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Evaluating two extremity dosemeters based on LiF:Mg,Ti or LiF:Mg,Cu,P.  


Evaluation of a new extremity dosemeter is presented. The dosemeter is a passive device that is easy to wear and features a permanent individual numerical ID with barcode, a watertight case, an automatic TLD reader and database management software. Two dosemeters were studied: the first consists of a 100 mg x cm(-2) 7LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-700) chip and a 42 mg x cm(-2) cap, the other consists of a 7 mg x cm(-2) layer of 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P (TLD-700H) powder and a 5 mg x cm(-2) cap. Sensitivity, repeatability, lower limit detection, angular responses and energy responses for these dosemeters are studied and presented. The dose calculation algorithm is developed and its dosimetric performance accuracy is compared with the standard ANSI N13.32-1995, Performance Testing of Extremity Dosemeters. PMID:12382737

Luo, L Z; Velbeck, K J; Rotunda, J E



Dosimetric properties of new cards with high-sensitivity MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) detectors for Harshaw automatic reader.  


A new configuration for a thermoluminescent dosimetric card has been developed through collaboration between the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Kraków and several commercial dosimetric companies. The card is based on high-sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P circular pellets (MCP-N) welded inside synthetic foils. The basic configuration consists of two pellets of 3.6 mm diameter and thicknesses from 0.25 up to 0.38 mm. The cards can be processed in a standard 6600 or 8800 Harshaw automatic TLD reader. The dosemeters demonstrate very high sensitivity, low background and good stability. This article presents results of the performance tests of the new dosimetric cards in the automatic TLD readers and a comparison of their properties. PMID:17020912

Budzanowski, M; Bilski, P; Olko, P; Ryba, E; Perle, S; Majewski, M



The implementation in routine of the ENEA new personal photon dosemeter.  


The ENEA photon dosemeter, introduced in 1995, consisting of two differently filtrated LiF(Mg,Cu,P) detectors, has been modified recently. The ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) plastic support has been replaced by a new aluminium card supporting the same two detectors (LiF(Mg,Cu,P) GR200). The new card, fully developed at the ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute (which is going to be patented), can now be processed through a Harshaw Model 6600 Automated TLD Reader, a hot gas reader. This paper reports the results of the individual calibration of approximately 60,000 LiF(Mg,Cu,P) GR200 detectors inserted on the new aluminium cards. Before the implementation in routine of the new cards, the reader has been characterised. Steps and tests to be made to use the card in routine (i.e. reader stability, linearity, reproducibility, etc.) are reported. The whole dosimetric system now combines the very good performances of the Harshaw Model 6600 reader and that of LiF(Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescent material. PMID:16644988

Fantuzzi, E; Mariotti, F; Morelli, B; Uleri, G



An adapter for the Harshaw model 2000D TL analyzer system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potentially more versatile personnel radiation dosimetry badge, using TLD LiF-700 and LiF-600 chips, has been under development at the INEL. To read all four TLD chips from this badge without removing (or placing back after reading) one chip at a time, a unique adapter has been developed to provide the capability of reading chips in a Harshaw Model 2000D Automated TL Analyzer System. Only slight modification of the Harshaw Analyzer is required for using this adapter.

Gupta, Virendra P.; Cusimano, John P.; Parker, DeRay


Evaluation of Effective Sources in Uncertainty Measurements of Personal Dosimetry by a Harshaw TLD System  

PubMed Central

Background: The accurate results of the individual doses in personal dosimety which are reported by the service providers in personal dosimetry are very important. There are national / international criteria for acceptable dosimetry system performance. Objective: In this research, the sources of uncertainties are identified, measured and calculated in a personal dosimetry system by TLD. Method: These sources are included; inhomogeneity of TLDs sensitivity, variability of TLD readings due to limited sensitivity and background, energy dependence, directional dependence, non-linearity of the response, fading, dependent on ambient temperature / humidity and calibration errors, which may affect on the dose responses. Some parameters which influence on the above sources of uncertainty are studied for Harshaw TLD-100 cards dosimeters as well as the hot gas Harshaw 6600 TLD reader system. Results: The individual uncertainties of each sources was measured less than 6.7% in 68% confidence level. The total uncertainty was calculated 17.5% with 95% confidence level. Conclusion: The TLD-100 personal dosimeters as well as the Harshaw TLD-100 reader 6600 system show the total uncertainty value which is less than that of admissible value of 42% for personal dosimetry services. PMID:25505769

Hosseini Pooya, SM; Orouji, T



Uncertainties in dosemeter intercomparison techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of 180 intercomparisons of field dosemeters with an NPL secondary-standard exposure meter (type 2560, with a type 2561 chamber) have been analysed in order to study variations in readings when ionization chambers are interchanged during the comparison process. It is suggested that the percentage standard error of the mean of the combined series of chamber intercomparisons be used to set a target uncertainty (0.3%), action level (0.5%) and limit of acceptability (1.0%). The target uncertainty is consistent with IAEA estimates of uncertainty for this part of the calibration chain. It is shown that if the calibration procedure is repeated, the percentage difference between the geometric means calculated from each calibration (i.e. a single interchange of chambers) may be as high as . This reinforces the need for at least one repetition of the intercomparison procedure.

Harrison, R. M.; Rawlings, D. J.



Fast neutron dosemeter using pixelated detector Timepix.  


A Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors of different thicknesses is presented as a fast neutron real-time dosemeter. The application of different weighting factors in connection with the position of a signal in a Timepix detector enables one to obtain an energy-dependent signal equal to neutron dose equivalents. A simulation of a Timepix detector covered with polyethylene convertors using monoenergetic neutrons is presented. The experimental set-up of a dosemeter was also produced. The first results of detector response using different fast neutron sources are presented. PMID:24277875

Bulanek, Boris; Ekendahl, Daniela; Prouza, Zdenek



State of the Art in Electronic Dosemeters for Neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents an overview of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons in mixed neutron/photon fields. The energy response of commercially available electronic dosemeters in quasi-monoenergetic neutron fields and their performance in working places is discussed. The response curves are extended to high-energy neutrons up to 100 MeV, new prototype dosemeters are described and discussed especially for use at high-energy accelerators and in space.

Luszik-Bhadra, Marlies [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)



Operational experience of electronic active personal dosemeter and comparison with CaSo4:Dy TL dosemeter in Indian PHWR.  


Direct reading dosemeter has been used for day-to-day radiation exposure control and management for last four decades in Indian nuclear power plants (NPPs). Recently new real time, alarm and pre-alarm on equivalent dose/dose rate, storage of dose/dose rate and maximum dose rate, user-friendly electronic active personal dosemeter (APD) has been implemented into practice for the first time at Kaiga Atomic Power Station-3&4,  of Indian NPPs. The dosemeter showed tolerance level (L) 0.1085±0.0450 compared with 0.1869±0.0729 (average±SD) for CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter, having narrow range trumpet curve, nil electromagnetic interference. Records of >29 000 for APD and TL dosemeter were analysed for comparasion of the measurement of the individual dose. APD followed general acceptance rule of ±25 % for dose >1 mSv. Monthly Station collective dose by TL dosemeters and APD for normal reactor operation as well as outage are found in good agreement. Operational experiences and statistical analysis support that an APD dosemeter is reasonably equivalent to CaSO4:Dy TL dosemeter. The accuracy, reproducibility and repeatability of the measurement of radiation for (137)Cs are comparable with CaSO4:Dy, TL dosemeter. Operational experience of APD during the normal operation as well as outage showed as one of the best ALARA tool for occupational dose monitoring, control, management and future outage planning. PMID:23528326

Singh, Vishwanath P; Managanvi, S S; Bihari, R R; Bhat, H R



A neutron dosemeter for nuclear criticality accidents.  


A neutron dosemeter which offers instant read-out has been developed for nuclear criticality accidents. The system is based on gels containing emulsions of superheated dichlorodifluoromethane droplets, which vaporise into bubbles upon neutron irradiation. The expansion of these bubbles displaces an equivalent volume of gel into a graduated pipette, providing an immediate measure of the dose. Instant read-out is achieved using an array of transmissive optical sensors which consist of coupled LED emitters and phototransistor receivers. When the gel displaced in the pipette crosses the sensing region of the photomicrosensors, it generates a signal collected on a computer through a dedicated acquisition board. The performance of the device was tested during the 2002 International Accident Dosimetry Intercomparison in Valduc, France. The dosemeter was able to follow the initial dose gradient of a simulated accident, providing accurate values of neutron kerma; however, the emulsion was rapidly depleted of all its drops. A model of the depletion effects was developed and it indicates that an adequate dynamic range of the dose response can be achieved by using emulsions of smaller droplets. PMID:15353696

d'Errico, F; Curzio, G; Ciolini, R; Del Gratta, A; Nath, R



Calibration of Far West Technology (FWT-60) radiachromic dye dosemeters  

SciTech Connect

Radiachromic dye dosimetry was used to measure kilogray doses absorbed by various liquid samples during gamma-ray exposure in a spent nuclear fuel pool. The source of nuclear fuel was the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Calibrations were performed using a {sup 60}Co source and were run on bare dosemeters, as well as on dosemeters which mocked to simulate the samples. These dosemeters were prepared as a dye-impregnated nylon film and are commercially available. When exposed to gamma-ray doses of 0.5 to 200 kGy, a color change occurs which has an optical density proportional to absorbed dose. The difference in the calibration curves demonstrated the importance of irradiation of dosemeters under conditions as close to the actual samples as possible. Since these dosemeters could not be immersed directly in the organic solutions of interest, they were sandwiched between layers of lucite and stainless steel. This simulated the conditions inside an irradiated sample and provides a practical method of measuring absorbed doses. The reproducibility of measurements using the radiachromic dye dosemeters is also shown. 10 refs.

Mincher, B.J.; Zaidi, M.K.



Prediction analysis of dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters used at a MOX fuel facility.  


To predict how accurately neutron dosemeters can measure the neutron dose equivalent (rate) in MOX fuel fabrication facility work environments, the dose equivalent responses of neutron dosemeters were calculated by the spectral folding method. The dosemeters selected included two types of personal dosemeter, namely a thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosemeter and an electronic neutron dosemeter, three moderator-based neutron survey meters, and one special instrument called an H(p)(10) monitor. The calculations revealed the energy dependences of the responses expected within the entire range of neutron spectral variations observed in neutron fields at workplaces. PMID:21498409

Tsujimura, N; Yoshida, T; Takada, C



Preliminary survey report: control technology for manual transfer of chemical powders at Harshaw Filtrol Partnership, Louisville, Kentucky  

SciTech Connect

Health-hazard control measures, work processes, and existing control technologies used in the manual transfer of chemical powders were evaluated at Harshaw Filtrol Partnership, Louisville, Kentucky in May, 1984. The company employed 180 workers to produce inorganic and organic colors for the paint, printing, and coatings industries. The major dry ingredients were cadmium, selenium, lead, molybdenum, and chrome. Colors were made by mixing water and solid materials together in tanks from which the finished product was precipitated out. Solid materials were metered out from storage tanks or dumped from large bags into the mixer tanks. The precipitated finished product was metered from the mixer into bags and other containers. Local and general exhaust ventilation was provided along with safety glasses, hard hats, respirators, face shields, and protective clothing. Workers received health and safety training and were encouraged to use good work practices.

Godbey, F.W.




E-print Network

. The thermal flux density pattern in the irradiation facilities of a research reactor is subject to slow neutron dose. In the 5 silicon irradiation rigs in the DR 3 reactor thermal neutron dosemeters applying characteristics of the silicon material. The most convenient arrangement seen from a practical point of view


Pre-read and post-read annealing techniques for the Harshaw/Filtrol Inc. CaSO?:Dy beta TDL chip  

E-print Network

was focussed mainly in neutron and gamma radiation dosimetry. It wasn't until the accident at Three Mile Island (TMI) that extensive research into beta radiation dosimetry began. The post accident investigation noted a large number of deficiencies in the TLD... dosimetry. Currently, emphasis is on developing better phosphors, dosimeters, and thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for beta dose measurement. As part of this effort, Harshaw/Filtrol Partnership Inc. has committed to developing and marketing a TLD...

McCarthy, Daniel Patrick



Superheated emulsions as high-energy neutron dosemeters.  


Superheated emulsions being inexpensive, easy to fabricate, and having tissue equivalent composition make them as one of the popular neutron dosemeters. One more advantage is that they can be made insensitive to gamma rays by the choice of the sensitive liquid. It is observed that the response of commercially available bubble detector to neutron decreases above 20 MeV while its response is roughly flat in the 0.1-15 MeV region. This restricts its application as a dosemeter to high-energy neutrons. The response of bubble detector from Bubble Technology Industries, has been observed by using Pb-breeder for high-energy neutrons from different facilities in Japan. It is observed that 2-3 cm Pb-breeder is effective in increasing the response of the detector to the nominal value. Theoretical calculation using MCNPX code indicates an increase in neutrons in the energy range of 0.1-10 MeV with Pb-breeder. The present work indicates the possibility of using the bubble detector as a dosemeter to high-energy neutron using a Pb-breeder of proper thickness. PMID:15353668

Das, Mala; Sawamura, Teruko; Abe, Masashi; Kaneko, Junichi H; Homma, Akira; Fujita, Fumiyuki; Tsuda, Shuichi; Nishitani, Takeo



A method for evaluating personal dosemeters in workplace with neutron fields.  


Passive detectors, as albedo or track-etch, still dominate the field of neutron personal dosimetry, mainly due to their low-cost, high-reliability and elevated throughput. However, the recent appearance in the market of electronic personal dosemeters for neutrons presents a new option for personal dosimetry. In addition to passive detectors, electronic personal dosemeters necessitate correction factors, concerning their energy and angular response dependencies. This paper reports on the results of a method to evaluate personal dosemeters for workplace where neutrons are present. The approach here uses few instruments and does not necessitate a large mathematical workload. Qualitative information on the neutron energy spectrum is acquired using a simple spectrometer (Nprobe), reference values for H*(10) are derived from measurements with ambient detectors (Studsvik, Berthold and Harwell) and angular information is measured using personal dosemeters (electronic and bubbles dosemeters) disposed in different orientations on a slab phantom. PMID:21565843

de Freitas Nascimento, Luana; Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip



New concept of IEC standards for radiation protection dosemeters.  


The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) develops new standards for radiation protection dosemeters which follow a new concept. They are much more flexible in detail, but still ensure the same measurement quality. They are, for example, no longer specific for the detector type, but rather specific for the measurement task, e.g. for individual monitoring with active direct-reading instruments. Another example is that they are flexible with respect to the ranges of influence quantities. The conceptual changes are described in this paper, together with the advantages this new concept provides for manufacturers, users and legislators. PMID:18420572

Ambrosi, P; Behrens, R



An environmental-level, real-time, pulsed photon dosemeter.  


Radiation sources producing short pulses of photon radiation are widespread. Such sources include electron linear accelerators and field emission impulse generators. It is often desirable to measure leakage and skyshine radiation for these sources in real time and at environmental levels as low as 0.02 microSv per pulse. This note provides an overview of the design and performance of a commercial, real-time, pulsed photon dosemeter (PPD) capable of single-pulse dose measurements over the range from 0.02 to 20 microSv. The PPD may also be operated in a multiple-pulse mode that integrates the dose from a train of pulses over a 3 s period. A pulse repetition rate of up to 300 Hz is accommodated. PMID:15769803

Olsher, R H; Frymire, A; Gregoire, T



A TLD-based personal dosemeter system for aircrew monitoring.  


Evaluation of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) according to the high-temperature ratio (HTR) method enables the determination of the dose-average linear energy transfer (LET), the mean quality factor and the dose equivalent in mixed radiation fields of unknown composition. The neutron contribution is assessed by the Extended Pair method calibrated in the CERN-EU High-Energy Reference Field (CERF). The advantages of the small passive detectors as an easy-to-handle monitoring system for in-flight surveillance are demonstrated by measurements on-board north-bound and trans-equatorial flights. The experimental results are compared with calculations by the well-established CARI code. PMID:15353670

Hajek, M; Berger, T; Vana, N



1983 ORNL intercomparison of personnel neutron and gamma dosemeters  

SciTech Connect

The Ninth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted during April 19-21, 1983, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Dosemeters from 33 participating agencies were mounted on water-filled polyethylene elliptical phantoms and exposed to a range of low-level dose equivalents (0.02-0.45 mSv gamma and 0.49-11.14 mSv neutron) which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the radiation source for six separate exposures which used four different shield conditions: unshielded and shielded with steel, steel/concrete, and concrete. Results of the neutron measurements indicate that it is not unusual for dose equivalent estimates made under the same conditions by different agencies to differ by more than a factor of 2. Albedo systems, which were the most popular neutron monitors in this study, provided the most accurate results with CR-39 recoil track being least accurate. Track and film neutron systems exhibited problems providing measurable indication of neutron exposure at dose equivalents of about 0.50 mSv. Gamma measurements showed that TLD and film systems generally overestimated dose equivalents in the mixed radiation fields with film exhibiting significant problems providing measurable indication of gamma exposure at dose equivalents lower than about 0.15 mSv. Under the conditions of this study in which exposures were carefully controlled and participants had information concerning exposure conditions and incident spectra prior to dosemeter analysis, only slightly more than half of all neutron and gamma dose equivalent estimates met regulatory accuracy standards relative to reference values. These results indicate that continued improvement of mixed-field personnel dosimetry is required by many participating organizations. 15 references, 30 tables.

Swaja, R.E.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.



Factories: The Ionising Radiations (Sealed Sources) (Radiation Dosemeter and Dose Rate Meter) Order, 1961   

E-print Network

This Order prescribes the particulars to be contained In registers kept in pursuance of paragraph (3) of Regulation 13 of the Ionising Radiations (Sealed Sources) Regulations, 1961, of every test of a radiation dosemeter or dose rate meter....

Hare, John



An estimate of the propagated uncertainty for a dosemeter algorithm used for personnel monitoring.  


The Y-12 National Security Complex utilises thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) to monitor personnel for external radiation doses. The TLD consist of four elements positioned behind various filters, and dosemeters are processed on site and input into an algorithm to determine worker dose. When processing dosemeters and determining the dose equivalent to the worker, a number of steps are involved, including TLD reader calibration, TLD element calibration, corrections for fade and background, and inherent sensitivities of the dosemeter algorithm. In order to better understand the total uncertainty in calculated doses, a series of calculations were performed using certain assumptions and measurement data. Individual contributions to the uncertainty were propagated through the process, including final dose calculations for a number of representative source types. Although the uncertainty in a worker's calculated dose is not formally reported, these calculations can be used to verify the adequacy of a facility's dosimetry process. PMID:25009187

Veinot, K G



A comparison of the response of PADC neutron dosemeters in high-energy neutron fields.  


Within the framework of the EURADOS Working Group 11, a comparison of passive neutron dosemeters in high-energy neutron fields was organised in 2011. The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the response of poly-allyl-glycol-carbonate neutron dosemeters from various European dosimetry laboratories to high-energy neutron fields. Irradiations were performed at the iThemba LABS facility in South Africa with neutrons having energies up to 66 and 100 MeV. PMID:24298170

Trompier, F; Boschung, M; Buffler, A; Domingo, C; Cale, E; Chevallier, M-A; Esposito, A; Ferrarini, M; Geduld, D R; Hager, L; Hohmann, E; Mayer, S; Musso, A; Romero-Esposito, M; Röttger, S; Smit, F D; Sashala Naik, A; Tanner, R; Wissmann, F; Caresana, M



Feasibility study of extremity dosemeter based on polyallyldiglycolcarbonate (CR-39) for neutron exposure.  


In nuclear facilities, some activities such as reprocessing, recycling and production of bare fuel rods expose the workers to mixed neutron-photon fields. For several workplaces, particularly in glove boxes, some workers expose their hands to mixed fields. The mastery of the photon extremity dosimetry is relatively good, whereas the neutron dosimetry still raises difficulties. In this context, the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has proposed a study on a passive neutron extremity dosemeter based on chemically etched CR-39 (PADC: polyallyldiglycolcarbonate), named PN-3, already used in routine practice for whole body dosimetry. This dosemeter is a chip of plastic sensitive to recoil protons. The chemical etching process amplifies the size of the impact. The reading system for tracks counting is composed of a microscope, a video camera and an image analyser. This system is combined with the dose evaluation algorithm. The performance of the dosemeter PN-3 has been largely studied and proved by several laboratories in terms of passive individual neutron dosemeter which is used in routine production by different companies. This study focuses on the sensitivity of the extremity dosemeter, as well as its performance in the function of the level of the neutron energy. The dosemeter was exposed to monoenergetic neutron fields in laboratory conditions and to mixed fields in glove boxes at workplaces. PMID:17502314

Chau, Q; Bruguier, P



High-energy response of passive dosemeters in use at LANL.  


The high-energy neutron response of three passive dosemeters in use at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been investigated using metrology-grade fields. The dosemeters include the LANL Model 8823 TLD badge and the LANL PN3 track etch device. Both are dosemeters of record at LANL. The third device was the Personal Neutron Dosemeter (PND), a superheated emulsion device, manufactured by Bubble Technology Industries, Inc. (BTI). The response of the three dosemeters at neutron energies exceeding 10 MeV was assessed with monoenergetic neutrons at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt facility (14.8 and 19 MeV). For the sake of completeness, data collected at lower energies are also included in this study. High-energy quasi-monoenergetic beams produced by the cyclotron facilities at the Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) and the The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) were also utilised as part of this study. These measurements were made to better understand and help interpret dosemeter readings obtained by workers at high-energy accelerators, such as the 800 MeV spallation neutron source facility located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE). PMID:17522036

Olsher, Richard H; McLean, Thomas D; Mallett, Michael W; Romero, Leonard L; Devine, Robert T; Hoffman, Jeffrey M



Independent evaluation of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters for environmental monitoring.  


Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) 'dot' dosemeters (manufactured by Landauer®) are reported to have a high degree of environmental stability, high level of sensitivity and provide wide range of dose measuring capabilities from 0.05 mGy to 100 Gy. The optical read out method is fast and relatively simple and permits repeated read out, but few studies have been performed about its application in monitoring radiation in the environment. This study was initiated to independently test the performance of OSL dot dosemeters for the application of measuring doses of radiation in the outdoor environment. Testing was performed in the laboratory to evaluate reproducibility and stability and in the field to evaluate accuracy relative to calibrated high-pressure ionisation chambers. The results showed that OSL dot dosemeters had good reproducibility and stability in both laboratory and field tests and met the performance requirements of standards of the American National Standards Institute. PMID:20947590

Timilsina, Bindu; Gesell, Thomas F



Operational comparison of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors in fuel fabrication facilities.  


The authors carried out an operational study that compared the use of TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detector in plutonium environments of Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute, Tokai Works. A selected group of workers engaged in the fabrication process of MOX (Plutonium-Uranium mixed oxide) fuel wore both TLD albedo dosemeters and solid state nuclear tracks detectors. The TL readings were generally proportional to the counted etch-pits, and thus the dose equivalent results obtained from TLD albedo dosemeter agreed with those from solid state nuclear tracks detector within a factor of 1.5. This result indicates that, in the workplaces of the MOX fuel plants, the neutron spectrum remained almost constant in terms of time and space, and the appropriate range of field-specific correction with spectrum variations was small in albedo dosimetry. PMID:17337735

Tsujimura, N; Takada, C; Yoshida, T; Momose, T





This study aimed to validate a MOSFET dosemeter system for determining absorbed and effective doses (EDs) in the dose and energy range used in diagnostic radiology. Energy dependence, dose linearity and repeatability of the dosemeter were examined. The absorbed doses (ADs) were compared at anterior-posterior projection and the EDs were determined at posterior-anterior, anterior-posterior and lateral projections of thoracic imaging using an anthropomorphic phantom. The radiation exposures were made using digital radiography systems. This study revealed that the MOSFET system with high sensitivity bias supply set-up is sufficiently accurate for AD and ED determination. The dosemeter is recommended to be calibrated for energies <60 and >80 kVp. The entrance skin dose level should be at least 5 mGy to minimise the deviation of the individual dosemeter dose. For ED determination, dosemeters should be implanted perpendicular to the surface of the phantom to prevent the angular dependence error. PMID:25213263

Manninen, A-L; Kotiaho, A; Nikkinen, J; Nieminen, M T



Hp(0.07) photon irradiations at Seibersdorf for the EURADOS extremity dosemeter intercomparison 2009.  


In August 2009, almost 1000 passive extremity dosemeters were irradiated at the Dosimetry Laboratory Seibersdorf as part of the EURADOS intercomparison IC2009. Forty-four European individual monitoring services participated, with a total of 59 dosimetry systems (46 finger ring, 4 finger tip and 9 wrist/ankle dosemeter systems). Additionally, finger-ring dosemeters from the Dosimetry Service Seibersdorf were irradiated in a non-competitive manner. Dosemeter irradiations on rod and pillar phantoms in four photon-radiation fields complying with the ISO standard 4037 were performed with personal dose equivalent values (H(p)(0.07)) ranging from 4 to 480 mSv. Traceability was established by using an air-kerma-calibrated monitor ionisation chamber together with the X-ray facility as well as a calibrated (137)Cs gamma radiation field with a collimated beam geometry. The ISO-tabulated conversion coefficients from air kerma free-in-air to H(p)(0.07) were applied, resulting in the main contribution to the expanded measurement uncertainties. PMID:21208935

Stadtmann, H; Hranitzky, C



Preliminary studies to develop a personal dosemeter for use by aircraft crew.  


This paper describes preliminary work to develop a cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. The dosemeter is based on a combination of CR-39 etched-track detectors and TLD-700 thermoluminescent detectors. It is intended that the CR-39 be used to assess the neutron dose, while the TLD-700 is used to assess the photon and charged particle dose. The sensitivity of CR-39 to the neutron component of cosmic radiation was estimated by irradiating samples of the plastic at the CERN-CEC High Energy Reference Field Facility. This facility produced a radiation field with a neutron spectrum resembling that of the neutron component of cosmic radiation at typical airflight altitudes. The response of the CR-39 was linear over the range of doses studied (0.2-6.0 mSv) and there was no significant fading in the 6-month period after irradiation. The TLD-700 component of the dosemeter was calibrated using 137Cs gamma rays. The response of the TLD-700 was linear over the range of doses studied (0.01-5.0 mSv) with no significant fading in the 6-month period after irradiation. It was concluded that a combination of CR-39 and TLD-700 detectors would provide an effective cosmic-radiation dosemeter for use by military aircraft crew. PMID:11281525

Stokes, R P; Talbot, L



The measurement using passive dosemeters of the neutron component of aircraft crew dose.  


The cosmic radiation field at aviation altitudes can be measured with simple passive detectors. The non-neutron component may be measured by means of thermoluminescence dosimetry or other techniques, and the neutron component may be measured using poly allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) dosemeters as described in this paper. Effective dose from neutron radiation becomes the larger component for altitudes above about 10 km, in general. The dominance is more pronounced for higher latitudes. The neutron energies range up to the maximum of the incident protons, that is many GeV. However the majority of the dose is contributed by neutrons of a few hundred MeV and less, with two maxima in the fluence spectrum, one between 1 and 10 MeV and the other between 50 and 150 MeV. We have used PADC dosemeters, electrochemically etched, to estimate the neutron component of effective dose. Up to 50 dosemeters are used in a single measurement to obtain an estimate of sufficient precision for total neutron effective doses of 50 microSv and less. The neutron fluence response characteristics of the dosemeter have been measured up to 70 MeV. These are extrapolated up to 180 MeV. This extrapolation is validated, partially, by a comparison of measured and predicted readings in the CERN reference field. From the dosemeter readings for exposure on board aircraft, neutron fluence may be estimated assuming an isotropic radiation field and the estimated neutron fluence spectrum. The neutron fluence may then be converted to effective dose using published values of conversion coefficients with the same assumptions of isotropy and known fluence spectrum. For the measurement results reported here, the calculated spectrum for the CERN concrete shielded field is used. PMID:11541797

Bartlett, D T; Tanner, R J; Hager, L G; Lavelle, J



Testing the direct ion storage dosemeter for personal dosimetry in a nuclear research centre and a hospital.  


The direct ion storage (DIS) dosemeter can have some clear advantages in personal dosimetry. Before introducing the DIS into practice in the dosimetry service, a series of tests was performed on the linearity, angular and energy dependence, temperature influences and hard resets. After that, for several months, the DIS dosemeters were worn in parallel with the legal dosemeters (thermoluminescent badge) in a nuclear research centre and in several departments of a university hospital. The conclusions are that the DIS has good characteristics to be used as legal personal dosemeter, and that the comparison with the TLD badge is good. Only in interventional radiology and cardiology fields the DIS gives significant lower values than the TLD badge. PMID:19942626

Vanhavere, F; Covens, P



Response of dosemeters in the radiation field generated by a TW-class laser system.  


State-of-the-art laser systems are able to generate ionising radiation of significantly high energies by focusing ultra-short and intense pulses onto targets. Thus, measures ensuring the radiation protection of both working personnel and the general public are required. However, commercially available dosemeters are primarily designed for measurement in continuous fields. Therefore, it is important to explore their response to very short pulses. In this study, the responses of dosemeters in a radiation field generated by iodine high-power and Ti:Sapphire laser systems are examined in proton and electron acceleration experiments. Within these experiments, electron bunches of femtosecond pulse duration and 100-MeV energy and proton bunches with sub-nanosecond pulse duration and energy of several megaelectronvolts were generated in single-shot regimes. Responses of typical detectors (TLD, films and electronic personal dosemeter) were analysed and compared. Further, a first attempt was carried out to characterise the radiation field generated by TW-class laser systems. PMID:24563524

Olšovcová, V; Klír, D; Krása, J; Kr?s, M; Velyhan, A; Zelenka, Z; Rus, B



ENEA personal dosemeters for assessing Hp(10) and Hp(0.07).  


Although, at present, neither Italian legislation nor technical protocols require that personal dosimetry is performed to assess Hp(d), the ENEA Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) is able to supply thermoluminescence (TL) whole-body and extremity dosemeters for photon and beta fields, based on LiF(Mg,Cu,P) detectors and these have been fully developed at the ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection (IRP). All irradiation tests have been performed with ISO phantoms and ISO recommended reference radiations at the ENEA-IRP Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory. The whole-body dosemeter contains two LiF(Mg,Cu,P) (GR200) detectors that are filtered differently. One is filtered on both sides by 290 mass per area (270 Al + 20 plastic protective layer); the other is filtered on both sides by a plastic layer of 20 mass per area. In photon radiation fields, the maximum uncertainty due to the energy dependence of the response, is +/- 4% for Hp(0.07) in the energy range 13 keV to 202 keV, and +/- 15% for Hp(10) in the range 13 keV to 1.25 MeV. The dosemeter response in terms of Hp(d,alpha) in beta fields has been investigated recently. The results of a EURADOS trial performance test for photon and beta fields are reported and discussed in this paper. The extremity dosemeter currently used at ENEA IMS consists of a GR200 detector glued on a kapton strip identified by a bar code. Its response in terms of Hp(0.07,alpha) has been measured recently and the results are given. Moreover, different dosemeter assemblies have been tested to compare the performances in photon and beta fields. Therefore, the following three constructions have been prepared: (1) an MCP-Ns (8.5 mass per area) detector with a Mylar filter of 0.5 mass per area; (2) a polyethylene filter of 12 mass per area; and (3) a GR200 (210 mass per area) detector with a Mylar filter of 0.5 Finally, a brief discussion on international and Italian requirements for personal monitoring is given. PMID:11586726

Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E; Monteventi, F



Brazilian gamma-neutron dosemeter: response to 241AmBe and 252Cf neutron sources.  


With the aim of improving the monitoring of workers potentially exposed to neutron radiation in Brazil, the IPEN/CNEN-SP in association with PRO-RAD designed and developed a passive individual gamma-neutron mixed-field dosemeter calibrated to be used to (241)AmBe sources. To verify the dosimetry system response to different neutron spectra, prototypes were irradiated with a (252)Cf source and evaluated using the dose-calculation algorithm developed for (241)AmBe sources. PMID:21186217

Souto, E B; Campos, L L



Measurement models for passive dosemeters in view of uncertainty evaluation using the Monte Carlo method.  


Two measurement models for passive dosemeters such as thermoluminescent dosemeter, optically stimulated luminescence, radio-photoluminescence, photographic film or track etch are discussed. The first model considers the dose evaluation with the reading equipment as a single measurement, the one-stage model. The second model considers the build-up of a latent signal or latent image in the detector during exposure and the evaluation using a reader system as two separate measurements, the two-stage model. It is discussed that the two-stage model better reflects the cause and effect relations and the course of events in the daily practice of a routine dosimetry service. The one-stage model will be non-linear in crucial input quantities which can give rise to erroneous behavior of the uncertainty evaluation based on the law of propagation of uncertainty. Input quantities that show an asymmetric probability distributions propagate through the one-stage model in a physically not relevant way. PMID:24464818

van Dijk, J W E



Photon energy dependence of three fortuitous dosemeters from personal electronic devices, measured by optically stimulated luminescence.  


New data are presented with regard to the relative OSL sensitivity of three different emergency dosemeters irradiated to various photon energies approximately between 48 and 1250 keV using blue excitation light. Investigated components extracted from commonly worn objects include those from USB flash drives (alumina substrate), mobile phones (Ba-rich silicate) and credit cards (chip card module). Several basic properties have been investigated such as the overall radiation sensitivity, the shape of the decay curve and fading of the OSL signal. An increase of the sensitivity for low energies relative to (60)Co gamma rays can be observed for the three dosemeters, the increase being very pronounced for the Ba-rich component (factor of 10) and less pronounced for the chip card module (factor of 2). It is concluded that proper dose correction factors for photon energy have to be applied in order to accurately determine the absorbed dose to tissue. The OSL sensitivity to neutron irradiation was investigated as well, but this was found to be less than the gamma sensitivity. PMID:20304766

Beerten, Koen; Vanhavere, Filip





High-energy neutrons (>10 MeV) contribute substantially to the dose fraction but result in only a small or negligible response in most conventional moderated-type neutron detectors. Neutron dosemeters used for radiation protection purpose are commonly calibrated with (252)Cf neutron sources and are used in various workplace. A workplace-specific correction factor is suggested. In this study, the effect of the neutron spectrum on the accuracy of dose measurements was investigated. A set of neutron spectra representing various neutron environments was selected to study the dose responses of a series of Bonner spheres, including standard and extended-range spheres. By comparing (252)Cf-calibrated dose responses with reference values based on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients, this paper presents recommendations for neutron field characterisation and appropriate correction factors for responses of conventional neutron dosemeters used in environments with high-energy neutrons. The correction depends on the estimated percentage of high-energy neutrons in the spectrum or the ratio between the measured responses of two Bonner spheres (the 4P6_8 extended-range sphere versus the 6? standard sphere). PMID:25280480

Lee, K W; Sheu, R J



Efficiency of a radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeter for low-earth-orbit space radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chips of a radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeter (RPLG) were used for measurements of space radiation during a 9.8 d Shuttle-Mir mission (STS-91) at an altitude of 400 km and an inclination of 51.65 degrees. Two of RPLG chips were put into each of 59 positions in or on a life-size human phantom. The RPLG values equivalent to 137Cs gamma ray absorbed doses were found to be systematically lower than those of a Mg2SiO4:Tb thermoluminescence dosemeter (TDMS). In comparison with the organ or tissue absorbed dose and dose equivalent values that were estimated using a combination of TDMS and plastic nuclear track detectors, the efficiencies of the RPLG chips were about 80% for the water absorbed dose and about 40% for the dose equivalent. Whereas the percentage values will change during different missions, such additional information obtained from small RPLG chips is useful for improving the reliability of radiation dosimetry in space.

Yasuda, H.; Fujitaka, K.; Badhwar, G. D. (Principal Investigator)



Automation of radiation dosimetry using PTW dosemeter and LabVIEW™  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Automation of UNIDOS "Dosemeter" using personal computer (PC) is discussed in this paper. In order to save time and eliminate human operation errors during the radiation dosimetry, suitable software, using LabVIEW™ graphical programming language, was written to automate and facilitate the processes of measurements, analysis and data storage. The software calculates the calibration factor of the ionization chamber in terms of air kerma or absorbed dose to water according to IAEA dosimetry protocols. It also has the ability to print a calibration certificate. The obtained results using this software are found to be more reliable and flexible than those obtained by manual methods previously employed. Using LabVIEW™ as a development tool is extremely convenient to make things easier when software modifications and improvements are needed.

Weiss, C.; Al-Frouh, K.; Anjak, O.



A bio-dosemeter that utilises isolated enzymes to detect ionising radiation.  


The development of a biosensor for the detection of ionising radiation (biodosemeter) utilising the advantageous properties of the photosystem II (PSII) complex and its response to ionising radiation is reported. The transducer signal for this biosensor can be fluorescence, which is dependent on photosynthetic activity. Exposure of biological material to ionising radiation leads to a loss of function due to the destruction of critical structures. Radiation target theory predicts an exponential decrease in biochemical activity that is dependent on the absorbed radiation energy and directly proportional to the mass of the individual molecules possessing this activity. The activity is lost whenever the protein is hit since very high energy is transferred through the chain. Several approaches were used to optimise the immobilisation of PSII complexes to improve the sensitivity of the bio-dosemeter. PMID:12194312

Esposito, D; Pace, E; Margonelli, A; Rizzuto, M; Giardi, P; Giardi, M T



Two-dimensional differential calibration method for a neutron dosemeter using a thermal neutron beam.  


A new thermal neutron calibration method to experimentally determine the energy response function of a neutron detector using a pulse parallel beam and the time-of-flight (TOF) technique is developed. The calibration method was experimentally demonstrated for a (3)He proportional counter and an electric personal dosemeter using a pulsed thermal neutron beam from the research reactor JRR-3M. The responses of the detectors were successfully obtained as a function of neutron energy. However, detailed information on the detector structure is required to obtain the spatial response distribution for the detector. The authors further propose an improved calibration method obtaining the spatial response distribution using a pulsed narrow beam, the TOF technique and a beam scanning technique. PMID:23509397

Matsumoto, Tetsuro; Harano, Hideki; Masuda, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Jun; Matsue, Hideaki; Uritani, Akira; Nunomiya, Tomoya



Performance of the EPD-N2 dosemeter for monitoring aircrew doses.  


United States Air Force (USAF) aircrew fly at altitudes and for durations where doses from cosmic radiation are significant enough to warrant monitoring. This study evaluated a candidate radiological monitoring system for USAF aircrew, the Thermo Scientific electronic personnel dosemeter (EPD-N2). The evaluation consisted of characterising the device in a well-characterised radiation field at a European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) accelerator, and aboard an USAF aircraft. The performance of the EPDs was evaluated by comparison with accepted values for dose at the CERN facility, comparison with the value calculated by flight dose software and comparison with the value estimated by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter aboard the aircraft. This study recommends that a correction factor of 1/CF = 1/3.9 be applied to EPD-N2 measurements aboard aircraft flights. The uncertainty in this correction factor is 11.8 %. PMID:25108394

Scherpelz, R I; Cezeaux, J R



Calibration of an eye lens dosemeter in terms of Hp(3) to be used in interventional radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has reviewed epidemiological evidences suggesting that there were tissue reaction effects in the eye lens below the previously considered absorbed dose threshold. A new statement related to the eye lens was issued that changed the absorbed dose threshold and reduced the dose limits for occupationally exposed persons. As consequence, some planned exposures require eye lens dosimetry and a debate was raised on the adequacy of the dosimetric quantity and on its method of measurement. The aim of this work was to study the methodology for calibrating the EYE-DTM holder with a TLD-100H Harshaw chip detector and to determine its angular and energy dependences in terms of personal dose equivalent, Hp(3).

Borges, F. L. S.; Guimarăes, M. C.; Da Silva, T. A.; Nogueira Tavares, M. S.



Performance of the electronic personal dosemeter for neutron 'Saphydose-N' at different workplaces of nuclear facilities.  


This paper mainly aims at presenting the measurements and the results obtained with the electronic personal neutron dosemeter Saphydose-N at different facilities. Three campaigns were led in the frame of the European contract EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'). The first one consisted in the measurements at the IRSN French research laboratory in reference neutron fields generated by a thermal facility (SIGMA), radionuclide ISO sources ((241)AmBe; (252)Cf; (252)Cf(D(2)O)\\Cd) and a realistic spectrum (CANEL/T400). The second one was performed at the Krümmel Nuclear Power Plant (Germany) close to the boiling water reactor and to a spent fuel transport cask. The third one was realised at Mol (Belgium), at the VENUS Research Reactor and at Belgonucléaire, a fuel processing factory. PMID:16820401

Lahaye, T; Chau, Q; Ménard, S; Lacoste, V; Muller, H; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Reginatto, M; Bruguier, P



Measurements of non-target organ doses using MOSFET dosemeters for selected IMRT and 3D CRT radiation treatment procedures.  


Many expressed concerns about the potential increase in second cancer risk from the widespread shift to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) techniques from traditional 3-D conformal radiation treatment (3D CRT). This paper describes the study on in-phantom measurements of radiation doses in organ sites away from the primary tumour target. The measurements involved a RANDO((R)) phantom and Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor dosemeters for selected 3D CRT and IMRT treatment plans. Three different treatment plans, 4-field 3D CRT, 6-field 3D CRT and 7-field IMRT for the prostate, were considered in this study. Steps to reconstruct organ doses from directly measured data were also presented. The dosemeter readings showed that the doses decrease as the distances increase for all treatment plans. At 40 cm from the prostate target, doses were <1% of the therapeutic dose. At this location, however, the IMRT plan resulted in an absorbed dose from photons, that is a factor of 3-5 higher than the 3D CRT treatment plans. This increase on absorbed dose is due to the increased exposure time for delivering the IMRT plan. The total monitor unit (MU) was 2850 for the IMRT case, while the MU was 1308 and 1260 for 6-field and 4-field 3D CRT cases, respectively. Findings from this case study involving the prostate treatments agree with those from previous studies that IMRT indeed delivers higher photon doses to locations that are away from the primary target. PMID:17627959

Wang, Brian; Xu, X George



Assessment of effective radiation dose of an extremity CBCT, MSCT and conventional X ray for knee area using MOSFET dosemeters.  


The objective of this study was to assess and compare the organ and effective doses in the knee area resulting from different commercially available multislice computed tomography devices (MSCT), one cone beam computed tomography device (CBCT) and one conventional X-ray radiography device using MOSFET dosemeters and an anthropomorphic RANDO knee phantom. Measurements of the MSCT devices resulted in effective doses ranging between 27 and 48 µSv. The CBCT measurements resulted in an effective dose of 12.6 µSv. The effective doses attained using the conventional radiography device were 1.8 µSv for lateral and 1.2 µSv for anterior-posterior projections. The effective dose resulting from conventional radiography was considerably lower than those recorded for the CBCT and MSCT devices. The MSCT effective dose results were two to four times higher than those measured on the CBCT device. This study demonstrates that CBCT can be regarded as a potential low-dose 3D imaging technique for knee examinations. PMID:23825221

Koivisto, Juha; Kiljunen, Timo; Wolff, Jan; Kortesniemi, Mika



Advantage of 3D volumetric dosemeter in delivery quality assurance of dynamic arc therapy: comparison of pencil beam and Monte Carlo calculations  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of pencil beam calculation (PBC) and Monte Carlo calculation (MCC) for dynamic arc therapy (DAT) in a cylindrically shaped homogenous phantom, by comparing the two plans with an ion chamber, a film and a three-dimensional (3D) volumetric dosemeter. Methods: For this study, an in-house phantom was constructed, and the PBC and MCC plans for DAT were performed using iPlan® RT (BrainLAB®, Heimstetten, Germany). The A16 micro ion chamber (Standard Imaging, Middleton, WI), Gafchromic® EBT2 film (International Specialty Products, Wayne, NJ) and ArcCHECK™ (Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) were used for measurements. For comparison with each plan, two-dimensional (2D) and 3D gamma analyses were performed using 3%/3?mm and 2%/2?mm criteria. Results: The difference between the PBC and MCC plans using 2D and 3D gamma analyses was found to be 7.85% and 28.8%, respectively. The ion chamber and 2D dose distribution measurements did not exhibit this difference revealed by the comparison between the PBC and MCC plans. However, the 3D assessment showed a significant difference between the PBC and MCC (62.7% for PBC vs 93.4% for MCC, p?=?0.034). Conclusion: Evaluation using a 3D volumetric dosemeter can be clinically useful for delivery quality assurance (QA), and the MCC should be used to achieve the most reliable dose calculation for DAT. Advances in knowledge: (1) The DAT plan calculated using the PBC has a limitation in the calculation methods, and a 3D volumetric dosemeter was found to be an adequate tool for delivery QA of DAT. (2) The MCC was superior to PBC in terms of the accuracy in dose calculation for DAT even in the homogenous condition. PMID:24234583

Shin, H-J; Song, J H; Jung, J-Y; Kwak, Y-K; Kay, C S; Kang, Y-N; Choi, B O; Jang, H S



Energy response of different types of RADOS personal dosemeters with MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) TL detectors.  


The photon energy response of different RADOS (Mirion Technologies) personal dosemeters with MTS-N (LiF:Mg,Ti) and MCP-N (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence (TL) detectors was investigated. Three types of badges were applied. The irradiation with reference photon radiation qualities N (the narrow spectrum series), and S-Cs and S-Co nuclide radiation qualities, specified in ISO 4037 [International Organization for Standardization (ISO). X and gamma reference radiations for calibrating dosemeters and doserate meters and for determining their response as a function of photon energy. ISO 4037. Part 1-4 (1999)], in the energy range of 16-1250 keV, were performed at the Dosimetry Laboratory Seibersdorf. The results demonstrated that a readout of a single MTS-N or MCP-N detector under the Al filter can be used to determine Hp(10) according to requirements of IEC 61066 [International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal and environmental monitoring. International Standard IEC 61066 (2006)] for TL systems for personal dosimetry. The new RADOS badge with the experimental type of a holder (i.e. Cu/Al filters) is a very good tool for identifying the radiation quality (photon energy). PMID:21227957

Obryk, B; Hranitzky, C; Stadtmann, H; Budzanowski, M; Olko, P



The use of enriched 6Li and 7Li Lif:Mg,Cu,P glass-rod thermoluminescent dosemeters for linear accelerator out-of-field radiation dose measurements.  


(6)LiF:Mg,Cu,P and (7)LiF:Mg,Cu,P glass-rod thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were used for measurements of out-of-field photon and neutron doses produced by Varian iX linear accelerator. Both TLDs were calibrated using 18-MV X-ray beam to investigate their dose-response sensitivity and linearity. CR-39 etch-track detectors (Luxel+, Landauer) were employed to provide neutron dose data to calibrate (6)LiF:Mg,Cu,P TLDs at various distances from the isocentre. With cadmium filters employed, slow neutrons (<0.5 eV) were distinguished from fast neutrons. The average in-air photon dose equivalents per monitor unit (MU) ranged from 1.5±0.4 to 215.5±94.6 ?Sv at 100 and 15 cm from the isocentre, respectively. Based on the cross-calibration factors obtained with CR-39 etch-track detectors, the average in-air fast neutron dose equivalents per MU range from 10.6±3.8 to 59.1±49.9 ?Sv at 100 and 15 cm from the isocentre, respectively. Contribution of thermal neutrons to total neutron dose equivalent was small: 3.1±7.2 ?Sv per MU at 15 cm from the isocentre. PMID:21873634

Takam, R; Bezak, E; Liu, G; Marcu, L



Long-term stability of a TLD-based individual monitoring system.  


The thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system at the Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) of the Nuclear Technology Institute (ITN) at the Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety Department (DPRSN) comprises two 6600 Harshaw readers and the Harshaw 8814 TL card and the holder containing two LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosemeters for the evaluation of H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07). The readers are calibrated on a monthly basis and as part of the quality assurance programme implemented at the IMS a set of dosemeters is issued monthly to the DPRSN's Standard Dosimetry Laboratory for linearity measurements. The results obtained since November 2001 are presented. Fading and sensitivity change experiments are carried out every month covering 8 week periods so that enough time is given to simulate issuing, integrating and receiving times and respective delays. A set of 96 dosemeters organised in eight subsets of 12 are used. In each subset, four dosemeters are irradiated and stored at room temperature (RT), four are not irradiated at all and the last four are irradiated after storage. The 12 dosemeters of each subset are readout at the same time, one per week, covering the 8 week period. The results from the sets irradiated and stored at different periods allowed for the evaluation of fading and sensitivity changes experienced over the whole monitoring period and respective preparation time and readout delays. Time evolution charts of the reader calibration factors, of the linearity parameters and of the evolution of the integrated area in the region of dosimetric interest with storage at RT were obtained. This paper aims to quantify the long-term stability of the TLD system in use at the IMS. PMID:16987916

Alves, J G; Abrantes, J N; Margo, O; Rangel, S; Santos, L



FACTS II (Aspen FACE) Facility and Harshaw Forest Experimental Farm Facility  

E-print Network

CO2 and O3, alone and in combination, on aspen, sugar maple, and paper birch via examining: a. growth, 2005, as approved by DOE/USDA FS NCS/MTU SSHASP Effective Until: October 15, 2005 (if needed) Author (SSHASP) is to examine the interacting effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ozone (O3), alone


Chapter I: Geology of a Middle Tertiary Clay Deposit in thePatagonia Mountains near Harshaw, Santa Cruz County, Southeastern Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A middle Tertiary rhyolite tuff on the northeast side of the Patagonia Mountains in Santa Cruz County, southeastern Arizona contains lenses of calcareous low-swelling montmorillonite clay, as much as 10 to 15 m thick. The presence of the tuff has been known for years, but the clay has not been described previously. The clay lenses, which are virtually silt- and sand-free, were probably formed by diagenetic alteration of fairly clean ash-fall-tuff beds. In preliminary tests, the clay exhibited only about 9 percent shrinkage on drying and about 1 percent shrinkage on firing. Cracking and distortion were minimal in both drying and firing. Further testing needs to be done on the clay to determine its suitability as a specialty clay or as an additive to other clays.

Houser, Brenda B.



A comparison of personal dose equivalent measurements made by personal dosemeters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Individual monitoring services for external radiation were tested in the Czech Republic. The results of the tests show that they are dosimetry systems authorized and regularly tested in the Czech Republic having outliers for low energy region and angle of 50 degree and greater. With the highest probability, it can be stated that the processing equipment does not determine the angle of exposure reliably. These cases may have caused overestimations of Hp(10) in the special conditions occurring e.g. in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures.

Cechak, T.; Davidkova, J.; Kodl, O.; Novacek, P.; Papirnik, P.; Petrova, K.; Prasek, P.; Martincik, J.; Sochor, V.



Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft.  


Measurements were performed with various LiF based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the 7LiF detectors used (various types of 7LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues. PMID:12382941

Bilski, P; Budzanowski, M; Marczewska, B; Olko, P



The G-value for the ferrous sulphate dosemeter for the radiation from californium-252  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FeSO4 G-value for the mixed neutron and ?-radiation from californium.252 has been measured experimentally using ionization dosimetry. A value of 9.9 +- 0.7 was obtained for irradiations in air (?-component 31%) and 10.1 +- 0.8 in a scattering medium (?-component 43%). Calculated G-values for the neutron component alone were consistent with theoretical predictions.

D. Greene; J. Law; D. Major



Alarm inhalation dosemeter for long living radioactive dust due to an uncontrolled release  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MyRIAM is the acronym for My Radioactivity In Air Monitor and points out that the device was designed for personal use to detect any radioactivity in the air at the place and at the moment of danger. The active air sampling process enables a detection limit several orders of magnitude below that of Gamma detectors. Therefore, it is the unique way to detect dangerous exposures in time. Individual protection against inhalation of long living radioactive dust (LLRD) saves human life and health. LLRD may occur in natural environment as well as in case of nuclear accidence or military and terrorist attacks. But in any case, the immediate warning of the population is of great importance. Keep in mind: it is very easy to avoid LLRD inhalation—but you have to recognize the imminent danger. The second requirement of gap-less documentation and reliable assessment of any derived LLRD exposure is building the link to Dosimetry applications. The paper demonstrates the possibility to design small and low cost air samplers, which can be used as personal alarm dosimeters and fulfil the requirements mentioned above. Several test measurements taken by a mobile phone sized MyRIAM, shall be used to demonstrate the correctness of this statement.

Streil, T.; Oeser, V.; Rambousky, R.; Buchholz, F. W.



Relative response of alanine dosemeters for high-energy electrons determined using a Fricke primary standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant proportion of cancer patients is treated using MeV electron radiation. One of the measurement methods which is likely to furnish reliable dose values also under non-reference conditions is the dosimetry using alanine and read-out via electron spin resonance (ESR). The system has already proven to be suitable for QA purposes for modern radiotherapy involving megavoltage x-rays. In order

Sándor Vörös; Mathias Anton; Bénédicte Boillat



Detection of thermal neutrons with a CMOS pixel sensor for a future dosemeter  

SciTech Connect

The RaMsEs group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) is developing a new compact device for operational neutron dosimetry. The electronic part of the detector is made of an integrated active pixel sensor, originally designed for tracking in particle physics. This device has useful features for neutrons, such as high detection efficiency for charged particles, good radiation resistance, high readout speed, low power consumption and high rejection of photon background. A good response of the device to fast neutrons has already been demonstrated [1]. In order to test the sensibility of the detector to thermal neutrons, experiments have been carried out with a 512 x 512 pixel CMOS sensor on a californium source moderated with heavy water (Cf.D{sub 2}O) on the Van Gogh irradiator at the LMDN, IRSN, Cadarache (France)). A thin boron converter is used to benefit from the significant cross section of the {sup 10}B (n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction. Results show a high detection efficiency (around 10{sup -3}) of the device to thermal neutrons. Our measurements are in good agreement with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

Vanstalle, M.; Husson, D.; Higueret, S.; Le, T. D.; Nourreddine, A. M. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Univ. of Strasbourg, CNRS, 67037 Strasbourg (France)



TECHNICAL NOTE: Saturation correction for the NE 2560\\/1 dosemeter in photon dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agreement was obtained within expected uncertainty limits between theoretically derived corrections and those derived experimentally. The correction factor for general recombination in continuous radiation is expected to be valid for dose rates up to at least 1000 cGy min-1, which is unlikely to be exceeded in typical photon beams used for radiotherapy. For pulsed radiation it is expected to be

J. E. Burns; K. E. Rosser




Microsoft Academic Search

Absorbed dose rate measurements of a 50 kVp handheld X-ray probe source in a water phantom are described. The X-ray generator is capable of currents of up to 40 lA, and is designed for cranial brachytherapy and intraoperative applications with applicators. The measurements were performed in a computer-controlled water phantom in which both the source and the detectors are mounted.

Christopher Soares; Chris Drupieski; Brian Wingert; Garey Pritchett; Vasilis Pagonis; Michelle O'Brien; Alan Sliski; Pawel Bilski; Pawel Olko


Measurements of the high energy neutron component of cosmic radiation fields in aircraft using etched track dosemeters.  


Measurements of the complex cosmic radiation field in aircraft at altitude are made with a passive survey meter comprising routine-use thermoluminescent detectors and etched track detectors. The energy dependence of response of the etched track detectors used to determine the neutron component has been characterized, partly, up to a neutron energy of 180 MeV. The neutron detectors are routinely calibrated in the CERN/EC Reference Field. The 15% determination level for total dose equivalent is 100 microSv. The evidence is that the passive survey meter provides a reliable determination of route dose. PMID:11852944

Bartlett, D T; Hager, L G; Tanner, R J; Steele, J D



Comparison of Burlin cavity theory with LiF TLD measurements for cobalt-60 gamma rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cobalt-60 gamma-ray absorbed dose measurements were carried out using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters to obtain additional insight into cavity theory as applied to dosemeters of a size intermediate relative to the range of secondary electrons. Stacks of dosemeters (0.4 mm*3 mm*3 mm, hot-presses LiF TLD-100) were surrounded by homogeneous LiF, polystyrene, aluminium, copper or lead. The absorbed dose in the

O T Ogunleye; F H Attix; B R Paliwal




Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the distribution and abundance of hummingbirds at two study sites in southeastern Arizona, where we banded over 8000 individuals and 11 species in a 6-year period. We trapped approximately once a week from April to October at each site, from 1988-1992 at Sonoita, in oak woodlands, and 1991-1993 at Harshaw Creek, in a riparian area. Anna's ( Calypte

Susan M. Wethington; Stephen M. Russell



Preliminary study of a gamma-ray telescope relevant to neutron personnel dosimetry  

SciTech Connect

The objective was to use a gamma-ray dosemeter worn on the body to measure the neutron dose equivalent in the energy range <10 keV. It has been shown for cobalt 60 gamma rays that the reading of a 0.4 mm-thick LiF thermoluminescent dosemeter is only about half as large if irradiated just behind a Pb layer as if irradiated just in front of it. This report examines the possibility of using the ratio of TLD readings from dosemeters on opposite sides of a Pb filter as a measure of the relative dose contributions of gamma rays travelling in opposite directions. (ACR)

Attix, F.H.; Niroomand-Rad, A.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.; Lopez, F.; Pearson, D.W.; Paliwal, B.R.



RIS-M-2315 Fysisk-biologisk model for tunge ioners biologiske effekt og  

E-print Network



Extremity TLD high dose response.  


The Extremity TLD service provided by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) supplies dosemeters to 3200 wearers in various occupations, primarily in the industrial, research and medical sectors. The dosemeters and associated processing equipment were supplied by Bicron/NE Technology Ltd and the service in this form has been operating successfully for over 15 years. The dosemeter uses LiF powder, which is deposited onto the adhesive face of a carbon-loaded Kapton tape. This paper is a periodical re-evaluation of the system's high dose response. Whereas there are no UK requirements for extremity dosimetry services to hold approval for assessment of absorbed doses >0.5 Gy, it is useful to characterise how the dosemeter behaves at such levels. PMID:12382754

Perkins, D K; Gilvin, P J



An investigation of false positive dosimetry results  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.



Preliminary study of a gamma-ray telescope relevant to neutron personnel dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective was to use a gamma-ray dosemeter worn on the body to measure the neutron dose equivalent in the energy range <10 keV. It has been shown for cobalt 60 gamma rays that the reading of a 0.4 mm-thick LiF thermoluminescent dosemeter is only about half as large if irradiated just behind a Pb layer as if irradiated just

F. H. Attix; A. Niroomand-Rad; P. M. Jr. DeLuca; F. Lopez; D. W. Pearson; B. R. Paliwal



Characterization of irradiation cell dose rates at the Nuclear Science Center  

E-print Network

CHAPTER IV METHODS AND RESULTS. 14 16 16 18 25 32 A. Gamma Dose Rate Measurements. 32 B. Neutron Dose Equivalent Rate Measurements. . . CHAPTER V DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION. . . 53 86 REFERENCES . 97 APPENDIX A TLD ANALYZING PROCEDURE HARSHAW... (Member ) D. Hightower (Me r) G. A. Schlap (Member) K. L. Peddicord (Head of Department) May 1987 AB S TRACT Characterization of Irradiation Cell Dose Rates at the Nuclear Science Center. (May 1987) Eugene Lamarr Jeffords, B. S. , Florida...

Jeffords, Eugene Lamarr



Dosimetric study of thermoluminescent detectors in clinical photon beams using liquid water and PMMA phantoms.  


The purpose of this study was the dosimetric evaluation of thermoluminescent detectors of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO4:Dy) produced by IPEN compared to the TL response of lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti) dosimeters and microdosimeters produced by Harshaw Chemical Company to clinical photon beams dosimetry (6 and 15 MV) using liquid water and PMMA phantoms. PMID:22341404

Matsushima, Luciana C; Veneziani, Glauco R; Sakuraba, Roberto K; da Cruz, José C; Campos, Letícia L



Thermal aging of electrodeposited black chrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation of selective absorbing coatings for Sandia's Solar Total Energy Test Facility included electrodeposited black nickel, multilayer interference coatings and Harshaw's electrodeposited black chrome (ChromOnyx). Black nickel coatings, although having acceptable optical properties, were unstable at the operating temperature of the facility (approximately 310°C) in air and at lower temperatures in the combined presence of heat and moisture. Multilayer interference

R. R. Sowell; R. B. Pettit



Optimization of the photon response for a LiF thermoluminescent dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

A Harshaw LiF TLD card holder was optimized for maximum discrimination between different energies of irradiating photons in order to improve the dosimetric response. Since dose is proportional energy deposited, a theoretical model was created to estimate the TLD response by calculating the energy deposition. These results correlated with experimental data from NIST to within 20%. In order to increase the accuracy of the model, energy deposition calculations were made using the MCNP particle transport program. MCNP improved the correlation of the modeled data with the experimental data. Next, Harshaw`s 8825 card holder was optimized for photon energy determination by analyzing the card holder`s response with different filter materials and thickness. This analysis showed that increasing the copper filter thickness by 20 times and doubling the tin filter thickness compared to the original 8825 design improved the TLD`s photon energy determination response. The improved 8825 card holder was constructed and experiments were conducted at Armstrong Laboratories. The MCNP model predicted the experimental response of the card holder to within two standard deviations for all beams except M60. Finally, recommendations for a new card holder were made by Naval Dosimetry Center which included a modified filter for improved dose determination.

Carnell, R.C.



Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.



Intercomparison 2013 on measurements of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields in the African region.  


An intercomparison exercise on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) was jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers through its Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in the African region. This intercomparison exercise was aimed at verifying the performance of the individual monitoring services of the participants in order to assess their capabilities to measure the quantity Hp(10) in photon (gamma and X ray) fields helping them to comply with dose limitation requirements. The scope of this intercomparison was aimed at passive dosemeters, which determine the personal dose equivalent in photon radiation fields, mainly for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters. Twenty-seven countries from the Africa region and from outside Africa participated in this exercise. The intercomparison protocol, including the preparation of the dosemeters and the irradiation procedures, is described and the results are presented, analysed and discussed. PMID:24982261

Arib, M; Herrati, A; Dari, F; Ma, J; Lounis-Mokrani, Z



Dose evaluation from multiple detector outputs using convex optimisation.  


A dose evaluation using multiple radiation detectors can be improved by the convex optimisation method. It enables flexible dose evaluation corresponding to the actual radiation energy spectrum. An application to the neutron ambient dose equivalent evaluation is investigated using a mixed-gas proportional counter. The convex derives the certain neutron ambient dose with certain width corresponding to the true neutron energy spectrum. The range of the evaluated dose is comparable to the error of conventional neutron dose measurement equipments. An application to the neutron individual dose equivalent measurement is also investigated. Convexes of particular dosemeter combinations evaluate the individual dose equivalent better than the dose evaluation of a single dosemeter. The combinations of dosemeters with high orthogonality of their response characteristics tend to provide a good suitability for dose evaluation. PMID:21729941

Hashimoto, Makoto; Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso



Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system.  


An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station. PMID:11540052

Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I



Individual neutron monitoring in workplaces with mixed neutron/photon radiation.  


EVIDOS ('evaluation of individual dosimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields') is an European Commission (EC)-sponsored project that aims at a significant improvement of radiation protection dosimetry in mixed neutron/photon fields via spectrometric and dosimetric investigations in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry. In particular, new spectrometry methods are developed that provide the energy and direction distribution of the neutron fluence from which the reference dosimetric quantities are derived and compared to the readings of dosemeters. The final results of the project will be a comprehensive set of spectrometric and dosimetric data for the workplaces and an analysis of the performance of dosemeters, including novel electronic dosemeters. This paper gives an overview of the project and focuses on the results from measurements performed in calibration fields with broad energy distributions (simulated workplace fields) and on the first results from workplaces in the nuclear industry, inside a boiling water reactor and around a spent fuel transport cask. PMID:15353743

Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Bartlett, D; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Giusti, V; Gressier, V; Kyllönen, J; Lacoste, V; Lindborg, L; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Molinos, C; Pelcot, G; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F; Derdau, D



Radon contribution to the total effective dose of uranium miners.  


Exposure to radon and its decay products is one of the three parts that create the total effective dose of uranium miners. Photons from gamma radiation and exposition to long-lived alpha emitters which are members of uranium family are the other two parts. The monthly total effective dose of uranium miners in mine Rozna I (Czech republic) is determined by the personal dosemeter ALGADE, which ensures the continual individual monitoring of all three parts. The exposed dosemeters are evaluated in the National Institute for Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Protection in Kamenna near Pribram. This paper describes the individual parts of miners' total effective dose considering the different types of work activities and workplaces. The main input data are the evaluation results of the uranium miners' personal dosemeters ALGADE in mine Rozna I in the time period from 2000 till 2012. PMID:24723187

Otahal, P; Burian, I; Nasir, M M; Gregor, Z



Dosimetry quality assurance in Martin Marietta Energy Systems' centralized external dosimetry system  

SciTech Connect

External dosimetry needs at the four Martin Marietta Energy Systems facilities are served by Energy Systems Centralized External Dosimetry System (CEDS). The CEDS is a four plant program with four dosimeter distribution centers and two dosimeter processing centers. Each plant has its own distribution center, while processing centers are located at ORNL and the Y-12 Plant. The program has been granted accreditation by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). The CEDS is a TLD based system which is responsible for whole-body beta-gamma, neutron, and extremity monitoring. Beta-gamma monitoring is performed using the Harshaw/Solon Technologies model 8805 dosimeter. Effective October 1, 1992 the standard silver mylar has been replaced with an Avery mylar foil blackened on the underside with ink. This was done in an effort to reduce the number of light induced suspect readings. At this time we have little operational experience with the new blackened mylars-The CEDS neutron dosimeter is the Harshaw model 8806B. This card/holder configuration contains two TLD-600/TLD-700 chip pairs; one pair is located beneath a cadmium filter and one pair is located beneath a plastic filter. In routine personnel monitoring the CEDS neutron dosimeter is always paired with a CEDS beta-gamma dosimeter.The CEDS extremity dosimeter is composed of a Harshaw thin TLD-700 dosiclip placed inside a Teledyne RB-4 finger sachet. The finger sachet provides approximately 7 mg/cm[sup 2] filtration over the chip. A teflon ring surrounds the dosiclip to help prevent tearing of the vinyl sachet.

Souleyrette, M.L.



Dosimetry measurements using Timepix in mixed radiation fields induced by heavy ions; comparison with standard dosimetry methods  

PubMed Central

Objective of our research was to explore capabilities of Timepix for its use as a single dosemeter and LET spectrometer in mixed radiation fields created by heavy ions. We exposed it to radiation field (i) at heavy ion beams at HIMAC, Chiba, Japan, (ii) in the CERN's high-energy reference field (CERF) facility at Geneva, France/Switzerland, (iii) in the exposure room of the proton therapy laboratory at JINR, Dubna, Russia, and (iv) onboard aircraft. We compared the absolute values of dosimetric quantities obtained with Timepix and with other dosemeters and spectrometers like tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) Hawk, silicon detector Liulin, and track-etched detectors (TEDs).

Ploc, Ondrej; Kubancak, Jan; Sihver, Lembit; Uchihori, Yukio; Jakubek, Jan; Ambrozova, Iva; Molokanov, Alexander; Pinsky, Lawrence



Evaluation of a linear position sensitive neutron detector for powder spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A one meter long position sensitive detector was acquired from Harshaw Corp. for a small angle neutron camera operated by the University of Rhode Island at the 2 MW reactor of the Rhode Island Nuclear Science Center. In the course of testing the detector system, to determine linearity, resolution, stability and efficiency, it was employed in a powder spectrometer. Once geometrical effects are properly taken care of, it appears that the present detector, though not optimized for powder diffraction, permits collection of data essentially equivalent to that taken with the original step scanned detector though 15 times faster.

Chang, I.-Ping; Nunes, A. C.



Electrons in Atoms and Molecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The interactions of electrons with matter have great explanatory power and are central to many technologies from transistors, diodes, smoke detectors, and dosemeters to sophisticated imaging, lasers, and quantum computing. A conceptual grasp of the interactions of electrons in general allows students to acquire deeper understanding that can be applied to a very broad range of technologies.



Alanine and TLD coupled detectors for fast neutron dose measurements in neutron capture therapy (NCT).  


A method was investigated to measure gamma and fast neutron doses in phantoms exposed to an epithermal neutron beam designed for neutron capture therapy (NCT). The gamma dose component was measured by TLD-300 [CaF2:Tm] and the fast neutron dose, mainly due to elastic scattering with hydrogen nuclei, was measured by alanine dosemeters [CH3CH(NH2)COOH]. The gamma and fast neutron doses deposited in alanine dosemeters are very near to those released in tissue, because of the alanine tissue equivalence. Couples of TLD-300 and alanine dosemeters were irradiated in phantoms positioned in the epithermal column of the Tapiro reactor (ENEA-Casaccia RC). The dosemeter response depends on the linear energy transfer (LET) of radiation, hence the precision and reliability of the fast neutron dose values obtained with the proposed method have been investigated. Results showed that the combination of alanine and TLD detectors is a promising method to separate gamma dose and fast neutron dose in NCT. PMID:15353722

Cecilia, A; Baccaro, S; Cemmi, A; Colli, V; Gambarini, G; Rosi, G; Scolari, L



Review of radiological physics, dosimetry and biology research at the University of Wisconsin during 1961-1984  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a comprehensive review of the overall activities in this program since its inception in 1961. The most consequential development was the development of lithium fluoride as a thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD). Also studied were the potentialities of ionization chambers for use in personnel neutron dosimetry and applied microdosimetric research. (ACR)

Cameron, J.R.; Moran, P.R.; Attix, F.H.; DeLuca, P.M. Jr.



High-sensitivity thermoluminescence applied to environmental monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe the development of a new environmental TLD Dosemeter Badge and dose computation algorithm based on the new LiF:Mg,Cu,P material. LiF:Mg,Cu,P, with its high sensitivity, tissue equivalence, energy independence, and low fading characteristics, is a natural choice for environmental dosimetry. The badge consists of a card and a plastic holder. The card contains four LiF:Mg,Cu,P elements, each 3.2 mm square and 0.4 mm thick, encapsulated in TeflonR. The badge is symmetrical and uses four filters to discriminate low and high energy photons and to determine Directional Dose Equivalent, H'(0.07,(alpha) ), and Ambient Dose Equivalent, H*(10). Extensive data was taken based on irradiations of 920 dosemeters to both single and mixed fields of photons and betas. In addition, angular incidence data of various fields was taken. The approach to the algorithm is empirical and is based on this data. While most algorithms are based solely on perpendicular incidence exposure, this algorithm is being developed to account for the angular response of the dosemeter. This paper will present the algorithm for perpendicular irradiation; the angular response portion is in development. The dosemeter is designed to meet the criteria of the new draft standard ANSI N13.29, 'Environmental Dosimetry Performance -- Criteria for Testing.'

Velbeck, K. J.; Zhang, L.; Rotunda, Joe E.; Moscovitch, Marko



Correction factors for the ISO rod phantom, a cylinder phantom, and the ICRU sphere for reference beta radiation fields of the BSS 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) requires in its standard ISO 6980 that beta reference radiation fields for radiation protection be calibrated in terms of absorbed dose to tissue at a depth of 0.07 mm in a slab phantom (30 cm x 30 cm x 15 cm). However, many beta dosemeters are ring dosemeters and are, therefore, irradiated on a rod phantom (1.9 cm in diameter and 30 cm long), or they are eye dosemeters possibly irradiated on a cylinder phantom (20 cm in diameter and 20 cm high), or area dosemeters irradiated free in air with the conventional quantity value (true value) being defined in a sphere (30 cm in diameter, made of ICRU tissue (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)). Therefore, the correction factors for the conventional quantity value in the rod, the cylinder, and the sphere instead of the slab (all made of ICRU tissue) were calculated for the radiation fields of 147Pm, 85Kr, 90Sr/90Y, and, 106Ru/106Rh sources of the beta secondary standard BSS 2 developed at PTB. All correction factors were calculated for 0° up to 75° (in steps of 15°) radiation incidence. The results are ready for implementation in ISO 6980-3 and have recently been (partly) implemented in the software of the BSS 2.

Behrens, R.



g rmT7fCN)/f^. Ris-R-507 Experimental Investigation of the Suitabdity  

E-print Network

; COLORIMETRIC DOSEMETERS; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; DYES; EFFECTIVE CHARGE; ELECTRON-rays, and gamma rays has been studied experi- mentally as well as theoretically for detectors of a thir nylon with calculated data derived from a theoretical model describ- ing the track structure of heavy charged particles


Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 14, pp. 207209 (2002)  

E-print Network

207 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 100, Nos 1­4, pp. 207­209 (2002) Nuclear Technology for radiation detectors and solid state dosemeters. In previous work, mainly thermoluminescence (TL) methods§ School of Physics & Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978, Israel Nuclear Technology Division

Chen, Reuven


Personal neutron dosimetry in the space station MIR and the space shuttle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A passive neutron dosemeter based on nuclear track detectors and TLD's was used in 1995 and 1997 on the MIR station and in Space Shuttle flights to MIR. As it is equipped with neutron converters and shieldings of different types the track detector system allows the neutron dose equivalent to be determined in rough energy intervals. The results of the

M. Luszik-Bhadra; M. Matzke; T. Otto; G. Reitz; H. Schuhmacher



A preliminary study to determine the diagnostic reference level using dose–area product for limited-area cone beam CT  

PubMed Central

Objectives: The aim of this study was to measure the dose–area product (DAP) of limited-area cone beam CT (CBCT) units used by dental offices, and to evaluate the rationale of the DAP with an aid of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter in measuring radiation dose. Method: The DAPs of 21 CBCT units used in the dental offices of Tokyo and the surrounding areas from five different manufacturers were measured using OSL nanoDot dosemeter. An assembly of OSL dosemeters with an X-ray film was exposed by CBCT units at exposure parameters commonly used in each dental office. DAP values were then calculated as expressed in mGy?cm2. Results: DAP values ranged from 126.7?mGy?cm2 to 1476.9?mGy?cm2, depending on the units used. Conclusion: OSL dosemeter coupled with film can be utilized for a large-scale study to measure DAP. The DAP values for individual CBCT units depend not only on the field of view, but also on the exposure parameters adapted by the dental offices. PMID:23420859

Endo, A; Katoh, T; Vasudeva, SB; Kobayashi, I; Okano, T



Correlation of patient skin doses in cardiac interventional radiology with dose-area product  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of X-rays in cardiac interventional radiology has the potential to induce deterministic radiation effects on the patient's skin. Guidelines published by official organizations encourage the recording of information to evaluate this risk, and the use of reference values in terms of the dose-area product (DAP). Skin dose measurements were made with thermo- luminescent dosemeters placed at eight different



Comparison of conversion factors for x-ray beams from a Philips SL15 and the NPL linear accelerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Physical Laboratory provides a megavoltage photon calibration service for secondary standard dosemeter systems in terms of absorbed dose to water using a graphite calorimeter. It is therefore necessary to evaluate factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for all energies provided by the calibration service. A portable graphite calorimeter is currently being developed at the

R. F. Nutbrown; M. R. McEwen; R. A. S. Thomas; S. Duane; D. R. Shipley



Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders  

SciTech Connect

In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Rige, TN (United States)



Fire testing of bare uranium hexafluoride cylinders  

SciTech Connect

In 1965, the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP), now the K-25 Site, conducted a series of tests in which bare cylinders of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) were exposed to engulfing oil fires for the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), now the US Department of Energy (DOE). The tests are described and the results, conclusions, and observations are presented. Two each of the following types of cylinders were tested: 3.5-in.-diam {times} 7.5-in.-long cylinders of Monel (Harshaw), 5.0-in.-diam {times} x 30-in.-long cylinders of Monel, and 8-in.-diam {times} 48-in.-long cylinders of nickel. The cylinders were filled approximately to the standard UF{sub 6} fill limits of 5, 55, and 250 lb, respectively, with a U-235 content of 0.22%. The 5-in.- and 8-in.-diam cylinders were tested individually with and without their metal valve covers. For the 3.5-in.-diam Harshaw cylinders and the 5.0-in.-diam cylinder without a valve cover, the valves failed and UF{sub 6} was released. The remaining 6 cylinders ruptured explosively in time intervals ranging from about 8.5 to 11 min.

Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)



The High Dose Response and Functional Capability of the DT-702/Pd Lithium fluoride Thermoluminescent Dosimeter.  


The United States Navy monitors the dose its radiation workers receive using the DT-702/PD thermoluminescent dosimeter, which consists of the Harshaw 8840 holder and the four-element Harshaw 8841 card. There were two main objectives of this research. In the first objective, the dosimeters were exposed to 100 Gy using electron and x-ray beams and found to respond approximately 30-40% lower than the delivered dose. No significant effect on the under-response was found when dose rate, radiation type, dosimeter position on the phantom, and dosimeter material were varied or when the card was irradiated while enclosed in its holder. Since the current naval policy is to remove from occupational use any thermoluminescent dosimeter with an accumulated deep dose equivalent of 0.05 Sv or greater, the functionality of the dosimeter was also investigated at deep dose equivalents of 0.05, 0.15, and 0.25 Sv using Co and Cs sources as the second main objective. All dosimeters were annealed following exposure and then exposed to 5.0 mSv from a Sr source. In all cases, the dosimeters responded within 3% of the delivered dose, indicating that the dosimeters remained functional as defined by naval dosimetry requirements. However, the anneal time required to clear the thermoluminescent dosimeter's reading was found to increase approximately as the cube root with the delivered dose. PMID:25811149

Lawlor, Tyler M; Talmadge, Molly D; Murray, Mark M; Nelson, Martin E; Mueller, Andrew C; Romanyukha, Alexander A; Fairchild, Gregory R; Grypp, Matthew D; Williams, Anthony S



Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study  

SciTech Connect

The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a /sup 137/Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs.

Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.



A method of identification of abnormal glow curves in individual monitoring using CaSO4:Dy teflon TLD and hot gas reader.  


In the present study, a method of identifying abnormal glow curves to electronically screen the glow curves of TL readout is presented. The method is based on the fact that the shape of an abnormal glow curve differs from the shape of a normal one. A few criteria for defining the normal shape of glow curves are arrived at by analysing the glow curves of dosemeters exposed to various doses in laboratory conditions and read at different elapsed time post irradiation. About 300 glow curves of dosemeters used for monthly monitoring were analysed as per these criteria and the effectiveness of the method is observed for total counts as low as 150 µSv equivalent. PMID:21186222

Pradhan, S M; Sneha, C; Adtani, M M



A multi-detector neutron spectrometer with nearly isotropic response for environmental and workplace monitoring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This communication describes an improved design for a neutron spectrometer consisting of 6Li thermoluminescent dosemeters located at selected positions within a single moderating polyethylene sphere. The spatial arrangement of the dosemeters has been designed using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the response matrix for 56 log-equidistant energies from 10 -9 to 100 MeV, looking for a configuration that permits to obtain a nearly isotropic response for neutrons in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. The feasibility of the proposed spectrometer and the isotropy of its response have been evaluated by simulating exposures to different reference and workplace neutron fields. The FRUIT code has been used for unfolding purposes. The results of the simulations as well as the experimental tests confirm the suitability of the prototype for environmental and workplace monitoring applications.

Gómez-Ros, J. M.; Bedogni, R.; Moraleda, M.; Delgado, A.; Romero, A.; Esposito, A.



A method to characterise site, urban and regional ambient background radiation.  


Control dosemeters are routinely provided to customers to monitor the background radiation so that it can be subtracted from the gross response of the dosemeter to arrive at the occupational dose. Landauer, the largest dosimetry processor in the world with subsidiaries in Australia, Brazil, China, France, Japan, Mexico and the UK, has clients in approximately 130 countries. The Glenwood facility processes over 1.1 million controls per year. This network of clients around the world provides a unique ability to monitor the world's ambient background radiation. Control data can be mined to provide useful historical information regarding ambient background rates and provide a historical baseline for geographical areas. Historical baseline can be used to provide site or region-specific background subtraction values, document the variation in ambient background radiation around a client's site or provide a baseline for measuring the efficiency of clean-up efforts in urban areas after a dirty bomb detonation. PMID:20959341

Passmore, C; Kirr, M



A whole-body dosimetry system for personal monitoring based on hot-pressed thin layer TLD.  


We are introducing a new high-capacity thermoluminescent dosemeter (TLD) system to measure the whole body values of H(p)(10) and H(p)(0.07) from photons for use in individual monitoring services. Small and light-weight badges allow a convenient application in a wide variety of workplaces with photon radiation from 20 keV to at least 7 MeV. The main advantage of this system will be the large capacity of ? 100,000 dosemeters per month at costs equivalent to the current film monitoring. The hot-pressed thin-layer TL detector (LiF:Mg,Ti) is welded onto an aluminium substrate and provided with a data matrix code for automatic processing. The detector holder has been optimised, that no additional filter is necessary. The new designed TLD reader with readout times <10 s will allow a large throughput and a considerable degree of automation. PMID:21227958

Busch, F; Engelhardt, J; Martini, E; Lesz, J



Review of bubble detector response characteristics and results from space.  


A passive neutron-bubble dosemeter (BD), developed by Bubble Technology Industries, has been used for space applications. Both the bubble detector-personal neutron dosemeter and bubble detector spectrometer have been studied at ground-based facilities in order to characterise their response due to neutrons, heavy ion particles and protons. This technology was first used during the Canadian-Russian collaboration aboard the Russian satellite BION-9, and subsequently on other space missions, including later BION satellites, the space transportation system, Russian MIR space station and International Space Station. This paper provides an overview of the experiments that have been performed for both ground-based and space studies in an effort to characterise the response of these detectors to various particle types in low earth orbit and presents results from the various space investigations. PMID:21890528

Lewis, B J; Smith, M B; Ing, H; Andrews, H R; Machrafi, R; Tomi, L; Matthews, T J; Veloce, L; Shurshakov, V; Tchernykh, I; Khoshooniy, N



A practical method to evaluate radiofrequency exposure of mast workers.  


Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in telecommunication transmitter masts is a challenging task. For conventional field strength measurements using manually operated instruments, it is difficult to document the locations of measurements while climbing up a mast. Logging RF dosemeters worn by the workers, on the other hand, do not give any information about the location of the exposure. In this study, a practical method was developed and applied to assess mast workers' exposure to RF fields and the corresponding location. This method uses a logging dosemeter for personal RF exposure evaluation and two logging barometers to determine the corresponding height of the worker's position on the mast. The procedure is not intended to be used for compliance assessments, but to indicate locations where stricter assessments are needed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by making measurements in a TV and radio transmitting mast. PMID:19054796

Alanko, Tommi; Hietanen, Maila



A A field test for extremity dose assessment during outages at Korean nuclear power plants.  


During maintenance on the water chamber of a steam generator, the pressuriser heater and the pressure tube feeder in nuclear power plants, workers are likely to receive high radiation doses due to the severe workplace conditions. In particular, it is expected that workers' hands would receive the highest radiation doses because of their contact with the radioactive materials. In this study, field tests for extremity dose assessments in radiation workers undertaking contact tasks with high radiation doses were conducted during outages at pressurised water reactors and pressurised heavy water reactors in Korea. In the test, the radiation workers were required to wear additional thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) on their backs and wrists and an extremity dosemeter on the finger, as well as a main TLD on the chest while performing the maintenance tasks. PMID:23091221

Kim, Hee Geun; Kong, Tae Young



Technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center quality assurance programme.  


The purpose of this paper is to describe the technical aspects of the Naval Dosimetry Center (NDC) quality programme. The Navy has been formally monitoring personnel for occupational exposure to ionising radiation since at least 1946. The current system, the DT-702/PD, is the Harshaw 8840 holder and 8841 card. New card and holder checks are performed to verify that the correct LiF elements and holder filters are in the correct location and are of the correct composition. Element correction coefficient (ECC) magnitude and repeatability are also verified. Several quality assurance parameters are checked by a specially designed shipping machine. Calibration cards are used to calibrate each reader and quality control cards are inserted throughout a group of field cards to verify reader operation during the read process. The success of the programme is measured by annual proficiency tests administered by the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Programme and Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. PMID:16757494

St John, T J; Cassata, J R; Blake, P K; Wallace, W H; Minniti, R



Stereotactic radiosurgery dosimetry using thermoluminescent dosimeters and radiochromic films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present a protocol to measure absorbed dose distributions in stereotactic radiosurgery treatments with a linear accelerator (Linac) using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) and radiochromic dye films. A Linac Philips SL-15 (6 MV X-rays), a ZD2 stereoactic system for localizing the target via computed tomography (CT), and Leibinger radiosurgery accessories will be used. A versatile spherical acrylic phantom of 16 cm diameter to measure the dose distributions has been designed. The phantom is composed of two hemispheres. On one flat side of the hemispheres an array of Harshaw/Bicron TLD-100 or a sheet of GafChromic MD-55 film will be placed. The phantom will be irradiated in three different orientations to obtain spatial dose distributions in the coronal, sagital and transverse planes. The experimental measurement will be compared with the results provided by a commercial treatment-planning system.

Ávila-Rodríguez, Miguel A.; Rodríguez-Villafuerte, Mercedes; Perches, Rodolfo Díaz



NOTE: Determination of the recombination correction factor kS for some specific plane-parallel and cylindrical ionization chambers in pulsed photon and electron beams  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown from an evaluation of the inverse reading of the dosemeter (1\\/M) against the inverse of the polarizing voltage (1\\/V), obtained with a number of commercially available ionization chambers, using dose per pulse values between 0.16 and 5 mGy, that a linear relationship between the recombination correction factor kS and dose per pulse (DPP) can be found.

G. Bruggmoser; R. Saum; A. Schmachtenberg; F. Schmid; E. Schüle



Neutron beam dosimetry at the NRL cyclotron  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 35 MeV deuteron beam impinging upon a thick Be target is being employed to generate a neutron beam for radiobiological experiments of relevance to later possible fast neutron therapy trials. The primary calibration of the beam has been based upon tissue-equivalent plastic ionization chambers, calibrated in turn with 60Co gamma -rays. CaF2:Mn and 7LiF (TLD-700) thermoluminescent dosemeters have been

F. H. Attix; R. B. Theus; P. Shapiro; R. E. Surratt; A. E. Nash; S. G. Gorbics



The recombination correction for an ionisation chamber exposed to pulsed radiation in a 'swept beam' technique. II. Experimental  

Microsoft Academic Search

For pt.I see ibid., vol.27, no.2, p.201-11, 1982. A series of exposure measurements is reported using an NPL dosemeter in the swept electron beam of a Sagittaire linear accelerator at energies of 6, 9, 13, 17 and 20 MeV, at two dose rates and at four values of the collecting voltage on the ionisation chamber. The true exposure value, corresponding

I. Majenka; J. Rostkowska; M. Derezinski; N. Paz



A measurement of WN\\/e for methane-based tissue-equivalent gas in a d(4)Be neutron field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of absorbed dose were carried out in a d(4)-Be neutron field using tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic ionisation chambers and a TE plastic calorimeter in a TE plastic phantom. The gamma -ray dose fraction at the same position was measured using two types of Geiger-Muller (GM) dosemeters. Good agreement was found in the absorbed dose as determined by the use of

R. L. Maughan; J. C. McDonald; B. D. Michael; I.-Chang Ma



Measurement by room-temperature phosphorescence of polynuclear aromatics containing hydrocarbon fuels that permeate glove materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permeations of commonly used glove materials by polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in hydrocarbon fuels were measured with solid-state dosemeters composed of filter paper. The permeated PNA were sorbed by the filter paper and analyzed in situ using room-temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy. This technique provided a simple, cost-effective, and very sensitive means for measuring breakthrough times and permeation rates of the class

R. B. Gammage; D. A. White; T. Vo-Dinh



Intercomparison on measurements of the quantity personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields in the African region.  


An intercomparison was arranged by the International Atomic Energy Agency for the African region for personal dose equivalent. This was arranged with a view to helping member states to comply with dose limitation requirements and to harmonise the use of internationally agreed quantities and recommended assessment methods. The scope of the intercomparison was aimed at passive dosemeters, which determine the personal dose equivalent in photon radiation fields. The comparison protocol is presented together with the results. PMID:21112891

Msimang, Z; Cruz-Suárez, R; Zeger, J



Dose mapping of a 60Co irradiation facility using PENELOPE and MCNPX and its validation by chemical dosimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo simulation programs PENELOPE and MCNPX have been used for simulating the dose rate distribution in a 60Co gamma irradiator.The simulated isodose curves obtained for each simulation code were validated comparing them to the dose measurements performed with a Fricke solution, which is a standard dosemeter widely used in radiation processing for calibration purposes.The agreement between the simulated

A. Belchior; M. L. Botelho; L. Peralta; P. Vaz





Passive integrating dosemeters [thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)] are the only legally permitted individual dosemeters for occupational external radiation exposure monitoring in Korea. Also its maximum issuing cycle does not exceed 3 months, and the Korean regulations require personal dosemeters for official assessment of external radiation exposure to be issued by an approved or rather an accredited dosimetry service according to ISO/IEC 17025. KHNP (Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power, LTD), a unique operating company of nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Korea, currently has a plan to extend a TLD issuing cycle from 1 to 3 months under the authors' fading error criteria, ±10 %. The authors have performed a feasibility study that minimises post-irradiation fading effects within their maximum reading cycle employing pre-heating technique. They repeatedly performed irradiation/reading a bare TLD chip to determine optimum pre-heating conditions by analysing each glow curve. The optimum reading conditions within the maximum reading cycle of 3 months were decided: a pre-heating temperature of 165°C, a pre-heating time of 9 s, a heating rate of 25°C s(-1), a reading temperature of 300°C and an acquisition time of 10 s. The fading result of TLD-600 and TLD-700 carried by newly developed time temperature profile (TTP) showed a much smaller fading effect than that of current TTP. The result showed that the fading error due to a developed TTP resulted in a ?5 % signal loss, whereas a current TTP caused a ?15 % loss. The authors also carried out a legal performance test on newly developed TTP to confirm its possibility as an official dosemeter. The legal performance tests that applied the developed TTP satisfied the criteria for all the test categories. PMID:25301971

Lee, YoungJu; Won, Yuho; Kang, Kidoo



Evaluation of spurious readings in Los Alamos personnel TL dosimeters  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the possibility of tritium build-up in TLD-600 chips irradiated with neutrons and the causes of spurious readings in the Harshaw TLD cards used for personnel dosimetry. Experiments indicated that spurious readings in TLD-600 chips, previously irradiated with neutrons, might occur in cases where the cards had been accidentally read at temperatures lower than 300/sup 0/C as a result of bad contact between the hot finger in the reading system and the chips. Because a TLD card contains glue and paper bar-code labels, the postannealing is performed at 80/sup 0/C for 17 hours. This annealing procedure alone does not effectively deplete the high-energy traps, such as those near 260/sup 0/C, populated by high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) particles. TLD-600 chips, irradiated on a phantom by 400 mrem of moderated fission neutrons, read at 240/sup 0/C, annealed at 80/sup 0/C for 17 hours, and then reread at 280/sup 0/C, showed residual doses as large as 200 mrem (equivalent photons). Calculations and experiments show that for neutron exposures around 1 rem of moderated fission neutrons with an average energy of 500 keV, the maximum build-up of dose as a result of tritium formation is less than 1 mrem. The dose build-up in properly annealed TLD-600 and TLD-700 chips, is nearly the same, even though the TLD-600 chips were previously irradiated by neutrons. Both kinds of chips show natural background accumulation. A mechanism for annealing the Harshaw cards at high temperatures, without destroying the label or the adhesive material, was developed and found to be useful. 7 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

Eisen, Y.; Littlejohn, G.J.; Cortez, J.R.



Low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies (7 to 17.5 keV) with synchroton radiation  

SciTech Connect

Unique properties of synchrotron radiation (SR), such as its high intensity, brightness, polarization, and broad spectral distribution (extending from x-ray to infra-red wavelengths) make it an attractive light source for numerous experiments. As SR facilities are rapidly being built all over the world, they introduce the need for low-energy x-ray dosemeters because of the potential radiation exposure to experimenters. However, they also provide a unique opportunity for low-energy x-ray dosimetry studies because of the availability of monochromatic x-ray beams. Results of such studies performed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory are described. Lithium fluoride TLDs (TLD-100) of varying thicknesses (0.015 to 0.08 cm) were exposed free in air to monochromatic x-rays (7 to 17.5 keV). These exposures were monitored with ionization chambers. The response (nC/Gy) was found to increase with increasing TLD thickness and with increasing beam energy. A steeper increase in response with increasing energy was observed with the thicker TLDs. The responses at 7 and 17.5 keV were within a factor of 2.3 and 5.2 for the 0.015 and 0.08 cm-thick TLDs, respectively. The effects of narrow (beam size smaller than the dosemeter) and broad (beam size larger than the dosemeter) beams on the response of the TLDs are also reported.

Ipe, N.E.; Bellamy, H.; Flood, J.R. [and others



Characterisation of OSL and OSLN droplets for dosimetry.  


In spite of considerable progress in neutron dosimetry, there is no dosemeter that is capable of measuring neutron doses independently of the neutron spectrum with good accuracy. Carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C) is a sensitive material for ionising radiation (beta-ray, X ray and electron) and has been used for applications in personal and medical dosimetry as an optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosemeter. Al2O3:C has a low sensitivity to neutron radiation; this prevents its application to neutron fields, representing a disadvantage of Al2O3:C-OSL when compared with LiF, which is used as a thermoluminescent detector. Recently an improvement for neutron dosimetry (Passmore and Kirr. Neutron response characterisation of an OSL neutron dosemeter. Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 2011; 144: 155-60) uses Al2O3:C coated with (6)Li2CO3 (OSLN),which gives the high-sensitive response as known for Al2O3:C with the advantage of being also sensitive to thermal neutrons. In this article, the authors compare small-size detectors (droplets) of Al2O3:C (OSL) and of Al2O3:C+(6)Li2CO3 (OSLN) and discuss the advantages and drawbacks of both materials, regarding size vs. response. PMID:24381203

Nascimento, L F; D'Agostino, E; Vaniqui, A C S; Saldarriaga, C; Vanhavere, F; De Deene, Y



Characterisation of neutron fields: challenges in assessing the directional distribution.  


The SCK·CEN has carried out neutron field characterisation campaigns at several nuclear reactors. The main goal of these measurement campaigns was to evaluate the performance of different neutron personal dosemeters. To be able to evaluate the performance of neutron personal dosemeters in terms of Hp(10), knowledge of the directional distribution is indispensable. This distribution was estimated by placing several personal dosemeters on all six sides of a slab phantom. The interpretation and conversion of this information into a reliable value for Hp(10) requires great care. The data were analysed using three methods. In the first approach, a linear interpolation was performed on three perpendicular axes. In the other two approaches, an icosahedron was used to model the angle of incidence of the neutrons and a linear interpolation or a Bayesian analysis was performed. This study describes the limitations and advantages of each of these methods and provides recommendations for their use to estimate the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) for neutron dosimetry. PMID:24966340

Cauwels, Vanessa; Vanhavere, Filip; Reginatto, Marcel



Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología Department of Nuclear Medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with 137Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrología, to known 137Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are 131I, 18F, 67Ga, 99mTc, 111In, 201Tl and 137Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with 131I and 137Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of 137Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the 137Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51±0.02)×10-3 mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05±0.03)×10-3 mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Ávila, O.; Torres-Ulloa, C. L.; Medina, L. A.; Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E.; de Buen, I. Gamboa; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E.



Dose received by occupationally exposed workers at a nuclear medicine department  

SciTech Connect

Personal Dose Equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of 'Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia' (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In and {sup 11}C with main gamma emission energies between 140 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of 'Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares' (ININ), Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosimeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and 9 mSv. The mean annual value is 3.51 mSv and the standard deviation SD is 0.78 mSv. Four of the 16 OEW received annual doses higher than the average +1 SD (4.29 mSv). Results depend on OEW daily activities and were consistent for each OEW for the 5 studied periods as well as with PDE values reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the {sup R}eglamento General de Seguridad Radiologica{sup ,} Mexico (50 mSv), as well as within the lower limit recommended by the 'International Commission on Radiation Protection' (ICRP), report no.60 (20 mSv). These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the norms given by the national regulatory commission.

Avila, O.; Sanchez-Uribe, N. A.; Rodriguez-Laguna, A.; Medina, L. A.; Estrada, E.; Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico) and Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico) and Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando No.22 C.P. 4080 (Mexico); Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando No.22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico)



Ambient Dose Equivalent measured at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia Department of Nuclear Medicine  

SciTech Connect

Ambient dose equivalent values were determined in several sites at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Departmento de Medicina Nuclear, using TLD-100 and TLD-900 thermoluminescent dosemeters. Additionally, ambient dose equivalent was measured at a corridor outside the hospitalization room for patients treated with {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Laboratorio de Metrologia, to known {sup 137}Cs gamma radiation air kerma. Radionuclides considered for this study are {sup 131}I, {sup 18}F, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 201}Tl and {sup 137}Cs, with main gamma energies between 93 and 662 keV. Dosemeters were placed during a five month period in the nuclear medicine rooms (containing gamma-cameras), injection corridor, patient waiting areas, PET/CT study room, hot lab, waste storage room and corridors next to the hospitalization rooms for patients treated with {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs. High dose values were found at the waste storage room, outside corridor of {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy patients and PET/CT area. Ambient dose equivalent rate obtained for the {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy corridor is equal to (18.51{+-}0.02)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Sites with minimum doses are the gamma camera rooms, having ambient dose equivalent rates equal to (0.05{+-}0.03)x10{sup -3} mSv/h. Recommendations have been given to the Department authorities so that further actions are taken to reduce doses at high dose sites in order to comply with the ALARA principle (as low as reasonably achievable).

Avila, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Torres-Ulloa, C. L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, AP 18-1027, 11801, DF (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-542, 04510, DF (Mexico); Medina, L. A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico); Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCan-UNAM, Av. San Fernando 22 C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Trujillo-Zamudio, F. E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Av. San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080 (Mexico); Gamboa de Buen, I. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Buenfil, A. E.; Brandan, M. E. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, AP 20-364, 01000, DF (Mexico)



The effects of ionisation density on the thermoluminescence response (efficiency) of LiF:Mg,Ti and LiF:Mg,Cu,P.  


In this paper, the various models dealing with the effects of ionisation density on the thermoluminescence (TL) response (efficiency) of TL LiF dosemeters are discussed. These include (i) the Unified Interaction Model (UNIM), which models photon/electron linear/supralinear dose response; (ii) the Extended Track Interaction Model (ETIM), which models heavy charged particle (HCP) TL fluence response; (iii) Modified Track Structure Theory (MTST), which models relative HCP TL efficiencies; and (iv) Microdosimetric Target Theory (MTT), which models both relative HCP efficiencies and photon energy response. PMID:15273352

Horowitz, Yigal; Olko, Pawel



Determination of angular distributions of workplace photon fields in a context of effective dose estimation.  


Estimating the effective dose E with dosemeters calibrated in terms of the personal dose equivalent H(p)(10), one should take into account that the ratio of these two values, i.e. the conversion coefficient C(k), depends essentially on angular and energy parameters of the incident radiation field and is not always close to unity. Introducing the parameter that expresses the degree of anisotropy of the photon field, the paper proposes workplace categorisation and presents methods of workplace monitoring used for more accurate estimation of E at two operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) and Object Shelter in Ukraine. PMID:21450705

Volosky, V; Bakhanova, E; Chumak, V



Computed Tomography: Image and Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect

In this work an experimental evaluation of image quality and dose imparted during a computed tomography study in a Public Hospital in Mexico City is presented; The measurements required the design and construction of two phantoms at the Institute of Physics, UNAM, according to the recommendations of American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM). Image assessment was performed in terms the spatial resolution and image contrast. Dose measurements were carried out using LiF: Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosemeters and pencil-shaped ionisation chamber; The results for a computed tomography head study in single and multiple detector modes are presented.

Valencia-Ortega, F.; Ruiz-Trejo, C.; Rodriguez-Villafuerte, M.; Buenfil, A. E. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, A.P. 20-364, D.F. 01000 (Mexico); Mora-Hernandez, L. A. [Hospital de Oncologia, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, 06720, D.F. (Mexico)



Measurement by room-temperature phosphorescence of polynuclear aromatics containing hydrocarbon fuels that permeate glove materials  

SciTech Connect

Permeations of commonly used glove materials by polynuclear aromatic (PNA) compounds in hydrocarbon fuels were measured with solid-state dosemeters composed of filter paper. The permeated PNA were sorbed by the filter paper and analyzed in situ using room-temperature phosphorescence spectroscopy. This technique provided a simple, cost-effective, and very sensitive means for measuring breakthrough times and permeation rates of the class of potentially carcinogenic PNA in liquid fuels derived from crude petroleum, oil shale, and coal. 7 refs., 3 figs.

Gammage, R.B.; White, D.A.; Vo-Dinh, T.



Dose distribution outside the target volume for 170-MeV proton beam.  


Dose delivered outside the proton field during radiotherapy can potentially lead to secondary cancer development. Measurements with a 170-MeV proton beam were performed with passive detectors (track etched detectors and thermoluminescence dosemeters) in three different depths along the Bragg curve. The measurement showed an uneven decrease of the dose outside of the beam field with local enhancements. The major contribution to the delivered dose is due to high-energy protons with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 10 keV µm(-1). However, both measurement and preliminary Monte Carlo calculation also confirmed the presence of particles with higher LET. PMID:24759915

Pachnerová Brabcová, K; Ambrožová, I; Kuban?ák, J; Puchalska, M; Vondrá?ek, V; Molokanov, A G; Sihver, L; Davídková, M



Field parameters and dosimetric characteristics of a fast neutron calibration facility: experimental and Monte Carlo evaluations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection (IRP) the fast neutron calibration facility consists of a remote control device which allows locating different sources (Am-Be, Pu-Li, bare and D 2O moderated 252Cf) at the reference position, at the desired height from the floor, inside a 10×10×3 m 3 irradiation room. Either the ISO reference sources or the Pu-Li source have been characterised in terms of uncollided H*(10) and neutron fluence according to the ISO calibration procedures. A spectral fluence mapping, carried out with the Monte Carlo Code MCNP TM, allowed characterising the calibration point, in scattered field conditions, according to the most recent international recommendations. Moreover, the irradiation of personal dosemeters on the ISO water filled slab phantom was simulated to determine the field homogeneity of the calibration area and the variability of the neutron field (including the backscattered component) along the phantom surface. At the ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection the calibration of neutron area monitors as well as personal dosemeters can now be performed according to the international standards, at the same time guaranteeing suitable conditions for research and qualification purposes in the field of neutron dosimetry.

Bedogni, R.; Gualdrini, G.; Monteventi, F.



Indoor concentration of radon, thoron and their progeny around granite regions in the state of Karnataka, India.  


An extensive studies on the indoor activity concentrations of thoron, radon and their progeny in the granite region in the state of Karnataka, India, has been carried out since, 2007 in the scope of a lung cancer epidemiological study using solid-state nuclear track detector-based double-chamber dosemeters (LR-115, type II plastic track detector). Seventy-four dwellings of different types were selected for the measurement. The dosemeters containing SSNTD detectors were fixed 2 m above the floor. After an exposure time of 3 months (90 d), films were etched to reveal tracks. From the track density, the concentrations of radon and thoron were evaluated. The value of the indoor concentration of thoron and radon in the study area varies from 16 to 170 Bq m(-3) and 18 to 300 Bq m(-3) with medians of 66 and 82.3 Bq m(-3), respectively, and that of their progeny varies from 1.8 to 24 mWL with a median of 3.6 mWL and 1.6 to 19.6 mWL, respectively. The concentrations of indoor thoron, radon and their progeny and their equivalent effective doses are discussed. PMID:24106330

Sannappa, J; Ningappa, C



Forward-scattered radiation from the compression paddle should be considered in glandular dose estimations.  


From major protocols on dosimetry in mammography, there is no doubt that the incident air kerma should be evaluated without backscattered radiation to the dosemeter. However, forward-scattered radiation from the compression paddle is neglected. The aim of this work was to analyse the contribution of forward-scattered radiation for typical air kerma measurements. Measurements of forward-scatter were performed with a plane-parallel ionisation chamber on four mammography units. The forward-scatter contribution to the air kerma was 2-10 % and increased with the compression paddle thickness, but also with the half-value layer value. For incident air kerma in mammography, it can be as important to consider forward-scattered as backscattered radiation. If an ionisation chamber is used, the compression paddle should be in contact with the chamber; otherwise the air kerma and absorbed dose will be underestimated. If a dosemeter based on semiconductors with much less sensitivity to scattered radiation is used, it is suggested that a forward-scatter factor (FSF) is applied. Based on the results of this work, FSF = 1.06 will lead to a maximum error of ~4 %. PMID:21778158

Hemdal, Bengt





As part of the intercomparison on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10), jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, for the African region, up to 12 dosemeters were added to the packages of the 28 participants to evaluate the background and transport dose (BGTD), received by the dosemeters before and after their irradiation at the SSDL (environmental irradiations, scanning process at the airports, etc.). Out of the 28 participants, only 17 reported the corresponding BGTD measured values, which lied between 0.03 and 0.8 mSv. The mean measured value of BG was (0.25±0.14) mSv, which is significantly high compared with the lowest dose value used in the intercomparison exercise. The BGTD correction shifted the overall results of the intercomparison from an overestimation of dose (?8 % before applying BGT dose correction) to an underestimation of dose (-9 % after correction). The measurement protocol and the detailed analysis of the results and applied corrections are discussed in this paper. PMID:25433048

Arib, M; Herrati, A; Dari, F; Lounis-Mokrani, Z



Effective depth of spermatogonia in man II. Calculations for external high-energy beta rays.  


An important criterion for dosemeter design for male gonad dosimetry in mixed beta-gamma fields is the effective spermatogonial depth. A detector set at this depth will register mean dose to the spermatogonia: this is the quantity of interest for genetic risk, which is proportional to the mean dose to the spermatogonia, averaged over the whole testicular volume. Factors affecting mean spermatogonial dose and effective depth of the spermatogonia were examined by computer using a simple mathematical model. Depth dose data were input from tables of beta dose. Mean spermatogonial dose shows a moderate dependence upon beta maximum energy, and a moderate inverse dependence upon scrotal thickness and source distance in air. Effective spermatogonial depth, while largely independent of source distance, shows strong dependence upon beta maximum energy: hence dosemeters designed for a given beta maximum energy will over-respond when exposed to betas of higher energy. Values of effective spermatogonial depth are given for two isotopes. In fields of mixed isotopes, weighting of the depths is essential for averaging. PMID:7178236

Facey, R A



The ENEA neutron personal dosimetry service.  


The ENEA Radiation Protection Institute has been operating the only neutron personal dosimetry service in Italy since the 1970s. Since the 1980s the service has been based on PADC (poly allyl diglycol carbonate) for fast neutron dosimetry, while thermal neutron dosimetry has been performed using thermoluminescence (TL) dosemeters. Since the service was started, a number of aspects have undergone evolution. The latest and most important changes are as follows: in 1998 a new PADC material was introduced in routine, since 2001 TL thermal dosimetry has been based on LiF(Mg,Cu,P) [GR-200] and (7)LiF(Mg,Cu,P) [GR-207] detectors and since 2003 a new image analysis reading system for the fast neutron dosemeters has been used. Herein an updated summary of how the service operates and performs today is presented. The approaches to calibration and traceability to estimate the quantity of H(p)(10) are mentioned. Results obtained at the performance test of dosimetric services in the EU member states and Switzerland sponsored by the European Commission and organised by Eurados in 1999 are reported. Last but not least, quality assurance (QA) procedures introduced in the routine operation to track the whole process of dose evaluation (i.e. plastic QA, acceptance test, test etching bath reproducibility and 'dummy customer' (blind test) for each issuing monitoring period) are presented and discussed. PMID:16644987

Morelli, B; Mariotti, F; Fantuzzi, E



Uncertainties in external dosimetry: analytical vs. Monte Carlo method.  


Over the years, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and other organisations have formulated recommendations regarding uncertainty in occupational dosimetry. The most practical and widely accepted recommendations are the trumpet curves. To check whether routine dosemeters comply with them, a Technical Report on uncertainties issued by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) can be used. In this report, the analytical method is applied to assess the uncertainty of a dosemeter fulfilling an IEC standard. On the other hand, the Monte Carlo method can be used to assess the uncertainty. In this work, a direct comparison of the analytical and the Monte Carlo methods is performed using the same input data. It turns out that the analytical method generally overestimates the uncertainty by about 10-30 %. Therefore, the results often do not comply with the recommendations of the ICRP regarding uncertainty. The results of the more realistic uncertainty evaluation using the Monte Carlo method usually comply with the recommendations of the ICRP. This is confirmed by results seen in regular tests in Germany. PMID:19942627

Behrens, R



Monte Carlo modelling of 90Sr/90Y and 85Kr beta fields for Hp(3) measurements.  


In support of research aimed at developing a thermoluminescence dosemeter capable of accurately measuring ionising radiation doses to the lens of the eye, Monte Carlo modelling of a standard beta exposure set-up has been performed. It was found that electrons with an energy distribution corresponding to the beta emission spectrum from (85)Kr deposit negligible doses at a depth of 3 mm in tissue, but doses from (90)Sr/(90)Y are significant; free in air and fluence-to-Hp(3,?°) and -Hp(0.07,?°) conversion coefficient data were found for this field for exposures at 0°, 30° and 60° angles of incidence, and the response characteristics of the new eye dosemeter were evaluated. It was shown that the results were not affected greatly by the shape of the calibration phantom. However, it was demonstrated that the presence of intermediating air and beam flattening filters hardens the energy distribution of the field at the point of test, relative to a raw (90)Sr/(90)Y source, and this impacts dose depositions. PMID:23945747

Eakins, J S; Baker, S T; Gibbens, N J; Gilvin, P J; Hager, L G; Tanner, R J



Quality assurance evaluation of spot scanning beam proton therapy with an anthropomorphic prostate phantom  

PubMed Central

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate spot scanning proton therapy with an anthropomorphic prostate phantom at the Proton Therapy Center of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center at Houston, TX (PTCH). Methods: An anthropomorphic prostate phantom from the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, was used, which contained thermoluminescent dosemeters and GAFCHROMIC® EBT2 film (ISP Technologies, Wayne, NJ). The phantom was irradiated by the Hitachi synchrotron (Hitachi America, Ltd, Tarrytown, NY), and the results were compared between the treatment planning system (TPS) and RPC measurements. Results: RPC results show that the right/left, inferior/superior and posterior/anterior aspects of the coronal/sagittal and EBT2 film measurements were within ±7%/±4?mm of the TPS. The RPC thermoluminescent dosemeter measurements of the prostate and femoral heads were within 3% of the TPS. Conclusion: The RPC prostate phantom is a useful mechanism to evaluate spot scanning beam proton therapy within certain confidence levels. Advances in knowledge: The RPC anthropomorphic prostate phantom could be used to establish quality assurance of spot scanning proton beam for patients with prostate cancer. PMID:24049129

Iqbal, K; Gillin, M; Summers, P A; Dhanesar, S; Gifford, K A; Buzdar, S A



Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modeling techniques and a knowledge of the radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron measurements were performed in a RANDO phantom using thermoluminescent dosemeters, track etch dosemeters, and a 1/2 in. (1.27 cm) tissue equivalent proportional counter in order to estimate neutron doses and dose equivalents within the phantom at specific locations. The phantom was exposed to bare and D2O-moderated Cf-252 neutrons at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and calculate organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared to the calculations.

Tanner, J. E.; Piper, R. K.; Leonowich, J. A.; Faust, L. G.



Intercomparison of radiation protection instrumentation in a pulsed neutron field  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the EURADOS working group 11, an intercomparison of active neutron survey meters was performed in a pulsed neutron field (PNF). The aim of the exercise was to evaluate the performances of various neutron instruments, including commercially available rem-counters, personal dosemeters and instrument prototypes. The measurements took place at the cyclotron of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH. The cyclotron is routinely used for proton therapy of ocular tumours, but an experimental area is also available. For the therapy the machine accelerates protons to 68 MeV. The interaction of the proton beam with a thick tungsten target produces a neutron field with energy up to about 60 MeV. One interesting feature of the cyclotron is that the beam can be delivered in bursts, with the possibility to modify in a simple and flexible way the burst length and the ion current. Through this possibility one can obtain radiation bursts of variable duration and intensity. All instruments were placed in a reference position and irradiated with neutrons delivered in bursts of different intensity. The analysis of the instrument response as a function of the burst charge (the total electric charge of the protons in the burst shot onto the tungsten target) permitted to assess for each device the dose underestimation due to the time structure of the radiation field. The personal neutron dosemeters were exposed on a standard PMMA slab phantom and the response linearity was evaluated.

Caresana, M.; Denker, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrarini, M.; Golnik, N.; Hohmann, E.; Leuschner, A.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Manessi, G.; Mayer, S.; Ott, K.; Röhrich, J.; Silari, M.; Trompier, F.; Volnhals, M.; Wielunski, M.



Eye dosimetry in interventional radiology and cardiology: current challenges and practical considerations.  


Interventional radiology and cardiology are areas with high potential for risk to eye lens. Accurate assessment of eye dose is one of the most important aspects of correlating doses with observed lens opacities among workers in interventional suites and ascertaining compliance with regulatory limits. The purpose of this paper is to review current approaches and opportunities in eye dosimetry and assess challenges in particular in accuracy and practicality. The possible approaches include practical dosimetry using passive dosemeters or active dosemeters with obvious advantage of active dosimetry. When neither of these is available, other approaches are based on either retrospective dose assessment using scatter radiation dose levels or correlations between patient dose indices and eye doses to the operators. In spite of all uncertainties and variations, estimation of eye dose from patient dose can be accepted as a compromise. Future challenges include development of practical methods for regular monitoring of individual eye doses and development of better techniques to estimate eye dose from measurements at some reference points. PMID:24262928

Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M M



Doses to skin during dynamic perfusion computed tomography of the liver.  


Many new computed tomography (CT) techniques have been introduced during the recent years, one of them being CT-assisted dynamic perfusion imaging (perfusion CT, PCT). Many concerns were raised when first cases of deterministic radiation effects were reported. This paper shows how radiochromic films can be utilised as passive dosemeters for use in PCT. Radiochromic dosemeters undergo a colour change directly and do not require chemical processing. Prior to their use, they need to be calibrated. Films are placed on top and on the right side of the patient and exposed during the procedure. Readout is performed using a densitometer. Results show that average local skin doses are 0.51±0.07 and 0.42±0.04 Gy on top and on the lateral side of the patient, respectively. Results of the patient dosimetry (local skin doses) are consistent. This is due to the fact that each patient had the same CT protocol used for imaging (120 kV, 60 mA and C(vol) of 247.75 mGy). Radiochromic films designed for interventional radiology can be effectively used for local skin dose measurements in perfusion CT. Dose values obtained are below the threshold needed for deterministic effects (erythema, hair loss, etc.). These effects might happen if inappropriate CT protocol is used; one that is usually used for routine imaging. PMID:22728469

Beganovic, Adnan; Sefic-Pasic, Irmina; Skopljak-Beganovic, Amra; Kristic, Spomenka; Sunjic, Svjetlana; Mekic, Amra; Gazdic-Santic, Maja; Drljevic, Advan; Samek, Davorin



Measurements of the neutron dose and energy spectrum on the International Space Station during expeditions ISS-16 to ISS-21.  


As part of the international Matroshka-R and Radi-N experiments, bubble detectors have been used on board the ISS in order to characterise the neutron dose and the energy spectrum of neutrons. Experiments using bubble dosemeters inside a tissue-equivalent phantom were performed during the ISS-16, ISS-18 and ISS-19 expeditions. During the ISS-20 and ISS-21 missions, the bubble dosemeters were supplemented by a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors that was used to determine the neutron energy spectrum at various locations inside the ISS. The temperature-compensated spectrometer set used is the first to be developed specifically for space applications and its development is described in this paper. Results of the dose measurements indicate that the dose received at two different depths inside the phantom is not significantly different, suggesting that bubble detectors worn by a person provide an accurate reading of the dose received inside the body. The energy spectra measured using the spectrometer are in good agreement with previous measurements and do not show a strong dependence on the precise location inside the station. To aid the understanding of the bubble-detector response to charged particles in the space environment, calculations have been performed using a Monte-Carlo code, together with data collected on the ISS. These calculations indicate that charged particles contribute <2% to the bubble count on the ISS, and can therefore be considered as negligible for bubble-detector measurements in space. PMID:22826353

Smith, M B; Akatov, Yu; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Chernykh, I V; Ing, H; Khoshooniy, N; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Romanenko, R Y; Shurshakov, V; Thirsk, R B; Tomi, L



History of personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States.  


The basis for personal dosimetry performance testing in the United States is ANSI/HPS N13.11 (2001). Now in its third edition, this standard has been in place since 1983. Testing under this standard is administered by the National Voluntary Accreditation Program (NVLAP), and accreditation of dosimetry processors under this program is required by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. The US Department of Energy (DOE) also maintains a testing program for its laboratories and contractors, administered by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP). A focus in recent years has been the modification of ANSI/HPS N13.11 to allow acceptance by both testing programs in order to bring harmonisation to US personal dosemeter processing testing. Since there is no type testing program in the US for personal dosemeters, the testing philosophy of ANSI N13.11 has always combined elements of type testing and routine performance testing. This philosophy is explored in detail in this presentation, along with trends in the development of the document to its present state. In addition, a look will be taken at what the future holds for the next revision of the document, scheduled to begin in 2005. PMID:17287202

Soares, C G



Gel dosimetry in the BNCT facility for extra-corporeal treatment of liver cancer at the HFR Petten.  


A thorough evaluation of the dose inside a specially designed and built facility for extra-corporeal treatment of liver cancer by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) at the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten (The Netherlands) is the necessary step before animal studies can start. The absorbed doses are measured by means of gel dosemeters, which help to validate the Monte Carlo simulations of the spheroidal liver holder that will contain the human liver for irradiation with an epithermal neutron beam. These dosemeters allow imaging of the dose due to gammas and to the charged particles produced by the (10)B reaction. The thermal neutron flux is extrapolated from the boron dose images and compared to that obtained by the calculations. As an additional reference, Au, Cu and Mn foil measurements are performed. All results appear consistent with the calculations and confirm that the BNCT liver facility is able to provide an almost homogeneous thermal neutron distribution in the liver, which is a requirement for a successful treatment of liver metastases. PMID:17496302

Gambarini, G; Daquino, G G; Moss, R L; Carrara, M; Nievaart, V A; Vanossi, E



Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.  


In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations. PMID:24821932

Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M



Climax spent fuel dosimetry. Short term exposure, 8 March 1983  

SciTech Connect

The second short-term exposure (performed 8 March 1983) in Hole CFH3 at the Climax Spent Fuel Test site is described. These short-term (1 hour long) exposures are intended to provide an independent measurement of the exposure rate at the wall and the 0.51-m and 0.66-m locations. Only CaF{sub 2} TLD`s were used in the second short-term exposure. Harshaw chips were cut to 0.32 x 0.18 x 0.09 cm size and aged by several exposure/readout/bakeout cycles until all odd chips were weeded out and the remaining chips exhibited stable sensitivities. Exposure at Climax was done by removing the existing long-term dosimetry strings and inserting identical strings using the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s in the stainless steel holders. The first short-term exposure produced absorbed doses as high as {similar_to}000 rads-LiF. The linearity corrections determined for the CaF{sub 2} TLD`s at these exposure levels were {similar_to}2%. The present post-exposure calibration method used calibration doses very close to those encountered in the field.

Quam, W.; DeVore, T.



Geochemistry of soils from the San Rafael Valley, Santa Cruz County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study was conducted to determine whether surficial geochemical methods can be used to identify subsurface mineraldeposits covered by alluvium derived from surrounding areas. The geochemical investigation focused on an anomalous geo-physical magnetic high located in the San Rafael Valley in Santa Cruz County, Arizona. The magnetic high, inferred to be asso-ciated with a buried granite intrusion, occurs beneath Quaternary alluvial and terrace deposits. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 10 to 30 centimeters below land surface along transects that traverse the inferred granite. The samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and by the partial-leach Mobile Metal Ion™ method. Principal component and factor analyses showed a strong correlation between the soils and source rocks hosting base-metal replacement deposits in the Harshaw and Patagonia Mining Districts. Factor analysis also indicated areas of high metal concentrations associated with the Meadow Valley Flat. Although no definitive geochemical signature was identified for the inferred granite, concentrations otungsten and iron in the surrounding area were slightly elevated.

Folger, Helen W.; Gray, Floyd



Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment  

SciTech Connect

The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

Mark E. Kubiske



The TL fluence response to heavy charged particles using the track interaction model and track structure information.  


The extended track interaction model, ETIM, has recently being proposed to explain the TLD-100 fluence response of peak 5 to heavy ions. This model includes the track structure information through the use of the luminescent centre occupation probability obtained from radial dose distributions produced by the ions as they travel through the dosemeter. In this work an implementation of ETIM using Monte Carlo techniques is presented. The simulation was applied to calculate the response of peak 5 of both sensitised and normal TLD-100 crystals to 2.6 and 6.8 MeV 4He ions. The simulation shows that the TL-fluence response has a strong dependence on ion energy, in disagreement with experimental observations. In spite of this, good agreement between the simulated TL-fluence response calculated for the 6.8 MeV 4He radial distributions and the experimental data for the two energies was achieved. PMID:12382837

Rodríguez-Villafuerte, M; Avila, O



Thermal neutron calibration channel at LNMRI/IRD.  


The Brazilian Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI) standard thermal neutron flux facility was designed to provide uniform neutron fluence for calibration of small neutron detectors and individual dosemeters. This fluence is obtained by neutron moderation from four (241)Am-Be sources, each with 596 GBq, in a facility built with blocks of graphite/paraffin compound and high-purity carbon graphite. This study was carried out in two steps. In the first step, simulations using the MCNPX code on different geometric arrangements of moderator materials and neutron sources were performed. The quality of the resulting neutron fluence in terms of spectrum, cadmium ratio and gamma-neutron ratio was evaluated. In the second step, the system was assembled based on the results obtained on the simulations, and new measurements are being made. These measurements will validate the system, and other intercomparisons will ensure traceability to the International System of Units. PMID:24625545

Astuto, A; Salgado, A P; Leite, S P; Patrăo, K C S; Fonseca, E S; Pereira, W W; Lopes, R T



Radionuclide neutron sources in calibration laboratory--neutron and gamma doses and their changes in time.  


The calibration laboratory, having standard neutron fields of radionuclide sources, should perform regular measurements of fields' parameters in order to check their stability and to get knowledge of any changes. Usually, accompanying gamma radiation is not of serious concern, but some personal dosemeters, old neutron dose equivalent meters with scintillation detectors and the dose meters of mixed radiation require the determination of this component. In the Laboratory of Radiation Protection Measurements in the Institute of Atomic Energy, Poland, the fields of radionuclide neutron sources (252)Cf, (241)Am-Be and (239)Pu-Be were examined for nearly 20 y. A number of detectors and methods have been applied for the determination of neutron ambient dose equivalent rate and for the determination of neutron and gamma dose components. This paper presents the recent results of measurements of gamma and neutron dose and dose equivalent, compared with the results accumulated in nearly 20 y. PMID:17513855

Józefowicz, K; Golnik, N; Tulik, P; Zielczynski, M



Simulation of response functions of fast neutron sensors and development of thin neutron silicon sensor.  


On radiation detection using silicon sensor, signals are produced from collected charges in a depletion layer; however, for high-energy particles, this depletion layer is extended due to funnelling phenomenon. The lengths of charge collection were experimentally obtained from proton peak energies in measured pulse-heights. The length is extended with increasing proton energy of up to 6 MeV, and then, is constant over 6 MeV. The response functions of fast neutron sensors were simulated for 5- and 15-MeV monoenergetic and (252)Cf neutron sources using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code. The simulation results agree well with the experimental ones, including the effect of funnelling phenomenon. In addition, a thin silicon sensor was developed for a new real-time personal neutron dosemeter. Photon sensitivity is vanishingly smaller than neutron one by a factor of 5×10(-4). PMID:24516186

Takada, Masashi; Nakamura, Takashi; Matsuda, Mikihiko; Nunomiya, Tomoya



Somatic aberration induction in Tradescantia occidentalis by neutrons, x- and gamma-radiations. I. Dosimetry.  


The dosimetry is described for an investigation of the induction of somatic aberrations in Tradescantia occidentalis by substantially mono-energetic neutrons in the energy range 100 keV to 15 MeV, by 200 keV X-rays and cobalt-60 gamma-radiation. Spectrometry was carried out for both neutrons and X-rays. Neutron fluence was measured by uranium fission chambers. Two types of ionization chamber were employed for dose measurement. One chamber was manufactured of CH-plastic and filled with acetylene and the other of graphite and filled with carbon dioxide. Dosimetry for X- and gamma-radiation was by means of lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosemeters calibrated against a Victoreen ionization chamber. PMID:1084865

Dennis, J A; Delafield, H J; Peaple, L H; Boot, S J



Estimation of annual occupational effective doses from external ionizing radiation at medical institutions in Kenya  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study details the distribution and trends of doses due to occupational radiation exposure among radiation workers from participating medical institutions in Kenya, where monthly dose measurements were collected for a period of one year ranging from January to December in 2007. A total of 367 medical radiation workers were monitored using thermoluminescent dosemeters. They included radiologists (27%), oncologists (2%), dentists (4%), Physicists (5%), technologists (45%), nurses (4%), film processor technicians (3%), auxiliary staff (4%), and radiology office staff (5%). The average annual effective dose of all categories of staff was found to range from 1.19 to 2.52 mSv. This study formed the initiation stage of wider, comprehensive and more frequent monitoring of occupational radiation exposures and long-term investigations into its accumulation patterns in our country.

Korir, Geoffrey; Wambani, Jeska; Korir, Ian



Aircrew dosimetry by means of experimental measurements and calculations: results obtained during the year 2003.  


The results of measurements performed during the year 2003 onboard aircraft, mostly during regular commercial flights of the Czech Airlines (CSA) are presented. The studies were performed during more than 30 individual flights, several dosemeters and equipments were used for both neutron and non-neutron components of the onboard radiation field. CSA colleagues submitted us for all flights with navigation data necessary for the calculation of onboard aircraft crew exposure with transport codes EPCARD and CARI. Direct readings of experimental equipments were corrected on the base of the calibration in CERN high-energy radiation fields. A reasonable agreement of measured and calculated data was observed. During one of the flights, a very deep Forbush decrease occurred. The experimental results confronted with calculation permitted to obtain new view on the influence of such events on aircraft crew exposure. PMID:16604652

Spurný, F; B?gusová, M; Turek, K; Vlcek, B



Liulin-type spectrometry-dosimetry instruments.  


The main purpose of Liulin-type spectrometry-dosimetry instruments (LSDIs) is cosmic radiation monitoring at the workplaces. An LSDI functionally is a low mass, low power consumption or battery-operated dosemeter. LSDIs were calibrated in a wide range of radiation fields, including radiation sources, proton and heavy-ion accelerators and CERN-EC high-energy reference field. Since 2000, LSDIs have been used in the scientific programmes of four manned space flights on the American Laboratory and ESA Columbus modules and on the Russian segment of the International Space Station, one Moon spacecraft and three spacecraft around the Earth, one rocket, two balloons and many aircraft flights. In addition to relative low price, LSDIs have proved their ability to qualify the radiation field on the ground and on the above-mentioned carriers. PMID:21177270

Dachev, Ts; Dimitrov, Pl; Tomov, B; Matviichuk, Yu; Spurny, F; Ploc, O; Brabcova, K; Jadrnickova, I



Retrospective dosimetry: dose evaluation using unheated and heated quartz from a radioactive waste storage building.  


In the assessment of dose received from a nuclear accident, considerable attention has been paid to retrospective dosimetry using heated materials such as household ceramics and bricks. However, unheated materials such as mortar and concrete are more commonly found in industrial sites and particularly in nuclear installations. These materials contain natural dosemeters such as quartz, which usually is less sensitive than its heated counterpart. The potential of quartz extracted from mortar in a wall of a low-level radioactive-waste storage facility containing distributed sources of 60Co and 137Cs has been investigated. Dose-depth proliles based on small aliquots and single grains from the quartz extracted from the mortar samples are reported here. These are compared with results from heated quartz and polymineral fine grains extracted from an adjacent brick, and the integrated dose recorded by environmental TLDs. PMID:12382805

Jain, M; Břtter-Jensen, L; Murray, A S; Jungner, H



Individual monitoring for external radiation at accelerator facilities.  


Individual monitoring at accelerator facilities is discussed, within the framework set out by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and with reference to the implementation of the recommendations of that body within the European Basic Safety Standards. Legislation in other parts of the world may differ, but a worldwide perspective on this subject would be too exhaustive. The fields at accelerator facilities are contrasted in terms of particle type and energy with those encountered at more conventional sites within the nuclear fuel cycle, medical applications and general industry. The implications for individual monitoring are discussed in relation to the dose quantities for these accelerator fields and also with respect to the personal dosemeters options. PMID:21890527

Tanner, R J; Hager, L G



Measurements of gamma dose and thermal neutron fluence in phantoms exposed to a BNCT epithermal beam with TLD-700.  


Gamma dose and thermal neutron fluence in a phantom exposed to an epithermal neutron beam for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) can be measured by means of a single thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD-700). The method exploits the shape of the glow curve (GC) and requires the gamma-calibration GC (to obtain gamma dose) and the thermal-neutron-calibration GC (to obtain neutron fluence). The method is applicable for BNCT dosimetry in case of epithermal neutron beams from a reactor because, in most irradiation configurations, thermal neutrons give a not negligible contribution to the TLD-700 GC. The thermal neutron calibration is not simple, because of the impossibility of having thermal neutron fields without gamma contamination, but a calibration method is here proposed, strictly bound to the method itself of dose separation. PMID:24435913

Gambarini, G; Magni, D; Regazzoni, V; Borroni, M; Carrara, M; Pignoli, E; Burian, J; Marek, M; Klupak, V; Viererbl, L



The thermoluminescence efficiency of Li2B4O7:Cu and of CaSO4:Tm for photons.  


The intrinsic thermoluminescence (TL) efficiency of a TL detector relates the absorbed dose in the detector material to the light yield observed upon evaluation. Knowledge of the TL efficiency is of interest when performing numerical simulations of detector response, where only absorbed dose can be predicted. Here, the experimental determination of TL efficiency for calcium sulphate (CaSO(4):Tm) and lithium borate (Li(2)B(4)O(7):Cu) is reported. These materials are widely used in Panasonic dosemeter badges. The results of the study are in agreement with predictions from track structure theory and microdosimetry, relating an enhanced light yield at low X-ray energies to supralinear behaviour of the TL phosphor. PMID:21183547

Otto, Th; Gindraux, L; Strasser, M



History of the solar particle event radiation doses on-board aeroplanes using a semi-empirical model and Concorde measurements.  


Measurements during solar particle events with dosemeters flying permanently on-board Concorde are used to develop a semi-empirical model, called SiGLE. The model is intended to calculate, for a given flight plan, the dose equivalent received during a solar particle event observed with ground-based neutron monitors. It is successfully in operation in the SIEVERT computerised system intended to improve monitoring of radiation dose received by aircrews, in application to a European Directive. The semi-empirical model is applied to evaluate, for most exposed routes, the radiation doses corresponding to the GLEs observed since 1942 with ion chambers or neutron monitors. The results for the largest GLEs observed in the past are discussed in terms of radiation risk, and guidelines are suggested concerning possible alerts to the aeroplanes in case of events of exceptional magnitude. PMID:14565726

Lantos, P; Fuller, N



Verification analysis of thermoluminescent albedo neutron dosimetry at MOX fuel facilities.  


Radiation workers engaging in the fabrication of MOX fuels at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency-Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories are exposed to neutrons. Accordingly, thermoluminescent albedo dosemeters (TLADs) are used for individual neutron dosimetry. Because dose estimation using TLADs is susceptible to variation of the neutron energy spectrum, the authors have provided TLADs incorporating solid-state nuclear tracks detectors (SSNTDs) to selected workers who are routinely exposed to neutrons and have continued analysis of the relationship between the SSNTD and the TLAD (T/R(f)) over the past 6 y from 2004 to 2009. Consequently, the T/R(f) value in each year was less than the data during 1991-1993, although the neutron spectra had not changed since then. This decrease of the T/R(f) implies that the ratio of operation time nearby gloveboxes and the total work time has decreased. PMID:21493603

Nakagawa, Takahiro; Takada, Chie; Tsujimura, Norio



The use of gel dosimetry to measure the 3D dose distribution of a 90Sr/90Y intravascular brachytherapy seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Absorbed dose distributions in 3D imparted by a single 90Sr/90Y beta particle seed source of the type used for intravascular brachytherapy were investigated. A polymer gel dosimetry medium was used as a dosemeter and phantom, while a special high-resolution laser CT scanner with a spatial resolution of 100 µm in all dimensions was used to quantify the data. We have measured the radial dose function, gL(r), observing that gL(r) increases to a maximum value and then decreases as the distance from the seed increases. This is in good agreement with previous data obtained with radiochromic film and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs), even if the TLDs underestimate the dose at distances very close to the seed. Contrary to the measurements, gL(r) calculated through Monte Carlo simulations and reported previously steadily decreases without a local maximum as a function of the distance from the seed. At distances less than 1.5 mm, differences of more than 20% are observed between the measurements and the Monte Carlo calculations. This difference could be due to a possible underestimation of the energy absorbed into the seed core and encapsulation in the Monte Carlo simulation, as a consequence of the unknown precise chemical composition of the core and its respective density for this seed. The results suggest that gL(r) can be measured very close to the seed with a relative uncertainty of about 1% to 2%. The dose distribution is isotropic only at distances greater than or equal to 2 mm from the seed and is almost symmetric, independent of the depth. This study indicates that polymer gel coupled with the special small format laser CT scanner are valid and accurate methods for measuring the dose distribution at distances close to an intravascular brachytherapy seed.

Massillon-JL, G; Minniti, R; Mitch, M G; Maryanski, M J; Soares, C G



Improving neutron dosimetry using bubble detector technology  

SciTech Connect

Providing accurate neutron dosimetry for a variety of neutron energy spectra is a formidable task for any dosimetry system. Unless something is known about the neutron spectrum prior to processing the dosimeter, the calculated dose may vary greatly from that actually encountered; that is until now. The entrance of bubble detector technology into the field of neutron dosimetry has eliminated the necessity of having an a priori knowledge of the neutron energy spectra. Recently, a new approach in measuring personnel neutron dose equivalent was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. By using bubble detectors in combination with current thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a Combination Personnel Neutron Dosimeter (CPND), not only is it possible to provide accurate dose equivalent results, but a simple four-interval neutron energy spectrum is obtained as well. The components of the CPND are a Harshaw albedo TLD and two bubble detectors with theoretical energy thresholds of 100 key and 1500 keV. Presented are (1) a synoptic history surrounding emergence of bubble detector technology, (2) a brief overview of the current theory on mechanisms of interaction, (3) the data and analysis process involved in refining the response functions, (4) performance evaluation of the original CPND and a reevaluation of the same data under the modified method, (5) the procedure used to determine the reference values of component fluence and dose equivalent for field assessment, (6) analysis of the after-modification results, (7) a critique of some currently held assumptions, offering some alternative explanations, and (8) thoughts concerning potential applications and directions for future research.

Buckner, M.A.



SU-E-J-69: Evaluation of the Lens Dose On the Cone Beam IGRT Procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: With the establishment of the IGRT as a standard technique, the extra dose that is given to the patients should be taken into account. Furthermore, it has been a recent decrease of the dose threshold in the lens, reduced to 0.5 Gy (ICRP ref 4825-3093-1464 on 21st April, 2011).The purpose of this work was to evaluate the extra dose that the lens is receive due to the Cone-Beam (CBCT) location systems in Head-and-Neck treatments. Methods: The On-Board Imaging (OBI) v 1.5 of the two Varian accelerators, one Clinac iX and one True Beam, were used to obtain the dose that this OBI version give to the lens in the Head-and-Neck location treatments. All CBCT scans were acquired with the Standard Dose Head protocol (100 kVp, 80 mA, 8 ms and 200 degree of rotation).The measurements were taken with thermoluminescence (TLD) EXTRAD (Harshaw) dosimeters placed in an anthropomorphic phantom over the eye and under 3 mm of bolus material to mimic the lens position. The center of the head was placed at the isocenter. To reduce TLD energy dependence, they were calibrated at the used beam quality. Results: The average lens dose at the lens in the OBI v 1.5 systems of the Clinac iX and the True Beam is 0.071 and 0.076 cGy/CBCT, respectively. Conclusions: The extra absorbed doses that receive the eye lenses due to one CBCT acquisition with the studied protocol is far below the new ICRP recommended threshold for the lens. However, the addition effect of several CBCT acquisition during the whole treatment should be taken into account.

Palomo-Llinares, R; Gimeno-Olmos, J; Carmona Meseguer, V; Lliso-Valverde, F; Candela-Juan, C; Perez-Calatayud, J [Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Pujades, M [National Dosimetry Center, Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Ballester, F [University of Valencia, Burjassot (Spain)



Surface-modified polyblend membranes for gas separation process  

SciTech Connect

Blends of polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) and poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were studied. It was found that concentration of PVDF less than 40 wt% lead to miscible systems when the membranes are cast from dimethyl sulfoxide solvent. The miscible polyblends were used as media for the separation of a 50:50 carbon dioxide:methane gas mixture. The measurements of transport properties were made using a Harshaw permeability cell with FTIR detection. Both the transient and steady state permeabilities of carbon dioxide and methane were determined. Low pressures of the gas mixture were used to minimize any artifacts arising from plasticization effects due to carbon dioxide sorption. The results showed that the separation factor, the ratio of the measured permeabilities of carbon dioxide and methane, was decreased by increasing the content of PVDF. Thermodynamic concepts were applied to predict the permeabilities of carbon dioxide and methane in pure amorphous PVDF and the polyblends. Surface characterization of the polymer blends, prior to surface modification, was done using contact angle, ESCA and ISS measurements. Acid hydrolysis of the surface region to form poly (methacrylic acid) (PMAA) was carried out using dilute (65 vol%) sulfuric acid. Different reagents for post-treatment of the hydrolyzed membranes led to different surface structures and morphologies, that dominated the final separation and permeabilities of both gases. Water swelled the surface layer, and caused defects after it was removed, that deteriorated the separation efficiency of the membranes. Isopropyl alcohol post-treatment led to a denser surface layer and increased the separation efficiency. FTIR-ATR, density measurements, and optical and electron microscopies were utilized to help interpret the transport property data.

Yang, T.



Personal Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients For Photons To 1 GEV  

SciTech Connect

The personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity Effective Dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are usually worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm X 30 cm X 15 cm slab-type phantom. For this condition the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H{sub p,slab}(d) and the depths, d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several MeV, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H{sub p,slab}(10) and H{sub p,slab}(3) using both the kerma approximation and by tracking secondary charged particles. For H{sub p}(0.07) the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H{sub p,slab}(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared to the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) guidance.

Veinot, K. G.; Hertel, N. E.



Regional geochemical studies in the Patagonia Mountains, Santa Cruz County, Arizona  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Patagonia Mountains in southern Arizona contain the deeply buried porphyry copper system at Red Mountain as well as a number of other base- and precious-metal mines and prospects. The range contains complex Basin and Range geology with units ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene. Rock types present include igneous intrusive and extrusive units as well as sedimentary and metamorphic units, most of which have been tectonically disturbed. A total of 264 stream-sediment samples were collected and analyzed for 32 elements. Geochemical maps for Sb, Ag, Pb, Te, B, Mn, Au, Zn, Cu (total), Cu (cold-extractable), and Mo, as well as for Cu (cold-extractable)/Cu (total) and Fe/Mn, are presented. Anomaly patterns for these elements generally occur over the Red Mountain deposit and (or) along a north-northwest trend parallel to the major Harshaw Creek Fault. Much of the entire area sampled contains widespread anomalies for Pb, Te, and Cu; the other elements are only locally anomalous. Various plots of ratios of Cu (cold-extractable) to Cu (total) did not produce any new information not readily apparent on either one of the two copper maps. A plot of ratios of Fe to Mn delineated many areas of pyrite mineralization. Several of these areas may represent the pyritic halos around deeply buried porphyry copper systems. The best ore guide for the Red Mountain porphyry system is the coincidence of positive anomalies of Mo, Pb, and Te and a negative anomaly of Mn. Other areas with anomalies of the same suite of elements are present within the Patagonia Mountains. It is concluded that geochemical sampling, even in a highly contaminated area, can be useful in delineating major geologic features, such as porphyry copper belts and major faults. Multielement geochemical surveys on a regional scale can effectively locate large, deeply buried, zoned mineral systems such as that at Red Mountain. Plots of element ratios, where adequately understood, can provide geochemical information not readily discernible from plots of single elements alone. ?? 1981.

Chaffee, M.A.; Hill, R.H.; Sutley, S.J.; Watterson, J.R.



Radiation protection in fixed PET/CT facilities—design and operation  

PubMed Central

We describe the design of a fixed positron emission tomography (PET)/CT facility and the use of a simulated instantaneous dose-rate plot to visually highlight areas of potentially high radiation exposure. We also illustrate the practical implementation of basic radiation protection principles based on the use of distance and shielding and the minimisation of time spent in hot areas. Staff whole body doses for 4 years are presented with results of an optimisation study analysing the dose arising from the different phases within each study using direct reading dosemeters. The total whole body dose for all staff for each patient fell from 9.5 ?Sv in the first full year of operation to 4.8 µSv in 2008. The maximum dose to an individual member of staff per patient decreased over the same period from 3.2 to 0.9 µSv. The optimisation study showed that the highest dose was recorded during the injection phase. PMID:21976626

Peet, D J; Morton, R; Hussein, M; Alsafi, K; Spyrou, N



Geant4 simulation of the CERN-EU high-energy reference field (CERF) facility.  


The CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility is used for testing and calibrating both active and passive radiation dosemeters for radiation protection applications in space and aviation. Through a combination of a primary particle beam, target and a suitable designed shielding configuration, the facility is able to reproduce the neutron component of the high altitude radiation field relevant to the jet aviation industry. Simulations of the facility using the GEANT4 (GEometry ANd Tracking) toolkit provide an improved understanding of the neutron particle fluence as well as the particle fluence of other radiation components present. The secondary particle fluence as a function of the primary particle fluence incident on the target and the associated dose equivalent rates were determined at the 20 designated irradiation positions available at the facility. Comparisons of the simulated results with previously published simulations obtained using the FLUKA Monte Carlo code, as well as with experimental results of the neutron fluence obtained with a Bonner sphere spectrometer, are made. PMID:20511404

Prokopovich, D A; Reinhard, M I; Cornelius, I M; Rosenfeld, A B



Techniques de dosimétrie physique pour la reconstitution d'accident radiologique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a radiological accident occurred, the distribution of the dose received in the organism must be assessed within a short time. This information, which completes the clinical and biological investigations, is useful for the medical team. In this way, the physical dosimetry makes use of experimental and numerical reconstitution techniques which are generally complementary. The numerical technique consists in simulating the particles transport with a calculation code based on the Monte-Carlo method in a geometry which represents the injured person and the environment. The experimental reconstitution is performed with tissue equivalent phantoms and special dosemeters. Suite ŕ un accident radiologique, il est important d'estimer rapidement la distribution de la dose reçue par l'organisme. Cette information, qui vient en complément des investigations cliniques et biologiques, s'avčre d'une grande utilité pour les médecins. Ŕ cette fin, la dosimétrie physique utilise des moyens de reconstitution numériques et expérimentaux, généralement complémentaires. La reconstitution numérique consiste, ŕ l'aide d'un code de calcul basé sur une méthode probabiliste de Monte-Carlo, ŕ simuler le transport des particules dans une géométrie représentant l'accidenté et son evironnement. La reconstitution expérimentale est réalisée ŕ l'aide de fantômes équivalents tissu et de dosimčtres adaptés.

Bottollier-Depois, J. F.; Chau, Q.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Médioni, R.; Roux, A.



Personal radon dosimetry from eyeglass lenses.  


Eyeglass lenses are commonly composed of allyl-diglycol carbonate (CR-39), an alpha-particle detecting plastic, thus making such lenses personal radon dosemeters. Samples of such lenses have been obtained, etched to reveal that radon and radon progeny alpha tracks can be seen in abundance, and sensitivities have been calibrated in radon chambers as a primary calibration, and with a uranium-based source of alpha particles as a convenient secondary standard. With one exception natural, environmental (fossil) track densities ranged from less than 3,000 to nearly 70,000 per cm2 for eyeglasses that had been worn for various times from one to nearly five years. Average radon concentrations to which those wearers were exposed are inferred to be in the range 14 to 130 Bq x m(-3) (0.4 to 3.5 pCi x l(-1)). A protocol for consistent, meaningful readout is derived and used. In the exceptional case the fossil track density was 1,780,000 cm(-2) and the inferred (24 h) average radon concentration was 6500 Bq x m(-3) (175 pCi x l(-1)) for a worker at an inactive uranium mine that is used for therapy. PMID:11843340

Fleischer, R L; Meyer, N R; Hadley, S A; MacDonald, J; Cavallo, A



Characterisation of laboratory-produced CANDU-like workplace neutron fields.  


Two neutron fields were produced in the Neutron Irradiation Facility (NIF) at the Chalk River Laboratories of the Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. by directing (d,D) neutrons from a 150 kV neutron generator through a specially designed moderator assembly. Bonner sphere and proton recoil spectrometry systems were used to characterise these fields to determine whether they were CANDU-like*, i.e. whether they resembled neutron fields found in workplaces around pressurised heavy-water moderated power reactors such as CANDU reactors. Similarities were found between the distributions in energy of neutron fluence and ambient dose equivalent of the neutron fields produced in the NIF and those measured previously in power plants. In addition, there was agreement between theoretical (Monte Carlo) data and measured data, thereby validating continued use of Monte Carlo modelling for field characterisations in the NIF. The CANDU-like fields add to the repertoire of neutron fields available in the NIF and are expected to be useful for evaluating neutron dosemeters. PMID:11605797

Nunes, J C; Faught, R T



Establishment of trigger levels to steer the follow-up of radiation effects in patients undergoing fluoroscopically-guided interventional procedures in Belgium.  


The accumulated dose to the skin of the patient during fluoroscopically-guided procedures can exceed the thresholds for tissue reactions. In practice, interventionalists have no direct information about the local procedure-related skin doses in their patient, causing suboptimal or delayed treatment. In current study, the accumulated Kerma-Area-Product (KAP) values were registered, as well as the reference air kerma (Ka,r) values, if available, for almost 200 cases undergoing seven different procedures. A sheet filled with 50 thermoluminescent dosemeters was wrapped around each patient to measure the peak skin dose. In a significant part of the Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPSS) procedures, chemo-embolizations of the liver and cerebral embolizations, the threshold values for deterministic skin damage (2 Gy) were attained. Trigger values in terms of KAP, corresponding to a peak skin dose of 2 Gy, were determined. In general, our results comply reasonably well with the values proposed in the NCRP 168 report, with a KAP value of 425 Gy cm˛ and a Ka,r value of 3 Gy, corresponding to a peak skin dose of 3 Gy. Only for the TIPSS procedure a considerably lower value of 2 Gy was obtained at the published Ka,r and for the RF ablations we obtained a considerably lower value of 250 Gy cm˛ in terms of KAP. PMID:25277316

Struelens, L; Bacher, K; Bosmans, H; Bleeser, F; Hoornaert, M T; Malchair, F; Balter, S



Dosimetric monitoring in Ukraine--present status and path to the future.  


Despite wide use of nuclear energy and radiation sources in industry and medicine, there is no centralised dose accounting system in Ukraine; existing dosimetry services operate obsolete manual thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) readers and do not meet modern proficiency standards. Currently, dosimetric monitoring is required for approximately 42,000 occupationally exposed workers, including 9100 in medicine, 17,000 employees of nuclear power plants and approximately 16,000 workers dealing with other sources of occupational exposure. This article presents the plan of elaboration of the United System for monitoring and registration of individual doses which has the aim of harmonisation of individual monitoring in Ukraine through securing methodical unity; scientific and methodological guidance of individual dosimetric control; procurement of common technical policy regarding nomenclature and operation of instrumentation; implementation of quality assurance programmes; development and support of information infrastructure, in particular operation of the national registry of individual doses; training and certification of personnel engaged in the system of individual dosimetric monitoring. PMID:16987910

Chumak, V; Boguslavskaya, A



Re-evaluation of correction factors of a primary standard graphite calorimeter in 60Co gamma ray beams as a basis for the appointment of the BEV absorbed dose rate to water reference value.  


The graphite calorimeter of the Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (BEV-Bundesamt für Eich- und Vermessungswesen) was established in the 1980s as the primary standard for the absorbed dose to water for (60)Co gamma ray beams. To maintain the primary standard at an international level the graphite calorimeter and its corresponding components had to undergo a refurbishment and modernisation process. The correction factors of the graphite calorimeter were re-evaluated with Monte Carlo and experimental methods to obtain improved values. These are the correction for the effect of the gaps (1.0061), the scaling correction (0.9998), the correction for the difference in air attenuation (0.9971) and the corrections for the effective measurement depths in the graphite phantom for the graphite calorimeter (0.9886) and the CC01-105 ionisation chamber (0.9913). Consequently, it was necessary to change the reference value for the absorbed dose rate to water of the (60)Co teletherapy unit used for the calibration of secondary standard dosemeters. PMID:21112889

Baumgartner, Andreas; Steurer, Andreas; Tiefenböck, Wilhelm; Gabris, Frantisek; Maringer, Franz Josef; Kapsch, Ralf-Peter; Stucki, Gerhard



Measurement of air kerma rates for 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field by ionisation chamber and build-up plate.  


The 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray calibration field by the (19)F(p, ??)(16)O reaction is to be served at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. For the determination of air kerma rates using an ionisation chamber in the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field, the establishment of the charged particle equilibrium must be achieved during measurement. In addition to measurement of air kerma rates by the ionisation chamber with a thick build-up cap, measurement using the ionisation chamber and a build-up plate (BUP) was attempted, in order to directly determine air kerma rates under the condition of regular calibration for ordinary survey meters and personal dosemeters. Before measurements, Monte Carlo calculations were made to find the optimum arrangement of BUP in front of the ionisation chamber so that the charged particle equilibrium could be well established. Measured results imply that air kerma rates for the 6- to 7-MeV high-energy gamma-ray field could be directly determined under the appropriate condition using an ionisation chamber coupled with build-up materials. PMID:24446508

Kowatari, Munehiko; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Tsutsumi, Masahiro



Radiation Exposure to Patient and Staff in Hepatic Chemoembolization: Risk Estimation of Cancer and Deterministic Effects  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the study was to determine the risks of radiation-induced cancer and deterministic effects for the patient and staff in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixty-five patients with HCC underwent the first cycle of TACE. Thermoluminescence dosemeters and conversion factors were used to measure surface doses and to calculate organ doses and effective dose. For the patient, the risk of fatal cancer and severe genetic defect was in the magnitude of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -5}, respectively. Five patients showed surface doses over the first lumbar vertebra exceeding 2000 mSv and 45 patients showed doses over the spine or the liver region above 500 mSv. The risk of fatal cancer and severe genetic defect for the radiologist and assistant was in the magnitude of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}. They could exceed the threshold for lens opacity in the case of more than 490 and 1613 TACE yearly for a period of many years, respectively. Radiation dose could lead to local transient erythema and/or local depression of hematopoiesis in many patients after TACE. For the radiologist and assistant, risk of fatal cancer and genetic defect and lens opacity might arise when they perform interventions such as TACE intensively.

Hidajat, Nico, E-mail:; Wust, Peter; Felix, Roland; Schroeder, Ralf Juergen [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)



Angular and radial dependence of the energy response factor for LIF-TLD micro-rods in 125L permanent implant source.  


EGSnrc Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the angular and radial dependence of the energy response factor for LiF-thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) irradiated with a commercially available (125)I permanent brachytherapy source. The LiF-TLDs were modelled as cylindrical micro-rods of length 6 mm and with diameters of 1 mm and 5 mm. The results show that for a LiF-TLD micro-rod of 1 mm diameter, the energy response relative to (60)Co gamma rays is 1.406 +/- 0.3% for a polar angle of 90 degrees and radial distance of 1.0 cm. When the diameter of the micro-rod is increased from 1 to 5 mm, the energy response decreases to 1.32 +/- 0.3% at the same point. The variation with position of the energy response factor is not >5% in a 6 cm x 6 cm x 6 cm calculation grid for the 5 mm diameter micro-rod. The results show that there is a change in the photon spectrum with angle and radial distance, which causes the variation of the energy response. PMID:16782977

Mobit, Paul; Badragan, Iulian



Seasonal variation of indoor radon-222 levels in dwellings in Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine.  


This study presents the seasonal variations of indoor radon levels in dwellings located in the Ramallah province and East Jerusalem suburbs, Palestine. The measurements were performed during the summer and winter of the year 2006/2007 using CR-39 solid-state-nuclear-track detectors. The total number of investigated buildings is 75 in summer and 81 in winter. A total number of 142 dosemeters are installed in dwellings for each season for a period of almost 100 d. The radon concentration levels in summer varied from 43 to 192 Bq m(-3) for buildings in the Ramallah province and from 30 to 655 Bq m(-3) for East Jerusalem suburbs. In winter, the radon concentration levels are found to vary from 38 to 375 Bq m(-3) in the Ramallah buildings and from 35 to 984 Bq m(-3) in East Jerusalem suburbs. The obtained results for radon concentration levels in most places are found to be within the accepted international levels. PMID:21335630

Leghrouz, Amin A; Abu-Samreh, Mohammad M; Shehadeh, Ayah K



Photoneutron contamination from an 18 MV Saturne medical linear accelerator in the treatment room.  


Dose escalation with high-energy X rays of medical linear accelerators (linacs) in radiotherapy offers several distinct advantages over the lower energy photons. However, owing to photoneutron reactions, interaction of high-energy photons (>8 MV) with various high-Z nuclei of the materials in the linac head components produces unavoidable neutrons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoneutron dose equivalent per unit therapeutic X-ray dose of 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 linac in the treatment room using Monte Carlo (MC) MCNP linac head full simulation as well as thermoluminescence dosemeter measurements. This machine is one of the old linac models manufactured by General Electric Company; however, it is widely used in the developing countries because of low cost and simple maintenance for radiotherapy applications. The results showed a significant photoneutron dose from Saturne 20 linac head components especially at distances near the linac head (<150 cm). Results of this work could be used in several applications, especially designing bunker and entrance door shielding against neutrons produced by photoneutron reactions in GE Saturne 20. However, a detailed cost optimisation for a specific room would require a dedicated calculation. PMID:23538892

Khosravi, Mostafa; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Jabbari, Keyvan; Nasri-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Siavashpour, Zahra; Gheisari, Ruhollah; Amiri, Behnam



A novel device for automatic withdrawal and accurate calibration of 99m-technetium radiopharmaceuticals to minimise radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff and patient.  


A Joint Automatic Dispenser Equipment (JADE) has been designed and fabricated for automatic withdrawal and calibration of radiopharmaceutical materials. The thermoluminescent dosemeter procedures have shown a reduction in dose to the technician's hand with this novel dose dispenser system JADE when compared with the manual withdrawal of (99m)Tc. This system helps to increase the precision of calibration and to minimise the radiation dose to the hands and body of the workers. This paper describes the structure of this device, its function and user-friendliness, and its efficacy. The efficacy of this device was determined by measuring the radiation dose delivered to the hands of the nuclear medicine laboratory technician. The user-friendliness of JADE has been examined. The automatic withdrawal and calibration offered by this system reduces the dose to the technician's hand to a level below the maximum permissible dose stipulated by the international protocols. This research will serve as a backbone for future study about the safe use of ionising radiation in medicine. PMID:22628527

Nazififard, Mohammad; Mahdizadeh, Simin; Meigooni, A S; Alavi, M; Suh, Kune Y



Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for soil samples around nuclear power plant IV in Taiwan.  


Activity concentrations and distributions of natural and man-made radionuclides in soil samples collected around nuclear power plant IV, Taiwan, were investigated for five years to assess the environmental radioactivity and characterisation of radiological hazard prior to commercial operation. The activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined via gamma-ray spectrometry using an HPGe detector. Data obtained show that the average concentrations of the (238)U and (232)Th series, and (40)K, were within world median ranges in the UNSCEAR report. The (137)Cs ranged from 2.46 +/- 0.55 to 12.13 +/- 1.31 Bq kg(-1). The terrestrial absorbed dose rate estimated by soil activity and directly measured with a thermoluminescence dosemeter (excluding cosmic rays), and the annual effective doses, were 45.63, 57.34 nGy h(-1) and 57.19 microSv, respectively. Experimental results were compared with international recommended values. Since the soil in this area is an important building material, the mean radium equivalent activity, external and inhalation hazard indices and the representative level index using various models given in the literature for the study area were 98.18 Bq kg(-1), 0.27, 0.34 and 0.73, respectively, which were below the recommended limits. Analytical results demonstrate that no radiological anomaly exists. The baseline data will prove useful and important in estimating the collective dose near the new nuclear power plant under construction in Taiwan. PMID:18714131

Tsai, Tsuey-Lin; Lin, Chun-Chih; Wang, Tzu-Wen; Chu, Tieh-Chi



Radiation measurements around X-ray cabinet systems.  


Security personnel who operate X-ray units for the control of hand luggage and personal items at airports are generally not under dosimetric surveillance. A significant increase in the number of inspected items per passenger, due to rigorous air traffic security measures, raises a question of extended exposure of these workers to scattered X-ray radiation. A new approach to investigating directions of breaches of scattered X-ray radiation in the area near to an X-ray cabinet system, which is based on using active electronic dosemeters is presented. Influence of the increase in the number of inspected items in time on the dose rate is described. Time-dependent dose rates have showed a very good correlation with passengers undergoing security control prior to boarding an airplane. Measurements confirmed that an increase in the dose rate, coinciding with rush hours, was caused by scattered radiation passing through incompletely closed lead curtains. It is found that the doses at the entrance to the inspection tunnel are 50% higher than those at the exit, which is a consequence of inherent operational characteristics of X-ray cabinet systems. PMID:22302108

Suric Mihic, M; Vucic, Z; Prlic, I; Lulic, I; Mestrovic, T



Study of the dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation at civil aviation altitudes.  


The dependence of the doses on solar activity for intermediate levels of the solar modulation parameter has been studied by means of simulations carried out by the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The vertical cut-off rigidities investigated lie between 0.4 and 6.1 GV. The calculated results show that the linear dependence proposed in a previous work, for the effective dose rate as a function of the solar modulation parameter, can be considered as an acceptable approximation. In addition, some dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation and some properties of the dosemeters in use for monitoring in the cosmic ray environment have been analysed with a view to simplifying measurements. The depth-dose curves in the ICRU sphere and the response of a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber have been determined by the FLUKA code for a number of cosmic ray spectra On the basis of the calculated results, it is concluded that a value of the depth. d, which would make the ambient dose equivalent a conservative predictor of the effective dose, cannot be specified for cosmic radiation. However, the operational quantity can be useful in order to verify the predictions of Monte Carlo calculations. It is demonstrated that a crude approximation of the ambient dose equivalent could be obtained by multiplying by 2 the absorbed dose measured by a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber with wall thickness of 10 mm. PMID:12474940

Ferrari, A; Pellicioni, M; Rancati, T



Neutron dose distribution at the GSI fragment separator.  


GSI is operating a facility for the production of rare isotopes. Nuclei are produced by fragmentation or fission of the impinging heavy ions with energies of approximately 1 GeV per nucleon. The major part of the primary beam and the produced nuclei is deposited in the components of the Fragment Separator (FRS) and generates neutron radiation. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) (6LiF/7LiF pairs in PE spheres) were exposed in neutron fields produced by uranium beams with energies between 100 and 1000 MeV per nucleon during an irradiation period in the year 2002. Two-dimensional dose distributions are obtained using these TL measurements in combination with model calculations. The applied model describes the dose distribution as a superposition of dose patterns of 20 single sources equally distributed along the FRS. The single source distribution is based on a measured double differential neutron distribution for a 1 GeV per nucleon uranium beam. PMID:15353740

Fehrenbacher, G; Festag, J G



[Factors affecting the contralateral dose for the non-treated breast in irradiation following quadrantectomy].  


We evaluated, with a treatment planning system, the maximum and the mean contralateral breast doses, and, with thermoluminescent dosemeters LiF100; the skin dose during radiation therapy after conservative surgery. The doses were correlated with technical parameters through statistical analysis. Since 1995, 100 patients have been considered, all of them treated with two 60Co tangential beams after quadrantectomy. The mean dose to the contralateral breast exhibited a statistically significant correlation with the gantry angle of the lateral (Pearson, p < .02) and medial beams (p < .01); the maximum dose was correlated with the gantry angle of the lateral (p < .002) and the medial beams (p < .002). In the last 50 patients, the skin dose (measured with TLDs) was correlated with: distance from beam edge (Pearson, p < .02), breast thickness (p < .01), gantry angle of the lateral beam (p < .005), gantry angle of the medial beam (p < .002). Furthermore, only the gantry angle of the lateral (p < .02) and of the medial beams (p < .01) exhibited statistically significant Spearman's correlation with skin dose. Wilcoxon's signed rank sum test for paired data was performed to study wedge dependence. The average contralateral breast dose using two wedges was statistically reduced with respect to the dose without wedges (p < .02). These results suggest that the dose to the contralateral breast could be significantly decreased by careful attention to the treatment details, which implies that the procedures related to the technical aspects of the therapy should be submitted to careful quality control. PMID:9280945

Stasi, M; Moro, G; Ramella, S; Bertone, A; Maruca, S; Ciambellotti, E



Preparation and characterisation of a sol-gel process ?-Al?O? polycrystalline detector.  


This article presents the dosimetric characteristics of ?-Al2O3 detectors prepared through the sol-gel process, disc pressing and sintering in a highly reducing atmosphere. Comparative tests between the sol-gel process ?-Al2O3 polycrystalline and anion-defective ?-Al2O3:C single-crystal detectors indicate that the ones prepared through this approach present good dosimetric characteristics similar to those found in single-crystal detectors, such as a simple glow curve with the main peak at ?198 °C (2 °C s(-1)), high sensitivity, a detection threshold of 1.7 µGy, linearity of response, low fading, relatively low photon energy dependence, reusability without annealing and good reproducibility. However, the undesirable feature of heating rate dependence of the thermoluminescence (TL) output in ?-Al2O3:C single crystal is practically non-existent in the sol-gel process ?-Al2O3 polycrystalline detector. This characteristic renders it useful for the routine processing of large numbers of personal and environmental dosemeters at higher heating rates and also when it comes to the proposal for new approaches to thermal quenching investigation. PMID:24795396

Ferreira, H R; Santos, A



Bubble-detector measurements in the Russian segment of the International Space Station during 2009-12.  


Measurements using bubble detectors have been performed in order to characterise the neutron dose and energy spectrum in the Russian segment of the International Space Station (ISS). Experiments using bubble dosemeters and a bubble-detector spectrometer, a set of six detectors with different energy thresholds that is used to determine the neutron spectrum, were performed during the ISS-22 (2009) to ISS-33 (2012) missions. The spectrometric measurements are in good agreement with earlier data, exhibiting expected features of the neutron energy spectrum in space. Experiments using a hydrogenous radiation shield show that the neutron dose can be reduced by shielding, with a reduction similar to that determined in earlier measurements using bubble detectors. The bubble-detector data are compared with measurements performed on the ISS using other instruments and are correlated with potential influencing factors such as the ISS altitude and the solar activity. Surprisingly, these influences do not seem to have a strong effect on the neutron dose or energy spectrum inside the ISS. PMID:24714114

Smith, M B; Khulapko, S; Andrews, H R; Arkhangelsky, V; Ing, H; Lewis, B J; Machrafi, R; Nikolaev, I; Shurshakov, V



Comparison of different PADC materials for neutron dosimetry.  


Investigations on track density and track size distributions of different PADC (poly allyl diglycol carbonate) materials have been performed. The PADC used for the tests has been produced by Thermo Electron (USA), Track Analysis System Limited (UK), Chiyoda Technol Corporation (Japan) and Intercast srl (Italy). For each PADC material 120 detectors were randomly selected out of 2 sheets: 60 detectors from one sheet have been irradiated with a personal dose equivalent of 3 mSv in the field of a (241)Am-Be source at the calibration laboratory of PSI, whilst the other 60 detectors from the other sheet have been used as background samples. All detectors have been processed according to an identical etching procedure and have been analysed with TASLImage scanning system. For each set of detectors the value of the average background signal, the average neutron sensitivity and the detection limit with respect to a personal dose equivalent measured with a dosemeter based on PADC have been determined. The results of the investigations allowed a comparison of the neutron sensitivity and background signal behaviours of PADC materials from different manufacturers and the assessment of the variation of neutron sensitivity and background signal over a single sheet. PMID:24097314

Mayer, S; Boschung, M



Natural radiation exposure in a municipality of the Brazilian Sertao  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-seven thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were distributed to the inhabitants of a Brazilian municipality located in the semi-arid inland (Sertao) of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. All the TLDs were exposed for 180 d in bedrooms or in living areas of the selected buildings and eventually returned to the authors` laboratory in italy. Radiological measurements gave a range of 32-330 nGy h{sup -1}, an arithmetic mean of 107 {+-} 47 nGy h{sup -1}, and a geometric mean of 99 nGy h{sup -1}. This last value corresponds to an annual indoor effective dose equivalent of 425 {mu}Sv. Concentrations of primordial radionuclides in some samples of building material, soil, and rock collected in the aformentioned territory were analytically determined by gamma spectrometer. The relatively high content of {sup 226}Ra (98.5 {+-} 12 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (252.5 {+-} 47 Bq kg{sup -1}), and {sup 40}K (1533 {+-} 169 Bq kg{sup -1}) in bedrock is probably responsible for the elevated {lambda}-radiation environment of that municipality. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab.

Malanca, A. [UFRN, Natal (Brazil)] [UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Gaidolfi, L. [Settore Fisico-Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy)] [Settore Fisico-Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy)



A national dosimetry audit of intraoperative radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Objective: National dosimetry audits are a fundamental part of quality assurance in radiotherapy, especially for new techniques. Intraoperative radiotherapy with a compact mobile kilovoltage X-ray source is a novel approach for the treatment of breast and other cancers. All seven current clinical sites in the UK were audited by a single visiting group and set of measurement equipment. Methods: Measurements of output, isotropy and depth doses were performed using an ion chamber in solid water, thermoluminescent dosemeters and radiochromic film, respectively. Results: The mean difference between measured and planned dose across all centres was ?3.2±2.7%. Measured isotropy was within ±3% around the lateral plane of the X-ray source and +11±4% in the forward direction compared with the lateral plane. Measured depth doses were agreed within 5±2% of manufacturer-provided calibration values or a mean gamma index of 97% at a tolerance of 7%/0.5?mm. Conclusion: Agreement within measurement uncertainties was found for all three parameters except forward anisotropy, which is unlikely to be clinically significant. Steep dose gradients increase the sensitivity to small variations in positioning, but these tests are practical for use in interdepartmental audits and local baseline comparison. Advances in knowledge: The first UK interdepartmental audit of intraoperative radiotherapy builds confidence in the delivery of this treatment. PMID:24133058

Earner, B; Faulkner, P; Dancer, N



Comparison of radiation doses between newborns and 6-y-old children undergoing head, chest and abdominal CT examinations: a phantom study.  


Radiation doses in paediatric computed tomography (CT) were investigated for various types of recent CT scanners with newborn and 6-y-old phantoms in which silicon-photodiode dosemeters were implanted at various organ positions. In the head, chest and abdominal CT for the newborn phantom, doses for organs within the scan region were 21-40, 3-8 and 3-12 mGy, respectively. The corresponding doses for the child phantom were 20-37, 2-11 and 4-17 mGy, respectively. In the head, chest and abdominal CT, the effective doses were respectively 2.1-3.3, 2.0-6.0 and 2.2-10.0 mSv for the newborn, and 1.0-2.0, 1.2-6.6 and 2.9-11.8 mSv for the child. Radiation doses for the newborn were at the same levels as those for the child, excepting effective doses in head CT for the newborn, which were 1.8 times higher than those for the child. PMID:22645383

Sugimoto, Naruto; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo; Fujii, Keisuke



Radiation-induced chromosome damage in human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Analysis for chromosome aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has been developed as an indicator of dose from ionising radiation. This paper outlines the mechanism of production of aberrations, the technique for their analysis and the dose-effect relationships for various types of radiation. During the past ten years the National Radiological Protection Board has developed a service for the UK in which estimates of dose from chromosome aberration analysis are made on people known or suspected of being accidentally over-exposed. This service can provide estimates where no physical dosemeter was worn and is frequently able to resolve anomalous or disputed data from routine film badges. Several problems in the interpretation of chromosome aberration yields are reviewed. These include the effects of partial body irradiation and the response to variations in dose rate and the intermittent nature of some exposures. The dosimetry service is supported by a research programme which includes surveys of groups of patients irradiated for medical purposes. Two surveys are described. In the first, lymphocyte aberrations were examined in rheumatiod arthritis patients receiving intra-articular injections of colloidal radiogold or radioyttrium. A proportion of the nuclide leaked from the joint into the regional lymphatic system. In the second survey a comparison was made between the cytogenetic and physical estimates of whole body dose in patients receiving iodine 131 for thyroid carcinoma. Images PMID:338021

Lloyd, D. C.; Dolphin, G. W.



1983 international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

An international intercomparison of nuclear accident dosimetry systems was conducted during September 12-16, 1983, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode to simulate criticality accidents. This study marked the twentieth in a series of annual accident dosimetry intercomparisons conducted at ORNL. Participants from ten organizations attended this intercomparison and measured neutron and gamma doses at area monitoring stations and on phantoms for three different shield conditions. Results of this study indicate that foil activation techniques are the most popular and accurate method of determining accident-level neutron doses at area monitoring stations. For personnel monitoring, foil activation, blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent (TL) methods are all capable of providing accurate dose estimates in a variety of radiation fields. All participants in this study used TLD's to determine gamma doses with very good results on the average. Chemical dosemeters were also shown to be capable of yielding accurate estimates of total neutron plus gamma doses in a variety of radiation fields. While 83% of all neutron measurements satisfied regulatory standards relative to reference values, only 39% of all gamma results satisfied corresponding guidelines for gamma measurements. These results indicate that continued improvement in accident dosimetry evaluation and measurement techniques is needed.

Swaja, R.E.; Greene, R.T.; Sims, C.S.



Evaluation of dose from external irradiation for individuals living in areas affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident.  


In order to effectively and appropriately manage external radiation doses in the affected areas of Fukushima, it is important to identify when, where and how much exposure occurred. It is also necessary to quantitatively measure external exposure and air dose rates for different activity patterns in individuals living and working in Japanese-style buildings. The authors used a new personal dosemeter (D-shuttle) along with a global positioning system and geographical information system to relate personal dose rate with activity patterns and air dose rate. Hourly individual doses obtained by D-shuttle can provide an effective communication tool for those who want to identify when and how much exposure occurs. Personal monitoring of 26 volunteers showed that personal doses obtained from D-shuttle were ?30 % of cumulative air dose estimated by data from the airborne monitoring survey. This analysis showed that, for most study volunteers, the exposure from staying at home represented about half of the total cumulative dose. This suggests that even though the peak exposure doses may be observed outside of working hours, to develop appropriate countermeasures for external dose reduction, it is thus important to identify the contributions of individuals' time-activities. This study provides a valuable basis for developing a realistic and pragmatic method to estimate external doses of individuals in Fukushima. PMID:24982262

Naito, Wataru; Uesaka, Motoki; Yamada, Chie; Ishii, Hideki



Optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective dosimetry.  


Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Risř into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including the evaluation of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) measurement protocol with brick quartz and the determination of dose-depth profiles in building materials as a guide to determining the mean energy of the incident radiation. Investigations into heated materials are most advanced, and a lower detection limit for quartz extracted from Chernobyl bricks was determined to be <10 mGy. The first results from the measurement of doses in unheated building materials such as mortar and concrete are also discussed. Both small-aliquot and single-grain techniques have been used to assess accident doses in these cement based building materials more commonly found in workplaces. Finally some results of a preliminary investigation of the OSL properties of household chemicals are discussed with reference to their potential as accident dosemeters. PMID:12382758

Břtter-Jensen, L; Murray, A S



Radiation exposure in interventional radiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to evaluate dose values in patients and staff involved in some interventional radiology procedures. Doses have been measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters for single procedures (such as renal and cerebral arteriography, transjungular intrahepatic portasystemic shunt (TIPS) and chemoembolization). The magnitude of doses through the hands of interventional radiologists has been studied. Dose levels were evaluated in three points for patients (eye, thyroid and gonads). The dose-area product (DAP) was also investigated using a Diamentor (PTW-M2). The dose in extremities was estimated for a professional who generally performed one TIPS, two chemoembolizations, two cerebral arteriographies and two renal arteriographies in a week. The estimated annual radiation dose was converted to effective dose as suggested by the 453-MS/Brazil norm The annual dose values were 137.25 mSv for doctors, 40.27 mSv for nurses and 51.95 mSv for auxiliary doctors, and all these annual dose values are below the limit established. The maximum values of the dose obtained for patients were 6.91, 10.92 and 15.34 mGy close to eye, thyroid and gonads, respectively. The DAP values were evaluated for patients in the same interventional radiology procedures. The dose and DAP values obtained are in agreement with values encountered in the literature.

Pinto, N. G. V.; Braz, D.; Vallim, M. A.; Filho, L. G. P.; Azevedo, F. S.; Barroso, R. C.; Lopes, R. T.



Thermoluminescence characteristics of teflon embedded CaSO4:Dy TLD.  


The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is manufacturing CaSO4:Dy Teflon TL pellets which have more sensitivity and stability than commercial TLD. A method is presented of preparing the CaSO4:Dy phosphor-embedded Teflon powder, which is then compressed to a thin pellet form used as the TLD element. Investigations are made to determine optimum preparation conditions and dosimetric characteristics of the CaSO4:Dy Teflon pellet such as the sensitivity, energy response, dose response, fading, re-usability, and lowest level of detection. The results show that the sensitivity of the CaSO4:Dy pellet is 2 times higher than that of the commercial Teledyne CaSO4:Dy pellet. A dose-response was observed to be linear in the range from 10(-5) to 10 Gy. The relative energy response in the low energy region was 9.6 (normalised to the 137Cs gamma source), and the fading rate was about 10% for five months. The re-usability was estimated to be more than 60 cycles, and the low level of detection dose was 22 microGy. From the results, the CaSO4:Dy pellet developed in KAERI can be successfully used in personal dosemeters through appropriate filter design for compensating the energy response. PMID:12382892

Yang, J S; Kim, D Y; Kim, J L; Chang, S Y; Nam, Y M; Park, J W



Small field of view cone beam CT temporomandibular joint imaging dosimetry  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Cone beam CT (CBCT) is generally accepted as the imaging modality of choice for visualisation of the osseous structures of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation dose of a protocol for CBCT TMJ imaging using a large field of view Hitachi CB MercuRay™ unit (Hitachi Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) with an alternative approach that utilizes two CBCT acquisitions of the right and left TMJs using the Kodak 9000® 3D system (Carestream, Rochester, NY). Methods: 25 optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters were placed in various locations of an anthropomorphic RANDO® Man phantom (Alderson Research Laboratories, Stanford, CT). Dosimetric measurements were performed for each technique, and effective doses were calculated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection tissue weighting factor recommendations for all protocols. Results: The radiation effective dose for the CB MercuRay technique was 223.6?±?1.1??Sv compared with 9.7?±?0.1??Sv (child), 13.5?±?0.9??Sv (adolescent/small adult) and 20.5?±?1.3??Sv (adult) for the bilateral Kodak acquisitions. Conclusions: Acquisitions of individual right and left TMJ volumes using the Kodak 9000 3D CBCT imaging system resulted in a more than ten-fold reduction in the effective dose compared with the larger single field acquisition with the Hitachi CB MercuRay. This decrease is made even more significant when lower tube potential and tube current settings are used. PMID:24048693

Lukat, T D; Wong, J C M; Lam, E W N



Effective dose span of ten different cone beam CT devices  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Evaluation and reduction of dose are important issues. Since cone beam CT (CBCT) has been established now not just in dentistry, the number of acquired examinations continues to rise. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to compare the doses of available devices on the market owing to different exposition parameters, volumes and geometries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spans of effective doses (EDs) of ten different CBCT devices. Methods: 48 thermoluminescent dosemeters were placed in 24 sites in a RANDO® head phantom. Protocols with lowest exposition parameters and protocols with highest exposition parameters were performed for each of the ten devices. The ED was calculated from the measured energy doses according to the International Commission on Radiological Protection 2007 recommendations for each protocol and device, and the statistical values were evaluated afterwards. Results: The calculation of the ED resulted in values between 17.2?µSv and 396?µSv for the ten devices. The mean values for protocols with lowest and highest exposition parameters were 31.6?µSv and 209?µSv, respectively. Conclusions: It was not the aim of this study to evaluate the image quality depending on different exposition parameters but to define the spans of EDs in which different CBCT devices work. There is a wide span of ED for different CBCT devices depending on the selected exposition parameters, required spatial resolution and many other factors. PMID:23584925

Rottke, D; Patzelt, S; Poxleitner, P; Schulze, D



Performance characteristics of a high-level solid-state personnel dosimetry system in pulsed radiation environments  

SciTech Connect

The Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was used to evaluate performance characteristics of a high-level, solid-state, personnel-dosimetry system developed for the US Army for the rapid measurement of total(gamma plus neutron) radiation doses to soldiers in locations where tactical nuclear weapons could be used. The gamma-sensitive element of the dosemeter consists of a silver-activated phosphate glass and the neutron detector is a silicon diode. Areas considered in this evaluation included pre-irradiation dose indication: accuracy and precision of gamma, neutron, and total dose measurements; time dependence; and temperature effects. Study results indicate that for doses above about 0.4 Gy, the system can provide rapid and accurate dose estimates within accuracy limits specified by several international regulatory and standards agencies for criticality accident dosimetry. However, theoretical and observed lower limits of detection for this system are somewhat higher than the 0.25 Gy minimum dose of interest for general-accident dosimetry.

Swaja, R.E.; Oyan, R.; Sims, C.S.; Dooley, M.A.



Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine staff involved in PET/CT practice in Serbia.  


The purpose of this work is to evaluate the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine (NM) staff in the two positron emission tomography-computed tomography centres in Serbia and to investigate the possibilities for dose reduction. Dose levels in terms of Hp(10) for whole body and Hp(0.07) for hands of NM staff were assessed using thermoluminescence and electronic personal dosemeters. The assessed doses per procedure in terms of Hp(10) were 4.2-7 and 5-6 ?Sv, in two centres, respectively, whereas the extremity doses in terms of Hp(0.07) in one of the centres was 34-126 ?Sv procedure(-1). The whole-body doses per unit activity were 17-19 and 21-26 ?Sv GBq(-1) in two centres, respectively, and the normalised finger dose in one centre was 170-680 ?Sv GBq(-1). The maximal estimated annual whole-body doses in two centres were 3.4 and 2.0 mSv, while the corresponding extremity dose in the later one was 45 mSv. Improvements as introduction of automatic dispensing system and injection and optimisation of working practice resulted in dose reduction ranging from 12 up to 67 %. PMID:24464817

Antic, V; Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Stankovic, J; Arandjic, D; Todorovic, N; Lucic, S



Using GafChromic film to estimate the effective dose from dental cone beam CT and panoramic radiography  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To demonstrate the feasibility of GafChromic® XR-QA2 (ISP Corp., Wayne, NJ) as a dosemeter when performing measurements of the effective dose from three cone beam CT (CBCT) units and to compare the doses from examinations of three common dental clinical situations. A second aim was to compare the radiation doses for three digital panoramic units with the doses for the CBCT units. Methods: The CBCT units used were Veraviewepocs 3De® (J Morita MFG Corp., Kyoto, Japan), ProMax® 3D (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland) and NewTom VGi® (Quantitative Radiology, Verona, Italy). GafChromic XR-QA2 films were placed between the selected layers of the head and neck of a tissue-equivalent human skull (RANDO® phantom; The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY). The exposure parameters were set using the automatic exposure control function of the units. Depending on the availability, medium and smaller field of view (FOV) scanning modes were used. The effective dose was estimated using the 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection formalism. Results: The lowest effective dose of a CBCT unit was observed for ProMax 3D, FOV 4?×?5?cm (10??Sv), the highest for NewTom VGi, FOV 8?×?8?cm—high resolution (129??Sv). The range of effective doses for digital panoramic machines measured was 8–14??Sv. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of using radiochromic films for dental CBCT and panoramic dosimetry. PMID:23610090

Al-Okshi, A; Nilsson, M; Petersson, A; Wiese, M; Lindh, C



Dose distribution for dental cone beam CT and its implication for defining a dose index  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the dose distribution for a range of cone beam CT (CBCT) units, investigating different field of view sizes, central and off-axis geometries, full or partial rotations of the X-ray tube and different clinically applied beam qualities. The implications of the dose distributions on the definition and practicality of a CBCT dose index were assessed. Methods Dose measurements on CBCT devices were performed by scanning cylindrical head-size water and polymethyl methacrylate phantoms, using thermoluminescent dosemeters, a small-volume ion chamber and radiochromic films. Results It was found that the dose distribution can be asymmetrical for dental CBCT exposures throughout a homogeneous phantom, owing to an asymmetrical positioning of the isocentre and/or partial rotation of the X-ray source. Furthermore, the scatter tail along the z-axis was found to have a distinct shape, generally resulting in a strong drop (90%) in absorbed dose outside the primary beam. Conclusions There is no optimal dose index available owing to the complicated exposure geometry of CBCT and the practical aspects of quality control measurements. Practical validation of different possible dose indices is needed, as well as the definition of conversion factors to patient dose. PMID:22752320

Pauwels, R; Theodorakou, C; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Jacobs, R; Horner, K; Bogaerts, R



Monte carlo study of MOSFET packaging, optimised for improved energy response: single MOSFET filtration.  


Monte Carlo simulations of the energy response of a conventionally packaged single metal-oxide field effect transistors (MOSFET) detector were performed with the goal of improving MOSFET energy dependence for personal accident or military dosimetry. The MOSFET detector packaging was optimised. Two different 'drop-in' design packages for a single MOSFET detector were modelled and optimised using the GEANT4 Monte Carlo toolkit. Absorbed photon dose simulations of the MOSFET dosemeter placed in free-air response, corresponding to the absorbed doses at depths of 0.07 mm (D(w)(0.07)) and 10 mm (D(w)(10)) in a water equivalent phantom of size 30 x 30 x 30 cm(3) for photon energies of 0.015-2 MeV were performed. Energy dependence was reduced to within + or - 60 % for photon energies 0.06-2 MeV for both D(w)(0.07) and D(w)(10). Variations in the response for photon energies of 15-60 keV were 200 and 330 % for D(w)(0.07) and D(w)(10), respectively. The obtained energy dependence was reduced compared with that for conventionally packaged MOSFET detectors, which usually exhibit a 500-700 % over-response when used in free-air geometry. PMID:20460400

Othman, M A R; Cutajar, D L; Hardcastle, N; Guatelli, S; Rosenfeld, A B



Dosimetry of BNCT beams with novel thermoluminescent detectors.  


In the dosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) beams, thermoluminescent (TL) detectors are typically applied in phantom measurements to determine the spatial distribution of the gamma ray and neutron dose. Pairs of 6LiF and 7LiF are applied to discriminate between the thermal neutron and gamma ray field components, exploiting the high cross section for (n,alpha) reaction of 6Li. At the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) in Kraków (Poland) a prototype TL-based measuring set has been constructed and tested. This set consists of a miniature TL detector (of 2 mm diameter and 0.4 mm thickness) placed inside a miniature container made of non-thermoluminescent 6LiF. The outer dimensions of the set are 4.5 mm diameter and 1.4 mm thickness, enabling its application in place of a thermoluminescence dosemeter pellet in typical phantoms. The detector sets were tested in the BNCT beam of the Studsvik reactor. By exploiting the ratio of TL signals of the unshielded and shielded detectors, it was possible to estimate the contributions of the thermal and epithermal components of the neutron field. PMID:15353719

Bilski, P; Budzanowski, M; Ochab, E; Olko, P; Czopyk, ?



Estimation of the risk of secondary cancer in the thyroid gland and the breast outside the treated volume in patients undergoing brain, mediastinum and breast radiotherapy.  


The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral dose which is the absorbed dose in organs located outside the treatment volume such as the thyroid gland and the breast in patients undergoing radiotherapy, utilising the MOSFET dosemeters, as well as to estimate the probability of secondary cancer. The thyroid gland doses, expressed as a percentage of the prescribed dose (%TD), were measured to be 2.0±0.3 %, in whole brain irradiation, 10.0±8.0 % in mediastinum treatment and 8.0±2.0 and 2.0±0.8 % in breast treatment, with and without the supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 0.2, 2.0, 1.0 and 0.3 %. The dose to the breast was 7.0±2.0 %, in the mediastinum treatment, and 4.0±1.0 and 2.0±0.8 %, in the breast treatment, with and without supraclavicular irradiation, respectively, with a corresponding risk of 4.0, 2.0 and 1.0 %. Although the results indicate that the risk is not negligible, its significance should be considered in conjunction with the existing pathology and age of the patients. PMID:22923288

Vlachopoulou, Vassiliki; Malatara, Georgia; Delis, Harry; Kardamakis, Dimitrios; Panayiotakis, George



Thermoluminescence properties of Li2CO3-K2CO3-H3BO3glass system co-doped with CuO and MgO.  


The thermoluminescent properties of boric glass modified with lithium and potassium carbonates (LKB) and co-doped with CuO and MgO are reported for the first time. Two techniques are applied to investigate the effect of dopants and co-dopants on the thermal stimulation properties of LKB. The induced TL glow curves of a CuO-doped sample are found to be at 220°C with a single peak. An enhancement of about three times is shown with the increment of 0.1 mol % MgO as a co-dopant impurity. This enhancement may contribute to the ability of magnesium to create extra electron traps and consequently the energy transfer to monovalent Cu(+) ions. LKB:Cu,Mg is low Z material (Zeff=8.55), and observed 15 times less sensitive than LiF: Mg, Ti (TLD-100). The proposed dosemeter showed good linearity in TL dose-response, low fading and excellent reproducibility with a simple glow curve, and thus, can be used in the radiation dosimetry. PMID:23193136

Alajerami, Yasser Saleh Mustafa; Hashim, Suhairul; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz; Kadni, Taiman



Microdosemeter instrument (MIDN) for assessing risk in space.  


Radiation in space generally produces higher dose rates than that on the Earth's surface, and contributions from primary galactic and solar events increase with altitude within the magnetosphere. Presently, no personnel monitor is available to astronauts for real-time monitoring of dose, radiation quality and regulatory risk. This group is developing a prototypic instrument for use in an unknown, time-varying radiation field. This microdosemeter-dosemeter nucleon instrument is for use in a spacesuit, spacecraft, remote rover and other applications. It provides absorbed dose, dose rate and dose equivalent in real time so that action can be taken to reduce exposure. Such a system has applications in health physics, anti-terrorism and radiation-hardening of electronics as well. The space system is described and results of ground-based studies are presented and compared with predictions of transport codes. An early prototype in 2007 was successfully launched, the only solid-state microdosemeter to have flown in space. PMID:21199825

Pisacane, V L; Dolecek, Q E; Malak, H; Cucinotta, F A; Zaider, M; Rosenfeld, A B; Rusek, A; Sivertz, M; Dicello, J F



Automation of film densitometry for application in personal monitoring.  


In this research work, a semi-automatic densitometry system has been developed for large-scale monitoring services by use of film badge dosemeters. The system consists of a charge-coupled device (CCD)-based scanner that can scan optical densities (ODs) up to 4.2, a computer vision algorithm to improve the quality of digitised films and an analyser program to calculate the necessary information, e.g. the mean OD of region of interest and radiation doses. For calibration of the system, two reference films were used. The Microtek scanner International Color Consortium (ICC) profiler is applied for determining the colour attributes of the scanner accurately and a reference of the density step tablet, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) is used for calibrating the automatic conversion of gray-level values to OD values in the range of 0.2-4.0 OD. The system contributes to achieve more objectives and reliable results. So by applying this system, we can digitise a set of 20 films at once and calculate their relative doses less than about 4 min, and meanwhile it causes to avoid disadvantages of manual process and to enhance the accuracy of dosimetry. PMID:21199823

Taheri, M; Movafeghi, A; Rastkhah, N



Gafchromic film as a fast visual indicator of radiation exposure of first responders.  


Three types of Gafchromic films have been studied to investigate their potential for use as a visually readable dosemeter for persons acting as first responders in connection with radiological or nuclear emergencies. The two most sensitive film types show a pronounced variation in sensitivity by photon energy and are therefore not suitable for use in cases of unknown exposures. The third film type tested (RTQA2), which is intended for quality control in radiation therapy has a sensitivity that is independent of the radiation quality, and is therefore considered as the most optimal for visual reading in situ. Tests carried out on a group of 10 human observers showed that absorbed doses down to 40 mGy can be detected by the eye. Read by a portable densitometer, qualitative absorbed dose estimates down to 9 mGy can be achieved. The colour change is obtained instantaneously, giving first responders immediate information about the presence of beta-, gamma- and X-ray radiation. PMID:21926417

Oren, Unal; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören



Results of a patient dose survey on diagnostic radiology in Lithuania.  


One of the most effective means towards optimisation of radiation protection for patients undergoing radiodiagnostic examinations are the diagnostic reference levels. In order to ensure the effective use of these levels, they have to be set properly. National characteristics, such as the conditions of the radiological equipments, the training of the staff, the availability of quality assurance systems, etc., have to be taken into account when these levels are established. Measurements under real conditions were considered as the best tools to achieve these reference levels. With an aim to establish the Lithuanian national diagnostic reference levels, the nationwide survey of entrance surface doses received by the patients during the most typical X-ray examinations has been performed. The most common types of examinations, such as chest PA, skull PA and LAT, abdomen AP, lumbar spine AP and LAT, thorax spine AP and LAT, and hip joint AP, were included in the list of procedures under consideration. Hospitals of different size and levels using different X-ray machines were represented in the survey. The standard thermoluminescence dosemeter techniques with pellets attached to the skin of the patient in the centre of radiation field were applied. The data were analysed statistically, and the averages and 75th percentile were calculated. The results show that the Lithuanian diagnostic reference levels might be rather close to the ones promoted by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the European Commission. PMID:15933102

Ziliukas, J; Morkunas, G



Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.  


Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose. PMID:20364264

Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M



Monitoring the eye lens: how do the international organisations react?  


The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended to lower the limit of the dose to the eye lens for occupationally exposed persons to a mean value of 20 mSv y(-1) (averaged over 5 y, with a maximum of 50 mSv y(-1)); already in the autumn of 2011, both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency : IAEA) took over this reduction in their respective draft basic safety standards. Even prior to this (and since then, increasingly so), several international activities were started (among other things, the following ones): (1) the ICRP adopted a stylised model of the eye to calculate dose conversion coefficients for its report ICRP 116; (2) the European Commission has funded the ORAMED project dealing with radiation protection in medicine; (3) in its standard IEC 62387 on passive dosimetry systems, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has laid down requirements for Hp(3) eye dosemeters; (4) the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the IAEA provide a range of practical advice in the standard ISO 15382 (still a draft) and in a technical document IAEA TecDoc on both radiation protection and on dosimetry; (5) for most cases, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) recommends both phantoms (the slab and the cylinder). In short: most national procedures can orientate themselves on international ones; some questions, however, remain open. PMID:25213264

Behrens, R



Reliability in individual monitoring service.  


As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country. PMID:21147789

Mod Ali, N



Experimental simulation of personal dosimetry in production of medical radioisotopes by research reactor.  


Due to their work conditions, research reactor personnel are exposed to ionising nuclear radiations. Because the absorbed dose values are different for different tissues due to variations in sensitivity, in this work personal dosimetry has been performed under normal working conditions at anatomical locations relevant to more sensitive tissues as well as for the whole body by employing a Rando phantom and thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Fifty-two TLDs-100H were positioned at high-risk organ locations such as the thyroid, eyes as well as the left breast, which was used to assess the whole-body dose in order to study the absorbed doses originating from selected locations in the vicinity of the reactor. The results have employed the tissue weighting factors based on International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP 103 and ICRP 60 and the measured results were below the dose limits recommended by ICRP. The mean effective dose rates calculated from ICRP 103 were the following: whole body, 30.64-6.44 µSv h(-1); thyroid, 1.22-0.23 µSv h(-1); prostate, 0.085-0.045 µSv h(-1); gonads, 1.00-0.51 µSv h(-1); breast, 3.68-0.77 µSv h(-1); and eyes, 33.74-7.01 µSv h(-1). PMID:21862507

Mossadegh, N; Karimian, A; Shahhosseini, E; Mohammadzadeh, A; Sheibani, Sh



Determination of absorbed dose to water around a clinical HDR {sup 192}Ir source using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs demonstrates an LET dependence of detector response  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Experimental radiation dosimetry with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), calibrated in a {sup 60}Co or megavoltage (MV) photon beam, is recommended by AAPM TG-43U1for verification of Monte Carlo calculated absorbed doses around brachytherapy sources. However, it has been shown by Carlsson Tedgren et al.[Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] that for TLDs of LiF:Mg,Ti, detector response was 4% higher in a {sup 137}Cs beam than in a {sup 60}Co one. The aim of this work was to investigate if similar over-response exists when measuring absorbed dose to water around {sup 192}Ir sources, using LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeters calibrated in a 6 MV photon beam. Methods: LiF dosimeters were calibrated to measure absorbed dose to water in a 6 MV photon beam and used to measure absorbed dose to water at distances of 3, 5, and 7 cm from a clinical high dose rate (HDR) {sup 192}Ir source in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. Measured values were compared to values of absorbed dose to water calculated using a treatment planning system (TPS) including corrections for the difference in energy absorption properties between calibration quality and the quality in the users'{sup 192}Ir beam and for the use of a PMMA phantom instead of the water phantom underlying dose calculations in the TPS. Results: Measured absorbed doses to water around the {sup 192}Ir source were overestimated by 5% compared to those calculated by the TPS. Corresponding absorbed doses to water measured in a previous work with lithium formate electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dosimeters by Antonovic et al. [Med. Phys. 36, 2236-2247 (2009)], using the same irradiation setup and calibration procedure as in this work, were 2% lower than those calculated by the TPS. The results obtained in the measurements in this work and those obtained using the EPR lithium formate dosimeters were, within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainty, in agreement with the values derived by the TPS. The discrepancy between the results using LiF:Mg,Ti TLDs and the EPR lithium formate dosimeters was, however, statistically significant and in agreement with the difference in relative detector responses found for the two detector systems by Carlsson Tedgren et al. [Med. Phys. 38, 5539-5550 (2011)] and by Adolfsson et al.[Med. Phys. 37, 4946-4959 (2010)]. Conclusions: When calibrated in {sup 60}Co or MV photon beams, correction for the linear energy transfer (LET) dependence of LiF:Mg,Ti detector response will be needed as to measure absorbed doses to water in a {sup 192}Ir beam with highest accuracy. Such corrections will depend on the manufacturing process (MTS-N Poland or Harshaw TLD-100) and details of the annealing and read-out schemes used.

Carlsson Tedgren, Aasa; Elia, Rouba; Hedtjaern, Haakan; Olsson, Sara; Alm Carlsson, Gudrun [Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SE 171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden) and Department of Radiation Physics UHL, County Council of Oestergoetland, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden); Radiation Physics, Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH), Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, SE 581 85 Linkoeping (Sweden)



Assessment of GeB doped SiO2 optical fiber for the application of remote radiation sensing system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The research and development efforts on the silica (SiO2) optical fiber for application in radiation sensing and other dosimetry field have become quite active. The widely used LiF based dosimeter (TLD) has shown a relatively low reproducibility and there is a time delay in dose assessment which loses its capability as direct real-time dose assessment dosimeters unlike diodes. The macroscopic size of the optical fiber generally does not allow direct in vivo dose sensing in the inner organ for radiotherapy and medical imaging. A flat optical fiber (FF) with nominal dimensions of (0.08 x10 x 10) mm3 of pure silica SiO2 and GeO2 with Boron doped silica fiber SiO2 was selected for this research. The Germanium was used a dopant to enhance the flat optical fiber to reach much higher responsiveness and dose sensitivity in high energy and high dose irradiation. Together with this combination, both TLD dimension and dose assessment issues was hoped to be overcome. The research conducted by comparing the response of pure silica SiO2 flat optical fiber with a GeO2 with Boron doped silica SiO2 flat optical fiber. The FF sample was annealed at 400°C for one hour before irradiated. Kinetic parameters and dosimetric glow curve of TL response and sensitivity were studied with respect to the electron beam of high dose of micro beam irradiation of 1.0 kGy, 5.0 kGy, 10.0 kGy, 50.0 kGy, 100.0 kGy, 500.0 kGy, and 1.0 MGy using Singapore Synchrotron Light Source's (PCIT) beamline. The PCIT operates at 500mA current with real time current range from 90-100mA, dose rate of 3.03 MGy/hour and energy at 8.9KeV. The source to Source Surface Distance (SSD) was at 6.0 cm, with a field size of 20mm × 8mm diameter of a half circle. The TL response was measured using a TLD reader Harshaw Model 3500. The Time-Temperature-Profile (TTP) of the reader was obtained to a preheat temperature of 150 °C for 5 s, the output signal being acquired at a temperature ramprate of 35 °Cs-1, acquisition time of 10 s and a maximum temperature of 400 °C each of the FF samples. All reading was taken under N2 gas flow, suppressing oxidation and potential triboluminescence. The proposed FF shows the excellent TL response for high energy irradiation and good reproducibility and exhibits a very low rate of fading and low variation background signal. From these results, the proposed FF can be used as a radiation dosimeter in remote radiation sensing and favorably compares with the widely used of LiF based dosimeter on common medical radiotherapy application.

Alawiah, A.; Fadhli, M. M.; Bauk, S.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Maah, M. J.



Occupational radiation doses to the extremities and the eyes in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to determine occupational dose levels in interventional radiology and cardiology procedures. Methods The study covered a sample of 25 procedures and monitored occupational dose for all laboratory personnel. Each individual wore eight thermoluminescent dosemeters next to the eyes, wrists, fingers and legs during each procedure. Radiation protection shields used in each procedure were recorded. Results The highest doses per procedure were recorded for interventionists at the left wrist (average 485 ?Sv, maximum 5239 ?Sv) and left finger (average 324 ?Sv, maximum 2877 ?Sv), whereas lower doses were recorded for the legs (average 124 ?Sv, maximum 1959 ?Sv) and the eyes (average 64 ?Sv, maximum 1129 ?Sv). Doses to the assisting nurses during the intervention were considerably lower; the highest doses were recorded at the wrists (average 26 ?Sv, maximum 41 ?Sv) and legs (average 18 ?Sv, maximum 22 ?Sv), whereas doses to the eyes were minimal (average 4 ?Sv, maximum 16 ?Sv). Occupational doses normalised to kerma area product (KAP) ranged from 11.9 to 117.3 ?Sv/1000 cGy cm2 and KAP was poorly correlated to the interventionists' extremity doses. Conclusion Calculation of the dose burden for interventionists considering the actual number of procedures performed annually revealed that dose limits for the extremities and the lenses of the eyes were not exceeded. However, there are cases in which high doses have been recorded and this can lead to exceeding the dose limits when bad practices are followed and the radiation protection tools are not properly used. PMID:21172967

Efstathopoulos, E P; Pantos, I; Andreou, M; Gkatzis, A; Carinou, E; Koukorava, C; Kelekis, N L; Brountzos, E



NOTE: Determination of the recombination correction factor kS for some specific plane-parallel and cylindrical ionization chambers in pulsed photon and electron beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown from an evaluation of the inverse reading of the dosemeter (1/M) against the inverse of the polarizing voltage (1/V), obtained with a number of commercially available ionization chambers, using dose per pulse values between 0.16 and 5 mGy, that a linear relationship between the recombination correction factor kS and dose per pulse (DPP) can be found. At dose per pulse values above 1 mGy the method of a general equation with coefficients dependent on the chamber type gives more accurate results than the Boag method. This method was already proposed by Burns and McEwen (1998, Phys. Med. Biol. 43 2033) and avoids comprehensive and time-consuming measurements of Jaffé plots which are a prerequisite for the application of the multi-voltage analysis (MVA) or the two-voltage analysis (TVA). We evaluated and verified the response of ionization chambers on the recombination effect in pulsed accelerator beams for both photons and electrons. Our main conclusions are: (1) The correction factor kS depends only on the DPP and the chamber type. There is no influence of radiation type and energy. (2) For all the chambers investigated there is a linear relationship between kS and DPP up to 5 mGy/pulse, and for two chambers we could show linearity up to 40 mGy/pulse. (3) A general formalism, such as that of Boag, characterizes chambers exclusively by the distance of the electrodes and gives a trend for the correction factor, and therefore (4) a general formalism has to reflect the influence of the chamber construction on the recombination by the introduction of chamber-type dependent coefficients.

Bruggmoser, G.; Saum, R.; Schmachtenberg, A.; Schmid, F.; Schüle, E.



Monte Carlo design study for thick gas electron multiplier-based multi-element microdosimetric detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To accomplish enhanced neutron dose response with high detection efficiency, a set of multi-element microdosimetric detectors were designed using THick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM). THGEM generates a strong electric field within microholes of a sub-millimeter thick insulator, which makes electron multiplication possible without the traditional anode wire electrodes. Owing to the absence of wire electrodes, the newly designed neutron dosemeters offer flexible and convenient fabrication in contrast to the traditional multi-element tissue-equivalent proportional counters. In order to investigate the dependence of the neutron dosimetric response and detection efficiency on detector design, five designs with a different number of gas cavities and an identical outer diameter of 5 cm were created. For each design, a Monte Carlo simulation was developed using the Geant4 code to calculate the deposited energy spectrum in the gas cavities for mono-energetic neutron beams ranging from 10 keV to 2 MeV. From the simulation results, the microdosimetric and the absorbed dose responses of each multi-element design were consistent with the responses of the conventional single cavity detector. The quality factor and the dose equivalent responses were subsequently obtained and showed reasonable agreement with the ideal values for neutron energies above 300 keV while underestimating in the lower energy region. The neutron detection efficiency of each design was analyzed in terms of the neutron counts per incident fluence and the counts per dose equivalent. As the number of the multi-element cavities increased, both efficiencies increased greatly. The efficiency of the highest cavity density with 61×9 multi-elements was on average 5.6 times higher than that of the single cavity design. The 37×7 design could be chosen as a reasonable compromise between the two conflicting requirements, high efficiency and convenience in fabrication.

Anjomani, Z.; Hanu, A. R.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.



SU-E-I-04: A Mammography Phantom to Measure Mean Glandular Dose and Image Quality  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate mean glandular dose (MGD) and image quality in a selection of mammography systems using a novel phantom based on thermoluminescent dosemeters and the ACR wax insert. Methods: The phantom consists of two acrylic, 19 cm diameter, 4.5 cm thick, semicircular modules, used in sequence. The image quality module contains the ACR insert and is used to obtain a quality control image under automatic exposure conditions. The dosimetric module carries 15 TLD-100 chips, some under Al foils, to determine air kerma and half-value-layer. TL readings take place at our laboratory under controlled conditions. Calibration was performed using an ionization chamber and a Senographe 2000D unit for a variety of beam qualities, from 24 to 40 kV, Mo and Rh anodes and filters. Phantom MGD values agree, on the average, within 3% with ionization chamber data, and their precision is better than 10% (k=1). Results: MGD and image quality have been evaluated in a selection of mammography units currently used in Mexican health services. The sample includes analogic (screen/film), flexible digital (CR), and full-field digital image receptors. The highest MDG are associated to the CR technology. The most common image quality failure is due to artifacts (dust, intensifying screen scratches, and processor marks for film/screen, laser reader defects for CR). Conclusion: The developed phantom permits the MGD measurement without the need of a calibrated ionization chamber at the mammography site and can be used by a technician without the presence of a medical physicist. The results indicate the urgent need to establish quality control programs for mammography.

Lopez-Pineda, E; Ruiz-Trejo, C; E, Brandan M [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)



Peripheral dose measurements for 6 and 18 MV photon beams on a linear accelerator with multileaf collimator  

SciTech Connect

Peripheral dose (PD) to critical structures outside treatment volume is of clinical importance. The aim of the current study was to estimate PD on a linear accelerator equipped with multileaf collimator (MLC). Dose measurements were carried out using an ionization chamber embedded in a water phantom for 6 and 18 MV photon beams. PD values were acquired for field sizes from 5x5 to 20x20 cm{sup 2} in increments of 5 cm at distances up to 24 cm from the field edge. Dose data were obtained at two collimator orientations where the measurement points are shielded by MLC and jaws. The variation of PD with the source to skin distance (SSD), depth, and lateral displacement of the measurement point was evaluated. To examine the dependence of PD upon the tissue thickness at the entrance point of the beam, scattered dose was measured using thermoluminescent dosemeters placed on three anthropomorphic phantoms simulating 5- and 10-year-old children and an average adult patient. PD from 6 MV photons varied from 0.13% to 6.75% of the central-axis maximum dose depending upon the collimator orientation, extent of irradiated area, and distance from the treatment field. The corresponding dose range from 18 MV x rays was 0.09% to 5.61%. The variation of PD with depth and with lateral displacements up to 80% of the field dimension was very small. The scattered dose from both photon beams increased with the increase of SSD or tissue thickness along beam axis. The presented dosimetric data set allows the estimation of scattered dose outside the primary beam.

Mazonakis, Michalis; Zacharopoulou, Fotini; Varveris, Haralambos; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion (Greece); Department of Radiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71409 Iraklion (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, 71409 Iraklion (Greece)



Evolution of the CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) glow curve as an indicator of beam quality for low-energy photon beams.  


We study the high- to low- temperature signal ratio (HLTR) of the CaF2:Tm glow curve as a function of beam quality for low-energy photon beams with effective energy between 15.2 and 33.6?keV, generated with W, Mo and Rh anodes. CaF2:Tm dosemeters (TLD-300) were exposed to x-rays and (60)Co gamma-rays. Glow curves were deconvoluted into 7 peaks, using computerized glow curve deconvolution and HLTR was evaluated. Air kerma and dose in water were between 2.1-15.0?mGy and 49.8-373.8?mGy, respectively. All peaks in the glow curve showed a linear response with respect to air kerma and dose in water. HLTR values decreased monotonically between 1.029? ± ?0.010 (at 15.2?keV) and 0.821? ± ?0.011 (33.6?keV), and no effects due to the use of different anode/filter combinations were observed. The results indicate a relatively high value of HLTR (about 1 for 17?keV effective energy, or 3?keV??m(-1) track-average LET) and a measurable dependence on the photon beam quality. Comparison of these photon data with HLTR for ions shows good quantitative agreement. The reported evolution of the CaF2:Tm glow curve could facilitate the estimation of the effective energy of unknown photon fields by this technique. PMID:25683355

Muńoz, I D; Avila, O; Gamboa-deBuen, I; Brandan, M E



NUNDO: a numerical model of a human torso phantom and its application to effective dose equivalent calculations for astronauts at the ISS.  


The health effects of cosmic radiation on astronauts need to be precisely quantified and controlled. This task is important not only in perspective of the increasing human presence at the International Space Station (ISS), but also for the preparation of safe human missions beyond low earth orbit. From a radiation protection point of view, the baseline quantity for radiation risk assessment in space is the effective dose equivalent. The present work reports the first successful attempt of the experimental determination of the effective dose equivalent in space, both for extra-vehicular activity (EVA) and intra-vehicular activity (IVA). This was achieved using the anthropomorphic torso phantom RANDO(®) equipped with more than 6,000 passive thermoluminescent detectors and plastic nuclear track detectors, which have been exposed to cosmic radiation inside the European Space Agency MATROSHKA facility both outside and inside the ISS. In order to calculate the effective dose equivalent, a numerical model of the RANDO(®) phantom, based on computer tomography scans of the actual phantom, was developed. It was found that the effective dose equivalent rate during an EVA approaches 700 ?Sv/d, while during an IVA about 20 % lower values were observed. It is shown that the individual dose based on a personal dosimeter reading for an astronaut during IVA results in an overestimate of the effective dose equivalent of about 15 %, whereas under an EVA conditions the overestimate is more than 200 %. A personal dosemeter can therefore deliver quite good exposure records during IVA, but may overestimate the effective dose equivalent received during an EVA considerably. PMID:25119442

Puchalska, Monika; Bilski, Pawel; Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Horwacik, Tomasz; Körner, Christine; Olko, Pawel; Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Reitz, Günther



Depth dose distributions measured with thermoluminescence detectors inside the anthropomorphic torso of the MATROSHKA experiment inside and outside the ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ESA MATROSHKA (MTR) facility was realized through the German Aerospace Center, DLR, Cologne, as main contractor, aiming for the determination of skin and organ doses within a simulated human upper torso. MTR simulates, by applying an anthropomorphic upper torso, as exact as possible an astronaut performing either an extravehicular activity (EVA) (MTR Phase 1) or an astronaut working inside the International Space Station (MTR Phase 2A). It consists of a human phantom, a Base Structure and a Carbon fibre container - simulating the astronaut‘s space suit. The phantom itself is made up of 33 slices composed of natural bones, embedded in tissue equivalent plastic of different density for tissue and lung. The Phantom slices are equipped with channels and cut-outs to allow the accommodation of active and passive dosemeters, temperature and pressure sensors. Over 4800 passive detectors (thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) and plastic nuclear track detectors) constitute the radiation experiments which are beside inside the phantom also located on top the head of the phantom, in front of the belly and around the body as part of a Poncho and a Hood. In its 1st exposure phase (MTR 1: 2004 - 2005) MTR measured the depth dose distribution of an astronaut performing an EVA - mounted outside the Zvezda Module. In its 2nd exposure phase the phantom was positioned inside the ISS to monitor the radiation environment and measure the depth dose distribution in dependence on the inside shielding configurations. The majority of the TLDs provided for the determination of the depth dose distribution was provided by IFJ-PAN, ATI and DLR. Data of "combined" depth dose distribution of the three different groups will be shown for the MTR-1 exposure (outside the ISS) and the MTR-2A (inside the ISS). The discussion will focus on the difference in depth dose as well as skin dose distribution based on the different shielding thickness provided by the two experimental phases.

Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Hajek, Michael; Bergmann, Robert; Bilski, Pawel; Puchalska, Msc. Monika


Evolution of the CaF2:Tm (TLD-300) glow curve as an indicator of beam quality for low-energy photon beams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the high- to low- temperature signal ratio (HLTR) of the CaF2:Tm glow curve as a function of beam quality for low-energy photon beams with effective energy between 15.2 and 33.6?keV, generated with W, Mo and Rh anodes. CaF2:Tm dosemeters (TLD-300) were exposed to x-rays and 60Co gamma-rays. Glow curves were deconvoluted into 7 peaks, using computerized glow curve deconvolution and HLTR was evaluated. Air kerma and dose in water were between 2.1–15.0?mGy and 49.8–373.8?mGy, respectively. All peaks in the glow curve showed a linear response with respect to air kerma and dose in water. HLTR values decreased monotonically between 1.029? ± ?0.010 (at 15.2?keV) and 0.821? ± ?0.011 (33.6?keV), and no effects due to the use of different anode/filter combinations were observed. The results indicate a relatively high value of HLTR (about 1 for 17?keV effective energy, or 3?keV??m?1 track-average LET) and a measurable dependence on the photon beam quality. Comparison of these photon data with HLTR for ions shows good quantitative agreement. The reported evolution of the CaF2:Tm glow curve could facilitate the estimation of the effective energy of unknown photon fields by this technique.

Muńoz, I. D.; Avila, O.; Gamboa-deBuen, I.; Brandan, M. E.



Skin dose measurements using radiochromic films, TLDS and ionisation chamber and comparison with Monte Carlo simulation.  


Estimation of the surface dose is very important for patients undergoing radiation therapy. The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose at the surface of a water phantom at a depth of 0.007 cm as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement with radiochromic films (RFs), thermoluminescent dosemeters and an ionisation chamber in a 6-MV photon beam. The results were compared with the theoretical calculation using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation software (MCNP5, BEAMnrc and DOSXYZnrc). The RF was calibrated by placing the films at a depth of maximum dose (d(max)) in a solid water phantom and exposing it to doses from 0 to 500 cGy. The films were scanned using a transmission high-resolution HP scanner. The optical density of the film was obtained from the red component of the RGB images using ImageJ software. The per cent surface dose (PSD) and percentage depth dose (PDD) curve were obtained by placing film pieces at the surface and at different depths in the solid water phantom. TLDs were placed at a depth of 10 cm in a solid water phantom for calibration. Then the TLDs were placed at different depths in the water phantom and were exposed to obtain the PDD. The obtained PSD and PDD values were compared with those obtained using a cylindrical ionisation chamber. The PSD was also determined using Monte Carlo simulation of a LINAC 6-MV photon beam. The extrapolation method was used to determine the PSD for all measurements. The PSD was 15.0±3.6% for RF. The TLD measurement of the PSD was 16.0±5.0%. The (0.6 cm(3)) cylindrical ionisation chamber measurement of the PSD was 50.0±3.0%. The theoretical calculation using MCNP5 and DOSXYZnrc yielded a PSD of 15.0±2.0% and 15.7±2.2%. In this study, good agreement between PSD measurements was observed using RF and TLDs with the Monte Carlo calculation. However, the cylindrical chamber measurement yielded an overestimate of the PSD. This is probably due to the ionisation chamber calibration factor that is only valid in charged particle equilibrium condition, which is not achieved at the surface in the build-up region. PMID:24300340

Alashrah, Saleh; Kandaiya, Sivamany; Maalej, Nabil; El-Taher, A



Simultaneous measurements of radon and thoron, and their progeny levels in dwellings on anticlinal structures of Assam, India.  


Radon and thoron, and their progeny concentrations along with equilibrium factors for gas progeny and radiological risks to the residents have been measured in dwellings of Digboi and Mashimpur areas located on anticlines during the winter season. In this present investigation, twin-cup dosemeters fitted with LR-115 (II) nuclear detectors have been employed. The present work has shown that there exist considerable house-to-house variations in values with maximum values in mud houses and minimum values in assam type (AT) houses. It has been found that mean (and geometric standard deviations (GSD)) radon concentrations are 83.8 (1.3), 113.5 (1.1) and 157.2 (1.2) Bq m(-3) in AT, reinforced cement concrete (RCC) and mud houses in Digboi area and 63.0 (1.1), 87.1 (1.4) and 182.1 (1.2) Bq m(-3) in AT, RCC and mud houses in Mashimpur area, respectively. The overall mean radon concentrations in Digboi and Mashimpur are estimated to be 114.4 (1.4) and 100.0 (1.7) Bq m(-3). The mean radon concentrations are found to be less than the lower reference level of 200 Bq m(-3) of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 2007). The thoron concentrations in Digboi area are estimated to be 31.1 (1.3), 50.8 (1.4) and 67.0 (1.6) Bq m(-3) in AT, RCC and mud houses, respectively, whereas in Mashimpur area, the thoron concentrations are estimated to be 26.4 (1.3), 44.4 (1.3) and 77.7 (1.3) Bq m(-3) in AT, RCC and mud houses, respectively. The mean annual effective doses in Digboi area are found to be 1.9 (1.3), 2.7 (1.2) and 4.1 (1.4) mSv y(-1) in AT, RCC and mud houses, respectively, while in the case of Mashimpur area, the mean annual effective doses are found to be 1.5 (1.4), 2.2 (1.2) and 4.9 (1.3) mSv y(-1) in AT, RCC and mud houses, respectively. Nevertheless, the obtained results are much lower than the upper reference level of 10 mSv (ICRP 2007). PMID:24469015

Barooah, Debajyoti; Barman, Simi; Phukan, Sarat



Evaluation of factors to convert absorbed dose calibrations from graphite to water for the NPL high-energy photon calibration service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The National Physical Laboratory (NPL) provides a high-energy photon calibration service using 4-19 MV x-rays and 60Co ?-radiation for secondary standard dosemeters in terms of absorbed dose to water. The primary standard used for this service is a graphite calorimeter and so absorbed dose calibrations must be converted from graphite to water. The conversion factors currently in use were determined prior to the launch of this service in 1988. Since then, it has been found that the differences in inherent filtration between the NPL LINAC and typical clinical machines are large enough to affect absorbed dose calibrations and, since 1992, calibrations have been performed in heavily filtered qualities. The conversion factors for heavily filtered qualities were determined by interpolation and extrapolation of lightly filtered results as a function of tissue phantom ratio 20,10 (TPR20,10). This paper aims to evaluate these factors for all mega-voltage photon energies provided by the NPL LINAC for both lightly and heavily filtered qualities and for 60Co ?-radiation in two ways. The first method involves the use of the photon fluence-scaling theorem. This states that if two blocks of different material are irradiated by the same photon beam, and if all dimensions are scaled in the inverse ratio of the electron densities of the two media, then, assuming that all photon interactions occur by Compton scatter the photon attenuation and scatter factors at corresponding scaled points of measurement in the phantom will be identical. The second method involves making in-phantom measurements of chamber response at a constant target-chamber distance. Monte Carlo techniques are then used to determine the corresponding dose to the medium in order to determine the chamber calibration factor directly. Values of the ratio of absorbed dose calibration factors in water and in graphite determined in these two ways agree with each other to within 0.2% (1? uncertainty). The best fit to both sets of results agrees with values determined in previous work to within 0.3% (1? uncertainty). It is found that the conversion factor is not sensitive to beam filtration.

Nutbrown, R. F.; Duane, S.; Shipley, D. R.; Thomas, R. A. S.



Task-specific monitoring of nuclear medicine technologists' radiation exposure.  


Many studies have demonstrated that the exposure of nuclear medicine technologists arises primarily from radioactive patients rather than from preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. However, in order to devise strategies to reduce staff exposure, it is necessary to identify the specific tasks within each procedure that result in the highest radiation doses. An ESM Eberline FH41B-10 radiation dosemeter, which records the ambient dose equivalent rate, was used to monitor the radiation exposure of a technologist and to record the dose rate in microSv per hour every 32 s throughout a working day. The technologist recorded the procedures that were being performed so that the procedures that resulted in higher doses could be identified clearly. The measured doses clearly showed that the major contributions to the technologist's dose were the following: (1) transferring incapacitated patients from the imaging table to a hospital trolley; (2) difficult injections without syringe shields; and (3) setting up patients for gated myocardial scans. The average dose to the technologist from transferring patients after a bone scan was 0.54 microSv, 40% of the total dose of 1.3 microSv for the complete bone scan procedure. The average dose received injecting 900 MBq of 99Tcm-HDP using a tungsten syringe shield was 0.57microSv, but the highest dose was 1.6 microSv, in a patient in whom the injection was difficult. A 0.5 mm lead apron was found to reduce the dose when setting up a patient for a gated stress 99Tcm-sestamibi myocardial scan by approximately a factor of 2. The average dose per patient for this task was reduced from 1.1 to 0.6 microSv. It is recommended that staff waiting for assistance with patient transfers stand away from the patient, that tungsten syringe shields be used for all radiopharmaceutical injections and that a 0.5 mm lead apron be worn when attending patients containing high activities of 99Tcm radiopharmaceuticals, such as those having myocardial imaging. PMID:15254324

Smart, Richard