Science.gov

Sample records for hasanuddin university indonesia

  1. INDONESIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCVEY, RUTH T.

    THIS UNIVERSITY-LEVEL TEXT IS AN ATTEMPT TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN SUPERFICIAL IMPRESSION AND SPECIALIZED KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING INDONESIA. IT PROVIDES AN INTRODUCTION TO INDONESIA THROUGH CHAPTERS ON--(1) PHYSICAL AND HUMAN RESOURCE PATTERNS, BY K.J. PELZER, (2) INDONESIAN CULTURES AND COMMUNITIES, BY H. GEERTZ, (3) THE CHINESE MINORITY, BY G.W.…

  2. The Open University of Indonesia and Florida State University: Communication, Collaboration, and the Important Work of Training Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luschei, Thomas F.; Padmo, Dewi; Spector, J. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Since the summer of 2006, faculty from the Florida State University (FSU) College of Education and Learning Systems Institute and the Open University of Indonesia (Universitas Terbuka, or UT) have worked together to strengthen UT's distance teacher education program, which prepares a large percentage of Indonesia's basic education teachers. While…

  3. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1989-04-01

    Indonesia, an archipelago of 13,500 islands, ranks 5th as the most populous nation in the world. It has 175 million people, 105 million of which live on the island of Java alone. Indonesia has many distinct cultural and linguistic groups. Islam almost wholly replaced Hindu by the end of the 16th century, after arriving in the 12th century. Today 88% of the people are Muslim, while the rest includes Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, and others. The constitution guarantees religious freedom. Indonesia gained independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Indonesia's 1st president, Sukarno, led the rebellion leading to independence and remained in power from 1949-1967. After aligning with Asian communist countries and establishing an authoritarian regime in the early 1960s, the people rebelled, attempted a coup and, in 1967, the People's,s Consultative Assembly named Soeharto as president. He continues to be Indonesia's president and the dominant government and political figure. The constitution provides limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. During the 1970s, the strong economy was based on high oil revenues and an industrial policy which protected domestic industries. Beginning in the 1980s, however, lower energy earnings assisted by low inflation, a downward float against the dollar, and the government eliminating regulatory obstacles turned the economic tide. Even though Indonesia has a larger unrescheduled external debt than any other developing nation, the government is dealing successfully with servicing this debt. Foreign interests participate in the oil and minerals sectors. Indonesia acts on its free and active foreign policy by playing a prominent role in Asian affairs, but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesia is on friendly terms with its neighbors, and the military does not advocate developing the capability to project its power. The US and Indonesia carry on cordial diplomatic and trade relations

  4. Indonesia.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Indonesia focuses on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; defense; and relations between Indonesia and the US. In 1985, Indonesia's population totaled 173 million with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. Infant mortality was 89/1000 and life expectancy 55 years. The Republic of Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 13,500 islands extending 4800 kilometers along the equator from the mainland of Southeast Asia to Australia. Indonesians are primarily of Malay stock and include many related but distinct cultural and linguistic groups. Republic based on the 1945 constitution providing for limited separation of executive, legislative, and judicial power. The president, elected for a 5-year term, is the dominant government and political figure. Over the 1983-85 period, Indonesia experienced much success in stabilizing the economy following a downturn in 1981-82. Indonesia cut government expenditures, devalued the rupiah by 28% vis-a-vis the US dollar, and introduced a financial reform package to improve efficiency in the banking system and to encourage savings. Real gross domestic product (GDP) grew 4.2% in 1983 and 6% in 1984; inflation fell from 12% in 1983 to 9% in 1984 and 4% during the 1st part of 1985; the current account deficit declined from 8% to 3% of GDP by 1984. Agriculture is the most important domestic sector, accounting for more than 25%. The manufacturing sector accounts for 12% of GDP. Since the beginning of the Soeharto government, US relations with Indonesia have been close and cordial. PMID:12233540

  5. Global Models for the National Research University: Adoption and Adaptation in Indonesia and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beerkens, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the way in which global university models are adopted in research universities in Indonesia and Malaysia. It first provides the global context in which these models have evolved and the processes through which they spread. How these global models interact with local policies and institutions is the topic of the empirical part…

  6. The Practices of Students' Generic Skills among Economics Students at National University of Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadiyanto; Suratno

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine students' generic skills practices (communication, IT, numeracy, learning how to learn, problem solving, working with others, and subject-specific competencies) at National University of Indonesia (UI). Survey design with quantitative method was applied in this study. Questionnaires were distributed to 355 students at…

  7. Correlation between Knowledge, Experience and Common Sense, with Critical Thinking Capability of Medical Faculty's Students at Indonesia Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeak, Bernadetha

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…

  8. Promoting the University Social Responsibility in the Capacity Development Program for Landslide Risk Reduction in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Verrier, M.; Fathani, T. F.; Andayani, B.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenges efforts for landslides disaster risk reduction in Indonesia is to provide an effective program for capacity development of the community living in the vulnerable area. Limited access for appropriate information and knowledge about the geology and landslide phenomena as well as the social-security constrains are the major challenges in capacity development program in the landslide prone area. Accordingly, an action for conducting community-based research and education program with respect to landslide mitigation and disaster risk reduction at the village level was established by implementing the University Social Responsibility Program. Such program has been conducted regularly in every academic semester as a part of the formal academic program at Universitas Gadjah Mada , Indonesia. Twenty students with multi-discipline backgrounds and supported by their lectures/advisers have to be deployed at the village for two months to carry out such mission. This action is also conducted under the coordination with the local/ national Government together with the local community, and may also with the private sectors. A series of research actions such as landslide investigation and hazard-risk mapping, social mapping and development of landslide early warning system were carried out in parallel with public education and evacuation drill for community empowerment and landslide risk reduction. A Community Task Force for Disaster Risk Reduction was also established during the community empowerment program, in order to guarantee the affectivity and sustainability of the disaster risk reduction program at the village level. It is crucial that this program is not only beneficial for empowering the village community to tackle the landslide problems, but also important to support the education for sustainable development program at the disaster prone area. Indeed, this capacity development program may also be considered as one best practice for transforming

  9. Leadership and culture of data governance for the achievement of higher education goals (Case study: Indonesia University of Education)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putro, Budi Laksono; Surendro, Kridanto; Herbert

    2016-02-01

    Data is a vital asset in a business enterprise in achieving organizational goals. Data and information affect the decision-making process on the various activities of an organization. Data problems include validity, quality, duplication, control over data, and the difficulty of data availability. Data Governance is the way the company / institution manages its data assets. Data Governance covers the rules, policies, procedures, roles and responsibilities, and performance indicators that direct the overall management of data assets. Studies on governance data or information aplenty recommend the importance of cultural factors in the governance of research data. Among the organization's leadership culture has a very close relationship, and there are two concepts turn, namely: Culture created by leaders, leaders created by culture. Based on the above, this study exposure to the theme "Leadership and Culture Of Data Governance For The Achievement Of Higher Education Goals (Case Study: Indonesia University Of Education)". Culture and Leadership Model Development of on Higher Education in Indonesia would be made by comparing several models of data governance, organizational culture, and organizational leadership on previous studies based on the advantages and disadvantages of each model to the existing organizational business. Results of data governance model development is shown in the organizational culture FPMIPA Indonesia University Of Education today is the cultural market and desired culture is a culture of clan. Organizational leadership today is Individualism Index (IDV) (83.72%), and situational leadership on selling position.

  10. Community-University Partnerships in University Internship Programs in Indonesia: What Can We Learn from Universities with International Curricula?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anantadjaya, Sam P. D.

    2011-01-01

    As Indonesian higher education strives to achieve educational excellence, universities with international curricula have become a focus of improvement efforts. Many of these university efforts involve business schools forming partnerships built around internships. Yet, as this focus on internship partnerships becomes more pronounced, many…

  11. An introduction of internationalisation in food science doctoral program: a case study of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hunaefi, D

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Food Science and Technology- Bogor Agricultural University (DFST-IPB), Indonesia is one of the oldest Departments of its kind in Indonesia. The Department has been founded since 1964 under the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology. The Department has a core competence in the area of food science and technology, particularly in the development of food chemistry, food microbiology, food process engineering, food analysis, food quality and safety. The Department offers educational programs: Undergraduate Program in Food Technology and Master as well as Doctorate Program in Food Science. The Master and Doctorate Program are enrolled by 35 students annually. Globalisation as a global phenomenon has been influencing DFST doctoral program as internationalization in response to globalization is a common feature in majority universities. Facing this challenge, DFST Doctorate Program's has made some efforts to provide students with international atmosphere, including having international guest lecturers, inviting prospective international students, and initiating join program with international universities. In addition, research focusing in tropical food and collaboration with international universities may need to be improved to widen the network, increase publication and place DFST doctorate program visible in the international forum. This paper is intended to reveal the perceived challenges of globalization for food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB) and to what extent and in what form internationalization has been achieved. However, it should be noted that this article is selective rather than comprehensive in reflecting on the internationalization process of food science doctoral program (DFST-IPB). PMID:20491413

  12. Developing a Practical Rating Rubric of Speaking Test for University Students of English in Parepare, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latifa, Ammang; Rahman, Asfah; Hamra, Arifuddin; Jabu, Baso; Nur, Rafi'ah

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to develop a practical rating rubric of speaking ability in the classroom setting. This research study involves the English speaking lecturers at a number of higher education institutions in Parepare, Indonesia. The product is designed based on Research and Development (R&D) approach, which is adopted from Gall, Gall, and Borg…

  13. Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Primary education in Indonesia is described in this study. Chapter One takes up several topics, including the historical background of educational development, basic direction and policy, general organization of the school system, organizational structure, primary school management, teaching staff at primary schools, educational supervision,…

  14. University Leaders' Strategies in the Global Environment: A Comparative Study of Universitas Indonesia and the Australian National University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2006-01-01

    In a global environment in which global, national and local nodes relate freely within common networks, all research universities must pursue strategies for building global capacity and facilitating cross-border staff and student movement and research collaboration. The study compares readings of the global environment, global and international…

  15. The Implementation of Contextual Approach in Solving Problems Understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian at Universities in Surakarta, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahyuni, Tutik; Suwandi, Sarwiji; Slamet, St. Y.; Andayani

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to: (1) assess the charge textbooks Syntax: "Sentence" bahasa Indonesia is based on a needs analysis; (2) analyzing the breakdown of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with contextual approach; (3) test the effectiveness of understanding Syntax: "Sentence" Indonesian with kontekstua approach.…

  16. "A Diploma and a Descendant!" Premarital Sexuality, Education and Politics among Dani University Students in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munro, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, the notion of "study first" ("kuliah dulu") pressures young adults to refrain from sex and delay marriage until they finish tertiary education. Recent scholarship has viewed choices to abstain from sex as evidence of the potency of values of modernisation, Islamic culture and the contemporary importance of moral and social order. By…

  17. My Classroom: Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balazs, Erica

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the teaching experiences of Alief Noor Farida--a junior lecturer at Indonesia's "Universitas Negeri Semarang" (Semarang State University [UNNES]). Now teaching her fourth semester and an alumna of the English Education program at UNNES, Ms. Farida is an especially motivated and dedicated educator. She teaches 18…

  18. Transformative Learning Experiences of Juniors and Seniors at a School of Education in a Christian University in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunawaty, Tjioe

    2012-01-01

    Helping students learn specific knowledge content is an important element involved in education. However, Christian universities are called not merely to fill their students' minds with facts, but to promote life transformation to better reflect the mind and character of Christ. The concern is that research on transformative learning in the…

  19. Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Indonesia 15 Years After Adoption of a Universal Infant Vaccination Program: Possible Impacts of Low Birth Dose Coverage and a Vaccine-Escape Mutant.

    PubMed

    Purwono, Priyo Budi; Juniastuti; Amin, Mochamad; Bramanthi, Rendra; Nursidah; Resi, Erika Maria; Wahyuni, Rury Mega; Yano, Yoshihiko; Soetjipto; Hotta, Hak; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge

    2016-09-01

    A universal hepatitis B vaccination program for infants was adopted in Indonesia in 1997. Before its implementation, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive individuals in the general population was approximately 5-10%. The study aimed to investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological status and molecular profile among children, 15 years after adoption of a universal infant vaccination program in Indonesia. According to the Local Health Office data in five areas, the percentages of children receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine are high (73.9-94.1%), whereas the birth dose coverage is less than 50%. Among 967 children in those areas, the seropositive rate of HBsAg in preschool- and school-aged children ranged from 2.1% to 4.2% and 0% to 5.9%, respectively. Of the 61 HBV DNA-positive samples, the predominant genotype/subtype was B/adw2 Subtype adw3 was identified in genotype C for the first time in this population. Six samples (11.5%) had an amino acid substitution within the a determinant of the S gene region, and one sample had T140I that was suggested as a vaccine-escape mutant type. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of a vaccine-escape mutant might contribute to the endemicity of HBV infection among children in Indonesia. PMID:27402524

  20. Geothermal exploration in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Radja, V.T.

    1984-03-01

    Indonesia is blessed with geothermal resources. This fortunate aspect is directly related to the fact that the archipelago is an island arc created by a subduction zone. Evidence of geothermal activity is common throughout the Islands. Among the islands' many active volcanos are numerous geothermal phenomena. Almost half of the volcanic centers in Indonesia (88 out of 177 centers) contain fumarole and sulfatare features. A brief history of the exploration for geothermal energy in Indonesia is presented.

  1. Wind profiler dedicated in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gage, Ken

    A dedication ceremony was recently held in Biak, Indonesia, to commemorate the opening of the Biak VHF wind profiler. The wind profiler, which operates at 50 MHz, was constructed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Aeronomy Laboratory in cooperation with the Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN). The Biak facility completes the NOAA'Colorado University trans-Pacific wind-profiler network. Other stations in the network, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation, are Piura, Peru; Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia; and Christmas Island in Kirabati. The Christmas Island facility is supported by NOAA's Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Program Project Office.

  2. Information Technology and Library Education in Indonesia: Recent Developments in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulistyo-Basuki, L.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a brief history of information technology-related training for library school students in Indonesia, including the most recent developments in library and information science curriculum with special reference to the University of Indonesia. Explains the higher education system and discusses graduate and undergraduate curriculum…

  3. Youth Transitions to Urban, Middle-Class Marriage in Indonesia: Faith, Family and Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilan, Pam

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines a timely topic in international youth studies--the transition to (middle-class) marriage--in a developing country, Indonesia. While early marriage in Indonesia is still common in rural areas and marriage itself remains almost universal, these trends are moving into reverse for urban, tertiary-educated middle-class young people.…

  4. 75 FR 13198 - Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: The Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... of Educational and Cultural Affairs (ECA) Request for Grant Proposals: The Indonesia English Language... and Cultural Affairs announces an open competition to administer the FY2010 Indonesia English Language... in one eight-week intensive English language course each at a U.S. college or university and...

  5. Decentralising Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristiansen, Stein; Pratikno

    2006-01-01

    The paper aims to assess the impacts of a dramatic decentralisation reform in Indonesia on access to and quality of primary and secondary education. The research draws on qualitative and quantitative data from interviews, focus group discussions and household surveys in four selected districts. The main conclusions are threefold; the…

  6. Country Profiles, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Council, New York, NY.

    A profile of Indonesia is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population - size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, migration,…

  7. Women and tobacco in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To present a broad exploration of the relationship of women and tobacco in Indonesia and to describe action on tobacco and health specific to women taken by government and non-government agencies.
DATA SOURCES—Published and unpublished prevalence surveys, official documents, vernacular newspapers, secondary sources, unstructured interviews, and personal observations.
STUDY SELECTION—Data on smoking prevalence among women was primarily sought from official household surveys but several smaller scale local surveys were also examined. The only representative national household data on smoking prevalence from 1995 suggested a national prevalence for occasional and regular smoking of 2.6% for women aged 20 years or older. Smaller, local level surveys had reported rates varying from 4% for junior high school girls, and 2.9% for women undergraduates at a provincial university, to 6.4% of women in a representative sample in Jakarta. Claims that the incidence of female smoking is increasing cannot be confirmed due to an absence of comparable national longitudinal data.
CONCLUSION—Although Indonesian women are conspicuous in growing and processing tobacco, their rates of smoking are low in comparison with their male compatriots and internationally. Anecdotal evidence suggests that their disinclination to smoke is commonly attributed to cultural values, which stigmatise women smokers as morally flawed, while at the same time sanctioning smoking by men. Although there is little evidence of tobacco advertising directly targeting women, Indonesian health activists interviewed by the author felt that women are increasingly taking up smoking due to a weakening of stigma and to Western cultural influences. Cultural factors in the low rates of smoking among Indonesian women deserve closer investigation as they have proved to be a major source of health protection, albeit within a stigmatising context. More also needs to be known about the dynamics of

  8. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  9. Snakebite in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Adiwinata, Randy; Nelwan, Erni J

    2015-10-01

    Indonesia as one of the largest tropical and agricultural countries in the world shared the particularly high burden cases of snakebite. In the last decade, World Health Organization (WHO) has listed snakebite as one of the neglected tropical disease. The clinical manifestations of snakebite could vary according to the type of venoms ranging from mild to life threatening condition. Appropriate first aid treatment and comprehensive management of snakebite cases are warranted to reduce mortality and morbidity rates. PMID:26932707

  10. Indonesia's migration transition.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article describes population movements in Indonesia in the context of rapid and marked social and economic change. Foreign investment in Indonesia is increasing, and global mass media is available to many households. Agriculture is being commercialized, and structural shifts are occurring in the economy. Educational levels are increasing, and women's role and status are shifting. Population migration has increased over the decades, both short and long distance, permanent and temporary, legal and illegal, and migration to and between urban areas. This article focuses specifically on rural-to-urban migration and international migration. Population settlements are dense in the agriculturally rich inner areas of Java, Bali, and Madura. Although the rate of growth of the gross domestic product was 6.8% annually during 1969-94, the World Bank ranked Indonesia as a low-income economy in 1992 because of the large population size. Income per capita is US $670. Indonesia is becoming a large exporter of labor to the Middle East, particularly women. The predominance of women as overseas contract workers is changing women's role and status in the family and is controversial due to the cases of mistreatment. Malaysia's high economic growth rate of over 8% per year means an additional 1.3 million foreign workers and technicians are needed. During the 1980s urban growth increased at a very rapid rate. Urban growth tended to occur along corridors and major transportation routes around urban areas. It is posited that most of the urban growth is due to rural-to-urban migration. Data limitations prevent an exact determination of the extent of rural-to-urban migration. More women are estimated to be involved in movements to cities during the 1980s compared to the 1970s. Recruiters and middlemen have played an important role in rural-to-urban migration and international migration. PMID:12347370

  11. Urologic cancer in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Umbas, Rainy; Safriadi, Ferry; Mochtar, Chaidir A; Djatisoesanto, Wahjoe; Hamid, Agus Rizal A H

    2015-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, start to become more common in Indonesia. According to the government statement, incidence of malignant diseases increased annually up to 8% in the last decade and these diseases become the seventh leading cause of death in Indonesia. On the basis of the latest Globocan report on cancer incidence in Indonesia, prostate cancer ranks sixth; followed by bladder (12th) and kidney (18th). More than half of patients with kidney cancer are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Besides renal cell carcinoma, there are significant number of people affected with squamous cell and transitional cell carcinoma because of kidney stones. Radical nephrectomy or cytoreductive nephrectomy was the primary treatment, mostly done as an open procedure. Transitional cell carcinoma is the commonest histology type in bladder cancer cases followed by squamous cell carcinoma, which almost always related to bladder stones. Unfortunately, >70% of our cases were diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancer, and ∼60% of these patients refused further radical treatment. Incidence of prostate cancer is increasing rapidly and it becomes the third most common cancer in men. However, most of our patients are diagnosed in the advanced stage. Radical prostatectomy or external beam radiotherapy is the treatment of choice in localized disease. Nearly 40% of the elderly patients are treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy. Therefore, it requires more research by the Indonesian urologists and other healthcare providers to diagnose these cancers in earlier stage as well as community education for prevention. PMID:26085688

  12. Complex emergencies in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Bradt, D A; Drummond, C M; Richman, M

    2001-01-01

    Recently, Indonesia has experienced six major provincial, civil, armed conflicts. Underlying causes include the transmigration policy, sectarian disputes, the Asian economic crisis, fall of authoritarian rule, and a backlash against civil and military abuses. The public health impact involves the displacement nationwide of > 1.2 million persons. Violence in the Malukus, Timor, and Kalimantan has sparked the greatest population movements such that five provinces in Indonesia each now harbor > 100,000 internally displaced persons. With a background of government instability, hyperinflation, macroeconomic collapse, and elusive political solutions, these civil armed conflicts are ripe for persistence as complex emergencies. Indonesia has made substantial progress in domestic disaster management with the establishment of central administrative authority, strategic planning, and training programs. Nevertheless, the Indonesian experience reveals recurrent issues in international humanitarian health assistance. Clinical care remains complicated by absences of treatment protocols, inappropriate drug use, high procedural complication rates, and variable referral practices. Epidemiological surveillance remains complicated by unsettled clinical case definitions, non-standardized case management of diseases with epidemic potential, variable outbreak management protocols, and inadequate epidemiological analytic capacity. International donor support has been semi-selective, insufficient, and late. The militia murders of three UN staff in West Timor prompted the withdrawal of UN international staff from West Timor for nearly a year to date. Re-establishing rules of engagement for humanitarian health workers must address security, public health, and clinical threats. PMID:12090212

  13. Unity in Diversity: History and Religion in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Bruce William

    This paper, intended as lecture material for university students or as background material for teachers of social studies and world history, assumes that students already have some knowledge about the origins, practices, and beliefs of Islam, but that they have no prior background about Indonesia or its history. The paper describes the diversity…

  14. Education in Indonesia: Coping with Challenges in the Third Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwadi, Agung; Muljoatmodjo, Suheru

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Indonesian system of education of Islamic schooling, secular education, and out-of-school education. The provision of 9-year universal basic education is planned by 2004. The national plan challenges the education system to facilitate the change in Indonesia's economic structure from an agriculturally based system to one more…

  15. Theft of electricity in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priatna, Dedy Supriadi

    In 1996, among 196 million Indonesian people, only 47.6% had access to electricity; 45.4% in rural areas and 51.5% in urban. 64% of population lived in 61,975 villages, and electric power was supplied to 69% of villages. The government has set a goal to achieve nearly universal services by the year 2014. The government can use existing installed capacity of PLN's system more efficiently. Theft of electricity, which currently constitutes a large share of PLN's losses, should be reduced. The potential of the private sector including captive power and local communities, to participate in electric power generation can also be utilized. The large interest that has been shown by the private sector might be followed by making electric power provision profitable and therefore attractive for the private sector. PLN profits, that in 1996 were only 5.22% instead of the 8% recommended by the World Bank as the best practice for Indonesia, have to be increased by improving their performance levels. The government should also seek solutions for the extremely poor households who will never be able to afford both connection charges and a monthly bill. In 1996 the extremely poor households included 5,251,788 households, constituting 12.1% of the total Indonesian households. Only 1.2% of these households had access to electricity. The objective of this study is to seek the policies that can be implemented in Indonesia that will make it possible to generate and deliver electricity profitably, and reduce theft while providing nearly universal services. For this purpose, the options that are proposed in this study are reducing theft of electricity; something like the CAMPFIRE that has successfully reduced poaching of elephants in Africa: that is, consumer-owned systems, both partially (distribution facilities) and completely (generation and distribution facilities); performance-based regulation (PBR); and solutions for supplying the extremely poor based on the minimum subsidies from the

  16. Exploring Indonesia: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelander, Bjorn

    This book provides an overview of Indonesia's history and culture. The book begins with prehistoric times and continues through nationhood. Each chapter provides background information along with student activities and project suggestions. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction to the Lands and Peoples of Indonesia"; (2) "Early Indonesian Societies";…

  17. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tauran, Patricia M; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-12-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia. PMID:26458777

  18. Emergence of Melioidosis in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Tauran, Patricia M.; Sennang, Nurhayana; Rusli, Benny; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Dance, David; Arif, Mansyur; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2015-01-01

    Melioidosis is known to be highly endemic in parts of southeast Asia and northern Australia; however, cases are rarely reported in Indonesia. Here we report three cases of melioidosis in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia occurring between 2013 and 2014. Two patients died and the other was lost to follow-up. Burkholderia pseudomallei isolates from all three cases were identified by the VITEK2 Compact installed in the hospital in 2012. None of the three patients reported received antimicrobials recommended for melioidosis because of the delayed recognition of the organism. We reviewed the literature and found only seven reports of melioidosis in Indonesia. Five were reported before 1960. We suggest that melioidosis is endemic throughout Indonesia but currently under-recognized. Training on how to identify B. pseudomallei accurately and safely in all available microbiological facilities should be provided, and consideration should be given to making melioidosis a notifiable disease in Indonesia. PMID:26458777

  19. Inventory of Forts in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinandi, N.; Suryaningsih, F.

    2015-08-01

    The great archipelago in Indonesia with its wealthy and various nature, the products and commodities of tropic agriculture and the rich soil, was through the centuries a region of interest for other countries all over the world. For several reasons some of these countries came to Indonesia to establish their existence and tried to monopolize the trading. These countries such as the Portuguese, the Spanish, the Dutch and the British built strengthened trade stations which later became forts all over Indonesia to defend their interest. The archipelago of Indonesia possesses a great number of fortification-works as legacies of native rulers and those which were built by European trading companies and later became colonial powers in the 16th to the 19th centuries. These legacies include those specific structures built as a defence system during pre and within the period of World War II. These fortresses are nowadaysvaluable subjects, because they might be considered as shared heritage among these countries and Indonesia. It's important to develop a vision to preserve these particular subjects of heritage, because they are an interesting part of the Indonesian history and its cultural treasures. The Government of the Republic of Indonesia has national program to compile a comprehensive documentation of the existing condition of these various types of forts as cultural heritage. The result of the 3 years project was a comprehensive 442 forts database in Indonesia, which will be very valuable to the implementation of legal protection, preservation matters and adaptive re-use in the future.

  20. Infant malnutrition in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Oomen, H. A. P. C.

    1953-01-01

    Infant malnutrition, resulting frequently in the death of children of pre-school age, is a problem requiring urgent solution in Indonesia. Children suffering from malnutrition show a variety of symptoms, the most characteristic being emaciation, growth retardation, liver changes, dyspigmentation of skin and hair, other skin lesions, oedema, muscular wasting, anaemia, and xerophthalmia. The indicative value of xerophthalmia, which often leads to the development of keratomalacia, in the diagnosis of malnutrition is stressed by the author. Further research is required to determine the causes—and particularly the part played by diet—of the clinical differences observed in malnutrition cases. Far greater interest in the problem of malnutrition must be shown by the entire medical profession in Indonesia if treatment is to be carried out successfully. The specific symptom, xerophthalmia, is easily curable with cod-liver oil. General malnutrition can be prevented only if sufficient amounts, both quantitatively and qualitatively, of protein, vitamin A, and calories are provided for every child. The Indonesian must be taught, by practical example, the necessity of adequate feeding, and be encouraged to make maximum use of locally available foods. It is hoped that the centres to deal with malnutrition, envisaged by the Ministry of Health, will provide both curative and preventive treatment and facilities for propaganda and research. ImagesFIG. 1-2FIG. 3-4FIG. 5-6FIG. 7FIG. 8 PMID:13106702

  1. Prehospital care in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, E; Pusponegoro, A

    2005-01-01

    Current system: Hospitals of varying standards are widespread but have no system of emergency ambulance or patient retrieval. Indonesia's only public emergency ambulance service, 118, is based in five of the biggest cities and is leading the way in paramedic training and prehospital care. Challenges and developments: There are many challenges faced including the culture of acceptance, vast geographical areas, traffic, inadequate numbers of ambulances, and access to quality training resources. Recently there have been a number of encouraging developments including setting up of a disaster response brigade, better provision of ambulances, and development of paramedic training. Conclusions: An integrated national regionalised hospital and prehospital system may seem fantastic but with the enthusiasm of those involved and perhaps some help from countries with access to training resources it may not be an unrealistic goal. PMID:15662073

  2. Induced abortion in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Sarwono, S W; Widyantoro, N

    1993-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most difficult sociomedical problems facing the Indonesian government. While well-known in traditional society, the practice was discouraged by all Indonesian religious groups, and forbidden by the Dutch colonial authorities. Although abortion was technically illegal under the criminal code, a judicial interpretation in the early 1970s permitted medical professionals to offer the procedure so long as they were discreet and careful. The numbers of medical abortions carried out in Indonesia rose dramatically, and there was evidence of matching declines in the incidence of morbidity and mortality caused by dangerous illegal procedures. Medical and community groups campaigned for a more liberal abortion law to protect legal practitioners and stamp out illegal traditional practices. Their efforts appeared to bear fruit in the draft Health Law, but when the law was passed by the legislature in late 1992, the issue was again clouded by contradictions and inconsistencies. PMID:8212094

  3. Health services in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kosen, S; Gunawan, S

    In Indonesia, rapid economic development has led to a reduction in poverty among the 195 million inhabitants. While population increased more than 50% from 1971 to 1990, the annual growth rate, crude birth rate, and total fertility rates have declined rapidly. Life expectancy has increased from 45.7 years in 1971 to 62.7 in 1994 as crude death rates and infant and child mortality rates have declined. Causes of death have shifted from infectious to chronic diseases, but in 1992 major causes of death in children under 5 years old were preventable, and the maternal mortality rate was 425/100,000. Policies which guide the development of health care call for improvements in quality of life, adherence to humanitarian principles, use of scientifically approved traditional medicine, and provision of public health through a three-tiered system. Health care is financed by the government and the community, and managed care has been encouraged. Foreign aid has bolstered development in the health sector. Adequate sanitation has been achieved for 35% of the population, and 65% of urban and 35% of rural residents have reasonable access to clean water. Improvements in health indicators include 55% contraceptive prevalence, reduction in prevalence of anemia during pregnancy, 55.8% of pregnant women receiving prenatal care, a decrease in protein-energy malnutrition among children under five, and high vaccination coverage. Remaining public health problems include malaria, tuberculosis, dengue hemorrhagic fever, an increase in HIV/AIDS, iodine-deficiency, an increasing number of traffic fatalities, and an increasing number of smokers. New health policies have been instituted to meet these challenges as Indonesia's need for a productive and competitive labor force increases. PMID:8985447

  4. Ergonomics policy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sutarjo, Untung S

    2007-12-01

    Workers' conditions in accordance with their place of work are different from one area to another, especially in this reformation era where there are immense alterations in politics shown from the centralized government shifting to decentralization and district autonomy. Ergonomics problems in Indonesia are reviewed. In home industries, workers have to adjust themselves to their jobs, and ergonomic improvement may face significant impediments especially in small-scale industries. It is necessary to create or identify the most plausible model to be implemented in accordance with the conditions of districts, including low awareness about the relation between ergonomics and workers' productivity in producing goods and services and working processes scattered often at their own houses. As conditions conducive to ergonomics programs, district-level willingness to improve and increase the wealth of their society, recognition by businesses about the impacts of ergonomics on productivity and reduction of medical treatment costs may be mentioned. Labor unions support ergonomic improvements at production processes, and professionals and academicians are ready to assist, whereas national banks and foreign investment may encourage new technologies including ergonomics aspects. It is important to strengthen ergonomic improvement efforts in Indonesia through establishing district ergonomics improvement networks and ergonomics peer leaders with the support of continual training starting from the training of core leaders at the province level and extending to peer leaders at district level. This training should be made as simple as possible in order to facilitate innovations toward changes. Finally assistance is needed by the mentor teams in order to periodically monitor the improvements undertaken. PMID:18572796

  5. Language in Education: The Case of Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nababan, P. W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the institution of Bahasa Indonesia as the state language of Indonesia. Discusses the use of Indonesian, 400+ vernaculars, and foreign languages in the country; the implementation of state language policy through formal and nonformal language education; and the rise of bilingualism in Indonesia. (DMM)

  6. The Indonesia Kit. A Study Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, Elaine; Gage, Susan

    This document is designed for Canadians interested in the South Pacific island chain nation of Indonesia. The kit includes information, photographs, and illustrations concerning Indonesia, West Papua (Irian Jaya), and East Timor. There are discussions of Indonesia's environment, its transmigration program, development refugees, and ties with…

  7. Indonesia: persues ICPD Action Programme.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    Since the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the focus of Indonesia's population policies have utilized people- and family-centered approaches, emphasizing poverty alleviation as a central challenge for development initiatives. However, the ongoing economic crisis in the country is hampering its efforts to extend reproductive health services to the people. The crisis also resulted in loss of jobs, price increases, and a drop in the purchasing power of families. Despite these conditions, Indonesia will still pursue its implementation of the ICPD Program of Action, and the international community should help the country achieve the goals of the ICPD amidst the economic crisis. PMID:12157874

  8. Newborn screening in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rustama, Diet S; Fadil, M Ryadi; Harahap, Elly R; Primadi, Aris

    2003-01-01

    In Indonesia, newborn screening is not yet a policy, and the incidence of preventable causes of mental retardation detected by newborn screening is not known. Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is not infrequent. Without a screening program, unrecognized CH patients were neglected for years. Since May 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has assisted in starting a CH Newborn Screening Project to estimate the local incidence of CH and to evaluate the problems associated with the screening. In June 2000, a pilot study was conducted using primary TSH measurement, supplemented by T4 in infants with elevated TSH. The target was to screen 12,000 newborn infants, using cord blood serum taken at birth, or a heel prick between 2 to 6 days of age. Between June 2000 and February 2001, 3,534 neonates born in 4 hospitals were screened using cord blood serum taken at birth (recall rate 3.3%). From March 2001 onwards, the heel prick method was used and participating hospitals increased from 4 to 7. Using this approach, until August 2001, 3,309 samples were analysed and the recall rate was much lower (0.64%). The number of unsatisfactory samples was relatively high due to an unstable process of blood collection. Parental refusal and low acceptance of screening among policy makers resulted from lack of awareness of the dangers of CH, and the screening program was not considered a health priority. Recall of patients after screening was a major barrier, with problems in tracking patients arising from urbanization and a high rate of relocation. To advance the CH screening program nationwide, infrastructure must be improved along with the recall system, and education as well as information campaigns for parents and medical professionals must be intensified. The Department of Health must be persuaded to give a national mandate. PMID:15906701

  9. Evaluation of Carrying Capacity Land-Based Layout to Mitigate Flood Risk (Case Study in Tempuran Floodplain, Ponorogo Regency) Novia Lusiana1 Bambang Rahadi2 Tunggul Sutanhaji3 1Environmental and Natural Resources Management Graduate Program University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia 23Laboratory of Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia Email : novialusiana@rocketmail.com, jbrahadi@ub.ac.id, tunggulsutanhaji@yahoo.com

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusiana, N.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Floods haves frequently hit Indonesia and have had greater negative impacts. In Javaboth the area affected by flooding and the amount of damage caused by floods have increased. At least, five factors, affect the flooding in Indonesia, including rainfall, reduced retention capacity of the watershed, erroneous design of river channel development, silting-up of the river, and erroneous regional layout. The level of the disastrous risks can be evaluated based on the extent of the threat and susceptibility of a region. One methode for risk assessment is Geographical Information System (GIS)-based mapping. Objectives of this research are: 1) evaluating current flood risk in susceptible areas, 2) applying supported land-based layout as effort to mitigate floodrisk, and 3) evaluating floodrisk for the period 2031 in the Tempuran floodplain of Ponorogo Regency. Result show that the area categorized as high risk covers 104. 6 ha (1. 2%), moderate risk covers 2512. 9 ha (28. 4%), low risk covers 3140. 8 ha (35. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 3096. 1 (34. 9%). Using Regional Layout Design for the years 2011 - 2031, the high risk area covers 67. 9 ha (0.8%), moderate risk covers 3033 ha (34. 3%), low risk covers 2770. 8 ha (31, 3%), and the lowest risk covers 2982. 6 ha (34%). Based on supported land suitability, the high-risk areais only 2. 9 ha (0.1%), moderate risk covers of 426. 1 ha (4. 8%), low risk covers 4207. 4 ha (47. 5%), and the lowest risk covers 4218 ha (47. 6%). Flood risk can be mitigated by applying supported land-based layout as shown by the reduced high-risk area, and the fact that > 90% of the areas are categorized as low or lowest risk of disaster. Keywords : Carrying Capacity, Land Capacity, Flood Risk

  10. Smoke over Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At least once a year for a period lasting from a week to several months, northern Sumatra is obscured by smoke and haze produced by agricultural burning and forest fires. These data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer document the presence of airborne particulates on March 13, 2002, during Terra orbit 11880. On the left is an image acquired by MISR's 70-degree backward-viewing camera. On the right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product utilized a test version of the MISR retrieval that incorporates an experimental set of aerosol mixtures. The haze has completely obscured northeastern Sumatra and part of the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra and the Malaysian Peninsula. A northward gradient is apparent as the haze dissipates in the direction of the Malaysian landmass. Each panel covers an area of about 760 kilometers x 400 kilometers.

    Haze conditions had posed a health concern during late February (when schools in some parts of North Sumatra were closed), and worsened considerably in the first two weeks of March. By mid-March, local meteorology officials asked residents of North Sumatra's provincial capital, Medan, to minimize their outdoor activities and wear protective masks. Poor visibility at Medan airport forced a passenger plane to divert to Malaysia on March 14, and visibility reportedly ranged between 100 and 600 meters in some coastal towns southeast of Medan.

    The number and severity of this year's fires was exacerbated by dry weather conditions associated with the onset of a weak to moderate El Nino. The governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei have agreed to ban open burning in plantation and forest areas. The enforcement of such fire bans, however, has proven to be an extremely challenging task.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  11. Sexually transmitted diseases in Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Harahap, M

    1980-01-01

    Epidemiological factors and changing ecological conditions have greatly facilitated the spread of sexually transmitted diseases and led to their rising incidence in Indonesia. Gonorrhoea is at present very prevalent, and drug resistance among circulating strains of gonococci is a contributing factor. Despite medical advances in both diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, these are becoming commoner; unlike other communicable diseases they have so far defied efforts to control them. PMID:6893569

  12. Information Technology Units in Bachelor Degree of Library and Information Science (LIS) Curriculum in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anna, N. E. Variant

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discover and describes the type of information technology (IT) units in bachelor degree of LIS education curriculum through the universities' official websites. This paper tries to find out what are the types of IT units in bachelor degree of LIS course in Indonesia. How does it fit the need of the information age? The…

  13. Desa Informasi: A Virtual Village of "New" Information Resources and Services in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjiek, Liauw Toong

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to introduce Desa Informasi (Information Village), an institutional repository project carried out by Petra Christian University Library in Surabaya, Indonesia, and discuss its potential for enabling academic libraries to remain relevant in the digital era. Design/methodology/approach: Definitions of an…

  14. Teaching Religion in Indonesia: A Report on Graduate Studies in Java

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bret

    2012-01-01

    Established in 2000-2001, the Center for Religious and Cross-cultural Studies (CRCS) is the only master's level religious studies program at a non-religiously affiliated university in Indonesia. In many respects, the program is experimental, operating within the dynamic political and religious environment of the Muslim world's youngest and largest…

  15. Evaluating the Implementation of the Online Tutorial for the Universitas Terbuka Distance Learning Bachelor Degree Program in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubaidah, Ida

    2013-01-01

    Universitas Terbuka (UT), the Indonesia Open University and the 45th state university in the country, is the only one that uses distance learning as its sole mode of delivery and instruction. Although UT has operated for 28 years, unlike face-to-face classroom-based education, distance education has not been considered as a fully legitimate…

  16. Report on Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, Charles Elroy

    This resource packet was compiled by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia. The materials provide information for teaching about the diaspora of Hinduism and Islamic beliefs throughout the southeast Asia archipelagoes and their influence on art and culture. The handouts supplement information on Indonesia as part of an Asian…

  17. Subduction Initiation in Eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.

    2014-12-01

    Subduction is often reported to be difficult to initiate, yet in the West Pacific and Eastern Indonesia there are many young subduction zones. Few theoretical or modelling studies consider such settings in which subduction commonly began close to boundaries between ocean crust and thickened crust of arc or continental origin. In Eastern Indonesia there are subduction zones at different stages of development. Some young examples such as the Banda Arc developed by propagation of an existing trench into a new area by tearing, probably along an ocean-continent boundary. This 'solves' the problem since the older subducted slab provides the driving force to drag down unsubducted ocean lithosphere. However, similar explanations cannot account for other subduction zones, such as North Sulawesi, nearby examples in which the subducted slab is not yet at 100 km depth, or troughs where subduction appears to be beginning. These examples show that subduction initiated at a point, such as a corner in an ocean basin, where there were very great differences in elevation between land and adjacent ocean floor. Depression of ocean crust by flow of arc/continent crust is associated with granitic magmatism and detachments within the upper crust. Once the oceanic corner reaches depths of c.100 km, eclogite formation may lead to slab pull that causes the new subduction zone to grow in both directions along strike; arc magmatism may or may not begin. The close relationship between subduction and extension in Eastern Indonesia links dramatic elevation of land, exhumation of deep crust, and spectacular subsidence of basins imaged by oil exploration seismic and multibeam data. Exhumed granites and high-grade metamorphic rocks at elevations up to 3 km, separated by Neogene alluvial sediments from carbonate reefs now at depths of 2 kilometres, imply vertical movements of several kilometres in a few million years. These observations raise the question of whether subduction is driving extension

  18. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia. PMID:27621573

  19. Current hepatitis B virus infection situation in Indonesia and its genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Lusida, Maria Inge; Juniastuti; Yano, Yoshihiko

    2016-08-28

    Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children. Although limited information is available for an analysis of occult HBV infection (OBI), several variations and substitutions in the pre-S/S region have been detected in Indonesian HBV strains. Additionally, persistent infection and disease progression of chronic hepatitis B are related to not only viral factors but also the host genome. Indonesia is one of the most ethnically heterogeneous nations, with Javanese and Sundanese as the two highest ethnic groups. This multi-ethnicity makes genomic research in Indonesia difficult. In this article, we focused on and reviewed the following aspects: the current hepatitis B immunization program and its efficacy, OBI, HBV infection among high-risk patients, such as hemodialysis patients, and research regarding the host genome in Indonesia. PMID:27621573

  20. Supporting Indonesia's National Forest Monitoring System with LiDAR Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Scientists at Applied GeoSolutions, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Winrock International, and the University of New Hampshire are working with the government of Indonesia to enhance the National Forest Monitoring System in Kalimantan, Indonesia. The establishment of a reliable, transparent, and comprehensive NFMS has been limited by a dearth of relevant data that are accurate, low-cost, and spatially resolved at subnational scales. In this NASA funded project, we are developing, evaluating, and validating several critical components of a NFMS in Kalimantan, Indonesia, focusing on the use of LiDAR and radar imagery for improved carbon stock and forest degradation information. Applied GeoSolutions and the University of New Hampshire have developed an Open Source Software package to process large amounts LiDAR data quickly, easily, and accurately. The Open Source project is called lidar2dems and includes the classification of raw LAS point clouds and the creation of Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), Digital Surface Models (DSMs), and Canopy Height Models (CHMs). Preliminary estimates of forest structure and forest damage from logging from these data sets support the idea that comprehensive, well documented, freely available software for processing LiDAR data can enable countries such as Indonesia to cost effectively monitor their forests with high precision.

  1. International Collaboration for Strengthening Capacity to Assess Earthquake Hazard in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, P. R.; Hidayati, S.; Suhardjono, S.; Meilano, I.; Natawidjaja, D.

    2012-12-01

    Indonesia has experienced a dramatic increase in earthquake risk due to rapid population growth in the 20th century, much of it occurring in areas near the subduction zone plate boundaries that are prone to earthquake occurrence. While recent seismic hazard assessments have resulted in better building codes that can inform safer building practices, many of the fundamental parameters controlling earthquake occurrence and ground shaking - e.g., fault slip rates, earthquake scaling relations, ground motion prediction equations, and site response - could still be better constrained. In recognition of the need to improve the level of information on which seismic hazard assessments are based, the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) and Indonesia's National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB), through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction, have initiated a 4-year project designed to strengthen the Government of Indonesia's capacity to reliably assess earthquake hazard. This project is a collaboration of Australian institutions including Geoscience Australia and the Australian National University, with Indonesian government agencies and universities including the Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics, the Geological Agency, the Indonesian Institute of Sciences, and Bandung Institute of Technology. Effective earthquake hazard assessment requires input from many different types of research, ranging from geological studies of active faults, seismological studies of crustal structure, earthquake sources and ground motion, PSHA methodology, and geodetic studies of crustal strain rates. The project is a large and diverse one that spans all these components, and these will be briefly reviewed in this presentation

  2. Murine typhus in travelers returning from Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Parola, P.; Vogelaers, D.; Roure, C.; Janbon, F.; Raoult, D.

    1998-01-01

    We report the first three documented cases of murine typhus imported into Europe from Indonesia, discuss clues for the diagnosis of the disease, and urge that murine fever be considered in the diagnosis of febrile disease in travelers. PMID:9866749

  3. Neogene sutures in eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, R.; Wilson, M. E. J.

    2000-12-01

    Five suture zones are described from the zone of collision between the Eurasian, Indian-Australian and Pacific-Philippine Sea plates within the eastern Indonesia region. These are the Molucca, Sorong, Sulawesi, Banda and Borneo sutures. Each of these sutures has a relatively short history compared to most pre-Neogene orogenic belts, but each preserves a record of major changes in tectonics including subduction polarity reversals, elimination of volcanic arcs, changing plate boundaries, and important extension within an overall contractional setting. Rapid tectonic changes have occurred within periods of less than 5 Ma. Many of these events, although important, would be overlooked in older orogenic belts because the age resolution required to identify them, even when the evidence is preserved, is simply not possible.

  4. Hepatitis B virus infection in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Yoshihiko; Utsumi, Takako; Lusida, Maria Inge; Hayashi, Yoshitake

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 240 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 75% of whom reside in Asia. Approximately 600000 of infected patients die each year due to HBV-related diseases or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The endemicity of hepatitis surface antigen in Indonesia is intermediate to high with a geographical difference. The risk of HBV infection is high in hemodialysis (HD) patients, men having sex with men, and health care workers. Occult HBV infection has been detected in various groups such as blood donors, HD patients, and HIV-infected individuals and children. The most common HBV subgenotype in Indonesia is B3 followed by C1. Various novel subgenotypes of HBV have been identified throughout Indonesia, with the novel HBV subgenotypes C6-C16 and D6 being successfully isolated. Although a number of HBV subgenotypes have been discovered in Indonesia, genotype-related pathogenicity has not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, genotype-related differences in the prognosis of liver disease and their effects on treatments need to be determined. A previous study conducted in Indonesia revealed that hepatic steatosis was associated with disease progression. Pre-S2 mutations and mutations at C1638T and T1753V in HBV/B3 have been associated with advanced liver diseases including HCC. However, drug resistance to lamivudine, which is prominent in Indonesia, remains obscure. Although the number of studies on HBV in Indonesia has been increasing, adequate databases on HBV infection are limited. We herein provided an overview of the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of HBV infection in Indonesia. PMID:26478663

  5. Micronutrient deficiency in urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Schultink, W

    1997-06-01

    The economic situation of Indonesia is characterized by a large increase in the gross national product which has been on average 7% annually during the last ten years. This was accompanied by rapid urbanization. With the economic improvement, "First World" and "Third World" health and nutrition problems are coexisting in Indonesia. In 1992, the most common of death cause was cardiovascular disease whereas tuberculosis was the second ranking. About 40% of the preschool children are stunted. The main stable food and energy source is rice, although the urban population has a more diverse food pattern than the rural population. In Jakarta, many children receive too late colostrum feeding and mothers are not aware about the importance of correct breastfeeding practices after delivery. Three studies had shown that about one fifth of preschool children and one fourth of elderly take micronutrient supplements. Nevertheless, micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent in Jakarta. About one third of women suffer from moderate vitamin A deficiency (plasma retinol < 0.70 mmol/L) and 50% of pregnant women are anemic. More information is necessary on other micronutrient deficiencies. For example, a small study revealed that nearly two thirds of non-institutionalized elderly living in Jakarta experience thiamine deficiency. Appropriate interventions to reduce micronutrient deficiencies should sensitize the urban population to the fact that the government should restrict itself to use its resources to assist only the poorest individuals and groups, whereas it must be expected from the middle class to spend more time and money to solve their own problems. PMID:9659420

  6. A Preliminary Case Study for Rectenna Sites in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwanto, Y.; Collins, P.

    2004-12-01

    need to be recruited on the mainland (i.e. Java). From these considerations it can be seen that a good first rectenna location would be in North Moluccas, that is islands around Halmahera Island. As remote islands, Halmahera Island and the nearby Biang Island and Bacan Island do not have enough electric energy sources to support economic activities significantly. A rectenna site can be developed there to support SPS energy reception research and, as a benefit for the people, can support their electricity needs to improve their life quality. Educational research on SPS energy reception, as a most important aspect in this case, can be performed by local research institutions and universities in Ambon and Java in collaboration with international institutions. The previous study of SPS in Indonesia showed that many research institutions and universities in Indonesia offered their kind attention to involve their researchers in energy reception research. Furthermore, the political conditions and social safety in Indonesia now offer a conducive atmosphere for such research.

  7. Challenges in diabetes management in Indonesia: a literature review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives The expanding diabetes epidemic worldwide could have potentially devastating effects on the development of healthcare systems and economies in emerging countries, both in terms of direct health care costs and loss of working time and disability. This study aims to review evidence on the burden, expenditure, complications, treatment, and outcomes of diabetes in Indonesia and its implications on the current health system developments. Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review together with a review of unpublished data from the Ministry of Health and a public health insurer (Askes). Studies presenting evidence on prevalence, incidence, mortality, costs, complications and cost of complications, treatment, and outcomes were included in the analysis. Results A limited number of international, national and local studies on the burden and cost of diabetes in Indonesia were identified. National survey data suggests that in 2007 the prevalence of diabetes was 5.7%, of which more than 70% of cases were undiagnosed. This estimate hides large intracountry variation. There was very limited data available on direct costs and no data on indirect costs. The most commonly-identified complication was diabetic neuropathy. Discussion There were a number of limitations in the data retrieved including the paucity of data representative at the national level, lack of a clear reference date, lack of data from primary care, and lack of data from certain regions of the country. Conclusions If left unaddressed, the growing prevalence of diabetes in the country will pose a tremendous challenge to the Indonesian healthcare system, particularly in view of the Government’s 2010 mandate to achieve universal health coverage by 2014. Essential steps to address this issue would include: placing diabetes and non-communicable diseases high on the Government agenda and creating a national plan; identifying disparities and priority areas for Indonesia; developing

  8. Challenges of Learning English in Australia towards Students Coming from Selected Southeast Asian Countries: Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Cao Thanh

    2011-01-01

    The paper will explore the challenges students from selected South East Asian countries (Vietnam, Thailand and Indonesia) face while studying English in Australia before entering into Australian University courses. These students must contend not only with different styles of teaching and learning, but also with the challenge of adapting to a new…

  9. Recent progress of geological investigations in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prijosoesilo, Purnomo; Sunarya, Yaya; Wahab, A.

    Geologically, the Indonesian archipelago was formed as a result of the interaction and collision of the gigantic crustal blocks, i.e. the Eurasian, Indian, Australian and the Pacific plates. This process caused the formation of extensively distributed ultrabasic rocks in Eastern Indonesia, containing rich mineral resources. In Western Indonesia most ore bodies found are associated with the active volcano-plutonic arc or the stable mass of the Sunda Shelf. There are 60 known Tertiary sedimentary basins in Indonesia and only 36 of them have been "failry" explored, of which 14 basins have had hydrocarbon commercial production. Most of the hydrocarbon exploration and production during the last 100 years have been carried out in Western Indonesia. Many of the "unexplored" basins in Indonesia are located in the offshore areas with water depth over 200 m. Coal and geothermal resources are mostly found in Western Indonesia, particularly Sumatra, Java and Kalimantan. Coal production in 1990 has reached 11 million tons. The steady growth of production was primarily due to the establishment of the coal contract agreement with foreign contractors as well as the re-growth of the State coal mines in Bukit Asam and Sawahlunto, Sumatra. Aside from coal, geothermal is one of the alternative energy resources that have been developed in recent years. From some 16,000 MW resources potential estimated, presently only 140 MW geothermal generating power units have been commercially put on production in Kamojang, West Java. The most important minerals mined in Indonesia are tin (Sn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu) and bauxite. Most of the gold (Au) and silver (Ag) production are mined in association with copper (Cu) such as those in Tembagapura, Irian Jaya, with the exception of a few epithermal gold mines in other areas in the country. Between 1984 and 1990, Indonesia produced around 1.3-1.5 MMBPD crude oil and condensate plus 1.6-2.2 TSCF natural gas. Most of the natural gas production was

  10. Socio-Economic Factors on Indonesia Education Disparity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzizah, Yuni

    2015-01-01

    Since 1998, regional governments in Indonesia have had greater autonomy due to the commencement of a reformation movement across Indonesia. Large portions of education management were delegated to the regional governments. Because of this, the education level varies strongly across Indonesia' provinces. Referring to the data provided by the…

  11. Volcanics oil bearing in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Lukman, K.A.; Nyak, B.R.; Anditya, I.M. )

    1996-01-01

    The volcanic rock is seldom considered as good reservoir rocks. However, in Indonesia there is a volcanic layer called the Jatibarang Formation in Jatibarang Field, West Java, that has proven to be a producer of oil and gas of adequate amount. The lateral development of this rock extent along the whole of the basin, about 400 km over a Tertiary block-faulting system of the North West Java Basin. It is estimated that the volume of the spread is about 2360 km[sup 3]. Beside from the primary volcanic rock, the developing reservoir rock could also resulted from rework of massive volcanics or agglomerate, and other volcanic product resedimented as clastic deposits. The hydrocarbon is sourced from the younger Talang Aker Formation that is in direct contact with the reservoir rock. It migrated through the faults. Present cumulative production has reached 1.2 BBC and 2.7 TCFG, while speculative reserve is estimated at 4.0 BBO and 3 TCFG. Regionally, the volcanic rock of the Jatibarang Formation where the hydrocarbon is found is the result of eruptions along the magmatic trend during Late Cretaceous. In North West Java Basin, the trapping system includes both the structural and stratigraphic traps. Reservoir analysis yields pororsity values of around 16-25% and permeability of around 10 Darcies. It is concluded that there are good opportunities still left for hydrocarbon exploration in volcanic rocks. The study is discussed in detail, supported by data from cores and laboratories.

  12. Tsunami risk assessment in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strunz, G.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Wegscheider, S.; Mück, M.; Riedlinger, T.; Mehl, H.; Dech, S.; Birkmann, J.; Gebert, N.; Harjono, H.; Anwar, H. Z.; Sumaryono; Khomarudin, R. M.; Muhari, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) the assessment of tsunami risk is an essential part of the overall activities. The scientific and technical approach for the tsunami risk assessment has been developed and the results are implemented in the national Indonesian Tsunami Warning Centre and are provided to the national and regional disaster management and spatial planning institutions in Indonesia. The paper explains the underlying concepts and applied methods and shows some of the results achieved in the GITEWS project (Rudloff et al., 2009). The tsunami risk assessment has been performed at an overview scale at sub-national level covering the coastal areas of southern Sumatra, Java and Bali and also on a detailed scale in three pilot areas. The results are provided as thematic maps and GIS information layers for the national and regional planning institutions. From the analyses key parameters of tsunami risk are derived, which are integrated and stored in the decision support system of the national Indonesian Early Warning Centre. Moreover, technical descriptions and guidelines were elaborated to explain the developed approach, to allow future updates of the results and the further development of the methodologies, and to enable the local authorities to conduct tsunami risk assessment by using their own resources.

  13. Plague in Central Java, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. E.; Hudson, B. W.; Turner, R. W.; Saroso, J. Sulianti; Cavanaugh, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Plague in man occurred from 1968 to 1970 in mountain villages of the Boyolali Regency in Central Java. Infected fleas, infected rats, and seropositive rats were collected in villages with human plague cases. Subsequent isolations of Yersinia pestis and seropositive rodents, detected during investigations of rodent plague undertaken by the Government of Indonesia and the WHO, attested to the persistence of plague in the region from 1972 to 1974. Since 1968, the incidence of both rodent and human plague has been greatest from December to May at elevations over 1000 m. Isolations of Y. pestis were obtained from the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis and Stivalius cognatus and the rats Rattus rattus diardii and R. exulans ephippium. The major risk to man has been fleas infected with Y. pestis of unique electrophoretic phenotype. Infected fleas were collected most often in houses. Introduced in 1920, rodent plague had persisted in the Boyolali Regency for at least 54 years. The recent data support specific requirements for continued plague surveillance. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:6968252

  14. Gender and advocacy in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ray-ross, S

    1997-01-01

    The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) and the Indonesian Midwives Association (IBI) have developed a two-phase training program regarding gender issues for the association's midwives. The first phase focuses on the leadership, management, and advocacy skills necessary to articulate program needs and to take part in making decisions regarding family planning and reproductive health. The second phase concerns the integration of gender into project design. Proposals developed by the midwives include the following: 1) to improve counseling services for women in a district where 70% of the women using contraception do not decide for themselves which methods to use; 2) to reduce maternal mortality in a district where it has increased by 20% and where women have died while waiting for husbands or fathers-in-law to make the decision to bring them to hospitals; 3) to develop gender-sensitive materials concerning HIV/AIDS; and 4) to expand gender training to all levels of IBI, to provide follow-up technical support, and to integrate gender into the mission statement of the organization. Dr. Nafsiah Mboi (member of Parliament and vice chair of the Global Commission on Women's Health), Dr. Widyastuti Wibisana (director of community participation in the Ministry of Health), Dr. Kokila Vaidya (WHO Medical Officer), Carla Bianpoen (gender specialist with the World Bank), and Titi Sumbung (director of the Melati Foundation) helped to develop and to conduct the program. IBI, which has 65,000 members, provides family planning, reproductive health, and maternal and child health services throughout Indonesia. PMID:12292791

  15. Coalbed methane: A partial solution to Indonesia`s growing energy problems

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.; Gold, J.P.

    1995-04-01

    Indonesia contains the largest resources of coal in Southeast Asia. Indonesian scientists estimate that the in-place coalbed methane resource in 16 onshore basins is about 213 Tcf ({approximately}6 Tcm). This volume is approximately double Indonesia`s current reserves of natural gas. Indonesia is a rapidly industrializing nation of 186 million people, of which 111 million live in Java and 38 million in Sumatra. As industrialization progresses from the present low level, the growth in energy demand will be very rapid. Indonesia`s domestic gas demand is expected to increase form 1.6 Bcf/d (0.05 Bcm/d) in 1991 to 5.7 Bcf/d (0.2 Bcm/d) in 2021. Because the major gas resources of East Kalimantan, North Sumatra, and Natuna are so remote from the main consuming area in northwest Java and are dedicated for export by virtue of the national energy policy, the need is becoming urgent to develop new resources of natural gas, including coalbed methane, for the domestic market. Due to the high geothermal gradient, the coal deposits in the back-arc basins of Sumatra and Java are expected to be of higher than normal rank at depths favorable for coalbed methane production. The oil- and gas-productive Jatibarang sub-basin in northwest Java, with estimated in-place resources of coalbed methane in excess of 20 Tcf (0.6 Tcm), is considered to be the most prospective area in Indonesia for the near-term development of coalbed methane. This area includes Jakarta and vicinity, the most populous and most heavily industrialized part of Indonesia.

  16. The Lamaholot Language of Eastern Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaya, Naonori

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the grammar of the Lewotobi dialect of Lamaholot, an Austronesian language spoken in the eastern part of Flores Island and neighboring islands of Indonesia. Lamaholot belongs to the Central Malayo-Polynesian subgroup of Austronesian, within which it is in a subgroup with the languages of Timor and Roti. The number of speakers…

  17. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  18. Developmental Book Activities and Needs in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Stanley A.; And Others

    This report is the fourth in a series of six studies of developmental book activity in East Asia. The scope of work in the Republic of Indonesia included assessment of books and materials in the educational process; books used by individuals for the improvement of reading skills and for learning enrichment; books for technical and professional…

  19. Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of up-to-date and long series observations on burnt area and rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall, and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss and weak non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and with burnt area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics, rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.

  20. Situation Report [--Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and Philippines].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This is a series of four situation reports prepared by the International Planned Parenthood Federation for informational and consultative purposes. The countries reported on are Fiji, Indonesia, Israel, and the Philippines. Some of the latest statistical figures for each country are listed. They are area, population and growth rate, birth, death,…

  1. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN INDONESIA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF INDONESIA WAS 105,000,000 IN 1965, 70 PERCENT OF WHICH ARE ENGAGED IN AGRICULTURE ON THE SEVEN MAIN ISLANDS AND SOME OF THE 3,000 SMALLER ISLANDS. DIVERSIFICATION OF THE ECONOMY IS BEING EMPHASIZED. COMPULSORY PRIMARY EDUCATION EXTENDS OVER 6 YEARS. SECONDARY EDUCATION INCLUDES A JUNIOR LEVEL WITH BOTH ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL…

  2. Seasonal forecasting of fire over Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.

    2015-03-01

    Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of long, up-to-date series observations on burnt area, rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss, and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss, and weak, non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt and fire-affected area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and burnt and fire-affected area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.

  3. Local Responses to Decentralization Policy in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic fieldwork in six junior high schools in East Java, Indonesia, focused on local responses to a national policy devolving authority over the curriculum to the schools. Interviews and observations in the schools revealed little change in teacher actions. The objectives of decentralization clashed with deeply rooted ideas about authority,…

  4. Difficulties in Initial Algebra Learning in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-01-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was…

  5. Language in education: The case of Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nababan, P. W. J.

    1991-03-01

    Although over 400 languages are spoken in Indonesia, by 1986 60% of the population had some competence in the Indonesian national language, a substantial increase over 1971. Bahasa Indonesia was declared the state language in the 1945 constitution, and reformed spelling was agreed in 1972. It is the sole medium of instruction, except in the first three grades of elementary school in nine regions, where vernaculars may be used transitionally. Thereafter vernaculars are taught as school subjects. Bilingualism, and even multilingualism in Indonesian and one or more vernaculars and/or foreign languages is increasing, and despite the use of Indonesian for official documentary purposes at all levels it does not appear that vernaculars are dying out, although their spheres of use are restricted. Bahasa Indonesia fulfils the four functions: cognitive, instrumental, integrative and cultural, while vernaculars are only integrative and cultural. The curriculum of Indonesian, established centrally, is pragmatic or communicative. It is expressed in a standard syllabus for course books. This approach equally applies to foreign languages, which are introduced at secondary level, although here receptive reading is given more weight than productive skills. A full description of the syllabus organization of the various languages is given. Nonformal language learning also takes place, in the national basic education and literacy programme, which teaches Bahasa Indonesia, and in vocational courses in foreign languages for commerce.

  6. Seismic risk assessment for road in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyfur, Mona Foralisa; Pribadi, Krishna S.

    2016-05-01

    Road networks in Indonesia consist of 446,000 km of national, provincial and local roads as well as toll highways. Indonesia is one of countries that exposed to various natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc. Within the Indonesian archipelago, several global tectonic plates interact, such as the Indo-Australian, Pacific, Eurasian, resulting in a complex geological setting, characterized by the existence of seismically active faults and subduction zones and a chain of more than one hundred active volcanoes. Roads in Indonesia are vital infrastructure needed for people and goods movement, thus supporting community life and economic activities, including promoting regional economic development. Road damages and losses due to earthquakes have not been studied widely, whereas road disruption caused enormous economic damage. The aim of this research is to develop a method to analyse risk caused by seismic hazard to roads. The seismic risk level of road segment is defined using an earthquake risk index, adopting the method of Earthquake Disaster Risk Index model developed by Davidson (1997). Using this method, road segments' risk level can be defined and compared, and road risk map can be developed as a tool for prioritizing risk mitigation programs for road networks in Indonesia.

  7. Hybrid teaching method for undergraduate student in Marine Geology class in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusuf Awaluddin, M.; Yuliadi, Lintang

    2016-04-01

    Bridging Geosciences to the future generations in interesting and interactive ways are challenging for lecturers and teachers. In the past, one-way 'classic' face-to-face teaching method has been used as the only alternative for undergraduate's Marine Geology class in Padjadjaran University, Indonesia. Currently, internet users in Indonesia have been increased significantly, among of them are young generations and students. The advantage of the internet as a teaching method in Geosciences topic in Indonesia is still limited. Here we have combined between the classic and the online method for undergraduate teaching. The case study was in Marine Geology class, Padjadjaran University, with 70 students as participants and 2 instructors. We used Edmodo platform as a primary tool in our teaching and Dropbox as cloud storage. All online teaching activities such as assignment, quiz, discussion and examination were done in concert with the classic one with proportion 60% and 40% respectively. We found that the students had the different experience in this hybrid teaching method as shown in their feedback through this platform. This hybrid method offers interactive ways not only between the lecturers and the students but also among students. Classroom meeting is still needed to expose their work and for general discussion.Nevertheless, the only problem was the lack of internet access in the campus when all our students accessing the platform at the same time.

  8. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... connection with the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR 50383... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  9. Integrated study of geophysical and biological anomalies before earthquakes (seismic and non-seismic), in Austria and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straka, Wolfgang; Assef, Rizkita; Faber, Robert; Ferasyi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes are commonly seen as unpredictable. Even when scientists believe an earthquake is likely, it is still hard to understand the indications observed, as well as their theoretical and practical implications. There is some controversy surrounding the concept of using animals as a precursor of earthquakes. Nonetheless, several institutes at University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, and Vienna University of Technology, both Vienna, Austria, and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, as well as Terramath Indonesia, Buleleng, both Indonesia, cooperate in a long-term project, funded by Red Bull Media House, Salzburg, Austria, which aims at getting some decisive step forward from anecdotal to scientific evidence of those interdependencies, and show their possible use in forecasting seismic hazard on a short-term basis. Though no conclusive research has yet been published, an idea in this study is that even if animals do not respond to specific geophysical precursors and with enough notice to enable earthquake forecasting on that basis, they may at least enhance, in conjunction with other indications, the degree of certainty we can get of a prediction of an impending earthquake. In Indonesia, indeed, before the great earthquakes of 2004 and 2005, ominous geophysical as well as biological phenomena occurred (but were realized as precursors only in retrospect). Numerous comparable stories can be told from other times and regions. Nearly 2000 perceptible earthquakes (> M3.5) occur each year in Indonesia. Also, in 2007, the government has launched a program, focused on West Sumatra, for investigating earthquake precursors. Therefore, Indonesia is an excellent target area for a study concerning possible interconnections between geophysical and biological earthquake precursors. Geophysical and atmospheric measurements and behavioral observation of several animal species (elephant, domestic cattle, water buffalo, chicken, rat, catfish) are conducted in three areas

  10. Geographical Assessment of Rickettsioses in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Susana; Williams, Maya; Winoto, Imelda; Farzeli, Arik; Stoops, Craig A; Barbara, Kathryn A; Richards, Allen L; Blair, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    To expand the documentation of rickettsioses in Indonesia, we conducted an ectoparasite and small mammal investigation involving four major islands: Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan. Coastal and highland regions on each island surveyed were chosen to represent different ecologies in Indonesia. Indication of the presence of Rickettsia spp. was evident in all areas sampled. Typhus group rickettsiae-specific antibodies had significantly higher prevalence among small mammals captured in Java compared to the other islands surveyed (78% in coastal and 50% in highland regions) and the prevalence of spotted fever group rickettsiae-specific antibodies was significantly higher in Kalimantan than the other islands investigated. Hosts and vectors were restricted by Rickettsia spp. but not by coastal or highland regions. Our findings expand the range in which rickettsial pathogens have been documented within the Indonesian archipelago and point to a significant risk to human health. PMID:26771425

  11. Eradicating smallpox in Indonesia: the archipelagic challenge.

    PubMed

    Neelakantan, Vivek

    2010-01-01

    From 1804 to 1974, the colonial Dutch East Indies government and the postcolonial Indonesian state attempted to tackle the problem of smallpox. The vaccination efforts in the colonial era virtually eliminated smallpox by 1940. Unfortunately, as a consequence of the war smallpox was reintroduced into the archipelago in 1947. Indonesia finally succeeded in eradicating smallpox in 1974 through campaigns of mass vaccination and surveillance. In the last few years of the fight against smallpox, a detection system was set up in order to have every suspected case of smallpox isolated and investigated by the health authorities until verified in the government laboratory at Bandung. This paper looks at the impact of the archipelagic nature of Indonesia on the smallpox eradication campaigns. PMID:20973337

  12. Diarrhoeal diseases among refugees in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Winardi, B; Adhyatma, M

    1982-09-01

    The influx of refugees from Vietnam had created some consequences especially in transmission of certain communicable diseases. During several months of their first arrival, most of illness (90%) were caused by upper respiratory tract infections, skin diseases and diarrhoeal diseases. Several efforts and measures had been done by the Government of Indonesia in collaboration with several agencies i.e. P3V, PMI, UNHCR, W.VI, etc. As a result of the activities, a reduction of diarrhoeal diseases, has been observed. There was no cholera or typhoid cases detected through routine surveillance activities or by special survey. If we examine the morbidity and mortality pattern of refugees or we are comparing with Indonesian figures, it can be concluded that diarrhoeal diseases is not a significant health problem among refugees in Indonesia. PMID:7163840

  13. Muria Volcano, Island of Java, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the north coast of central Java, Indonesia centers on the currently inactive Muria Volcano (6.5S, 111.0E). Muria is 5,330 ft. tall and lies just north of Java's main volcanic belt which runs east - west down the spine of the island attesting to the volcanic origin of the more than 1,500 Indonesian Islands.

  14. Major Land Clearing Fires, Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    These many and intense land clearing fires in the Kalimantan region of the island of Borneo, Indonesia (3.5S, 113.5E) are indicative of the many deforestation activities on a worldwide scale. In order to feed and house ever increasing populations, more cleared land is required for agriculture to feed ever increasing populations. More pasture lands are needed for livestock. And, more cleared lands are needed for housing.

  15. Indonesia's great frontier and migration policy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, C

    1987-01-01

    The population of Indonesia is 175 million, of which 65% live in Java. Java has only 7% of the land area, causing a population density of 2,000/square mile. This has lead the government to introduce a policy of transmigration which encourages people to move from Java to the larger outer islands. In the last 35 years 4.3 million people have moved from Java to Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, and Irian Jaya. The total area of Indonesia stretches over 3,200 miles and has 16,000 islands of which 1,000 are inhabited. It has vast resources of oil, lumber, rubber, tin, palm oil, copra, coffee, tea, pepper, cloves, nutmeg, and quinine. Indonesia is also rich in minerals, including coal, bauxite, iron ore, and gold. Even with a national family planning program, population growth has reached 2.1% a year. 3 other islands that people are induced to move from are Madura, Bali, and Lombok, although their population densities are less then Java. The small islands near Singapore are being developed and Batam will be a free port to compete with Hong Kong. The most intense migration has been to Kalimantan (Borneo) which has 4 provinces. The migration policy began in 1905 and by 1930 100,000 people, had moved to other islands; 600,000 people were relocated to plantations in Java for labor needs. In 1979-84, a more ambitious program costing 2.3 billion moved 1.5 million people. In the most recent 1984-89 plan, a goal of 3.1 million were to be relocated but due to budgetary restrictions only 150,000 families have moved. The main social issue addresses the domination of other people by Javanese, not only in numbers but cultural differences. Some observers say the real reason for migration is political in ensuring the boundaries and geographic integrity of Indonesia. PMID:12316071

  16. The midwife in private practice in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Soh-Sanu, R

    1989-04-01

    Indonesia is an archipelago, the largest in the world, stretching 3,200 miles from east to west. It straddles the equator between the Asian and Australian continents. The climate is tropical and has two seasons, the dry season from June to October; and the wet season from November to March. The total population is currently estimated as only 165 million and Indonesian is the national language. PMID:2761438

  17. Nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir, West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hart, Barry T; van Dok, Wendy; Djuangsih, Nani

    2002-04-01

    A preliminary nutrient budget for Saguling Reservoir is reported as a first attempt to quantify the behaviour of nutrients entering this reservoir. This work is part of a larger Indonesia-Australia collaborative research and training project, involving Padjadjaran University and Monash University, established to study nutrient dynamics in Saguling Reservoir. Saguling Reservoir, the first of a chain of three large reservoirs (Saguling, Cirata and Jatilahur), built on the Citarum River in central Java, was completed in 1985. It has already become highly polluted, particularly with domestic and industrial effluent (organic matter, nutrients, heavy metals) from the urban areas of Bandung (population 2 million). The reservoir experiences major water quality problems, including excessive growths of floating plants, toxic cyanobacterial blooms and regular fish-kills. The work reported in this paper shows that Saguling receives a very large nutrient load from the city of Bandung and because of this, is highly eutrophic. It is unlikely that the water quality of Saguling will improve until a substantial part of Bandung is sewered and adequate discharge controls are placed on the many industries in the region upstream of the reservoir. PMID:12092591

  18. Unfocused response to AIDS in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Maclaren, L

    1997-01-01

    Indonesia has a population of more than 200 million among which less than 500 official cases of HIV/AIDS have been recorded. The number of estimated cases is far greater. High rates of male migration, widespread prostitution, high rates of sexually transmitted disease infection, the absence of sex education for youth, women's low status, and the absence of a national AIDS awareness campaign were cited in 1993 as reasons why HIV would spread quickly throughout Indonesia. Access to basic information about AIDS remains a problem for both urban and rural populations in Indonesia. A national AIDS strategy was made public in 1993 by President Suharto. Supported by the Australians, the plan comprehensively covers almost every key aspect in managing HIV/AIDS. The plan since its release, however, has been largely ignored and the government has done little aside from a handful of television public service announcements, a few pamphlets distributed by the Department of Health, a few small HIV surveillance projects which have yielded little useful information, and the training of government officials to provide AIDS education. Approximately 15 nongovernmental organizations have been actively and successfully conducting AIDS prevention work. PMID:12320962

  19. Late Cenozoic geodynamic evolution of eastern Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinschberger, Florent; Malod, Jacques-André; Réhault, Jean-Pierre; Villeneuve, Michel; Royer, Jean-Yves; Burhanuddin, Safri

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents an internally and globally consistent model of plate evolution in eastern Indonesia from Middle Miocene to Present time. It is centered on the Banda Sea region located in the triple junction area between the Pacific-Philippine, Australia and South-East Asia plates. The geological and geophysical data available from Indonesia were until recently insufficient to define a unique plate tectonic model. In this paper, the new data taken into account clearly restrict the possible interpretations. Owing to a great number of geological, geophysical and geochemical studies, the major plate boundaries (the Sunda-Banda subduction zone to the south, the Tarera-Aiduna Fault zone and the Seram Thrust to the east, and the Sorong Fault zone and Molucca Sea collision zone to the north) are now clearly identified. The age of the major tectonic structures is also better known. Geodetic measurements well constrain the Present time plate kinematics. We also consider the deformation history within eastern Indonesia, where numerous short-lived microplates and their related microcontinents successively accreted to the Asiatic margin. Moreover, magnetic anomalies identification of the North and South Banda Sea basins allows a precise kinematic reconstruction of the back-arc opening. We used the Plates software to test the coherency of our model, presented as a series of 4 plate reconstruction maps from 13 Ma to the present. Finally, the origin of oceanic domains restored by our reconstruction is discussed.

  20. New Insights into the Active Tectonics of Eastern Indonesia from GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susilo, S.; Koulali Idrissi, A.; McClusky, S.; Meilano, I.; Cummins, P. R.; Tregoning, P.; Syafii, A.

    2014-12-01

    The Indonesian archipelago encompasses a wide range of tectonic environments, including island arc volcanism, subduction zones, and arc-continent collision. Many of the details of this tectonic activity are still poorly understood, especially where the Australian continent collides with Indonesia, separating the Sunda Arc in west from that at the Banda Arc in the east. While it seems clear that the Australian plate is subducted under both the Sunda and Banda Arcs, it is not clear what happens along the 1000 km -long stretch in between. The question of just where the plate motion is accommodated is of major importance to assessments of earthquake and tsunami hazard in the region. To help resolve these questions the Geospatial Information Agency of Indonesia has collaborated with the Australian National University and the Bandung Institute of Technology in a GPS campaign spanning much of eastern Indonesia, from Lombok in the west to Alor in the east. We have combined these data with those from previous campaigns, resulting in over 27 campaign and 18 continuous GPS sites being used in the analysis. The improvement in site density allowed us to develop of a more complete description of tectonic activity in this region than has been obtained in previous studies. Our preliminary results suggests that there is a relatively simple transition from subduction at the Java Trench off east Java, to a partitioned convergence along both the Timor Trough and the Flores Thrust in the Nusa Tenggara region.

  1. INA-RESPOND: a multi-centre clinical research network in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Karyana, Muhammad; Kosasih, Herman; Samaan, Gina; Tjitra, Emiliana; Aman, Abu Tholib; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Fatmawati; Gasem, M Hussein; Arif, Mansyur; Sudarmono, Pratiwi; Suharto; Merati, Tuti P; Lane, Clifford; Siswanto; Siddiqui, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Nationally representative observational and translational research is needed to address the public health challenges in Indonesia due to the geographic disparity, recently decentralized health system, and diverse infectious disease priorities. To accomplish this, the Indonesian Ministry of Health in collaboration with the US National Institute of Health has established INA-RESPOND (Indonesia Research Partnership on Infectious Disease) - a clinical research network comprising 9 referral hospitals, 7 medical faculties, and 2 research centres across Indonesia. The network provides a forum to conduct research at a national scale and to address scientific questions that would be difficult to address in smaller research settings. Further, it is currently conducting multi-centre research on the etiologies of fever, sepsis, and tuberculosis. There are opportunities to leverage existing network resources for other public health research needs. INA-RESPOND is an Indonesian-led network in a country with diverse population groups and public health needs which is poised to collaborate with researchers, universities, donors, and industry worldwide. This paper describes the network and its goals and values, as well as the management structure, process for collaboration, and future vision. PMID:26219280

  2. Prevention, control and treatment of HIV-AIDS among injecting drug use in Bandung, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Alisjahbana, Bachti; Susanto, Herman; Roesli, Rully; Yusuf, Hadi; Hinduan, Zahrotur; Mase, Johannes C; Surahman, Eri; van der Ven, Andre

    2009-07-01

    Indonesia is facing a growing HIV-epidemic that in many areas is driven by injecting drug use (IDU). IDUs underutilize health services, partly because of legal aspects which also cause that many are held in prison, where further HIV- transmission may take place. Most HIV-infected patients present with advanced HIV-AIDS and many deaths before starting antiretroviral treatment. The growing HIV-epidemic in Indonesia has socio-economical implications for individual patients as well as for the health system and for society. IMPACT, a multidisciplinary university-based program in Bandung, West-Java, integrates HIV-prevention and treatment, combining research and implementation. Biomedical, public health and sociobehavioral expertise is used for educational programs for adolescents; scaling-up HIV-testing, harm reduction strategies and care for HIV/AIDS in hospital, community and prison; and institutional as well as individual capacity building related to IDU and HIV/AIDS. It is expected that these activities can make a significant contribution to control of HIV-AIDS in the context of injecting drug use in West-Java and Indonesia as a whole. PMID:19920301

  3. "Because Teaching Is Like a Plantation of 'Dakwah'": Understanding Complexities in Choosing to Be a Teacher in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afrianto

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an ongoing research project involving pre-service English teachers' identity formation during teaching practicum at Riau University, Indonesia. It explores the motivations behind participants' decisions to become English teachers. Qualitative data were gathered during pre- and post-teaching practicum…

  4. An optimal renewable energy mix for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Patrizio, Piera; Yowargana, Ping; Kraxner, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Indonesia has experienced a constant increase of the use of petroleum and coal in the power sector, while the share of renewable sources has remained stable at 6% of the total energy production during the last decade. As its domestic energy demand undeniably continues to grow, Indonesia is committed to increase the production of renewable energy. Mainly to decrease its dependency on fossil fuel-based resources, and to decrease the anthropogenic emissions, the government of Indonesia has established a 23 percent target for renewable energy by 2025, along with a 100 percent electrification target by 2020 (the current rate is 80.4 percent). In that respect, Indonesia has abundant resources to meet these targets, but there is - inter alia - a lack of proper integrated planning, regulatory support, investment, distribution in remote areas of the Archipelago, and missing data to back the planning. To support the government of Indonesia in its sustainable energy system planning, a geographic explicit energy modeling approach is applied. This approach is based on the energy systems optimization model BeWhere, which identifies the optimal location of energy conversion sites based on the minimization of the costs of the supply chain. The model will incorporate the existing fossil fuel-based infrastructures, and evaluate the optimal costs, potentials and locations for the development of renewable energy technologies (i.e., wind, solar, hydro, biomass and geothermal based technologies), as well as the development of biomass co-firing in existing coal plants. With the help of the model, an optimally adapted renewable energy mix - vis-à-vis the competing fossil fuel based resources and applicable policies in order to promote the development of those renewable energy technologies - will be identified. The development of the optimal renewable energy technologies is carried out with special focus on nature protection and cultural heritage areas, where feedstock (e.g., biomass

  5. Human rights of persons with mental illness in Indonesia: more than legislation is needed

    PubMed Central

    Irmansyah, I; Prasetyo, YA; Minas, H

    2009-01-01

    Background Although attention to human rights in Indonesia has been improving over the past decade, the human rights situation of persons with mental disorders is still far from satisfactory. The purpose of this paper is to examine the legal framework for protection of human rights of persons with mental disorder and the extent to which Indonesia's international obligations concerning the right to health are being met. Methods We examined the Indonesian constitution, Indonesian laws relevant to the right to health, the structure and operation of the National Human Rights Commission, and what is known about violations of the human rights of persons with mental illness from research and the media. Results The focus of the Indonesian Constitution on rights pre-dated the Universal Declaration, Indonesia has ratified relevant international covenants and domestic law provides an adequate legal framework for human rights protections. However, human rights abuses persist, are widespread, and go essentially unremarked and unchallenged. The National Human Rights Commission has only recently become engaged in the issue of protection of the rights of persons with mental illness. Conclusion More than legislation is needed to protect the human rights of persons with mental illness. Improving the human rights situation for persons with mental illness in Indonesia will require action by governments at national, provincial and district levels, substantial increases in the level of investment in mental health services, coordinated action by mental health professionals and consumer and carer organisations, and a central role for the National Human Rights Commission in protecting the rights of persons with mental illness. PMID:19545362

  6. Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schröders, Julia; Wall, Stig; Kusnanto, Hari; Ng, Nawi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework? Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable “disadvantaged populations” was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities. Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create

  7. Effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on cost-effectiveness of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    intervention for Indonesia even under various breastfeeding promotion interventions based on the WHO’s criteria for cost-effectiveness in universal immunization. PMID:24289227

  8. 75 FR 54087 - Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... International Trade Administration Education Trade Mission to Indonesia and Vietnam AGENCY: International Trade... education trade mission to Indonesia and Vietnam, April 3-8, 2011. Led by a senior Department of Commerce... accredited U.S. education institutions. However, the emphasis will be on community colleges,...

  9. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Register of September 20, 2013 (78 FR 57881). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on October 23... COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in...

  10. Sculpture of Indonesia. [Teacher's Packet for a Teacher Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, CA.

    This teacher's packet accompanies a slide presentation on the sculpture found in Indonesia. The packet contains: (1) a slide list with descriptions listing time period and dimensions of each piece; (2) an introductory essay describing the setting of Indonesia, the Central Javanese Period and the Eastern Javanese Period; (3) descriptions of how to…

  11. Cultural Aspects of Language Imposition in Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickley, Verner C.

    1973-01-01

    This paper distinguishes Bahasa Malaysia (Malaysian language) and Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language) according to type and function and summarizes their development as the national languages of Malaya, Singapore, and Indonesia. It presents a short, historical account of the spread, through religious and educational activities, of the English…

  12. Indonesia: Internal Conditions, the Global Economy, and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitner, Helga; Sheppard, Eric S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes recent trends in the economic and regional development of Indonesia and examines the internal and external forces influencing the process. Shows how these forces account for the rise of a strong centralized state. Discusses Indonesia's current problems. Includes tables, maps, and graphs of economic investment figures, world trade, and…

  13. Educational Decentralization and Behavior Change Needs in Indonesia. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Joseph

    This working paper examines behavior change as a key element in creating an enabling environment to sustain educational reform in Indonesia. It recommends elevating the importance of a formalized behavior change framework and methodology so that future plans for educational reform in Indonesia will include social marketing as a planned…

  14. Avian influenza in Indonesia: Observations of disease detection in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza, subtype H5N1, also known as highly pathogenic notifiable avian influenza (HPNAI), has spread throughout Indonesia since 2003. As of June 2007 there have been a total of 100 documented human cases in Indonesia, 80 of which have been fatal. Although efforts have be...

  15. Mari Belajar Sopan Santun Bahasa Indonesia. [Multimedia Kit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFon, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Filmed on location in East Java, Indonesia, the Mari Belajar Sopan Santun Bahasa Indonesia set consists of two videotapes, a manual, and extended notes on the individual video scenarios. The videos present interactions among Indonesian native speakers and foreign language learners as they engage in tasks and activities of everyday life. The…

  16. "Selamat Datang di Indonesia": Learning about Chemistry and Chemistry Education in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppola, Brian P.

    2008-01-01

    In 2007--60 years after chemistry was established as an academic subject in independent Indonesia--representatives from the country's 57 chemistry departments (in public institutions) gathered to discuss issues of mutual interest. The author served as a Fulbright senior specialist during and after the conference; he describes the current state of…

  17. Therapeutic apheresis in Asia: An Indonesia single center experience.

    PubMed

    Triyono, Teguh; Vrielink, Hans

    2015-06-01

    In developing countries, like Indonesia, apheresis is still a relative new procedure. Nowadays, therapeutic apheresis procedures are performed in the field of hematology and neurology, especially in the teaching hospitals in Indonesia. Therapeutic apheresis procedure, that is, leukocytapheresis, therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), and thrombocytapheresis are already performed. In the period 2009-2013, 204 apheresis procedures in 137 patients to reduce the leukocytes, 72 TPE procedures in 17 patients, and 14 thrombocyte reductions were performed in the Sardjito hospital, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the future, to improve the therapeutic apheresis implementation, it is important to increase the insurance coverage and also should be considered to introduce the apheresis medicine into the curriculum of appropriate physician programs in Indonesia. Especially in Indonesia, a lot of efforts are still being needed to improve implementation of therapeutic apheresis. PMID:25116034

  18. Indonesia and OPEC: the economic costs of cartel membership

    SciTech Connect

    Linquiti, P.D.

    1982-09-01

    The primary focus of this study is on why the Indonesians have cut production in the second quarter of 1982. There appears to be only one answer. The spector of triggering a price war seems powerful enough to deter Indonesia from acting against the dictates of the cartel. Additionally, the introduction of more competition into the oil market - the result of increased Indonesian production - can only cut the long-run price of oil and reduce the present discounted value of Indonesia's oil. Futhermore, it is critical to note that the other three scenarios hinge on Indonesia having excess capacity to boost production and capture added revenues. Excess capacity is the key to undercutting the cartel. By lowering prices, a producer is doomed to earn lower revenues unless it can up production. This has never been an option for Indonesia because the current level of excess capacity is a new phenomenon. Since the rise of President Suharto in 1967, Indonesia has consistently produced its oil at full capacity. Indonesia has thus spent the last fifteen years in a situation where there was little, if anything, to be gained from undercutting the cartel. Not surprisingly, Indonesia has not acted quickly to increase production in violation of OPEC ceilings. Only if the soft market continues for a long period of time does the cost of OPEC membership impose a serious burden on Indonesia. For a host of political and economic reasons, Indonesia seems willing to wait out the current cartel disarray. If the market continues its present weakness and OPEC membership becomes truly costly, the Indonesians will find it quite difficult to adhere to coordinated pricing and production policies. If however, the world market tightens again, Indonesia may soon find itself back at full production, with no incentive to undercut the cartel.

  19. Islam, society and development: focus on Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jusuf, M

    1972-01-01

    After a review of the traditional society as found in Indonesia, the role of Islam in this changing, modernizing society, and changes which must be made by religious leaders to cope with development, which is bettering life for the people, are discussed. Centuries of oppressive colonial rule have kept many Indonesian Moslem village-families locked into a passive, subsistence way of life. A fatalistic mentality makes family and children together with performing the religious rituals the chief rewards of earthly life. With modernization many young people have left the villages hoping for economic opportunity. Instead they do not have technical skills and they find themselves without either the material advancements promised by modernization or the traditional dignity and pride which is found in the village family. Through centuries of distortion the position of Islam on the family, which is one of love and justice, became viewed as a system in which the traditional faith no longer meets modern situations and church leaders do not help matters by protesting and exhorting insteading of going back to basic truths and showing the way to a better life. The 1st field which demands attention is the attitude toward human reproduction. Leaders should find verses like Al Baqarah verse 233 and explain in easy language to village families why responsible parents do not have more children than they can care for. The 2nd step is to teach families to take social and family welfare into their own hands and not to submit to fatalism. The 3rd is to establish educational systems which systematically change families' attitudes and awaken them from outmoded practices. It is shown that of 28 million school age children in Indonesia, only 13 million can attend schools. By helping in this educational task, religious leaders will improve the outlook for these children and become a vital force in a changing Indonesia. PMID:12256866

  20. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  1. Historical ecology of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palomares, Maria Lourdes D; Heymans, Johanna J; Pauly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a review of the status of marine resources of the Raja Ampat Archipelago, Papua Province, Indonesia, based on narratives of early European expeditions in various museums and libraries in Europe, Canada, and local archives in Papua. More than 500 pertinent documents on the study area were identified and located in various European museums and at the University of British Columbia library. About half of these were scanned (25,000 pages), which yielded the equivalent of 900 pages of text (or 4% of the total number of pages scanned) with observations on abundance and impact of the human population on the marine ecosystem within 2 degrees North and 2 degrees South between 127 degrees and 132 degrees East. In general, these observations, which spanned the period from 1810 to the present, suggest a decrease in the perceived occurrences of turtles, fish, and invertebrates; perceived abundance of turtles, fish, and algae; percieved subsistence exploitation of marine resources; and an increase in perceived commercial exploitation of marine resources. We conclude with a discussion of the problems and potential of contents analysis, and its use in the historical reconstruction of broad biodiversity trends. PMID:18411836

  2. Profile of medicolegal autopsies in Pekanbaru, Indonesia 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Afandi, Dedi

    2012-12-01

    Medicolegal autopsy should be carried out for all unnatural deaths to ascertain facts pertaining to death. A retrospective 5-year study was carried out by the Forensic Medicine and Medicolegal Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Riau to describe the profile of medicolegal autopsies in Pekanbaru, Indonesia. There were 613 unnatural deaths and 73 (11.9%) medicolegal autopsies recorded between 2007 and 2011. The number of unnatural deaths showed a decreasing trend whereas the number of medicolegal autopsies increased over the years. The percentage of unnatural deaths subjected to medicolegal autopsy varied between 2.2% and 23.1% per year. Of the 73 medicolegal autopsy subjects, 68.5% (n = 50) were male and 31.5% (n = 23) females. The ages of victims ranged from newborn babies to 72 years, with a median of 28 years. 61.6% of cases were in the 20-39 years age-group. Sixty (82.2%) had unnatural deaths. The leading cause of death was blunt force (30.1%) and sharp force (20.5%). Homicide was the predominant manner of death. Our study highlights that the main interest of the police in requesting a medicolegal autopsy is for investigation of homicide. Recognizing that autopsy has an important role in the investigation of unnatural deaths, further studies should be carried out to understand the factors that impact on the low percentage of medicolegal autopsies in unnatural deaths, so that solutions may be found for the future. PMID:23424774

  3. Geodetic contributions to IWRM-projects in middle Java, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Günter

    2010-12-01

    The district of Gunung Kidul in middle Java is one of the poorest regions in Indonesia. The essential reason is the acute water scarcity in this karst region during the months of the dry season. As a consequence of the poor living conditions many people have migrated away and therefore the development of the region is stagnating. During the last few years two projects have been initiated under the theme “Integrated Water Resources Management” in order to improve the water supply situation, both funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, and realized essentially by institutes of the University of Karlsruhe. Geodetic sub-projects are integrated into both projects. Special surveying activities had been, and have still to be, carried out to realise the geometrical basis for several other sub-projects. The particular contributions are 3D cave measurements for visualisation and planning, staking out of drilling points and construction axes, the definition of a common reference system, the surveying of the water distribution network and its technical facilities, the setting up and the management of a geographical information system (GIS), as well as special measurements such as dam monitoring or controlling of a vertical drilling machine. The paper reviews these projects and describes the geodetic activities.

  4. Creativity of Biology Students in Online Learning: Case Study of Universitas Terbuka, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diki, Diki

    This is a study about the effect of students' attitudes of creativity toward their learning achievement and persistence in an online learning program. The study also investigated if there was an effect of indirect effect of attitudes of creativity toward learning achievement and persistence through learning strategies. There are three learning strategies, which are deep-learning, strategic-learning, and surface-learning. The participants were students of the department of biology and the department of biology teacher training in Universitas Terbuka (UT -- Indonesia Open University), a distance learning university in Indonesia. The researcher sent the questionnaire through email to students who lived throughout Indonesia. There were 102 students participated in the survey. The instruments were rCAB test for value and attitudes toward creativity (Runco, 2012) and approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) test (Speth, 2013). There were four research questions (RQ) in this study. The first was if there was a relationship between attitudes of creativity and persistence. The researcher used independent samples t test technique for RQ 1. The second was if there is a relationship between attitudes of creativity and learning outcome. The researcher used multiple regressions for RQ2. The third was if there was an indirect relationship between attitudes of creativity and persistence through learning strategy. The fourth question was if there is an indirect relationship between attitudes of creativity and learning outcome through learning strategy. The researcher used multiple regression for RQ3 and path analysis for RQ 4. Controlling variables were age, income, departments, gender, high school GPA, and daily online activities. The result showed that fun, and being unconventional negatively predicted learning outcomes while high school GPA positively predicted learning outcome. Age and high school GPA negatively predicted persistence while being

  5. Performance Indicators in Indonesian Universities: The Perception of Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Nurdiana; Hall, David

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the perceptions of Indonesian academics towards the implementation of Performance Indicators (PIs) on teaching and research. The study was a case study using semi-structured interviews, conducted with 30 academics in three state universities in Indonesia. The results of the study revealed academics believed that outcome…

  6. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance in Thailand and Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of malaria transmission in Thailand and Indonesia to assist in the understanding and reducing the incidence of the deadly disease. Satellite observations are being integrated into this work, and this is described herein.

  7. Coastal flood management in Semarang, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marfai, Muh Aris; King, Lorenz

    2008-10-01

    Semarang is one of the biggest cities in Indonesia and is nowadays suffering from coastal flooding. Land subsidences, high water tide, and inadequate structural measures play important roles in the coastal inundations. Structural and non-structural methods for controlling coastal flooding including dykes, drainage systems, pump stations, polder systems, coastal-land reclamations, coastal planning and management, public education, as well as the establishment of an institutional framework for disaster management have been implemented in the Semarang coastal area. Although some improvements have been made, the current flood management system has generally failed to address a wide range of coastal inundation problems. Some improvement actions have been proposed including stakeholders involvement on the disaster mitigation. For a long period coastal management, accelerated sea level rises due to global warming should also be taken into account.

  8. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  9. AGE-STRUCTURAL TRANSITION IN INDONESIA

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Philip; Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    This paper responds to recent calls for empirical study of the impact of age-structural transition. It begins by reviewing evidence of cohort oscillations in twentieth-century Indonesia, which indicates that current older generations are likely to have smaller numbers of children on whom they may rely than generations before and after them. However, to assess whether the imbalances implied by this situation are actually influencing people’s lives, attention to further factors shaping the availability and reliability of younger generations, notably differences in socio-economic status and in patterns of inter-generational support flows, is required. Community-level Indonesian data confirm that elders in the lower social strata are child-poor. Social structural and family network patterns, however, have a greater influence on the availability of inter-generational support than cohort differentials. PMID:27158254

  10. Volcano hazard mitigation program in Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sudradjat, A.

    1990-01-01

    Volcanological investigations in Indonesia were started in the 18th century, when Valentijn in 1726 prepared a chronological report of the eruption of Banda Api volcno, Maluku. Modern and intensive volcanological studies did not begin until the catastrophic eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, in 1919. The eruption took 5,011 lives and destroyed thousands of acres of coffee plantation. An eruption lahar generated by the crater lake water mixed with volcanic eruptions products was the cause of death for a high number of victims. An effort to mitigate the danger from volcanic eruption was first initiated in 1921 by constructing a tunnel to drain the crater lake water of Kelut volcano. At the same time a Volcanological Survey was established by the government with the responsibility of seeking every means for minimizing the hazard caused by volcanic eruption. 

  11. Marriage and Socioeconomic Change in Contemporary Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Nobles, Jenna; Buttenheim, Alison

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between economic trends and entry into marriage in a rapidly developing setting. We examine Indonesian marriage in the 1990’s, a decade of substantial economic growth followed by a sudden financial collapse in 1998. We use discrete-time hazard models to analyze information on 4,078 women and 4,496 men from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. While previous research has shown that marriages may be postponed after economic downturn, we find no evidence of such delays at the national level following the 1998 financial crisis. In contrast, we use regional wage rate data to show that entry into marriage is inversely related to economic growth throughout the decade for all women and for men from lower socioeconomic strata. PMID:26336321

  12. Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Strategy in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Anderson, R.; Pramumijoyo, S.

    2008-05-01

    Because of the active tectonic setting of the region, the risks of geological hazards inevitably increase in Indonesian Archipelagoes and other ASIAN countries. Encouraging community living in the vulnerable area to adapt with the nature of geology will be the most appropriate strategy for earthquake risk reduction. Updating the Earthquake Hazard Maps, enhancement ofthe existing landuse management , establishment of public education strategy and method, strengthening linkages among stake holders of disaster mitigation institutions as well as establishement of continues public consultation are the main strategic programs for community resilience in earthquake vulnerable areas. This paper highlights some important achievements of Earthquake Hazard Mitigation Programs in Indonesia, together with the difficulties in implementing such programs. Case examples of Yogyakarta and Bengkulu Earthquake Mitigation efforts will also be discussed as the lesson learned. The new approach for developing earthquake hazard map which is innitiating by mapping the psychological aspect of the people living in vulnerable area will be addressed as well.

  13. Purposes of Transnational Higher Education Programs: Lessons from Two Indonesian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Pillay, Hitendra

    2013-01-01

    While intended to facilitate knowledge transfer from international universities and develop Indonesian universities' capacity, transnational higher education programs (TEPs) in Indonesia have been criticised for operating merely as an international trade in education -- implying discrepancy between the rhetoric and reality surrounding the key…

  14. Recent situation of schistosomiasis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Izhar, Ali; Sinaga, R M; Sudomo, M; Wardiyo, N D

    2002-05-01

    Schistosomiasis in Indonesia is limited to two very isolated areas, the Napu and Lindu valleys, in the province of Central Sulawesi. The disease was initially found in 1937 in the village of Tomado. In 1940, a study on schistosomiasis in the Lake Lindu area was initiated and an infection rate of 56% among the people in the three villages of Anca, Tomado and Langko was found. Before a comprehensive control programme was initiated, the infection rate among the population of approximately 4000 people in the Napu valley was very high, e.g. 72% in the village of Winowanga. In 1982, more coordinated and intensive schistosomiasis control measures in the Napu and Lindu valleys were initiated. The average infection rate after control measures were greatly decreased-in Napu valley it was 1.83%, while in Lindu valley it was 0.46%, in 1999. The control approaches can be described over five phases, from 1982 to 1986, up to 1998 to present. In 1998, an agreement between the Government of Indonesia and the Asian Development Bank was signed to develop the schistosomiasis endemic areas of Central Sulawesi into a better socio-economic condition. The objectives of the project are not only to control schistosomiasis, but mainly to protect the National Park which is located between the Lindu and Napu valleys. It is an integrated project named 'Central Sulawesi Integrated Area Development and Conservation Project' and many relevant sectors have been involved in the implementation of this project for the development of the area, including control of schistosomiasis. The implementation of the integrated project started in 1999. PMID:12020902

  15. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  16. Mitigation of carbon dioxide from the Indonesia energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Adi, A.C.; Nurrohim, A.; Hidajat, M.N.

    1996-12-31

    Energy consumption in Indonesia is growing fast in line with the development of national economy. During (1990 - 1993) the emission of CO{sub 2} gas coming from energy sector increased from 150 million tones to 200 million tones in 1993. Whereas, the total methane emission from the oil, gas and coal sub-sector reached 550 kilo tones in 1991 and increased to 670 kilo tones in 1994. This amount of CO{sub 2} and Methane from energy sector was 26% and 10 % respectively of the total emission of Indonesia. Based on the last two decades of Indonesia`s economic growth experience, as a developing country this high economic growth rate of Indonesia in the future will be kept until reaching the newly industrialized country level, which is more than 6% annually in the next decade. This high growth rate economic projection will also added the level of GHG emission in the future. As a developing country Indonesia is one of the fast growing countries. The GDP growth in the year 1995 was more than 7 percent, therefore growth rate of energy consumption in this country also rose following the economic growth.

  17. PREFACE: Conference of Theoretical Physics and Nonlinear Phenomena (CTPNP) 2014: ''From Universe to String's Scale''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-10-01

    Theoretical physics is the first step for the development of science and technology. For more than 100 years it has delivered new and sophisticated discoveries which have changed human views of their surroundings and universe. Theoretical physics has also revealed that the governing law in our universe is not deterministic, and it is undoubtedly the foundation of our modern civilization. Contrary to its importance, research in theoretical physics is not well advanced in some developing countries such as Indonesia. This workshop provides the formal meeting in Indonesia devoted to the field of theoretical physics and is organized to cover all subjects of theoretical physics as well as nonlinear phenomena in order to create a gathering place for the theorists in Indonesia and surrounding countries, to motivate young physicists to keep doing active researches in the field and to encourage constructive communication among the community members. Following the success of the tenth previous meetings in this conference series, the eleventh conference was held in Sebelas Maret University (UNS), Surakarta, Indonesia on 15 February 2014. In addition, the conference was proceeded by School of Advance Physics at Gadjah Mada University (UGM), Yogyakarta, on 16-17 February 2014. The conference is expected to provide distinguished experts and students from various research fields of theoretical physics and nonlinear phenomena in Indonesia as well as from other continents the opportunities to present their works and to enhance contacts among them. The introduction to the conference is continued in the pdf.

  18. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  19. Using of Teleconference as a Medium to Establish an "E-Global-Learning-System": An Experience of 1000guru-Association on Facilitates Open and Distance Learning Activities with Schools in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haris, Ikhfan

    2014-01-01

    Information communication and technology (ICT) has been used in various fields. The use of teleconference for teaching and learning activities is currently not a new topic in global world. In Indonesia, through IMHERE Program from Directorate of Higher Education, some universities have been connected with a network of teleconference as a medium of…

  20. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  1. 77 FR 53174 - Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) and Certain Lined Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia... Republic of China, 76 FR 76123 (December 6, 2011) and Certain Lined Paper Products From Indonesia: Final... Paper School Supplies From China, India, and Indonesia, 77 FR 51570 (August 24, 2012). See also...

  2. Chytridiomycosis in frogs of Mount Gede Pangrango, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kusrini, M D; Skerratt, L F; Garland, S; Berger, L; Endarwin, W

    2008-12-22

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is a fungus recognised as one of the causes of global amphibian population declines. To assess its occurrence, we conducted PCR diagnostic assays of 147 swab samples, from 13 species of frogs from Mount Gede Pangrango National Park, Indonesia. Four swab samples, from Rhacophorus javanus, Rana chalconota, Leptobrachium hasseltii and Limnonectes microdiscus, were positive for Bd and had low to moderate levels of infection. The sample from L. hasseltii was from a tadpole with mouthpart deformities and infection was confirmed by histology and immunohistochemistry. An additional sample from Leptophryne cruentata showed a very low level of infection (< or = 1 zoospore equivalent). This is the first record of Bd in Indonesia and in Southeast Asia, dramatically extending the global distribution of Bd, with important consequences for international amphibian disease control, conservation and trade. Consistent with declines in amphibian populations caused by Bd in other parts of the world, evidence exists for the decline and possible extirpation of amphibian populations at high elevations and some decline with recovery of populations at lower elevations on this mountain. Therefore, it is essential to manage Bd in Indonesia where it is likely to be threatening amphibian populations. This will require a national strategy to mitigate the spread of Bd in Indonesia and neighboring countries as well as the impact of that spread. It is also important to collect information on the extent of the impact of Bd on frog populations in Indonesia. PMID:19244970

  3. The hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Indonesia: an unsolved dilemma.

    PubMed

    Hariman, H

    2008-08-01

    Allogeneic BMT was performed in Indonesia, but had to be stopped prematurely because of the small number of patients. In the beginning, only patients with sufficient financial resources to travel to western countries could undergo transplant procedures. When neighbouring countries (Singapore and Malaysia) began performing transplant, patients were referred to those centres. In both countries, the procedure is more economical and therefore patients come from a broader range of economic classes. The Indonesian hematologist must deal with the post-transplantation side effects, such as GVHD, which are mostly of the chronic type of GVHD. The types of the post-transplant complications do not differ too much from other centres and need the same treatment used in the transplant centres. Hematologists in Indonesia also treat complications of HSCT performed in other countries. When there is no recovery of HSCT development in Indonesia so far, many commercially oriented companies or centres from other countries see Indonesia as a good commercial market and offer services, some of which are not scientifically sound. One of the main problems is umbilical cord blood stem cell banking from foreign countries, which is eagerly offered to parents expecting a baby. Moreover, parents are not fully protected by law. In conclusion, Indonesia needs to revive its own HSCT program to serve and protect its own patients of being used as commercial targets by other countries. PMID:18724313

  4. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  5. Difficulties in initial algebra learning in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jupri, Al; Drijvers, Paul; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja

    2014-12-01

    Within mathematics curricula, algebra has been widely recognized as one of the most difficult topics, which leads to learning difficulties worldwide. In Indonesia, algebra performance is an important issue. In the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2007, Indonesian students' achievement in the algebra domain was significantly below the average student performance in other Southeast Asian countries such as Thailand, Malaysia, and Singapore. This fact gave rise to this study which aims to investigate Indonesian students' difficulties in algebra. In order to do so, a literature study was carried out on students' difficulties in initial algebra. Next, an individual written test on algebra tasks was administered, followed by interviews. A sample of 51 grade VII Indonesian students worked the written test, and 37 of them were interviewed afterwards. Data analysis revealed that mathematization, i.e., the ability to translate back and forth between the world of the problem situation and the world of mathematics and to reorganize the mathematical system itself, constituted the most frequently observed difficulty in both the written test and the interview data. Other observed difficulties concerned understanding algebraic expressions, applying arithmetic operations in numerical and algebraic expressions, understanding the different meanings of the equal sign, and understanding variables. The consequences of these findings on both task design and further research in algebra education are discussed.

  6. Reconnaissance microearthquake survey of Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, R.; Sutardjo, R.

    Several hundred earthquakes were recorded during the operation of a two-week five-station portable seismograph network on Sulawesi, Indonesia. Forty one of these events were locatable and half of these occurred beneath the eastern Gorontalo Basin in a north dipping zone which extends from the Batui Thrust on the East Arm of Sulawesi to about 100 km depth beneath the Gorontalo Basin. The Batui Thrust is the site of thrusting of the Banggai Islands continental fragment beneath the East Arm ophiolite and oceanic crust of the Gorontalo Basin. The observation of a zone of earthquakes dipping to the north from this thrust zone suggests that the leading edge of the Banggai Island block was subducted to at least 100 km depth. The eastern Gorontalo Basin earthquake zone may connect with a deep seismic zone beneath the Celebes Basin. Beneath the western Gorontalo Basin, a very narrow zone of earthquakes dips to the south, probably within lithosphere of the Celebes Basin subducted at the North Sulawesi Trench. Three shallow earthquakes occurred near Lake Matano in central Sulawesi, possibly on the Matano Fault, and their composite focal plane solution suggests east-west extension. The occurrence of only one earthquake on the Palu Fault and the lack of short S-P times at a station operated on the fault indicate that this feature was very quiet during the survey period.

  7. Treponemal serology on Bali Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ney, R; Garner, M F; Backhouse, J L; Duarsa, N W; Breguet, D; Breguet, G

    1982-12-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study of the population of Bali, Indonesia, treponemal serology was carried out on 2452 serum samples from subjects of both sexes. Sera reactive to the Treponema pallidum immobilisation test (TPI) were found in 81 (3.3%) subjects with a male prevalence of 4% and a female prevalence of 2%. All the reactive sera were from villagers. Of 1118 students sampled in various towns, none had reactive TPI tests. The prevalence of reactive sera varied greatly from one village to another; up to 50% of the sera examined were reactive. Geographical and socioeconomic analyses of the data show a strict correlation between poor socioeconomic status and high reactivity rates to the TPI test. Fifty-seven per cent of all the reactive sera originated from subjects living in two districts where yaws had recently been reported. Only three of the 1406 subjects, aged 15-29 years, had reactive sera. The reactivity rate steadily increased in the age groups 30-44, 45-59, and 60 years and over. Biological false-positive reactions occurred in 3.8% of the sera tested. PMID:6756541

  8. Parasitology survey in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H; Clarke, M D; Cole, W C; Lien, J C; Partono, F; Joesoef, A; Kosin, E H

    1976-06-01

    A parasitology survey was conducted in five villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 3,207 blood smears, 2,066 stool specimens and 969 sera were examined. Sixty (1.9%) inhabitants had malaria (Plasmodium vivax 41, P. falciparum 19), and 20 had Brugia malayi microfilaraemia. The most common intestinal helminths were Trichuris trichiura (87%), Ascaris lumbricoides (75%) and hookworm (58%). Other helminths found in low numbers were Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp., Fasciolid, Dicrocoeliid and Echinostoma sp. eggs. Entamoeba coli (25%) was the most common intestinal protozoa followed by Endolimax nana (8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7%), Giardia lamblia (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (1%) and Chilomastix mesnili (1%). The amoeba prevalence rate was 31 per cent. Testing of sera for Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination test demonstrated positive reactors in 13 per cent and nine per cent of the population respectively. The greatest number of seropositives for Toxoplasma gondii was at elevations of sea level to five meters and the lowest number at elevations of 5OO-1,000 meters. PMID:950682

  9. Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality. PMID:26812760

  10. Treponemal serology on Bali Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed Central

    Ney, R; Garner, M F; Backhouse, J L; Duarsa, N W; Breguet, D; Breguet, G

    1982-01-01

    As part of a multidisciplinary study of the population of Bali, Indonesia, treponemal serology was carried out on 2452 serum samples from subjects of both sexes. Sera reactive to the Treponema pallidum immobilisation test (TPI) were found in 81 (3.3%) subjects with a male prevalence of 4% and a female prevalence of 2%. All the reactive sera were from villagers. Of 1118 students sampled in various towns, none had reactive TPI tests. The prevalence of reactive sera varied greatly from one village to another; up to 50% of the sera examined were reactive. Geographical and socioeconomic analyses of the data show a strict correlation between poor socioeconomic status and high reactivity rates to the TPI test. Fifty-seven per cent of all the reactive sera originated from subjects living in two districts where yaws had recently been reported. Only three of the 1406 subjects, aged 15-29 years, had reactive sera. The reactivity rate steadily increased in the age groups 30-44, 45-59, and 60 years and over. Biological false-positive reactions occurred in 3.8% of the sera tested. PMID:6756541

  11. Roadmap to a Tobacco Epidemic: Transnational Tobacco Companies Invade Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Richard D.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Indonesia is the world’s fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. Objective To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. Methods We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and “The Roadmap.” Results Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernized versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI maintained the basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and Westernization of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. Conclusion PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians. PMID:21852413

  12. Universalizing Education: Linking Formal and Non-formal Programmes. Technical Working Group Meeting (Bangkok, Thailand, October 2-14, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    Proceedings of a conference on improving and universalizing education in 11 Asian countries are reported. Participating countries included Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. It was found that the concept of universal education varies from country to…

  13. Styling the revolution: masculinities, youth, and street politics in Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the changes to urban political culture in Jakarta, Indonesia, from 1998 to the present. By tracing the contributions of youth activists, and middle-class university students in particular, to the production of the street as a political and public space, the author demonstrates to what extent the democratized post-Suharto era naturalizes the place of youth in nationalist politics. Central to this inquiry of youth identity formation is the elision of class and gender as analytical categories. Student movements in 1998 and after have relied on a specific masculine style that draws on both the authenticity of nationalist historical narratives and the street as the domain of the People, and in the process masks potentially contentious class and gender differences among progressive activists. PMID:22175079

  14. Mortality from neonatal tetanus in Indonesia: results of two surveys*

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Richard B.; Soewarso, Titi Indijati; Karyadi, Albertus

    1986-01-01

    Two, 30-cluster, retrospective surveys of deaths from neonatal tetanus in Indonesia were conducted during 1982. The first survey, in the city of Jakarta, identified 16 deaths from neonatal tetanus among 2310 live births, giving a mortality rate of 6.9 per 1000 live births. The second survey covered 19 of Indonesia's 27 provinces. Fifty-three neonatal tetanus deaths occurred among 4971 live births, giving a mortality rate of 10.7 per 1000 live births. Overall, 68.8% of mothers interviewed in the second survey received antenatal care on at least two occasions when tetanus toxoid was, in principle, available. PMID:3488840

  15. The place of people with intellectual disabilities in Bandung, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Komardjaja, Inge

    2005-06-01

    This report is an attempt to 'make visible' people with intellectual disabilities in Bandung, Indonesia, who have been rendered invisible due the stigmatization of disabled bodies in Indonesian society. The Western concept of deinstitutionalization is not appropriate to the contemporary culture of Indonesia. Returning to the 'special schools' following completion of secondary education resolves some of the problems of social exclusion, while reinforcing other exclusionary aspects of Indonesian society. Institutionalization is seen as a privilege in the Indonesian context, as only the better off can afford the cost of placing people with intellectual disabilities in institutions. PMID:15629679

  16. Indonesia's family planning story: success and challenge.

    PubMed

    Hull, T H; Hull, V J; Singarimbun, M

    1977-11-01

    A historical overview and descriptions of family planning programs in Indonesia are presented. 85 million of the 135 million inhabitants of the Indonesian archipelago are concentrated on the island of Java, which comprises about 7% of the Indonesian land mass. The Dutch colonial government preferred a policy ("transmigration") which advocated the redistribution of population from Java to the other islands to relieve overpopulation. This policy was also advocated by President Sukarno after the Indonesian Revolution of 1940. The need for family planning was recognized by small groups, and official policy supported national family planning programs to replace transmigration programs only after Sukarno became president in 1966. The focus of the program was on Java and Bali, the 2 most populous islands. Local clinics became the locus for birth control efforts. Fieldworkers affiliated with the clinics were given the job of advocating birth control use door-to-door. Fieldworkers "incentive programs," area "target" (quota) programs, and "special drives" were organized to create new contraceptive "acceptors." A data reporting system and a research program increase the effectiveness of the family planning drive by ascertaining trends in contraceptive use which can determine where and how money and effort can best be applied. "Village Contraception Distribution Centers" bring the contraceptive means closer to the people than do the clinics. Figures from the years 1969-1977 show the great increase in acceptance of contraceptives by the inhabitants of the Java-Bali area. Steps are now being taken to alleviate the large monthly variations in the number of (often temporary) acceptors caused by the "target programs" and "special drives." The average acceptor is 27-years-old, has 2.6 children, has not finished primary school, and has a husband of low social status. Bali has shown the greatest success in family planning. It is a small island with a highly developed system of local

  17. Population, environment and sustainable development in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1993-12-01

    Sustainable development is expressed in terms of living standards and economic welfare. The basic dichotomy of general sustainable development pits the environmentalists who fear that population growth poses grave threats to natural resources against the economic rationalists who envisage that market forces will take care of scarcities and technological development will solve environmental problems. The Brundtland committee defined sustainable development as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability to meet the needs of future generations. An increase in population or per capita income will increase environmental stress, while an increase in efficiency of production will reduce environmental stress. Indonesia is an important case of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental problems. It had 180 million people in 1990. Despite fertility decline the population is expected to increase by 89 million over the next 30 years. The island of Java is subject to the greatest population-related environmental stress because the population numbers 112 million people. Severe erosion already occurred in the 1950s in the uplands, and cultivation is moving further up the slopes of volcanic hillsides to accommodate commercial vegetable growing on previously forested slopes. The underlying problem is population growth and the need for increased crop production and employment. Other causative factors are the building of freeways, airports, and factories; sand and soil extraction; the impact on fisheries of blasting of coral rock; and urbanization. Jakarta has inadequate water supplies and waste disposal and increasing air pollution. In the outer island in South Sulawesi erosion is also severe; in South Sumatra deforestation is widespread as the transmigration program unfolds. Natural resource degradation occurs when population becomes too large in relation to the productivity of the resource base. PMID:12159254

  18. Cleaner production: Minimizing hazardous waste in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bratasida, D.L.

    1996-12-31

    In the second long-term development plan, industry plays a significant role in economic growth. In Indonesia, industries grow very fast; such fast growth can adversely effect the environment. Exploitation of assets can mean depletion of natural resources and energy, which, if incorrectly managed, can endanger human life and the environment. The inefficient use of natural resources will accelerate their exhaustion and generate pollution, resulting in environmental damage and threats to economic development and human well being. In recent years, changes in the approach used to control pollution have been necessary because of the increasing seriousness of the problems. Initial environmental management strategies were based on a carrying capacity approach; the natural assimilative capacity accommodated the pollution load that was applied. The environmental management strategies adopted later included technologies applied to the end of the discharge point (so-called {open_quotes}end-of-pipe{close_quotes} treatments). Until now, environmental management strategies focused on end-of-pipe approaches that control pollutants after they are generated. These approaches concentrate on waste treatment and disposal to control pollution and environmental degradation. However, as industry develops, waste volumes continue to increase, thereby creating further environmental problems. In addition, the wastes produced tend to have more complex characteristics and are potentially more difficult to treat for a reasonable cost. There are often technical and financial obstacles to regulatory compliance if waste treatment is relied on as the only means of achieving environmental objectives. Consequently, the reactive end-of-pipe treatment approach has been changed to a proactive cleaner production approach. This approach is based on the concept of sustainable development and is designed to prevent pollution as well as to protect natural resources and the quality of the environment.

  19. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  20. The utilization of Indonesia`s low rank coal: Its potential, challenges and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Panaka, P.

    1997-07-01

    It has known that there are around 36 billion tons of coal resources potential in Indonesia, however over 21 billion tons (58.7%) is classified as low-rank (lignite) coal. Due to their properties, these coals are not economical to be transported for a long distance and are therefore unexportable. That`s why these low-rank coals still under-utilized at present. As the utilization of low-rank coals is expected to grow in importance as the domestic`s demand for energy increases in the near future, efforts should also be directed to find the possible upgrading technology for low-rank coals by reducing the total moisture of it, once the possible upgrading technology has been adopted, then those coal can be converted into coal water mixture, coal liquefaction, gasification, briquetting, etc., even for mine mouth power-plant. The challenges facing low-rank coals are: low conversion efficiency resulting from the high moisture content and relatively low in calorific values, the risk of spontaneous combustion, ash deposit formation and higher CO{sub 2} emission To response to these challenges, the adoption of new and advanced technologies for the utilization of low-rank coals from the third countries is therefore required. Combined cycle technologies such as CFBC, PFBC and IGCC, etc. combined with coal up-grading technology are applicable to low-rank coals and are expected to become a major future power plant for Indonesia. The main question for low-rank coals is whether these plants can be competitive when the extra costs involved in up-grading (drying) the coal are taken into account.

  1. Climate Risk Management and Decision Support Tools for the Agriculture Sector in Lao PDR, Bangladesh, and Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allis, E. C.; Greene, A. M.; Cousin, R.

    2014-12-01

    We describe a comprehensive project for developing climate information and decision support / climate risk management tools in Lao PDR, Bangladesh and Indonesia. Mechanisms are developed for bringing the benefits of these tools to both policy makers and poor rural farmers, with the goal of enabling better management, at the farm level, of the risks associated with climate variability and change. The project comprises several interwoven threads, differentially applied in the different study regions. These include data management and quality control, development of seasonal forecast capabilities, use of dynamic cropping calendars and climate advisories, the development of longer-term climate information for both past and future and a weather index insurance component. Stakeholder engagement and capacity building served as reinforcing and complementary elements to all components. In this talk we will provide a project overview, show how the various components fit together and describe some lessons learned in this attempt to promote the uptake of actionable climate information from farmer to policy level. The applied research project was led by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) at Columbia University with funding from the International Fund for Agriculture Development (IFAD) and in close collaboration with our regional partners at the Centre for Climate Risk and Opportunity Management in Southeast Asia Pacific (at Bogor Agricultural University in Indonesia), Indonesia's National Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG), Lao PDR's National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute (NAFRI), Laotian Department of Meteorology and Hydrology (DMH), WorldFish Center, Bangladesh Meteorology Department (BMD), and CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

  2. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N. )

    1996-01-01

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  3. Introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia: a policy analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hadisoemarto, Panji F; Reich, Michael R; Castro, Marcia C

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pentavalent vaccine containing Haemophilus influenzae type b antigen in Indonesia’s National Immunization Program occurred nearly three decades after the vaccine was first available in the United States and 16 years after Indonesia added hepatitis B vaccine into the program. In this study, we analyzed the process that led to the decision to introduce pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia. Using process tracing and case comparison, we used qualitative data gathered through interviews with key informants and data extracted from written sources to identify four distinct but interrelated processes that were involved in the decision making: (a) pentavalent vaccine use policy process, (b) financing process, (c) domestic vaccine development process and (d) political process. We hypothesized that each process is associated with four necessary conditions that are jointly sufficient for the successful introduction of pentavalent vaccine in Indonesia, namely (a) an evidence-based vaccine use recommendation, (b) sufficient domestic financing capacity, (c) sufficient domestic vaccine manufacturing capacity and (d) political support for introduction. This analysis of four processes that led to the decision to introduce a new vaccine in Indonesia may help policy makers and other stakeholders understand and manage activities that can accelerate vaccine introduction in the future. PMID:27107293

  4. In Search of Paulo Freire's Reception in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuryatno, Muhammad Agus

    2005-01-01

    Education is not a neutral area and can never be neutral, because it is always socially constructed, culturally mediated, and politically intervened. Education in Indonesia has been used for a long time as a political vehicle to preserve and strengthen the New Order (1965-1998) regime. The policy of the NKK--BKK (Campus Life Normalization--Student…

  5. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Junior Secondary School Students in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmiyati, Nuri; Rasyid, Muhammad Amin; Rahman, M. Asfah; Arsyad, Azhar; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the Multiple Intelligences profiles of the students at junior secondary school in Makassar. The Multiple Intelligences Inventory was used to identify the dominant intelligence among the students. The sample of this research was 302 junior secondary schools students in Makassar Indonesia who willing to participated…

  6. Husband's approval of contraceptive use in metropolitan Indonesia: program implications.

    PubMed

    Joesoef, M R; Baughman, A L; Utomo, B

    1988-01-01

    Husband's approval of contraceptive use plays a decisive role in Indonesia. Despite this, no previous study of contraceptive use in Indonesia has evaluated the importance of husband's approval. Such evaluation is especially important in metropolitan areas where family planning programs have encountered more difficulty than those elsewhere in recruiting contraceptive users. Using data from the first Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey for metropolitan cities, husband's approval and other determinants of contraceptive use among fecund women were evaluated. The levels of contraceptive use varied among cities, ranging from 34.2 percent in Ujung Pandang to 56.5 percent in Semarang. For all cities, however, husband's approval was the most important determinant, followed by number of living children and wife's education. Among women who desire to have no more children, 17.4 percent and 27.8 percent of contraceptive nonuse in Medan and Jakarta, respectively, was attributable to husband's disapproval. Because most of the family planning programs in Indonesia are designed to serve primarily women, the finding of husband's approval as the most important determinant has important program implications. PMID:3406964

  7. Educational Project on Indonesia. Fulbright Hayes Summer Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hribar, Georgeanne C.

    These lesson plans were developed by a participant in the Fulbright Summer Seminar on Indonesia. The materials provide information for teaching about economic and social factors affecting development of the region. There are four lessons in the packet. The lessons are: (1) "Centripetal and Centrifugal Forces" (geographical, historical, social,…

  8. Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing for Indonesia Junior High School Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Bor-Chen; Daud, Muslem; Yang, Chih-Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a curriculum-based multidimensional computerized adaptive test that was developed for Indonesia junior high school Biology. In adherence to the Indonesian curriculum of different Biology dimensions, 300 items was constructed, and then tested to 2238 students. A multidimensional random coefficients multinomial logit model was…

  9. School-Based Management Developments and Partnership: Evidence from Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandur, Agustinus

    2012-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) with devolution of authority and responsibility to school level decision-makers has become the most prominent feature of public school management systems in most countries around the world. This article provides the global trends and current developments in SBM in Indonesia with an emphasis on how SBM has created…

  10. Democratizing Indonesia through Education? Community Participation in Islamic Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lyn; Raihani, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, Indonesia embarked on a journey to democracy. This journey involved the decentralization of education from 2002. The new school-based management (SBM) system required greater community and parental participation in schools--thereby, it was hoped, contributing to a deepening of democracy. Islamic schools ("madrasah") also adopted this…

  11. Decentralisation in Education, Institutional Culture and Teacher Autonomy in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Indonesia has seen several recent attempts to devolve control over the curriculum to the local level. Rather than catalogue all of the problems encountered in the course of their implementation, the present contribution focuses on a single reform, the Local Content Curriculum (LCC). Analysis of local responses to this reform provides insights into…

  12. Interrogating Identity: The International Standard School in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhiyya, Zulfa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the International Standard School (ISS) on the identity of Indonesia as a postcolonial nation. According to the Indonesian Ministry of National Education, an ISS is "a school which complies with the National Standard of Education and enriches its standards from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and…

  13. Zika Virus Infection Acquired During Brief Travel to Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Jason C.; Druce, Julian D.; Leder, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Zika virus infection closely resembles dengue fever. It is possible that many cases are misdiagnosed or missed. We report a case of Zika virus infection in an Australian traveler who returned from Indonesia with fever and rash. Further case identification is required to determine the evolving epidemiology of this disease. PMID:23878182

  14. Implementation of School-Based Management in Indonesia. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernez, Georges; Karam, Rita; Marshall, Jeffery H.

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative and qualitative status report on the implementation of school-based management (SBM) in Indonesia, identifies factors associated with the successful practices of SBM, and assesses SBM effects on student achievement eight years after its inception. The authors' findings are based on face-to-face surveys of…

  15. English in Political Discourse of Post-Suharto Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernsten, Suzanne

    This paper illustrates increases in the use of English in political speeches in post-Suharto Indonesia by analyzing the phonological, morphological, and syntactic assimilation of loanwords (linguistic borrowing), as well as hybridization and code switching, and phenomena such as doubling and loan translations. The paper also examines the mixed…

  16. Children's Time Use: Labor Divisions and Schooling in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsin, Amy

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Worker and Iron Status Evaluation are used to examine gendered patterns in children's time in market and nonmarket work, schooling, and leisure in Indonesia (N = 2,929). Boys spend more time in market work; girls spend more time in nonmarket work. Work responsibilities increase with age as well as gender differentials in children's…

  17. Early Supplemental Feeding and Spontaneous Play in West Java, Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walka, Helen; Pollitt, Ernesto; Triana, Nina; Jahari, Abas B.

    This study examined the effects of nutritional supplements on the duration and level of spontaneous play of 55 mildly to moderately malnourished toddlers living within the tea plantations of West Java, Indonesia. Infants were randomly assigned by their day care centers to one of three supplement groups: (1) energy and micronutrient supplements;…

  18. Influencing Factors of Female Underrepresentation as School Principals in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airin, Rashidah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose -- Number of women in the school principalship in Indonesia is less than half of the males'. This paper aims to identify the factor behind the underrepresentation of women in the principalship. Design/methodology/approach -- The methodological approach utilised in this paper was a structured review of the literature. Twenty sources namely…

  19. Why Is the Divorce Rate Declining in Indonesia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Tim B.; Cammack, Mark; Young, Larry

    2001-01-01

    This study examines trends in marital dissolution in Indonesia considering the impact of educational expansion; delayed marriage; urbanization; increasing employment before marriage; legislative change; and increased free choice in marriage on the decline in marital disruption. It suggests that traditional patterns sustaining high levels of…

  20. Muslim Women and Education in Indonesia: The "Pondok Pesantren" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srimulyani, Eka

    2007-01-01

    The "pondok pesantren" education is a "traditional" form of Muslim education in Indonesia. This boarding school system can be traced back to the 18th century or further. However, it was not until 1930 that the "pesantren" officially admitted female students, beginning with the Pesantren Denanyar of Jombang. The acceptance of female students in the…

  1. Islamic Higher Education and Social Cohesion in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraince, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the role of public Islamic higher education in promoting better relations between various religious communities in post-authoritarian Indonesia. Based on field research conducted between December 2005 and March 2006, it documents how progressive Islamic education leaders have advanced a tradition of critical intellectualism in…

  2. Challenge for Mesozoic hydrocarbon exploration in the Eastern Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, S.; Rukmiati, M.G.; Sitompul, N.

    1996-12-31

    The eastern part of Indonesia covers approximately 3 million square kilometers, 35 percent being landmass and 65 percent covered by ocean. Only three of 38 sedimentary basins are producing hydrocarbon (Salawati, Bintuni, and Seram Basins). Oil and gas have discovered in the Lariang, Bone, Timor, Banggai, Sula and Biak Basins, however the discoveries have not developed yet. Hydrocarbon systems in Northern Australia and Papua New Guinea give the major contributions to the geological idea of Pre-Tertiary section in the less explored area in the Eastern Indonesia. The Triassic-Middle Jurassic marine carbonaceous shale sequences are the main hydrocarbon source rock in the Irian Jaya and surrounding area (Buton, gula and Seram basins). The main Mesozoic reservoir are the Kembelangan Formation in the Bintuni Basin of Irian Jaya and Bobong Formation in the North Sula Region. Exploration play types in the Eastern Indonesia can be divided into five types: 1 - Peri Cratonic, 2 - Marginal Rift Graben, 3 - Thrust Fold Belt Island Arc, 4 - Early Collision and 5 -Microcontinental Block - Advanced Collision. Recent discoveries through Mesozoic section in Eastern Indonesia are: Roabiba-1 (1990) in Bintuni Basin-Irian Jaya (Kambelangan Formation); Loku- 1 (1990) in North Sula region (Pre-Tertiary sediments); Oseil-1 (1993/94) in Bula-Seram Basin (Jurassic Manusela Formation); Elang-1 (1 994); Kakaktua-1 (1994) and Laminaria-1 in North Bonaparte Basin (Upper Jurassic Sands).

  3. Fertility behavior in rural and urban Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Newlon, B; Sigit, H

    1982-06-01

    The cross-sectional picture of urban and rural fertility which emerges from recently published Indonesian national level data from the 1976 Intercensal Survey are described. The data reveal only small differences in the average numbers of children ever born or children surviving of ever married women (or mothers) in urban and rural areas of Indonesia. In urban areas, ever married mothers had a standardized average of 3.4 children ever born, and in rural areas 3.3 These averages cannot reveal any differences in past and present childbearing levels. The fertility of urban women, as opposed to rural women, appeared more highly associated with indicators which tend to directly or indirectly depress the average number of children ever born: a higher age at 1st marriage; a higher level of "sterility;" a higher survival ratio of children born; and a higher level of educational attainment. At least some of these factors might be regarded as associated with modernizing trends in the urban areas: increased accessibility to educational facilities; the opening of female opportunities outside the home so that marriage occurs later in life; and a better health environment so that there is less pregnancy wastage and time spent in bearing children. These factors help to provide an incentive to women to limit their fertility; knowledge of contraception methods provides a means. The depressing factors most highly associated with average rural fertility do not appear associated with modernization but with traditional folk customs regarding acceptable behavior. The inflating effects of early marriage are offset by a greater prevalence of marital disruption. This may reflect a cultural acceptability. The reasons may include adolescent or true sterility leading to disunion, the outmigration of a partner, or some other form of disharmony. Female labor force participation is more prevalent in rural than urban areas. There are both traditional and modern aspects to be seen in its

  4. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  5. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  6. Geothermal resources and reserves in Indonesia: an updated revision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauzi, A.

    2015-02-01

    More than 300 high- to low-enthalpy geothermal sources have been identified throughout Indonesia. From the early 1980s until the late 1990s, the geothermal potential for power production in Indonesia was estimated to be about 20 000 MWe. The most recent estimate exceeds 29 000 MWe derived from the 300 sites (Geological Agency, December 2013). This resource estimate has been obtained by adding all of the estimated geothermal potential resources and reserves classified as "speculative", "hypothetical", "possible", "probable", and "proven" from all sites where such information is available. However, this approach to estimating the geothermal potential is flawed because it includes double counting of some reserve estimates as resource estimates, thus giving an inflated figure for the total national geothermal potential. This paper describes an updated revision of the geothermal resource estimate in Indonesia using a more realistic methodology. The methodology proposes that the preliminary "Speculative Resource" category should cover the full potential of a geothermal area and form the base reference figure for the resource of the area. Further investigation of this resource may improve the level of confidence of the category of reserves but will not necessarily increase the figure of the "preliminary resource estimate" as a whole, unless the result of the investigation is higher. A previous paper (Fauzi, 2013a, b) redefined and revised the geothermal resource estimate for Indonesia. The methodology, adopted from Fauzi (2013a, b), will be fully described in this paper. As a result of using the revised methodology, the potential geothermal resources and reserves for Indonesia are estimated to be about 24 000 MWe, some 5000 MWe less than the 2013 national estimate.

  7. A Cross-National Investigation of University Students' Complaining Behaviour and Attitudes to Complaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Graham; Phau, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how students from Australia, Indonesia and Malaysia differ in their propensity to complain and attitudes to complaining. Design/methodology/approach: A self-administered questionnaire was designed using established scales to assess respondent reactions to a service failure by a university. The…

  8. Survey of English Teaching and Learning Process in Maritme Education and Training in Indonesia: A Case Study in Private MET in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dirgayasa, I Wy.

    2014-01-01

    This paper intends to evaluate the process of teaching and learning of Maritime English in private Maritime Education and Training (MET) in Indonesia. This study was conducted in three private MET such as Maritime Academy Indonesia Medan (AMI-Medan), Maritime Academy Belawan (AMB-Belawan,), and Maritime Academy Sapta Samudra Padang (AMSSP-Padang).…

  9. Improving Indonesia's Cities: A Case Study of Economic Development, Including a Teaching Guide and An Economic Summary of Indonesia. Toward a Better World Series, Learning Kit No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Harriet, Ed.; Rosen, Carol, Ed.

    This World Bank (Washington, D.C.) kit is designed to teach secondary school social studies students the impact of rapid urbanization on Jakarta, the capital city of Indonesia. The kit contains a pamphlet, a booklet, a filmstrip, and a teacher's guide. The pamphlet, "An Economic Summary of Indonesia" provides students with the structure, recent…

  10. Basin and Crustal Structure of Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia from Two Seismic Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Irsam, M.; Masturyono, M.; Murjaya, J.; Nugraha, A. D.; Pandhu, R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Zulhan, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Between October 2013 and February 2014, a dense portable seismic broadband network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) in Jakarta, Indonesia. Jakarta is located in Java Island, Indonesia, with a population over 10 million. Overall 96 points were sampled through the successive deployments of 52 seismic broadband sensors at different parts of the city. After recording continuous seismic data for 5 months, the network was shifted to Bandung, another city to the south-east of Jakarta on March 2014. Bandung is situated on a old lake deposit surrounded by volcanic provinces. The configuration of the seismic network at Bandung encompasses the whole city as well as an active volcano-Tangkuban Perahu and Lembang Fault both located just outside of the city.In both of the experiments, oceanic and anthropogenic noise were recorded as well as local and regional earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded data of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 4000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from stacked interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh and body waves. The traveltimes that were extracted from the group velocity filtering of Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a Transdimensional Bayesian seismic tomography method to map the velocity perturbations across cities. The constructed images at Jakarta mark the very low group velocities of Rayleigh waves, as low as 150 m/s at 1 Hz showing influence of a very low velocity basin. Low seismic velocity regions imaged through seismic noise tomography beneath both cities potentially posses a large risk of causing seismic amplification during a large earthquake close to the cities.

  11. Sister Lab Program Prospective Partner Nuclear Profile: Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Bissani, M; Tyson, S

    2006-12-14

    Indonesia has participated in cooperative technical programs with the IAEA since 1957, and has cooperated with regional partners in all of the traditional areas where nuclear science is employed: in medicine, public health (such as insect control and eradication programs), agriculture (e.g. development of improved varieties of rice), and the gas and oil industries. Recently, Indonesia has contributed significantly to the Reduced Enrichment Research and Training Reactor (RERTR) Program by conducting experiments to confirm the feasibility of Mo-99 production using high-density low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, a primary goal of the RERTR Program. Indonesia's first research reactor, the TRIGA Mark II at Bandung, began operation in 1964 at 250 kW and was subsequently upgraded in 1971 to 1 MW and further upgraded in 2000 to 2 MW. This reactor was joined by another TRIGA Mark II, the 100-kW Kartini-PPNY at Yogyakarta, in 1979, and by the 30-MW G.A. Siwabessy multipurpose reactor in Serpong, which achieved criticality in July 1983. A 10-MW radioisotope production reactor, to be called the RPI-10, also was proposed for construction at Serpong in the late 1990s, but the project apparently was not carried out. In the five decades since its nuclear research program began, Indonesia has trained a cadre of scientific and technical staff who not only operate and conduct research with the current facilities, but also represent the nucleus of a skilled labor pool to support development of a nuclear power program. Although Indonesia's previous on-again, off-again consideration of nuclear power has not gotten very far in the past, it now appears that Indonesia again is giving serious consideration to beginning a national nuclear energy program. In June 2006, Research and Technology Minister Kusmayanto Kadiman said that his ministry was currently putting the necessary procedures in place to speed up the project to acquire a nuclear power plant, indicating that, ''We will need around

  12. Legislating separation and solidarity in plural societies: the Chinese in Indonesia and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Julie Chernov; Sadiq, Kamal

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese minority plays a dominant role in the economies of Indonesia and Malaysia, a fact that evokes indigenous resentment. However, Indonesia and Malaysia dealt differently with the issue. Malaysia legislated the Malays into the economy and protected Chinese citizenship, making them an integral part of a multicultural state. By contrast, New Order Indonesia adopted policies of economic manipulation, forced assimilation, and unequal citizenship. Only when the New Order regime fell did Chinese integration begin. The policy trajectories of Indonesia and Malaysia offer important lessons for plural states. PMID:20648997

  13. Accelerating the introduction of rotavirus immunization in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Zakiyah, Neily; Lestari, Keri; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Indonesia is currently in its infancy. Delay in its development might be caused by factors related to the perceived value of the vaccine, health system characteristics and policy considerations. Other factors, which may also interfere with optimizing the introduction, are financial barriers because Indonesia is a lower-middle-income country. Creating fiscal space to finance new immunization programs, such as for the rotavirus immunization, is very important to ensure the sustainability of new programs so that such programs would be financed over the long term and not endanger the sustainability of the Indonesian government's financial position. This article provides an illustration of the various steps needed to accelerate the introduction of the rotavirus immunization. PMID:24580504

  14. The introduction and use of Norplant implants in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, J; Donaldson, P J; Noble, J

    1998-09-01

    In this study, patterns of Norplant use in Indonesia are reviewed to assess the implications of this experience for the introduction of new contraceptive methods. Data from the Norplant Use-Dynamics Study and the 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey are analyzed, and patterns of acceptance, continuation, and removal are described. Acceptance of Norplant has increased steadily since it was first introduced. The method is now used by more than 5 percent of all married women of reproductive age. Continuation rates among Norplant users are higher than among users of the IUD. One factor behind high continuation rates may be that a substantial proportion of acceptors were not told that removal before five years was possible. Results indicate that deficits occurred in the quality of service delivery and that a need exists for improved provider training, better supervision, and clearer and better-enforced guidelines regarding women's right to have Norplant removed on demand. PMID:9789322

  15. Monsoon drought over Java, Indonesia, during the past two centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Wilson, Rob; Palmer, Jonathan; Krusic, Paul; Curtis, Ashley; Sakulich, John; Bijaksana, Satria; Zulaikah, Siti; Ngkoimani, La Ode

    2006-02-01

    Monsoon droughts, which often coincide with El Niño warm events, can have profound impacts on the populations of Southeast Asia. Improved understanding and prediction of such events can be aided by high-resolution proxy climate records, but these are scarce for the tropics. Here we reconstruct the boreal autumn (October-November) Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for Java, Indonesia (1787-1988). This reconstruction is based on nine ring-width chronologies derived from living teak trees growing on the islands of Java and Sulawesi, and one coral δ18O series from Lombok. The PDSI reconstruction correlates significantly with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related sea surface temperatures and other historical and instrumental records of tropical climate, reflecting the strong coupling between the climate of Indonesia and the large scale tropical Indo-Pacific climate system.

  16. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Riva, J.P. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum in Indonesia at probability levels of 95%, 5%, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 5, 35, and 16; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 13, 94, and 42. In Indonesia, petroleum occurs in five types of basins: forearc, back-arc (foreland), median, inner-arc, and downwarp-into-small-ocean basins. The back-arc, median, and downwarp basins have significantly greater petroleum potential than do the fore-arc and inner-arc basins. The latter two types are expected to yield only small discoveries; also, significant portions of such basins lie in water depths in excess of 1000 m. The back-arc basins have been the most petroleum productive, but they also have been the most extensively explored. The greatest undiscovered petroleum potential is estimated to lie in the downwarp and median basins. In Indonesia, six general types of geological settings or plays have been identified as being favorable for petroleum accumulation. They are transgressive clastic sequences, regressive clastic sequences, deltas, carbonate platforms, pinnacle reefs, and fractured igneous and volcanic rocks. The multiple-pay transgressive clastic reservoirs in the back-arc basins have produced most of Indonesia's crude oil. In several basins, carbonate platform porosity has become a primary exploration target, but each reservoir (reef, bank, or bioclastic zone) tends to be restricted in size. Typically, Indonesian oil is of medium gravity with a paraffin base and has a moderate to high pour point, a low sulfur content, and relatively low gas to oil ratio. 18 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  17. Assessment of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum resources of Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riva, Joseph P.

    1983-01-01

    The estimates of undiscovered conventionally recoverable petroleum in Indonesia at probability levels of 95 percent, 5 percent, and statistical mean are for oil (in billions of barrels): 5, 35, and 16; and for gas (in trillions of cubic feet): 13, 94, and 42. In Indonesia, petroleum occurs in five types of basins: forearc, back-arc (foreland), median, inner-arc, and downwarp into-small-ocean basins. The back-arc, median, and downwarp basins have significantly greater petroleum potential than do the fore-arc and inner-are basins. The latter two types are expected to yield only small discoveries; also, significant portions of such basins lie in water depths in excess of 1,000 m. The back-arc basins have been the most petroleum productive, but they also have been the most extensively explored. The greatest undiscovered petroleum potential is estimated to lie in the downwarp and median basins. In Indonesia, six general types of geological settings or plays have been identified as being favorable for petroleum accumulation. They are transgressive clastic sequences, regressive clastic sequences, deltas, carbonate platforms, pinnacle reefs, and fractured igneous and volcanic rocks. The multiple-pay transgressive clastic reservoirs in the back-arc basins have produced most of Indonesia's crude oil. In several basins, carbonate platform porosity has become a primary exploration target, but each reservoir (reef, bank, or bioclastic zone) tends to be restricted in size. Typically, Indonesian oil is of medium gravity with a paraffin base and has a moderate to high pour point, a low sulfur content, and a relatively low gas to oil ratio.

  18. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  19. Female commercial sex workers in Kramat Tunggak, Jakarta, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sedyaningsih-Mamahit, E R

    1999-10-01

    Indonesia is predicted to face a severe AIDS epidemic in the near future. More than 60% of the reported HIV-positive cases in Indonesia can be attributed to heterosexual transmission; therefore, by the nature of their work, female commercial sex workers (FCSWs) constitute one of the communities at risk. No meaningful or effective STD/HIV prevention programs for FCSWs can be planned if there is no contextual understanding of these women as persons, the nature and the risks of their job and their relations with their clients and managers. Just as it is incorrect to assume that all women enter prostitution for the same reasons, educational approaches that are modeled on shallow stereotypes will be ineffective. Interweaving qualitative and quantitative methods, this research investigates the FCSWs in an 'official' brothel complex in Jakarta, Indonesia. Results of this study give insights of four typologies of FCSWs observed in Kramat Tunggak. The personal, professional, social and other differences which influenced the women into full-time sex work and affected their willingness and ability to engage in healthy and protective behaviors, are presented. Finally, based on those findings a recommendation on how to deliver health messages to the FCSWs is offered. PMID:10475673

  20. Malaria Distribution, Prevalence, Drug Resistance and Control in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R.F.; Hay, Simon I.; Baird, J. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 230 million people live in Indonesia. The country is also home to over 20 anopheline vectors of malaria which transmit all four of the species of Plasmodium that routinely infect humans. A complex mosaic of risk of infection across this 5000-km-long archipelago of thousands of islands and distinctive habitats seriously challenges efforts to control malaria. Social, economic and political dimensions contribute to these complexities. This chapter examines malaria and its control in Indonesia, from the earliest efforts by malariologists of the colonial Netherlands East Indies, through the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign of the 1950s, the tumult following the coup d’état of 1965, the global resurgence of malaria through the 1980s and 1990s and finally through to the decentralization of government authority following the fall of the authoritarian Soeharto regime in 1998. We detail important methods of control and their impact in the context of the political systems that supported them. We examine prospects for malaria control in contemporary decentralized and democratized Indonesia with multidrug-resistant malaria and greatly diminished capacities for integrated malaria control management programs. PMID:21295677

  1. International labor migration and the family: some observations from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1995-01-01

    This article addresses two dimensions of the complex interrelationship between the family and international labor migration in Indonesia: the role of the family in influencing labor movements out of Indonesia; and the consequences of this movement on family well-being, structure, and functioning. Research on this topic in Indonesia is highly limited due mainly to the recency of large scale international labor migration, inadequate data collection systems, a high incidence of undocumented migration, and failure of available research to be sensitive to family related issues. Against a rapidly changing economic and social situation, two major overlapping systems of migration have developed. The official system is focused strongly on the Middle East (although other Asian destinations are increasing in significance) and is dominated by female migrants. The undocumented system is much larger in volume, is focused upon Malaysia, involves more males than females, and is becoming permanent in some cases. The role, status, and experiences of women migrants in relation to their families (decision making, networks, remittances) are discussed with recommendations for other areas needing further research attention. PMID:12320103

  2. Adolescent reproductive health in Indonesia: contested values and policy inaction.

    PubMed

    Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; McDonald, Peter

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the changing social and political context of adolescent sexual and reproductive health policy in Indonesia. We describe how, in 2001, Indonesia was on the brink of implementing an adolescent reproductive health policy that was consistent with international agreements to which the Indonesian government was a party. Although the health of young Indonesians was known to be at risk, the opportunity for reform passed quickly with the emergence of a new competing force, Middle Eastern fundamentalist Islam. Faced with the risk of regional separatism and competing politico-religious influences, the Indonesian government retreated to the safety of inaction in this area of policy. In the absence of a supportive and committed political environment that reinforces policy specifically targeted to young people's reproductive health, extremist approaches that involve considerable health risk prevailed. The sexual and reproductive values and behaviors that are emerging among single young people in contemporary Indonesia are conditioned by a political context that allows the conflicting forces of traditional Indonesian values, Westernization, and the strong emerging force of fundamentalist Islam to compete for the allegiance of young people. PMID:19662805

  3. Malaria distribution, prevalence, drug resistance and control in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Hay, Simon I; Baird, J Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Approximately 230 million people live in Indonesia. The country is also home to over 20 anopheline vectors of malaria which transmit all four of the species of Plasmodium that routinely infect humans. A complex mosaic of risk of infection across this 5000-km-long archipelago of thousands of islands and distinctive habitats seriously challenges efforts to control malaria. Social, economic and political dimensions contribute to these complexities. This chapter examines malaria and its control in Indonesia, from the earliest efforts by malariologists of the colonial Netherlands East Indies, through the Global Malaria Eradication Campaign of the 1950s, the tumult following the coup d'état of 1965, the global resurgence of malaria through the 1980s and 1990s and finally through to the decentralization of government authority following the fall of the authoritarian Soeharto regime in 1998. We detail important methods of control and their impact in the context of the political systems that supported them. We examine prospects for malaria control in contemporary decentralized and democratized Indonesia with multidrug-resistant malaria and greatly diminished capacities for integrated malaria control management programs. PMID:21295677

  4. Patients' experiences of absconding from a psychiatric setting in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Nurjannah, Intansari; FitzGerald, Mary; Foster, Kim

    2009-10-01

    Absconding from psychiatric institutions is a relatively common phenomenon. Yet patients' experience of absconding is a perspective that has received little attention in the West and none in Indonesia. A case study using mixed methods was undertaken in order to provide a profile of absconding events over a 1-year period in a psychiatric setting in Indonesia. In the qualitative phase of the study, in a semistructured interview, 16 patients who absconded described their experiences of absconding. Three themes of experience were identified: the call to home, hopes and realities, and us and them. The call to home theme described patients' eagerness to connect with family and others and to feel safe. Hopes and realities identified patients' hopes for happiness, which were dashed by the realities of life at home and in the hospital. The final theme, us and them, described the competing interests and different opinions of patients in relation to others including hospital staff and family. There is a need for changes to mental health policy and service provision in order to reduce the incidence of absconding in Indonesia and enable patients and their families to receive adequate support while living in the community. PMID:19740142

  5. Structural change and higher educated labour in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Pasay, N H

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes an impending shortage of higher-educated labor in Indonesia. Dynamic change is occurring in both Indonesia's population and economy. Its rapidly growing population demands annual national economic growth of 2.2% to avoid declining per capita output. Accordingly, investments have surged in banking and manufacturing industries as Indonesia undergoes structural change from an agricultural to service-based economy. Plagued by a majority of low productivity, elementary-level educated workers, increased productivity is called for to ensure continued development. As the age structural shift progresses, many of these workers will be absorbed in the services sector. Jobs exist requiring workers of all skill levels. This paper is mainly concerned, however, with higher-educated labor's failure to be oriented to the research and development required for sustained economic growth and development, and their entry into clerical positions potentially filled by less educated and less skilled labor. The services sector, particularly public services, is responsible for absorbing much of this labor. As professional, technical, and managerial capabilities and qualifications become increasingly needed in the near future as sector investments take effect, a shortage of higher-educated labor will become apparent. Policy makers are advised to anticipate these shortages and contemplate investments in human capital to facilitate a more smooth adjustment to structural change. PMID:12343084

  6. Taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia: past and present situations.

    PubMed

    Wandra, Toni; Ito, Akira; Swastika, Kadek; Dharmawan, Nyoman S; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro

    2013-11-01

    The main aim of this study is to overview the past and present situations of human taeniases and cysticercosis in Indonesia and including future perspectives. Through joint projects from 1996, we have confirmed the occurrence of Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) in Bali, of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) mainly in Papua and sporadically in Bali, and of Taenia asiatica in North Sumatra. These taeniases were caused through eating uncooked pork and pig viscera for T. solium and T. asiatica, respectively, and beef for T. saginata. The distribution of these tapeworms in Indonesia is basically highly restricted by the traditional cultural and religious backgrounds in each island. T. saginata is relatively common in Bali although people consume pork 'lawar' more than beef 'lawar'. Taeniases due to T. saginata or T. asiatica and T. solium and cysticercosis due to T. solium have also been sporadically reported in some other islands. Among these species, T. solium is exceptional since humans can be infected not only by larval stages (cysticerci) in pork but also by eggs released from human tapeworm carriers. Cysticercosis has been confirmed in Indonesia in humans, pigs and even dogs. PMID:23965293

  7. Future trends in flood risk in Indonesia - A probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muis, Sanne; Guneralp, Burak; Jongman, Brenden; Ward, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Indonesia is one of the 10 most populous countries in the world and is highly vulnerable to (river) flooding. Catastrophic floods occur on a regular basis; total estimated damages were US 0.8 bn in 2010 and US 3 bn in 2013. Large parts of Greater Jakarta, the capital city, are annually subject to flooding. Flood risks (i.e. the product of hazard, exposure and vulnerability) are increasing due to rapid increases in exposure, such as strong population growth and ongoing economic development. The increase in risk may also be amplified by increasing flood hazards, such as increasing flood frequency and intensity due to climate change and land subsidence. The implementation of adaptation measures, such as the construction of dykes and strategic urban planning, may counteract these increasing trends. However, despite its importance for adaptation planning, a comprehensive assessment of current and future flood risk in Indonesia is lacking. This contribution addresses this issue and aims to provide insight into how socio-economic trends and climate change projections may shape future flood risks in Indonesia. Flood risk were calculated using an adapted version of the GLOFRIS global flood risk assessment model. Using this approach, we produced probabilistic maps of flood risks (i.e. annual expected damage) at a resolution of 30"x30" (ca. 1km x 1km at the equator). To represent flood exposure, we produced probabilistic projections of urban growth in a Monte-Carlo fashion based on probability density functions of projected population and GDP values for 2030. To represent flood hazard, inundation maps were computed using the hydrological-hydraulic component of GLOFRIS. These maps show flood inundation extent and depth for several return periods and were produced for several combinations of GCMs and future socioeconomic scenarios. Finally, the implementation of different adaptation strategies was incorporated into the model to explore to what extent adaptation may be able to

  8. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  9. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations.

    PubMed

    Meliala, Andreasta; Hort, Krishna; Trisnantoro, Laksono

    2013-04-01

    As in many countries, the geographic distribution of the health workforce in Indonesia is unequal, with a concentration in urban and more developed areas, and a scarcity in rural and remote areas. There is less information on the distribution of specialist doctors, yet inequalities in their distribution could compromise efforts to achieve universal coverage by 2014. This paper uses data from 2007 and 2008 to describe the geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia, and to examine two key factors that influence the distribution and are targets of current policies: sources of income for specialist doctors, and specialist doctor engagement in private practice. The data demonstrates large differences in the ratio of specialist doctors to population among the provinces of Indonesia, with higher ratios on the provinces of the islands of Java, and much lower ratios on the more remote provinces in eastern Indonesia. Between 65% and 80% of specialist doctors' income derives from private practice in non-state hospitals or private clinics. Despite regulations limiting practice locations to three, most specialists studied in a provincial capital city were working in more than three locations, with some working in up to 7 locations, and spending only a few hours per week in their government hospital practice. Our study demonstrates that the current regulatory policies and financial incentives have not been effective in addressing the maldistribution of specialist doctors in a context of a growing private sector and predominance of doctors' income from private sources. A broader and more integrated policy approach, including more innovative service delivery strategies for rural and remote areas, is recommended. PMID:23453314

  10. The Insertion of Local Wisdom into Instructional Materials of Bahasa Indonesia for 10th Grade Students in Senior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anggraini, Purwati; Kusniarti, Tuti

    2015-01-01

    This current study aimed at investigating Bahasa Indonesia textbooks with regards to local wisdom issues. The preliminary study was utilized as the basis for developing instructional materials of Bahasa Indonesia that are rich of characters. Bahasa Indonesia instructional materials containing local wisdoms not only equip students with broad…

  11. 76 FR 73691 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Indonesia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Corporation. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 610(b)(2) of the Millennium Challenge Act of... next steps in the procurement reform agenda for Indonesia are to: (i) Build a professional procurement... the reform program across a variety of institutional settings in Indonesia to ensure that...

  12. The Development of Innovative Chemistry Learning Material for Bilingual Senior High School Students in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Situmorang, Manihar; Sitorus, Marham; Hutabarat, Wesly; Situmorang, Zakarias

    2015-01-01

    The development of innovative chemistry learning material for bilingual Senior High School (SHS) students in Indonesia is explained. The study is aimed to obtain an innovative chemistry learning material based on national curriculum in Indonesia to be used as a learning media in the teaching and learning activities. The learning material is…

  13. Indonesia and the Challenge of Development. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program (November, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of International Education, New York, NY.

    This collection of works from the Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar presents curriculum projects and cross cultural studies developed by the participants. The 18 works deal with Indonesia and the problems facing developing nations. Subjects include tradition, popular culture, change, and economic development and its impact on women. Indonesia is…

  14. The Historical Influence of International Trade and Religion on the Arts, Crafts and Architecture of Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brissette, Paul

    This document outlines a slide presentation on Southeast Asia with primary emphasis on Indonesia. How international trade has influenced the design and development of Indonesian arts, crafts, and architecture are main points of interest. A geographical overview of Indonesia is described along with its natural resources, population, and religious…

  15. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (66 FR 46777... part 207), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request..., Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine (72 FR 44830). The Commission is now conducting...

  16. Some Critical Concerns for Adapting the Bilingual Aphasia Test to Bahasa Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postman, Whitney Anne

    2011-01-01

    One of the most widely spoken languages of the world, Bahasa Indonesia (BI), became standardized as the official language of Indonesia. Based on Malay, it served as lingua franca in various forms throughout the Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Although BI has been habitually learned as a second language, the number of native speakers of BI…

  17. Online Learning Community: A Case Study of Teacher Professional Development in Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Eunice Ratna

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the concept of online learning community (OLC) to address the issues of teacher professional development practice in twenty-first-century Indonesia. Teachers in Indonesia are trained in a "conventional way", hence, not ready to prepare the younger generations for entrance into the twenty-first-century complex life and work…

  18. Food and nutrition security and the economic crisis in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Soekirman

    2001-01-01

    Indonesia has been afflicted by an economic crisis since July 1997. The economic crisis was preceded by a long drought associated with El Nino. The result has been a decline in food production, especially rice. In the eastern part of the country, especially in Irian Jaya, there was food insecurity during the early stages of the economic crisis. When the crisis escalated to become an economic, social and political crisis in 1998, food insecurity spread to other provinces, especially to urban areas in Java. The crisis led to increasingly high inflation. unemployment, poverty, food insecurity and malnutrition. The official figures indicate that poverty in Indonesia increased from 22.5 million (11.3%) in 1996 to 36.5 million (17.9%) in 1998. Food production decreased by 20-30% in some parts of the country. Compared with prices in January 1998, food prices had escalated 1.5- to threefold by August/November 1998 when acute food shortages occurred, especially in urban Java. Coupled with a drop in purchasing power, the higher food prices worsened health, nutritional status and education of children of urban poor and unemployed families. Despite social and political uncertainties, the Indonesian Government has taken prompt action to prevent a worsening of the situation by massive imports of rice, instituting food price subsidies for the poor and launching social safety net programmes to cope with food shortages and malnutrition. The present paper attempts to highlight the impact of the economic crisis on food insecurity and malnutrition in Indonesia. PMID:11708583

  19. Seasonal prevalence of malaria in West Sumba district, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Krisin; Asih, Puji; Sekartuti; Dewi, Rita M; Coutrier, Farah; Rozy, Ismail E; Susanti, Augustina I; Elyazar, Iqbal RF; Sutamihardja, Awalludin; Rahmat, Agus; Kinzer, Michael; Rogers, William O

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate information about the burden of malaria infection at the district or provincial level is required both to plan and assess local malaria control efforts. Although many studies of malaria epidemiology, immunology, and drug resistance have been conducted at many sites in Indonesia, there is little published literature describing malaria prevalence at the district, provincial, or national level. Methods Two stage cluster sampling malaria prevalence surveys were conducted in the wet season and dry season across West Sumba, Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Results Eight thousand eight hundred seventy samples were collected from 45 sub-villages in the surveys. The overall prevalence of malaria infection in the West Sumba District was 6.83% (95% CI, 4.40, 9.26) in the wet season and 4.95% (95% CI, 3.01, 6.90) in the dry. In the wet season Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 70% of infections; in the dry season P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were present in equal proportion. Malaria prevalence varied substantially across the district; prevalences in individual sub-villages ranged from 0–34%. The greatest malaria prevalence was in children and teenagers; the geometric mean parasitaemia in infected individuals decreased with age. Malaria infection was clearly associated with decreased haemoglobin concentration in children under 10 years of age, but it is not clear whether this association is causal. Conclusion Malaria is hypoendemic to mesoendemic in West Sumba, Indonesia. The age distribution of parasitaemia suggests that transmission has been stable enough to induce some clinical immunity. These prevalence data will aid the design of future malaria control efforts and will serve as a baseline against which the results of current and future control efforts can be assessed. PMID:19134197

  20. A~probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-05-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence based decision making on risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc, with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time independent forecasts of tsunami hazard at the coast from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte-carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and through sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting larger maximum magnitudes along the Sunda Arc. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height at the coast of > 0.5 m is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda Islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of >3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  1. Tsunami Model of Cilacap-Indonesia: Inundation and Its Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongko, W.; Schlurmann, T.; Khomarudin, R.

    2009-12-01

    Cilacap has a relatively flat topographical terrain and the highest population in the south coast of Java. Furthermore, several industrial parks and factories with domestic scale are also located along and near to the coast. On 17 July 2006, an Earthquake magnitude Mw 7.8 off the south coast of west Java, generated tsunami that affected over 300 km of south Java coastline and killed more than 600 people. Several sub-districts in Cilacap experienced tsunami, and the most affected area recorded the tsunami run-up up to 6 m with penetration around 400 m inland and remaining hundreds victims. Obviously, this city is the one of the most vulnerable place in south of Java against tsunami in future. Within German-Indonesia Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) Project, there are three cities as a pilot project for study area, one among them is Cilacap. In this area, the high-resolution near-shore bathymetrical survey equipped by multi-beam echo-sounder as well as the highly data acquisition of topographical data as a Digital Terrain Data (DTM) has been conducted. These efforts’ goal is to support the analysis tsunami risk and vulnerability assessment in Indonesia in future. This paper will describe the result of the tsunami inundation model using high resolution data of bathymetry and topography which is the case study at Cilacap Indonesia. The non linear shallow water equation of 2D model with several plausible worst scenario of tsunami source which their parameter validated using 2006 event have been used. For mitigation purpose, to reduce the tsunami attack, the existence of artificial coastal protection i.e. sand dunes and coastal forest were examined. The results were compared and the effectiveness of the coastal protections was discussed. The people affected by tsunami in terms of their distribution in major timely-based (day, night, and holiday) also being predicted.

  2. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  3. University Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Recent radical changes to university education in England have been discussed largely in terms of the arrangements for transferring funding from the state to the student as consumer, with little discussion of what universities are for. It is important, while challenging the economic rationale for the new system, to resist talking about higher…

  4. Universal Expansion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Heather K.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a week-long activity for general to honors-level students that addresses Hubble's law and the universal expansion theory. Uses a discrepant event-type activity to lead up to the abstract principles of the universal expansion theory. (JRH)

  5. University Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Brian

    This book explores how universities relate their built environment to academic discourse, asserting that the character of universities is often a charming dialogue between order and disarray. It contains numerous photographs and building plans for example campuses throughout the world. In part 1, "The Campus," chapters are: (1) "Academic Mission…

  6. Challenged Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Malcolm

    1995-01-01

    Pricing and financial aid issues affecting research universities, particularly private universities, are examined, including underpricing of services, decentralization, and diversification of higher education in the United States. The growth of federal regulation is also considered, especially the State Postsecondary Review Entities (SPREs)…

  7. Overseas Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-University Council for Higher Education Overseas, London (England).

    The following articles and reports are presented in this publication of "Overseas Universities:""Appropriate Technology and University Education," by John Twidell; "The Training of Engineering Staff for Higher Education Institutions in Developing Countries," by D. W. Daniel, C. A. Leal, J. H. Maynes and T. Wilmore; "A Case Study of an Academic…

  8. Floatability study of graphite ore from southeast Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florena, Fenfen Fenda; Syarifuddin, Fahmi; Hanam, Eko Sulistio; Trisko, Nici; Kustiyanto, Eko; Enilisiana, Rianto, Anton; Arinton, Ghenadi

    2016-02-01

    Graphite ore obtained from Kolaka Regency, South East Sulawesi, Indonesia have been succesfully investigated for beneficiation by froth flotation technique. Preliminary study have been done to determine the minerals types, fixed carbon content and liberation size of the graphite. Graphite is naturally floatable due to its hydrophobic property. Some suitable reagents are usually added to increase effectiveness of recovery. In this article, enrichment of graphite by froth flotation was studied by investigating the effect of reagents concentrations, rotation speed and particle size on the carbon grade and recovery of the concentrate. The carbon grade increased from 3.00% to 60.00% at the optimum flotation conditions.

  9. Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Chen, Chee Dhang; Low, Van Lun; Zaid, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) merapiense sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Yagyakarta, Java, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group, and is characterized by the pupal gill with eight short filaments all arising at the same level from a short stalk, somewhat enlarged basal fenestra, entirely bare pupal head and thoracic integument, and small and short larval postgenal cleft. These characters rarely are found in the subgenus. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from related species of the S. epistum species-group. PMID:26516192

  10. Does Electrification Spur the Fertility Transition? Evidence From Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Michael; Sparrow, Robert; Tasciotti, Luca

    2015-10-01

    We analyze various pathways through which access to electricity affects fertility in Indonesia, using a district difference-in-difference approach. The electrification rate increased by 65 % over the study period, and our results suggest that the subsequent effects on fertility account for about 18 % to 24 % of the overall decline in fertility. A key channel is increased exposure to television. Using in addition several waves of Demographic and Health Surveys, we find suggestive evidence that increased exposure to TV affects, in particular, fertility preferences and increases the effective use of contraception. Reduced child mortality seems to be another important pathway. PMID:26307015

  11. Cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Suwantika, Auliya A; Beutels, Philippe; Postma, Maarten J

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to assess the cost-effectiveness of hepatitis A immunization in Indonesia, including an explicit comparison between one-dose and two-dose vaccines. Methods An age-structured cohort model based on a decision tree was developed for the 2012 Indonesia birth cohort. Using the model, we made a comparison on the use of two-dose and one-dose vaccines. The model involved a 70-year time horizon with 1-month cycles for children less than 2 years old and annually thereafter. Monte Carlo simulations were used to examine the economic acceptability and affordability of the hepatitis A vaccination. Results Vaccination would save US$ 3 795 148 and US$ 2 892 920 from the societal perspective, for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively, in the context of hepatitis A treatment. It also would save 8917 and 6614 discounted quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs), respectively. With the vaccine price of US$ 3.21 per dose, the implementation of single dose vaccine would yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$ 4933 per QALY gained versus no vaccination, whereas the two-dose versus one-dose schedule would cost US$ 14 568 per QALY gained. Considering the 2012 gross-domestic-product (GDP) per capita in Indonesia of US$ 3557, the results indicate that hepatitis A vaccination would be a cost-effective intervention, both for the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules in isolation, but two-dose vaccination would no longer be cost-effective if one-dose vaccination is a feasible option. Vaccination would be 100% affordable at budgets of US$ 71 408 000 and US$ 37 690 000 for the implementation of the two-dose and one-dose vaccine schedules, respectively. Conclusions The implementation of hepatitis A vaccination in Indonesia would be a cost-effective health intervention under the market vaccine price. Given the budget limitations, the use of a one-dose-vaccine schedule would be more realistic to be applied than a two

  12. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  13. Redescription of three cirolanid isopods (Crustacea: Peracarida) from Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidabalok, Conni M; Bruce, Niel L

    2016-01-01

    Three species of Cirolanidae described by Nierstrasz in 1931 are redescribed from the type material: Cirolana indica Nierstrasz, 1931, with new material from Singapore and Lombok Island, Indonesia; C. vanhoeffeni Nierstrasz, 1931; and C. stebbingi Nierstrasz, 1931, which is here transferred to the genus Politolana Bruce, 1981 based on the elongate body, long peduncle of pleopod 1, narrow and slender frontal lamina, flat and robust carpus of pereopod 7, long and acute robust setae on merus-propodus pereopod 1, secondary unguis on dactylus, and antenna peduncle articles 1-2 shorter than the subequal articles 3-5. PMID:27395130

  14. Our Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  15. Chemical sexualities: the use of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products by youth in South Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Idrus, Nurul Ilmi; Hymans, Takeo David

    2013-05-01

    Although young people in their everyday lives consume a bewildering array of pharmaceutical, dietary and cosmetic products to self-manage their bodies, moods and sexuality, these practices are generally overlooked by sexual and reproductive health programmes. Nevertheless, this self-management can involve significant (sexual) health risks. This article draws from the initial findings of the University of Amsterdam's ChemicalYouth project. Based on interviews with 142 youths, focus group discussions and participant observation in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, we found that young people - in the domain of sexual health - turn to pharmaceuticals and cosmetics to: (1) feel clean and attractive; (2) increase (sexual) stamina; (3) feel good and sexually confident; (4) counter sexual risks; and (5) for a group of transgender youths, to feminize their male bodies. How youth achieve these desires varies depending on their income and the demands of their working lives. Interestingly, the use of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics was less gendered than expected. Sexual health programmes need to widen their definitions of risk, cooperate with harm reduction programmes to provide youth with accurate information, and tailor themselves to the diverse sexual health concerns of their target groups. PMID:23684204

  16. Treatment seeking and health financing in selected poor urban neighbourhoods in India, Indonesia and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Jens; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Padmawati, Retna Siwi; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Barua, Nupur; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-02-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of socio-economic disparities in relation to treatment-seeking strategies and healthcare expenditures in poor neighbourhoods within larger health systems in four cities in India, Indonesia and Thailand. About 200 households in New Delhi, Bhubaneswar, Jogjakarta and Phitsanulok were repeatedly interviewed over 12 months to relate health problems with health seeking and health financing at household level. Quantitative data were complemented with ethnographic studies involving the same neighbourhoods and a number of private practitioners at each site. Within each site, the higher and lower income groups among the poor were compared. The lower income group was more likely than the higher income group to seek care from less qualified health providers and incur catastrophic health spending. The study recommends linking quality control mechanisms with universal health coverage (UHC) policies; to monitor the impact of UHC among the poorest; intervention research to reach the poorest with UHC; and inclusion of private providers without formal medical qualification in basic healthcare. PMID:24565141

  17. Imaging architecture of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia with transdimensional inversion of seismic noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Cipta, A.; Hawkins, R.; Pandhu, R.; Murjaya, J.; Masturyono, Irsyam, M.; Widiyantoro, S.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2016-02-01

    In order to characterize the subsurface structure of the Jakarta Basin, Indonesia, a dense portable seismic broad-band network was operated by The Australian National University (ANU) and the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) between October 2013 and February 2014. Overall 96 locations were sampled through successive deployments of 52 seismic broad-band sensors at different parts of the city. Oceanic and anthropogenic noises were recorded as well as regional and teleseismic earthquakes. We apply regularized deconvolution to the recorded ambient noise of the vertical components of available station pairs, and over 3000 Green's functions were retrieved in total. Waveforms from interstation deconvolutions show clear arrivals of Rayleigh fundamental and higher order modes. The traveltimes that were extracted from group velocity filtering of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave arrivals, are used in a 2-stage Transdimensional Bayesian method to map shear wave structure of subsurface. The images of S wave speed show very low velocities and a thick basin covering most of the city with depths up to 1.5 km. These low seismic velocities and the thick basin beneath the city potentially cause seismic amplification during a subduction megathrust or other large earthquake close to the city of Jakarta.

  18. Satellite-based damage mapping following the 2006 Indonesia earthquake—How accurate was it?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerle, Norman

    2010-12-01

    The Yogyakarta area in Indonesia suffered a devastating earthquake on 27 May 2006. There was an immediate international response, and the International Charter "Space and Major Disasters" was activated, leading to a rapid production of image-based damage maps and other assistance. Most of the acquired images were processed by UNOSAT and DLR-ZKI, while substantial damage mapping also occurred on the ground. This paper assesses the accuracy and completeness of the damage maps produced based on Charter data, using ground damage information collected during an extensive survey by Yogyakarta's Gadjah Mada University in the weeks following the earthquake and that has recently become available. More than 54,000 buildings or their remains were surveyed, resulting in an exceptional validation database. The UNOSAT damage maps outlining clusters of severe damage are very accurate, while earlier, more detailed results underestimated damage and missed larger areas. Damage maps produced by DLR-ZKI, using a damage-grid approach, were found to underestimate the extent and severity of the devastation. Both mapping results also suffer from limited image coverage and extensive cloud contamination. The ground mapping gives a more accurate picture of the extent of the damage, but also illustrates the challenge of mapping a vast area. The paper concludes with a discussion on ways to improve Charter-based damage maps by integration of local knowledge, and to create a wider impact through generation of customised mapping products using web map services.

  19. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  20. Internet Access and Usage in Improving Students' Self-Directed Learning in Indonesia Open University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahardjo, Djoko; Sumardjo; Lubis, Djuara P.; Harijati, Sri Ir.

    2016-01-01

    Internet is well known nowadays, however higher distance education students who live in remote rural areas still have not been able to take advantages of this medium optimally for their learning process. For accessing the internet the students have to be available with the minimum prerequisites: the existence of adequate devices and the sufficient…

  1. Development Design Model of Academic Quality Assurance at Private Islamic University Jakarta Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suprihatin, Krebet; Bin Mohamad Yusof, Hj. Abdul Raheem

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the practice of academic quality assurance in design model based on seven aspects of quality are: curriculum design, teaching and learning, student assessment, student selection, support services, learning resources, and continuous improvement. The design study was conducted in two stages. The first stage is to obtain…

  2. Climate change impact assessment on food security in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettema, Janneke; Aldrian, Edvin; de Bie, Kees; Jetten, Victor; Mannaerts, Chris

    2013-04-01

    As Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country, food security is a persistent challenge. The potential impact of future climate change on the agricultural sector needs to be addressed in order to allow early implementation of mitigation strategies. The complex island topography and local sea-land-air interactions cannot adequately be represented in large scale General Climate Models (GCMs) nor visualized by TRMM. Downscaling is needed. Using meteorological observations and a simple statistical downscaling tool, local future projections are derived from state-of-the-art, large-scale GCM scenarios, provided by the CMIP5 project. To support the agriculture sector, providing information on especially rainfall and temperature variability is essential. Agricultural production forecast is influenced by several rain and temperature factors, such as rainy and dry season onset, offset and length, but also by daily and monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and its rainfall amount. A simple and advanced crop model will be used to address the sensitivity of different crops to temperature and rainfall variability, present-day and future. As case study area, Java Island is chosen as it is fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation's population and dominates it politically and economically. The objective is to identify regions at agricultural risk due to changing patterns in precipitation and temperature.

  3. Has decentralisation affected child immunisation status in Indonesia?

    PubMed Central

    Maharani, Asri; Tampubolon, Gindo

    2014-01-01

    Background The past two decades have seen many countries, including a number in Southeast Asia, decentralising their health system with the expectation that this reform will improve their citizens’ health. However, the consequences of this reform remain largely unknown. Objective This study analyses the effects of fiscal decentralisation on child immunisation status in Indonesia. Design We used multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate these effects, and multilevel multiple imputation to manage missing data. The 2011 publication of Indonesia's national socio-economic survey (Susenas) is the source of household data, while the Podes village census survey from the same year provides village-level data. We supplement these with local government fiscal data from the Ministry of Finance. Results The findings show that decentralising the fiscal allocation of responsibilities to local governments has a lack of association with child immunisation status and the results are robust. The results also suggest that increasing the number of village health centres (posyandu) per 1,000 population improves probability of children to receive full immunisation significantly, while increasing that of hospitals and health centres (puskesmas) has no significant effect. Conclusion These findings suggest that merely decentralising the health system does not guarantee improvement in a country's immunisation coverage. Any successful decentralisation demands good capacity and capability of local governments. PMID:25160515

  4. DOE/NREL supported wind energy activities in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Drouilhet, S.

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes three wind energy related projects which are underway in Indonesia. The first is a USAID/Winrock Wind for Island and Nongovernmental Development (WIND) project. The objectives of this project are to train local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the siting, installation, operation, and maintenance of small wind turbines. Then to install up to 20 wind systems to provide electric power for productive end uses while creating micro-enterprises which will generate enough revenue to sustain the wind energy systems. The second project is a joint Community Power Corporation/PLN (Indonesian National Electric Utility) case study of hybrid power systems in village settings. The objective is to evaluate the economic viability of various hybrid power options for several different situations involving wind/photovoltaics/batteries/diesel. The third project is a World Bank/PLN preliminary market assessment for wind/diesel hybrid systems. The objective is to estimate the size of the total potential market for wind/diesel hybrid power systems in Indonesia. The study will examine both wind retrofits to existing diesel mini-grids and new wind-diesel plants in currently unelectrified villages.

  5. Upwelling variability off southern Indonesia over the past two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, Stephan; Prange, Matthias; Feist, Christin; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Mohtadi, Mahyar

    2014-11-01

    Modern variability in upwelling off southern Indonesia is strongly controlled by the Australian-Indonesian monsoon and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation, but multidecadal to centennial-scale variations are less clear. We present high-resolution records of upper water column temperature, thermal gradient, and relative abundances of mixed layer- and thermocline-dwelling planktonic foraminiferal species off southern Indonesia for the past two millennia that we use as proxies for upwelling variability. We find that upwelling was generally strong during the Little Ice Age (LIA) and weak during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and the Roman Warm Period (RWP). Upwelling is significantly anticorrelated to East Asian summer monsoonal rainfall and the zonal equatorial Pacific temperature gradient. We suggest that changes in the background state of the tropical Pacific may have substantially contributed to the centennial-scale upwelling trends observed in our records. Our results implicate the prevalence of an El Niño-like mean state during the LIA and a La Niña-like mean state during the MWP and the RWP.

  6. The development of coal briquette for household use in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Soelistijo, U.W.; Suganal; Dauley, B.; Suprapto, S.; Sumaryono

    1994-12-31

    It is assured that coal utilization in Indonesia has played a significant role in reducing domestic oil consumption, and that domestic coal consumption continues to increase. In the meantime, Indonesian coal is used primarily to generate electricity, manufacture cement, and produce metal for industry. However, since the energy diversification policy was introduced in 1976, Indonesian coal production is poised for rapid development. Coal will function as the bridge to the future nonconventional energy use from the current conventional energy use. Coal in the form of briquettes have also been promoted as fuel in for household use since April 1993. This type of fuel is well accepted because it is smokeless, odorless, and easy to use. If all people in Indonesia use briquettes as fuel in the years between 1993 and 2000, the savings will range from US $0.57 billion to US $0.93 billion if the price is set at US $1.78 per liter of kerosene. Consequently, the use of briquettes for household use is aimed to substitute for kerosene and firewood. Moreover, this substitution will create additional multiplying effects such as increased employment and business in coal briquette making and marketing.

  7. Peat-fire-related air pollution in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hayasaka, Hiroshi; Noguchi, Izumi; Putra, Erianto Indra; Yulianti, Nina; Vadrevu, Krishna

    2014-12-01

    The past decade marked record high air pollution episodes in Indonesia. In this study, we specifically focus on vegetation fires in Palangkaraya located near a Mega Rice Project area in Indonesia. We analyzed various gaseous air pollution data such as particulate matter (PM10), SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 study region. We also conducted elemental analysis at two different sites. Results from 2001 to 2010 suggested the longest hazardous air pollution episode during 2002 lasting about 80 days from mid-August to late-October. Maximum peak concentrations of PM10, SO2, CO, and O3 were also observed during 2002 and their values reached 1905, 85.8, 38.3, and 1003×10(-6) gm(-3) respectively. Elemental analysis showed significant increase in concentrations during 2011 and 2010. Satellite retrieved fires and weather data could explain most of the temporal variations. Our results highlight peat fires as a major contributor of photochemical smog and air pollution in the region. PMID:25087200

  8. MODIS data used to study 2002 fires in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Douglas O.

    Smoke and haze blanketed western Indonesia during August and September 2002, signaling the arrival of another El Niño event in Southeast Asia. Although not as severe as the 1997-1998 El Niño event, the 2002 El Niño produced drought conditions in western Indonesia that favored extensive biomass burning in lowland areas of Borneo, Sumatra, and Sulawesi, three of the largest islands that form part of the vast Indonesian archipelago. Data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra satellite showed that most of the burning during 2002 occurred in central and western Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo), where forests are being cleared to make way for industrial oil palm and pulp plantations.Comparison of fire data from several different satellite sensors also reveals that fires detected in Kalimantan during 1997 appeared more numerous (Figure 1) and burned over a longer period (Figure 2) than fires that burned in late 2002 (see discussion below). This result is consistent with recent El Niño observations that characterize the current event as moderate relative to the 1997-1998 event (see http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ products/analysis_monitoring/enso_advisory/).

  9. Documenting Living Monuments in Indonesia: Methodology for Sustainable Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaningsih, F.; Purwestri, N.

    2013-07-01

    The systematic documentation of cultural heritage in Indonesia has been developed after the establishment of Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen (1778) and De Oudheidkundige Dienst (1913) by the Netherlands Indies government. After Indonesian independent, the tasks of cultural heritage documentation take over by The Ministry of Culture (now become The Ministry of Education of Culture) with focus on the ancient and classical heritage, so called dead monument. The needed of comprehensive documentation data regarding cultural heritage become significant issues since the government and private sector pay attention to the preservation of heritage building in the urban site, so called living monument. The archives of original drawing plan many times do not fit with the existing condition, while the conservation plan demands a document such as built drawing plan to work on. The technology, methodology and system to provide such comprehensive document of heritage building and site become important, to produce good conservation plan and heritage building regular maintenance. It means the products will have a sustainable and various utility values. Since 1994, Documentation Centre for Architecture - Indonesia (PDA), has established to meet the needs of a comprehensive data of heritage building (living monuments), to utilized as basic document for conservation planning. Not only provide document of the digital drawing such site plan, plan, elevation, section and details of architecture elements, but also document of historic research, material analysis and completed with diagnosis and mapping of building damages. This manuscript is about PDA field experience, working in this subject issue

  10. Indonesia: Asia-Pacific energy series, country report

    SciTech Connect

    Prawiraatmadja, W.; Yamaguchi, N.; Breazeale, K.; Basari, S.R.

    1991-04-01

    As part of our continuing assessment of Asia-Pacific energy markets, the Energy Program has embarked on a series of country studies that discuss in detail the structure of the energy sector in each major country in the region. To date, our reports to the US Department of Energy have covered Australia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. The country studies also provide the reader with an overview of the economic and political situation in the various countries. We have particularly highlighted petroleum and gas issues in the country studies and have attempted to show the foreign trade implications of oil and gas trade. Finally, to the greatest extent possible, we have provided the latest available statistics -- often from unpublished and disparate sources that are unavailable to most readers. Staff members have traveled extensively in -- and at times have lived in -- the countries under review and have held discussions with senior policymakers in government and industry. Thus, these reports provide not only information but also the latest thinking on energy issues in the various countries. This report covers Indonesia. 37 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.