be a solid object! Learners will enjoy this illusion, while investigating principles of light and mirrors. In this version of a popular Exploratorium exhibit, a lightbulb is substituted for a spring.

The Exploratorium

2011-12-07

54

Humidity measurement in harsh industrial environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the relative humidity definition and its measurement principles, this paper presents an improved psychrometer measurement method. The improved measurement method for relative humidity works consistently very well in harsh industrial environments. The sensor construction, measured signal conversion, and system implementation are presented. The Sprung formula is used to calculate the partial vapor pressure of water from wet-bulb temperature.

Wei Zhang; Simon X. Yang

2010-01-01

55

Polymeric Electrolytic Hygrometer For Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design of polymeric electrolytic hygrometer improved to meet need for reliable measurements of relative humidity in harsh environments of pulpmills and papermills. Redesigned sensor head features shorter, more-rigidly-held sensing element, less vulnerable than previous version to swell and loss of electrical contact. Useful for control of batch dryers in food and pharmaceutical industries.

Lawson, Daniel D.; Shakkottai, Parthasarathy; Venkateshan, Shakkottai P.

1989-01-01

56

Environmental harshness, heat stress, and Marmota flaviventris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventris) were studied at three sites in central Oregon. Juveniles substantially reduced their foraging activity when equivalent black-body temperatures exceeded their upper critical temperature. Inclusion of heat stress into estimates of environmental harshness drastically reduced the differences in available foraging time between high elevation and low elevation sites.

D. R. Webb

1979-01-01

57

DiamondTouch: a multi-user touch technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for creating a touch-sensitive input device is proposed which allows multiple, simultaneous users to interact in an intuitive fashion. Touch location information is determined independently for each user, allowing each touch on a common surface to be associated with a particular user. The surface generates location dependent, modulated electric fields which are capacitively coupled through the users to

Paul H. Dietz; Darren Leigh

2001-01-01

58

Militarized infrared touch panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the sophistication and power of computer systems continues to increase, the need for simplicity of human interface increases. The requirement to make systems 'accessible' and 'friendly' to the user is fundamental for the success of the system. While the development of touch input devices has opened the door to the possibility of incorporating the simplest user actions (i.e., looking

Stewart E. Hough; Pamela S. Stanley

1991-01-01

59

Controversies in therapeutic touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most puzzling areas covered under the umbrella of integrative medicine is the field of energy healing. Based on the notion of a subtle vital force which is presumed to be the source of health, many ancient healing techniques have been evolved within this paradigm, including the modern American variant called Therapeutic Touch (TT). This article reviews the

Eric Leskowitz

2003-01-01

60

A Touching Story  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of her lunchtime hall duty assistant principal Laura Whittier approaches a group of girls who are late for class. When they do not immediately depart, she touches one of them on the shoulder to encourage their prompt exit. A little while later the principal curtly informs Laura that the girl’s mother has come to school demanding that

Ann Hassenpflug

2001-01-01

61

Getting in Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the growing demand of using touchscreen interface. Consumers are now seeing touchscreens in a wide variety of electronics, not only in competitors to the iPhone from Sony, Samsung, Motorola, LG and T-Mobile, but also in desktop PCs, printers and copiers, televisions, and MP3 players. Teens, if they don't have a touch-enabled…

Dyrli, Kurt O.

2008-01-01

62

Tactile C fibers and their contributions to pleasant sensations and to tactile allodynia  

PubMed Central

In humans converging evidence indicates that affective aspects of touch are signaled by low threshold mechanoreceptive C tactile (CT) afferents. Analyses of electrophysiological recordings, psychophysical studies in denervated subjects, and functional brain imaging, all indicate that CT primary afferents contribute to pleasant touch and provide an important sensory underpinning of social behavior. Considering both these pleasant and social aspects of gentle skin-to-skin contact, we have put forward a framework within which to consider CT afferent coding properties and pathways—the CT affective touch hypothesis. Recent evidence from studies in mice suggests that CTs, when activated, may have analgesic or anxiolytic effects. However, in neuropathic pain conditions, light touch can elicit unpleasant sensations, so called tactile allodynia. In humans, tactile allodynia is associated with reduced CT mediated hedonic touch processing suggesting loss of the normally analgesic effect of CT signaling. We thus propose that the contribution of CT afferents to tactile allodynia is mainly through a loss of their normally pain inhibiting role. PMID:24639633

Liljencrantz, Jaquette; Olausson, Håkan

2014-01-01

63

A flexible tactile-feedback touch screen using transparent ferroelectric polymer film vibrators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To provide tactile feedback on flexible touch screens, transparent relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrators were designed and fabricated in this study. The film vibrator can be integrated underneath a transparent cover film or glass, and can also produce acoustic waves that cause a tactile sensation on human fingertips. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorotrifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)] polymer was used as the relaxor ferroelectric polymer because it produces a large strain under applied electric fields, shows a fast response, and has excellent optical transparency. The natural frequency of this tactile-feedback touch screen was designed to be around 200-240 Hz, at which the haptic perception of human fingertips is the most sensitive; therefore, the resonance of the touch screen at its natural frequency provides maximum haptic sensation. A multilayered relaxor ferroelectric polymer film vibrator was also demonstrated to provide the same vibration power at reduced voltage. The flexible P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE) film vibrators developed in this study are expected to provide tactile sensation not only in large-area flat panel displays, but also in flexible displays and touch screens.

Ju, Woo-Eon; Moon, Yong-Ju; Park, Cheon-Ho; Choi, Seung Tae

2014-07-01

64

Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

2005-01-01

65

Detection of Optogenetic Stimulation in Somatosensory Cortex by Non-Human Primates - Towards Artificial Tactile Sensation  

PubMed Central

Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L.; Nurmikko, Arto V.

2014-01-01

66

The social and personality neuroscience of empathy for pain and touch  

PubMed Central

First- and third-person experiences of bodily sensations, like pain and touch, recruit overlapping neural networks including sensorimotor, insular, and anterior cingulate cortices. Here we illustrate the peculiar role of these structures in coding the sensory and affective qualities of the observed bodily sensations. Subsequently we show that such neural activity is critically influenced by a range of social, emotional, cognitive factors, and importantly by inter-individual differences in the separate components of empathic traits. Finally we suggest some fundamental issues that social neuroscience has to address for providing a comprehensive knowledge of the behavioral, functional and anatomical brain correlates of empathy. PMID:23898249

Bufalari, Ilaria; Ionta, Silvio

2013-01-01

67

Sensation Seekers as a Healthcare Marketing Metasegment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses “sensation seekers” as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and\\/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these

Donald R. Self; Carolyn Sara Findley

2010-01-01

68

Synopsis of fiber optics in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic technology is making significant advances for use in a number of harsh environments, such as air and space platforms. Many of these applications involve integration into systems which make extensive use of optical fiber for high bandwidth signal transmission. The large signal transmission bandwidth of optical fiber has a large and positive impact on the overall performance and weight of the cable harness. There are many benefits of fiber optic systems for air and space harsh environment applications, including minimal electromagnetic interference and environmental effects, lightweight and smaller diameter cables, greater bandwidth, integrated prognostics and diagnostics and the ability to be easily upgraded. To qualify and use a fiber optic cable in space and air harsh environments requires treatment of the cable assembly as a system and understanding the design and behavior of its parts. Many parameters affect an optical fiber's ability to withstand a harsh temperature and radiation environment. The space radiation environment is dependent on orbital altitude, inclination and time, contains energetic magnetically-trapped electrons in the outer Van Allen radiation belt, trapped protons in the inner belt and solar event protons and ions. Both transient and permanent temperature and radiation have an attenuation effect on the performance of the cable fiber. This paper presents an overview of defining fiber optic system and component performance by identifying operating and storage environmental requirements, using appropriate standards to be used in fiber optic cable assembly manufacturing and integration, developing inspection methods and fixtures compliant with the selected standards and developing a fiber optic product process that assures compliance with each design requirement.

Pirich, Ronald

2014-09-01

69

Probability of inadvertent operation of electrical components in harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harsh environment, which means humidity and high temperature, may and will affect unsealed electrical components by causing leakage ground currents in ungrounded direct current systems. The concern in a nuclear power plant is that such harsh environment conditions could cause inadvertent operation of normally deenergized components, which may have a safety-related isolation function. Harsh environment is a common cause failure,

Knoll

1989-01-01

70

Identification of a spinal circuit for light touch and fine motor control.  

PubMed

Sensory circuits in the dorsal spinal cord integrate and transmit multiple cutaneous sensory modalities including the sense of light touch. Here, we identify a population of excitatory interneurons (INs) in the dorsal horn that are important for transmitting innocuous light touch sensation. These neurons express the ROR alpha (ROR?) nuclear orphan receptor and are selectively innervated by cutaneous low threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMs). Targeted removal of ROR? INs in the dorsal spinal cord leads to a marked reduction in behavioral responsiveness to light touch without affecting responses to noxious and itch stimuli. ROR? IN-deficient mice also display a selective deficit in corrective foot movements. This phenotype, together with our demonstration that the ROR? INs are innervated by corticospinal and vestibulospinal projection neurons, argues that the ROR? INs direct corrective reflex movements by integrating touch information with descending motor commands from the cortex and cerebellum. PMID:25635458

Bourane, Steeve; Grossmann, Katja S; Britz, Olivier; Dalet, Antoine; Del Barrio, Marta Garcia; Stam, Floor J; Garcia-Campmany, Lidia; Koch, Stephanie; Goulding, Martyn

2015-01-29

71

More than a rhythm of life: Breathing as a binder of orofacial sensation  

PubMed Central

When rodents engage in the exploration of novel stimuli, breathing occurs at an accelerated rate that is synchronous with whisking. We review the recently observed relationships between breathing and the sensations of smell and vibrissa-based touch. We consider the hypothesis that the breathing rhythm serves not only as a motor drive signal but also as a common clock that binds these two senses into a common percept. This possibility may be extended to include taste through the coordination of licking with breathing. The status of experimental evidence that pertains to this hypothesis is evaluated. PMID:24762718

Kleinfeld, David; Deschênes, Martin; Wang, Fan; Moore, Jeffrey D.

2014-01-01

72

Miniature Robotic Submarine for Exploring Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The miniature autonomous submersible explorer (MASE) has been proposed as a means of scientific exploration -- especially, looking for signs of life -- in harsh, relatively inaccessible underwater environments. Basically, the MASE would be a small instrumented robotic submarine (see figure) that could launch itself or could be launched from another vehicle. Examples of environments that might be explored by use of the MASE include subglacial lakes, deep-ocean hydrothermal vents, acidic or alkaline lakes, brine lenses in permafrost, and ocean regions under Antarctic ice shelves.

Behar, Alberto; Bruhn, Fredrik; Carsey, Frank

2004-01-01

73

Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Because of their small size, passive nature, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and capability to directly measure physical parameters such as temperature and strain, fiber Bragg grating sensors have developed beyond a laboratory curiosity and are becoming a mainstream sensing technology. Recently, high temperature stable gratings based on regeneration techniques and femtosecond infrared laser processing have shown promise for use in extreme environments such as high temperature, pressure or ionizing radiation. Such gratings are ideally suited for energy production applications where there is a requirement for advanced energy system instrumentation and controls that are operable in harsh environments. This paper will present a review of some of the more recent developments. PMID:22438744

Mihailov, Stephen J.

2012-01-01

74

Multimodal mechanisms of food creaminess sensation.  

PubMed

In this work, the sensory creaminess of a set of four viscosity-matched fluid foods (single cream, evaporated milk, corn starch solution, and corn starch solution containing long chain free fatty acids) was tested by a panel of 16 assessors via controlled sensation mechanisms of smell only, taste only, taste and tactile, and integrated multimodal. It was found that all sensation channels were able to discriminate between creamy and non-creamy foods, but only the multimodal method gave creaminess ratings in agreement with the samples' fat content. Results from this study show that the presence of long chain free fatty acids has no influence on creaminess perception. It is certain that food creaminess is not a primary sensory property but an integrated sensory perception (or sensory experience) derived from combined sensations of visual, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues. Creamy colour, milky flavour, and smooth texture are probably the most important sensory features of food creaminess. PMID:22929998

Chen, Jianshe; Eaton, Louise

2012-12-01

75

Sensation seekers as a healthcare marketing metasegment.  

PubMed

This article discusses "sensation seekers" as a market segment for communication and prevention programs for various lifestyle and/or risk-related health problem areas such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse, suicide attempts, and sexually transmitted diseases. Although sensation seekers tend to be creative, artistic individuals, they are also prone to various negative health behaviors and many population-based prevention programs have over-looked these individuals as an important target. Various inputs to sensation-seeking causation are explored, including biological/chemical, psychological, and the impact of external characteristics. Using a combination for regulatory focus and risk homeostasis, propositions are provided for improving the effectiveness of the communications. Recommendations for prevention efforts focusing on reaching this subculture using television, along with other electronic media are proposed, including recommendations for message construction and presentation venues. PMID:20155549

Self, Donald R; Findley, Carolyn Sara

2010-01-01

76

Harsh environment fiber optic connectors/testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic systems are used frequently in military, aerospace and commercial aviation programs. There is a long history of implementing fiber optic data transfer for aircraft control, for harsh environment use in local area networks and more recently for in-flight entertainment systems. The advantages of fiber optics include high data rate capacity, low weight, immunity to EMI/RFI, and security from signal tapping. Technicians must be trained particularly to install and maintain fiber systems, but it is not necessarily more difficult than wire systems. However, the testing of the fiber optic interconnection system must be conducted in a standardized manner to assure proper performance. Testing can be conducted with slight differences in the set-up and procedure that produce significantly different test results. This paper reviews various options of interconnect configurations and discusses how these options can affect the performance, maintenance required and longevity of a fiber optic system, depending on the environment. Proper test methods are discussed. There is a review of the essentials of proper fiber optic testing and impact of changing such test parameters as input launch conditions, wavelength considerations, power meter options and the basic methods of testing. This becomes important right from the start when the supplier test data differs from the user's data check upon receiving the product. It also is important in periodic testing. Properly conducting the fiber optic testing will eliminate confusion and produce meaningful test results for a given harsh environment application.

Parker, Douglas A.

2014-09-01

77

A multi-touch three dimensional touch-sensitive tablet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype touch-sensitive tablet Is presented. The tablet's main innovation is that It Is capable of sensing mare than one point of contact at a time. In addition to being able to provide position coor- dinates, the tablet also gives a measure of degree of contact, independently for each point of contact. In order to enable mutU- touch sensing, the

Sk Lee; William Buxton; K. C. Smith

1985-01-01

78

TRPV1-lineage neurons are required for thermal sensation  

PubMed Central

The ion-channel TRPV1 is believed to be a major sensor of noxious heat, but surprisingly animals lacking TRPV1 still display marked responses to elevated temperature. In this study, we explored the role of TRPV1-expressing neurons in somatosensation by generating mice wherein this lineage of cells was selectively labelled or ablated. Our data show that TRPV1 is an embryonic marker of many nociceptors including all TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons as well as many Mrg-expressing neurons. Mutant mice lacking these cells are completely insensitive to hot or cold but in marked contrast retain normal touch and mechanical pain sensation. These animals also exhibit defective body temperature control and lose both itch and pain reactions to potent chemical mediators. Together with previous cell ablation studies, our results define and delimit the roles of TRPV1- and TRPM8-neurons in thermosensation, thermoregulation and nociception, thus significantly extending the concept of labelled lines in somatosensory coding. PMID:21139565

Mishra, Santosh K; Tisel, Sarah M; Orestes, Peihan; Bhangoo, Sonia K; Hoon, Mark A

2011-01-01

79

Dual innervation of neonatal Merkel cells in mouse touch domes.  

PubMed

Merkel cell-neurite complexes are specialized mechanosensory end organs that mediate discriminative touch sensation. It is well established that type I slowly adapting (SAI) mechanoreceptors, which express neural filament heavy chain (NFH), innervate Merkel cells. It was previously shown that neurotrophic factor NT3 and its receptor TrkC play crucial roles in controlling touch dome Merkel cell innervation of NFH+ fibers. In addition, nerve fibers expressing another neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK), Ret, innervate touch dome Merkel cells as well. However, the relationship between afferents responsive to NT3/TrkC signaling and those expressing Ret is unclear. It is also controversial if these Ret+ fibers belong to the early or late Ret+ DRG neurons, which are defined based on the co-expression and developmental dependence of TrkA. To address these questions, we genetically traced Ret+ and TrkC+ fibers and analyzed their developmental dependence on TrkA. We found that Merkel cells in neonatal mouse touch domes receive innervation of two types of fibers: one group is Ret+, while the other subset expresses TrkC and NFH. In addition, Ret+ fibers depend on TrkA for their survival and normal innervation whereas NFH+ Merkel cell innervating fibers are almost unaltered in TrkA mutant mice, supporting that Ret+ and NFH+/TrkC+ afferents are two distinct groups. Ret signaling, on the other hand, plays a minor role for the innervation of neonatal touch domes. In contrast, Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly contacted by NFH+/TrkC+ afferents. Taken together, our results suggest that neonatal Merkel cells around hair follicles receive dual innervation while Merkel cells in the glabrous skin are mainly innervated by only SAI mechanoreceptors. In addition, our results suggest that neonatal Ret+ Merkel cell innervating fibers most likely belong to the late but not early Ret+ DRG neurons. PMID:24637732

Niu, Jingwen; Vysochan, Anna; Luo, Wenqin

2014-01-01

80

KCNQ4 K+ channels tune mechanoreceptors for normal touch sensation in mouse and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutations inactivating the potassium channel KCNQ4 (Kv7.4) lead to deafness in humans and mice. In addition to its expression in mechanosensitive hair cells of the inner ear, KCNQ4 is found in the auditory pathway and in trigeminal nuclei that convey somatosensory information. We have now detected KCNQ4 in the peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous rapidly adapting hair follicle and Meissner

Matthias Heidenreich; Stefan G Lechner; Vitya Vardanyan; Christiane Wetzel; C. W. R. J. Cremers; Els M De Leenheer; Gracia Aránguez; Miguel Ángel Moreno-Pelayo; Thomas J Jentsch; Gary R Lewin

2011-01-01

81

Empathic Touch by Relational Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a series of experiments with an agent designed to model human conversational touch-capable of physically touching users in synchrony with speech and other nonverbal communicative behavior-and its use in expressing empathy to users in distress. The agent is composed of an animated human face that is displayed on a monitor affixed to the top of a human mannequin,

Timothy W. Bickmore; Rukmal Fernando; Lazlo Ring; Daniel Schulman

2010-01-01

82

Opponency of astringent and fat sensations.  

PubMed

In most cultures, people ingest a variety of astringent foods and beverages during meals, but the reasons for this practice are unclear. Many popular beliefs and heuristics, such as high tannin wines should be balanced with fatty foods, for example 'red wine with red meat', suggest that astringents such as pickles, sorbets, wines, and teas 'cleanse' the palate while eating. Oral astringents elicit 'dry, rough' sensations [1], in part, by breaking down mucinous lubricating proteins in saliva [2,3]. The introduction of oral lubricants, including fats, partially diminishes strong astringent sensations [4,5]. Thus, it appears that astringency and fattiness can oppose each other perceptually on an oral rheological spectrum. Most teas, wines, and 'palate cleansers', however, are only mildly astringent and an explanation of how they could oppose the fattiness of meals is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that weakly astringent stimuli can elicit strong sensations after repeated sampling. Astringency builds with exposures [6] to an asymptotic level determined by the structure and concentration of the compound. We also establish that multiple sips of a mild astringent solution, similar to a wine or tea, decrease oral fat sensations elicited by fatty food consumption when astringent and fatty stimuli alternate, mimicking the patterning that occurs during a real meal. Consequently, we reveal a principle underlying the international practice of 'palate cleansing'. Repeatedly alternating samples of astringent beverages with fatty foods yielded ratings of fattiness and astringency that were lower than if rinsing with water or if presented alone without alternation. PMID:23058798

des Gachons, Catherine Peyrot; Mura, Emi; Speziale, Camille; Favreau, Charlotte J; Dubreuil, Guillaume F; Breslin, Paul A S

2012-10-01

83

Solar-Blind Photodetectors for Harsh Electronics  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate solar-blind photodetectors (PDs) by employing AlN thin films on Si(100) substrates with excellent temperature tolerance and radiation hardness. Even at a bias higher than 200?V the AlN PDs on Si show a dark current as low as ~ 1?nA. The working temperature is up to 300°C and the radiation tolerance is up to 1013?cm?2 of 2-MeV proton fluences for AlN metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs. Moreover, the AlN PDs show a photoresponse time as fast as ~ 110?ms (the rise time) and ~ 80?ms (the fall time) at 5?V bias. The results demonstrate that AlN MSM PDs hold high potential in next-generation deep ultraviolet PDs for use in harsh environments. PMID:24022208

Tsai, Dung-Sheng; Lien, Wei-Cheng; Lien, Der-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Ming; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Senesky, Debbie G.; Yu, Yueh-Chung; Pisano, Albert P.; He, Jr-Hau

2013-01-01

84

Resistive Oxygen Gas Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Resistive oxygen sensors are an inexpensive alternative to the classical potentiometric zirconia oxygen sensor, especially for use in harsh environments and at temperatures of several hundred °C or even higher. This device-oriented paper gives a historical overview on the development of these sensor materials. It focuses especially on approaches to obtain a temperature independent behavior. It is shown that although in the past 40 years there have always been several research groups working concurrently with resistive oxygen sensors, novel ideas continue to emerge today with respect to improvements of the sensor response time, the temperature dependence, the long-term stability or the manufacture of the devices themselves using novel techniques for the sensitive films. Materials that are the focus of this review are metal oxides; especially titania, titanates, and ceria-based formulations. PMID:22163805

Moos, Ralf; Izu, Noriya; Rettig, Frank; Reiß, Sebastian; Shin, Woosuck; Matsubara, Ichiro

2011-01-01

85

Explaining Away the Body: Experiences of Supernaturally Caused Touch and Touch on Non-Hand Objects within the Rubber Hand Illusion  

PubMed Central

Background In rubber hand illusions and full body illusions, touch sensations are projected to non-body objects such as rubber hands, dolls or virtual bodies. The robustness, limits and further perceptual consequences of such illusions are not yet fully explored or understood. A number of experiments are reported that test the limits of a variant of the rubber hand illusion. Methodology/Principal Findings A variant of the rubber hand illusion is explored, in which the real and foreign hands are aligned in personal space. The presence of the illusion is ascertained with participants' scores and temperature changes of the real arm. This generates a basic illusion of touch projected to a foreign arm. Participants are presented with further, unusual visuotactile stimuli subsequent to onset of the basic illusion. Such further visuotactile stimulation is found to generate very unusual experiences of supernatural touch and touch on a non-hand object. The finding of touch on a non-hand object conflicts with prior findings, and to resolve this conflict a further hypothesis is successfully tested: that without prior onset of the basic illusion this unusual experience does not occur. Conclusions/Significance A rubber hand illusion is found that can arise when the real and the foreign arm are aligned in personal space. This illusion persists through periods of no tactile stimulation and is strong enough to allow very unusual experiences of touch felt on a cardboard box and experiences of touch produced at a distance, as if by supernatural causation. These findings suggest that one's visual body image is explained away during experience of the illusion and they may be of further importance to understanding the role of experience in delusion formation. The findings of touch on non-hand objects may help reconcile conflicting results in this area of research. In addition, new evidence is provided that relates to the recently discovered psychologically induced temperature changes that occur during the illusion. PMID:20195378

2010-01-01

86

Coherent beam combining performance in harsh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coherent beam combining (CBC) is a promising solution for high power directed energy weapons. We investigate several particular issues for this application: First, we study the evolution of phase noise spectrum for increasing pump power in 100 W MOPFA. The main variations in the spectrum are located in the low frequency region corresponding to thermal transfer between the fiber core heated by the pump absorption and the fiber environment. The phase noise root mean square evolves linearly with the pump power. Noise spectrum is not shifted to higher frequencies. Second, we investigate the influence of fiber packaging and amplifier packaging on the phase noise and estimate the LOCSET controller bandwidth (BW) requirement in each case. Results show large variation of BW depending on the packaging, and not on the power. Then, we investigate the performances of CBC in harsh environment. For this purpose, we implement CBC of a 20-W fiber amplifier and a passive fiber using the LOCSET technique and simulate harsh environment by applying strong vibrations with a hammering drill on the optical table. The applied vibration spectrum ranges from 1 Hz to ~10 kHz with a standard deviation of 9 m/s2. CBC of the amplifier output and the passive fiber output is performed on a second table, isolated from vibrations. Measurements of the phase difference between both outputs and of the applied vibrations are simultaneously performed. Residual phase error of ?/40 (i.e. > 99 % CBC efficiency) is achieved under strong vibrations at 20 W. The -3 dB bandwidth of the LOCSET controller has been measured to be ~4.5 kHz. Results are in agreement with simulations.

Lombard, L.; Canat, G.; Durecu, A.; Bourdon, P.

2014-03-01

87

Sensation seeking, television viewing motives, and home television viewing patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships between sensation seeking and television viewing motives and home TV viewing preferences. A total of 189 participants completed a sensation seeking scale, rated the importance of several global television viewing motives, and indicated viewing frequency for 18 categories of TV programming. Findings indicated that, contrary to previously-reported results, high sensation seekers did not watch less

Richard Potts; Angela Dedmon; Jeff Halford

1996-01-01

88

Caffeinated Alcohol, Sensation Seeking, and Injury Risk  

PubMed Central

Background College students who consume caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CaffAlc) are at increased injury risk. This study examines the extent to which a sensation-seeking personality accounts for the relationship between consumption of CaffAlc and negative outcomes. Methods A Web-based survey was administered to stratified random samples of 4907 college students from eight North Carolina universities in Fall 2009. Sensation seeking was assessed using the Brief Sensation-Seeking Scale (BSSS) (?=0.81). Data were analyzed using linear and logistic regression. Results 3390 students (71.2%) reported past 30-day drinking, of whom 786 (23.2%) consumed CaffAlc. CaffAlc past 30-day drinkers had higher BSSS scores (3.8 vs. 3.4; p<0.001), compared to non-CaffAlc drinkers. Consumption of CaffAlc was associated with more frequent binge drinking (p<0.001) and drunken days in a typical week (p<0.001), even after adjusting for the BSSS score. CaffAlc students were more likely to be taken advantage of sexually (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.70, p=0.012), drive under the influence of alcohol (AOR=2.00, p<0.001), and ride with a driver under the influence of alcohol (AOR=1.87, p<0.001). Injury requiring medical treatment was more prevalent among CaffAlc students with higher BSSS-8 scores (interaction p=0.024), even after adjustment for drinking levels and student characteristics. Conclusions Sensation seeking does not fully account for the increase in risky drinking among college students who consume CaffAlc, nor does it moderate the relationship between CaffAlc and drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking moderates the risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment among college students who consume CaffAlc. Those with strong sensation-seeking dispositions are at the highest risk of alcohol-associated injury requiring medical treatment. PMID:24761275

McCoy, Thomas P.; Egan, Kathleen L.; Goldin, Shoshanna; Rhodes, Scott D.; Wolfson, Mark

2013-01-01

89

PC-based test systems in harsh environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

PC based test systems are typically used in office and laboratory environments. Some systems can also be used in industrial environments where electrical noise, higher temperature, and dust prevent the use of the desktop PC. These test systems however will not survive the harsh environment found on the flight-line or otherwise outdoor use. Such harsh environment conditions include extreme ambient

L. A. Gutterman

1999-01-01

90

Characterization of Deqi Sensation and Acupuncture Effect  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations. According to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), deqi experienced by patients is often described as suan (aching or soreness), ma (numbness or tingling), zhang (fullness, distention, or pressure), and zhong (heaviness) and is felt by the acupuncturists (needle grasping) as tense, tight, and full. It is believed that deqi may be an important variable in the studies of the mechanism and efficacy of acupuncture treatment. In recent years, great efforts have been made to understand deqi, which include a couple of questionnaires to qualify and quantify deqi sensations, neuroimaging studies of deqi and acupuncture, physiological mechanisms of deqi, and the relation between deqi and clinical efficacy. However, many problems need to be resolved, and more researches are required to be made in the future. PMID:23864884

Yang, Xing-Yue; Shi, Guang-Xia; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Xu, Qian; Liu, Cun-Zhi

2013-01-01

91

Parental harsh discipline in mainland China: prevalence, frequency, and coexistence.  

PubMed

The study examined the prevalence, frequency, and coexistence of psychological aggression (PA), corporal punishment (CP), and severe physical abuse (SPA) in mainland China. Using a sample of 2,518 father-mother dyads of 3-15-year-old children, the findings revealed that parental harsh discipline was prevalent in mainland China. The rates of harsh discipline in the current study fell in the middle of the ranges of rates found in other studies. Harsh discipline was most likely directed at boys or children aged 7 years and committed by mothers, young fathers, or high and low socioeconomic status (SES) parents. The prevalence of maternal and paternal PA and CP declined with the children's age. Maternal and paternal SPA first increased and then decreased with child age. The frequency of the three types of maternal and paternal harsh discipline fluctuated depending on the age of the children. In addition, approximately 50% of the mothers and fathers who reported using severe forms of disciplinary practices also engaged in less severe forms of harsh disciplinary practices against their children. SPA generally coexisted with CP and PA, and CP was usually accompanied by PA; however, PA was more likely to occur independently compared with CP and SPA. Moreover, maternal harsh discipline coexisted with paternal harsh discipline to some extent. The coexistence decreased with increasing severity of parental harsh discipline and differed according to child gender. These findings highlight the importance of studying these three types of parental harsh discipline simultaneously and intervening in harsh discipline by mothers and fathers within the same family. PMID:24661692

Wang, Meifang; Liu, Li

2014-06-01

92

Detection of optogenetic stimulation in somatosensory cortex by non-human primates--towards artificial tactile sensation.  

PubMed

Neuroprosthesis research aims to enable communication between the brain and external assistive devices while restoring lost functionality such as occurs from stroke, spinal cord injury or neurodegenerative diseases. In future closed-loop sensorimotor prostheses, one approach is to use neuromodulation as direct stimulus to the brain to compensate for a lost sensory function and help the brain to integrate relevant information for commanding external devices via, e.g. movement intention. Current neuromodulation techniques rely mainly of electrical stimulation. Here we focus specifically on the question of eliciting a biomimetically relevant sense of touch by direct stimulus of the somatosensory cortex by introducing optogenetic techniques as an alternative to electrical stimulation. We demonstrate that light activated opsins can be introduced to target neurons in the somatosensory cortex of non-human primates and be optically activated to create a reliably detected sensation which the animal learns to interpret as a tactile sensation localized within the hand. The accomplishment highlighted here shows how optical stimulation of a relatively small group of mostly excitatory somatosensory neurons in the nonhuman primate brain is sufficient for eliciting a useful sensation from data acquired by simultaneous electrophysiology and from behavioral metrics. In this first report to date on optically neuromodulated behavior in the somatosensory cortex of nonhuman primates we do not yet dissect the details of the sensation the animals exerience or contrast it to those evoked by electrical stimulation, issues of considerable future interest. PMID:25541938

May, Travis; Ozden, Ilker; Brush, Benjamin; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Agha, Naubahar; Sheinberg, David L; Nurmikko, Arto V

2014-01-01

93

Touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was the first organism for which touch insensitive mutants were obtained. The study of the genes defective in these mutants\\u000a has led to the identification of components of a mechanosensory complex needed for specific cells to sense gentle touch to\\u000a the body. Multiple approaches using genetics, cell biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology have characterized a channel\\u000a complex,

Alexander Bounoutas; Martin Chalfie

2007-01-01

94

Rugged sensor window materials for harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are several military or commercial systems operating in very harsh environments that require rugged windows. On some of these systems, windows become the single point of failure. These applications include sensor or imaging systems, high-energy laser weapons systems, submarine photonic masts, IR countermeasures and missiles. Based on the sea or land or air based platforms the window or dome on these systems must withstand wave slap, underwater or ground based explosions, or survive flight through heavy rain and sand storms while maintaining good optical transmission in the desired wavelength range. Some of these applications still use softer ZnS or fused silica windows because of lack of availability of rugged materials in shapes or sizes required. Sapphire, ALON and spinel are very rugged materials with significantly higher strengths compared to ZnS and fused silica. There have been recent developments in spinel, ALON and sapphire materials to fabricate in large sizes and conformal shapes. We have been developing spinel ceramics for several of these applications. We are also developing ?-SiC as a transparent window material as it has higher hardness, strength, and toughness than sapphire, ALON and spinel. This paper gives a summary of our recent findings.

Bayya, Shyam; Villalobos, Guillermo; Kim, Woohong; Sanghera, Jasbinger; Hunt, Michael; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.

2014-09-01

95

Transfections of animal touch, techniques of biosecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal touch – in the broadest sense, biological touch across species lines – emerges as a biosecurity threat within contemporary contexts of pandemic alert. At the same time, animal touch is increasingly invested with therapeutic, healing value within neoliberal economies of affect. This article develops two genealogies of animal touch toward historicizing the way it has come to mean and

Nicole Shukin

2011-01-01

96

Significance of Touch in Young Children's Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Touch matters. Humans need nurturing touch for optimum emotional, physical, and cognitive development and health--especially in infancy. Positive touch lowers levels of the stress hormone cortisol in the brain. Drawing on research and anecdotal evidence to support the importance of touch to children's well-being, the author makes a case for…

Carlson, Frances M.

2005-01-01

97

A Sensitive, Reliable Inexpensive Touch Detector  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research in a laboratory required a sensitive, reliable, inexpensive touch detector for use with rats to test the reinforcement of inhibition. A small touch detector was also desirable so that the detector could be mounted on the rat's cage close to the object being touched by the rat, whose touches in turn were being detected by current passing…

Anger, Douglas; Schachtman, Todd R.

2007-01-01

98

Redirected Touching: Training and Adaptation in Warped Virtual Spaces  

PubMed Central

Redirected Touching is a technique in which virtual space is warped to map many virtual objects onto one real object that serves as a passive haptic prop. Recent work suggests that this mapping can often be predictably unnoticeable and have little effect on task performance. We investigated training and adaptation on a rapid aiming task in a real environment, an unwarped virtual environment, and a warped virtual environment. Participants who experienced a warped virtual space reported an initial strange sensation, but adapted to the warped space after short repeated exposure. Our data indicate that all the virtual training was less effective than real-world training, but after adaptation, participants trained as well in a warped virtual space as in an unwarped one. PMID:25621318

Kohli, Luv; Whitton, Mary C.; Brooks, Frederick P.

2014-01-01

99

Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the Radiation Tolerant Intelligent Memory Stack (RTIMS).

2008-01-01

100

The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting.  

PubMed

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-08-20

101

The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting  

PubMed Central

Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes. PMID:23918380

Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

2013-01-01

102

Diminished P300 to physical risk in sensation seeking.  

PubMed

Zuckerman's theory proposes individual differences in optimal arousal and arousability level as the root of the sensation-seeking trait. The current study addressed how sensation seeking influences responses to emotional arousal at the electrophysiological level during a passive viewing task and at the psychometrical level during a self-assessment task. Electrophysiologically, high sensation seekers (HSSs) compared to low sensation seekers (LSSs) exhibited a reduced P300 for high-arousing stimuli (adventure and surreal pictures), but not for low-arousing stimuli (leisure and neutral pictures). Psychometrically, HSSs displayed a higher preference for adventure and surreal pictures whereas LSSs showed a higher preference for leisure pictures. Instead of supporting the optimal arousal hypothesis, these findings suggest that sensation seeking is associated with diminished P300 to physical risk, which may be driven by a hypoactive avoidance system in sensation seeking. PMID:25766263

Zheng, Ya; Tan, Fei; Xu, Jing; Chang, Yi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Shen, Huijuan

2015-04-01

103

HARSHNESS: CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERMITTENT STREAM HABITAT OVER SPACE AND TIME  

EPA Science Inventory

Frequently disturbed environments, such as intermittent streams, are ecologically useful for studying how disturbance characteristics (e.g., frequency, magnitude) affect community structure and succession. A harshness index summarizing spatial and temporal characteristics of pra...

104

Plasmonics Based Harsh Environment Compatible Chemical Sensors  

SciTech Connect

Au-YSZ, Au-TiO{sub 2} and Au-CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite films have been investigated as a potential sensing element for high-temperature plasmonic sensing of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in an oxygen containing environment. The Au-YSZ and Au-TiO{sub 2} films were deposited using PVD methods, while the CeO{sub 2} thin film was deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and Au was implanted into the as-grown film at an elevated temperature followed by high temperature annealing to form well-defined Au nanoclusters. Each of the films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). For the gas sensing experiments, separate exposures to varying concentrations of H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} were performed at a temperature of 500°C in oxygen backgrounds of 5.0, 10, and ~21% O{sub 2}. Changes in the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak were monitored during gas exposures and are believed to be the result of oxidation-reduction processes that fill or create oxygen vacancies in the respective metal oxides. This process affects the LSPR peak position either by charge exchange with the Au nanoparticles or by changes in the dielectric constant surrounding the particles. Hyperspectral multivariate analysis was used to gauge the inherent selectivity of the film between the separate analytes. From principal component analysis (PCA), unique and identifiable responses were seen for each of the analytes. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was also used on the Au-CeO{sub 2} results and showed separation between analytes as well as trends in gas concentration. Results indicate that each of the films are is selective towards O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, CO, and NO{sub 2} in separate exposures. However, when the films were analyzed in a sensor array based experiment, ie simultaneous exposures to the target gases, PCA analysis of the combined response showed an even greater selective character towards the target gases. Combined with the observed stability over long exposure periods, each of these Au-metal oxide films shows good potential as an optical sensing element for harsh environmental conditions.

Michael Carpenter

2012-01-15

105

Touch for Socioemotional and Physical Well-Being: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review briefly summarizes recent empirical research on touch. The research includes the role of touch in early development, touch deprivation, touch aversion, emotions that can be conveyed by touch, the importance of touch for interpersonal relationships and how friendly touch affects compliance in different situations. MRI data are reviewed…

Field, Tiffany

2010-01-01

106

What is the sensation seeker? Personality trait and experience correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested correlates of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in 7 studies and 2 replications using undergraduate Ss (N = 1,145). The SSS, or particular subscales of the SSS, were related to an MMPI triad of F, Pd, and Ma and to a cluster of scales of the l6 PF which indicated an uninhibited, nonconforming, impulsive, dominant type of extraversion, but not

Marvin Zuckerman

1972-01-01

107

Sensation Seeking and Narrative Transportation: High Sensation Seeking Children's Interest in Reading outside of School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High sensation seekers (HSS) prefer messages that allow them to maintain an optimal level of arousal (i.e., highly arousing messages). Transportation theory suggests that narrative immersion in a story may moderate reader arousal, and thus HSS message selection. To test this idea, a survey was administered to 120 fourth and fifth graders. In…

Jensen, Jakob; Imboden, Kristen; Ivic, Rebecca

2011-01-01

108

Harsh environment sensor development for advanced energy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Highly efficient, low emission power systems have extreme conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and corrosivity that require monitoring. Sensing in these harsh environments can provide key information that directly impacts process control and system reliability. To achieve the goals and demands of clean energy, the conditions under which fossil fuels are converted into heat and power are harsh compared to traditional combustion/steam cycles. Temperatures can extend as high as 1600 Celsius (°C) in certain systems and pressures can reach as high as 5000 pounds per square inch (psi)/340 atmospheres (atm). The lack of suitable measurement technology serves as a driver for the innovations in harsh environment sensor development. Two major considerations in the development of harsh environments sensors are the materials used for sensing and the design of the sensing device. This paper will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy's, Office of Fossil Energy and National Energy Technology Laboratory's Program in advanced sensing concepts that are aimed at addressing the technology needs and drivers through the development of new sensor materials and designs capable of withstanding harsh environment conditions. Recent developments with harsh environment sensors will be highlighted and future directions towards in advanced sensing will be introduced.

Romanosky, Robert R.; Maley, Susan M.

2013-05-01

109

To Touch or Not to Touch: That Is the Question!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

People attend museums to see artifacts and learn from them! Ideally, they want to see them, touch them, and learn the story about them. Artifacts have an uncanny ability to mute the passage of time, and unite young and old on common ground. During its sixty-plus-years in existence, the Fort Worth Museum of Science and History has displayed…

Smith, Gene Allen

2011-01-01

110

Hedgehog pathway blockade with the cancer drug LDE225 disrupts taste organs and taste sensation.  

PubMed

Taste sensation on the anterior tongue requires chorda tympani nerve function and connections with continuously renewing taste receptor cells. However, it is unclear which signaling pathways regulate the receptor cells to maintain chorda tympani sensation. Hedgehog (HH) signaling controls cell proliferation and differentiation in numerous tissues and is active in taste papillae and taste buds. In contrast, uncontrolled HH signaling drives tumorigenesis, including the common skin cancer, basal cell carcinoma. Systemic HH pathway inhibitors (HPIs) lead to basal cell carcinoma regression, but these drugs cause severe taste disturbances. We tested the hypothesis that taste disruption by HPIs reflects a direct requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste organs and gustatory sensation. In mice treated with the HPI LDE225 up to 28 days, HH-responding cells were lost in fungiform papilla epithelium, and papillae acquired a conical apex. Taste buds were either absent or severely reduced in size in more than 90% of aberrant papillae. Taste bud remnants expressed the taste cell marker keratin 8, and papillae retained expression of nerve markers, neurofilament and P2X3. Chorda tympani nerve responses to taste stimuli were markedly reduced or absent in LDE225-treated mice. Responses to touch were retained, however, whereas cold responses were retained after 16 days of treatment but lost after 28 days. These data identify a critical, modality-specific requirement for HH signaling in maintaining taste papillae, taste buds and neurophysiological taste function, supporting the proposition that taste disturbances in HPI-treated patients are an on-target response to HH pathway blockade in taste organs. PMID:25392175

Kumari, Archana; Ermilov, Alexandre N; Allen, Benjamin L; Bradley, Robert M; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Mistretta, Charlotte M

2015-02-01

111

Authoritative Parenting and Sensation Seeking as Predictors of Adolescent Cigarette and Marijuana Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adolescents with high sensation-seeking tendencies often seek out thrill seeking experiences to satisfy their need for stimulation and sensation. In many cases, sensation-seeking adolescents fulfill their need for stimulation and sensation by using illicit substances. However, not all high sensation seekers use drugs, although the factors that…

Stephenson, Michael T.; Helme, Donald W.

2006-01-01

112

While touch accepted as a  

E-print Network

or phy an airplane w they used ges urface tableto that touching hat the comp nflicts may re e arou ers compensa nteractivity cr using a multi-t ked participan ysical mechan wing (fig. 2) stures to unintentio or part of this wo provided that copi dvantage and that age. To copy othe to lists, requires any

Reiterer, Harald

113

Message sensation and cognition values: factors of competition or integration?  

PubMed

Using the Activation Model of Information Exposure and Elaboration Likelihood Model as theoretical frameworks, this study explored the effects of message sensation value (MSV) and message cognition value (MCV) of antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) on ad processing and evaluation among young adults, and the difference between high sensation seekers and low sensation seekers in their perceptions and responses toward ads with different levels of sensation and cognition value. A 2 (MSV: high vs. low) × 2 (MCV: high vs. low) × 2 (need for sensation: high vs. low) mixed experimental design was conducted. Two physiological measures including skin conductance and heart rate were examined. Findings of this study show that MSV was not a distraction but a facilitator of message persuasiveness. These findings contribute to the activation model. In addition, need for sensation moderated the interaction effect of MSV and MCV on ad processing. Low sensation seekers were more likely to experience the interaction between MSV and MCV than high sensation seekers. Several observations related to the findings and implications for antismoking message designs are elaborated. Limitations and directions for future research are also outlined. PMID:24877753

Xu, Jie

2015-06-01

114

The Genetic Correlation Between Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of studies have demonstrated associations between sensation seeking traits and measures of impulsivity. This study examined genetic contributions to the observed correlations between imupulsivity and sensation seeking traits. Fifty-seven pairs of identical and 49 pairs of fraternal twins who were reared apart and 90 individuals who also participated in the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart completed the

Yoon-Mi Hur; Thomas J. Bouchard

1997-01-01

115

Social Context, Sensation Seeking, and Teen-age Alcohol Abuse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An anonymous questionnaire examined alcohol use, the social context of drinking, and sensation seeking among rural seventh through 12th graders. The sensation-seeking trait proved of moderate importance in distinguishing among different alcohol abuse practices. Social context measures were effective in distinguishing among levels on each indicant…

Thombs, Dennis L; And Others

1994-01-01

116

Taste Sensation: Influences on Human Ingestive Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Taste sensations serve multiple feeding-related functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a There are inherent likes and dislikes for taste qualities, but all are modifiable through dietary experience.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Mere exposure to the taste of food elicits numerous physiological responses that may prime the body to efficiently absorb\\u000a and utilize ingested nutrients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Gustatory disorders can increase an individual’s risk to environmental toxin exposure,

Bridget A. Cassady; Richard D. Mattes

117

Normal and abnormal coding of painful sensations  

PubMed Central

Noxious stimuli cause pain and pain arises from noxious stimuli… usually. Exceptions to these apparent truisms are the basis for clinically important problems and provide valuable insight into the neural code for pain. In this Perspective, we will discuss how painful sensations are encoded. We will argue that although primary somatosensory afferents are specialized (i.e. tuned to specific stimulus features), natural stimuli often activate >1 type of afferent. Manipulating co-activation patterns can alter perception, which argues against each type of afferent acting independently (as expected for strictly labeled lines) and suggests instead that signals conveyed by different types of afferents interact. Deciphering the central circuits that mediate those interactions is critical for explaining the generation and modulation of neural signals ultimately perceived as pain. The advent of genetic and optical dissection techniques promise to dramatically accelerate progress towards this goal, which will facilitate the rational design of future pain therapeutics. PMID:24473266

Prescott, Steven A; Ma, Qiufu; De Koninck, Yves

2014-01-01

118

Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo.

Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

2015-03-01

119

Intravital microscopic interrogation of peripheral taste sensation.  

PubMed

Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

2015-01-01

120

Intravital Microscopic Interrogation of Peripheral Taste Sensation  

PubMed Central

Intravital microscopy is a powerful tool in neuroscience but has not been adapted to the taste sensory organ due to anatomical constraint. Here we developed an imaging window to facilitate microscopic access to the murine tongue in vivo. Real-time two-photon microscopy allowed the visualization of three-dimensional microanatomy of the intact tongue mucosa and functional activity of taste cells in response to topically administered tastants in live mice. Video microscopy also showed the calcium activity of taste cells elicited by small-sized tastants in the blood circulation. Molecular kinetic analysis suggested that intravascular taste sensation takes place at the microvilli on the apical side of taste cells after diffusion of the molecules through the pericellular capillaries and tight junctions in the taste bud. Our results demonstrate the capabilities and utilities of the new tool for taste research in vivo. PMID:25726964

Choi, Myunghwan; Lee, Woei Ming; Yun, Seok Hyun

2015-01-01

121

A Vision-Based Dual Touch Panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

User interface and size are one of the main concerns in the design of consumer electronics. The conventional user interfaces provide limited interactions to user. In this paper, we introduce a new method to implement the dual touch panel. The dual touch panel makes users operate the devices with their two fingers. It provides more touched interactions for personal devices.

Cun-Xian Nian; Ching-Han Chen

122

Requesting Pervasive Services by Touching RFID Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

We suggest a general framework for requesting pervasive services by touching RFID tags. The tags conne ct the physical and digital environments. Visual symbols c ommunicate to users the objects that can be touched and the services that can be activated. When a user touches such a symbol with a mobile phone, the data stored in the tag and other

Jukka Riekki; Timo Salminen; Ismo Alakärppä

2006-01-01

123

Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate

Shaun K. Kane; Jeffrey P. Bigham; Jacob O. Wobbrock

2008-01-01

124

SmartTouch: Electric Skin to Touch the Untouchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto(1)  

E-print Network

stimulation. Thus, the wearer not only makes physical contact with an object, but also can "touch" surface by a tactile display. Thus, a person not only makes physical contact with an object, but also "touches" surfaceSmartTouch: Electric Skin to Touch the Untouchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto(1) Masahiko Inami(2) Naoki

Tachi, Susumu

125

Patterns of matching and initiation: Touch behavior and touch avoidance across romantic relationship stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explores the similarity of touch behavior and touch attitudes among dating and married couples. Touch behavior showed a strong matching effect for seriously dating and married couples. Z-tests revealed that correlations between relational partners were significantly stronger for marrieds than for serious or casual daters. Results for attitudes concerning touch showed a statistically significant but weak relationship between

Laura K. Guerrero; Peter A. Andersen

1994-01-01

126

“Two novel DEG/ENaC channel subunits expressed in glia are needed for nose touch sensitivity in C. elegans”  

PubMed Central

Summary Neuronal DEG/ENaC Na+ channels have been implicated in touch sensation. For example, MEC-4 is expressed in touch neurons in C. elegans and mediates gentle touch response. Similarly, homologous mammalian ASIC2 and ASIC3 are expressed in sensory neurons and produce touch phenotypes when knocked out in mice. Here, we show that novel DEG/ENaC subunits DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons in C. elegans and that their knock-out causes defects in mechanosensory behaviors related to nose touch and foraging, which are mediated by OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons. Cell-specific rescue supports that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are required cell-autonomously in glia to orchestrate mechanosensory behaviors. Electron microscopy reveals that in delm-1 knockouts, OLQ and IL1 sensory neurons and associated glia are structurally normal. Furthermore, we show that knockout of DELM-1 and DELM-2 does not disrupt the expression or cellular localization of TRPA-1, a TRP channel needed in OLQ and IL1 neurons for touch behaviors. Rather, rescue of the delm-1 nose-touch insensitive phenotype by expression of a K+ channel in socket glia and of a cationic channel in OLQ neurons suggests that DELM channels set basal neuronal excitability. Taken together, our data show that DELM-1 and DELM-2 are expressed in glia associated with touch neurons where they are not needed for neuronal structural integrity or cellular distribution of neuronal sensory channels, but rather for their function. PMID:23325233

Han, Lu; Wang, Ying; Sangaletti, Rachele; D’Urso, Giulia; Lu, Yun; Shaham, Shai; Bianchi, Laura

2013-01-01

127

Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment.  

PubMed

This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

2013-06-01

128

Ernst Mach and the episode of the monocular depth sensations.  

PubMed

Although Ernst Mach is widely recognized in psychology for his discovery of the effects of lateral inhibition in the retina ("Mach Bands"), his contributions to the theory of depth perception are not as well known. Mach proposed that steady luminance gradients triggered sensations of depth. He also expanded on Ewald Hering's hypothesis of "monocular depth sensations," arguing that they were subject to the same principle of lateral inhibition as light sensations were. Even after Hermann von Helmholtz's attack on Hering in 1866, Mach continued to develop theories involving the monocular depth sensations, proposing an explanation of perspective drawings in which the mutually inhibiting depth sensations scaled to a mean depth. Mach also contemplated a theory of stereopsis in which monocular depth perception played the primary role. PMID:11596069

Banks, E C

2001-01-01

129

Air touch: new feeling touch-panel interface you don't need to touch using audio input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot provide us with direct touching in the air because the touching point differs from the actual displaying space. The reason is that a conventional touch-panel system detects the user's operation on the display screen. In the virtual 3D space, it is important to realize that the user can operate at the same space. The authors developed a prototype virtual air touch interface system for interaction in the virtual 3D space. In this paper, we propose the interface system using a theremin which is a musical instrument having the unusual aspect of being controlled by the performer's hand motions near the antennas.

Sakamoto, Kunio; Morimoto, Hiroyuki

2008-03-01

130

A multi-touch interface circuit for a large-sized capacitive touch panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a multi-touch sensing circuit for large-sized (more than 12 inches) capacitive touch panel. A new AC sensing technique is developed to enable the touch sensing in a large-sized capacitive touch panel. This novel designs of multi-touch sensing circuit lies in the operation principles through a 4X4 ITO film sensor array, a low-disturbance array circuit, a capacitance to

Juan-Yao Ruan; Paul C.-P. Chao; Wei-Par Chen

2010-01-01

131

Touch-panel interface system which can recognize who touched the screen and where was pointed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A touch-panel is useful for a computer interface. The touch-panel is display overlays which have the ability to display and receive information on the same screen. The advantage of this touch screen is that it is easy for all users to operate intuitively. In addition, a touch-panel interface is utilizable for multi-users. However a conventional system cannot recognize who touch

H. Fukuda; K. Sakamoto

2008-01-01

132

Screening for Harsh Punishment in a Pediatric Primary Care Clinic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To determine: (1) the prevalence of harsh punishment among parents in a pediatric clinic, and (2) the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and stability of a brief screening measure. Methods: A subset of families involved in a study of child maltreatment prevention were recruited for this study. Two items in a parent screening…

Feigelman, Susan; Dubowitz, Howard; Lane, Wendy; Prescott, Leslie; Meyer, Walter; Tracy, J. Kathleen; Kim, Jeongeun

2009-01-01

133

Cooperation in Harsh Environments and the Emergence of Spatial Patterns  

PubMed Central

This paper concerns the confluence of two important areas of research in mathematical biology: spatial pattern formation and cooperative dilemmas. Mechanisms through which social organisms form spatial patterns are not fully understood. Prior work connecting cooperation and pattern formation has often included unrealistic assumptions that shed doubt on the applicability of those models toward understanding real biological patterns. I investigated a more biologically realistic model of cooperation among social actors. The environment is harsh, so that interactions with cooperators are strictly needed to survive. Harshness is implemented via a constant energy deduction. I show that this model can generate spatial patterns similar to those seen in many naturally-occuring systems. Moreover, for each payoff matrix there is an associated critical value of the energy deduction that separates two distinct dynamical processes. In low-harshness environments, the growth of cooperator clusters is impeded by defectors, but these clusters gradually expand to form dense dendritic patterns. In very harsh environments, cooperators expand rapidly but defectors can subsequently make inroads to form reticulated patterns. The resulting web-like patterns are reminiscent of transportation networks observed in slime mold colonies and other biological systems. PMID:24277977

Smaldino, Paul E.

2013-01-01

134

Maternal Executive Function, Harsh Parenting, and Child Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Maternal executive function and household regulation both are critical aspects of optimal childrearing, but their interplay is not understood. We tested the hypotheses that (a) the link between challenging child conduct problems and harsh parenting would be strongest for mothers with poorer executive function and weakest among those…

Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Nan; Bell, Martha Ann

2012-01-01

135

QUMESH: Wireless mesh network deployment and configuration in harsh environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link delivery probability in a wireless mesh network is most accurately determined only by experiment, as it depends on many factors, including environment characteristics, transmission power, distance between transmitter and receiver, channel fading, and background noise. This paper provides an insightful framework for characterizing link performance results produced at Qatar University (QU) wireless mesh test-bed under harsh environmental conditions,

Lamia Romdhani; Amr Mohamed; Tarek M. Elfouly; Salman Raeisi

2012-01-01

136

Harsh Corporal Punishment of Yemeni Children: Occurrence, Type and Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To examine the occurrence, type and associations of harsh corporal punishment in Yemen. Methods: Caregiver and teacher reports were obtained on 1,196 Yemeni 7-10-year olds obtained by systematic random sampling of children in the 1st to 4th grades of urban and rural schools. Caregivers (86% mothers) reported on disciplinary practices,…

Alyahri, Abdullah; Goodman, Robert

2008-01-01

137

The physiological basis of adaptation in goats to harsh environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goat living in harsh environments represents a climax in the capacity of domestic ruminants to adjust to such areas. This ability is multifactorial: low body mass, and low metabolic requirements of goats can be regarded as an important asset to them for it minimise their maintenance and water requirements, in areas where water sources are widely distributed and food sources

Nissim Silanikove

2000-01-01

138

Young Mother-Father Dyads and Maternal Harsh Parenting Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined whether the age of parents predicted maternal harsh parenting behavior, specifically whether younger mothers might be at higher risk than older mothers, and which paternal characteristics might be associated with maternal parenting behavior. Methodology: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child…

Lee, Yookyong; Guterman, Neil B.

2010-01-01

139

Tactile sensation imaging system for inclusion characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing and locating sub-surface tumors will greatly enhance the detection and treatment of breast cancer. In this paper, a novel tactile sensation imaging system, that is capable of detecting and characterizing the subsurface object, was designed, implemented, and tested. A multi-layer Polydimethylsiloxane optical waveguide has been fabricated as the sensing probe. The light was illuminated below the acceptance angle to totally reflect within the flexible and transparent waveguide. When a waveguide is compressed by an external force, the contact area of the waveguide deforms and causes the light to scatter. The scattered light is captured by a high resolution camera and saved as an image. Using the salient features of the captured image, we estimated inclusion characteristics such as size, depth, and Young's modulus. To test the performance of the proposed system, we use a realistic tissue phantom with embedded stiff inclusions. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can detect inclusions and provide the relative values of inclusion's mechanical properties. Using these relative values, we can discern malignant and benign tumors.

Lee, Jong-Ha; Garcia-Acosta, Nathalia; Te, Kenny; Won, Chang-Hee

2011-03-01

140

Oxytocin facilitates the sensation of social stress.  

PubMed

Essentially all social species experience social stress which can be a catalyst for detriments in mental and physical health. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) has been shown to produce anxiolytic and antistress effects, thereby qualifying the OXT system as a promising drug target in the treatment of stress-related disorders. However, recently it has been shown that OXT can have anxiogenic effects as well. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan the brains of 60 healthy men while they were exposed to social stress after they received either intranasal OXT (24 IU) or placebo treatment. Although OXT administration did not alter salivary cortisol levels as a surrogate marker of stress axis activity, our participants initially reported an increment in perceived social stress. This behavioral effect was paralleled on the neural level by increased activity in the precuneus and cingulate cortex. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that OXT can induce a self-referential processing bias which facilitates the sensation of social stress in the absence of altered endocrine responses. PMID:24659430

Eckstein, Monika; Scheele, Dirk; Weber, Kristina; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

2014-09-01

141

Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment  

PubMed Central

This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

2013-01-01

142

Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.  

PubMed

There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

2015-06-01

143

Appetite sensations in pregnancy among agropastoral women in rural Tanzania.  

PubMed

Women all over the globe report physical and appetite sensations in early pregnancy, and this study contributes to this growing literature by reporting on the appetite sensations experienced by pregnant women from rural Tanzania. Appetite changes associated with 545 pregnancies were compiled from surveys conducted to report on the prevalence of appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, joint pain, cravings, aversions, and pica experienced by agropastoral women from rural north-central Tanzania. In addition to these symptoms, specific craved and aversive food groups are described. Statistical associations among appetite sensations, NVP, and birthweight are tested. The only symptom associated with a lower average birth weight for newborns was vomiting. In addition to investigating micronutrient content and chemical properties of specific food and non-food items, future research should include assessing relationships among various appetite sensations and short- and long-term health outcomes for both the mother and child. PMID:22881359

Patil, Crystal L

2012-01-01

144

How Does a Touch Sensor Work?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about how touch sensors work, while reinforcing their similarities to the human sense of touch. They look at human senses and their electronic imitators, with special focus on the nervous system, skin and touch sensors. A PowerPoint® presentation explains stimulus-to-response pathways, how touch sensors are made and work, and then gives students a chance to handle and get familiar with the LEGO touch sensor, including programming LEGO® MINDSTORMS® NXT robots to use touch sensor input to play music. Students take pre/post quizzes and watch a short online video. The mini-activities prepare students for the associated activity. This lesson and its associated activity enables students to appreciate how robots can take input from sensors, and use that to make decisions to move.

2014-09-18

145

Enabling tangible interaction on capacitive touch panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose two approaches to sense tangible objects on capacitive touch screens, which are used in off-the-shelf multi-touch devices such as Apple iPad, iPhone, and 3M's multi-touch displays. We seek for the approaches that do not require modifications to the panels: spatial tag and frequency tag. Spatial tag is similar to fiducial tag used by tangible tabletop surface interaction, and

Neng-Hao Yu; Li-Wei Chan; Lung-Pan Cheng; Mike Y. Chen; Yi-Ping Hung

2010-01-01

146

Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking in Alcohol Abusing Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence (n?=?34) and in a group without lifetime substance abuse or dependence (n?=?66). The patients were assessed using the composite international diagnostic interview (CIDI) for DSM-III-R disorders, the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS), the Barratt impulsivity scale (BIS), the Zuckerman seeking sensation scale (SSS), and the physical anhedonia scale (PAS). Results: The mean scores for impulsivity and sensation seeking were higher in the group with lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence than in the group without substance abuse or dependence (BIS: 63.4?±?18.7?vs 51.3?±?14.2 respectively, ANOVA: F?=?11.12, p?=?0.001; SSS: 17.6?±?5.9?vs 13.5?±?6.7 respectively, ANOVA: F?=?7.45, p?=?0.008). There was no significant difference between the two groups on PAS score. Conclusion: Increased impulsivity or sensation seeking may be a link between schizophrenia and alcohol abuse or dependence. PMID:21423445

Dervaux, Alain; Laqueille, Xavier; Bourdel, Marie-Chantal; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Krebs, Marie-Odile

2010-01-01

147

TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion  

E-print Network

to be installed on the victim smartphone. Given the increasing number of malware applications on the smartphoneTouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion Abstract Attacks that use are ineffective on smartphones without physi- cal keyboards. We describe a new side channel, motion, on touch

Chen, Hao

148

""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done  

E-print Network

""Test Before TouchTest Before Touch"" Easier Said Than DoneEasier Said Than Done Ken Crawford, DuPontKen Crawford, DuPont Kent Haggerty, DupontKent Haggerty, Dupont #12;OverviewOverview · Test Before Touch (TBT Voltage Testing · Summary & Conclusions #12;#12;How Would You Verify Power is Off?How Would You Verify

149

Towards Simulating Push Button Behavior on Touch Surfaces  

E-print Network

with physical objects, do not exist on touch-based surfaces. On common touch screens, touching is equivalentTowards Simulating Push Button Behavior on Touch Surfaces Abstract Mechanical push buttons provide characteristics to touch based digital interfaces entails complex and costly technology for force sensing

150

Silicon Carbide Sensors and Electronics for Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) semiconductor has been studied for electronic and sensing applications in extreme environment (high temperature, extreme vibration, harsh chemical media, and high radiation) that is beyond the capability of conventional semiconductors such as silicon. This is due to its near inert chemistry, superior thermomechanical and electronic properties that include high breakdown voltage and wide bandgap. An overview of SiC sensors and electronics work ongoing at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC) will be presented. The main focus will be two technologies currently being investigated: 1) harsh environment SiC pressure transducers and 2) high temperature SiC electronics. Work highlighted will include the design, fabrication, and application of SiC sensors and electronics, with recent advancements in state-of-the-art discussed as well. These combined technologies are studied for the goal of developing advanced capabilities for measurement and control of aeropropulsion systems, as well as enhancing tools for exploration systems.

Evans, Laura J.

2007-01-01

151

Incidental Haptic Sensations Influence Social Judgments and Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch is both the first sense to develop and a critical means of information acquisition and environmental manipulation. Physical touch experiences may create an ontological scaffold for the development of intrapersonal and interpersonal conceptual and metaphorical knowledge, as well as a springboard for the application of this knowledge. In six experiments, holding heavy or light clipboards, solving rough or smooth

Joshua M. Ackerman; Christopher C. Nocera; John A. Bargh

2010-01-01

152

Skin Conductance Level Reactivity Moderates the Association between Harsh Parenting and Growth in Child Externalizing Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a moderator of the association between harsh parenting at age 8 years and growth in child externalizing behavior from age 8 to age 10 (N = 251). Mothers and fathers provided reports of harsh parenting and their children's externalizing behavior; children also provided reports of harsh

Erath, Stephen A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Hinnant, J. Benjamin; Cummings, E. Mark

2011-01-01

153

An Economical Touch Panel Using SAW Absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

the waveform corresponding to a specific vertical path across the panel. A finger touch causes an amplitude dip whose timing and depth indicate location and finger pressure. To obtain constant signal amplitude in the absence of touch, the arrays require weighting, with reflectivity increasing strongly from the transducer ends to the far ends. Weighting equations are derived for the cases

Robert Adler; Peter J. Desmares

1987-01-01

154

Quick Use Guide Workcentre 5655 Touch Screen  

E-print Network

Panel (Touch Screen/User Interface) Document Feeder Door Tray 2 Bypass Tray Tray 4 Offset Catch TrayQuick Use Guide Workcentre 5655 Touch Screen Displays and selects all of the available programming right). 2. Access the Basic Copy Screen ­ If necessary select the [Features] button on the control panel

Petriu, Emil M.

155

Touch panel system for control applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of finger-sensitive touch panels in association with computer-generated displays for control and monitoring of the Stanford linear accelerator is discussed. This control concept has proven to be very effective. The hardware and software aspects of the Touch Panel portion of the control system are described.

K. Crook; R. Johnson

1976-01-01

156

The electroquasistatics of the capacitive touch panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacitive touch panel, a high-resolution position sensor intended for computer displays, must be safe and inexpensive and must sense position accurately in spite of electrical noise, dirt, or direct electrostatic discharge. The implementation discussed uses a quasi-static electric field, applied to a semiconducting coating on the panel surface. A touch draws current from the surface. This current can be

P. T. Krein; R. D. Meadows

1990-01-01

157

SLAC Touch Panel Model 4 (Engineering Materials)  

SciTech Connect

Construction information is provided for the SLAC touch panel Model 4. This device, when properly connected to a computer with a program can be used to control various devices remotely. The panel only requires a touch at the proper spot to operate a given control or device as indicated by the figures or outlines. (GHT)

Not Available

1982-01-01

158

Touch increases autonomic coupling between romantic partners.  

PubMed

Interpersonal touch is of paramount importance in human social bonding and close relationships, allowing a unique channel for affect communication. So far the effect of touch on human physiology has been studied at an individual level. The present study aims at extending the study of affective touch from isolated individuals to truly interacting dyads. We have designed an ecological paradigm where romantic partners interact only via touch and we manipulate their empathic states. Simultaneously, we collected their autonomic activity (skin conductance, pulse, respiration). Fourteen couples participated to the experiment. We found that interpersonal touch increased coupling of electrodermal activity between the interacting partners, regardless the intensity and valence of the emotion felt. In addition, physical touch induced strong and reliable changes in physiological states within individuals. These results support an instrumental role of interpersonal touch for affective support in close relationships. Furthermore, they suggest that touch alone allows the emergence of a somatovisceral resonance between interacting individuals, which in turn is likely to form the prerequisites for emotional contagion and empathy. PMID:24734009

Chatel-Goldman, Jonas; Congedo, Marco; Jutten, Christian; Schwartz, Jean-Luc

2014-01-01

159

Touch Attenuates Infants' Physiological Reactivity to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Animal studies demonstrate that maternal touch and contact regulate infant stress, and handling during periods of maternal deprivation attenuates the stress response. To measure the effects of touch on infant stress reactivity during simulated maternal deprivation, 53 dyads were tested in two paradigms: still-face (SF) and still-face with maternal…

Feldman, Ruth; Singer, Magi; Zagoory, Orna

2010-01-01

160

The Place of Touch in the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, I argue that although philosophers of art have legitimately examined and emphasized the role of sight and hearing in respect to art appreciation, for the most part they have neglected the role of touch. I develop the idea that while sight and hearing form the melody line of art appreciation, touch is its bass line, one that is…

Perricone, Christopher

2007-01-01

161

WHEN WORDS ARE USED TO TOUCH  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article deals with the topic of physical contact versus affect in the analytic situation. In the 1st section, the topic of touch is examined from the historical, as well as contemporary, perspective. The author raises the hypothesis that direct emotional contact made through the use of a verbal interaction can be experienced as physical touch in the analytic situation.

Ilany Kogan

2003-01-01

162

The Sensory Neurons of Touch  

PubMed Central

The somatosensory system decodes a wide range of tactile stimuli and thus endows us with a remarkable capacity for object recognition, texture discrimination, sensory-motor feedback and social exchange. The first step leading to perception of innocuous touch is activation of cutaneous sensory neurons called low-threshold mechanoreceptors (LTMRs). Here, we review the properties and functions of LTMRs, emphasizing the unique tuning properties of LTMR subtypes and the organizational logic of their peripheral and central axonal projections. We discuss the spinal cord neurophysiological representation of complex mechanical forces acting upon the skin and current views of how tactile information is processed and conveyed from the spinal cord to the brain. An integrative model in which ensembles of impulses arising from physiologically distinct LTMRs are integrated and processed in somatotopically aligned mechanosensory columns of the spinal cord dorsal horn underlies the nervous system’s enormous capacity for perceiving the richness of the tactile world. PMID:23972592

Abraira, Victoria E.; Ginty, David D.

2013-01-01

163

Stochastic facilitation of artificial tactile sensation in primates.  

PubMed

Artificial sensation via electrical or optical stimulation of brain sensory areas offers a promising treatment for sensory deficits. For a brain-machine-brain interface, such artificial sensation conveys feedback signals from a sensorized prosthetic limb. The ways neural tissue can be stimulated to evoke artificial sensation and the parameter space of such stimulation, however, remain largely unexplored. Here we investigated whether stochastic facilitation (SF) could enhance an artificial tactile sensation produced by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Two rhesus monkeys learned to use a virtual hand, which they moved with a joystick, to explore virtual objects on a computer screen. They sought an object associated with a particular artificial texture (AT) signaled by a periodic ICMS pattern delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) through a pair of implanted electrodes. During each behavioral trial, aperiodic ICMS (i.e., noise) of randomly chosen amplitude was delivered to S1 through another electrode pair implanted 1 mm away from the site of AT delivery. Whereas high-amplitude noise worsened AT detection, moderate noise clearly improved the detection of weak signals, significantly raising the proportion of correct trials. These findings suggest that SF could be used to enhance prosthetic sensation. PMID:23055496

Medina, Leonel E; Lebedev, Mikhail A; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

2012-10-10

164

Stochastic Facilitation of Artificial Tactile Sensation in Primates  

PubMed Central

Artificial sensation via electrical or optical stimulation of brain sensory areas offers a promising treatment for sensory deficits. For a brain-machine-brain interface (BMBI), such artificial sensation conveys feedback signals from a sensorized prosthetic limb. The ways neural tissue can be stimulated to evoke artificial sensation and the parameter space of such stimulation, however, remain largely unexplored. Here we investigated whether stochastic facilitation (SF) could enhance an artificial tactile sensation produced by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS). Two rhesus monkeys learned to use a virtual hand, which they moved with a joystick, to explore virtual objects on a computer screen. They sought an object associated with a particular artificial texture (AT) signaled by a periodic ICMS pattern delivered to the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) through a pair of implanted electrodes. During each behavioral trial, aperiodic ICMS (i.e., noise) of randomly chosen amplitude was delivered to S1 through another electrode pair implanted 1 mm away from the site of AT delivery. Whereas high-amplitude noise worsened AT detection, moderate noise clearly improved the detection of weak signals, significantly raising the proportion of correct trials. These findings suggest that SF could be utilized to enhance prosthetic sensation. PMID:23055496

Medina, Leonel E.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.; O’Doherty, Joseph E.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

2012-01-01

165

Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained. PMID:24150543

Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

2014-08-01

166

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Frictional Widgets: Enhancing Touch Interfaces with Programmable Friction Abstract Touch the design possibilities offered by augmenting touchscreens with programmable surface friction. Four exemplar of touch interactions can be enhanced when using a touchscreen with dynamically varied surface friction. We

Levesque, Vincent

167

Angry Responses to Infant Challenges: Parent, Marital, and Child Genetic Factors Associated with Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of 9-month-olds. We examined whether positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics were associated with harsh parenting in addition to negative characteristics. We were particularly interested in examining evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) by testing the effect of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents’ harsh parenting. Additionally, we examined associations among adoptive parents’ own temperaments, their marital relationship quality, and harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers’ (but not adoptive mothers’) harsh parenting was inversely related to an index of birth mother positive temperament (reward dependence), indicating evocative rGE. Higher marital quality was associated with less harsh parenting, but only for adoptive fathers. Adoptive parents’ negative temperamental characteristics (harm avoidance) were related to hostile parenting. Findings suggest the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

Hajal, Nastassia J.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Moore, Ginger A.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Harold, Gordon T.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Ganiban, Jody M.; Reiss, David

2014-01-01

168

Brain mechanisms for processing affective touch.  

PubMed

Despite the crucial role of touch in social development, there is very little functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research on brain mechanisms underlying social touch processing. The "skin as a social organ" hypothesis is supported by the discovery of C-tactile (CT) nerves that are present in hairy skin and project to the insular cortex. CT-fibers respond specifically well to slow, gentle touch such as that which occurs during close social interactions. Given the social significance of such touch researchers have proposed that the CT-system represents an evolutionarily conserved mechanism important for normative social development. However, it is currently unknown whether brain regions other than the insula are involved in processing CT-targeted touch. In the current fMRI study, we sought to characterize the brain regions involved in the perception of CT-supported affective touch. Twenty-two healthy adults received manual brush strokes to either the arm or palm. A direct contrast of the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response to gentle brushing of the arm and palm revealed the involvement of a network of brain regions, in addition to the posterior insula, during CT-targeted affective touch to the arm. This network included areas known to be involved in social perception and social cognition, including the right posterior superior temporal sulcus and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/dorso anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). Connectivity analyses with an mPFC/dACC seed revealed coactivation with the left insula and amygdala during arm touch. These findings characterize a network of brain regions beyond the insula involved in coding CT-targeted affective touch. PMID:22125232

Gordon, Ilanit; Voos, Avery C; Bennett, Randi H; Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Kaiser, Martha D

2013-04-01

169

Vibrotactile stimulation promotes embodiment of an alien hand in amputees with phantom sensations.  

PubMed

Tactile feedback is essential to intuitive control and to promote the sense of self-attribution of a prosthetic limb. Recent findings showed that amputees can be tricked to experience this embodiment, when synchronous and modality-matched stimuli are delivered to biological afferent structures and to an alien rubber hand. Hence it was suggested to exploit this effect by coupling touch sensors in a prosthesis to an array of haptic tactile stimulators in the prosthetic socket. However, this approach is not clinically viable due to physical limits of current haptic devices. To address this issue we have proposed modality- mismatched stimulation and demonstrated that this promotes self-attribution of an alien hand on normally-limbed subjects. In this work we investigated whether similar effects could be induced in transradial amputees with referred phantom sensations in a series of experiments fashioned after the Rubber Hand Illusion using vibrotactile stimulators. Results from three independent measures of embodiment demonstrated that vibrotactile sensory substitution elicits body-ownership of a rubber hand in transradial amputees. These results open up promising possibilities in this field; indeed miniature, safe and inexpensive vibrators could be fitted into commercially available prostheses and sockets to induce the illusion every time the prosthesis manipulates an object. PMID:25051556

D'Alonzo, Marco; Clemente, Francesco; Cipriani, Christian

2014-07-15

170

Touch activates human auditory cortex.  

PubMed

Vibrotactile stimuli can facilitate hearing, both in hearing-impaired and in normally hearing people. Accordingly, the sounds of hands exploring a surface contribute to the explorer's haptic percepts. As a possible brain basis of such phenomena, functional brain imaging has identified activations specific to audiotactile interaction in secondary somatosensory cortex, auditory belt area, and posterior parietal cortex, depending on the quality and relative salience of the stimuli. We studied 13 subjects with non-invasive functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to search for auditory brain areas that would be activated by touch. Vibration bursts of 200 Hz were delivered to the subjects' fingers and palm and tactile pressure pulses to their fingertips. Noise bursts served to identify auditory cortex. Vibrotactile-auditory co-activation, addressed with minimal smoothing to obtain a conservative estimate, was found in an 85-mm3 region in the posterior auditory belt area. This co-activation could be related to facilitated hearing at the behavioral level, reflecting the analysis of sound-like temporal patterns in vibration. However, even tactile pulses (without any vibration) activated parts of the posterior auditory belt area, which therefore might subserve processing of audiotactile events that arise during dynamic contact between hands and environment. PMID:16488157

Schürmann, Martin; Caetano, Gina; Hlushchuk, Yevhen; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta

2006-05-01

171

An Exploratory Survey of Deqi Sensation from the Views and Experiences of Chinese Patients and Acupuncturists  

PubMed Central

Deqi sensation is believed to be important in clinical efficacy according to TCM theory. The measuring method of Deqi sensation has significant implications for the result of research trials. This study makes an investigation on acupuncture-experienced patients and expert acupuncturists in China and aims to find out the patient's needling sensations and acupuncturist's sensations which can be acceptable as descriptors of Deqi sensation, so as to provide foundation for more systematic and sensitive quantitative evaluation method of Deqi sensation. Results of this survey indicated that the Deqi sensation noted by both patient and acupuncturist is equally important to the treatment efficacy. It is found that there are some differences between the patients' real-life experience and the acupuncturists' expectations on patients' Deqi sensation. The “dull pain,” “aching,” “sore,” “numb,” “distended,” “heavy,” “electric,” “throbbing,” “warmness,” “coolness,” “spreading,” and “radiating” can be considered as the main manifestations of Deqi sensations. The acupuncturists believed that Deqi sensations were mainly “pulling,” “tight,” and “throbbing.” We suggest developing a questionnaire measuring the Deqi sensations which includes both the sensations of the patient and acupuncturist, and this would be very important and necessary for a better understanding of the relationship between Deqi sensation and acupuncture effects in future studies. PMID:24348700

Yuan, Hong-Wen; Ma, Liang-Xiao; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Chi; Qi, Dan-Dan; Li, Jing; Xin, Si-Yuan; Hu, Ni-Juan; Li, Chun-Hua; Liu, Yu-Qi; Hao, Jie; Xie, Jie-Ping; Cui, Hai; Zhu, Jiang

2013-01-01

172

A cuttable multi-touch sensor  

E-print Network

We propose cutting as a novel paradigm for ad-hoc customization of printed electronic components. As a first instantiation, we contribute a printed capacitive multi-touch sensor, which can be cut by the end-user to modify ...

Olberding, Simon

173

The effect of age on neural processing of pleasant soft touch stimuli.  

PubMed

Tactile interactions with our environment stimulate afferent fibers within the skin, which deliver information about sensations of pain, texture, itch and other feelings to the brain as a comprehensive sense of self. These tactile interactions can stimulate brain regions involved in interoception and reward processing. This study examined subjective, behavioral, and neural processing as a function of age during stimulation of A-beta (A?) and C tactile (CT) afferents using a soft brush stroke task. 16 adolescents (ages 15-17), 22 young adults (ages 20-28), and 20 mature adults (ages 29-55) underwent a simple continuous performance task while periodically anticipating and experiencing a soft touch to the palm or forearm, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI results showed that adolescents displayed greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults across all conditions and stimulus types. Adolescents also demonstrated greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults specifically in response to the soft touch condition. Adolescents also exhibited greater activation than mature adults in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during the soft touch condition. However, mature adults showed greater striatum activation than adolescents and young adults during anticipation. In the left anterior cingulate cortex, mature adults exhibited greater activation than adolescents and young adults when anticipating the upcoming touch. These results support the hypothesis that adolescents show an exaggerated neural response to pleasant stimulation of afferents, which may have profound effects on how they approach or avoid social and risky situations. In particular, heightened interoceptive reactivity to pleasant stimuli might cause adolescents to seek experiences that are associated with pleasant stimulation. PMID:24600366

May, April C; Stewart, Jennifer L; Tapert, Susan F; Paulus, Martin P

2014-01-01

174

The effect of age on neural processing of pleasant soft touch stimuli  

PubMed Central

Tactile interactions with our environment stimulate afferent fibers within the skin, which deliver information about sensations of pain, texture, itch and other feelings to the brain as a comprehensive sense of self. These tactile interactions can stimulate brain regions involved in interoception and reward processing. This study examined subjective, behavioral, and neural processing as a function of age during stimulation of A-beta (A?) and C tactile (CT) afferents using a soft brush stroke task. 16 adolescents (ages 15–17), 22 young adults (ages 20–28), and 20 mature adults (ages 29–55) underwent a simple continuous performance task while periodically anticipating and experiencing a soft touch to the palm or forearm, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI results showed that adolescents displayed greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults across all conditions and stimulus types. Adolescents also demonstrated greater bilateral posterior insula activation than young and mature adults specifically in response to the soft touch condition. Adolescents also exhibited greater activation than mature adults in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and striatum during the soft touch condition. However, mature adults showed greater striatum activation than adolescents and young adults during anticipation. In the left anterior cingulate cortex, mature adults exhibited greater activation than adolescents and young adults when anticipating the upcoming touch. These results support the hypothesis that adolescents show an exaggerated neural response to pleasant stimulation of afferents, which may have profound effects on how they approach or avoid social and risky situations. In particular, heightened interoceptive reactivity to pleasant stimuli might cause adolescents to seek experiences that are associated with pleasant stimulation. PMID:24600366

May, April C.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Tapert, Susan F.; Paulus, Martin P.

2014-01-01

175

Multiple Literacies Theory: Discourse, Sensation, Resonance and Becoming  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This thematic issue on education and the politics of becoming focuses on how a Multiple Literacies Theory (MLT) plugs into practice in education. MLT does this by creating an assemblage between discourse, text, resonance and sensations. What does this produce? Becoming AND how one might live are the product of an assemblage (May, 2005; Semetsky,…

Masny, Diana

2012-01-01

176

Relationships Between Dimensions of Anxiety and Sensation Seeking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduates (130 males, 112 females) completed the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS) and the S-R Inventory of General Trait Anxiousness (S-R GTA). The intercorrelations among the five scales from the SSS and the four scales from the S-R GTA were computed and compared. Findings were consistent with rational and theoretical notions. (Author)

Burkhart, Barry R.; And Others

1978-01-01

177

Problem-Based Group Activities for Teaching Sensation and Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes 14 problem-based group activities for a sensation and perception course. The intent was to provide opportunities for students to practice applying their knowledge to real-world problems related to course content. Student ratings of how effectively the activities helped them learn were variable but relatively high. Students…

Kreiner, David S.

2009-01-01

178

Enhancing tactile sensation in older adults with electrical noise stimulation  

E-print Network

Enhancing tactile sensation in older adults with electrical noise stimulation Neel T. Dhruv, James low-level electrical noise stimulation was shown to enhance tactile sensitiv- ity in healthy young elderly subjects. Electrical noise stimulation resulted in a statistically signi¢cant increase

Collins, James J.

179

Sensation seeking and internet dependence of Taiwanese high school adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined excessive Internet use of Taiwanese adolescents and a psychological aspect of users, sensation seeking, thus to differentiate motivation of Internet dependents and non-dependents. Seven hundred and fifty three Taiwanese high school students were selected using cluster sampling and 88 of them were categorized as Internet dependent users. Results indicated that Internet dependents spent more time on-line

Sunny S. J. Lin; Chin-Chung Tsai

2002-01-01

180

Development of a Sensation-Seeking Scale for Preadolescent Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of motivational differences in the school situation and the development of a sensation-seeking scale of preadolescent children rests upon an interactive psycho-biological theory formulated by Farley (1981). Stimulation-seeking and arousal in relation to instructional features are central concepts. As a point of departure for the…

Bjorck-Akesson, Eva

181

Sensation Seeking and Targeting of Televised Anti-Drug PSAs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine how to reach out in an effective manner via televised public service announcements (PSAs) to particular at-risk audiences to motivate participation in drug abuse prevention programs. The subjects (207 young adults in Fayette County, Kentucky) responded to the M. Zuckerman sensation-seeking questionnaire. They…

Donohew, Lewis; And Others

182

Personality Influences Career Choice: Sensation Seeking in Professional Musicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the obvious importance of deciding which career to pursue, little is known about the influence of personality on career choice. Here we investigated the relation between sensation seeking, a supposedly innate personality trait, and career choice in classical and "rhythmic" students at the academies of music in Denmark. We compared data…

Vuust, Peter; Gebauer, Line; Hansen, Niels Chr.; Jorgensen, Stine Ramsgaard; Moller, Arne; Linnet, Jakob

2010-01-01

183

Sensation Seeking and Internet Dependence of Taiwanese High School Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the second year follow-up research on Internet addiction among Taiwanese high school students from surveys of 753 students. A psychological profile of users was determined in order to differentiate motivation of Internet dependence and non-dependence. Data was analyzed to establish whether sensation seeking was a part of…

Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

184

Thermal sensation and thermophysiological responses to metabolic step-changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the effect on thermal perception and thermophysiological variables of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities and durations. Twenty-four subjects were alternately seated on a chair or exercised by walking on a treadmill at a temperature predicted to be neutral at sedentary activity. In a second experimental series, subjects alternated between rest and exercise as well as between exercise at different intensities at two temperature levels. Measurements comprised skin and oesophageal temperatures, heart rate and subjective responses. Thermal sensation started to rise or decline immediately (within 1 min) after a change of activity, which means that even moderate activity changes of short duration affect thermal perceptions of humans. After approximately 15 20 min under constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady-state response. The sensitivity of thermal sensation to changes in core temperature was higher for activity down-steps than for up-steps. A model was proposed that estimates transient thermal sensation after metabolic step-changes. Based on predictions by the model, weighting factors were suggested to estimate a representative average metabolic rate with varying activity levels, e.g. for the prediction of thermal sensation by steady-state comfort models. The activity during the most recent 5 min should be weighted 65%, during the prior 10 5 min 25% and during the prior 20 10 min 10%.

Goto, T.; Toftum, J.; de Dear, R.; Fanger, P. O.

2006-05-01

185

Gravity Grabber: Wearable Haptic Display to present Virtual Mass Sensation  

E-print Network

@star.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp *5 e-mail: tachi@star.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp Real world: holding a empty glass with wearing our proposedGravity Grabber: Wearable Haptic Display to present Virtual Mass Sensation Kouta Minamizawa*1, the grip force, gravity, and inertia mass of a virtual object are presented on the user's fingerpads during

Tachi, Susumu

186

E. Mach on the analysis of motion sensation.  

PubMed

Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his many and widely read publications contributed to physics, physiology, and philosophy. His work on the analysis of motion sensation is discussed in the light of contemporary ideas and modern concepts of vestibular physiology. PMID:6384156

Henn, V

1984-01-01

187

Hypoxia increases the cutaneous threshold for the sensation of cold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutaneous temperature sensitivity was tested in 13 male subjects prior to, during and after they breathed either a hypocapnic hypoxic (HH), or a normocapnic hypoxic (NH) breathing mixture containing 10% oxygen in nitrogen. Normocapnia was maintained by adding carbon dioxide to the inspired gas mixture. Cutaneous thresholds for thermal sensation were determined by a thermosensitivity testing device positioned on the

P. Golja; A. Kacin; M. J. Tipton; O. Eiken; I. B. Mekjavic

2004-01-01

188

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2010-10-22

189

A Passive Wireless Temperature Sensor for Harsh Environment Applications  

PubMed Central

High temperature sensors capable of operating in harsh environments are needed in order to prevent disasters caused by structural or system functional failures due to increasing temperatures. Most existing temperature sensors do not satisfy the needs because they require either physical contact or a battery power supply for signal communication, and furthermore, neither of them can withstand high temperatures nor rotating applications. This paper presents a novel passive wireless temperature sensor, suitable for working in harsh environments for high temperature rotating component monitoring. A completely passive LC resonant telemetry scheme, relying on a frequency variation output, which has been applied successfully in pressure, humidity and chemical measurement, is integrated with a unique high-k temperature sensitive ceramic material, in order to measure the temperatures without contacts, active elements, or power supplies within the sensor. In this paper, the high temperature sensor design and performance analysis are conducted based on mechanical and electrical modeling, in order to maximize the sensing distance, the Q factor and the sensitivity. In the end, the sensor prototype is fabricated and calibrated successfully up to 235°C, so that the concept of temperature sensing through passive wireless communication is proved.

Wang, Ya; Jia, Yi; Chen, Qiushui; Wang, Yanyun

2008-01-01

190

Remote Driven and Read MEMS Sensors for Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

The utilization of high accuracy sensors in harsh environments has been limited by the temperature constraints of the control electronics that must be co-located with the sensor. Several methods of remote interrogation for resonant sensors are presented in this paper which would allow these sensors to be extended to harsh environments. This work in particular demonstrates for the first time the ability to acoustically drive a silicon comb drive resonator into resonance and electromagnetically couple to the resonator to read its frequency. The performance of this system was studied as a function of standoff distance demonstrating the ability to excite and read the device from 22 cm when limited to drive powers of 30 mW. A feedback architecture was implemented that allowed the resonator to be driven into resonance from broadband noise and a standoff distance of 15 cm was demonstrated. It is emphasized that no junction-based electronic device was required to be co-located with the resonator, opening the door for the use of silicon-based, high accuracy MEMS devices in high temperature wireless applications. PMID:24152935

Knobloch, Aaron J.; Ahmad, Faisal R.; Sexton, Dan W.; Vernooy, David W.

2013-01-01

191

Learning capabilities enhanced in harsh environments: a common garden approach  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have suggested that the ability to inhabit harsh environments may be linked to advanced learning traits. However, it is not clear if individuals express such traits as a consequence of experiencing challenging environments or if these traits are inherited. To assess the influence of differential selection pressures on variation in aspects of cognition, we used a common garden approach to examine the response to novelty and problem-solving abilities of two populations of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). These populations originated from the latitudinal extremes of the species's range, where we had previously demonstrated significant differences in memory and brain morphology in a multi-population study. We found that birds from the harsh northern population, where selection for cognitive abilities is expected to be high, significantly outperformed conspecifics from the mild southern population. Our results imply differences in cognitive abilities that may be inherited, as individuals from both populations were raised in and had experienced identical environmental conditions from 10 days of age. Although our data suggest an effect independent of experience, we cannot rule out maternal effects or experiences within the nest prior to day 10 with our design. Nevertheless, our results support the idea that environmental severity may be an important factor in shaping certain aspects of cognition. PMID:20519218

Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2010-01-01

192

High Temperature Wireless Communication And Electronics For Harsh Environment Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order for future aerospace propulsion systems to meet the increasing requirements for decreased maintenance, improved capability, and increased safety, the inclusion of intelligence into the propulsion system design and operation becomes necessary. These propulsion systems will have to incorporate technology that will monitor propulsion component conditions, analyze the incoming data, and modify operating parameters to optimize propulsion system operations. This implies the development of sensors, actuators, and electronics, with associated packaging, that will be able to operate under the harsh environments present in an engine. However, given the harsh environments inherent in propulsion systems, the development of engine-compatible electronics and sensors is not straightforward. The ability of a sensor system to operate in a given environment often depends as much on the technologies supporting the sensor element as the element itself. If the supporting technology cannot handle the application, then no matter how good the sensor is itself, the sensor system will fail. An example is high temperature environments where supporting technologies are often not capable of operation in engine conditions. Further, for every sensor going into an engine environment, i.e., for every new piece of hardware that improves the in-situ intelligence of the components, communication wires almost always must follow. The communication wires may be within or between parts, or from the engine to the controller. As more hardware is added, more wires, weight, complexity, and potential for unreliability is also introduced. Thus, wireless communication combined with in-situ processing of data would significantly improve the ability to include sensors into high temperature systems and thus lead toward more intelligent engine systems. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is presently leading the development of electronics, communication systems, and sensors capable of prolonged stable operation in harsh 500C environments. This has included world record operation of SiC-based transistor technology (including packaging) that has demonstrated continuous electrical operation at 500C for over 2000 hours. Based on SiC electronics, development of high temperature wireless communication has been on-going. This work has concentrated on maturing the SiC electronic devices for communication purposes as well as the passive components such as resistors and capacitors needed to enable a high temperature wireless system. The objective is to eliminate wires associated with high temperature sensors which add weight to a vehicle and can be a cause of sensor unreliability. This paper discusses the development of SiC based electronics and wireless communications technology for harsh environment applications such as propulsion health management systems and in Venus missions. A brief overview of the future directions in sensor technology is given including maturing of near-room temperature "Lick and Stick" leak sensor technology for possible implementation in the Crew Launch Vehicle program. Then an overview of high temperature electronics and the development of high temperature communication systems is presented. The maturity of related technologies such as sensor and packaging will also be discussed. It is concluded that a significant component of efforts to improve the intelligence of harsh environment operating systems is the development and implementation of high temperature wireless technology

Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Beheim, G. M.; Ponchak, G. E.; Chen, L.-Y

2007-01-01

193

Finger identification for touch panel operation using tapping fluctuation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, user interface for touch input on mobile devices with touch panels has spread. In general, each target on a touch panel is designed to be finger size or larger to avoid selection mistake, however, such design slows down complex tasks. This paper presents a finger identification method for touch panel operations. When a user taps with a

Yusuke Numabe; Hidetoshi Nonaka; Takeshi Yoshikawa

2009-01-01

194

AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel  

E-print Network

AudioVisual Classroom Consoles(LARGE) AMX Touch panel Chapter 1: Start up console using console PC) 2. Touch AMX Panel to reveal access keypad. Touch number (please contact eMAP for code) then DONE of your computer screen. Make sure it is not muted and adjust the level with your mouse. 2. AMX TouchPanel

Peak, Derek

195

Exploring Interpersonal Touch in Computer Games University of Calgary  

E-print Network

Computer games, interpersonal touch. 1. INTRODUCTION Interpersonal touch ­ an act of physical contactExploring Interpersonal Touch in Computer Games Cody Watts University of Calgary 2500 University Edmonton, AB, Canada woytiuk@bioware.com ABSTRACT Acts of interpersonal touch are used by couples

Sharlin, Ehud

196

TUIC: Enabling Tangible Interaction on Capacitive Multi-touch Display  

E-print Network

with digital information by directly interacting with physical objects [11,12]. Multi-touch interface, anotherTUIC: Enabling Tangible Interaction on Capacitive Multi-touch Display Neng-Hao Yu3 , Li-Wei Chan3 tangible interaction on capacitive multi-touch devices, such as iPad, iPhone, and 3M's multi-touch displays

Huang, Polly

197

Double-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices  

E-print Network

Touch Diamond phones, have replaced physical keyboards or keypads with an input by stylus or directDouble-side Multi-touch Input for Mobile Devices Abstract We present a new mobile interaction model, called double-side multi-touch, based on a mobile device that receives simultaneous multi-touch input

Chu, Hao-hua

198

Using critical points in contours for segmentation of touching characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper is presented a new method for segmentation of touching characters using critical points in their contours. The touching regions are determined based on distribution of the critical points along the contours. Critical points which are candidates for touching places are selected based on geometrical and structural information. Segmentation is completed by cutting the touching character objects at

Ventzislav Alexandrov

2004-01-01

199

"Touch Me, Like Me": Testing an Encounter Group Assumption  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An experiment to test an encounter group assumption that touching increases interpersonal attraction was conducted. College women were randomly assigned to a touch or no-touch condition. A comparison of total evaluation scores verified the hypothesis: subjects who touched the accomplice perceived her as a more attractive person than those who did…

Boderman, Alvin; And Others

1972-01-01

200

A role for nociceptive, myelinated nerve fibers in itch sensation  

PubMed Central

Despite its clinical importance, the underlying neural mechanisms of itch sensation are poorly understood. In many diseases, pruritus is not effectively treated with antihistamines, indicating the involvement of non-histaminergic mechanisms. To investigate the role of small myelinated afferents in non-histaminergic itch, we tested, in psychophysical studies in humans, the effect of a differential nerve block on itch produced by intradermal insertion of spicules from the pods of a cowhage plant (Mucuna pruriens). Electrophysiological experiments in anesthetized monkey were used to investigate the responsiveness of cutaneous, nociceptive, myelinated afferents to different chemical stimuli (cowhage spicules, histamine, capsaicin). Our results provide several lines of evidence for an important role of myelinated fibers in cowhage-induced itch: 1) a selective conduction block in myelinated fibers substantially reduces itch in a sub-group of subjects with A-fiber dominated itch, 2) the time course of itch sensation differs between subjects with A-fiber versus C-fiber dominated itch, 3) cowhage activates a subpopulation of myelinated and unmyelinated afferents in monkey, 4) the time course of the response to cowhage is different in myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, 5) the time of peak itch sensation for subjects with A-fiber dominated itch matches the time for peak response in myelinated fibers, and 6) the time for peak itch sensation for subjects with C-fiber dominated itch matches the time for the peak response in unmyelinated fibers. These findings demonstrate that activity in nociceptive, myelinated afferents contributes to cowhage-induced sensations, and that non-histaminergic itch is mediated through activity in both unmyelinated and myelinated afferents. PMID:22016517

Ringkamp, M.; Schepers, R. J.; Shimada, S.G.; Johanek, L.M.; Hartke, T.V.; Borzan, J.; Shim, B.; LaMotte, R.H.; Meyer, R.A.

2011-01-01

201

Brief measures of sensation seeking for screening and large-scale surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensation seeking is central to research on the prevention of risky health behaviors, but current measures of sensation seeking are fairly long, thereby reducing their chances of inclusion in some research projects. Hence, we developed and evaluated two brief indices of sensation seeking, a four-item measure that retains the framework of the Sensation Seeking Scale-Form V (SSS-V) and a shorter

Michael T. Stephenson; Rick H. Hoyle; Philip Palmgreen; Michael D. Slater

2003-01-01

202

Changes in laryngeal sensation evaluated with a new method before and after radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiotherapy of the laryngopharynx sometimes leads to functional disabilities including swallowing dysfunction. One of the\\u000a reasons for these disabilities is a deterioration of laryngeal sensation. Laryngeal sensation is an important factor in swallowing,\\u000a but quantitative evaluation of laryngeal sensation has been difficult. In this study, we evaluated changes in laryngeal sensation\\u000a before and after radiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer,

Kikuko Ozawa; Yasushi Fujimoto; Tsutomu Nakashima

2010-01-01

203

Water-Induced Finger Wrinkles Do Not Affect Touch Acuity or Dexterity in Handling Wet Objects  

PubMed Central

Human non-hairy (glabrous) skin of the fingers, palms and soles wrinkles after prolonged exposure to water. Wrinkling is a sympathetic nervous system-dependent process but little is known about the physiology and potential functions of water-induced skin wrinkling. Here we investigated the idea that wrinkling might improve handling of wet objects by measuring the performance of a large cohort of human subjects (n?=?40) in a manual dexterity task. We also tested the idea that skin wrinkling has an impact on tactile acuity or vibrotactile sensation using two independent sensory tasks. We found that skin wrinkling did not improve dexterity in handling wet objects nor did it affect any aspect of touch sensitivity measured. Thus water-induced wrinkling appears to have no significant impact on tactile driven performance or dexterity in handling wet or dry objects. PMID:24416318

Frenzel, Henning; Gross, Manfred; Lewin, Gary R.

2014-01-01

204

Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

205

Partial and whole-body thermal sensation and comfort— Part I: Uniform environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjects exposed to uniform environments were polled for their local and overall (whole-body) thermal sensation and comfort. Sensation and comfort for local body parts vary greatly. In cool environments, hands and feet feel colder than other body parts. The head, insensitive to cold but sensitive to warm, feels warmer than the rest of the body in warm environments. Overall sensation

Edward Arens; Hui Zhang; Charlie Huizenga

2006-01-01

206

Anticipatory Public Speaking State Anxiety as a Function of Body Sensations and State of Mind  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships among a public speaker's body sensations, state of mind, and anticipatory public speaking state anxiety. A negative relationship was found to exist between speaker state of mind and anticipatory public speaking anxiety, and a positive relationship was found between speaker body sensations and anticipatory public speaking anxiety. Moreover, speaker state of mind and body sensations

Shannon C. McCullough; Shelly G. Russell; Ralph R. Behnke; Chris R. Sawyer; Paul L. Witt

2006-01-01

207

The Relationship between Sensation-Seeking and Eysenck's Dimensions of Personality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were administered to 219 American undergraduates and 879 English twins. Sensation-seeking was positively correlated to EPQ-measured traits of extraversion and psychoticism. There was no relationship between sensation-seeking and the trait dimension of neuroticism.…

Eysenck, Sybil; Zuckerman, Marvin

1978-01-01

208

Origami Simulator: a Multi-Touch We present a 3D origami simulator with multi-touch  

E-print Network

for the physical equivalent, for example shaping clay or folding paper. We investigate the use of a multi-touchOrigami Simulator: a Multi-Touch Experience Abstract We present a 3D origami simulator with multi-touch interaction. This is a preliminary exploration of manipulating 3D models with multi-touch. Following a user

Sun, Jing

209

Surface acoustic wave sensing of VOCs in harsh chemical environments  

SciTech Connect

The measurement of VOC concentrations in harsh chemical and physical environments is a formidable task. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor has been designed for this purpose and its construction and testing are described in this paper. Included is a detailed description of the design elements specific to operation in 300{degree}C steam and HCl environments including temperature control, gas handling, and signal processing component descriptions. In addition, laboratory temperature stability was studied and a minimum detection limit was defined for operation in industrial environments. Finally, a description of field tests performed on steam reforming equipment at Synthetica Technologies Inc. of Richmond, CA is given including a report on destruction efficiency of CCl{sub 4} in the Synthetica moving bed evaporator. Design improvements based on the field tests are proposed.

Pfeifer, K.B.; Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

1993-06-01

210

Surface Acoustic Wave Devices for Harsh Environment Wireless Sensing  

PubMed Central

Langasite surface acoustic wave devices can be used to implement harsh-environment wireless sensing of gas concentration and temperature. This paper reviews prior work on the development of langasite surface acoustic wave devices, followed by a report of recent progress toward the implementation of oxygen gas sensors. Resistive metal oxide films can be used as the oxygen sensing film, although development of an adherent barrier layer will be necessary with the sensing layers studied here to prevent interaction with the langasite substrate. Experimental results are presented for the performance of a langasite surface acoustic wave oxygen sensor with tin oxide sensing layer, and these experimental results are correlated with direct measurements of the sensing layer resistivity. PMID:23708273

Greve, David W.; Chin, Tao-Lun; Zheng, Peng; Ohodnicki, Paul; Baltrus, John; Oppenheim, Irving J.

2013-01-01

211

The concept of peripheral modulation of bladder sensation  

PubMed Central

It is recognized that, as the bladder fills, there is a corresponding increase in sensation. This awareness of the volume in the bladder is then used in a complex decision making process to determine if there is a need to void. It is also part of everyday experience that, when the bladder is full and sensations strong, these sensations can be suppressed and the desire to void postponed. The obvious explanation for such altered perceptions is that they occur centrally. However, this may not be the only mechanism. There are data to suggest that descending neural influences and local factors might regulate the sensitivity of the systems within the bladder wall generating afferent activity. Specifically, evidence is accumulating to suggest that the motor-sensory system within the bladder wall is influenced in this way. The motor-sensory system, first described over 100 years ago, appears to be a key component in the afferent outflow, the afferent “noise,” generated within the bladder wall. However, the presence and possible importance of this complex system in the generation of bladder sensation has been overlooked in recent years. As the bladder fills the motor activity increases, driven by cholinergic inputs and modulated, possibly, by sympathetic inputs. In this way information on bladder volume can be transmitted to the CNS. It can be argued that the ability to alter the sensitivity of the mechanisms generating the motor component of this motor-sensory system represents a possible indirect way to influence afferent activity and so the perception of bladder volume centrally. Furthermore, it is emerging that the apparent modulation of sensation by drugs to alleviate the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB), the anti-cholinergics and the new generation of drugs the ?3 sympathomimetics, may be the result of their ability to modulate the motor component of the motor sensory system. The possibility of controlling sensation, physiologically and pharmacologically, by influencing afferent firing at its point of origin is a “new” concept in bladder physiology. It is one that deserves careful consideration as it might have wider implications for our understanding of bladder pathology and in the development of new therapeutic drugs. In this overview, evidence for the concept peripheral modulation of bladder afferent outflow is explored. PMID:23917648

Eastham, Jane E; Gillespie, James I

2013-01-01

212

Automatic segmentation of overlapping and touching chromosomes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a technique to segment overlapping and touching chromosomes of human metaphase cells. Automated chromosome classification has been an important pattern recognition problem for decades, numerous attempts were made in the past to characterize chromosome band patterns. But successful separation between touching and overlapping chromosomes is vital for correct classification. Since chromosomes are non-rigid objects, common methods for separation between touching chromosomes are not usable. We proposed a method using shape concave and convex information, topology analysis information, and band pale paths for segmentation of touching and overlapping chromosomes. To detect shape concave and convex information, we should first pre-segment the chromosomes and get the edge of overlapping and touching chromosomes. After filtering the original image using edge-preserving filter, we adopt the Otsu's segmentation method and extract the boundary of chromosomes. Hence the boundary can be used for segment the overlapping and touching chromosomes by detecting the concave and convex information based on boundary information. Most of the traditional boundary-based algorithms detect corners based on two steps: the first step is to acquire the smoothed version of curvature at every point along the contour, and the second step is to detect the positions where curvature maximal occur and threshold the curvature as corner points. Recently wavelet transform has been adopted into corner detection algorithms. Since the metaphase overlapping chromosomes has multi-scale corners, we adopt a multi-scale corner detection method based on Hua's method for corner detection. For touching chromosomes, it is convenient to split them using pale paths. Starting from concave corner points, a search algorithm is represented. The searching algorithm traces three pixels into the object in the direction of the normal vector in order to avoid stopping at the initial boundary until it reaches to another boundary or tracing route. For overlapping chromosomes, the searching algorithm fails. We proposed a topology information based method for analyzing overlapping and touching chromosomes. Mihail Popescu adopts Cross Section Sequence Graph (CSSG) method for shape analyzing. Gady Agam proposed Discrete Curvature Function for splitting touching and overlapping chromosomes. But due to the non-rigid property of chromosomes, it is hard to determine the actual topology structure of chromosomes. In this paper we proposed a new method to produce topology information of chromosomes and had got good results in chromosome segmentation.

Yuan, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiaohua; Zhang, Renli; Yu, Chang

2001-09-01

213

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching  

PubMed Central

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

2011-01-01

214

Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.  

PubMed

Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

2011-11-12

215

Multidimensional reaction to therapeutic touch in a hospital setting.  

PubMed

A field experiment focused on some implication of interpersonal touch not explored in earlier research. Conceptually, the research included measuring the effects of touch over a relatively long time frame, for a broad range of response dimensions, and in a nonreactive setting characterized by dependency. On an applied level, the research studied the value of touch as a concomitant of nurse-patient interactions. Specifically, a 2 (touch vs. no touch) X 2 (male vs. female) between-subjects design assessed the effects of nurses touching patients, during preoperative teaching, on patient affective, evaluative, behavioral, and physiological responses. Results indicated that female subjects in the touch condition experienced more favorable affective, behavioral, and physiological reactions than a no-touch control group. In contrast, males in the touch condition reacted more negatively than control subjects on these dimensions. PMID:458550

Whitcher, S J; Fisher, J D

1979-01-01

216

Sensate Media — Multimodal Electronic Skins as Dense Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we introduce the concept of building electronic sensate skins as extremely dense, multimodal, systolic sensor networks. In this fashion, the copious signals produced by the skin's receptors are reduced by the network itself, and only high-level features are routed out peer-to-peer, avoiding complex wiring requirements while promising to enable scalability across large areas. Our architectures and algorithms

J A Paradiso; J Lifton; M Broxton

2004-01-01

217

Thermal sensation and comfort with different task conditioning systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subjective experiments with task conditioning systems, 3DU+, PEM, TU, and RCU were conducted to investigate the effect of three different types of Task air-conditioning systems on thermal comfort in a climate chamber. The chamber was conditioned at 28°C\\/50%RH with task systems and 26°C\\/50%RH without them. Under the condition with the task conditioning systems, the average rating of comfort sensation was

Hideyuki Amai; Shin-ichi Tanabe; Takashi Akimoto; Takeshi Genma

2007-01-01

218

Distressing upper extremity phantom limb sensation during intravenous regional anesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives: The objective of this article is to describe a case of distressing upper extremity phantom limb sensation during intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA). Case Report: A 33-year-old American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status I female with an uncomplicated intrauterine gestation presented for endoscopic carpal tunnel release. Following gravity-assisted exsanguination of the vertically positioned left upper extremity, she underwent

Eric Dominguez

2001-01-01

219

Respiratory Sensations Evoked by Activation of Bronchopulmonary C-fibers  

PubMed Central

C-fibers represent the majority of vagal afferents innervating the airways and lung, and can be activated by inhaled chemical irritants and certain endogenous substances. Stimulation of bronchopulmonary C-fibers with selective chemical activators by either inhalation or intravenous injection evokes irritation, burning and choking sensations in the throat, neck and upper chest (mid-sternum region) in healthy human subjects. These irritating sensations are often accompanied by bouts of coughs either during inhalation challenge or when a higher dose of the chemical activator is administered by intravenous injection. Dyspnea and breathless sensation are not always evoked when these afferents are activated by different types of chemical stimulants. This variability probably reflects the chemical nature of the stimulants, as well as the possibility that different subtypes of C-fibers encoded by different receptor proteins are activated. These respiratory sensations and reflex responses (e.g., cough) are believed to play an important role in protecting the lung against inhaled irritants and preventing overexertion under unusual physiological stresses (e.g., during strenuous exercise) in healthy individuals. More importantly, recent studies have revealed that the sensitivity of bronchopulmonary C-fibers can be markedly elevated in acute and chronic airway inflammatory diseases, probably caused by a sensitizing effect of certain endogenously released inflammatory mediators (e.g., prostaglandin E2) that act directly or indirectly on specific ion channels expressed on the sensory terminals. Normal physiological actions such as an increase in tidal volume (e.g., during mild exercise) can then activate these C-fiber afferents, and consequently may contribute, in part, to the lingering respiratory discomforts and other debilitating symptoms in patients with lung diseases. PMID:18586581

Lee, Lu-Yuan

2009-01-01

220

Medication Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity  

PubMed Central

Aim To characterize urethral neuromuscular function before and 2 weeks after medication therapy. Methods Premenopausal women without lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly allocated to one of six medications for 2 weeks (pseudoephedrine ER 120mg, imipramine 25mg, cyclobenzaprine 10mg, tamsulosin 0.4mg, solifenacin 5mg or placebo). At baseline and after medication, participants underwent testing: quantitative concentric needle EMG (CNE) of the urethral sphincter using automated Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) software; current perception threshold (CPT) testing to measure periurethral sensation; and standard urodynamic pressure flow studies (PFS). Nonparametric tests were used to compare pre-post differences. Results 56 women had baseline testing; 48 (85.7%) completed follow-up CNE, and 49 (87.5%) completed follow-up CPT and PFS testing. Demographics showed no significant differences among medication groups with respect to age (mean 34.3 ± 10.1), BMI (mean 31.8 ± 7.5), parity (median 1, range 0–7), or race (14% Caucasian, 80% African American). PFS parameters were not significantly different within medication groups. No significant pre-post changes in CNE values were noted; however, trends in amplitudes were in a direction consistent with the expected physiologic effect of the medications. With CPT testing, a trend toward increased urethral sensation at the 5 Hz stimulation level, was observed following treatment with pseudoephedrine (0.15 to 0.09 mA at 5Hz; P=0.03). Conclusion In women without LUTS, pseudoephedrine improved urethral sensation, but not urethral neuromuscular function on CNE or pressure flow studies. Imipramine, cyclobenzaprine, tamsulosin, solifenacin, and placebo did not change urethral sensation or neuromuscular function. PMID:25185603

Greer, W. Jerod; Gleason, Jonathan L.; Kenton, Kimberly; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Goode, Patricia S; Richter, Holly E

2014-01-01

221

Doing It in the Dirt: High sensation seeking motocross racers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Determining the psychological characteristics of long?term participants in a high?risk sport is relevant to understanding their persistence with the chosen sport. Studies have shown that participants in high?risk sports such as skydiving, big wave surfing and mountain climbing have higher scores on Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale than people in the general population. This study sets out to investigate whether motocross

Jan Lewis

2006-01-01

222

Measurement of perceived stereoscopic sensation through disparity metrics and compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Literatures use disparity as a principle measure evaluating discomfort, various artifacts, or movie production styles associated to stereoscopy, yet, statistics used to represent image or frame are often different. The current study examines 20 disparity statistics to find metrics that would best represent subjective stereoscopic sensation. Additionally, effect of disparity distribution pattern within an image is considered: Here, the patterns are categorised either single-peak or multiple-peak from the shape of disparity histogram. In the experiment, 14 stereoscopic images were presented to 15 subjects. Each subject evaluated perceived sense of distance and volume (3D space) through 7 points Likert scale. The result shows that the statistics that correlated significantly to the subjective sensation differed by the disparity compositions, hence, the metrics should be chosen accordingly. For the sense of distance, maximum, range, and the difference between 95th and 5th percentiles were found to be appropriate metrics under the single-peak, and minimum, contrast, and 5th percentile were representative under the multiple-peak. Similarly, for the sense of volume, range was found to be appropriate under the single-peak, but no metrics was found under the multiple-peak. The discrepancy is assumed due to different observation styles under differently composed images. We believe that the current study provides optimal disparity metrics for stereoscopic sensation measurements.

Toyosawa, Satoshi; Kawai, Takashi

2014-03-01

223

Assessing Decreased Sensation and Increased Sensory Phenomena in Diabetic Polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Loss of sensation and increased sensory phenomena are major expressions of varieties of diabetic polyneuropathies needing improved assessments for clinical and research purposes. We provide a neurobiological explanation for the apparent paradox between decreased sensation and increased sensory phenomena. Strongly endorsed is the use of the 10-g monofilaments for screening of feet to detect sensation loss, with the goal of improving diabetic management and prevention of foot ulcers and neurogenic arthropathy. We describe improved methods to assess for the kind, severity, and distribution of both large- and small-fiber sensory loss and which approaches and techniques may be useful for conducting therapeutic trials. The abnormality of attributes of nerve conduction may be used to validate the dysfunction of large sensory fibers. The abnormality of epidermal nerve fibers/1 mm may be used as a surrogate measure of small-fiber sensory loss but appear not to correlate closely with severity of pain. Increased sensory phenomena are recognized by the characteristic words patients use to describe them and by the severity and persistence of these symptoms. Tests of tactile and thermal hyperalgesia are additional markers of neural hyperactivity that are useful for diagnosis and disease management. PMID:24158999

Herrmann, David N.; Staff, Nathan P.; Dyck, P. James B.

2013-01-01

224

Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations  

PubMed Central

We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

2014-01-01

225

Interpretations of and memory for bodily sensations during public speaking.  

PubMed

This study examined whether negative interpretations of bodily sensations result in a memory bias for such sensations under conditions of social evaluation. Undergraduate students (N=77) were connected to equipment which they were told would measure their physiology and were trained on how to monitor their physiology via computer feedback as they gave a video-taped speech. Approximately half of participants (n=41) were told that their physiological feedback provides important information about their performance, and those remaining (n=36) were told that their physiological feedback is unrelated to their performance. Participants were subsequently given free recall and recognition tests for the computer feedback. Results suggest that believing physiological feedback is related to quality of performance resulted in enhanced memory for all information about bodily sensations. Furthermore, heightened social anxiety was associated with enhanced processing of stimuli associated with increasing physiology whereas lower social anxiety was associated with enhanced processing of stimuli associated with stable physiology when the belief that physiological feedback provides important information about performance is activated. Results are discussed in relation to cognitive-behavioural models of social anxiety. PMID:19345338

Ashbaugh, Andrea R; Radomsky, Adam S

2009-09-01

226

Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Touch and Go Surface Sampler (TGSS) is a new class of planetary and small body sample acquisition tool that can be used for the surface exploration of Europa, Titan and comets. TGSS in its basic configuration consists of a high speed sampling head attached to the end of a flexible shaft. The sampling head consists of counter rotating cutters that rotates at speeds of 3000 to 15000 RPM. The attractive feature of this if touch and go type sampler is that there are no requirements for a lander type spacecraft. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Gorevan, S. P.; Rafeek, S.

2001-01-01

227

Bringing Home the iPod Touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, you’ve seen how to select and purchase your iPod touch. You’ve discovered what’s involved in setting up an\\u000a iTunes account, activating your iPod, and performing your first sync. To wind things up, here is a quick overview of some\\u000a key points from this chapter:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a  \\u000a \\u000a There are several models of the iPod touch, but whichever unit you

Michael Grothaus; Erica Sadun

228

The brain’s response to pleasant touch: an EEG investigation of tactile caressing  

PubMed Central

Somatosensation as a proximal sense can have a strong impact on our attitude toward physical objects and other human beings. However, relatively little is known about how hedonic valence of touch is processed at the cortical level. Here we investigated the electrophysiological correlates of affective tactile sensation during caressing of the right forearm with pleasant and unpleasant textile fabrics. We show dissociation between more physically driven differential brain responses to the different fabrics in early somatosensory cortex – the well-known mu-suppression (10–20 Hz) – and a beta-band response (25–30 Hz) in presumably higher-order somatosensory areas in the right hemisphere that correlated well with the subjective valence of tactile caressing. Importantly, when using single trial classification techniques, beta-power significantly distinguished between pleasant and unpleasant stimulation on a single trial basis with high accuracy. Our results therefore suggest a dissociation of the sensory and affective aspects of touch in the somatosensory system and may provide features that may be used for single trial decoding of affective mental states from simple electroencephalographic measurements. PMID:25426047

Singh, Harsimrat; Bauer, Markus; Chowanski, Wojtek; Sui, Yi; Atkinson, Douglas; Baurley, Sharon; Fry, Martin; Evans, Joe; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

2014-01-01

229

Early Motherhood and Harsh Parenting: The Role of Human, Social, and Cultural Capital  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study examined the role of maternal human, social, and cultural capital in the relationship between early motherhood and harsh parenting behavior. Methods: This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing (FFCW) Study. Harsh parenting behaviors by mothers who were 19 years or younger at birth of the focal child (n…

Lee, Yookyong

2009-01-01

230

Response of red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) to playback of harsh versus common roars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red deer stags ( Cervus elaphus) give two distinct types of roars during the breeding season, the "common roar" and the "harsh roar." Harsh roars are more frequent during contexts of intense competition, and characterized by a set of features that increase their perceptual salience, suggesting that they signal heightened arousal. While common roars have been shown to encode size information and mediate both male competition and female choice, to our knowledge, the specific function of harsh roars during male competition has not yet been studied. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that the specific structure of male harsh roars signals high arousal to competitors. We contrast the behavioral responses of free ranging, harem-holding stags to the playback of harsh roars from an unfamiliar competitor with their response to the playback of common roars from the same animal. We show that males react less strongly to sequences of harsh roars than to sequences of common roars, possibly because they are reluctant to escalate conflicts with highly motivated and threatening unfamiliar males in the absence of visual information. While future work should investigate the response of stags to harsh roars from familiar opponents, our observations remain consistent with the hypothesis that harsh roars may signal motivation during male competition, and illustrate how intrasexual selection can contribute to the diversification of male vocal signals.

Garcia, Maxime; Wyman, Megan T.; Charlton, Benjamin D.; Tecumseh Fitch, W.; Reby, David

2014-10-01

231

Sex Differences in the Relationship between Harsh Discipline and Conduct Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on sex differences in antisocial behaviour may shed light on the causes of childhood antisocial behaviour. Using a longitudinal design, we tested whether there were sex differences in the amount of harsh discipline children received or in the effect of harsh discipline and whether this accounted for sex differences in later conduct…

Lysenko, Laura J.; Barker, Edward D.; Jaffee, Sara R.

2013-01-01

232

Reach out and touch someone: anticipatory sensorimotor processes of active interpersonal touch.  

PubMed

Anticipating the sensorimotor consequences of an action for both self and other is fundamental for action coordination when individuals socially interact. Somatosensation constitutes an elementary component of social cognition and sensorimotor prediction, but its functions in active social behavior remain unclear. We hypothesized that the somatosensory system contributes to social haptic behavior as evidenced by specific anticipatory activation patterns when touching an animate target (human hand) compared with an inanimate target (fake hand). fMRI scanning was performed during a paradigm that allowed us to isolate the anticipatory representations of active interpersonal touch while controlling for nonsocial sensorimotor processes and possible confounds because of interpersonal relationships or socioemotional valence. Active interpersonal touch was studied both as skin-to-skin contact and as object-mediated touch. The results showed weaker deactivation in primary somatosensory cortex and medial pFC and stronger activation in cerebellum for the animate target, compared with the inanimate target, when intending to touch it with one's own hand. Differently, in anticipation of touching the human hand with an object, anterior inferior parietal lobule and lateral occipital-temporal cortex showed stronger activity. When actually touching a human hand with one's own hand, activation was stronger in medial pFC but weaker in primary somatosensory cortex. The findings provide new insight on the contribution of simulation and sensory prediction mechanisms to active social behavior. They also suggest that literally getting in touch with someone and touching someone by using an object might be approached by an agent as functionally distinct conditions. PMID:24666131

Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Ferri, Francesca; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

2014-09-01

233

Maternal Warmth Moderates the Link between Harsh Discipline and Later Externalizing Behaviors for Mexican American Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined maternal warmth as a moderator of the relation between harsh discipline practices and adolescent externalizing problems 1year later in low-income, Mexican American families. Design Participants were 189 adolescents and their mothers who comprised the control group of a longitudinal intervention program. Results Maternal warmth protected adolescents from the negative effects of harsh discipline such that, at higher levels of maternal warmth, there was no relation between harsh discipline and externalizing problems after controlling for baseline levels of externalizing problems and other covariates. At lower levels of maternal warmth, there was a positive relation between harsh discipline practices and later externalizing problems. Conclusions To understand the role of harsh discipline in the development of Mexican American youth outcomes, researchers must consider contextual variables that may affect youths’ perceptions of their parents’ behavior such as maternal warmth. PMID:23894229

Germán, Miguelina; Gonzales, Nancy A.; McClain, Darya Bonds; Dumka, Larry; Millsap, Roger

2012-01-01

234

Art & Games: Sensational Activities for Children with Disabilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet offers learning activities for children with disabilities grouped into art activities, activities that encourage interaction, and activities that encourage movement. The activities emphasize touch, smell, sight, and hearing to allow children to utilize their strongest senses. Each activity is presented with possible goals, materials,…

Dell, Susan J.; McNerney, Peg

235

The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the role of touch in the use of facilitated communication with Japanese individuals with autism. Five experiments were conducted involving a "telepathy game" using a rod with an attached strain gauge. Results found the facilitator's contact controlled the motor responses of the subjects. (Author/CR)

Kezuka, Emiko

1997-01-01

236

Touch Screen Tablets and Emergent Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of touch screen tablets by young children is increasing in the home and in early childhood settings. The simple tactile interface and finger-based operating features of tablets may facilitate preschoolers' use of tablet application software and support their educational development in domains such as literacy. This article reviews…

Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.

2014-01-01

237

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures  

E-print Network

Mobile Game Recommendation using Touch Gestures Hao-Tsung Yang, De-Yu Chen, Ya-Xuan Hong, and Kuan and download more than one hundred thousands of games on mobile app marketplaces; nevertheless, how to pick the best games out of the large pool without spending much time on tryout is very challenging. The common

Chen, Sheng-Wei

238

Tapping into Touch Eduardo Torres-Jara  

E-print Network

on a broader perspective. 2. Background Experimental results suggest that from a very ear- ly age, arm of exploratory procedures to examine object properties through grasp- ing and touch. Our goal is to exploit, Metta and Fitzpatrick, 2003). We now turn our at- tention to audition: developing perception of contact

Torres-Jara, Eduardo

239

Families Talking about Ecology at Touch Tanks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has demonstrated that conversations among museum, aquarium, and zoo visitors can be a clear indication of active learning, engagement, and participation in scientific reasoning. This descriptive study sought to determine the extent of talk about ecology-related topics exhibited by family groups visiting marine touch tanks at four Pacific…

Kopczak, Charles; Kisiel, James F.; Rowe, Shawn

2015-01-01

240

The electroquasistatics of the capacitive touch panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A practical panel must be safe and inexpensive and must sense position accurately in spite of electrical noise, dirt, or direct electrostatic discharge. The implementation discussed uses a quasistatic electric field, applied to a semiconducting coating on the panel surface. A touch draws current from the surface. This current can be used to compute position. If the computation is performed

P. T. Krein; R. D. Meadows

1988-01-01

241

Ultrasonic attenuation in acoustic touch panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a quantitative investigation of the sensitivity of Rayleigh waves (RW) and Love waves (LW) to water and finger touches as well as oil. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented. In the theoretical analysis, the influence of water on RW is analyzed using the leaky wave model. Damping of LW by water is modeled by a perturbation

Masao Takeuchi; Tomoyuki Gotsu; Noriko Fujita; P. Gomes; J. Kent; R. Adler

2004-01-01

242

The Power of Touch: Massage for Infants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The potential benefits of massage for infants are discussed, including the role of touch on attachment and bonding and implications of massage for special needs infants. Research results on the benefits of massage for the infant and caregiver are covered, including increased bonding and enhanced growth and development. Historical information on…

Schneider, Elaine Fogel

1996-01-01

243

The Role of Touch in Facilitated Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imagine that one day a nonverbal autistic child suddenly starts to type messages, such as “I am not retarded,” using a computer keyboard while being touched by an assistant. Facilitated communication (FC) appears to create this miracle around the world. To understand how this works, experiments were conducted involving a “telepathy game” using a rod with an attached strain gauge.

Emiko Kezuka

1997-01-01

244

Physical Touch-Up of Human Motions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many popular motion editing methods do not take phys- ical principles into account potentially producing implau si- ble motions. This paper introduces an efficient method for touching up edited motions to improve physical plausibil- ity. We start by estimating a mass distribution consistent with reference motions known to be physically correct. The edited motion is then divided into ground and

Hyun Joon Shin; Lucas Kovar; Michael Gleicher

2003-01-01

245

Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

2004-01-01

246

Characterization of optical components for use in harsh environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of mounted and/or bonded optical assemblies for survivability in harsh environments is crucial for the development of robust laser-optical firing systems. Customized mounts, bonded assemblies and packaging strategies were utilized for each of the laser resonator optics with the goal of developing and fielding a reliable initiation system for use in extreme conditions. Specific components were selected for initial testing based on past experience, material properties and optical construction. Shock, vibration and temperature testing was performed on three mounted optical components; polarizing cube beam splitters, Q-switch assemblies and xenon flashlamps. Previously, flashlamps of a solder-sealed construction type were successfully tested and characterized. This test regiment characterized the more fragile glass-to-metal seal constructed flashlamps. Components were shock-tested to a maximum impulse level of 5700 G's with a 1.1 millisecond long pulse. Vibration tests were performed to a maximum level of 15.5 grms for forty seconds in each of three axes. During each test, components were functionally tested and visually inspected at a specified point to verify survival. Temperature tests were performed over a range extending from a maximum of 75 degrees C to a minimum of -55 degrees C, allowing for a two hour soak at each temperature set point. Experimental results obtained from these tests will be discussed as will their impact on future component mounting strategies.

Bright, Michelle; Morelli, Gregg

2006-08-01

247

Harsh childhood environmental characteristics predict exploitation and retaliation in humans  

PubMed Central

Across and within societies, people vary in their propensities towards exploitative and retaliatory defection in potentially cooperative interaction. We hypothesized that this variation reflects adaptive responses to variation in cues during childhood that life will be harsh, unstable and short—cues that probabilistically indicate that it is in one's fitness interests to exploit co-operators and to retaliate quickly against defectors. Here, we show that childhood exposure to family neglect, conflict and violence, and to neighbourhood crime, were positively associated for men (but not women) with exploitation of an interaction partner and retaliatory defection after that partner began to defect. The associations between childhood environment and both forms of defection for men appeared to be mediated by participants' endorsement of a ‘code of honour’. These results suggest that individual differences in mutual benefit cooperation are not merely due to genetic noise, random developmental variation or the operation of domain-general cultural learning mechanisms, but rather, might reflect the adaptive calibration of social strategies to local social–ecological conditions. PMID:23118435

McCullough, Michael E.; Pedersen, Eric J.; Schroder, Jaclyn M.; Tabak, Benjamin A.; Carver, Charles S.

2013-01-01

248

A novel approach to tribological measurements at harsh conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When dealing with high-tech equipment, accurate positioning is of the utmost importance to ensure durability and a productive lifetime. Unexpected high friction or wear of positioning mechanisms can lead to unnecessary down-time or products that are not up to specification. To ensure a sufficient lifetime, it is necessary to know beforehand how the sliding and rolling contacts will behave over time. This demand becomes more stringent when the machine operates at extreme conditions, e.g. vacuum or extremely low temperatures. Traditional greases and mineral oil based lubricants do not perform adequately in such extreme environments, as they either contaminate the vacuum or do not provide sufficient film thickness. TNO recently developed a unique measuring application, the TNO cryotribometer, in order to measure friction and wear of position mechanisms at harsh conditions. Preliminary results show that the contact pressure and the sliding velocity influenced the friction level greatly. This set-up is currently used to find and analyze different material combinations, which demonstrate a constant friction level under cryogenic vacuum conditions.

Weltevreden, Esther R.; van der Heide, Emile

2011-10-01

249

Nurses' Comfort with Touch and Workplace Well-Being.  

PubMed

Touch is an essential part of caregiving and has been proved to be useful to reduce pain. Nevertheless, little attention has been paid to nurses' perceptions of touch. The aim of this article was to examine the relationship between nurses' feelings of comfort with touch and their well-being at work. A sample of 241 nurses attending a pain management training course completed a questionnaire, including the following measures: Comfort with Touch (CT) scale (task-oriented contact, touch promoting physical comfort, touch providing emotional containment), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI; emotional exhaustion, cynicism), and Job Satisfaction. Results of structural equation models showed that touch providing emotional containment was the main predictor of emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion, in turn, was positively related to cynicism and negatively related to job satisfaction. In addition, the direct path from touch providing emotional containment to cynicism was significant. Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24658288

Pedrazza, Monica; Minuzzo, Stefania; Berlanda, Sabrina; Trifiletti, Elena

2014-03-20

250

A touch controller using differential sensing method for on-cell capacitive touch screen panel systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A touch controller is proposed for on-cell capacitive touch screen panel systems. The proposed IC adopts the differential sensing method to enhance the dynamic range of sensing voltage and to be robust to display noise. The measurement results show that the maximum reporting rate, jitter tolerance, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are 140 Hz, ±0.3 mm, and 12 dB, respectively, when

Ik-seok Yang; Oh-kyong Kwon

2011-01-01

251

Issues and techniques in touch-sensitive tablet input  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch-sensitive tablets and their use in human-computer interaction are discussed. It is shown that such devices have some important properties that differentiate them from other input devices (such as mice and joysticks). The analysis serves two purposes: (1) it sheds light on touch tablets, and (2) it demonstrates how other devices might be approached. Three specific distinctions between touch tablets

William Buxton; Ralph Hill; Peter Rowley

1985-01-01

252

Manual Deskterity: An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input  

E-print Network

Manual Deskterity: An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input Abstract Manual Deskterity is a prototype digital drafting table that supports both pen and touch input. We explore a division of labor between pen and touch that flows from natural human skill and differentiation of roles

Toronto, University of

253

Manual Deskterity : An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input  

E-print Network

Manual Deskterity : An Exploration of Simultaneous Pen + Touch Direct Input Abstract Manual Deskterity is a prototype digital drafting table that supports both pen and touch input. We explore a division of labor between pen and touch that flows from natural human skill and differentiation of roles

Dumais, Susan

254

Touch therapy combined with talk therapy: The Rubenfeld Synergy Method®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch therapy has been researched for many years and is accepted as a successful therapeutic method for healing. Ironically, touch has gone from being a part of mainstream medicine to becoming associated with alternative medicine. The Rubenfeld Synergy Method (RSM), one modality emphasising touch, was created almost four decades ago and has been recently rediscovered due to the growth and

Luna L. Medina; Marilyn J. Montgomery

2012-01-01

255

Touch therapy combined with talk therapy: The Rubenfeld Synergy Method®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch therapy has been researched for many years and is accepted as a successful therapeutic method for healing. Ironically, touch has gone from being a part of mainstream medicine to becoming associated with alternative medicine. The Rubenfeld Synergy Method (RSM), one modality emphasising touch, was created almost four decades ago and has been recently rediscovered due to the growth and

Luna L. Medina; Marilyn J. Montgomery

2011-01-01

256

Neural calibration and Kalman filter position estimation for touch panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops methodologies and techniques for calibration and dynamic touching position estimation of touch panels using adaptive linear neural networks (ALNN) and Kalman filter. A neural-based calibration method is proposed to determine nonlinear mapping relationships of measured and known touch points, thereby calibrating their positions in a real-time manner. In order to obtain position estimation of fast moving points

Chih-Chang Lai; Ching-Chih Tsai

2004-01-01

257

Fingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Southeast University  

E-print Network

touch-screen panel market size will grow to $9.65 billion and 1.35 billion units, and 800 millionFingerprint Attack against Touch-enabled Devices Yang Zhang Southeast University Nanjing 211189, P Lowell, MA 01854, USA xinwenfu@cs.uml.edu ABSTRACT Oily residues left by tapping fingers on a touch

Liu, Benyuan

258

Parameter Optimization Design for Touch Panel Laser Cutting Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cutting is an essential process in touch panel manufacturing, which concerns the effectiveness of whole touch panel manufacturing process and reliability of final application products. An alternative is laser cutting technology, which is expected to eclipse conventional cutting method in terms of cost and quality. The laser cutting quality of touch panel is determined by the appropriation of value settings

Chao-Ton Su; Yu-Hsiang Hsiao; Chia-Chin Chang

2012-01-01

259

Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Briefly reviews the use of therapeutic touch in early Western culture and Judaic tradition and by modern practitioners. Discusses modern scientific approaches to therapeutic touch, including its use by nurses. Offers suggestions for and examples of the use of meditation, relaxation exercises, and therapeutic touch with adolescents in classroom and…

Greenspan, Marlene

1994-01-01

260

Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher  

E-print Network

Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it. Gavin Fisher Cascade Microtech Europe Ltd A guide to Successful on Wafer Rf characterisation #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it. Measure it Station Essentials Probe Tip Calibration How to Calibrate #12;Company Confidential See it. Touch it

Anlage, Steven

261

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

E-print Network

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction Cody Watts1, 2 , Ehud and playing video games. This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed, the best practices for creating video games based

Boyer, Edmond

262

78 FR 37998 - Electronic One Touch Bingo System  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of server based electronic bingo system games that can be played utilizing only one touch...touch bingo is a Class II or Class III game. DATES: The agency must receive comments...touch bingo as a Class II or a Class III game pursuant to the Indian Gaming...

2013-06-25

263

Dispatch 541 Mechanosensation: Touch at the molecular level  

E-print Network

of stereocilia. In the case of C. elegans touch-cell processes, the physical association of the mechanosensitiveDispatch 541 Mechanosensation: Touch at the molecular level Jaime García-Añoveros and David P. Corey The cloning of genes needed for gentle-touch sensitivity in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans

Corey, David P.

264

Enhancing physicality in touch interaction with programmable friction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch interactions have refreshed some of the 'glowing enthusiasm' of thirty years ago for direct manipulation interfaces. However, today's touch technologies, whose interactions are supported by graphics, sounds or crude clicks, have a tactile sameness and gaps in usability. We use a Large Area Tactile Pattern Display (LATPaD) to examine design possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with

Vincent Lévesque; Louise Oram; Karon E. MacLean; Andy Cockburn; Nicholas D. Marchuk; Dan Johnson; J. Edward Colgate; Michael A. Peshkin

2011-01-01

265

The Role of Touch in Therapy: An Adjunct to Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the role of physical touch between counselors and clients, reviewing both research and clinical data. Although published findings are not conclusive, there is some indication that touch, when appropriately used, can have a positive impact on clients. Concludes by proposing guidelines for the use of touch in counseling. (Author/BL)

Willison, Beverly G.; Masson, Robert L.

1986-01-01

266

Affective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine  

E-print Network

is that creating touch experiences involves building physical hardware and feedback, a more complicated designAffective Touch Gesture Recognition for a Furry Zoomorphic Machine Anna Flagg Department of touch, one route to such power is through haptic emotional interaction, which requires sophisticated

MacLean, Karon

267

The Effect of Counselor Touch in an Initial Counseling Session.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the effect of counselor touch on female clients (N=32) and the moderating effect of clients' field dependence-independence on their response to a counselor's touch. Results indicated that counselors were perceived as significantly more expert when they touched than when they did not. Suggests implications for counseling. (Author)

Hubble, Mark A.; And Others

1981-01-01

268

Handling Pressures: Analysing Touch in American Films about Youth Sport  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines how films produced in the USA in the past 10 years and featuring the coaching of youth sport, represent the issue of touch during instruction and training. Touch in such films is figured in diverse ways ranging from pats of reassurance and hugs of congratulation to cuffs of disapprobation. Touch is also occasionally depicted…

Chare, Nicholas

2013-01-01

269

Sensation seeking genes and physical activity in youth  

PubMed Central

Many studies examining genetic influences on physical activity (PA) have evaluated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to the development of lifestyle-related chronic diseases, under the hypothesis that they would be associated with PA. However, PA is a multi-determined behavior and associated with a multitude of health consequences. Thus, examining a broader range of candidate genes associated with a boarder range of PA correlates may provide new insights into the genetic underpinnings of PA. In this study we focus on one such correlate – sensation seeking behavior. Participants (N=1,130 Mexican origin youth) provided a saliva sample and data on PA and sensation seeking tendencies in 2008–09. Participants were genotyped for 630 functional and tagging variants in the dopamine, serotonin, and cannabinoid pathways. Overall 30% of participants (males – 37.6%; females – 22.0%) reported ?60 minutes of PA on five out of seven days. After adjusting for gender, age and population stratification, and applying the Bayesian False Discovery Probability approach for assessing noteworthiness, four gene variants were significantly associated with PA. In a multivariable model, being male, having higher sensation seeking tendencies and at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in ACE (rs8066276 OR=1.44; p=0.012) and TPH2 (rs11615016 OR=1.73; p=0.021) were associated with increased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Participants with at least one copy of the minor allele for SNPs in SNAP25 (rs363035 OR=0.53; p=0.005) and CNR1 (rs6454672 OR=0.62; p=0.022) have decreased likelihood of meeting PA recommendations. Our findings extend current knowledge of the complex relationship between PA and possible genetic underpinnings. PMID:23190435

Wilkinson, Anna V.; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Wang, Jian; Bondy, Melissa L.; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xifeng; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret R.

2012-01-01

270

Pubertal Timing and Mexican-Origin Girls’ Internalizing and Externalizing Symptoms: The Influence of Harsh Parenting  

PubMed Central

Early-maturing girls are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems. Scarce research has examined pubertal timing and mental health among Mexican Americans, or examined the influence of parenting behaviors on these relations. This study addressed these gaps. This was a prospective examination of 362 Mexican-origin girls and their mothers using three waves of data. Measures included girls’ self-report of pubertal development and girls’ and mothers’ report of maternal harsh parenting and daughters’ mental health. Using structural equation modeling, we examined whether pubertal timing in 5th grade predicted girls’ internalizing and externalizing outcomes in 10th grade. We also examined the mediating and moderating effects of harsh parenting on the relations between pubertal timing and internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the influence of mothers’ and daughters’ nativity on these relations. Results differed depending on reporter and maternal nativity. Using daughters’ report, Mexican American mothers’ harsh parenting acted as a moderator. At high levels of harsh parenting, early pubertal timing predicted higher externalizing scores, while at low levels of harsh parenting, early timing predicted lower externalizing scores. For Mexican immigrant mothers, harsh parenting mediated the effects of pubertal timing on girls’ internalizing and externalizing problems. There were no significant pubertal effects for mothers’ report. Findings suggest that maternal harsh parenting plays a key role in the relations between early pubertal timing and behavioral and emotional outcomes among Mexican-origin girls. PMID:23231686

Deardorff, J.; Cham, H.; Gonzales, NA.; White, R.M.B.; Tein, J.-Y.; Wong, J.; Roosa, M.W.

2012-01-01

271

Effect of local cooling on sweating rate and cold sensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Subjects resting in a 39 C environment were stimulated in different skin regions with a water-cooled thermode. Results indicate that cooling different body regions produces generally equivalent decreases in sweating rate and increases in cold sensation, with the forehead showing a much greater sensitivity per unit area and temperature decrease than other areas. The high thermal sensitivity of the face may have evolved when it was the thinnest-furred area of the body; today's clothing habits have reestablished the importance of the face in the regulation of body temperature.

Crawshaw, L. I.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.; Stamford, B. A.

1975-01-01

272

Haptic Interaction of Touch and Proprioception: Implications for Neuroprosthetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatosensation is divided into multiple discrete modalities that we think of separably: e.g., tactile, proprioceptive, and temperature sensation. However, in processes such as hap- tics, those modalities all interact. If one intended to artificially generate a sensation that could be used for stereognosis, for example, it would be crucial to understand these interactions. We are presently examining the relationship between

Liliana Rincon-Gonzalez; Jay P. Warren; David M. Meller; Stephen Helms Tillery

2011-01-01

273

Photosynthesis via Mineral Fluorescence in Harsh UV Radiation Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Before the development of a protective ozone layer about two billion years ago, the surface ultraviolet flux on Earth would have restricted ancient life to environments that offered some protection from direct solar radiation, such as the deep ocean or under or within rocks. In environments where the visible solar radiation would have been reduced to levels too low for photosynthesis, visible fluorescence resulting from UV irradiation of minerals may have provided a useable energy source. We are investigating the possibility that photosynthesis can occur without direct sunlight, if certain minerals are present that can absorb UV radiation and fluoresce in the visible. There are several common minerals(e.g. fluorite, calcite) that emit strong visible radiation under both short- and long-wave UV light, as well as some that only emit visible radiation under specific UV wavelengths. We will test a variety of minerals that fluoresce at wavelengths utilized by microbial chlorophylls and accessory pigments, and by simulating endolithic communities living under a few centimeters or millimeters of rock, we will measure the intensity of fluorescence and UV radiation received at various depths. We plan to simulate a variety of environments where the surface UV radiation may have a significant impact on the survival of life. These include the early Earth and present-day Mars(where the atmosphere would offer little to no protection against biologically damaging UV radiation), as well as extrasolar planets(a terrestrial planet in the habitable zone around an M-type star, for example, would be subject to an intense UV flux due to high flare activity). If mineral fluorescence proves to be a viable survival mechanism for photosynthetic organisms in harsh radiation environments, there are many implications for the study of ancient life on Earth as well as the search for life elsewhere.

Barge, L. M.; Nealson, K.

2005-12-01

274

The Relationships Between Sensation Seeking and Gender Role Orientations Among Turkish University Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between sensation seeking and gender role orientation were examined among 325 Turkish university students.\\u000a The Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V; Zuckerman, Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. Cambridge University Press, New York, 1994) and the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI; Bem, Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, 42:155–162, 1974) were used for data collection. The

Demet Erol Öngen

2007-01-01

275

Variants in the Dopamine-4-Receptor Gene Promoter Are Not Associated with Sensation Seeking in Skiers  

PubMed Central

Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has been associated with disinhibited behaviours including substance use and gambling, but also with high-risk sport practices including skydiving, paragliding, and downhill skiing. Twin studies have shown that sensation seeking is moderately heritable, and candidate genes encoding components involved in dopaminergic transmission have been investigated as contributing to this type of behaviour. To determine whether variants in the regulatory regions of the dopamine-4-receptor gene (DRD4) influenced sport-specific sensation seeking, we analyzed five polymorphisms (?1106T/C, ?906T/C, ?809G/A, ?291C/T, 120-bp duplication) in the promoter region of the gene in a cohort of skiers and snowboarders (n?=?599) that represented a broad range of sensation seeking behaviours. We grouped subjects by genotype at each of the five loci and compared impulsive sensation seeking and domain-specific (skiing) sensation seeking between groups. There were no significant associations between genotype(s) and general or domain-specific sensation seeking in the skiers and snowboarders, suggesting that while DRD4 has previously been implicated in sensation seeking, the promoter variants investigated in this study do not contribute to sensation seeking in this athlete population. PMID:24691022

Thomson, Cynthia J.; Rajala, Amelia K.; Carlson, Scott R.; Rupert, Jim L.

2014-01-01

276

Negotiating pain: the joint construction of a child's bodily sensation  

PubMed Central

Traditional theories of socialisation, in which the child was viewed as a passive subject of external influences, are increasingly being rejected in favour of a new sociology of childhood which frames the child as a social actor. This article demonstrates the way in which conversation analysis can reveal children's agency in the micro-detail of naturally occurring episodes in which children express bodily sensations and pain in everyday life. Based on 71 video-recordings of mealtimes with five families, each with two children under 10 years old, the analysis focuses on the components of children's expressions of bodily sensation (including pain), the character of parents’ responses and the nature of the subsequent talk. The findings provide further evidence that children are social actors, active in constructing, accepting and resisting the nature of their physical experience and pain. A conversation analysis of ordinary family talk facilitates a description of how a child's agency is built, maintained or resisted through the interactional practices participants employ to display knowledge. PMID:25760923

Jenkins, Laura

2015-01-01

277

Sacral Neuromodulation Effects on Periurethral Sensation and Urethral Sphincter Activity  

PubMed Central

Aims To characterize the effect of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) on urethral neuromuscular function. Methods Following IRB approval, women with refractory overactive bladder (OAB) underwent standardized urethral testing prior to and after stage 1 SNM implantation. Periurethral sensation was measured using current perception thresholds (CPT). Striated urethral sphincter activity was quantified using concentric needle electromyography (CNE) and Multi-Motor Unit Action Potential (MUP) analysis software. Nonparametric analyses were used to characterize pre/post changes with intervention. Baseline CPT and CNE findings were compared between SNM responders and non-responders. Results 27 women were enrolled in this pilot study with a mean age of 61±13 years. Twenty of 26 women (76.9%) responded to SNM and went to stage 2 permanent implantation. Four (14.8%) withdrew after stage 1 implantation; 3 of the 4 withdrawals had not had therapeutic responses to SNM. CPT and CNE parameters did not significantly differ from baseline 2 weeks after SNM. Pre-SNM urethral sensation was not significantly different between responders and non-responders. However, responders had larger amplitude, longer duration and more turns and phases at baseline approaching significance, reflecting more successful urethral reinnervation, than non-responders. Conclusions SNM does not alter urethral neuromuscular function two weeks post Stage 1implantation. Women with more successful urethral reinnervation may be more responsive to SNM. PMID:23168535

Gleason, Jonathan L; Kenton, Kimberly; Greer, W. Jerod; Ramm, Olga; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Wilson, Tracey; Richter, Holly E.

2013-01-01

278

The neurobiology of Etruscan shrew active touch  

PubMed Central

The Etruscan shrew, Suncus etruscus, is not only the smallest terrestrial mammal, but also one of the fastest and most tactile hunters described to date. The shrew's skeletal muscle consists entirely of fast-twitch types and lacks slow fibres. Etruscan shrews detect, overwhelm, and kill insect prey in large numbers in darkness. The cricket prey is exquisitely mechanosensitive and fast-moving, and is as big as the shrew itself. Experiments with prey replica show that shape cues are both necessary and sufficient for evoking attacks. Shrew attacks are whisker guided by motion- and size-invariant Gestalt-like prey representations. Shrews often attack their prey prior to any signs of evasive manoeuvres. Shrews whisk at frequencies of approximately 14 Hz and can react with latencies as short as 25–30 ms to prey movement. The speed of attacks suggests that shrews identify and classify prey with a single touch. Large parts of the shrew's brain respond to vibrissal touch, which is represented in at least four cortical areas comprising collectively about a third of the cortical volume. Etruscan shrews can enter a torpid state and reduce their body temperature; we observed that cortical response latencies become two to three times longer when body temperature drops from 36°C to 24°C, suggesting that endothermy contributes to the animal's high-speed sensorimotor performance. We argue that small size, high-speed behaviour and extreme dependence on touch are not coincidental, but reflect an evolutionary strategy, in which the metabolic costs of small body size are outweighed by the advantages of being a short-range high-speed touch and kill predator. PMID:21969684

Brecht, Michael; Naumann, Robert; Anjum, Farzana; Wolfe, Jason; Munz, Martin; Mende, Carolin; Roth-Alpermann, Claudia

2011-01-01

279

“Dry-to-the-touch” thermal grease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most thermal engineers believe that thermal greases (or heat sink compounds) provide the lowest thermal resistance of all thermal interface materials. Micro-faze(R) is a proprietary design, dry-to-the-touch thermal grease product that offers the lowest thermal resistance at low closure force, thus eliminating the need to sacrifice thermal performance for convenience. This dry grease is totally adaptable to die-cut and possesses

P. Khatri; J. Ziemski

2001-01-01

280

Emotional modulation of touch in alexithymia.  

PubMed

Alexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing one's own emotions, but difficulties have also been found in the recognition of others' emotions, particularly when the task is not easy. Previous research has demonstrated that, in order to understand other peoples' feelings, observers remap the observed emotion onto their own sensory systems. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of high and low alexithymic subjects to remap the emotional expressions of others onto their own somatosensory systems using an indirect task. We used the emotional Visual Remapping of Touch (eVRT) paradigm, in which seeing a face being touched improves detection of near-threshold tactile stimulation concurrently delivered to one's own face. In eVRT, subjects performance is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli, while they were required to distinguish between unilateral or bilateral tactile stimulation on their own cheeks. The results show that tactile perception was enhanced when viewing touch on a fearful face compared with viewing touch on other expressions in low but not in high alexithymic participants. A negative correlation between TAS-20 alexithymia subscale ("difficulty in identify feelings") and the magnitude of the eVRT effect was also found. Conversely, arousal and valence ratings of emotional faces did not vary as a function of the degree of alexithymia. The results provide evidence that alexithymia is associated with difficulties in remapping seen emotions, particularly fear, onto one's own sensory system. This impairment could be due to an inability to modulate somatosensory system activity according to the observed emotional expression. PMID:24708501

Scarpazza, Cristina; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Làdavas, Elisabetta

2014-06-01

281

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer  

E-print Network

Mantle convection Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics, Harsh Gupta (ed.), Springer David;Encyclopedia of Solid Earth Geophysics Mantle Convection, David Bercovici MANTLE CONVECTION Synonyms Mantle dynamics. Mantle circulation. Definition Mantle convection: Thermal convection in the terrestrial planetary

282

Angry responses to infant challenges: parent, marital, and child genetic factors associated with harsh parenting.  

PubMed

This study examined genetic and environmental influences on harsh parenting of adopted 9-month-olds (N = 503), with an emphasis on positive child-, parent-, and family-level characteristics. Evocative gene-environment correlation (rGE) was examined by testing the effect of both positive and negative indices of birth parent temperament on adoptive parents' harsh parenting. Adoptive fathers' harsh parenting was inversely related to birth mother positive temperament, indicating evocative rGE, as well as to marital quality. Adoptive parents' negative temperamental characteristics were related to hostile parenting for both fathers and mothers. Findings support the importance of enhancing positive family characteristics in addition to mitigating negative characteristics, as well as engaging multiple levels of the family system to prevent harsh parenting. PMID:25641632

Hajal, Nastassia; Neiderhiser, Jenae; Moore, Ginger; Leve, Leslie; Shaw, Daniel; Harold, Gordon; Scaramella, Laura; Ganiban, Jody; Reiss, David

2015-01-01

283

Tactile mapping of harsh, constrained environments, with an application to oil wells  

E-print Network

This work develops a practical approach to explore rough environments when time is critical. The harsh environmental conditions prevent the use of range, force/torque or tactile sensors. A representative case is the mapping ...

Mazzini, Francesco, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

284

Distributed Fiber Optic Gas Sensing for Harsh Environment  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{sub 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.

Juntao Wu

2008-03-14

285

Sensation Seeking as Risk Factor for Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempts in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background High sensation seeking in adolescence is associated with engagement in risk-taking behaviors, especially substance use. Although depressed adolescents are prone to increased risk-taking, and suicidal behavior can be considered within the spectrum of risk-taking behaviors, the relationships between sensation seeking, depression, and suicidal behavior have not been explored. Methods A self-report questionnaire assessing sensation seeking, depression, substance use problems, and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts was completed by 9th- through 12th-grade students (n=2189) in six New York State high-schools from 2002 through 2004. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine main and interaction effects between sensation seeking and the four clinical variables. Results High sensation seeking was positively associated with depressive symptoms and substance use problems. The main effects of sensation seeking on suicidal ideation and suicide attempts remained significant after controlling for depression and substance use. The association between sensation seeking and suicide attempts was moderated by substance use problems. Limitations The schools were suburban and predominantly white, limiting the generalizability of the results. Other mental disorders with potential implications for sensation seeking and for suicidal behavior, such as bipolar disorders, were not assessed. Conclusions The finding that sensation seeking makes an independent contribution to the risk of suicidal ideation and attempts is consistent with findings in literature on novelty seeking and impulsivity. The associations between sensation seeking, depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior may be compatible with the presence of an underlying temperamental dysregulation. Screening for sensation seeking may contribute to the reduction of adolescent suicide risk. PMID:22921521

Ortin, Ana; Lake, Alison M.; Kleinman, Marjorie; Gould, Madelyn S.

2012-01-01

286

The Neural Mechanisms of Re-Experiencing Mental Fatigue Sensation: A Magnetoencephalography Study  

PubMed Central

There have been several studies which have tried to clarify the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation; however fatigue sensation has multiple aspects. We hypothesized that past experience related to fatigue sensation is an important factor which contributes to future formation of fatigue sensation through the transfer to memories that are located within specific brain structures. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the neural mechanisms of fatigue sensation related to memory. In the present study, we investigated the neural activity caused by re-experiencing the fatigue sensation that had been experienced during a fatigue-inducing session. Thirteen healthy volunteers participated in fatigue and non-fatigue experiments in a crossover fashion. In the fatigue experiment, they performed a 2-back test session for 40 min to induce fatigue sensation, a rest session for 15 min to recover from fatigue, and a magnetoencephalography (MEG) session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body with fatigue that they had experienced in the 2-back test session. In the non-fatigue experiment, the participants performed a free session for 15 min, a rest session for 15 min, and an MEG session in which they were asked to re-experience the state of their body without fatigue that they had experienced in the free session. Spatial filtering analyses of oscillatory brain activity showed that the delta band power in the left Brodmann’s area (BA) 39, alpha band power in the right pulvinar nucleus and the left BA 40, and beta band power in the left BA 40 were lower when they re-experienced the fatigue sensation than when they re-experienced the fatigue-free sensation, indicating that these brain regions are related to re-experiencing the fatigue sensation. Our findings may help clarify the neural mechanisms underlying fatigue sensation. PMID:25826300

Ishii, Akira; Karasuyama, Takuma; Kikuchi, Taiki; Tanaka, Masaaki; Yamano, Emi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

2015-01-01

287

The design of light pipe with microstructures for touch screen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch screen has a very wide range of applications. Most of them are used in public information inquiries, for instance, service inquiries in telecommunication bureau, tax bureau, bank system, electric department, etc...Touch screen can also be used for entertainment and virtual reality applications too. Traditionally, touch screen was composed of pairs of infrared LED and correspondent receivers which were all installed in the screen frame. Arrays of LED were set in the adjacent sides of the frame of an infrared touch screen while arrays of the infrared receivers were fixed in each opposite side, so that the infrared detecting network was formed. While the infrared touch screen has some technical limitations nowadays such as the low resolution, limitations of touching methods and fault response due to environmental disturbances. The plastic material has a relatively high absorption rate for infrared light, which greatly limits the size of the touch screen. Our design uses laser diode as source and change the traditional inner structure of touch screen by using a light pipe with microstructures. The geometric parameters of the light pipe and the microstructures were obtained through equation solving. Simulation results prove that the design method for touch screen proposed in this paper could achieve high resolution and large size of touch screen.

Yang, Bo; Lu, Kan; Liu, Pengfei; Wei, Xiaona

2010-11-01

288

Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300 adjudicated adolescents. Significant relationships between impulsive sensation seeking and future orientation were

Reuben N. Robbins; Angela Bryan

2004-01-01

289

A biomimetic taste receptor cell-based biosensor for electrophysiology recording and acidic sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taste receptor cell, the taste sensation organ with its intrinsic advantage of high sensitivity, specificity, fast response and powerful ability of information processing from taste system, can recognize taste substances. In order to investigate the electrophysiological signals of taste receptor cells and realize acidic sensation in a biomimetic manner, a cell-based biosensor platform of neuron–silicon interface was designed and characterized.

Peihua Chen; Xiao-dong Liu; Bingqing Wang; Gong Cheng; Ping Wang

2009-01-01

290

Psychophysical and Neurobiological Evidence that the Oral Sensation Elicited by Carbonated Water is of Chemogenic Origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensation produced by carbonated beverages has been attributed to chemical excitation of nociceptors in the oral cavity via the conversion of CO2 to carbonic acid in a reaction catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase. In separate studies, we tested if the carbonic anyhdrase blocker, acetazolamide, reduced either the intensity of sensation in humans or c-fos expression by trigeminal neurons in rats,

Jean-Marc Dessirier; Christopher T. Simons; Mirela Iodi Carstens; Michael O'Mahony; E. Carstens

2000-01-01

291

The Association of Sensation Seeking and Impulsivity to Driving while under the Influence of Alcohol  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association between sensation seeking, impulsivity, and drunk driving. Results showed significant differences in sensation seeking and impulsivity among 160 individuals convicted of impaired or intoxicated driving and individuals who had never been arrested for driving while under the influence/driving while intoxicated…

Curran, Matthew F.; Fuertes, Jairo N.; Alfonso, Vincent C.; Hennessy, James J.

2010-01-01

292

Three profiles of heavy metal fans: A taste for sensation and a subculture of alienation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Profiles of three fans of heavy metal music are presented, in order to examine the definition and boundaries of the heavy metal subculture. It is suggested on the basis of these profiles that a high level of sensation seeking can lead to a liking for heavy metal music, because the music provides such high-intensity sensation. However, fans become part of

Jeffrey Arnett

1993-01-01

293

Intercorrelations of the Sensation - Seeking Scale, Eysenck Personality Inventory, and Rotter's Internal-External Control Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two separate studies using Form IV of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) are reported. The first study correlates SSS by factor and sex with the earlier Form II SSS, supporting the reliability of the General SSS scale and discriminant validity of the Form IV SSS factor scales in relationship to general sensation-seeking. In the second study,…

Jacobs, Keith W.

1977-01-01

294

The Entertaining PressSensationalism in Eighteenth-Century Boston Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article, a study of sensationalism In the early Boston press, presents the thesis that the colonial press, especially in Boston, catered to a mass literate audience by stressing stories of sensation, human interest and scandal. It attacks the conventional view that the modern press, which emphasizes entertainment, was born In the mid-nineteenth century in the form of the \\

Kenneth D. Nordin

1979-01-01

295

Sensation Seeking and Anxiety: Assessment of Responses to Specific Stimulus Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It was expected that sensation seeking would not be accompanied by an increase in tension. The results tended to confirm that expectation, thus providing some degree of additional validity to the concept of sensation seeking as a specific personality dimension. (Author)

Segal, Bernard

1973-01-01

296

Development of the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for African American Adolescent Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used data derived from two independent studies to examine the psychometric properties of a new scale to measure adolescents’ willingness to engage in sexual sensation-seeking behavior. In Study 1, the Sexual Sensation-Seeking Scale for Adolescents (SSSA) was administered to a sample of 715 African American adolescents ranging in age from 15 to 21 years. The SSSA demonstrated strong internal

Ralph DiClemente; Robin R. Milhausen; Laura F. Salazar; Joshua Spitalnick; Jessica McDermott Sales; Richard A. Crosby; Sinead N. Younge; Gina M. Wingood

2010-01-01

297

A new simplified model for evaluating non-uniform thermal sensation caused by wearing clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the standard thermal sensation models such as Fanger's and Gagge's models, the clothing system is simulated as an overall insulation covering the whole body. But under actual conditions, some segments of body are bare and other parts are covered by clothing. In addition, there is a significant difference between thermal sensation of the bare and that of covered segments.

Alireza Zolfaghari; Mehdi Maerefat

2010-01-01

298

Syncopation creates the sensation of groove in synthesized music examples  

PubMed Central

In order to better understand the musical properties which elicit an increased sensation of wanting to move when listening to music—groove—we investigate the effect of adding syncopation to simple piano melodies, under the hypothesis that syncopation is correlated to groove. Across two experiments we examine listeners' experience of groove to synthesized musical stimuli covering a range of syncopation levels and densities of musical events, according to formal rules implemented by a computer algorithm that shifts musical events from strong to weak metrical positions. Results indicate that moderate levels of syncopation lead to significantly higher groove ratings than melodies without any syncopation or with maximum possible syncopation. A comparison between the various transformations and the way they were rated shows that there is no simple relation between syncopation magnitude and groove. PMID:25278923

Sioros, George; Miron, Marius; Davies, Matthew; Gouyon, Fabien; Madison, Guy

2014-01-01

299

Sensation seeking and alcohol use by college students: examining multiple pathways of effects.  

PubMed

This study tests the proposition that peer influence mediates the effect of sensation seeking, a personality trait, on alcohol use among college students. Cross-sectional data to test this proposition were collected from a representative sample of college students at a large public northeastern university (N = 427). Results of hierarchical regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, sensation seeking influenced personal alcohol use both directly and indirectly, through its impact on students' frequency of association with alcohol-using peers and the size of their drinking norm misperception. The findings suggest that interventions that seek to limit the frequency in which high sensation seekers associate with peers whose alcohol use is extreme or, alternatively, seek to facilitate social interactions of high sensation seekers with normative peers, may supplement efforts to influence sensation seekers' alcohol and other drug use through tailored mass media advertisements. PMID:16624794

Yanovitzky, Itzhak

2006-01-01

300

Falling sensation in patients who undergo the Epley maneuver: a retrospective study.  

PubMed

The author conducted a retrospective study to determine the prevalence of a falling sensation in patients who underwent the Epley canalith repositioning maneuver for the treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The author studied a total of 436 maneuvers performed on 412 patients and observed 58 episodes (13%) of a strong falling sensation, some very severe. In almost every case, the sensation occurred when the patient was moved to the final (sitting) position; in 1 case, the sensation occurred nearly 30 minutes later. The author recommends that physicians who perform the Epley maneuver warn patients of the risk of a falling sensation, take steps to prevent its consequences, and monitor their patients for at least 30 minutes after the completion of the procedure. PMID:15794543

Uneri, Alev

2005-02-01

301

Ambient touch: designing tactile interfaces for handheld devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the sense of touch as a channel for communicating with miniature handheld devices. We embedded a PDA with a TouchEngineTM --- a thin, miniature lower-power tactile actuator that we have designed specifically to use in mobile interfaces (Figure 1). Unlike previous tactile actuators, the TouchEngine is a universal tactile display that can produce a wide variety of

Ivan Poupyrev; Shigeaki Maruyama; Jun Rekimoto

2002-01-01

302

AirTouch: Interacting with computer systems at a distance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present AirTouch, a new vision-based interaction system. AirTouch uses computer vision techniques to extend commonly used interaction metaphors, such as multitouch screens, yet removes any need to physically touch the display. The user interacts with a virtual plane that rests in between the user and the display. On this plane, hands and fingers are tracked and gestures are recognized

Daniel R. Schlegel; Albert Y. C. Chen; Caiming Xiong; Jeffrey A. Delmerico; Jason J. Corso

2011-01-01

303

Helping Hands: Designing Video Games with Interpersonal Touch Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Increasingly, the movements of players’ physical bodies are being used as a method of controlling and playing video games.\\u000a This trend is evidenced by the recent development of interpersonal touch-based games; multiplayer games which players control\\u000a by physically touching their partners. Although a small number of interpersonal touch-based games have recently been designed,\\u000a the best practices for creating video games

Cody Watts; Ehud Sharlin; Peter Woytiuk

2010-01-01

304

The Human Touch: An Exploration of the Role and Meaning of Physical Touch in Psychoanalysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article addressed the meaning and significance of minor physical contact (e.g., a hug or handshake) within the psychoanalytic dyad. Although undoubtedly a controversial topic, the plain fact that it is occurring makes touch an important and necessary subject of discourse. Furthermore, as psychoanalysts come to define the role of the more human analyst within the 2-person field and come

Ellen L. K. Toronto

2001-01-01

305

Movement preparation improves touch perception without awareness.  

PubMed

Movements are often directed at external objects, such as when reaching out for a glass to drink from. Surprisingly, however, it is largely unknown how movement plans influence the identification of such external somatosensory stimuli. To address this, we cued participants to prepare for a speeded button press with their left/right thumb and presented a spatially-patterned somatosensory stimulus at either the same or the opposite thumb with equal probability. In contrast to many previous investigations that focused on self-produced somatosensory input and reported attenuated perception, we show that the identification of external stimuli (touch perception) is facilitated by movement preparation. In line with analogous studies in vision, this suggests that movement preparation automatically allocates processing resources (attention) to the location and/or body part of the planned movement. We further show that, in contrast to deliberate somatosensory preparation, participants do not become more confident in their touch perception following movement preparation. These data suggest that the perceptual improvement during movement preparation occurs outside of awareness. Such an unconscious facilitatory process will ensure that relevant parts of the environment are processed with high fidelity, while sparing conscious resources for monitoring other processes in the course of action. PMID:25682493

van Ede, Freek; van Doren, Thomas I; Damhuis, Jochem; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

2015-04-01

306

Increased microvascular flow and foot sensation with mild continuous external compression  

PubMed Central

Abstract Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and foot increases inflow to the popliteal artery and skin. We hypothesize that mild, continuous pneumatic compression of the lower extremities of type 2 diabetic patients increases microvascular blood flow to skin (SBF) and muscle (MBF) and improves sensation in feet. Data were collected on 19 healthy volunteers and 16 type 2 diabetic patients. Baseline values of SBF, MBF, and foot sensation were recorded in one leg. The lower extremity was then subjected to 30 mmHg of continuous external air pressure for 30 min, whereas SBF and MBF were continuously monitored. Sensation was reassessed after pressure was released. During 30 mmHg continuous external compression, the healthy control group significantly increased MBF by 39.8% (P < 0.01). Sensation of the foot in this group improved significantly by 49.8% (P < 0.01). In the diabetic group, there was a significant increase in MBF of 17.7% (P = 0.03). Also sensation improved statistically by 40.2% (P = 0.03). Importantly and counterintuitively, MBF and foot sensation both increase after 30 min of leg compression at 30 mmHg. Therefore, mild, continuous pneumatic compression may be a new approach for treating diabetic patients with compromised leg perfusion and sensation. PMID:24744851

Rosales?Velderrain, Armando; Padilla, Michael; Choe, Charles H.; Hargens, Alan R.

2013-01-01

307

The effects of gender and type of romantic touch on perceptions of relational commitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the relationship between intimate touching behaviors and corresponding cognitions of relational commitment as a function of gender. One hundred fifty-two subjects were surveyed regarding perceptions of commitment for seven intimate touches. The 2-way ANOVA revealed significant effects for gender, type of touch, and the touch by gender interaction. Progressively intimate touches were associated with greater commitment. Females

Kevin Lee Johnson; Renee Edwards

1991-01-01

308

Representations of Pleasant and Painful Touch in the Human Orbitofrontal and Cingulate Cortices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cortical areas that represent affectively positive and negative aspects of touch were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) by comparing activations produced by pleasant touch, painful touch produced by a stylus, and neutral touch, to the left hand. It was found that regions of the orbitofrontal cortex were activated more by pleasant touch and by painful stimuli than

E. T. Rolls; J. O'Doherty; M. L. Kringelbach; S. Francis; R. Bowtell; F. McGlone

2003-01-01

309

Impact localization combined with haptic feedback for touch panel applications based on the time-reversal approach.  

PubMed

In this paper, a combined impact localization and haptic feedback system based on time-reversal signal processing is presented for touch panel applications. Theoretical impulse responses are derived from a propagation model of bending waves in a thin elastic plate. On the basis of the impulse responses, the time-reversal technique is exploited to spot the impact location as well as to generate haptic feedback. The chief advantage of the time-reversal technique lies in its robustness of tackling broadband sources in a reverberant environment. Piezoelectric ceramic plates and voice-coil motors are used as sensors for localization, whereas only voice-coil motors are used as the actuator for haptic feedback. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed system was effective in precise impact localization for a thin panel, while haptic feedback also implemented using time-reversal principle can generate an impulse at the previously touched position. The combined impact localization and haptic feedback system is capable of enhancing the sensation of man-machine interaction in real time fashion. PMID:21428493

Bai, Mingsian R; Tsai, Yao Kun

2011-03-01

310

Maternal variations in stress reactivity: implications for harsh parenting practices with very young children.  

PubMed

Although a wide array of variables has been found to predict harsh parenting, less is known about the linkages among these variables. It is suggested here that stress reactivity, as reflected in cortisol changes, is an important mediating variable. In a high-risk population, mothers (N = 60) with low perceived power (as measured by the Parent Attribution Test; D. B. Bugental, J. B. Blue, & M. Cruzcosa, 1989), were highly reactive to infants and toddlers with a difficult temperament pattern. In response to such children, they (a) manifested high cortisol reactivity and (b) reported greater use of harsh control practices (e.g., spanking). Cortisol reactivity was found to mediate the observed relationship between the predictor variable (the interaction between maternal "powerlessness" and the child's temperament) and parental harshness. These findings have clinical implications for the ways in which parental empowerment (via early interventions) can serve to reduce stress and thus the negative outcomes at-risk children may experience. PMID:17176199

Martorell, Gabriela A; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

2006-12-01

311

Tapered whiskers are required for active tactile sensation  

PubMed Central

Many mammals forage and burrow in dark constrained spaces. Touch through facial whiskers is important during these activities, but the close quarters makes whisker deployment challenging. The diverse shapes of facial whiskers reflect distinct ecological niches. Rodent whiskers are conical, often with a remarkably linear taper. Here we use theoretical and experimental methods to analyze interactions of mouse whiskers with objects. When pushed into objects, conical whiskers suddenly slip at a critical angle. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers do not slip for biologically plausible movements. Conical whiskers sweep across objects and textures in characteristic sequences of brief sticks and slips, which provide information about the tactile world. In contrast, cylindrical whiskers stick and remain stuck, even when sweeping across fine textures. Thus the conical whisker structure is adaptive for sensor mobility in constrained environments and in feature extraction during active haptic exploration of objects and surfaces. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01350.001 PMID:24252879

Hires, Samuel Andrew; Pammer, Lorenz; Svoboda, Karel; Golomb, David

2013-01-01

312

Restoring the sense of touch with a prosthetic hand through a brain interface.  

PubMed

Our ability to manipulate objects dexterously relies fundamentally on sensory signals originating from the hand. To restore motor function with upper-limb neuroprostheses requires that somatosensory feedback be provided to the tetraplegic patient or amputee. Given the complexity of state-of-the-art prosthetic limbs and, thus, the huge state space they can traverse, it is desirable to minimize the need for the patient to learn associations between events impinging on the limb and arbitrary sensations. Accordingly, we have developed approaches to intuitively convey sensory information that is critical for object manipulation--information about contact location, pressure, and timing--through intracortical microstimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. In experiments with nonhuman primates, we show that we can elicit percepts that are projected to a localized patch of skin and that track the pressure exerted on the skin. In a real-time application, we demonstrate that animals can perform a tactile discrimination task equally well whether mechanical stimuli are delivered to their native fingers or to a prosthetic one. Finally, we propose that the timing of contact events can be signaled through phasic intracortical microstimulation at the onset and offset of object contact that mimics the ubiquitous on and off responses observed in primary somatosensory cortex to complement slowly varying pressure-related feedback. We anticipate that the proposed biomimetic feedback will considerably increase the dexterity and embodiment of upper-limb neuroprostheses and will constitute an important step in restoring touch to individuals who have lost it. PMID:24127595

Tabot, Gregg A; Dammann, John F; Berg, Joshua A; Tenore, Francesco V; Boback, Jessica L; Vogelstein, R Jacob; Bensmaia, Sliman J

2013-11-01

313

Households Touched by Crime, 1987. Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For the year 1987, 24.4 % of American households were touched by crime. A household is considered touched by crime if during the year it was affected by a burglarly, auto theft, or household theft or if a household member was raped, robbed, or assaulted or was a victim of personal theft, no matter where the crime occurred. These offenses, which…

Rand, Michael R.; And Others

314

Marine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1-Do NOT Touch!  

E-print Network

. They are wild animals, and can bite. They also are easily stressed by humans. Do not return the animalMarine Mammal Stranding Protocol 1- Do NOT Touch! 1. Do not touch, pick up, or feed the animal immediately. 2- Observe Observe the animal from a distance of at least 50 feet. Keep people and dogs away. 3

Acevedo, Alejandro

315

Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt

2011-01-01

316

Sports coaching in risk society: No touch! No trust!  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its distinctive contextual and institutional characteristics.

Heather Piper; Bill Taylor; Dean Garratt

2012-01-01

317

Analysis on the relations between piano touch and tone  

E-print Network

In piano playing, different ways of touch lead to different tones. The effects of changing forces on keys are presented by changing interaction between hammer and string. The thesis focuses on several important variables in hammer-string system and draws conclusions to the question about piano touch and tone.

Lai-Mei Nie

2010-11-20

318

Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

Kane, Shaun K.

2011-01-01

319

A Comparison of Injuries between Flag and Touch Football.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether fewer and less serious injuries result from participation in touch football as compared with flag football. A survey was taken of 30 flag football games and 30 touch football games and the incidence of injuries was recorded on a checklist. Results of the survey suggest the following: (a) intramural or…

Martin, Stephen L.

320

A Simple 2-Transistor Touch or Lick Detector Circuit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contact or touch detectors in which a subject acts as a switch between two metal surfaces have proven more popular and arguably more useful for recording responses than capacitance switches, photocell detectors, and force detectors. Components for touch detectors circuits are inexpensive and, except for some special purpose designs, can be easily…

Slotnick, Burton

2009-01-01

321

Transparent touch panel with conductive liquid channel structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied microelectromechanical systems technology for producing a new type of transparent touch panel with conductive liquid channels. We used a molding process for fabricating the touch panel and transparent silicone rubber material for producing the channel structures. The height, width, and length of the flow channels were 0.1, 1.0, and 40 mm, respectively, and the pitch of the channels

Koji Asano; Gakuto Kita; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kazuo Sato

2011-01-01

322

Usability of Touch-Panel Interfaces for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usability of a touch-panel interface was compared among young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, a performance model of a touch panel was developed so that pointing time could be predicted with higher accuracy. Moreover, the target location to which a participant could point most quickly was determined. The pointing time with a PC mouse was longer for the

Atsuo Murata; Hirokazu Iwase

2005-01-01

323

Therapeutic Touch and Healing Meditation: A Threesome with Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ancient art of laying on of hands has been used throughout the history of humankind. Almost every known culture of the present world, as well as a great many of the unearthed cultures of generations past, have practiced some form of healing through touch, magnetism, or visualization with meditation and\\/or substance stimulant. Modern medical therapeutic touch represents a meeting

Marlene Greenspan; Stanley Schneider

1994-01-01

324

PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 Joseph D. Touch1  

E-print Network

PC-ATOMIC Final Report 1 PC-ATOMIC Joseph D. Touch1 USC / Information Sciences Institute touch of the board are available as government-furnished equipment for research pur- poses. FIGURE 1. PC-ATOMIC board to PC-ATOMIC. 1. This research was sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency through Ft

Touch, Joe

325

Touch sensing analysis using multi-modal acquisition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Touch sensing is ubiquitous in many consumer electronic products. Users are expecting to be able to touch with their finger the surface of a display and interact with it. Yet, the actual mechanics and physics of the touch process are little known, as these are dependent on many independent variables. Ranging from the physics of the fingertip structure, composed of ridges, valleys, and pores, and beyond a few layers of skin and flesh the bone itself. Moreover, sweat glands and wetting are critical as well as we will see. As for the mechanics, the pressure at which one touches the screen, and the manner by which the surfaces responds to this pressure, have major impact on the touch sensing. In addition, different touch sensing methods, like capacitive or optical, will have different dependencies. For example, the color of the finger might impact the latter, whereas the former is insensitive to it. In this paper we describe a system that captures multiple modalities of the touch event, and by post-processing synchronizing all these. This enables us to look for correlation between various effects, and uncover their influence on the performance of the touch sensing algorithms. Moreover, investigating these relations allows us to improve various sensing algorithms, as well as find areas where they complement each other. We conclude by pointing to possible future extensions and applications of this system.

King, Jeffrey S.; Pikula, Dragan; Baharav, Zachi

2013-03-01

326

Effectiveness of Iphone's Touch ID: KSA Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new trend of incorporating Touch ID sensors in mobile devices is appearing. Last year, Apple released a new model of its famous iPhone (5s). One of the most anticipated and hailed features of the new device was its Touch ID. Apple advertised that the new technology will increase the security of its device, and it will also be used

Ahmad A. Al-Daraiseh; Diana Al Omari; Hadeel Al Hamid; Nada Hamad; Rawan Althemali

2015-01-01

327

Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element  

E-print Network

Robot Skin Based on Touch-Area-Sensitive Tactile Element Takayuki Hoshi and Hiroyuki Shinoda propose a new tactile sensor skin ("Skin by Touch Area Receptor" or STAR). The skin consists of two robot skin including no long wires. Index Terms - Tactile sensor, Robot skin, Haptic interface, Contact

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

328

The design of infrared touch screen based on MCU  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a touch screen technology based on infrared optical. This technology has apparent advantages in the large-size applications, which is simple, low cost, high feasibility. In the system, the detection of ambient light and the adaptive control of IR LED can effectively enhance the adaptability of the touch screen in complex light environment via the MCU. In image

Zheng Wei; Wei Liu; Qing He; Ning Wei; Chenxi Wang; Tingfang Yan; Chao Hu; Max Q.-H. Meng

2011-01-01

329

Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics  

E-print Network

Multi-Touch Rotation Gestures: Performance and Ergonomics Eve Hoggan1 , John Williamson2 , Antti multi-touch gestures, yet little is known about the fac- tors affecting performance and ergonomics; gestures; ergonomics. ACM Classification Keywords H.5.2. User Interfaces: Evaluation/Methodology, Input De

330

Cortical Dynamics As A Therapeutic Mechanism for Touch Healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touch Healing (TH) therapies, defined here as treatments whose primary route of administration is tactile contact and\\/or active guiding of somatic attention, are ubiquitous across cultures. Despite increasing integra- tion of TH into mainstream medicine through therapies such as Reiki, Therapeutic Touch,™ and somatically focused meditation practices such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, relatively little is known about po- tential underlying

Catherine E. Kerr; Rachel H. Wasserman; Christopher I. Moore

2007-01-01

331

Sports Coaching in Risk Society: No Touch! No Trust!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper is informed by a UK based Economic and Social Research Council funded research project which developed and deployed a case-study approach to issues of touch between children and professionals in schools and childcare. Outcomes from these settings are referred to, but the focus here is shifted to touch in sports coaching and its…

Piper, Heather; Taylor, Bill; Garratt, Dean

2012-01-01

332

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction  

E-print Network

Enhancing Physicality in Touch Interaction with Programmable Friction Vincent Lévesque1 , Louise possibilities and outcomes when touch interactions are enhanced with variable surface friction. In a series of four studies, we first confirm that variable friction gives significant performance advantages in low

Levesque, Vincent

333

SmartTouch: A new skin layer to touch the non-touchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto Masahiko Inami Naoki Kawakami Susumu Tachi  

E-print Network

not only can make physical contact with the object, but also "touch" surface information of any modalitySmartTouch: A new skin layer to touch the non-touchable Hiroyuki Kajimoto Masahiko Inami Naoki of haptic AR system [Nojima et al. 2002; Ando et al. 2002], and SmartTouch is a natural extension

Tachi, Susumu

334

Object apprehension using vision and touch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers define object apprehension as the determination of the properties of an object and the relationships among these properties. They contrast this with recognition, which goes a step further to attach a label to the object as a whole. Apprehension is fundamental to manipulation. This is true whether the manipulation is being carried out by an autonomous robot or is the result of teleoperation involving sensory feedback. Researchers present an apprehension paradigm using both vision and touch. In this model, they define a representation for object apprehension in terms of a set of primitives and features, along with their relationships. This representation is the mechanism by which the data from the two modalities are combined. It is also the mechanism which drives the apprehension process.

Bajcsy, R.; Stansfield, S. A.

1987-01-01

335

You can't touch this: touch-free navigation through radiological images.  

PubMed

Keyboards, mice, and touch screens are a potential source of infection or contamination in operating rooms, intensive care units, and autopsy suites. The authors present a low-cost prototype of a system, which allows for touch-free control of a medical image viewer. This touch-free navigation system consists of a computer system (IMac, OS X 10.6 Apple, USA) with a medical image viewer (OsiriX, OsiriX foundation, Switzerland) and a depth camera (Kinect, Microsoft, USA). They implemented software that translates the data delivered by the camera and a voice recognition software into keyboard and mouse commands, which are then passed to OsiriX. In this feasibility study, the authors introduced 10 medical professionals to the system and asked them to re-create 12 images from a CT data set. They evaluated response times and usability of the system compared with standard mouse/keyboard control. Users felt comfortable with the system after approximately 10 minutes. Response time was 120 ms. Users required 1.4 times more time to re-create an image with gesture control. Users with OsiriX experience were significantly faster using the mouse/keyboard and faster than users without prior experience. They rated the system 3.4 out of 5 for ease of use in comparison to the mouse/keyboard. The touch-free, gesture-controlled system performs favorably and removes a potential vector for infection, protecting both patients and staff. Because the camera can be quickly and easily integrated into existing systems, requires no calibration, and is low cost, the barriers to using this technology are low. PMID:22064490

Ebert, Lars C; Hatch, Gary; Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen

2012-09-01

336

Touch to Play -- Exploring Touch-Based Mobile Interaction with Public Displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile interactions with public displays are often indirect and not very convenient for multiple users at the same time. In this paper we use the physical, touch-based interaction with Near Field Communication (NFC) to investigate direct mobile interactions with public displays for multiple users. For that purpose, we adopt the Whack-a-Mole game for dynamic NFC-displays, which combine the physical interaction

Gregor Broll; Roman Graebsch; Maximilian Scherr; Sebastian Boring; Paul Holleis; Matthias Wagner

2011-01-01

337

78 FR 6835 - Certain Mobile Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Handset Devices and Related Touch Keyboard Software; Institution of Investigation AGENCY...handset devices and related touch keyboard software by reason of infringement of certain...handset devices and related touch keyboard software that infringe one or more of claims...

2013-01-31

338

Modular and Deformable Touch-Sensitive Surfaces Based on Time Domain Reflectometry  

E-print Network

-pin connector system that allows users to daisy chain touch-sensitive segments. We illustrate these enhancements to sketch touch-sensitive interfaces. (d) By daisy chaining wires, we create modular touch

Weske, Mathias

339

A Multicenter Trial of the Proficiency of Smart Quantitative Sensation Tests  

PubMed Central

Introduction We assessed proficiency (accuracy and intra- and inter-test reproducibility) of smart quantitative sensation tests (smart QSTs) in subjects without and with diabetic polyneuropathy (DSPN). Methods Technologists from 3 medical centers using different but identical QSTs assessed independently 6 modalities of sensation of foot (or leg) twice in patients without (n = 6) and with (n = 6) DSPN using smart computer assisted QSTs. Results Low rates of test abnormalities were observed in health and high rates in DSPN. Very high intra-class correlations were obtained between continuous measures of QSTs and neuropathy signs, symptoms, or nerve conductions (NCs). No significant intra- or inter-test differences were observed. Discussion These results provide proof of concept that smart QSTs provide accurate assessment of sensation loss without intra- or inter-test differences useful for multicenter trials. Smart technology makes possible efficient testing of body surface area sensation loss in symmetric length-dependent sensorimotor polyneuropathies. PMID:23929701

Dyck, Peter J.; Argyros, Barbara; Russell, James W.; Gahnstrom, Linde E.; Nalepa, Susan; Albers, James W.; Lodermeier, Karen A.; Zafft, Andrew J.; Dyck, P. James B.; Klein, Christopher J.; Litchy, William J.; Davies, Jenny L.; Carter, Rickey E.; Melton, L. Joseph

2014-01-01

340

CargoNet : micropower sensate tags for supply-chain management and security  

E-print Network

This thesis describes the development of a system of sensate active RFID tags for supply-chain management and security applications, necessitated by the current lack of commercial platforms capable of monitoring the state ...

Malinowski, Mateusz Ksawery

2007-01-01

341

S.N.A.K.E. : a dynamically reconfigurable Artificial Sensate Skin  

E-print Network

The idea of an Artificial Sensate Skin device that mimics the characteristics and functions of its analogous living tissue whether human or animal is not new. Yet, most of the current related work has been focused in the ...

Barroeta Pérez, Gerardo

2006-01-01

342

Serializing Sensation: The Dynamics of Genre in Victorian Popular Fiction Julie Ann Bizzotto  

E-print Network

in the New Monthly Magazine 32 2 Circumstances Can Lie!: Questioning the Evidence in Mary Elizabeth Braddon of the Popular 146 5 Rewriting the Sensation Narrative: Detection and Gossip in Anthony Trollope's The Eustace

Sheldon, Nathan D.

343

ChainMail: A configurable multimodal lining to enable sensate surfaces and interactive objects  

E-print Network

The ChainMail system is a scalable electronic sensate skin that is designed as a dense sensor network. ChainMail is built from small (1"x1") rigid circuit boards attached to their neighbors with flexible interconnects that ...

Mistree, Behram F. T.

344

The Prevalence and Magnitude of Impaired Cutaneous Sensation across the Hand in the Chronic Period Post-Stroke  

PubMed Central

Sensation is commonly impaired immediately post-stroke but little is known about the long-term changes in cutaneous sensation that have the capacity to adversely impact independence and motor-function. We investigated cutaneous sensory thresholds across the hand in the chronic post-stroke period. Cutaneous sensation was assessed in 42 community-dwelling stroke patients and compared to 36 healthy subjects. Sensation was tested with calibrated monofilaments at 6 sites on the hand that covered the median, ulnar and radial innervation territories and included both glabrous (hairless) and hairy skin. The motor-function of stroke patients was assessed with the Wolf Motor Function Test and the upper-limb motor Fugl-Meyer Assessment. Impaired cutaneous sensation was defined as monofilament thresholds >3 SD above the mean of healthy subjects and good sensation was ?3 SD. Cutaneous sensation was impaired for 33% of patients and was 40–84% worse on the more-affected side compared to healthy subjects depending on the site (p<0.05). When the stroke patient data were pooled cutaneous sensation fell within the healthy range, although ?1/3 of patients were classified with impaired sensation. Classification by motor-function revealed low levels of impaired sensation. The magnitude of sensory loss was only apparent when the sensory-function of stroke patients was classified as good or impaired. Sensation was most impaired on the dorsum of the hand where age-related changes in monofilament thresholds are minimal in healthy subjects. Although patients with both high and low motor-function had poor cutaneous sensation, overall patients with low motor-function had poorer cutaneous sensation than those with higher motor-function, and relationships were found between motor impairments and sensation at the fingertip and palm. These results emphasize the importance of identifying the presence and magnitude of cutaneous sensory impairments in the chronic period after stroke. PMID:25121607

Bowden, Jocelyn L.; Lin, Gaven G.; McNulty, Penelope A.

2014-01-01

345

Touching Hearts, Touching Minds: Using Emotion-Based Messaging to Promote Healthful Behavior in the Massachusetts WIC Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Touching Hearts, Touching Minds" initiative was funded through a 2003 United States Department of Agriculture Special Projects grant to revitalize nutrition education and services in the Massachusetts Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Program. The 30 nutrition education materials and facilitated…

Colchamiro, Rachel; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Hause, Judith

2010-01-01

346

The Effects of Initial Touch Keyboarding Speed Achievement of Fifth Graders and Touch Keyboarding Skill Retention in Seventh Grade  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of initial touch speed achievement of fifth grade keyboarding students on their touch keyboarding skill retention in seventh grade. This was a longitudinal study generating quantitative data. The subjects for this study were 132 seventh grade students from a suburban middle school in…

Ertl, Mark A.

2007-01-01

347

Is there touch in the game of Twister? The effects of innocuous touch and suggestive questions on children's eyewitness memory.  

PubMed

Preschool children (ages 48-70 months, N = 48) experienced 2 to-be-remembered events (i.e., the games Twister and Shapes) that included either innocuous bodily touch or no touch. Participants were interviewed 7 days later and asked direct ("Did Amy kiss you?") or suggestive "tag" questions ("Amy kissed you, didn't she?") equated for content. Results indicated that children who were innocuously touched were no more likely to falsely assent to "abuse-related" touch questions (e.g., "Amy touched your bottom, didn't she?") than were children who were not touched. However, children who were asked tag questions responded at chance levels, thereby making high errors of commission in response to abuse-touch questions relative to their no-tag counterparts who responded to "abuse questions" accurately 93% of the time. Children who were asked tag questions assented at a higher rate to general forensic questions ("Amy took your picture, didn't she?") than did children asked direct questions, and children assented at higher rates to "abuse-touch" questions than to general forensic questions. Results are discussed in terms of prior research on interviewing techniques and adult influence on children's testimony. PMID:14724958

Krackow, Elisa; Lynn, Steven Jay

2003-12-01

348

Combining motor imagery with selective sensation toward a hybrid-modality BCI.  

PubMed

A hybrid modality brain-computer interface (BCI) is proposed in this paper, which combines motor imagery with selective sensation to enhance the discrimination between left and right mental tasks, e.g., the classification between left/ right stimulation sensation and right/ left motor imagery. In this paradigm, wearable vibrotactile rings are used to stimulate both the skin on both wrists. Subjects are required to perform the mental tasks according to the randomly presented cues (i.e., left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, left stimulation sensation or right stimulation sensation). Two-way ANOVA statistical analysis showed a significant group effect (F (2,20) = 7.17, p = 0.0045), and the Benferroni-corrected multiple comparison test (with ? = 0.05) showed that the hybrid modality group is 11.13% higher on average than the motor imagery group, and 10.45% higher than the selective sensation group. The hybrid modality experiment exhibits potentially wider spread usage within ten subjects crossed 70% accuracy, followed by four subjects in motor imagery and five subjects in selective sensation. Six subjects showed statistically significant improvement ( Benferroni-corrected) in hybrid modality in comparison with both motor imagery and selective sensation. Furthermore, among subjects having difficulties in both motor imagery and selective sensation, the hybrid modality improves their performance to 90% accuracy. The proposed hybrid modality BCI has demonstrated clear benefits for those poorly performing BCI users. Not only does the requirement of motor and sensory anticipation in this hybrid modality provide basic function of BCI for communication and control, it also has the potential for enhancing the rehabilitation during motor recovery. PMID:24235291

Yao, Lin; Meng, Jianjun; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

2014-08-01

349

Relationship between impulsive sensation seeking traits, smoking, alcohol and caffeine intake, and Parkinson’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An inverse relation exists between smoking and coffee intake and Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study explored whether this is explained by low sensation seeking, a personality trait believed to characterise PD.Methods: A total of 106 non-demented patients with PD and 106 age and sex matched healthy controls completed a short version of Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS), the

A H Evans; A D Lawrence; J Potts; L MacGregor; R Katzenschlager; K Shaw; J Zijlmans; A J Lees

2006-01-01

350

Chronic phantom sensations, phantom pain, residual limb pain, and other regional pain after lower limb amputation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ehde DM, Czerniecki JM, Smith DG, Campbell KM, Edwards WT, Jensen MP, Robinson LR. Chronic phantom sensations, phantom pain, residual limb pain, and other regional pain after lower limb amputation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2000;81:1039-44. Objectives: To determine the characteristics of phantom limb sensation, phantom limb pain, and residual limb pain, and to evaluate pain-related disability associated with phantom limb

Dawn M. Ehde; Joseph M. Czerniecki; Douglas G. Smith; Kellye M. Campbell; W. Thomas Edwards; Mark P. Jensen; Lawrence R. Robinson

2000-01-01

351

A Longitudinal Study of the Reliability of Acupuncture Deqi Sensations in Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Deqi is one of the core concepts in acupuncture theory and encompasses a range of sensations. In this study, we used the MGH Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) to measure and assess the reliability of the sensations evoked by acupuncture needle stimulation in a longitudinal clinical trial on knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was used as the clinical outcome. Thirty OA patients were randomized into one of three groups (high dose, low dose, and sham acupuncture) for 4?weeks. We found that, compared with sham acupuncture, real acupuncture (combining high and low doses) produced significant improvement in knee pain (P = .025) and function in sport (P = .049). Intraclass correlation analysis showed that patients reliably rated 11 of the 12 acupuncture sensations listed on the MASS and that heaviness was rated most consistently. Overall perceived sensation (MASS Index) (P = .014), ratings of soreness (P = .002), and aching (P = .002) differed significantly across acupuncture groups. Compared to sham acupuncture, real acupuncture reliably evoked stronger deqi sensations and led to better clinical outcomes when measured in a chronic pain population. Our findings highlight the MASS as a useful tool for measuring deqi in acupuncture research. PMID:23935656

Spaeth, Rosa B.; Camhi, Stephanie; Hashmi, Javeria A.; Vangel, Mark; Wasan, Ajay D.; Edwards, Robert R.; Gollub, Randy L.; Kong, Jian

2013-01-01

352

Effects of acupuncture needling with specific sensation on cerebral hemodynamics and autonomic nervous activity in humans.  

PubMed

Effective therapeutic factors in acupuncture therapy include specific stimulation points, called acupoints, and specific sensations, called de-qi, that are induced by needling manipulation. Human neuroimaging studies have reported that acupuncture stimulation with de-qi sensations induced specific activity patterns in the brain and modulated autonomic nervous activity. However, acupoints and nonacupoints have been reported to induce de-qi sensations. Thus, it remains unclear whether these physiological responses induced by acupuncture and associated with therapeutic efficacy are related to specific stimulation sites (acupoints) or unique de-qi sensations. This review focuses on the cerebral hemodynamic responses and autonomic nervous activity changes induced by acupuncture stimulation at acupoints and nonacupoints with and without de-qi sensations. We argue that the specific sensations induced by acupuncture are more important than the specific stimulation sites for inducing cerebral hemodynamic and autonomic responses and that autonomic responses during acupuncture, which might be important for therapeutic efficacy, might be mediated though the brain activity changes exemplified by the cerebral hemodynamic responses during acupuncture. PMID:24215916

Takamoto, Kouich; Urakawa, Susumu; Sakai, Kazushige; Ono, Taketoshi; Nishijo, Hisao

2013-01-01

353

Determination of sensation threshold from small pulse trains of 2.01?m laser light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determination of sensation thresholds has applications ranging from uses in the medical community such as neural pathway mapping and for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy, to potential uses in determining safety standards. This study sought to determine the sensation threshold, and the distribution of sensation probabilities, for pulse trains ranging from two 10 ms pulses to nine 10 ms pulses from 2.01 ?m laser light incident on a human forearm and chest. Threshold was defined as the energy density that would elicit sensation 50% of the time (ED50). A method of levels approach was used in conjunction with a monovariate binary response model to determine the ED50. We determined the ED50 and also a distribution of threshold probabilities. Threshold was found to be largely dependant on total energy deposited for smaller pulse trains, and thus independent of the number of pulses. Total energy becomes less important as the number of pulses increases however, and a decrease in threshold was measured for a nine pulse train as compared to one through four pulse trains. Thus we have demonstrated that this method is a useful and easy way for determining sensation thresholds from a 2.01 ?m laser for possible clinical use. We have also demonstrated that lower power lasers when pulsed can elicit sensation at comparable levels to higher power single pulse lasers.

Dugan, Daniel C.; Johnson, Thomas E.

2009-02-01

354

Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate-a comparison of linear and ordinal models.  

PubMed

A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism. PMID:24113737

Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

2014-08-01

355

Investigation of Acupuncture Sensation Patterns under Sensory Deprivation Using a Geographic Information System  

PubMed Central

The study of acupuncture-related sensations, like deqi and propagated sensations along channels (PSCs), has a long tradition in acupuncture basic research. The phenomenon itself, however, remains poorly understood. To study the connection between PSC and classical meridians, we applied a geographic information system (GIS) to analyze sketches of acupuncture sensations from healthy volunteers after laser acupuncture. As PSC can be subtle, we aimed at reducing the confounding impact of external stimuli by carrying out the experiment in a floatation tank under restricted environmental stimulation. 82.4% of the subjects experienced PSC, that is, they had line-like or 2-dimensional sensations, although there were some doubts that these were related to the laser stimulation. Line-like sensations on the same limb were averaged to calculate sensation mean courses, which were then compared to classical meridians by measuring the mean distance between the two. Distances ranged from 0.83?cm in the case of the heart (HT) and spleen (SP) meridian to 6.27?cm in the case of the kidney (KI) meridian. Furthermore, PSC was observed to “jump” between adjacent meridians. In summary, GIS has proven to be a valuable tool to study PSC, and our results suggest a close connection between PSC and classical meridians. PMID:23243458

Beissner, Florian; Marzolff, Irene

2012-01-01

356

Modeling thermal sensation in a Mediterranean climate—a comparison of linear and ordinal models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple thermo-physiological model of outdoor thermal sensation adjusted with psychological factors is developed aiming to predict thermal sensation in Mediterranean climates. Microclimatic measurements simultaneously with interviews on personal and psychological conditions were carried out in a square, a street canyon and a coastal location of the greater urban area of Athens, Greece. Multiple linear and ordinal regression were applied in order to estimate thermal sensation making allowance for all the recorded parameters or specific, empirically selected, subsets producing so-called extensive and empirical models, respectively. Meteorological, thermo-physiological and overall models - considering psychological factors as well - were developed. Predictions were improved when personal and psychological factors were taken into account as compared to meteorological models. The model based on ordinal regression reproduced extreme values of thermal sensation vote more adequately than the linear regression one, while the empirical model produced satisfactory results in relation to the extensive model. The effects of adaptation and expectation on thermal sensation vote were introduced in the models by means of the exposure time, season and preference related to air temperature and irradiation. The assessment of thermal sensation could be a useful criterion in decision making regarding public health, outdoor spaces planning and tourism.

Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon

2014-08-01

357

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison  

PubMed Central

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared to those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and 1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, 2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and 3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

Chancellor, Leia V.; Roth, Timothy C.; LaDage, Lara D.; Pravosudov, Vladimir V.

2011-01-01

358

Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

2009-01-01

359

Development of a low-noise amplifier for neutron detection in harsh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast matching charge amplifier for neutron spectroscopy in harsh environment has been developed and tested at the JET Tokamak. This front-end circuit is capable to operate at a distance up to 100 meters from a sensor without increasing its equivalent noise charge. Further improvements are possible by exploiting the intrinsic performance of silicon-germanium bipolar junction transistors.

Angelone, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Paolozzi, L.; Pillon, M.

2014-10-01

360

The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.  

PubMed

Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. PMID:20949526

Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

2011-03-01

361

Radiation damage effects on detectors and eletronic devices in harsh radiation environment  

E-print Network

Radiation damage effects represent one of the limits for technologies to be used in harsh radiation environments as space, radiotherapy treatment, high-energy phisics colliders. Different technologies have known tolerances to different radiation fields and should be taken into account to avoid unexpected failures which may lead to unrecoverable damages to scientific missions or patient health.

Fiore, S

2015-01-01

362

Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.  

PubMed

Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered. PMID:25383794

Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

2014-12-01

363

Recent advances in harsh environment acoustic wave sensors for contemporary applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a significant need for wireless sensor systems capable of operation up to 1100°C and beyond, in abrasive or corrosive harsh environments, in particular for the energy, steel, aerospace, oil and gas exploration industries. These environments and applications preclude the use of batteries and normally require wireless and multiple sensor interrogation. The University of Maine and Environetix Technologies have

Mauricio Pereira da Cunha; R. J. Lad; T. Moonlight; S. Moulzolf; A. Canabal; R. Behanan; P. M. Davulis; D. Frankel; G. Bernhardt; T. Pollard; D. F. McCann

2011-01-01

364

Predictors of Harsh Parenting Practices in Parents of Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

International research indicates that children with disabilities are more exposed to negative parenting than their non-disabled peers. The mechanisms behind this increased risk are likely operating at the levels of the individual child, the family and the broader social context. The present study investigated harsh parenting practices using…

Norlin, David; Axberg, Ulf; Broberg, Malin

2014-01-01

365

An Examination of the Impact of Harsh Parenting Contexts on Children's Adaptation within an Evolutionary Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study tests whether propositions set forth in an evolutionary model of temperament (Korte, Koolhaas, Wingfield, & McEwen, 2005) may enhance our understanding of children's differential susceptibility to unsupportive and harsh caregiving practices. Guided by this model, we examined whether children's behavioral strategies for coping…

Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cicchetti, Dante; Hentges, Rochelle F.

2012-01-01

366

Patterns of lake occupancy by fish indicate different adaptations to life in a harsh Arctic environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Based on these patterns, we propose an overall model of primary controls on the distribution of fish on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska. Harsh conditions, including lake freezing, limit occupancy in winter through extinction events while lake occupancy in spring and summer is driven by directional migration (large-bodied species) and undirected dispersal (small-bodied species).

Haynes, Trevor B.; Rosenberger, Amanda E.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Whitman, Matthew; Schmutz, Joel A.

2014-01-01

367

Beyond Cumulative Risk: Distinguishing Harshness and Unpredictability as Determinants of Parenting and Early Life History Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drawing on life history theory, Ellis and associates' (2009) recent across- and within-species analysis of ecological effects on reproductive development highlighted two fundamental dimensions of environmental variation and influence: harshness and unpredictability. To evaluate the unique contributions of these factors, the authors of present article examined data from a national sample 1364 mothers and their children participating in the NICHD

Jay Belsky; Gabriel L. Schlomer; Bruce J. Ellis

2012-01-01

368

Interparental Hostility and Early Adolescent Problem Behavior: Spillover via Maternal Acceptance, Harshness, Inconsistency, and Intrusiveness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To explore the link between interparental hostility and adolescent problem behaviors, the current study examines four important maternal parenting dimensions as potential mediators: acceptance, harshness, inconsistency, and psychological intrusiveness. With a primary sample of 1,893 sixth-grade students, the measures included adolescent and…

Benson, Mark J.; Buehler, Cheryl; Gerard, Jean M.

2008-01-01

369

Extraretinal Induced Visual Sensations during IMRT of the Brain  

PubMed Central

Background We observed visual sensations (VSs) in patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of the brain without the beam passing through ocular structures. We analyzed this phenomenon especially with regards to reproducibility, and origin. Methods and Findings Analyzed were ten consecutive patients (aged 41-71 years) with glioblastoma multiforme who received pulsed IMRT (total dose 60Gy) with helical tomotherapy (TT). A megavolt—CT (MVCT) was performed daily before treatment. VSs were reported and recorded using a triggered event recorder. The frequency of VSs was calculated and VSs were correlated with beam direction and couch position. Subjective patient perception was plotted on an 8x8 visual field (VF) matrix. Distance to the orbital roof (OR) from the first beam causing a VS was calculated from the Dicom radiation therapy data and MVCT data. During 175 treatment sessions (average 17.5 per patient) 5959 VSs were recorded and analyzed. VSs occurred only during the treatment session not during the MVCTs. Plotting events over time revealed patient-specific patterns. The average cranio-caudad extension of VS-inducing area was 63.4mm (range 43.24-92.1mm). The maximum distance between the first VS and the OR was 56.1mm so that direct interaction with the retina is unlikely. Data on subjective visual perception showed that VSs occurred mainly in the upper right and left quadrants of the VF. Within the visual pathways the highest probability for origin of VSs was seen in the optic chiasm and the optic tract (22%). Conclusions There is clear evidence that interaction of photon irradiation with neuronal structures distant from the eye can lead to VSs. PMID:25875609

Wilhelm-Buchstab, Timo; Buchstab, Barbara Myrthe; Leitzen, Christina; Garbe, Stephan; Müdder, Thomas; Oberste-Beulmann, Susanne; Sprinkart, Alois Martin; Simon, Birgit; Nelles, Michael; Block, Wolfgang; Schoroth, Felix; Schild, Hans Heinz; Schüller, Heinrich

2015-01-01

370

MAOA, Early Experiences of Harsh Parenting, Irritable Opposition, and Bullying-Victimization: A Moderated Indirect-Effects Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harsh parenting and child characteristics such as opposition and aggression have been found to relate to bullying, victimization, and bullying-victimization, yet not all children display equal vulnerability to harsh parenting. The monoamine oxidase A gene ("MAOA"; "low-activity" variant) may be a key vulnerability allele as it…

Whelan, Yvonne M.; Kretschmer, Tina; Barker, Edward D.

2014-01-01

371

Effects of sex and sex roles on avoidance of same- and opposite-sex touch.  

PubMed

Touch and touch avoidance are important facets of interpersonal relations. Touch avoidance has been related to sex, but the relationship between touch and sex roles has not been widely substantiated. 259 undergraduate students participated in a procedure designed to test the relationship between sex, sex roles, and same-sex and opposite-sex touch avoidance. Significant differences were reported between men and women on same-sex touch avoidance but not on opposite-sex touch avoidance. Participants high on androgyny reported less same-sex and opposite-sex touch avoidance than did subjects low on androgyny. No interactive effect between sex and androgyny was found for either same-sex or opposite-sex touch avoidance. Regression procedures indicated predictive models for sex and androgyny in relation to same-sex and opposite-sex touch avoidance. Specific conclusions regarding the relationships among sex, androgyny, and touch avoidance were stated. PMID:7991300

Crawford, C B

1994-08-01

372

Quantifying touch feel perception: tribological aspects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new investigation into how surface topography and friction affect human touch-feel perception. In contrast with previous work based on micro-scale mapping of surface mechanical and tribological properties, this investigation focuses on the direct measurement of the friction generated when a fingertip is stroked on a test specimen. A special friction apparatus was built for the in situ testing, based on a linear flexure mechanism with both contact force and frictional force measured simultaneously. Ten specimens, already independently assessed in a 'perception clinic', with materials including natural wood, leather, engineered plastics and metal were tested and the results compared with the perceived rankings. Because surface geometrical features are suspected to play a significant role in perception, a second set of samples, all of one material, were prepared and tested in order to minimize the influence of properties such as hardness and thermal conductivity. To minimize subjective effects, all specimens were also tested in a roller-on-block configuration based upon the same friction apparatus, with the roller materials being steel, brass and rubber. This paper reports the detailed design and instrumentation of the friction apparatus, the experimental set-up and the friction test results. Attempts have been made to correlate the measured properties and the perceived feelings for both roughness and friction. The results show that the measured roughness and friction coefficient both have a strong correlation with the rough-smooth and grippy-slippery feelings.

Liu, X.; Yue, Z.; Cai, Z.; Chetwynd, D. G.; Smith, S. T.

2008-08-01

373

The pleasant sensation of a gentle breeze or the painful experience of touching a hot stove are initiated by somatosensory neurons that inner-  

E-print Network

the earliest proteins implicated in heat transduction was TRP vanilloid 1 (TRPV1). This protein was identified related `vanilloid' chemicals contact the skin or mucous membranes, they activate TRPV1, which is highly TRPV1-expressing cells (or membrane patches derived from them) to more than 42 °C is also sufficient

Cai, Long

374

The C. elegans EMAP-like protein, ELP-1 is required for touch sensation and associates with microtubules and adhesion complexes  

E-print Network

there are indications that loss or alter- ation of EMAP function may lead to human disease. Human EML2 RNA is abundant in cancer cell lines includ- ing chronic myelogenous leukemia (K-562), lymphoblas- tic leukemia (MOLT-4), colorectal adenocarcinoma (SW480), and lung.... Strain Genotype IL1 neurons/worm Total number of worms KA15 lkEx4[Pelp-1::elp-1(?11–16)::nls::gfp; rol-6(su1006)] 5.4 + 0.7 30 KA37 deg-1(u38); lkEx4[Pelp-1::elp-1(?11–16)::nls::gfp; rol-6(su1006)] 1.9 + 1.2 30 The number of IL1 neurons per worm...

Hueston, Jennifer L.; Herren, Gina Purinton; Cueva, Juan G.; Buechner, Matthew; Lundquist, Erik A.; Goodman, Miriam B.; Suprenant, Kathy A.

2008-11-17

375

Cocaine Exposure and Children's Self-Regulation: Indirect Association via Maternal Harshness  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study examined the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and children’s self-regulation at 3?years of child age. In addition to direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on children’s self-regulation, we hypothesized there would be indirect associations between cocaine exposure and self-regulation via higher maternal harshness and poor autonomic regulation in infancy. Methods: The sample consisted of 216 mother–infant dyads recruited at delivery from local area hospitals (116 cocaine-exposed, 100 non-exposed). Infant autonomic regulation was measured at 7?months of age during an anger/frustration task, maternal harshness was coded from observations of mother–toddler interactions at 2?years of age, and children’s self-regulation was measured at 3?years of age using several laboratory paradigms. Results: Contrary to hypotheses, there were no direct associations between maternal cocaine use during pregnancy and children’s self-regulation. However, results from testing our conceptual model including the indirect effects via maternal harshness or infant parasympathetic regulation indicated that this model fit the data well, ?2 (23)?=?34.36, p?>?0.05, Comparative Fit Index?=?0.95, RMSEA?=?0.05. Cocaine using mothers displayed higher intensity of harshness toward their toddlers during lab interactions across a variety of tasks at 2?years of age (??=?0.23, p?harshness at 2?years was predictive of lower self-regulation at 3?years (??=??0.36, p?harshness among cocaine using mothers is predictive of child self-regulatory outcomes in the preschool period. PMID:21716637

Eiden, Rina D.; Schuetze, Pamela; Veira, Yvette; Cox, Elizabeth; Jarrett, Thomas M.; Johns, Josephine M.

2011-01-01

376

An Exploration of Multi-touch Interaction Techniques  

E-print Network

Research in multi-touch interaction has typically been focused on direct spatial manipulation; techniques have been created to result in the most intuitive mapping between the movement of the hand and the resultant change in the virtual object...

Damaraju Sriranga, Sashikanth Raju

2013-08-16

377

October 11, 2011 Keeping In Touch . . . Impacting Lives  

E-print Network

October 11, 2011 Keeping In Touch . . . Impacting Lives SCHOOL OF ALLIED HEALTH PROFESSIONS LSUHSC, Cardiovascular Sonography, Clinical Laboratory Sciences, Occupational Therapy, Physical Thera- py, Physician Master Physical Therapy 36 months Doctor Physician Assistant 29 months Master Rehabilitation Counseling

378

Touch interface for markless AR based on Kinect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an augmented reality (AR) environment with hidden-marker via touch interface using Kinect device, and then also set up a touch painting game with the AR environment. This environment is similar to that of the touch screen interface which allows user to paint picture on a tabletop with his fingers, and it is designed with depth image information from Kinect device setting up above a tabletop. We incorporate support vector machine (SVM) to classify painted pictures which correspond to the inner data and call out its AR into the tabletop in color images information from Kinect device. Because users can utilize this similar touch interface to control AR, we achieve a marker-less AR and interactive environment.

Hsieh, Ching-Tang; Kuo, Tai-Ku; Wang, Hui-Chun; Wu, Yeh-Kuang; Chang, Liung-Chun

2014-01-01

379

A Generalized Carpenter's Rule Theorem for Self-Touching Linkages  

E-print Network

but not properly cross. At the heart of our proof is a new definition of self-touching configurations of planar, the geometry alone is insufficient to distinguish which portion is on top of which. The approach taken so far

380

Relation between impressions of a touch panels’ coloration and operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between the colors used in the design of touch panels and the operation of electronic devices are discussed,\\u000a and experiments that investigated the effects of color in the designs of touch panel interfaces on their operation and on\\u000a the impressions of users have been conducted. Subjects tried mental arithmetic tests on 12 types of screen which had different

Makiba Sakamoto; Hidetsugu Suto; Masahiro Sawai

2010-01-01

381

Automated quality inspection of surface defects on touch panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacitive touch panels (CTPs) with advantages of water-proof, stain-proof, scratch-proof, and fast response are widely used in various electronic products built in touch technology functions. It is a difficult inspection task when defects imbedded on surfaces of CTPs with structural textures. This research proposes a Fourier transform-based approach to inspect surface defects of CTPs. When a CTP image with four

Hong-Dar Lin; Huan-Hua Tsai

2012-01-01

382

Flexible transparent touch panel mounted on round surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flexible transparent touch panel based on conductive liquid channels was developed by a molding process. Transparent silicone rubber was used for producing the channel structures. The height, width, and length of the flow channel were 0.1, 1.0, and 40 mm, respectively. The pitch of the channels was 10 mm. Fabricated two-lined touch panels were stacked at an angle of

Koji Asano; Mitsuhiro Shikida; Kazuo Sato

2012-01-01

383

Family interactions in public: Parent-child distance and touching  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to extend the study of parent-child interaction to naturalistic settings, 207 families were observed in parks by observers who used scaled maps to record parent-child distances and touching behavior. Generally, parent-child distance increased and touching decreased as child age increased. The interactional behaviors of boys and girls and mothers and fathers were far more similar than different.

Carol K. Sigelman; Robert M. Adams

1990-01-01

384

Touch and temporal behavior of grand piano actions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the temporal behavior of grand piano actions from different manufacturers under different touch conditions and dynamic levels. An experimental setup consisting of accelerometers and a calibrated microphone was used to capture key and hammer movements, as well as the sound signal. Five selected keys were played by pianists with two types of touch (``pressed touch'' versus ``struck touch'') over the entire dynamic range. Discrete measurements were extracted from the accelerometer data for each of the over 2300 recorded tones (e.g., finger-key, hammer-string, and key bottom contact times, maximum hammer velocity). Travel times of the hammer (from finger-key to hammer-string) as a function of maximum hammer velocity varied clearly between the two types of touch, but only slightly between pianos. A travel time approximation used in earlier work [Goebl W., (2001). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 563-572] derived from a computer-controlled piano was verified. Constant temporal behavior over type of touch and low compression properties of the parts of the action (reflected in key bottom contact times) were hypothesized to be indicators for instrumental quality.

Goebl, Werner; Bresin, Roberto; Galembo, Alexander

2005-08-01

385

Effects and after-effects of voluntary intermittent light finger touch on body sway.  

PubMed

Effects of light touch on body sway have usually been investigated with some form of constant contact. Only two studies investigated transient sway dynamics following the addition or withdrawal of light touch. This study adopted a paradigm of intermittent touch and assessed body sway during as well as following short periods of touch of varying durations to investigate whether effects and after-effects of touch differ as a function of touch duration. In a modified heel-to-toe posture, 15 blindfolded participants alternated their index finger position between no-touching and touching on a strain gauge in response to low- and high-pitched auditory cues. Five trials of 46 s duration were segmented into 11 sections: a 6-s no-touching period was followed by five pseudo-randomly ordered touching periods of 0.5-, 1-, 1.5-, 2-, and 5-s duration, each of which was followed by another 6-s no-touching interval. Consistent with previous research, compared to no-touching intervals sway was reduced during touch periods with touch durations greater than 2 s. Progressive reductions in sway were evident after touch onset. After touch withdrawal in the 2-s touch condition, postural sway increased and returned to baseline level nearly immediately. Interestingly, in the 5-s touch condition, reductions in sway persisted even after touch withdrawal in the medio-lateral and antero-posterior plane for around 2.5 s and 5.5 s, respectively. Our intermittent touch paradigm resulted in duration-dependent touch effects and after-effects; the latter is a novel finding and may result from a more persistent postural set involved in proactive sway control. PMID:25088757

Johannsen, Leif; Lou, Shu-Zon; Chen, Hui-Ya

2014-09-01

386

Soybean growth rate response to touch  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A time-lapse video showing differential growth rates for touch-treated seedlings and control seedlings. This would be appropriate for lessons about plant growth responses to environmental stress and graphing growth rate. Plants were grown in a vermiculite soilless medium with calcium-enhanced water. No other minerals or nutrients were used. Plants were grown in a dark room with specially-filtered green light. The plants did not grow by cellular reproduction but only by expansion of existing cells in the hypocotyl region below the 'hook'. Video contains three plants in total. The first two plants to emerge from the vermiculite medium are the control (right) and treatment (left) plants. A third plant emerges in front of these two but is removed at the time of treatment and is not relevant except to help indicate when treatment was applied (watch for when it disappears). When that plant disappears, the slowed growth rate of the treatment plant is apparent. Treatment included a gentle flexing of the hypocotyl region of the treatment seedling for approximately 5 seconds. A rubber glove was used at this time to avoid an contamination of the plant tissue. Some video players allow users to 'scrub' the playback back and forth. This would help teachers or students isolate particular times (as indicated by the watch) and particular measurements (as indicated by the cm scale). A graph could be constructed by first creating a data table and then plotting the data points from the table. Multiple measurements from the video could be taken to create an accurate graph of the plants' growth rates (treatment vs control). Instructions for graphing usage: The scale in the video is in centimeters (one cm increments). Students could observe the initial time on the watch in the video and use that observation to represent time (t) = 0. For that value, a mark could be made to indicate the height of the seedlings. As they advance and pause the video repeatedly, the students would mark the time (+2.5 hours for example) and mark the related seedling heights. It is not necessary to advance the video at any regular interval but is necessary to mark the time and related heights as accurately as possible. Students may use different time values and would thus have different data sets but should find that their graphs are very similar. (Good opportunity to collect data from real research and create their own data sets) It is advised that the students collect multiple data points around the time where the seedling growth slows in response to touch to more accurately collect information around that growth rate slowing event. The resulting graph should have an initial growth rate slope, a flatter slope after stress treatment, and a return to approximately the same slope as seen pre-treatment. More data points should yield a more thorough view of this. This would be a good point to discuss. Students can use some of their data points to calculate approximate pre-treatment, immediate post-treatment, and late post-treatment slopes for both the control and treatment seedlings. This video was created by the submitter and is original content. Full screen playback should be an option for most video players. Video quality may appear degraded with a larger image but this may aid viewing the watch and scale for data collection.

Adam Santone / research data

2012-03-23

387

The impulsivity and sensation-seeking mediators of the psychological consequences of pathological gambling in adolescence.  

PubMed

Pathological gambling has severe consequences for adolescents and their families and friends. Despite its high prevalence, pathological gambling in adolescents has been insufficiently studied. Sensation seeking and impulsivity are two variables that are related to the appearance and maintenance of pathological gambling. However, few studies have determined the role these variables play in the development of the dysfunctional symptomatology of gambling behavior in adolescents and young adults. The aims of this study were to analyze the consequences of gambling in young adults and adolescents, and to evaluate the roles of sensation seeking and impulsivity in the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology. The sample consisted of 1,241 young adults and adolescents recruited from scholar centers and free-time groups, as well as 71 subjects from associations that assist pathological gamblers. Pathological gambling, impulsive behavior, dysfunctional symptomatology and sensation seeking were assessed. The results confirmed that young adults and adolescents who gamble pathologically have more dysfunctional symptomatology related to anxiety, depression, hostility, obsessive-compulsive behavior and somatization, as well as sensation seeking, impulsivity and addictive behavior. Moreover, the results showed that sensation seeking did not mediate the appearance of dysfunctional symptomatology and that impulsivity partially mediated the appearance of anxiety, phobic anxiety, depression and psychosis and perfectly mediated somatization, obsessive-compulsive behavior, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation and hostility. These results have consequences for the development of treatment and prevention programs for adolescent pathological gambling. PMID:24297606

Estevez, Ana; Herrero-Fernández, David; Sarabia, Izaskun; Jauregui, Paula

2015-03-01

388

The Prediction of Ink Thickness of Touch Panel by Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thickness of printing ink on touch panel is an important work, which is related with the quality of panel in real use. Therefore, how to make a well control in the film printing of touch panel is very important work in the manufacturing process of touch panel. In this paper, the prediction of ink thickness of touch panel based

Chih-Chien Huang; Chih-Kang Kung; Shang-Jen Chuang; Huang-Chu Hunag; Rey-Chue. Hwang

2007-01-01

389

Resistive Memory for Harsh Electronics: Immunity to Surface Effect and High Corrosion Resistance via Surface Modification  

PubMed Central

The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

2014-01-01

390

Exposure to harsh parenting and pornography as explanations for males' sexual coercion and females' sexual victimization.  

PubMed

Sexual violence against women is a major concern to researchers and policy makers, as well as to the general public. This study uses a sample of more than 2,000 college students to investigate the extent to which exposure to harsh parenting practices and sexually explicit materials contributes to perpetration and victimization. Findings indicate that frequent corporal punishment in the family of origin combined with consumption of pornographic materials increased the probability that males reported engaging in coercive sexual practices. For females, both frequent corporal punishment and exposure to paternal hostility combined with consumption of pornographic materials were associated with higher levels of reported sexual victimization. These results provide increased understanding of the impact of pornography use among a nonclinical sample, as well as the consequences of experiencing harsh corporal punishment in one's family of origin, on the sexual victimization of females. PMID:22852438

Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Lei, Man-Kit; Sutton, Tara E

2012-01-01

391

Resistive memory for harsh electronics: immunity to surface effect and high corrosion resistance via surface modification.  

PubMed

The tolerance/resistance of the electronic devices to extremely harsh environments is of supreme interest. Surface effects and chemical corrosion adversely affect stability and operation uniformity of metal oxide resistive memories. To achieve the surrounding-independent behavior, the surface modification is introduced into the ZnO memristors via incorporating fluorine to replace the oxygen sites. F-Zn bonds is formed to prevent oxygen chemisorption and ZnO dissolution upon corrosive atmospheric exposure, which effectively improves switching characteristics against harmful surroundings. In addition, the fluorine doping stabilizes the cycling endurance and narrows the distribution of switching parameters. The outcomes provide valuable insights for future nonvolatile memory developments in harsh electronics. PMID:24638086

Huang, Teng-Han; Yang, Po-Kang; Lien, Der-Hsien; Kang, Chen-Fang; Tsai, Meng-Lin; Chueh, Yu-Lun; He, Jr-Hau

2014-01-01

392

A harsh environment, multi-plasma microsystem with pressure sensor, gas purifier, and chemical detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for gas phase chemical detection in harsh environments has been developed that utilizes three microplasma-based devices: pressure sensor, gas purifier, and optical emission sensor. The devices all utilize microplasmas between thin-film electrodes and occupy a combined active area of 10.5 mm2. They are fabricated on glass chips and enclosed in a 0.33 cm3 ceramic package. The optical emission

Scott A. Wright; Yogesh B. Gianchandani

2007-01-01

393

Development of a durable fiber-optic oxygen sensor for harsh underground environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on effects of protection with a silicone resin to develop a fiber-optic oxygen sensor with long-term stability and durability in harsh underground environments. Ruthenium (II) complexes were used as oxygen-sensing compounds. A uniform composite film composed of silicone resin and the Ru complex was prepared with spin coating technique. A comparison of dissolved-oxygen (DO) sensitivity between the

Yusuke Koshiba; Yuki Nakamura; Daisuke Ito; Takashi Yokoyama; Shinji Okazaki; Hidemoto Nakagawa; Takashi Arai

2010-01-01

394

Applications of Optical Fiber Assemblies in Harsh Environments, the Journey Past, Present and Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past ten years, NASA has studied the effects of harsh environments on optical fiber assemblies for communication systems, lidar systems, and science missions. The culmination of this has resulted in recent technologies that are unique and tailored to meeting difficult requirements under challenging performance constraints. This presentation will focus on the past mission applications of optical fiber assemblies including; qualification information, lessons learned and new technological advances that will enable the road ahead.

Ott, Melanie N.; LaRocca, Frank; Thomas, William Joe; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Macmurphy, Shawn

2008-01-01

395

Particulate strengthened Ni Al2O3 microcomposite HARMs for harsh-environmental micromechanical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LIGA micromachining process can be used to fabricate high-aspect-ratio microstructures (HARMs), usually from electroplated nickel (Ni). In recent years, there has been a growing demand for applications involving HARMs subjected to harsh environments such as high temperatures, high pressures, constant erosion and friction. Numerous mechanical characterizations and tests revealed that LIGA-fabricated Ni devices might not meet the criteria required

Tao Wang; Kevin W. Kelly

2005-01-01

396

A Harsh Environment Wireless Pressure Sensing Solution Utilizing High Temperature Electronics  

PubMed Central

Pressure measurement under harsh environments, especially at high temperatures, is of great interest to many industries. The applicability of current pressure sensing technologies in extreme environments is limited by the embedded electronics which cannot survive beyond 300 °C ambient temperature as of today. In this paper, a pressure signal processing and wireless transmission module based on the cutting-edge Silicon Carbide (SiC) devices is designed and developed, for a commercial piezoresistive MEMS pressure sensor from Kulite Semiconductor Products, Inc. Equipped with this advanced high-temperature SiC electronics, not only the sensor head, but the entire pressure sensor suite is capable of operating at 450 °C. The addition of wireless functionality also makes the pressure sensor more flexible in harsh environments by eliminating the costly and fragile cable connections. The proposed approach was verified through prototype fabrication and high temperature bench testing from room temperature up to 450 °C. This novel high-temperature pressure sensing technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring of many systems involving harsh environments, such as military and commercial turbine engines. PMID:23447006

Yang, Jie

2013-01-01

397

Pathways from harsh parenting to adolescent antisocial behavior: a multidomain test of gender moderation.  

PubMed

We tested for gender moderation within a multidomain model of antisocial behavior (ASB) among community youth, drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods study. Youths (N = 1,639) were 9 to 12 years old at baseline and were followed for two additional waves, spaced approximately 2.5 years apart. We hypothesized that harsh and physically coercive parenting, a familial level risk factor, would impact individual level risk factors for ASB, such as childhood temperament ratings of emotionality and inhibitory control, and preadolescent externalizing and internalizing symptoms, as well as involvement with antisocial peers. We further hypothesized that this process and its impact on ASB would be moderated by gender. We used both multiple indicator multiple causes and multiple group analyses to test for gender moderation and a structural equation modeling multiple mediation framework to evaluate the strength of indirect effects. We tested the role of family, individual, and peer level influences on ASB, after accounting for the role of known contextual factors, including poverty, race, and neighborhood. Our overall model fit the data well for males and females, indicating harsh parenting, disinhibition, emotionality, and peers exert a strong influence on risk for ASB. Gender moderated the pathway from harsh parenting to externalizing behavior, such that this was a significant pathway for girls, but not boys. We discussed the importance of these findings with regard to intervention planning for youth at risk for ASB and future gender-informed models of ASB. PMID:22781859

Burnette, Mandi L; Oshri, Assaf; Lax, Rachael; Richards, Dayton; Ragbeer, Shayne N

2012-08-01

398

Harsh Parenting and Fearfulness in Toddlerhood Interact to Predict Amplitudes of Preschool Error-Related Negativity  

PubMed Central

Temperamentally fearful children are at increased risk for the development of anxiety problems relative to less-fearful children. This risk is even greater when early environments include high levels of harsh parenting behaviors. However, the mechanisms by which harsh parenting may impact fearful children’s risk for anxiety problems are largely unknown. Recent neuroscience work has suggested that punishment is associated with exaggerated error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related potential linked to performance monitoring, even after the threat of punishment is removed. In the current study, we examined the possibility that harsh parenting interacts with fearfulness, impacting anxiety risk via neural processes of performance monitoring. We found that greater fearfulness and harsher parenting at 2 years of age predicted greater fearfulness and greater ERN amplitudes at age 4. Supporting the role of cognitive processes in this association, greater fearfulness and harsher parenting also predicted less efficient neural processing during preschool. This study provides initial evidence that performance monitoring may be a candidate process by which early parenting interacts with fearfulness to predict risk for anxiety problems. PMID:24721466

Brooker, Rebecca J.; Buss, Kristin A.

2014-01-01

399

Fiber optic connectors for harsh environment of aviation and aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fiber optic connector technology is making significant advances for use in aviation and aerospace applications. This increasingly user friendly system has contributed to more novel extremely small multifiber connectors for fiber optic interconnection. With low insertion loss and excellent environmental endurance in harsh environments they meet the requirements of higher integration in optical backplanes. There are two main methods of transmitting an optical signal between two fibers: (1) Physical Contact (PC) and (2) Non-Physical Contact Connectors, Expanded Beam (EB). Expanded beam connectors have been shown to withstand extreme environments without the need for special servicing or cleaning equipment. Protecting the optical fibers behind the lenses ensures that no damage or degradation can occur to the fiber ends. Severe conditions, extreme surroundings, rough weather, rugged and unforgiving environment call for the use of high-performance fiber optic connectors. Appropriate connector selection is essential to assure adequate optical, environmental and mechanical performance. The choice of these items should be specific to the requirements of the system when considering environmental and mechanical limitations. Proper installation, maintenance and repair training is essential. This paper outlines the attributes, environments, requirements, technologies and solutions of fiber optic connectors for harsh environment for aviation and aerospace applications. Furthermore, it describes various state-of-the-art technologies, particularly for aviation industry. Discussion will also place emphasis on physical contact and expanded beam designs which are the fiber optic technologies being used in harsh environments of aviation and aerospace applications. Key

Kazemi, Alex A.

2014-09-01

400

Supermicrosurgical free sensate intercostal artery perforator flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch for plantar reconstruction.  

PubMed

The use of an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP) flap has recently become popular in reconstructive surgery. We have developed a novel free sensate ICAP flap based on the lateral cutaneous branch (LCB) and applied it to a case with a plantar defect. To the best of our knowledge, this case is the first to describe a free sensate ICAP flap based on the LCB. This method has several advantages: (1) a sensate flap is possible because the LCB neurovascular bundle is consistently available; (2) the long neurovascular pedicle can be harvested in the supine position without the risk of pneumothorax; (3) the donor-site morbidity is low; and (4) conversion or combination with a superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator (SCIP) or a superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap is readily possible. We believe that this method represents a new option for soft-tissue reconstruction. PMID:24491457

Iida, Takuya; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Hara, Hisako; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yoshimatsu, Hidehiko; Morizaki, Yutaka; Uehara, Kosuke; Koshima, Isao

2014-07-01

401

The role of tone sensation and musical stimuli in early experimental psychology.  

PubMed

In this article, the role of music in early experimental psychology is examined. Initially, the research of Wilhelm Wundt is considered, as tone sensation and musical elements appear as dominant factors in much of his work. It is hypothesized that this approach was motivated by an understanding of psychology that dates back to Christian Wolff 's focus on sensation in his empirical psychology of 1732. Wolff, however, had built his systematization of psychology on Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz, who combined perception with mathematics,and referred to music as the area in which sensation is united with numerical exactitude. Immanuel Kant refused to accept empirical psychology as a science, whereas Johann Friedrich Herbart reintroduced the scientific basis of empirical psychology by, among other things, referring to music. PMID:21462196

Klempe, Sven Hroar

2011-01-01

402

Touch and massage for medically fragile infants.  

PubMed

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants' safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver-infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J; Gallardo, Constance C; Joseph, Michael H; Gold, Jeffrey I

2009-12-01

403

Touch and Massage for Medically Fragile Infants  

PubMed Central

Research investigating the efficacy of infant massage has largely focused on premature and low birth weight infants. The majority of investigations have neglected highly acute patients in academic neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The current study was developed with two aims: (Phase 1) to develop, implement and demonstrate the feasibility and safety of a parent-trained compassionate touch/massage program for infants with complex medical conditions and (Phase 2) to conduct a longitudinal randomized control trial (RCT) of hand containment/massage versus standard of care in a level III academic Center for Newborn and Infant Critical Care (CNICC). Certified infant massage instructors (CIMIs) taught parents to massage their hospitalized infants. Massage therapy and instruction were performed for seven consecutive days and health outcomes were collected for up to 1 month following treatment. Caregivers, nurses and certified infant massage therapists indicated moderate to high levels of satisfaction and feasibility with the implementation of hand containment/massage in a level III academic center CNICC. In addition, infant behavioral and physiological measures were within safe limits during the massage sessions. All caregivers participating in the massage group reported high levels of satisfaction 7 days into the intervention and at the 1-month follow-up with regards to their relationship with their infant, the massage program's impact on that relationship and the massage program. Due to unequal and small sample sizes, between group analyses (control versus massage) were not conducted. Descriptive infant characteristics of health outcomes are described. Preliminary data from this study indicates feasibility and safety of infant massage and satisfaction among the caregivers, CIMIs and the nurses in the CNICC. An important contribution from this study was the demonstration of the infants’ safety based on physiological stability and no change in agitation/pain scores of the infants receiving massage. Massage in a tertiary urban academic NICU continues to be an area of needed study. Future studies examining infant health outcomes, such as weight gain, decreased length of hospitalization and caregiver–infant bonding, would provide greater insight into the impact of massage for medically fragile infants. PMID:18955228

Livingston, Karen; Beider, Shay; Kant, Alexis J.; Gallardo, Constance C.; Joseph, Michael H.

2009-01-01

404

Sensation seeking and drunk driving: the mediational role of social norms and self-efficacy.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to examine the role of sensation seeking in drunk driving by youths, and the potential mediational effect of social, cognitive and emotional variables on their relationship. To this end, a survey was conducted on 274 drivers (164 females and 110 males) aged 24.36±2.96 years (range 18-30 years). The results obtained confirm the significance of sensation seeking to drunk driving by youths and the mediating role of biased self-efficacy perceptions in their relationship. The important practical implications of this finding on the development of effective interventions to prevent the risks of drunk driving in youths are discussed. PMID:24878692

González-Iglesias, Beatriz; Gómez-Fraguela, José Antonio; Luengo, Ma Ángeles

2014-10-01

405

Body ownership and experiential ownership in the self-touching illusion  

PubMed Central

We investigate two issues about the subjective experience of one's body: first, is the experience of owning a full-body fundamentally different from the experience of owning a body-part?Second, when I experience a bodily sensation, does it guarantee that I cannot be wrong about whether it is me who feels it? To address these issues, we conducted a series of experiments that combined the rubber hand illusion (RHI) and the “body swap illusion.” The subject wore a head mounted display (HMD) connected with a stereo camera set on the experimenter's head. Sitting face to face, they used their right hand holding a paintbrush to brush each other's left hand. Through the HMD, the subject adopted the experimenter's first-person perspective (1PP) as if it was his/her own 1PP: the subject watched either the experimenter's hand from the adopted 1PP, and/or the subject's own hand from the adopted third-person perspective (3PP) in the opposite direction (180°), or the subject's full body from the adopted 3PP (180°, with or without face). The synchronous full-body conditions generate a “self-touching illusion”: many participants felt that “I was brushing my own hand!” We found that (1) the sense of body-part ownership and the sense of full-body ownership are not fundamentally different from each other; and (2) our data present a strong case against the mainstream philosophical view called the immunity principle (IEM). We argue that it is possible for misrepresentation to occur in the subject's sense of “experiential ownership” (the sense that I am the one who is having this bodily experience). We discuss these findings and conclude that not only the sense of body ownership but also the sense of experiential ownership call for further interdisciplinary studies.

Liang, Caleb; Chang, Si-Yan; Chen, Wen-Yeo; Huang, Hsu-Chia; Lee, Yen-Tung

2015-01-01

406

Investigating Maternal Touch and Infants' Self-Regulatory Behaviours during a Modified Face-to-Face Still-Face with Touch Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maternal touch and infants' self-regulatory behaviours were examined during a modified Still-Face with Touch (SF?+?T) procedure. Mothers and their 5½-month-old infants participated in one period of Normal interaction followed by three SF?+?T periods. Maternal functions of touch, and infants' self-regulatory behaviour, affect, and…

Jean, Amélie D. L.; Stack, Dale M.; Arnold, Sharon

2014-01-01

407

Non-contact Tactile Sensation Synthesized by Ultrasound Transducers Takayuki Hoshi  

E-print Network

Iwamoto 2 , and Hiroyuki Shinoda 1 1 The University of Tokyo and 2 Canon Inc. ABSTRACT This paper/or palms. Employed devices are, for example, vibrotactile stimulators (CyberTouch [8]), motor-driven belts

Shinoda, Hiroyuki

408

Usability of touch-panel interfaces for older adults.  

PubMed

The usability of a touch-panel interface was compared among young, middle-aged, and older adults. In addition, a performance model of a touch panel was developed so that pointing time could be predicted with higher accuracy. Moreover, the target location to which a participant could point most quickly was determined. The pointing time with a PC mouse was longer for the older adults than for the other age groups, whereas there were no significant differences in pointing time among the three age groups when a touch-panel interface was used. Pointing to the center of a square target led to the fastest pointing time among nine target locations. Based on these results, we offer some guidelines for the design of touch-panel interfaces and show implications for users of different age groups. Actual or potential applications of this research include designing touch-panel interfaces to make them accessible for older adults and predicting movement times when users operate such devices. PMID:16553065

Murata, Atsuo; Iwase, Hirokazu

2005-01-01

409

The perception of touch and the ventral somatosensory pathway.  

PubMed

In humans, touching the skin is known to activate, among others, the contralateral primary somatosensory cortex on the postcentral gyrus together with the bilateral parietal operculum (i.e. the anatomical site of the secondary somatosensory cortex). But which brain regions beyond the postcentral gyrus specifically contribute to the perception of touch remains speculative. In this study we collected structural magnetic resonance imaging scans and neurological examination reports of patients with brain injuries or stroke in the left or right hemisphere, but not in the postcentral gyrus as the entry site of cortical somatosensory processing. Using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, we compared patients with impaired touch perception (i.e. hypoaesthesia) to patients without such touch impairments. Patients with hypoaesthesia as compared to control patients differed in one single brain cluster comprising the contralateral parietal operculum together with the anterior and posterior insular cortex, the putamen, as well as subcortical white matter connections reaching ventrally towards prefrontal structures. This finding confirms previous speculations on the 'ventral pathway of somatosensory perception' and causally links these brain structures to the perception of touch. PMID:25541190

Preusser, Sven; Thiel, Sabrina D; Rook, Carolin; Roggenhofer, Elisabeth; Kosatschek, Anna; Draganski, Bogdan; Blankenburg, Felix; Driver, Jon; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

2015-03-01

410

Friends, Porn, and Punk: Sensation Seeking in Personal Relationships, Internet Activities, and Music Preference among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking.…

Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

2004-01-01

411

Moderating Effect of Gender on the Relationship between Sensation Seeking-Impulsivity and Substance Use in Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the moderating effect of gender on the predictive relationships between a measure of sensation seeking and impulsivity and four adolescent substance use outcomes. Main-effect relationships were consistently found for sensation seeking-impulsivity with each outcome, but not for gender. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between…

Baker, Joseph R.; Yardley, John K.

2002-01-01

412

Association between sensation seeking and alcohol consumption in French college students: Some ecological data collected in “open bar” parties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous factors have been associated with alcohol drinking among college students. Typically, the psychological trait of sensation seeking, has been found to be correlated with alcohol consumption in various populations. Nevertheless, there is a pressing need for more observational and ecological studies of college drinking behavior in unusual and incentive situations. The present study examined the relationship between sensation seeking

Fabien D. Legrand; Montserrat Gomà-i-freixanet; Matthieu L. Kaltenbach; Philippe M. Joly

2007-01-01

413

Sensation Seeking and Adolescent Drug Use: The Mediating Role of Association With Deviant Peers and ProDrug Discussions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, I examined direct and indirect influences of sensation seeking, a person- ality trait, on adolescent drug use. I hypothesized that some or even most of the con- tribution of sensation seeking to drug use by adolescents is mediated through associ- ation with deviant peers and communication with peers that is favorable toward drug use. I examined the

Itzhak Yanovitzky

2005-01-01

414

Age, sex, and racial differences in harsh physical punishment: results from a nationally representative United States sample.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research was to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment in childhood in a nationally representative sample of the United States. Data were from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine age, sex, and racial differences in the prevalence of harsh physical punishment. Results suggest that the prevalence of harsh physical punishment has been decreasing among more recently born age groups; however, there appear to be sex and racial differences in this trend over time. The magnitude of the decrease appears to be stronger for males than for females. By race, the decrease in harsh physical punishment over time is only apparent among Whites; Black participants demonstrate little change over time, and harsh physical punishment seems to be increasing over time among Hispanics. Prevention and intervention efforts that educate about the links of physical punishment to negative outcomes and alternative non-physical discipline strategies may be particularly useful in reducing the prevalence of harsh physical punishment over time. PMID:25466426

Taillieu, Tamara L; Afifi, Tracie O; Mota, Natalie; Keyes, Katherine M; Sareen, Jitender

2014-12-01

415

Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.  

PubMed

One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

2004-01-01

416

A New Approach to Defining Human Touch Temperature Standards  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Defining touch temperature limits for skin contact with both hot and cold objects is important to prevent pain and skin damage, which may affect task performance or become a safety concern. Pain and skin damage depend on the skin temperature during contact, which depends on the contact thermal conductance, the object's initial temperature, and its material properties. However, previous spacecraft standards have incorrectly defined touch temperature limits in terms of a single object temperature value for all materials, or have provided limited material-specific values which do not cover the gamut of likely designs. A new approach has been developed for updated NASA standards, which defines touch temperature limits in terms of skin temperature at pain onset for bare skin contact with hot and cold objects. The authors have developed an analytical verification method for safe hot and cold object temperatures for contact times from 1 second to infinity.

Ungar, Eugene; Stroud, Kenneth

2010-01-01

417

An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.  

PubMed

This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance. PMID:24707989

Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

2014-06-01

418

Adapting deployed touch screen displays for NVG compatibility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the battlefield becomes "digitized", all arms of the military are deploying COTS displays in the form of Portable Notebooks, Kneeboards, GPS and PDA's in ever greater numbers. Many of these COTS equipments and associated displays use full color LCD's and resistive touch panels as the operator-interface. These displays are a challenge to those who must modify the COTS equipment for NVG compatibility. Traditional NVG filter options have relatively poor color rendering and are too thick or rigid to interface with touch panels. In addition, many of these displays do not have sufficient dimming capabilities to allow covert night-time operations and do not have sufficient luminance for daytime operations. Polymeric materials recently developed by Wamco have been specifically designed for applications where traditional NVG filters have failed. These applications will be discussed and quantified in terms of NVG Compatibility, Color Rendering, Luminance Contrast and Daytime Readability, Touch Screen Sensitivity and Environmental Performance.

Gaudette, Claude

2008-04-01

419

Evidence for a protein tether involved in somatic touch  

PubMed Central

The gating of ion channels by mechanical force underlies the sense of touch and pain. The mode of gating of mechanosensitive ion channels in vertebrate touch receptors is unknown. Here we show that the presence of a protein link is necessary for the gating of mechanosensitive currents in all low-threshold mechanoreceptors and some nociceptors of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Using TEM, we demonstrate that a protein filament with of length ?100 nm is synthesized by sensory neurons and may link mechanosensitive ion channels in sensory neurons to the extracellular matrix. Brief treatment of sensory neurons with non-specific and site-specific endopeptidases destroys the protein tether and abolishes mechanosensitive currents in sensory neurons without affecting electrical excitability. Protease-sensitive tethers are also required for touch-receptor function in vivo. Thus, unlike the majority of nociceptors, cutaneous mechanoreceptors require a distinct protein tether to transduce mechanical stimuli. PMID:20075867

Hu, Jing; Chiang, Li-Yang; Koch, Manuel; Lewin, Gary R

2010-01-01

420

Barrel cortex membrane potential dynamics in social touch.  

PubMed

The impact of social stimuli on the membrane potential dynamics of barrel cortex neurons is unknown. We obtained in vivo whole-cell recordings in the barrel cortex of head-restrained rats while they interacted with conspecifics. Social touch was associated with a depolarization and large membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking. Both depolarization and membrane potential fluctuations were already observed prior to contact and did not occur during free whisking. This anticipatory pre-contact depolarization was not seen in passive social touch in anesthetized animals. The membrane potential fluctuations locked to the rat's whisking observed in interactions with awake conspecifics were larger than those seen for whisking onto nonconspecific stimuli (stuffed rats, objects, and the experimenter's hand). Responses did not correlate with whisker movement parameters. We conclude that responses to social touch differ from conventional tactile responses in (1) amplitude, (2) locking to whisking, and (3) pre-contact membrane potential changes. PMID:25640075

Lenschow, Constanze; Brecht, Michael

2015-02-18

421

Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest the importance of identifying subtypes of pathological gamblers. This research studies sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression among a general population of French gamblers who play different types of game. Those games include games available in cafés (two cafés located in Paris suburb) like lottery, scratch-cards, etc., horse betting at the racetrack (five racetracks closest to Paris), slot machines and traditional games (roulette and card games) at the casino of Enghien-les-Bains (casino nearest to Paris). Sensation seeking was measured with the SSS form V, alexithymia with the TAS-20, and depression with the BDI-13. Pathological racetrack gamblers (42 males; mean age 29.1 years), who play active games involving skills, have the highest sensation seeking scores and are the most prone to alexithymia. Pathological gamblers playing the slot machines (12 males; 15 females; mean age 35.7 years) and games available in cafés (57 males; mean age 32.6 years), thus playing passive games that involve chance only, have low sensation seeking scores. Slot machines gamblers display alexithymia and have the highest depression scores. Pathological gamblers playing traditional games (15 males; mean age 37.8 years), games that involve strategy, do not perform well on any of these scales. These findings are consistent with the idea that clinically distinct subgroups of pathological gamblers can be identified. People displaying typical features could be attracted by specific games. PMID:19636683

Bonnaire, Céline; Bungener, Catherine; Varescon, Isabelle

2009-12-01

422

A Multichannel Semicircular Canal Neural Prosthesis Using Electrical Stimulation to Restore 3-D Vestibular Sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation can be disabling. Those afflicted suffer illusory visual field movement during head movements, chronic disequilibrium and postural instability due to failure of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes. A neural prosthesis that emulates the normal transduction of head rotation by semicircular canals could significantly improve quality of life for these patients. Like the three semicircular canals in

Charles C. Della Santina; Americo A. Migliaccio; Amit H. Patel

2007-01-01

423

Sensation seeking in England and America: Cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the factor structure of the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) in English and American samples, and constructed a new form of the SSS, applicable to both groups. The English Ss consisted of 254 males and 639 females from the Maudsley Twin Register, ages 15–70 yrs. The American sample included 97 male and female undergraduates. Three of the 4 factors showed good

Marvin Zuckerman; Sybil B. Eysenck; H. J. Eysenck

1978-01-01

424

A fuzzy control system based on the human sensation of thermal comfort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike the majority of the existing residential heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) control systems which are considered as temperature control problems, this paper presents a new HVAC control technique that is based on the human sensation of thermal comfort. The proposed HVAC control strategy goal is not to maintain a constant indoor air temperature but a constant indoor thermal

Maher Hamdi; Gerard Lachiver

1998-01-01

425

Risk Recognition and Sensation Seeking in Revictimization and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Impaired risk recognition has been suggested to be associated with the risk for revictimization and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Moreover, risk behavior has been linked to high sensation seeking, which may also increase the probability of revictimization. A newly designed behavioral experiment with five audiotaped risk…

Volkert, Jana; Randjbar, Sarah; Moritz, Steffen; Jelinek, Lena

2013-01-01

426

Hypnosis and Encounter Group Volunteers: A Validation Study of the Sensation-Seeking Scale  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in optimal level of stimulation as operationalized by the Sensation Seeking Scale significantly differentiated volunteers for hypnosis and encounter groups from non-volunteers. This confirmed predictions and extended the findings of previous work regarding encounter group volunteers. (NG)

Stanton, H. E.

1976-01-01

427

Topical capsaicin in humans: parallel loss of epidermal nerve fibers and pain sensation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capsaicin applied topically to human skin produces itching, pricking and burning sensations due to excitation of nociceptors. With repeated application, these positive sensory responses are followed by a prolonged period of hypalgesia that is usually referred to as desensitization, or nociceptor inactivation. Consequently, capsaicin has been recommended as a treatment for a variety of painful syndromes. The precise mechanisms that

Maria Nolano; Donald A Simone; Gwen Wendelschafer-Crabb; Timothy Johnson; Eric Hazen; William R Kennedy

1999-01-01

428

Odd Sensation Induced by Moving-Phantom which Triggers Subconscious Motor Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined

Takao Fukui; Toshitaka Kimura; Koji Kadota; Shinsuke Shimojo; Hiroaki Gomi; Jan Lauwereyns

2009-01-01

429

Cognitive modulation of the cerebral processing of human oesophageal sensation using functional magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

Background: While cortical processing of visceral sensation has been described, the role that cognitive factors play in modulating this processing remains unclear. Aim: To investigate how selective and divided attention modulate the cerebral processing of oesophageal sensation. Methods: In seven healthy volunteers (six males, mean age 33 years; ranging from 24 to 41 years old) from the general community, phasic visual and oesophageal (non-painful balloon distension) stimuli were presented simultaneously. During the selective attention task, subjects were instructed to press a button either to a change in frequency of oesophageal or visual stimuli. During a divided attention task, subjects received simultaneous visual and oesophageal stimuli and were instructed to press a button in response to a change in frequency of both stimuli. Results: Selectively focussing attention on oesophageal stimuli activated the visceral sensory and cognitive neural networks (primary and secondary sensory cortices and anterior cingulate cortex respectively) while selective attention to visual stimuli primarily activated the visual cortex. When attention was divided between the two sensory modalities, more brain regions in the sensory and cognitive domains were utilised to process oesophageal stimuli in comparison to those employed to process visual stimuli (p?=?0.003). Conclusion: Selective and divided attention to visceral stimuli recruits more neural resources in both the sensory and cognitive domains than attention to visual stimuli. We provide neurobiological evidence that demonstrates the biological importance placed on visceral sensations and demonstrate the influence of cognitive factors such as attention on the cerebral processing of visceral sensation. PMID:14633941

Gregory, L J; Yágüez, L; Williams, S C R; Altmann, C; Coen, S J; Ng, V; Brammer, M J; Thompson, D G; Aziz, Q

2003-01-01

430

The relationship between dissociative-like experiences and sensation seeking among social and problem gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the relationships between dissociative experiences, sensation seeking scores, and gambling behavior. On the basis of the frequency of their gambling behavior and responses to the Gamblers Anonymous Twenty Questions, subjects were designated as either problem gamblers (N=30) or social gamblers (N=30).

Nadia B. Kuley; Durand F. Jacobs

1988-01-01

431

Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment for Panic Disorder with Moderate to Severe Agoraphobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current article presents a detailed description of an intensive treatment program for panic disorder with moderate to severe levels of agoraphobia (PDA), called Sensation-Focused Intensive Treatment (SFIT). Although the efficacy of traditional CBT treatment programs has been well established for the treatment of PDA, patients with moderate to…

Morissette, Sandra Baker; Spiegel, David A.; Heinrichs, Nina

2005-01-01

432

An Examination of the Reliability of Scores from Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scales, Form V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducted a reliability generalization study on Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale (M. Zuckerman and others, 1964) using 113 reliability coefficients from 21 published studies. The reliability of scores was marginal for four of the five scales, and low for the other. Mean age of subjects has a significant relationship with score reliability. (SLD)

Deditius-Island, Heide K.; Caruso, John C.

2002-01-01

433

Reliability and Validity of the Sensation-Seeking Scale: Psychometric Problems in Form V.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale were examined. Evidence supported the theoretical notion of an individual difference variable in arousal-seeking. Other evidence, however, suggested that measurement problems continue to hamper research: the total score was moderately reliable, but the subscales were only marginally…

Ridgeway, Doreen; Russell, James A.

1980-01-01

434

Avocational Sensation Seeking in High and Low Risk-Taking Occupations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether people engaged in high risk-taking occupations would seek or prefer highly stimulating activities of a nonvocational nature more than people engaged in low risk-taking occupations. The high risk-taking group scored significantly higher than the low risk-taking group on all five dimensions of the Zuckerman Sensation

Musolino, Robert F.; Hershenson, David B.

1977-01-01

435

[Influence of sociodemographic variables on coping styles, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents].  

PubMed

The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of gender, age, and type of high school (public/private) on coping styles solve the problem coping style, reference to others coping style and non-productive coping, social stress, and sexual sensation seeking in adolescents. A total of 4.456 adolescents participated. The following measures were used: Adolescent Coping Scale, Sexual Sensation Seeking Scale, and the Social Stress subscale of the Behavior Assessment System for Children. This is a cross-sectional study that used a stratified random sampling considering Spanish regions and type of high school (public/private) to select participants. The sample is representative of the national level at a 95.5% confidence interval. Results showed that males had higher scores in sexual sensation seeking and social stress compared to females. Female adolescents scored higher in reference to others coping style and non-productive coping. Compared to adolescents of public high schools, adolescents who attended to private high schools scored higher in solve the problem coping style and reference to others coping style. Associations among sexual sensation seeking, coping styles, social stress, and health risk behaviors in adolescents are discussed. PMID:19403074

de la Paz Bermúdez, María; Teva, Inmaculada; Buela-Casal, Gualberto

2009-05-01

436

Thermal sensation of old vs young males at 12, 18, and 27°C for 120 min  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research in the field of aging has provided data that suggests that there are physiological changes that occur as one's biological age increases. The present investigation examined the age-related alteration and differential response between old (OLD) and young (YNG) individuals with respect to subjective thermal sensation (TS). Participants were all regularly active and of average percent body fat relative to

Edward S. Potkanowicz; Natalie Caine; Ronald Otterstetter; Ellen L. Glickman

2005-01-01

437

Patterns of drug abuse: Relationships with ethnicity, sensation seeking, and anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to 30 White, 30 Black, and 30 Hispanic male narcotic drug abusers in residential treatment. Individual drug abuse histories were assessed in semistructured interviews. Results are as follows: (a) White Ss scored significantly higher on the 5 SSS subtests than did either Black or Hispanic Ss. No significant differences

Elisabeth Kaestner; Linda Rosen; Philip Appel

1977-01-01

438

Relationships Between Future Orientation, Impulsive Sensation Seeking, and Risk Behavior Among Adjudicated Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of high levels of risk behavior, adjudicated adolescents are at high risk for negative health outcomes such as nicotine and drug addiction and sexually transmitted diseases. The goal of this article is to examine relationships between future orientation and impulsive-sensation-seeking personality constructs to risk behaviors among 300…

Robbins, Reuben N.; Bryan, Angela

2004-01-01

439

Assessment of fear of fear in agoraphobics: The Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of the Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire and the Body Sensations Questionnaire, companion measures for assessing aspects of fear of fear (panic attacks) in agoraphobics. The instruments were administered to 175 agoraphobics (mean age 37.64 yrs) and 43 controls (mean age 36.13 yrs) who were similar in sex and marital status to experimental Ss. Results show that the instruments

Dianne L. Chambless; G. Craig Caputo; Priscilla Bright; Richard Gallagher

1984-01-01

440

Increasing the repetition frequency of electric pulse delivery reduces unpleasant sensations that occur in electrochemotherapy  

E-print Network

Gill Pain Questionnaire with separate visual analog scales for pain intensity and unpleasantness. All subjects selected at least one superficial and one deep pain descriptor; 85 % selected at least two Ljubljana, Slovenia Received September 5, 2006 Involuntary muscle contractions and painful sensations during

Ljubljana, University of

441

Risky Sexual Behavior in Gay and Bisexual Men: Internalized Heterosexism, Sensation Seeking, and Substance Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated risky sexual behavior in a sample of 209 gay and bisexual men. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating relations of substance use factors (expectations about the sexually enhancing effects of substance use and substance use during sex) between internalized heterosexism (IH) and sensation seeking and unprotected…

Kashubeck-West, Susan; Szymanski, Dawn M.

2008-01-01

442

Sensation seeking, exposure to psychosocial stressors, and body modifications in a college population  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 281 (females=160) college students with body modifications completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about body modification practices, the Sensation Seeking Scale (SSS-V; Zuckerman, 1994), the Impulsivity subscale of the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ; Zuckerman, Kuhlman, Joireman, Teta, & Kraft, 1993), and a selected portion of the History of Psychosocial Stressors (HPS; Scotti, 1992, 1999). Gender differences were found

Jonathan W. Roberti; Eric A. Storch; Erica A. Bravata

2004-01-01

443

The Enantioselectivity of Odor Sensation: Some Examples for Undergraduate Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses seven chiral odorants that demonstrate the enantioselectivity of odor sensation: carvone, Celery Ketone, camphor, Florhydral, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol, muscone, and methyl jasmonate. After a general introduction of the odorant-receptor interaction and the combinatorial code of olfaction, the olfactory properties of the…

Kraft, Philip; Mannschreck, Albrecht

2010-01-01

444

32.3 / T.-K. Ho 32.3: Simple Single-Layer Multi-Touch Projected Capacitive  

E-print Network

32.3 / T.-K. Ho 32.3: Simple Single-Layer Multi-Touch Projected Capacitive Touch Panel Tsz-Kin Ho A simple projected capacitive touch panel is developed. This touch panel is capable of detecting multi. This approach provides a simple and low cost alternative to current capacitive multi-touch panel design. 1

445

Characterization of the Vectron PX-570 Crystal Oscillator for Use in Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computing hardware, data-acquisition systems, communications systems, and many electronic control systems require well-controlled timing signals for proper and accurate operation. These signals are, in most cases, provided by circuits that employ crystal oscillators due to availability, cost, ease of operation, and accuracy. In some cases, the electronic systems are expected to survive and operate under harsh conditions that include exposure to extreme temperatures. These applications exist in terrestrial systems as well as in aerospace products. Well-logging, geothermal systems, and industrial process control are examples of ground-based applications, while distributed jet engine control in aircraft, space-based observatories (such as the James Webb Space Telescope), satellites, and lunar and planetary landers are typical environments where electronics are exposed to harsh operating conditions. To ensure these devices produce reliable results, the digital heartbeat from the oscillator must deliver a stable signal that is not affected by external temperature or other conditions. One such solution is a recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) oscillator, the PX-570 series from Vectron International. The oscillator was designed for high-temperature applications and as proof, the crystal oscillator was subjected to a wide suite of tests to determine its ruggedness for operation in harsh environments. The tests performed by Vectron included electrical characterization under wide range of temperature, accelerated life test/aging, shock and vibration, internal moisture analysis, ESD threshold, and latch-up testing. The parametric evaluation was performed on the oscillator's frequency, output signal rise and fall times, duty cycle, and supply current over the temperature range of -125 C to +230 C. The evaluations also determined the effects of thermal cycling and the oscillator's re-start capability at extreme hot and cold temperatures. These thermal cycling and restart tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Overall, the crystal oscillator performed well and demonstrated very good frequency stability. This paper will discuss the test procedures and present details of the performance results.

Li, Jacob; Patterson, Richard L.; Hammoud, Ahmad

2012-01-01

446

Gender and the Communication of Emotion Via Touch  

PubMed Central

We reanalyzed a data set consisting of a U.S. undergraduate sample (N?=?212) from a previous study (Hertenstein et al. 2006a) that showed that touch communicates distinct emotions between humans. In the current reanalysis, we found that anger was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a male comprised at least one member of a communicating dyad. Sympathy was communicated at greater-than-chance levels only when a female comprised at least one member of the dyad. Finally, happiness was communicated only if females comprised the entire dyad. The current analysis demonstrates gender asymmetries in the accuracy of communicating distinct emotions via touch between humans. PMID:21297854

Keltner, Dacher

2010-01-01

447

Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions  

PubMed Central

To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity. PMID:24518262

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

2014-01-01

448

FBG system for temperature monitoring under electromagnetic immersed and harsh oil and gas reservoir environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A common way to explore oil out of tar sand is to use a technique called Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage SAGD. This method can be enhanced by using an inductive heater (EM-SAGD). To monitor the heat dissipation of the inductor a measurement system for this harsh electromagnetic environment is needed. In this paper different optical temperature measurement systems are compared to find the most suitable system for this kind of application. A field test with great results was performed, where the performance of the inductor and the FBG measurement system were demonstrated.

Villnow, Michael; Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Kaiser, Joachim

2014-05-01

449

Carbon nanofiber aerogels for emergent cleanup of oil spillage and chemical leakage under harsh conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To address oil spillage and chemical leakage accidents, the development of efficient sorbent materials is of global importance for environment and water source protection. Here we report on a new type of carbon nanofiber (CNF) aerogels as efficient sorbents for oil uptake with high sorption capacity and excellent recyclability. Importantly, the oil uptake ability of the CNF aerogels can be maintained over a wide temperature range, from liquid nitrogen temperature up to ca. 400°C, making them suitable for oil cleanup under harsh conditions. The outstanding sorption performance of CNF aerogels is associated with their unique physical properties, such as low density, high porosity, excellent mechanical stability, high hydrophobicity and superoleophilicity.

Wu, Zhen-Yu; Li, Chao; Liang, Hai-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Ning; Wang, Xin; Chen, Jia-Fu; Yu, Shu-Hong

2014-02-01

450

GaN-Based High Temperature and Radiation-Hard Electronics for Harsh Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We develop novel GaN-based high temperature and radiation-hard electronics to realize data acquisition electronics and transmitters suitable for operations in harsh planetary environments. In this paper, we discuss our research on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors that are targeted for 500 (sup o)C operation and >2 Mrad radiation hardness. For the target device performance, we develop Schottky-free AlGaN/GaN MOS transistors, where a gate electrode is processed in a MOS layout using an Al2O3 gate dielectric layer....

Son, Kyung-ah; Liao, Anna; Lung, Gerald; Gallegos, Manuel; Hatakeh, Toshiro; Harris, Richard D.; Scheick, Leif Z.; Smythe, William D.

2010-01-01

451

Investigation and improvment of noise, vibration and harshness(nvh) properties of automotive panels  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000aINVESTIGATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF NOISE, VIBRATION AND HARSHNESS (NVH) PROPERTIES OF AUTOMOTIVE PANELS\\u000aby\\u000aMOHAMMAD AL-ZUBI\\u000aJuly 2012\\u000aAdvisor: Dr. Emmanuel Ayorinde\\u000aMajor: Mechanical Engineering\\u000aDegree: Doctor of Philosophy\\u000aThe reduction of noise and vibration in and across several components and modules of the automotive, such as the panels, doors, engine covers, seats, and others, is of primary importance. The

Mohammad Al zubi

2012-01-01

452

Reduced Prefrontal Cortical Gray Matter Volume in Young Adults Exposed to Harsh Corporal Punishment  

PubMed Central

Objective Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods 1,455 young adults (18–25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3T trio scanner. Results GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P = 0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA 9) (P = 0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA 24) (P < 0.001, uncorrected cluster level) of HCP subjects. There were significant correlations between GMV in these identified regions and performance IQ on the WAIS-III. Conclusions Exposing children to harsh HCP may have detrimental effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP. PMID:19285558

Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H.

2010-01-01

453

Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

2014-06-01

454

Fiber optic oxygen sensor detection system for harsh environments of aerospace applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the first successful fiber optic oxygen detection sensor systems developed for the Boeing Delta IV Launch Vehicle harsh environment of engine section. It illustrates a novel multi-point fiber optic microsensor (optrode) based on dynamic luminescence quenching that was developed for measuring oxygen leak detection for the space applications. The sensor optrodes employ the quenching by oxygen of the fluorescence from a ruthenium complex. These optrodes were fabricated using Ruthenium-based fluorescent indicator immobilized in a porous glass rod placed at the end of multimode fiber. The light from a blue LED is launched into the optrode via a fiber optic bundle and used as the excitation source. The optrode's fluorescent emission intensity in the range of 0% to 10% oxygen is measured as a function of time. The measuring system is based on high reliability and low cost. The system consists of four units: 1) temperature compensated oxygen optrodes combined with an optical setup, 2) multipoint sensor communication fiber optic network cable, 3) digital/analogue optoelectronic signal processing unit with built-in micro controller for control of data acquisition and processing, and 4) a laptop computer for data display and storage. In testing, the sensor exhibited excellent response time and reversibility. To qualify the sensors, performed detail investigation for thermal, humidity, temperature, vibration and accelerate testing for life expectancy of harsh environmental of engine section. Extensive networking using MatLab were carried out for lab and actual field demonstrations.

Kazemi, Alex A.; Mendoza, Edgar; Goswami, Kish; Kempen, Lothar

2013-05-01

455

Simulating the Evolution of the Human Family: Cooperative Breeding Increases in Harsh Environments  

PubMed Central

Verbal and mathematical models that consider the costs and benefits of behavioral strategies have been useful in explaining animal behavior and are often used as the basis of evolutionary explanations of human behavior. In most cases, however, these models do not account for the effects that group structure and cultural traditions within a human population have on the costs and benefits of its members' decisions. Nor do they consider the likelihood that cultural as well as genetic traits will be subject to natural selection. In this paper, we present an agent-based model that incorporates some key aspects of human social structure and life history. We investigate the evolution of a population under conditions of different environmental harshness and in which selection can occur at the level of the group as well as the level of the individual. We focus on the evolution of a socially learned characteristic related to individuals' willingness to contribute to raising the offspring of others within their family group. We find that environmental harshness increases the frequency of individuals who make such contributions. However, under the conditions we stipulate, we also find that environmental variability can allow groups to survive with lower frequencies of helpers. The model presented here is inevitably a simplified representation of a human population, but it provides a basis for future modeling work toward evolutionary explanations of human behavior that consider the influence of both genetic and cultural transmission of behavior. PMID:24278318

Smaldino, Paul E.; Newson, Lesley; Schank, Jeffrey C.; Richerson, Peter J.

2013-01-01

456

Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries  

PubMed Central

Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children's perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1,293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = .66; 51% girls) and their mothers (n = 1,282) and fathers (n = 1,075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children's reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger. PMID:25411645

Skinner, Ann T.; Bacchini, Dario; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Godwin, Jennifer; Sorbring, Emma; Tapanya, Sombat; Tirado, Liliana Maria Uribe; Zelli, Arnaldo; Alampay, Liane Peña; Al-Hassan, Suha M.; Bombi, Anna Silvia; Bornstein, Marc H.; Chang, Lei; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Giunta, Laura Di; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Miranda, Maria Concetta; Oburu, Paul; Pastorelli, Concetta

2014-01-01

457

Babies Touch, Taste, and Learn: A Guide for Parents.  

E-print Network

touching you Hold him close to your body. Stroke his cheek Rub his body when you : bathe him. ~dby needs things he can grasp Things he can hold Things he can drop Babies learn by tasting Give babies toys that are safe They will put them...

Anonymous,

1979-01-01

458

Cognitive Neuroscience: Scene Layout from Vision and Touch  

E-print Network

strongly to `scenes' made out of Lego blocks than to `objects' constructed from the same materials [6' from Lego blocks. On each haptic trial, subjects explored four scenes or objects by touch for 12 and visual runs, the PPA and RSC responded more strongly to Lego scenes than to Lego objects. This suggests

Epstein, Russell A.

459

Collaborative Learning with Multi-Touch Technology: Developing Adaptive Expertise  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developing fluency and flexibility in mathematics is a key goal of upper primary schooling, however, while fluency can be developed with practice, designing activities that support the development of flexibility is more difficult. Drawing on concepts of adaptive expertise, we developed a task for a multi-touch classroom, NumberNet, that aimed to…

Mercier, Emma M.; Higgins, Steven E.

2013-01-01

460

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (HS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, high school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

2010-01-22

461

Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators and Exciting Materials (MS)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan, Changing Materials Without Touching - Levers, Actuators, and Exciting Materials, middle school students learn that heating up a material can rearrange its atoms, and change its properties. The change in the material (a nitinol wire shortens due to heat) activates a lever that exerts force.

2010-02-01

462

Infants & Toddlers: Development--The Power of Touch  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a baby is born, parents check for fingers and toes, and over the next few weeks remain alert to whether the baby can see and hear. When babies nurse well, parents are assured that the sense of taste and smell are fine. But what about touch? This crucial sense for babies is often overlooked. In this article, the author discusses how to ensure…

Honig, Alice Sterling

2005-01-01

463

This is just one of the many touching stories  

E-print Network

This is just one of the many touching stories from Camp Tiger. All money raised at the Camp Tiger Auction will go towards funding Camp Tiger, a week-long summer camp put on by LSUHSC first year medical students for children with special health care needs. Need more information on the Camp Tiger Benefit

464

Wave Touch: Educational Game on Interactive Tabletop with Water Simulation  

E-print Network

Wave Touch: Educational Game on Interactive Tabletop with Water Simulation JoongHo Lee1 , Won Moon1 the powerful potential of interactive tabletops for the entertainment domain, we developed an educational game}@kist.re.kr 2 Game Research Center, College of Information and Communication, Korea University { sadiles, jhan

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

465

Touch. Talking About Non-Verbal Communication: A Corpus Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the third and final report of an analysis of nonverbal communication. In this report, the phrase "touch wood" is investigated using the Bank of English Corpus. The first two phrases examined were "shrug" and "hold one's gaze." Each of these phrases relates to an aspect of communication that may hold particular difficulties for someone…

Guo, Xiaotian

1999-01-01

466

An avionics touch screen-based control display concept  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many cockpits, control display units (CDUs) are vital input and information devices. In order to improve the usability of these devices, Barco, in cooperation with TU-Delft, created a touch screen control unit (TSCU), consisting of a high-quality multi-touch screen. The unit fits in the standard dimensions of a conventional CDU and is thus suitable for both retrofit and new installations. The TSCU offers two major advantages. First, the interface can be reconfigured to enable consecutive execution of several tasks on the same display area, allowing for a more efficient usage of the limited display real-estate as well as a potential reduction of cost. Secondly, advanced graphical interface design, in combination with multi-touch gestures, can improve human-machine interaction. To demonstrate the capabilities of this concept, a graphical software application was developed to perform the same operations as a conventional CDU, but now using a direct manipulation interface (DMI) of the displayed graphics. The TSCU can still be used in a legacy CDU mode, displaying a virtual keyboard operated with the touch interface. In addition, the TSCU could be used for a variety of other cockpit functions. The paper concludes with a report of pilot and non-pilot feedback.

Mertens, Michael; Damveld, Herman J.; Borst, Clark

2012-06-01

467

Haptic Augmentation of Science Instruction: Does Touch Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the impact of haptic augmentation of a science inquiry program on students' learning about viruses and nanoscale science. The study assessed how the addition of different types of haptic feedback (active touch and kinesthetic feedback) combined with computer visualizations influenced middle and high school students'…

Jones, M. Gail; Minogue, James; Tretter, Thomas R.; Negishi, Atsuko; Taylor, Russell

2006-01-01

468

15.1-inch touch tactical avionics display  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new avionics prototype has been developed combining a very large high-resolution display area with a touch panel designed for warfighter and civil-aviation use. This paper describes the design challenges as well as the prototype's capability and concept for application in airborne environments.

Hufnagel, Bruce D.; Barnidge, T. J.; Tchon, Joe L.

2008-04-01

469

Designing industrial batching system based on touch panel and PLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper make simatic touch panel and PLC for centre to design industrial batching system, using Wincc flexible as HMI configuration software. The designed system presents good functions such as dynamic real-time monitoring, auto-alarm, recipe supervise, print outcome and so on. It has advantages of stabilization, security, easy to operate and more faster, finally realize the system's batched and mixed

Huang Qian; QingHai Heng; Jian Sun

2009-01-01

470

A paperless fax machine with a single-touch panel  

Microsoft Academic Search

To eliminate the drawbacks of the conventional fax machines, this paper proposes a new paperless fax machine equipped with a single-touch panel, replacing the scanning and the printing units which not only take up most space but also are the most costly and vulnerable parts. In the proposed paperless fax machine, a received fax can be displayed and, if necessary,

Cheng Wen; Chih-Hung Huang

2008-01-01

471

Touching: Communication During a Quiet Activity. Occasional Paper No. 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports an exploratory study in nonverbal communication, which had two objectives: (1) to look closely at touching as a communicative behavior and to describe the categories of behaviors; and (2) to evaluate the "Form for Observation of Physical Contact," developed in a previous study. A total of 47 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, grouped in…

Anderson, Mary Lou S.

472

EXPLORING COMPUTER-GENERATED LINE GRAPHS THROUGH VIRTUAL TOUCH  

E-print Network

of this work is to provide blind people with access to graphs and tables by using virtual reality technologies and mathematical functions to blind people using haptic feedback [3, 6, 9]. However, the development of the haptic or visually impaired people. Computer-generated line graphs can be felt by users through the sense of touch

Brewster, Stephen

473

Sociality, Physicality and Spatiality: touching private and public displays  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers two strands of research that each contributes to an understanding of touch-based interaction with private and public displays. The first is based on general frameworks for private device-public display interaction, which is driven by the growing body of work in the area, but focuses on the level of integration of public and private devices and the importance

Alan Dix; Corina Sas; Devina Ramduny-Ellis; Steve Gill; Joanna Hare

474

Implementation of Expressive Physical Touch in Depressed Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression is a serious problem among older adults and there is limited research on the most effective way to implement and evaluate the effects of expressive touch, either alone or in combination with verbalization, on levels of depression. A convenience sample of 24 institutionalized depressed older adult subjects (15 females and 9 males), ages 67 to 91 years was used

MaryBeth Tank Buschmann; Linda M. Hollinger-Smith; Sharon E. Peterson-Kokkas

1999-01-01

475

Girls' Touch Football, Physical Education: 5551.03.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course outline is a guide for teaching basic understanding of fundamental skills and rules of girls' touch football in grades 7-12. The course format includes lectures, demonstrations, practice of basic skills, visual aids, lead-up games, presentation and practice of officiating techniques, tournaments, and written and skills tests. Course…

King, Kathy

476

Touch and Discover. Grades PreK-2.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students work in pairs or small groups to identify and categorize various objects. One student is blindfolded and the other student chooses five objects for his/her partner to identify. The blindfolded student has to describe and try to identify the object based solely on touch. Both students then record their data, describing the objects first as…

Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

477

Interaction Design Patterns For Multi-touch Tabletop Collaborative Games  

E-print Network

, many cooperative design patterns such as those investigated for board games and console-based videoInteraction Design Patterns For Multi- touch Tabletop Collaborative Games Abstract Characteristics be exploited in the design of interactions that facilitate positive social interaction among children during

Goh, Wooi Boon

478

High Touch in a High-Tech World  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a world of high tech and low touch, it is easy for public relations programs to stray from tried-and-true interpersonal strategies long associated with solid communication planning. New technologies allow communications professionals to quickly send e-mails and telephone calls to selected groups. Social media sites provide users immediate…

Gibson, Cindy L.

2009-01-01

479

Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors and trigger function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Electromechanical hand incorporates touch sensors, concealed fingers, and a structure that allows the hand to hold a tool on a flat surface. The hands can be mounted on most types of existing manipulators either directly or by means of modified mounting brackets.

Dane, D. H.

1970-01-01

480

Affective TouchCasting Leonardo Bonanni and Cati Vaucelle  

E-print Network

Casting.' We have prototyped such a device in the form of an apparently normal scarf that contains modular showing flexible haptic I/O modules (left) in a discrete fashionable scarf (right). Pilot studies on first-generation prototypes informed the design of actuators and patterns of touch that connote social contact. The second

Ishii, Hiroshi

481

TapTap: A Haptic Wearable for Asynchronous Distributed Touch  

E-print Network

therapy. Haptic input/output modules in a convenient modular scarf provide affectionate touch that can Therapy, Fashion Design. ACM Classification Keywords H5.2. User Interfaces: Haptic I/O. Introduction Human 02139 USA amerigo@media.mit.edu Cati Vaucelle Harvard University Graduate School of Design 48 Quincy

Ishii, Hiroshi

482

Interviewing Young Children about Body Touch and Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children ages 3-6 years were interviewed following a scheduled pediatric clinic visit to assess their ability to remember and report incidents of body touch. Follow-up interviews were conducted after one and six months. Results suggest that children actively and accurately process their experiences and that the quality and quantity of their…

Steward, Margaret S.; Steward, David S.

1996-01-01

483

Comparing Physical, Overlay, and Touch Screen Parameter Controls  

E-print Network

and movement tasks with dial and slider controls on horizontal touch screens. Results showed that physical. With physical electronics (stereos, sound mixers, oscilloscopes, etc.), people are accustomed to manipulating they are not very portable. Props must often be supported by a horizontal surface, making them impractical for use

Tory, Melanie

484

Design of a therapeutic robotic companion for relational, affective touch  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research has shown the positive health benefits of companion animals. Unfortunately these animals are not always available to patients due to allergies, risk of disease, or other reasons. Recently, this application domain has attracted attention of robotics researchers. The Huggable is a new type of robotic companion capable of active relational and affective touch-based interactions with a person. It

Walter Dan Stiehl; Jeff Lieberman; Cynthia Breazeal; Louis Basel; Levi Lalla; Michael Wolf

2005-01-01

485

The effect of relationship status on communicating emotions through touch.  

PubMed

Research into emotional communication to date has largely focused on facial and vocal expressions. In contrast, recent studies by Hertenstein, Keltner, App, Bulleit, and Jaskolka (2006) and Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, and Keltner (2009) exploring nonverbal communication of emotion discovered that people could identify anger, disgust, fear, gratitude, happiness, love, sadness and sympathy from the experience of being touched on either the arm or body by a stranger, without seeing the touch. The study showed that strangers were unable to communicate the self-focused emotions embarrassment, envy and pride, or the universal emotion surprise. Literature relating to touch indicates that the interpretation of a tactile experience is significantly influenced by the relationship between the touchers (Coan, Schaefer, & Davidson, 2006). The present study compared the ability of romantic couples and strangers to communicate emotions solely via touch. Results showed that both strangers and romantic couples were able to communicate universal and prosocial emotions, whereas only romantic couples were able to communicate the self-focused emotions envy and pride. PMID:21432672

Thompson, Erin H; Hampton, James A

2011-02-01

486

Lack of motor prediction, rather than perceptual conflict, evokes an odd sensation upon stepping onto a stopped escalator  

PubMed Central

When stepping onto a stopped escalator, we often perceive an “odd sensation” that is never felt when stepping onto stairs. The sight of an escalator provides a strong contextual cue that, in expectation of the backward acceleration when stepping on, triggers an anticipatory forward postural adjustment driven by a habitual and implicit motor process. Here we contrast two theories about why this postural change leads to an odd sensation. The first theory links the odd sensation to a lack of sensorimotor prediction from all low-level implicit motor processes. The second theory links the odd sensation to the high-level conflict between the conscious awareness that the escalator is stopped and the implicit perception that evokes an endogenous motor program specific to a moving escalator. We show very similar postural changes can also arise from reflexive responses to visual stimuli, such as contracting/expanding optic flow fields, and that these reflexive responses produce similar odd sensations to the stopped escalator. We conclude that the high-level conflict is not necessary for such sensations. In contrast, the implicitly driven behavioral change itself essentially leads to the odd sensation in motor perception since the unintentional change may be less attributable to self-generated action because of a lack of motor predictions. PMID:24688460

Gomi, Hiroaki; Sakurada, Takeshi; Fukui, Takao

2014-01-01

487

Line-of-sight sealed silicon carbide diaphragms for harsh environment sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon carbide (SiC) is currently being developed as a platform material for micro scale devices that operate in harsh environments. One vision of the future is an all-SiC sensor chip composed of crystalline SiC substrate, doped polycrystalline SiC structures, and sputtered amorphous SiC sealing layers. Such a chip would have minimal internal stresses over a wide thermal range. The chemical inertness, as well as the electrical and mechanical properties of SiC in harsh environments overcomes the limitations of traditional silicon-based platforms. The development of robust SiC devices requires fabrication techniques and a materials system that are compatible with the thermal budget and operational environment. This thesis describes a process for depositing wafer-level, SiC sealing layers for harsh environment sensors. An emerging method of diaphragm fabrication is a sealing technique that utilizes deposition of two thin films: a porous scaffold layer and a second sealing layer. This approach offers many advantages in comparison to traditional bulk etch methods such as improved wafer-level uniformity and reduction in die size. This work describes a novel approach for the fabrication of diaphragms by the utilization of an ion beam sputter deposition of amorphous SiC for line-of-sight sealing. The approach was developed to be compatible with harsh environment specifications and can be applied to applications such as vacuum encapsulation and pressure sensing. This thesis also presents the etching of SiC films and substrates, which is important for device feature definition. A high density plasma etch system was used to further explore the etching of SiC with SiO2 etch masks in HBr/Cl2 etch chemistries. An etch recipe was developed for the fabrication of a thin film SiC resonant strain gauge. In addition, the use of aluminum nitride (AlN) as an etch mask with SF6/O2 was investigated for the first time and demonstrated improved etch rates, selectivities and sidewall slopes. The characteristics of ion beam, sputter deposited SiC were investigated for the development of a low temperature, directional deposition technique. Amorphous SiC thin films were sputter deposited at low temperature (below 430°C), high vacuum (order of 10--6 Torr) conditions. The material properties such as uniformity, composition, residual stress, strain gradient, and stoichiometry were investigated. The results demonstrated that low temperature and ion-bombarded films resulted in high compressive stresses and strain gradients. Therefore, annealing was used to reduce the film stresses and gradients. The deposition process also demonstrated that controllable SiC stoichiometries could be obtained with this process as well as low temperature pinhole free films. In addition to the film properties, the film deposition topography was observed with substrate tilting. The results confirmed line-of-sight deposition topology which can be utilized as vacuum scaling films. The integrity of the sealing was tested with a high temperature chemical etch. In addition, a fabrication process to obtain line-of-sight sealed SiC diaphragms to be used for vacuum encapsulation and pressure sensing applications was demonstrated. The techniques developed in this work add to the library of SiC processes for harsh environment applications.

Jones, Debbie Gahaton

2007-12-01

488

23.2: Selecting Resistive Touch Panels to Match the LCD and User Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

A presentation and discussion of relevant criteria to be used by engineers, designers, product developers and end users in selecting resistive touch panels for use with flat panel displays for creation of touch- enabled Human Machine Interfaces (HMIs).

Bruce C. DeVisser

489

SilentSense: Silent User Identification Via Touch and Movement Behavioral Biometrics  

E-print Network

. By tracking the fine-detailed touch ac- tions of the user, we build a "touch-based biometrics" model], it would be god for devices to silently know exactly who is using it, so as to provide necessary privacy

Li, Xiang-Yang

490

19 CFR 4.82 - Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. 4.82 Section...TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Coastwise Procedure § 4.82 Touching at foreign port while in coastwise trade. (a) A...

2013-04-01

491

Impulsivity, Sensation-Seeking and Part-Time Job Status in Relation to Substance Use and Gambling in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although impulsivity, sensation-seeking and part-time employment have each been linked to risky behaviors in adolescents, their inter-relationships are less well understood. We examined data from adolescents to assess the following predictions: 1) sensation-seeking would relate closely to substance use and gambling; 2) impulsivity would relate closely to alcohol, drug and gambling problems; and 3) these relationships would be particularly strong amongst those holding part-time jobs. Method High-school students (N = 3106) were surveyed and provided data on impulsivity, sensation-seeking and part-time job status. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships with gambling, substance use (i.e., alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana) and related problems. Results Both impulsivity and sensation-seeking related significantly to substance use and impulsivity to gambling. Impulsivity had stronger associations with drug and gambling problems than sensation-seeking. Students with paid part-time jobs were more likely to drink alcohol, binge drink and use marijuana. Sensation-seeking had a particularly strong relationship to heavy cigarette smoking among students with part-time jobs. Conversely, there was little relationship between part-time job status and smoking among low sensation-seekers. Conclusions These findings further support the relevance of sensation-seeking, impulsivity and part-time job status to risky behaviors among adolescents. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity had unique relationships to risky behaviors, in accordance with theory and prior evidence. Impulsive adolescents may be in particular need for interventions to reduce drug use and gambling. While part-time jobs can be beneficial, parents and caregivers should be mindful of potential negative ramifications of paid work outside the home. PMID:24268362

Leeman, Robert F.; Hoff, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

2014-01-01

492

Hippocampal volumes and neuron numbers increase along a gradient of environmental harshness: a large-scale comparison.  

PubMed

Environmental conditions may provide specific demands for memory, which in turn may affect specific brain regions responsible for memory function. For food-caching animals, in particular, spatial memory appears to be important because it may have a direct effect on fitness via the accuracy of cache retrieval. Animals living in more harsh environments should rely more on cached food, and thus theoretically should have better memory to support cache retrieval, which may be crucial for survival. Consequently, animals in harsh environments may benefit from more