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1

75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline...annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

2010-01-12

2

76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

2011-12-12

3

Predation on Released Spiny Lobster, Panulirus marginatus, During Tests in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Predation on Released Spiny Lobster, Panulirus marginatus, During Tests in the Northwestern Fisheries Center's ABSTRACT-In the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands fishery for spiny lobster, Panulirus marginatus, undersized and ber- ried lobsters must be released. Such lobsters released in the conventional

4

76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

2011-01-26

5

78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

2013-02-08

6

Estimates of lobster-handling mortality associated with the Northwestern Hawaiian  

E-print Network

128 Estimates of lobster-handling mortality associated with the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands lobster-trap fishery Gerard T. DiNardo Edward E. DeMartini Honolulu Laboratory, Southwest Fisheries Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 The commercial lobster fishery in the which are close to the sizes at first ma

7

Evaluation of ghost fishing in the Hawaiian lobster fishery  

E-print Network

Evaluation of ghost fishing in the Hawaiian lobster fishery Frank A. Parrish Thomas K. Kazama Honol, Honolulu Hawaii 96822-2396 Abstract.- Mortality due to re- tention of lobsters in derelict traps. Numerous entries and exits of lob- sters were recorded. For the second test, the ability of lobsters

8

Hawaiian Island Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

1985-01-01

9

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

10

Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

11

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

12

THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT: A COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR HEALTH ASSESSMENTS OF LOBSTERS FROM RHODE ISLAND  

E-print Network

THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT: A COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR HEALTH ASSESSMENTS OF LOBSTERS FROM RHODE ISLAND JEFFREY D. SHIELDS,1 * KERSTEN N. WHEELER,1 JESSICA MOSS,1 BARBARA SOMERS2 shell disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) has been devastating to the fishing industry

13

Paramoebiasis Associated with Mass Mortality of American Lobster Homarus americanus in Long Island Sound, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the autumn of 1999, a mass mortality of American lobster Homarus americanus was reported by lobster fishermen from western Long Island Sound (LIS). At the conclusion of the 1999 season, dead lobsters were estimated at 11 million, resulting in a 90– 99% reduction of landings in western LIS and failure of the natural lobster fishery. Fishermen described moribund lobsters

Thomas E. Mullen; Spencer Russell; Meghan T. Tucker; Jennifer L. Maratea; Claudia Koerting; Lynn Hinckley; Sylvain De Guise; Salvatore Frasca Jr; Richard A. French; Thomas G. Burrage; Christopher Perkins

2004-01-01

14

EFFECTS OF TRAP VENTING ON GEAR SELECTIVITY IN THE INSHORE RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN LOBSTER,  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF TRAP VENTING ON GEAR SELECTIVITY IN THE INSHORE RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS devices in lobster traps has proven effective in allowingthe release of sublegal-sized American lobster Rhode Island lobster fishery. The use ofrectangular vents (42 x 152mm) resulted in a 79% decrease

15

INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND: II. IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN LOBSTERS  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND: II. IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN LOBSTERS AND RELATIONSHIPS TO THE DISEASE MARGARET HOMERDING,1 ANNE 30313 ABSTRACT Epizootic shell disease (ESD) affects lobsters (Homarus americanus) in eastern Long

Allam, Bassem

16

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY  

E-print Network

ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

Luther, Douglas S.

17

MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1  

E-print Network

MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1 MICHAEL J. FOGARTY? DAVID v. D. BORDEN, 3 AND HOWARD J. RUSSELL' ABSTRACT In 1974 and 1975 a total of3,063 American lobster movement patterns. Lobster movements at inshore locations were generally localized; the mean distance

18

INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND: I. CHARACTERIZATION OF ASSOCIATED  

E-print Network

INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND ABSTRACT Epizootic shell disease (ESD) is a degradative process of the carapace in the American lobster economic losses to the lobster fishery. In Long Island Sound (LIS), ESD is prevalent in lobsters from

19

PCB and metal concentrations in American lobsters from the Acushnet River estuary and Long Island Sound  

SciTech Connect

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is commonly found in coastal waters adjacent to heavily industrialized areas where pollutant input generally occurs. Environmental contamination is known to affect many aspects of lobster biology. Heavy metals, pesticides, pulp mill effluent, petroleum hydrocarbons and other pollutants can adversely affect lobster physiology and behavior. Sublethal concentrations of contaminants can stress lobsters, making them more susceptible to disease or other conditions that would normally be tolerated. Lobster embryos and larvae, particularly the first-stage, are sensitive to a variety of organic and metal pollutants. Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); edible tissues of lobsters collected there have been found to contain PCB concentrations exceeding the FDA action level of 2 [mu]g/g wet wt. PCBs are strongly lipophilic and accumulate in fatty tissues including egg masses. Metals and PCBs are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. This study examines whether field exposure of ovigerous female lobsters to PCBs results in subsequent contamination of embryos, first-stage larvae, postlarvae, and juvenile offspring of [open quotes]berried[close quotes] lobsters from New Bedford Harbor and selected locations in Long Island Sound. Metal contamination in the embryos and offspring of Long Island Sound lobsters was also measured. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.A.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G. (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Milford, CT (United States))

1994-12-01

20

Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Ocean Thermal Resources off and Barriers p5 Ocean Thermal Resource in Hawaii: Introduction p6 Ocean Thermal Resource in Hawaii: Conclusion Cost: Update p16 References p19 Appendix A p20 List of Figures Figure 1 ­ Worldwide average ocean

21

Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

22

THE EFFECTS OF BOTTOM TRAWLING ON AMERICAN LOBSTERS, HOMAR.uS AMERICANUS, IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF BOTTOM TRAWLING ON AMERICAN LOBSTERS, HOMAR.uS AMERICANUS, IN LONG ISLAND SOUND Eme M. SMITH AND PENELOPE T. HOWELL1 ABSTRACT American lobsters taken in the commercial trawl fishery with bottom trawling. Similar sampling was conducted in the pot fishery. American lobsters from trawl and pot

23

Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... CHDIR, 2011 Executive Orders & Initiatives Farmworker Health Archive Internships 2015 Student Opportunities in Public Health Programs Millennial ... Pacific Islanders (AAPI) White House Initiative on AAPI Internships White House Executive Order 13515 - Increasing Participation of ...

24

Naturally occurring bacteraemia in American lobsters, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound.  

PubMed

The health status of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound (LIS) has been in decline, with seasonal mortality events occurring since 1998. In order to assess the potential effects of environmental conditions on lobster health via haemolymph analysis, lobsters collected from various sites in LIS were examined and sampled while concurrent environmental data (water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) were recorded. The pH of the haemolymph of each lobster was tested, followed by a collection of haemolymph for serum biochemistry analysis and bacterial culture. This report focuses on the results of the bacterial sampling. The majority of bacteria cultured were opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment, including some that are associated with sewage and pollution. The prevalence of bacteraemia was correlated with the site of collection, the month in which the lobsters were sampled, and water temperature. PMID:18086031

Bartlett, S L; Wooster, G A; Sokolowski, M S; Dove, A D M; Bowser, P R

2008-01-01

25

Giant landslides, mega-tsunamis, and paleo-sea level in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landslide tsunami simulations have advanced to the point where the tsunamigenic potential of giant submarine landslides (GSL) can be affirmed, while the subsidence history of different Hawaiian Islands is still subject to debate. We show that mega-tsunamis are a sufficient explanation for the observed pattern of debris height of calcareous marine deposits on some of the Hawaiian Islands. Further, our

G. M McMurtry; P Watts; G. J Fryer; J. R Smith; F Imamura

2004-01-01

26

Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

2014-01-01

27

Idiopathic lesions and visual deficits in the american lobster (Homarus americanus) from Long Island Sound, NY.  

PubMed

In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred in western Long Island Sound (WLIS). Although the etiology of this event remains unknown, bottom water temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS continue to display signs of morbidity, including lethargy and cloudy grey eyes that contain idiopathic lesions. As the effect of these lesions on lobster vision is unknown, we used electroretinography (ERG) to document changes in visual function in lobsters from WLIS, while using histology to quantify the extent of physical damage. Seventy-three percent of lobsters from WLIS showed damage to photoreceptors and optic nerve fibers, including necrosis, cellular breakdown, and hemocyte infiltration in the optic nerves, rhabdoms, and ommatidia. Animals with more than 15% of their photoreceptors exhibiting damage also displayed markedly reduced responses to 10-ms flashes of a broad-spectrum white light. Specifically, maximum voltage (Vmax) responses were significantly lower and occurred at a lower light intensity compared to responses from lobsters lacking idiopathic lesions. Nearly a decade after the 1999 mortality event, lobsters from WLIS still appear to be subjected to a stressor of unknown etiology that causes significant functional damage to the eyes. PMID:19679726

Magel, Christopher R; Shields, Jeffrey D; Brill, Richard W

2009-08-01

28

Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian\\/part-Hawaiian and Pacific Islander juvenile offenders, this article addresses this dearth of research by showing

Lisa Pasko; David T. Mayeda

2011-01-01

29

Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii: The role of an ‘inaccessible’ shield volcano in the petrology of the Hawaiian islands and plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kahoolawe volcano (?10×17km) forms one of the eight major Hawaiian islands. Access for geologic sampling has long been restricted due to military and preservation policies. However, limited visits to Kahoolawe in the 1980s yielded >200 samples, many of which have since been used to study the volcano within the framework of Hawaiian shield and mantle source geochemistry, petrology, mineralogy, and

R. V. Fodor; G. R. Bauer

2010-01-01

30

THE EFFECTS OF BOTTOM TRAWLING ON AMERICAN LOBSTERS, HOMAR.uS AMERICANUS, IN LONG ISLAND SOUND  

Microsoft Academic Search

American lobsters taken in the commercial trawl fishery in Long Island Sound. U.S.A., were in­ spected for incidence ofdamage and immediate mortality associated with bottom trawling. Similar sampling was conducted in the pot fishery. American lobsters from trawl and pot catches were held in controlled conditions for 14 days to determine the level ofdelayed mortality associated with the two fisheries.

Eme M. SMITH

31

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

1980-06-01

32

Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, D.; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

2005-01-01

33

Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.  

PubMed

The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial. PMID:11076241

Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

2000-11-01

34

Did multiple sediment-associated stressors contribute to the 1999 lobster mass mortality event in Western Long Island Sound, USA?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Near-bottom hypoxia during summer months has been a documented recurring phenomenon for decades in western Long Island Sound\\u000a (WLIS); this temperate estuary has also supported, until 1999, a substantial American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery.\\u000a In response to a dramatic mass die-off of lobsters that began in WLIS in the late summer of 1999, a benthic habitat survey\\u000a using a sediment-profile

Raymond M. Valente; Carmela Cuomo

2005-01-01

35

BIRDS OF LAYSAN AND THE LEEWARD' ISLANDS, HAWAIIAN GROUP.  

E-print Network

, there being among the sea fowl only eighteen and of the" land" birds five, including a rail and a duck and the French Frigate Shoals. Mr. William Alanson Bryan's" Key to the Birds of the Hawaiian Group" covers

36

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

37

Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

2010-07-01

38

AGE AND GROWTH OF THE NEHU, STOLEPHORUS PURPUREUS (PISCES: ENGRAULIDAE), FROM THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AS  

E-print Network

standard length. Preliminary evidence is presented that the nehu population ofPearl Harbor may grow more with three types of gear in Pearl Harbor and the southeastern end of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands (square mesh measuring 3.2 mm to a bar) in Pearl Harbor. Postlarvae (about ~ 20 mm SL

39

Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands Introduction: Escape from antagonistic interactions is the classic model invasive species have been characterized as an invasional meltdown, and could lead to detrimental effects bee (Apis mellifera: Apidae), an invasive species which has become naturalized on all of the main

Silver, Whendee

40

Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native hydraulic properties to favor invasive species. We hypothesize that reestablishment of native species mayEffects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands K

41

When worlds collide: challenges and opportunities for conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long-term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These challenges are also relevant to other threatened terrestrial taxonomic groups (i.e., plants and invertebrates) in the Hawaiian Islands. Such threats are familiar to conservation biologists the world over, but rarely do they act as synergistically as they do in the Hawaiian Islands. The chapter reviews conservation successes and failures in Hawaii, and provides an example of the possible future course of conservation in other island communities.

Atkinson, Carter T.; Pratt, Thane K.; Banko, Paul C.; Jacobi, James D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

2013-01-01

42

removing marine debris in the northwestern hawaiian islands2012  

E-print Network

, such as the green sea turtle, listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and Hawaiian monkseal.S. Endangered Species Act. The PMNM contains only 15 km2 of emergent land, but 14 million seabirds representing.S. Endangered Species Act. Other potential effects of marine debris include habitat degradation in coral reef

43

Mega-tsunami deposits or evidence of uplift within the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For several years there has been a controversy over the origin of coral-bearing deposits on the island of Lanai (Hawaii). Studies underway have expanded the study of marine deposits from Lanai to adjacent islands. Coral-bearing deposits are present at elevations up to 190 m on Lanai, 90 m on Maui, 90 m on Molokai, 30 m Oahu, 30 m on Niihau, roughly 75 m on Kauai (as well as a few m above sea level on the Kohala Volcano on the island of Hawaii). The deposits show a persistent pattern of increased weathering, color change, increasing age and increase in the number of fossils now extinct in Hawaiian waters, with elevation above modern sea level. Changes in slope are also observed reflecting changing relative sea level. A review of radiometric ages suggests in-situ corals as well as marine conglomerates were deposited near sea level and were contemporaneous. The distribution, stratigraphy and age of marine sediments around the islands are consistent with a history of uplift combined with changing sea level. We document the age, rock and fossil characteristics and distribution of sub-aerially exposed marine sediments, in the Hawaiian Island chain. We suggest that the Hawaiian Islands have experienced lithospheric adjustments during the last 500,000 years that have left marine deposits exposed above sea level.

Keating, B. H.

2004-12-01

44

Hydrological Properties and Flow Paths Change with 4.1 Million Years of Soil Development in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-characterized chronosequence of soils in the Hawaiian archipeligo provides an excellent opportunity to examine the effects of time on hydrological properties and flow paths in a humid tropical environment. Detailed hydrological studies were conducted at the extreme ends of a chronosequence of soils in the Hawaiian Islands as a part of a larger study evaluating hydrologic losses of nitrogen

K. A. Lohse; W. E. Dietrich

2002-01-01

45

Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

Powers, H.A.

1955-01-01

46

Spatial distribution of effort by artisanal fishers: Exploring economic factors affecting the lobster fisheries of the Corn Islands, Nicaragua  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial distribution of fishing effort is increasingly recognised as an important consideration for fisheries management, as it can affect trends in catch rates, and be incorporated into planning of spatial management tools like marine protected areas (MPAs). One hundred and ninety-eight household questionnaires provided a coarse indication of effort distribution of artisanal lobster fishers around the Corn Islands, and 32

Tim M. Daw

2008-01-01

47

Distribution and Abundance of the Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, on the Island of Hawai'i 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (H. Allen), has an island-wide distribution on the island of Hawai'i. However, abundance estimates suggest that its endangered status is appropriate. Although distributed across wide ranges in elevation, temperature, and rainfall, this bat is most often associated with native vegetation. Its diurnal and seasonal activity patterns argue against migration within the island

DAVID S. JACOBS

48

Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ocean islands offer numerous advantages as natural experiments in landscape evolution, including homogeneous bedrock, dramatic climate gradients, and an initial surface that can often be reconstructed and dated. Uplift and subsidence set the time-dependent base level and elevations that strongly influence an island's evolution, yet the vertical motion history from an ocean island's construction to its eventual submergence below sea level is not well understood. Volcanic ocean islands may uplift or subside due to flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to volcanic loading and island migration over bathymetric swells associated with hotspots. With an abundance of dated paleoshoreline markers, the Hawaiian Islands provide a unique opportunity to compare observations of island uplift and subsidence to various models of lithospheric deformation. We calculated 444 rates of island vertical motion, averaged over 50 years to 5 Myr, from drowned and emerged corals, subaerially erupted basalt, and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. To compare these observations to theoretical predictions for migration over hotspot topography, we filtered Hawaiian bathymetry to isolate the regional swell component and tracked its elevation change between the present and paleo locations of the rate observations, assuming constant plate velocity. For volcanic loading, we determined the deflection resulting from individual volcanoes by modeling the lithosphere as a thin elastic plate. We used radiometric basalt ages to calculate vertical motion rates averaged over discrete volcanic loading events. More than 60% of the rate observations averaged over >100 kyr lie within uncertainty of modeled rates of vertical motion for volcanic loading calculated using an effective elastic thicknesses of the lithosphere Te within the range of previously determined Te for Hawai'i. Migration over swell topography has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Accounting for migration over swell topography, we find that the best-fit Te to the rate observations is consistent with Te estimates from seismic refraction and gravity anomaly data. Our comparisons suggest that the Hawaiian Islands follow a relatively predictable trajectory of vertical motion that could be incorporated into landscape evolution models.

Huppert, K.; Royden, L.; Perron, J.

2013-12-01

49

Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2004-10-01

50

Sex differences in site fidelity and migration of humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) to the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) perform extensive seasonal migrations between high-latitude summer feeding grounds and low-latitude winter reproductive grounds. To investigate gender-related site fidelity to the Hawaiian Islands, an important wintering area for North Pacific humpback whales, photographically based resight histories of 224 females and 416 males observed in Hawai'i from 1976 through 1991 were coinpiled. Results indicated that the mean

Alison S. Craig; Louis M. Herman

1997-01-01

51

Stability analysis of Hawaiian Island flanks using insight gained from strength testing of the HSDP core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian Island flank failures are recognized as the largest landslide events on Earth, reaching volumes of several thousand cubic kilometers and lengths of over 200 km and occurring on an average of once every 100 000 years. The 3.1 km deep Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) enabled an investigation of the rock mass strength variations on the island of Hawaii [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228]. This study builds on that of Schiffman et al. [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228] by considering more in-depth rock mass classification and strength testing methods of the HSDP core. Geotechnical core logging techniques combined with laboratory strength testing methods show that rock strength differences exist within the edifice. Comparing the rock strength parameters obtained from the various volcano lithologies identified weak zones, suggesting the possible location of future slip surfaces for large flank failures. Relatively weak rock layers were recognized within poorly consolidated hyaloclastite zones, with increases in strength based on degree of alteration. Subaerial and submarine basalt flows are found to be significantly stronger. With the aid of digital elevation models, cross-sections have been developed of key flank areas on the island of Hawaii. Limit equilibrium slope stability analyses are performed on each cross-section using various failure criteria for the rock mass strength calculations. Based on the stability analyses the majority of the slopes analyzed are considered stable. In cases where instability (i.e. failure) is predicted, decreased rock mass quality (strength) of the altered and highly poorly consolidated lithologies is found to have a significant influence. These lithologies are present throughout the Hawaiian Islands, representing potential failure surfaces for large flank collapses. Failure criterion input parameters are considered in sensitivity analyses as are the influences of certain external stability factors such as sea level variation and seismic loading.

Thompson, Nick; Watters, Robert J.; Schiffman, Peter

2008-04-01

52

Idiopathic Lesions and Visual Deficits in the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) From Long Island  

E-print Network

Idiopathic Lesions and Visual Deficits in the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) From Long, Massachusetts Abstract. In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS

53

The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Chague-Goff, C.

2013-12-01

54

Leptospira Infection Prevalence in Small Mammal Host Populations on Three Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

We describe the geographic distribution and variation in host-pathogen specificity for Leptospira-infected small mammals collected concurrently from three Hawaiian Islands over a period of 14 years: 1990–2003. Four serogroups (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis) were identified from the 15,171 animals tested. Serogroup prevalence differed across host species and islands (P < 0.0001 for each), but not across years. The host associations and biogeographic patterns of Leptospira in Hawaii indicate a pathogen community shaped by ecological factors. PMID:22855767

Wong, Mayee; Katz, Alan R.; Li, Dongmei; Wilcox, Bruce A.

2012-01-01

55

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items

Carey Morishige; Mary J. Donohue; Elizabeth Flint; Christopher Swenson; Christine Woolaway

2007-01-01

56

Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1  

SciTech Connect

Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

York, R. H.

1986-01-01

57

Volcanic Features in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Revealed by SWATH Mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (NWHICRER) has only recently been established, and has already caused an infusion of interest and funds for studies to assess what is there to preserve and how best to do it. The Northwestern chain stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). The MHI have only in recent years been systematically mapped with modern multibeam swath sonar systems and the work is not yet complete. With these southeastern islands being the population center, it is easy to imagine the lack of coverage along the Northwestern chain where no one lives except those stationed at remote outposts for scientific study. Manned and robotic submersible studies and limited multibeam mapping have been carried out by the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab every year in the NWHICRER for the past several years though focused on relatively shallow water biological sites. In late 2002, the first dedicated exploratory multibeam mapping expedition took place aboard the new University of Hawaii SWATH ship R/V Kilo Moana. While the primary mission was shallow mapping on carbonate platforms in support of the NWHICRER boundaries, a large amount of data were collected over the deeper volcanic foundations of the atolls. These surveys revealed dramatic rift zones on the same scale as those in the MHI, sea level terraces, submarine canyons cutting through the platforms with debris chutes continuing down to base of the islands, additional submarine landslide scars and debris fields in more detail than the USGS GLORIA sidescan program of the previous decade, and previously unmapped seamounts with some likely resulting from Hawaiian hot spot activity while others formed during creation of the Pacific Plate. A diving program is planned on many of these features in late 2003 and preliminary results will be presented.

Smith, J. R.; Miller, J.; Evans, B. K.; Johnson, P.; Weirich, J. B.

2003-12-01

58

A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits. PMID:22787424

Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

2012-01-01

59

Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naturalists in the 1800s described the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ?I?iwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ?I?iwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawai?i, east Maui, and Kaua?i, with a few birds apparently persisting on O?ahu, Moloka?i, and west Maui. ?I?iwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ?I?iwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ?I?iwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ?I?iwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawai?i, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kaua?i. ?I?iwi population trends vary across the islands. ?I?iwi population in Kaua?i has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawai?i, population trends are mixed. On the windward side, populations are largely declining, although the northern section (Hakalau Forest) has stable populations. On the leeward side, results suggest a strongly increasing population, with estimates of as much as a 147 percent increase over a 25 year period from the Pu?u Wa?awa?a region. However, it is unclear how much these results from the leeward side of Hawai?i show a population trend contrary to population trends in all other areas or are an artifact of a sparsely sampled area. Trends by elevation suggest a large decrease in numbers of ?I?iwi at elevations below 1,200 meters on Kaua?i and northeast Maui. Low elevation ?I?iwi populations also appear to have decreased in other regions, although low-elevation areas are not surveyed as often as other areas because of their lack of native forest birds. An exception to this pattern was the lower portions of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Kona Unit in the central leeward part of the island of Hawai?i, where populations appeared stable at the lower elevations. Based on the most recent surveys (up to 2012), approximately 50 percent of ?I?iwi live in a narrow, 500-meter band at elevations of 1,200–1,700 meters, suggesting that ?I?iwi are vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

2013-01-01

60

Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

2012-01-01

61

Bacterial Communities of Two Parthenogenetic Aphid Species Cocolonizing Two Host Plants across the Hawaiian Islands ?  

PubMed Central

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

Jones, Ryan T.; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M.; Fierer, Noah

2011-01-01

62

Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

2011-12-01

63

Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing invasive species, and planning of conservation efforts.

Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M., III; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

2012-01-01

64

A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

65

Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications  

E-print Network

were sampled for cobalt (n ¼ 147), all of which demonstrated nutrient-like depletion in surface watersCobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals Abigail E. Noble a,b,1

Benitez-Nelson, Claudia

66

Has Social Work Met Its Commitment to Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders? A Review of the Periodical Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs) were recognized in the 2000 U.S. census as a distinct racial minority group, with unique histories, values, and traditions. The profession of social work, with its historical commitment to social and cultural diversity, has begun to establish a knowledge base on this population in the…

Mokuau, Noreen; Garlock-Tuialii, Jessica; Lee, Palama

2008-01-01

67

Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

1997-01-01

68

Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

2012-01-01

69

Lithospheric flexure revealed by Pleistocene emerged marine terraces on the southern Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

New field and geochronological data from emerged marine deposits in the southern Hawaiian Islands suggest uplift of the islands of Molokai, Lanai and Oahu. Corals from these islands were dated by ESR. The accumulated dose for aragonitic coral at ESR signal, g = 2.0007, was determined by the additive dose method. The environmental dose rate was estimated from the Uranium concentration in corals and by using an estimate of 2.5 rad/a for the cosmic ray dose. The ESR ages of the highest terraces on Molokai are 290 [+-] 31 ka (30 m), on Lanai 217 [+-] 19 ka (50 m) and on Oahu 468 [+-] 36 ka (28 m). The age and elevation of the marine terraces are interpreted to imply uplift during the Late Quaternary. Lithospheric flexure combined with horizontal plate motion is proposed as a mechanism to describe the pattern of uplifted terraces on these islands. Using two-dimensional elastic plate models, the height of maximum bulge is approximately 4% to 7% of the maximum deflection for a continuous or broken plate model. Drowned reefs off Hawaii indicate subsidence of 1 km since 340 ka. Thus, the magnitude of observed uplift (30--50 m) is consistent with theoretical maximum bulge heights derived from numerical results.

Jones, A.T. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Oceanography)

1992-01-01

70

Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25, 000 km 2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO 2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere.

Clague, David A.; Holcomb, Robin T.; Sinton, John M.; Detrick, Robert S.; Torresan, Michael E.

1990-05-01

71

Maximizing Multi-core Performance of the Weather Research and Forecast Model over the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands consist of dramatic terrain changes over short distances, resulting in a variety of microclimates in close proximity. To handle these challenging conditions, weather models must be run at very fine vertical and horizontal resolutions to produce accurate forecasts. Computational demands require WRF to be executed in parallel on the Maui High Performance Computing Center’s Mana system, a PowerEdge M610 Linux cluster. This machine has 1,152 compute nodes, each with two 2.8 GHz quad-core Intel® Nehalem processors and 24 GB RAM. Realizing maximum performance on Mana relied on the determination of an optimal number of cores to use per socket, the efficiency of an MPI only implementation, an optimal set of parameters for adaptive time stepping, a way to meet the strict stability requirements necessary for Hawaii, effective choices for processor and memory affinity, and parallel automation techniques for producing forecast imagery.

Roe, K.; Stevens, D.

2010-09-01

72

Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach  

SciTech Connect

Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

1994-12-31

73

Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai`ian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai`ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua`i, O`ahu, Lana`i, and Hawai`i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results

Carmen Bazúa-Durán; Whitlow W. L. Au

2004-01-01

74

Global phylogeography of Cassiopea (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae): molecular evidence for cryptic species and multiple invasions of the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea is a globally distributed, semi-sessile, planktonically dispersed scyphomedusa. Cassiopea occurs in shallow, tropical inshore marine waters on sandy mudflats and is generally associated with mangrove-dominated habitats. Controversy over the taxonomy of upside-down jellyfishes precedes their introduction to the Hawaiian Islands during the Second World War, and persists today. Here we address the global phylogeography and molecular

Brenden S. Holland; Michael N. Dawson; Gerald L. Crow; Dietrich K. Hofmann

2004-01-01

75

Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (°C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for spec

Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

2012-01-01

76

Cancer research in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander populations: accelerating cancer knowledge by acknowledging and leveraging heterogeneity.  

PubMed

The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population is large, growing, and extremely heterogeneous. Not only do they bear unique burdens of incidence and outcomes for certain cancer types, they exhibit substantial variability in cancer incidence and survival patterns across the ethnic groups. By acknowledging and leveraging this heterogeneity through investing in cancer research within these populations, we have a unique opportunity to accelerate the availability of useful and impactful cancer knowledge. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Cancer in Asian and Pacific Islander Populations." PMID:25368394

Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Glaser, Sally L; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Cheng, Iona; Quach, Thu; Clarke, Christina A; Reynolds, Peggy; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Lee, Marion M; Satariano, William A; Hsing, Ann W

2014-11-01

77

Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.  

PubMed

Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

2007-04-01

78

Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.; Kanamatsu, T.

2005-01-01

79

Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

2011-01-01

80

Lobster Trap at Reed Point  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

A lobster trap buoy rides in the waves of Seal Cove at Reed Point, along the southwestern coast of Mount Desert Island. Lobster traps rest at the bottom of the sea and are tethered to a buoy that marks their location....

81

Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined to a more narrow coastal strip, although there is still much infrastructure at risk. Even for very strong storms in Oahu and Kauai, maximum still water surge is relatively small, and does not exceed 3 m in any storm modeled. In contrast, hurricane waves several kilometers from shore regularly exceed 10 m due to the lack of a continental shelf.

Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

2012-08-01

82

Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.  

PubMed

Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

2014-04-01

83

Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

Grossman, D.H.

1992-01-01

84

Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai?ian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai?ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua?i, O?ahu, Lana?i, and Hawai?i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results suggest that spinner dolphin pods in the Main Hawai?ian Islands share characteristics in approximately 48% of their whistles. Spinner dolphin pods had similar whistle parameters regardless of the island, location, and date when they were sampled and the dolphins' behavioral state and pod size. The term ??whistle-specific subgroup'' (WSS) was used to designate whistle groups with similar whistles parameters (which could have been produced in part by the same dolphins). The emission rate of whistles was higher when spinner dolphins were socializing than when they were traveling or resting, suggesting that whistles are mainly used during close-range interactions. Spinner dolphins also seem to vary whistle duration according to their general behavioral state. Whistle duration and the number of turns and steps of a whistle may be more important in delivering information at the individual level than whistle frequency parameters. .

Bazúa-Durán, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2004-12-01

85

Lobster Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organization brings Gulf of Maine fishermen, scientists, volunteers together to sustain the lobster fishery. Lobster Life Studies Center and programs educate the public about the biology and importance of American lobster (Homaris americanus), conduct research, monitoring populations, recruitment and survival. Detailed profile with diagrams covers lobster classification, anatomy, growth, physiology, life cycle, distribution, behavior, and fisheries. Table lists life history stage, environmental threats, regulations providing protection. Question/answer feature posts scientists' responses to questions.

86

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

87

Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

88

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

89

Native Hawaiian Scholarship`Aha  

E-print Network

Native Hawaiian Scholarship`Aha Hawai`i Island Waimea Hawaiian Homestead Hall Tuesday, November 18 & Int. School Cafeteria Thursday, January 29, 2015 @ 6:00 pm Learn about scholarships available to Native Hawaiian college students. Meet with scholarship providers from: Kamehameha Schools, Keali

90

Eliminating tobacco disparities among native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders through policy change: the role of community-based organizations.  

PubMed

Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California. PMID:23667058

Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P

2013-09-01

91

Eliminating Tobacco Disparities Among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders Through Policy Change: The Role of Community-Based Organizations  

PubMed Central

Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California. PMID:23667058

Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P.

2013-01-01

92

Marine debris from the Oregon Dungeness crab fishery recovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: identification and oceanic drift paths.  

PubMed

Two Dungeness crab trap tags and floats lost off the State of Oregon, USA during the 2006-2007 fishing season were recovered 4years later in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI): on Lisianski Island on July 15, 2010; and on Kure Atoll on December 10, 2010. This is the first documented recovery of marine debris from Oregon fisheries in the NWHI. We simulate the oceanic drift tracks of the derelict fishing gear with the Ocean Surface Current Simulator (OSCURS) model using estimated loss dates in Oregon based on interviews with the crab trap owners and known recovery sites and dates in the NWHI. These data confirm the US Pacific Northwest as a source of marine debris deposited in the NWHI and provide enhanced understanding of the oceanic drift pathways of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:22014917

Ebbesmeyer, Curtis C; Ingraham, W J; Jones, Jason A; Donohue, Mary J

2012-01-01

93

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.  

PubMed

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

2007-08-01

94

Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction,\\u000a this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii).\\u000a Polynesian

Matthias Vignon; Pierre Sasal; René Galzin

2009-01-01

95

Variability and predictability of sea-level extremes in the Hawaiian and U.S.Trust Islands—a knowledge base for coastal hazards management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The objective of this study is to provide an improved,climatology of sea level extremes,on seasonal and long-term time scales for Hawaii and the U.S-Trust islands. Observations revealed that the Hawaiian and U.S.- Trust islands, by and large, display a strong annual cycle. For estimating the statistics of return period, the three- parameter generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted

P.-S. Chu; Thomas A. Schroeder; Xin Zhao

2008-01-01

96

Cancer Incidence Trends Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990–2008  

PubMed Central

Background Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs. Methods Utilizing 1990 and 2000 population census data, we estimated the annual populations by age and sex for Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Guamanians/Chamorros for 1990–2008 in regions covered by 13 of the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registries. Cancer diagnoses during 1990–2008 from these registries were used to calculate the age-adjusted (2000 US Standard) incidence rates by sex, calendar year/period, and cancer type for each population. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Results Statistically significant declining trends were found in Native Hawaiians, in men for lung and stomach cancers (APC = –2.3%; 95% CI = –3.3 to –1.3; and APC = –3.8%; 95% CI = –6.0 to –1.6, respectively), and in women for breast cancer (APC = –4.1%; 95% CI = –5.7 to –2.5) since 1998 and lung cancer (APC = –6.4%; 95% CI = –10.7 to –1.8) since 2001. Rising incidence trends were experienced by Samoans, especially by Samoan women for breast (APC = 2.7%; 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.5) and uterus (APC = 7.3%; 95% CI = 6.2 to 8.4) cancers. With limited data, Guamanians/Chamorros demonstrated lower, but increasing, incidence rates than other NHOPIs. Conclusions Population-based cancer incidence rates for disaggregated NHOPI populations help identify disparities in cancer burden and provide valuable information to improve cancer control efforts among NHOPIs. PMID:23878354

2013-01-01

97

Constraints on the dynamics of mantle plumes from uplift of the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

loading; topography; lithosphere; Hawaii island; island arcs 1. Introduction Vertical motions of the Earth Hawaii Island. Radiometric dating of submerged coral reefs [1] and sub-aerial lavas [2] indicate

Watts, A. B. "Tony"

98

The evolution of water and solute fluxes and pathways in post-constructional volcanic landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-eruptive volcanic landscapes evolve rapidly in response to erosion, re-vegetation, and pedogenesis. The Hawaiian islands offer a time series to study the evolution of surface processes on a uniform lithology and under spatially varying but well-characterized climates. Young surfaces retain constructional topography largely controlled by the most recent lava flows and/or ash deposits. Young surfaces such as found on Mauna Loa (O 102 - 103 yrs) are highly permeable and surface runoff is rare or absent, even under conditions of high rainfall. We hypothesize that the development of soil is a key factor in reducing vertical infiltration rates and promoting lateral flow of water. Stream channelization begins with control by constructional topography and in some cases major faults or fracture zone. In areas with positive water balance stream erosion leads to rapid channel formation. On the windward side of Mauna Kea (O 104 - 105 yrs) stream incision into the shield topography is much more pronounced than on adjacent Mauna Loa surfaces. Flank collapse (e.g. windward Kohala, ? 105 yrs) leaves hanging valleys and drives deep canyon formation. On all of the Hawaiian islands direct submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the oceans is important. The ratio of water transported to the oceans as stream discharge (Q) vs SGD increases with surface age and incision, from near zero on Mauna Loa to > 1 on Kohala. Island wide, SGD ? 3.5 - 4x Q. The evolution of water pathways influences weathering fluxes to the oceans. Ground water from Hawaii has significantly larger concentrations of weathering-derived solutes than does stream water. This should result from longer path length and contact time, which increase interaction with reactive mineral surfaces, but the detailed controls on solute chemistry remain uncertain. Island-wide, the flux ratio of weathering solutes in SGD vs Q is near 15. SGDA is the dominant pathway for the delivery of silicate mineral weathering products to the oceans. These general results should apply to other young volcanic island or coastal terranes. Analysis of stream water fluxes may grossly underestimate weathering fluxes from volcanic terranes. Understanding the coupled evolution of land surface morphology, soil development, and hydrologic pathways is critical to evaluating the temporal behavior of surface processes in young volcanic terranes.

Derry, L. A.; Schopka, H. H.

2011-12-01

99

Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

2014-01-01

100

An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

1999-01-01

101

Socio-demographic, Behavioral, and Biological Variables Related to Weight Loss in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ?3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n=49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n=51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (p?.05) with ?3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR=6.04; CI=1.14–32.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR=1.47; CI=1.22–1.86) and who were in the PLP (OR=4.50; CI=1.50–15.14) were more likely to achieve ?3% weight loss [model; ?2 (7, N=100) = 45.50, p < .0001]. The same lifestyle intervention does not benefit all NHs/PIs equally, possibly due to differences in acculturation status and social support. The findings also point to the importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance. PMID:23404724

Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; Townsend, Claire K.M.; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka`imi A.; Mau, Marjorie K.; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

2012-01-01

102

Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. These observations have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii. We have formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 10^20 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced deformation and mantle dynamics.

Zhong, S. J.; Watts, A. B.

2001-11-01

103

75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce, Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Tourism, Lana`i Island Representative, and Moloka`i Island Representative. Applicants are chosen based upon their...

2010-09-21

104

75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...only), Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/ Commerce, Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Tourism, Lanai Island Representative, and Molokai Island Representative. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular...

2010-12-13

105

LOBSTERS AND THE LOBSTER PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS  

E-print Network

LOBSTERS AND THE LOBSTER PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS $ By George W. Field Chairman Massachusetts Board #12;LOBSTERS AND THE LOBSTER PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS. By GEORGE W. FIELD, Chairmasi Massachusetts necessary in the state of Massachusetts to make some regulations restricting the catching of lobsters

106

50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455 Section 622.455...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny...

2013-10-01

107

50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.458 Section...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a)...

2013-10-01

108

Fishing Effort Allocation and Fishermen's Decision Making Process in a Multi-Species Small-Scale Fishery: Analysis of the Conch and Lobster Fishery in Turks and Caicos Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the fishing effort allocation of fishermen in the artisanal fisheries of the Turks and Caicos Islands (British West Indies). These fishermen use a free-diving technique to simultaneously exploit the local stocks of queen conch and spiny lobster. Using an integrated framework combining a set of analytical tools within a multi-disciplinary holistic approach, we attempt to

Christophe Béné; Alexander Tewfik

2001-01-01

109

Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine spatial planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.

De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

2014-06-01

110

Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

1997-01-01

111

Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distributions of cobalt, iron, and manganese in the water column were studied during the E-Flux Program (E-Flux II and III), which focused on the biogeochemistry of cold-core cyclonic eddies that form in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. During E-Flux II (January 2005) and E-Flux III (March 2005), 17 stations were sampled for cobalt (n=147), all of which

Abigail E. Noble; Mak A. Saito; Kanchan Maiti; Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson

2008-01-01

112

Horizontal movements and depth distribution of large adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) near the Hawaiian Islands, recorded using ultrasonic telemetry: implications for the physiological ecology of pelagic fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the horizontal and vertical movements of five adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, estimated body mass 64 to 93?kg) near the main Hawaiian Islands, while simultaneously gathering data on oceanographic conditions\\u000a and currents. Fish movements were recorded by means of ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters. Depth–temperature and depth–oxygen\\u000a profiles were measured with vertical conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, and the current-velocity field was

R. W. Brill; B. A. Block; C. H. Boggs; K. A. Bigelow; E. V. Freund; D. J. Marcinek

1999-01-01

113

Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of\\u000a shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave “exposed” sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes)\\u000a at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore\\u000a water flow

Edward E. DeMartini; Brian J. Zgliczynski; Raymond C. Boland; Alan M. Friedlander

2009-01-01

114

Mega-tsunami deposits or evidence of uplift within the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

For several years there has been a controversy over the origin of coral-bearing deposits on the island of Lanai (Hawaii). Studies underway have expanded the study of marine deposits from Lanai to adjacent islands. Coral-bearing deposits are present at elevations up to 190 m on Lanai, 90 m on Maui, 90 m on Molokai, 30 m Oahu, 30 m on

B. H. Keating

2004-01-01

115

Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

116

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

117

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

118

Tsunami surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 1 April 2014 North Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1 April 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake ruptured a segment of the megathrust fault offshore of northern Chile and generated a moderate-size tsunami across the Pacific. Tide gauges in Hawaii recorded over 1 m of wave height despite the long distance from the source and position away from the main radiated energy lobe. Inversion of global teleseismic body waves combined with forward modeling of the tsunami at four near-field DART stations arrives iteratively at a self-consistent finite-fault model with very compact dimensions. The slip distribution produces a NNE-SSW trending seafloor uplift patch that enhances the tsunami directionality in the WNW, resulting in good matches to observed DART and tide gauge records around the Hawaiian Islands. The relatively large waves at selected locations in Hawaii can be attributed to a combination of the spatial slip distribution and the resulting short-period waves that triggered localized resonance over the insular shelves. This event highlights the importance of characterizing detailed slip distributions in analysis or forecasting of tsunamis even for a compact source.

Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling

2014-12-01

119

Predator-prey relationships between the rock lobster Jasus lalandii and the mussel Aulacomya ater at Robben Island on the Cape West Coast of Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural diet and mode of feeding of the rock lobster Jasus lalandii (H. Milne Edwards) was determined in a rock-lobster sanctuary near Cape Town, South Africa. Field observations were tested and confirmed by means of aquarium studies. Rock lobsters feed mainly upon ribbed mussels Aulacomya ater (Molina), which comprise the largest component of the sessile benthic fauna. Mussel remains

D. E. Pollock

1979-01-01

120

Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

2004-01-01

121

Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas including those from the Hilo scientific drilling hole [e.g., Lipman and Moore, 1996] indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies by Grigg and Jones [1997] of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate up to ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. Similar studies show that Oahu which is ~340 km from Hawaii has experienced smaller amount of uplift during approximately the same period. The observed patterns of vertical motions have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii on an elastic plate overlying an inviscid substratum. Such a model, however, is time-invariant and does not take into account any changes that may occur in the subsidence and uplift history during loading. We have therefore formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 1020 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. A feature of the model is that at the time-scales appropriate to loading at Hawaii a significant portion of the lithosphere with viscosity greater than 1022 Pa s may still support stresses, which results in a larger apparent elastic thickness than has been deduced from flexural loading studies. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model with a variable loading history can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift that is observed at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced stress relaxation in the lithosphere and dynamic effects in the underlying mantle. Future work should enable the vertical motion data to be used not only as constraints on models for rheology of the lithosphere but also on the nature of plume-plate interactions. Grigg and Jones, Marine Geol., 141, 11-25, 1997. Lipman and Moore, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11631-11641, 1996. Watts and Zhong, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 855-875, 2000.

Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

2001-12-01

122

Evidence for climatic control of bedrock river incision on the Hawaiian island of Kaua';i (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock river incision drives the topographic evolution of Earth's mountain ranges, and thus indirectly controls Earth's long-term climate and rates of hillslope soil erosion and chemical weathering. Longstanding expectations that river incision rates should increase with increasing precipitation rates have been difficult to verify with field measurements, partly due to challenges in measuring river incision rates, and partly due to the confounding influences of non-climatic factors on river incision rates. Here we present measurements showing that precipitation rates influence million-year-scale bedrock channel incision rates across one of Earth's steepest rainfall gradients. We do so by applying the stream power law - an empirical rule for bedrock river incision - to a series of rivers on the Hawaiian island of Kaua';i, where mean annual precipitation ranges from 0.5 meters to 9.5 meters, a span that covers over 70 per cent of the global range. Kaua';i provides an excellent natural laboratory for this study because of its extraordinarily wide range of climates, and also because million-year-scale river incision rates can be inferred from published bedrock ages and Kaua';i's topography. We use the stream power law in two complementary calculations to investigate climatic effects on river incision. First, we apply it to rates averaged over the duration of channel incision, which bedrock ages constrain to be no greater than 4.43 × 0.45 Myr. Second, we apply it to numerical modeling of transient river incision, initialized to estimates of the pre-incision topography. Both of these analyses suggest that the efficiency of bedrock channel incision across Kaua';i is positively correlated with upstream-averaged mean annual precipitation rates. These measurements are consistent with a linear relationship between river incision rates and stream power (i.e., the rate at which the river expends energy on the riverbed), which in turn suggests that river incision rates scale with both upstream-averaged mean annual precipitation rates and drainage area to the one-half power. These observations provide rare empirical support for a climatic influence on river incision, and therefore suggest that previously proposed feedbacks among topography, climate, and tectonics may indeed occur. We conclude by discussing the influence of island subsidence on base level over an island's lifetime, and we explore the role that changes in base level play in driving changes in fluvial sediment cover and the evolution of river long profiles.

Ferrier, K.; Huppert, K.; Perron, J.

2013-12-01

123

Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.  

PubMed

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria. PMID:24446093

Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

2014-08-01

124

Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria.

Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

125

Responses to Light and Water Availability of Four Invasive Melastomataceae in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Plant invasion by Neotropical Melastomataceae is prominent in Hawaii. To understand life history traits of four successful invasive Melastomataceae, two shade-intolerant herbs (Arthrostema ciliatum and Tibouchina herbacea) and two shade-tolerant woody species (Clidemia hirta, a shrub, and Miconia calvescens, a tree) were subjected to three light levels and two watering regimes in a greenhouse. Plant height, leaf number and area, biomass allocation, relative growth rate (RGR), carbon assimilation (A), leaf nutrient content, leaf construction costs (CC), specific leaf mass (SLM), and leaf spectral properties were determined at the end of the experimental period. Plant size, total biomass, RGR, A, CC, and SLM decreased, whereas leaf light transmittance and leaf N increased under low light in all species. The effects of water stress were weaker than light-stress effects. Relative growth rate of herbs grown in sun and partial shade (0.046 and 0.033 g g-1 d-1, respectively) was higher than in the woody species (0.027 and 0.020 g g-1 d-1). Woody species allocated more biomass to leaf production than herbs, which allocated more biomass to stem production. Shade increased allocation of biomass to leaves, and water stress increased the root-shoot ratio in all species. Partial shade increased leaf area ratios more in the herbs (140%) than in woody species (68%). Miconia calvescens and C. hirta had higher leaf absorbance (92%) than both herbs (79%). Maximum A under all light treatments was similar in all species, and there was substantial acclimation to the different light levels. Leaf construction cost was higher in the apparently long-lived leaves of the woody species. Relative growth rate, carbon allocation, and SLM showed larger changes to light and water stress than A and related photosynthetic parameters. All species showed responses qualitatively similar to those of other tropical species including the high acclimation potential to light, but the herbs exhibited the largest quantitative responses. When compared with a large group of native species, the four melastomes appear to be better suited to capture and use light, which is consistent with their rapid spread in mesic and disturbed Hawaiian environments. PMID:10648200

Baruch; Pattison; Goldstein

2000-01-01

126

Impact of Diabetes on Prolonged Hospital Stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 ± 14 years vs 72 ± 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of O‘ahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

2014-01-01

127

Association of Modifiable Risk Factors and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction among Hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010. Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age ? 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ? 40% or LVEF ? 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 151 participants, 69% were men, mean age 54.3 ± 13.5 years, blood pressure 112 ± 20/69 ± 15 mmHg, and body mass index (BMI) 36.9 ± 9 kg/m2. Twenty-five percent of participants were smokers, 45% used alcohol and 23% reported a history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/defibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently associated with lower LVEF (P < .05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality. PMID:25535596

Seto, Todd B; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Howard, Barbara; Ratner, Robert E

2014-01-01

128

Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals  

PubMed Central

Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ?12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

2013-01-01

129

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

130

Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

2004-01-01

131

Enhancement of Lobster Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selected captive lobsters have been successfully mated at the Massachusetts Lobster Hatchery. Progeny raised in warm seawater grew at least four times as fast as lobsters grown at ambient ocean temperatures. These studies demonstrate that lobsters will reach sexual maturity (a weight of about 454 grams) in less than 2 years, compared to 8 years at ambient temperatures in Canadian

John T. Hughes; John J. Sullivan; Robert Shleser

1972-01-01

132

HURL's 2003 OE and NURP Deep Submergence Science Program in the NW and Main Hawaiian Islands and Projects Planned for 2004-2006.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will emphasise the advantages of using manned submersibles in conjunction with ROV pre-surveys during UH's NOAA-funded Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 64-day Ocean Exploration research cruise in the NW Hawaiian Islands scheduled for Sept 3-Nov 6, 2003. The up-leg to Kure Atoll will focus on "Submarine Canyon and Scavenger Communities" (PIs Craig Smith & Eric Vetter) and "Characteristics of Deepwater Fish and Precious Corals on the Seamounts Neighboring Hawaii's Most Remote Seal Colonies" (PI: Frank Parrish). Two projects for PIs Amy Baco-Taylor & Timothy Shank are scheduled for the down-leg: "Seamount Surveys of Deep-Water Corals as Related to Geological Setting in the NWHI" and "Reproductive Biology and population genetics of Precious Corals in Hawaii". For 2004 -2006, HURL has 18 peer-reviewed projects approved. These include 45 submersible dives for projects in US Flag Waters SE of Hawaii, during a joint NURP-OE Expedition to American Samoa, scheduled for late 2004 and early 2005. Dives for most projects in the Main and nearer NW Hawaiian Islands will be scheduled for 2006, with a few exceptions. The scope and rationale of this planned program exemplifies the synergy between NOAA's Ocean Exploration and Undersea Research Program objectives.

Crook, K. A.

2003-12-01

133

Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a “healthy” reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

2010-01-01

134

1201Iacchei et al.--Catalina spiny lobster fisheries Direct impacts of commercial and recreational fishing  

E-print Network

1201Iacchei et al.--Catalina spiny lobster fisheries Direct impacts of commercial and recreational fishing on spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, populations at Santa Catalina Island, California, United: kathyannmiller@berkeley.edu Abstract The California spiny or red rock lobster, Panulirus interruptus

Costa, Daniel P.

135

A METHOD OF LOBSTER CULTURE By A. D. Mead, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

A METHOD OF LOBSTER CULTURE By A. D. Mead, Ph. D. Member ot the Rhode Island Commission.ot Inland for an original and practical method of lobster culture 21 9 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Theproblem -,----------------------___ 229 FIatching methods ----_____________ 230 Handling' the egg lobsters U u u 230 Precaution as to age

136

Health Disparities in the Native Hawaiian Homeless  

PubMed Central

While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawai‘i Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid organizations like the H.O.M.E. project to better address the health needs of the Native Hawaiian homeless population. PMID:20540000

Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

2010-01-01

137

Plate Tectonics: The Hawaiian Archipelago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the Hawaiian Islands were all created by volcanic activity, it is somewhat surprising that only the island of Hawaii now possesses any active volcanoes. Why did the volcanoes that built the other islands stop erupting and why are those on the big island still active? This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, shows how plumes of hot material rise from the Earth's interior to create 'hot spots' in the crust which are the locations of volcanic activity. Movement of the Pacific Plate causes volcanic islands to continually form, migrate away from the hot spot, and become extinct, forming chains of islands like the Hawaiian Islands. The segment is four minutes thirty-seven seconds in length.

138

A Dynamic History of Climate Change and Human Impact on the Environment from Ke?lia Pond, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution palynological, charcoal, and sedimentological analysis of a sediment core from Ke?lia Pond, Maui, coupled with archaeological and historical records, provides a detailed chronology of vegetation and climate change since before human arrival. These records provide new evidence for human–environment linkages during the Hawaiian Polynesian period and subsequent European period. Prior to human arrival, the charcoal record indicates that native

Stephanie Pau; Glen M. MacDonald; Thomas W. Gillespie

2012-01-01

139

Existence and Formation Mechanism of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available surface drifter data are analyzed to determine the characteristics of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current (NHRC) and its relation to the ocean circulation around the Hawaiian waters. The NHRC is found to exist as a mean entity along the coasts of the Hawaiian Islands. It originates as a northern branch of westward moving interior flow and flows coherently along

BO QIU; A. KOH; C LAUDE LUMPKIN; PIERRE FLAMENT

1974-01-01

140

Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distributions of cobalt, iron, and manganese in the water column were studied during the E-Flux Program (E-Flux II and III), which focused on the biogeochemistry of cold-core cyclonic eddies that form in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. During E-Flux II (January 2005) and E-Flux III (March 2005), 17 stations were sampled for cobalt ( n=147), all of which demonstrated nutrient-like depletion in surface waters. During E-Flux III, two depth profiles collected from within a mesoscale cold-core eddy, Cyclone Opal, revealed small distinct maxima in cobalt at ˜100 m depth and a larger inventory of cobalt within the eddy. We hypothesize that this was due to a cobalt concentrating effect within the eddy, where upwelled cobalt was subsequently associated with sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) via biological activity and was released at a depth coincident with nearly complete POC remineralization [Benitez-Nelson, C., Bidigare, R.R., Dickey, T.D., Landry, M.R., Leonard, C.L., Brown, S.L., Nencioli, F., Rii, Y.M., Maiti, K., Becker, J.W., Bibby, T.S., Black, W., Cai, W.J., Carlson, C.A., Chen, F., Kuwahara, V.S., Mahaffey, C., McAndrew, P.M., Quay, P.D., Rappe, M.S., Selph, K.E., Simmons, M.P., Yang, E.J., 2007. Mesoscale eddies drive increased silica export in the subtropical Pacific Ocean. Science 316, 1017-1020]. There is also evidence for the formation of a correlation between cobalt and soluble reactive phosphorus during E-Flux III relative to the E-Flux II cruise that we suggest is due to increased productivity, implying a minimum threshold of primary production below which cobalt-phosphate coupling does not occur. Dissolved iron was measured in E-Flux II and found in somewhat elevated concentrations (˜0.5 nM) in surface waters relative to the iron depleted waters of the surrounding Pacific [Fitzwater, S.E., Coale, K.H., Gordon, M.R., Johnson, K.S., Ondrusek, M.E., 1996. Iron deficiency and phytoplankton growth in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II 43 (4-6), 995-1015], possibly due to island effects associated with the iron-rich volcanic soil from the Hawaiian Islands and/or anthropogenic inputs. Distinct depth maxima in total dissolved cobalt were observed at 400-600 m depth, suggestive of the release of metals from the shelf area of comparable depth that surrounds these islands.

Noble, Abigail E.; Saito, Mak A.; Maiti, Kanchan; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.

2008-05-01

141

The Perception of Innovation in the Delivery of Services for Hawaiian Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiians come from a tradition of success and resilience. Sumida and Meyer (2006) report that Native Hawaiians were among the most literate people in the world in the 1840's where they had the highest literacy rate west of the Rockies. By 1893, nearly 100 Hawaiian newspapers were in print and circulation in the Hawaiian Islands

Miller, Jamee Mahealani

2012-01-01

142

Annotated Checklist of Hawaiian Mosses  

E-print Network

Forty years have passed since Bartram (1933) published the only comprehensive moss flora for the Hawaiian Islands. Since then, numerous articles which are relevant to our area have appeared list-ing additional taxa, new island records, and differing nomenclature. As a result, the Manual of Hawaiian Mosses has been rendered in-creasingly difficult for all but specialists to use. The purpose of this checklist is to gather together information from publications of the last four decades and thus to present in a single treatment our knowledge of the Hawaiian moss flora. As a re-sult, it is hoped the scattered literature will no longer pose such a serious problem for either the amateur or professional student of this very interesting component of the Hawaiian biota. In turn it is further hoped that many valuable collections which even today remain un-identified may be examined and a better understanding of the Ha-waiian moss flora emerge. Accepted in this list are 255 species, varieties, and forms distrib-uted in 38 families and 123 genera. Their post-1933 synonymy, island-by-island distribution, and the references upon which these records are based have been indicated. In addition, there are taxa in Ectro-pothecium, Entodon, and Fissidens which appear to be new and will be described in forthcoming papers. For nomenclature, the Index Muscorum (van der Wijk, 1959-1969) has been followed. Author ab-breviation citations follow Sayre, Bonner & Culberson (1964); journal abbreviations are generally those of the Index Muscorum. For syn-onymy, two general classes are recognized. For nomenclature syn-onyms, reasons for rejection ofan epithet are usually given; taxonomic synonymy is without comment. Table I summarizes the status of the Hawaiian moss flora. Table II summarizes the moss flora for each of the major islands.

W. J. Hoe

1974-01-01

143

Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.  

PubMed

Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800?m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80?kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30?s every 5?min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night. PMID:23654414

Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

2013-05-01

144

Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai'i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

2014-01-01

145

Exploring Hawaiian volcanism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

2013-01-01

146

GPS monitoring of Hawaiian Volcanoes  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory uses a variety of ground- and satellite-based techniques to monitor Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes.  Here, an HVO scientist sets up a portable GPS receiver to track surface changes during an island-wide survey of Hawai‘i’s volcanoes. &n...

147

Wrecks as artificial lobster habitats in the German Bight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Once, the European lobster could be found in high abundances on rocky substrate around the island of Helgoland. Since the 1960s, the stock has been decreasing dramatically. Until now, it has been assumed that the lobster stock of Helgoland is the only one in the German Bight. Here, we provide first information about lobster distribution inside the German Bight off Helgoland. Diving in situ observations revealed that lobsters inhabit at least 15.6% of all 64 investigated wrecks. Considering the difficulties of detecting lobsters at wrecks, the true percentage is most likely much higher. Their locations are spatially homogenously distributed throughout the inspected area. The study indicates a broad distribution of the European lobster over the German Bight. The habitats provided by a considerable fraction of the more than one thousand wrecks outside the Wadden Sea are potential lobster refuges within the mud and sand dominated sea floor. Besides providing additional habitats, they represent stepping stones enhancing the connectivity of the North Sea lobster population.

Krone, Roland; Schröder, Alexander

2011-03-01

148

The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery  

E-print Network

The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery Introduction The commercial lobster, and commercial trapping be gan in 1977 (Uchida and Tagami, 1984). Since 1983, the lobster fleet has ranged from 9 Center Na tional Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 2570 Dole Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96822-2396. Mention

149

The Lobster Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

Barthelmy, Scott

2011-01-01

150

All About Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine, or American, lobster is a crustacean with two strong claws: a big-toothed crusher claw for pulverizing shells and a finer-edged ripper claw resembling a steak knife, for tearing soft flesh. Website includes biological remarks, fisheries, economics, history of exploitation, and comparison with other lobsters. Also features educational activities and links to external sites.

151

THE AMERICAN LOBSTER Homarus americanus  

E-print Network

7 THE AMERICAN LOBSTER Homarus americanus FISHERY LEAFLET 74 UNITED ST ATES DEPARTMENT Production Publications on lobsters Page 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 #12;THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, Homarus and Wildlife Service Boothbay Harbor, Maine C1assification.--The American lobster i s a c rus t acean belonging

152

Hawaiian magma-reservoir processes as inferred from the petrology of gabbro xenoliths in basalt, Kahoolawe Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gabbro xenoliths in a tholeiitic lava of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, a ~1.3–1.4 Ma shield volcano, are 1–3 cm in size and comprised of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene. Gabbro textures — while intergranular and in part subophitic-are “open” due to 28–48 vol.% of vesicular basalt occupying xenolith space. Vesicles in and around the xenoliths are lined or filled with rhyolitic glass

R. V. Fodor; E. A. Rudek; G. R. Bauer

1993-01-01

153

Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands provide a cultural setting where the prominent place of astronomy within religious, navigational, and calendrical traditions is evident from a rich ethnohistoric record. The many hundreds of temple platforms and enclosures (heiau) whose remains survive across the archipelago have provided a natural focus for archaeoastronomers not only to examine orientations and structural alignments but to explore a range of issues relating to field method and practice in a context where spatially patterned archaeological data and ethnohistorical evidence exist in relatively fine balance. As archaeoastronomy has developed within the islands, it has become better integrated into archaeological investigations tackling questions of broader anthropological significance, one of the most fascinating being when, how, and why Polynesian chiefdoms became transformed into archaic states, something that happened here but nowhere else in Polynesia.

Ruggles, Clive L. N.

154

Journal of ShellfishResear~li,Vol. 24, No. 3, 761-765, 2005. A PROLONGED THERMAL STRESS EXPERIMENT ON THE AMERICAN LOBSTER,  

E-print Network

ON THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS ALISTAIR D. M. DOVE,'* BASSEM ALL AM,^ JASON J. POWERS~AND MARK S groups of lobsters were maintained for 31 days at temperatures environmentally realistic for Long Island Sound to investigate the effectsof prolonged thermal stress on the physiology of lobsters. One group

Allam, Bassem

155

Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people  

PubMed Central

Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12–17. MRs aged 35–49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ?2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

2013-01-01

156

GRB Astrophysics with LOBSTER  

SciTech Connect

We refer on the recent developments of LOBSTER project suggesting novel wide-field Lobster-Eye type of X-ray All Sky Monitor to detect and to analyze GRBs including XRF and X-ray rich GRBs. The triggers can be detected and localized by their X-ray emission in the 0.1 - 8 keV energy range. The system exhibits fine detecting sensitivities of order of 10-12 ergcm-2s-1 and the localization accuracy is of order of a few arcmin. The LOBSTER is expected to contribute significantly to analyses of GRBs and especially the XRFs.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Center of Advanced X-Ray Technologies, Reflex s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A. [Center of Advanced X-Ray Technologies, Reflex s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic)

2006-05-19

157

Natural history, biogeography, and endangerment of Hawaiian dry forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the floristic composition of Hawaiian dry forest trees and identify natural history characteristics and biogeographic\\u000a variables that are associated with risk of endangerment. Hawaiian dry forests are comprised of 109 tree species in 29 families,\\u000a with 90% of all species endemic, 10% indigenous, and 37% single-island endemics. Forty-five percent of Hawaiian dry forest\\u000a taxa are at risk of

Stephanie Pau; Thomas W. Gillespie; Jonathan P. Price

2009-01-01

158

Hawaiian Newspaper Translation Project  

E-print Network

Hawaiian Newspaper Translation Project: Fisheries Historical accounts translated from Hawaiian by early western travelers and from the small number of translations that have been completed on Hawaiian remain in the body of Hawaiian literature (newspapers) that has yet to be translated

Holland, Kim N.

159

Sexual reproduction in Hawaiian Acropora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual reproductive maturity was evaluated in Acropora valida, Acropora cytherea and Acropora humilis at French Frigate Shoals, Northwest Hawaiian Islands during two consecutive summers. Acropora valida gonads matured at different rates in different habitats in both years. Spawning was inferred by the sudden disappearance of gonads of mature size. Histological sections of fertile polyps confirmed the maturity of gonads prior to spawning. An isolated colony of A. humilis spawned in early summer. Strong indications of sexually mature colonics of A. cytherea exist, but clear temporal patterns were not apparent. Lunar period of spawning in reef flat A. valida and A. humilis differed from that reported for these species from other regions. The three species did not overlap in time of spawning. Previous ideas concerning the allochthonous origin of larval recruits, as well as the absence of Acropora from high islands of the Hawaiian chain, are re-evaluated in light of new evidence for sexual reproductive capacity by native populations.

Kenyon, Jean C.

1992-04-01

160

Lobster claw deformity.  

PubMed

Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

2014-01-01

161

Lobster Fishing: Shifting Cycles and Changing Traditions  

E-print Network

Lobster Fishing: Shifting Cycles and Changing Traditions S teve Lawrence is a lobster fisherman in Kittery, Maine. He grew up in the area, and has been lobster fishing his entire life, similar to his Lobster Apprentice Program to earn his commercial lobster license before his 18th birthday. Business Steve

New Hampshire, University of

162

Cultural relativity of impact assessment: Native Hawaiian opposition to geothermal energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of the “renewable “ energy resource known as geothermal energy is touted as offering the promise of energy independence and economic development for the “Big Island” of Hawai'i and, by virtue of an undersea transmission cable, to other Hawaiian islands. However, the proposal to implement this project has met with continuing opposition from Native Hawaiians who are followers of

Michael R. Edelstein; Deborah A. Kleese

1995-01-01

163

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

164

Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the endmember sites where OM accumulated at the surfaces of larger mineral grains, topsoil MOAs of the 20-400-kyr sites are composed of a homogeneous admixture of small-sized PC minerals and OM, which originated from both adsorption and precipitation processes. The chemical composition of OM in surface-horizon MOAs, however, was largely controlled by the uniform source vegetation irrespective of the substrate age whereas in subsoil horizons, aromatic and carboxylic C correlated positively with oxalate-extractable Al and Si and CuCl 2-extractable Al concentrations representing PC aluminosilicates and Al-organic complexes ( r2 > 0.85). Additionally, XPS depth profiles suggest a zonal structure of sorbed OM with aromatic carbons being enriched in the proximity of mineral surfaces and amide carbons (peptides/proteins) being located in outer regions of MOAs. Albeit the mineralogical and compositional changes of OM, the rigidity of mineral-associated OM as analyzed by DSC changed little over time. A significantly reduced side chain mobility of sorbed OM was, however, observed in subsoil MOAs, which likely arose from stronger mineral-organic bindings. In conclusion, our study shows that the properties of soil MOAs change substantially over time with different mineral assemblages favoring the association of different types of OM, which is further accentuated by a vertical gradient of OM composition on mineral surfaces. Factors supporting the stabilization of sorbed OM were (i) the surface area and reactivity of minerals (primary or secondary crystalline minerals versus PC secondary minerals), (ii) the association of OM with micropores of PC minerals (via 'sterically' enhanced adsorption), (iii) the effective embedding of OM in 'well mixed' arrays with PC minerals and monomeric/polymeric metal species, (iv) the inherent stability of acidic aromatic OM components, and (iv) an impaired segmental mobility of sorbed OM, which might increase its stability against desorption and microbial utilization.

Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

2009-04-01

165

The King of Crustaceans: Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the north Atlantic, the American Lobster is the undisputed king of crustaceans. Itâs also a tremendously important commercial catch. While all the other fisheries are collapsing, why are lobsters resisting the trend? In this video, Jonathan goes out with a Maine lobsterman to learn why, and he dives down below to find the biggest lobsters he has ever seen. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2011-01-18

166

Covariation of climate and long-term erosion rates across a steep rainfall gradient on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i  

E-print Network

Erosion of volcanic ocean islands creates dramatic landscapes, modulates Earth’s carbon cycle, and delivers sediment to coasts and reefs. Because many volcanic islands have large climate gradients and minimal variations ...

Ferrier, Ken L.

167

Sky monitoring with LOBSTER  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

2014-12-01

168

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl  

E-print Network

Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl Forms will be requested at a later date. Up to 24 student teams can compete in the Blue Lobster Lobster Bowl The Blue Lobster Bowl is an annual academic competition that encourages high school

Entekhabi, Dara

169

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian  

E-print Network

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation@credit.erin.utoronto.ca) The islands of Hawai`i o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded

Fullard, James H.

170

Native Hawaiian Scholarship Aha  

E-print Network

Native Hawaiian Scholarship Aha 2012-2013 #12;Sponsored by ·Native Hawaiian Education Association i #12;Program ·College Fair ·College and Scholarship Overview ·Scholarship Program Presentations #12;Applying for Financial aid is Hard But... " There are lots of people who want to help. üScholarship

171

Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha !  

E-print Network

Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha ! 2011­2012" #12;Sponsored by" ·Native Hawaiian Education of Hawai`i" #12;Program" ·College Fair" ·College and Scholarship Overview" ·Scholarship Program of people who want to help !Scholarship program staff !Financial aid office !High school and college

172

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Mel Goodwin

173

NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

174

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

2012-10-01

175

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

2014-10-01

176

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

2011-10-01

177

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

2013-10-01

178

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

2010-10-01

179

Population Genetic Structure and Origins of Native Hawaiians in the Multiethnic Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

The population genetic structure of Native Hawaiians has yet to be comprehensively studied, and the ancestral origins of Polynesians remain in question. In this study, we utilized high-resolution genome-wide SNP data and mitochondrial genomes of 148 and 160 Native Hawaiians, respectively, to characterize their population structure of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, ancestral origins, and population expansion. Native Hawaiians, who self-reported full Native Hawaiian heritage, demonstrated 78% Native Hawaiian, 11.5% European, and 7.8% Asian ancestry with 99% belonging to the B4 mitochondrial haplogroup. The estimated proportions of Native Hawaiian ancestry for those who reported mixed ancestry (i.e. 75% and 50% Native Hawaiian heritage) were found to be consistent with their self-reported heritage. A significant proportion of Melanesian ancestry (mean?=?32%) was estimated in 100% self-reported Native Hawaiians in an ADMIXTURE analysis of Asian, Melanesian, and Native Hawaiian populations of K?=?2, where K denotes the number of ancestral populations. This notable proportion of Melanesian admixture supports the “Slow-Boat” model of migration of ancestral Polynesian populations from East Asia to the Pacific Islands. In addition, approximately 1,300 years ago a single, strong expansion of the Native Hawaiian population was estimated. By providing important insight into the underlying population structure of Native Hawaiians, this study lays the foundation for future genetic association studies of this U.S. minority population. PMID:23144833

Kim, Sung K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A.; Chen, Gary K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Stram, Daniel O.; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

2012-01-01

180

Population genetic structure and origins of Native Hawaiians in the multiethnic cohort study.  

PubMed

The population genetic structure of Native Hawaiians has yet to be comprehensively studied, and the ancestral origins of Polynesians remain in question. In this study, we utilized high-resolution genome-wide SNP data and mitochondrial genomes of 148 and 160 Native Hawaiians, respectively, to characterize their population structure of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, ancestral origins, and population expansion. Native Hawaiians, who self-reported full Native Hawaiian heritage, demonstrated 78% Native Hawaiian, 11.5% European, and 7.8% Asian ancestry with 99% belonging to the B4 mitochondrial haplogroup. The estimated proportions of Native Hawaiian ancestry for those who reported mixed ancestry (i.e. 75% and 50% Native Hawaiian heritage) were found to be consistent with their self-reported heritage. A significant proportion of Melanesian ancestry (mean?=?32%) was estimated in 100% self-reported Native Hawaiians in an ADMIXTURE analysis of Asian, Melanesian, and Native Hawaiian populations of K?=?2, where K denotes the number of ancestral populations. This notable proportion of Melanesian admixture supports the "Slow-Boat" model of migration of ancestral Polynesian populations from East Asia to the Pacific Islands. In addition, approximately 1,300 years ago a single, strong expansion of the Native Hawaiian population was estimated. By providing important insight into the underlying population structure of Native Hawaiians, this study lays the foundation for future genetic association studies of this U.S. minority population. PMID:23144833

Kim, Sung K; Gignoux, Christopher R; Wall, Jeffrey D; Lum-Jones, Annette; Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Gary K; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Stram, Daniel O; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

2012-01-01

181

ISS-Lobster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

2014-01-01

182

Barnacles on Folly Island  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

183

Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

184

Historical Evidence of Whale/Vessel Collisions in Hawaiian Waters (1975 Present)  

E-print Network

-01 Prepared for: NOAA's Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pacific humpback whales. Although, their numbers are recovering, humpback whales continue to face of the mandates of the Final Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian humpback whale is to investigate vessel collisions

185

Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot and its Geodynamic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of our ideas of where mantle plumes originate, how they interact with the convecting mantle and how plates have moved in the past rely on interpretations of the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track. One reason this volcanic lineament has attained this conceptual stature lies in its prominent bend at 43 Ma. The bend, which separates the westward trending Hawaiian islands from

J. A. Tarduno; R. A. Duncan; R. D. Cottrell; D. W. Scholl

2002-01-01

186

Motion of Hawaiian Hotspot During Formation of the Emperor Seamounts: Initial Results of ODP Leg 197  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of our ideas of where mantle plumes originate, how they interact with the convecting mantle and how plates have moved in the past rely on interpretations of the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track. One reason this volcanic lineament has attained this conceptual stature lies in its prominent bent at 43 Ma. The bend, which separates the westward trending Hawaiian islands from

J. A. Tarduno; R. A. Duncan; R. D. Cottrell; D. W. Scholl

2001-01-01

187

Disparities in Self-Reported Postpartum Depression among Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Women in Hawaii: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum depression affects 10–20% of women and causes significant morbidity and mortality among mothers, children, families,\\u000a and society, but little is known about postpartum depression among the individual Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. This study sought to indentify the prevalence of postpartum depression among common Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. Data from the Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment and

Donald K. Hayes; Van M. Ta; Eric L. Hurwitz; Kristen M. Mitchell-Box; Loretta J. Fuddy

2010-01-01

188

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim

2008-01-01

189

HISTOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) IN THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT  

E-print Network

HISTOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) IN THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT JEFFREY Point, VA 23062 ABSTRACT The emergence of epizootic shell disease in the American lobster (Homarus. A comprehensive assessment of the disease syndrome, known as the ``100 Lobsters'' Project, was initiated

190

So They Built A Better Trap--for Lobsters The lobster fishery has experienced radi-  

E-print Network

So They Built A Better Trap--for Lobsters The lobster fishery has experienced radi- cal changes" better than any other. A trap fishes well when it attracts and holds as many lobsters as it possibly can. First, the lobster samples the b a i t in trapls kitchen. Then it moves leisurely into the "parlor

191

A Submarine Perspective on Hawaiian Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postwar improvements in navigation, sonar-based mapping, and submarine photography enabled the development of bathymetric maps, which revealed submarine morphologic features that could be dredged or explored and sampled with a new generation of manned and unmanned submersibles. The maps revealed debris fields from giant landslides, the great extent of rift zones radiating from volcanic centers, and two previously unknown submarine volcanoes named Mahukona and Loihi, the youngest Hawaiian volcano. About 70 major landslides cover half the flanks of the Hawaiian Ridge out to Midway Island. Some of the landslides attain lengths of 200 km and have volumes exceeding 5,000 km3. More recent higher resolution bathymetry and sidescan data reveal that many submarine eruptions construct circular, flat-topped, monogenetic cones; that large fields of young strongly alkalic lava flows, such as the North Arch and South Arch lava fields, erupt on the seafloor within several hundred km of the islands; and that alkalic lavas erupt during the shield stage on Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The North Arch flow field covers about 24,000 km2, has an estimated volume between about 1000 and 1250 km3, has flows as long as 108 km, and erupted from over 100 vents. The source and melting mechanisms for their production is still debated. The maps also displayed stair-step terraces, mostly constructed of drowned coral reefs, which form during early rapid subsidence of the volcanoes during periods of oscillating sea level. The combination of scuba and underwater photography facilitated the first motion pictures of the mechanism of formation of pillow lava in shallow water offshore Kilauea. The age progression known from the main islands was extended westward along the Hawaiian Ridge past Midway Island, around a bend in the chain and northward along the Emperor Seamounts. Radiometric dating of dredged samples from these submarine volcanoes show that the magma source that built the chain has been active for over 80 Ma and established the remarkable linearity of the age-progression along the chain. Glass rinds on submarine lava quenched at depth contain initial magmatic volatiles and yield data on the juvenile water, sulfur, CO2, and rare gas contents of basaltic magmas, and continue to reveal nuances of the volatile contents of lava. Rock sampling at Loihi Seamount led to the discovery of the pre-shield alkalic phase of Hawaiian volcanism, which mirrors the well-known post-shield alkalic phase. Lava compositions from the Hawaiian Ridge and Emperor Seamounts have clear affinities to present-day Hawaiian lavas, but subtle source differences as well. The progression from small to large and back to small degrees of melting at individual volcanoes and the compositional changes along the chain constrain the melting processes and source compositions of Hawaiian volcanism. Coupling the age of lavas with that of submerged coral reefs has provided data on the growth and subsidence of volcanic centers. This information has meshed nicely with the age, composition, and morphology of lavas from the 3.2-km-deep Hawaiian Scientific Drill Hole. Submarine studies have taught us much about the workings of Hawaiian Volcanoes, and in the process have stimulated new work and concepts on marine volcanism worldwide.

Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

2011-12-01

192

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

193

Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." Current and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

194

The call to life: revitalizing a healthy Hawaiian identity.  

PubMed

The meaning of health is typically defined as the absence of disease. This definition, while highlighting our ability to measure the physiological attributes of health through morbidity and mortality statistics in turn obscures alternative meanings of health. In this paper, I ask three questions about the meaning of health. First, is health simply the body without disease? Second, are there alternative meanings of health that are not solely informed by Enlightenment views of science and biomedicine? Third, in what ways does health give meaning to and inform social orders and our place within them? Drawing on interviews with Native Hawaiians conducted on the islands of Maui and Hawaii, this paper examines what it means to be a "healthy Hawaiian", and in doing so, problematizes meanings of health. For those I interviewed, definitions of health were embedded in understandings of what it means to be a Native Hawaiian and presented an opportunity to talk about the cultural and material dispossession of Native Hawaiians. These definitions also remind the present generation of the vitality of their ancestors. In remembering the life, health and subsequent dispossession of Hawaiian ancestors, contemporary Hawaiians are provided with an alternative definition of what it means to be a "healthy Hawaiian", thus raising serious questions about "health" as defined by biomedicine and how best to achieve it. This case illustrates how a focus on concepts of health elucidates the relationship between health and inequality as well as Native Hawaiian's agency in charting a positive direction for health that has meaning in the everyday life of Hawaiians. PMID:15950093

McMullin, Juliet

2005-08-01

195

Hawaiian Music for Hawaii's Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawaiian music has developed from the simple chant and accompanying hula to choral singing and the use of the guitar and ukulele. Article also presents a compositional and choreographic analysis of Hawaiian music. (RK)

Gillett, Dorothy K.

1972-01-01

196

PROGRAM PLANNED TO PREVENT DEPLETION OF LOBSTERS  

E-print Network

PROGRAM PLANNED TO PREVENT DEPLETION OF LOBSTERS On August 21, Secretary of Comm rc Peter G-range pro- gram to prevent depletion of th Amencan lobster. H said: "Th need is pressing for th States S rvice, to establish a uniform management system for both in- shor and offshor stocks of lobsters. Th

197

AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN,  

E-print Network

AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN, 1957-59 In 1957 at the suggestion of C. Owen Smith, then editor of the "Maine Coast Fisherman," several commercial lobster fishermen volunteered to tag illegal American lobster, Homarus ameri- canus, with tags furnished by the Maine Depart

198

SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS  

E-print Network

Q/ III / f SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS ::::;:::::::::::;::. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS C. E. Cope Drawings by Boris O. Knake Fishery Methods am Equipment Lobster Gear (1959) · · · · · · · ··· 15 Selected References

199

Individual recognition and memory in lobster dominance  

Microsoft Academic Search

American lobsters,Homarus americanus, form stable dominance relationships in captivity. Size, sex and stage in the moult cycle are important determinants for dominance. Other factors, such as recent agonistic experience play a role. This paper investigates how lobsters maintain their stable dominance relationships: they may recognize individuals or alternatively, recognize overall dominance status. We paired lobsters in two consecutive ‘boxing matches’.

CHRISTA KARAVANICH; JELLE ATEMA

1998-01-01

200

Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster  

E-print Network

Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster Grounds Harvested Brazilian fishermen have begun to fish new lobster grounds along the coast of the state of Bahia. The grounds are reportedly located that they can catch as much lobster during I day on the new grounds as they previously caught during an entire

201

NOTES ON THE HAWAIIAN DUCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

HE avifauna of the Hawaiian Archipelago contains three endemic mem- bers of the Anatidae. Of these, the Laysan Teal (Anas platyrhynchos Zuysanensis) and the Nene or Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandwicensis) are near extinction-only 30 teal existed in 1950 (Scott, 1951) and an estimated 33 wild and 24 captive Nene lived in 1952 (Smith, 1952) ; the Koloa or Hawaiian Duck

CHARLES W. SCHWARTZ; ELIZABETH REEDER SCHWARTZ

202

Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical groundmotion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectralanalysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

Wong, I.G.; Stokoe, K.H., II; Cox, B.R.; Yuan, J.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Terra, F.; Okubo, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

2011-01-01

203

Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

Robert Tilling

204

Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host–parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit

Amy G. Vandergast; George K. Roderick

2003-01-01

205

Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

2011-06-01

206

Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality  

SciTech Connect

The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F. [LASST, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

2011-06-10

207

Bioaccumulation and Metabolic Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor Methoprene in the Lobster, Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Methoprene is a pesticide that acts as a juvenile hormone agonist. Although developed initially against insects, it has since been shown to have toxic effects on larval and adult crustaceans. Methoprene was one of several pesticides applied to the Western Long Island Sound (WLIS) watershed area during the summer of 1999; the other pesticides were malathion, resmethrin, and sumethrin. These pesticides were applied as part of a county-by-county effort to control the mosquito vector of West Nile Virus. Subsequently, the seasonal lobster catches from the WLIS have decreased dramatically. The lethality of the pesticides to lobsters had been unknown. We studied the effects of methoprene while other investigators studied effects of the other pesticides. We questioned whether methoprene, through its effects on larvae, adults or both, could have contributed to this decline. We found that low levels of methoprene had adverse effects on lobster larvae. It was toxic to stage II larvae at 1 ppb. Stage IV larvae were more resistant, but did exhibit significant increases in molt frequency beginning at exposures of 5 ppb. Juvenile lobsters exhibited variations in tissue susceptibility to methoprene: hepatopancreas appeared to be the most vulnerable, reflected by environmental concentrations of methoprene inhibiting almost all protein synthesis in this organ.Our results indicated that methoprene concentrates in the hepatopancreas, nervous tissue and epidermal cells of the adult lobster. Methoprene altered the synthesis and incorporation of chitoproteins (cuticle proteins) into adult postmolt lobster explant shells. SDS PAGE analyses of adult post-molt shell extracts revealed changes in the synthesis of chitoproteins in the methoprene-treated specimens, suggesting that methoprene affects the normal pathway of lobster cuticle synthesis and the quality of the post-molt shell. Although it is likely that a combination of factors led to the reduced lobster population in WLIS, methoprene may have contributed both by direct toxic effects and by disrupting homeostatic events under endocrine control. PMID:21676752

Walker, Anna N; Bush, Parshall; Puritz, Jonathan; Wilson, Thomas; Chang, Ernest S; Miller, Tim; Holloway, Kenneth; Horst, Michael N

2005-01-01

208

FEDERAL LOBSTER MANAGEMENT AREA LATITUDE/LONGITUDE COORDINATES The following lobster management areas are established for purposes of  

E-print Network

FEDERAL LOBSTER MANAGEMENT AREA LATITUDE/LONGITUDE COORDINATES March 2006 The following lobster Federal lobster management measures can be found at the following NOAA Fisheries Northeast Region website: http://www.nero.noaa.gov. # Nearshore Lobster Management Area 1. Nearshore Lobster Management Area 1

209

Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

An endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, a species that is sometimes killed by wind turbines. USGS scientists from Hawaii and Colorado are devising a way to directly observe bat occurrence and behavior at wind turbines using a video system composed of high-powered illuminators and near-infrared cameras.&nb...

210

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....

211

In Brief . ... The Florida Lobster,  

E-print Network

In Brief . ... The Florida Lobster, Tagged Shrimp, and Artificial Reefs · ... The Atlantic and proposed topics include energy, underutilized species, economics, seafood composi- tion, quality $10 million per year fishing at artificial reefs. That's about 20 percent of the total economic impact

212

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.50 ...Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster . There are two minimum size...

2011-10-01

213

EFFECTS OF INJURIES ON SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUS ARGUS, AND IMPLICATIONS  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF INJURIES ON SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUS ARGUS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, supports im- portant commercial and recreational fisheries throughout rates of wild juvenile spiny lobsters, P. argus, in Florida and discusses the implications

214

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.50 ...Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster . There are two minimum size...

2010-10-01

215

50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.409...MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.409 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a)...

2013-10-01

216

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.50 ...Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster . There are two minimum size...

2012-10-01

217

Perinatal Outcomes for Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islander Mothers of Single and Multiple Race/Ethnicity: California and Hawaii, 2003–2005  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined characteristics and birth outcomes of Asian/Pacific Islander (API) mothers to determine whether differences in outcomes existed between mothers of single race/ethnicity and multiple race/ethnicity. Methods. We used data from California and Hawaii birth certificates from 2003 through 2005 to describe variation in birth outcomes for API subgroups by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (single versus multiple race or API subgroup), and we also compared these outcomes to those of non-Hispanic White women. Results. Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) varied more among API subgroups than between mothers of single versus multiple race/ethnicity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors, API mothers of multiple race/ethnicity had outcomes similar to mothers of single race/ethnicity, with exceptions for multiple-race/ethnicity Chinese (higher PTB), Filipino (lower LBW and PTB), and Thai (higher LBW) subgroups. Compared with single-race non-Hispanic Whites, adverse outcomes were elevated for most API subgroups: only single-race/ethnicity Korean mothers had lower rates of both LBW (3.4%) and PTB (5.6%); single-race/ethnicity Cambodian, Laotian, and Marshallese mothers had the highest rates of both LBW (8.8%, 9.2%, and 8.4%, respectively) and PTB (14.0%, 13.7%, and 18.8%, respectively). Conclusions. Strategies to improve birth outcomes for API mothers should consider variations in risk by API subgroup and multiple race/ethnicity. PMID:20299645

Mendola, Pauline; Hamilton, Brady E.; Hayes, Donald K.; Makuc, Diane M.

2010-01-01

218

Discrimination and obesity among Native Hawaiians.  

PubMed

Among ethnic populations in Hawai'i, Native Hawaiians continue to be over-represented with the highest rates in: morbidity and mortality, chronic health conditions, and the health risks of being overweight and obese. Focused on these two health risks, the investigation reported in this article has a specific aim of empirically determining whether social stigma as manifested in the form of perceived overt or covert discrimination is a contributing factor. Current studies focused on select ethnic populations, particularly African Americans point to discrimination as an important but understudied predictor of adverse health outcomes. Acknowledging the paucity of research on discrimination and its role in the health of Native Hawaiians, this investigation utilizes data from the 2007 Hawaiian Health Survey which was coordinated by the Department of Health, and the Office of Health Status Monitoring and implemented by SMS Hawai'i. The weighted sample of Hawai'i adults included measures of race/ethnicity and of everyday discrimination and the BMI (Body Mass Index). Logistic regression analyses were applied to determine if: (a) discrimination was significantly related to being overweight and/or obesity; and (b) whether this relationship remained a salient predictor after key demographic factors of gender, age, education, income, and length of time in the Islands were taken into account. This study confirmed the negative influence of overt discrimination as well as the protective nature of covert discrimination in explaining the variability in obesity/overweight in Native Hawaiians. The implications of this study for strategic interventions and research are discussed. PMID:23251872

McCubbin, Laurie D; Antonio, Mapuana

2012-12-01

219

WESTERN PACIFIC INVERTEBR ATE FISHERIES western pacific  

E-print Network

agencies in the region. The now-closed Northwestern Hawaiian Is- lands (NWHI; Figure 16-1) lobster trap-scale, primarily rec- reational, fishery for different species of lobster ex- ists in the Main Hawaiian Islands of Com- merce, and implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The NWHI lobster fishery

220

The origin and number of introductions of the Hawaiian endemic Silene species (Caryophyllaceae).  

PubMed

The Hawaiian endemic Silene are a small group of woody or semiwoody representatives from a large, predominantly herbaceous, species-rich genus. We here investigated the origin and number of introductions of the endemic Hawaiian Silene based on phylogenetic relationships inferred from DNA sequences from both the plastid (the rps16 intron) and the nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed sequences, ITS, and intron 23 of the RPB2 gene) genomes. Silene antirrhina, a widespread weedy American annual, is strongly supported as sister to a monophyletic group consisting of the Hawaiian Silene, indicating a single colonization event. There are no obvious morphological similarities between S. antirrhina and any of the species of Hawaiian Silene. Our results suggest an American origin for the Hawaiian endemics because that would require only a single trans-ocean dispersal. Two of the Hawaiian endemics (S. struthioloides and S. hawaiiensis) that form a subclade in the analyses have evolved woodiness after introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. Our results contribute to other recent results based on molecular phylogenetics that emphasize the American continent as a source area for the Hawaiian flora and support a striking morphological radiation and evolution of woodiness from a single introduction to the archipelago. PMID:21642223

Eggens, Frida; Popp, Magnus; Nepokroeff, Molly; Wagner, Warren L; Oxelman, Bengt

2007-02-01

221

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

222

Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts. PMID:15109145

Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

2004-03-10

223

GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone  

SciTech Connect

Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

Torresan, M.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

224

Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness  

E-print Network

Abstract Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness Ken Sercy and Michael show clear differences in spiny lobster gregariousness. Panulirus argus is usually found sharing variation in lobster distribution and fitness. Spiny lobsters are a convenient model system for studying

Childress, Michael J.

225

Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.

2006-01-01

226

Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus  

PubMed Central

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

227

Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.  

PubMed

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

228

3 CFR 8336 - Proclamation 8336 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the island rests. Johnston is a genetic and larval stepping stone from the Remote Islands to the Hawaiian Islands for invertebrates, other reef fauna, corals, and dolphins. Despite its isolation, Johnston supports thriving communities of Table...

2010-01-01

229

W E S T E R N PAC I F I C I N V E R T E B R AT E F I S H E R I E S Western Pacific  

E-print Network

Invertebrate Fisheries INTRODUCTION The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) lobster fishery is the major. Management Situation The NWHI lobster fishery, which began in 1977, harvests spiny and slipper lobsters. The MHI lobster fishery is managed by the state of Hawaii, although a few offshore banks are included

230

Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

2013-01-01

231

Tobacco Use among Native Hawaiian Middle School Students: Its Prevalence, Correlates and Implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to explore whether Native Hawaiian primary ethnic identity is associated with cigarette use among Native Hawaiian middle school students. This study also explored whether social influence, psychosocial and cultural factors are associated with cigarette use in this sample. Design The data are from a cross-sectional survey of 1,695 Native Hawaiian middle school students at 22 public and private schools on five islands in Hawaii. A subset of these students from Native Hawaiian serving schools (N = 136) completed additional measures of Hawaiian cultural variables. Results Based on univariate analyses, students whose primary ethnic identification was Hawaiian were more likely to have tried smoking (p<0.001) and to be current smokers (p<0.05) as compared to those classified as part Hawaiian. However, these findings were no longer significant in multivariate analyses. Social influence variables (i.e. peer and parental smoking) were most influential in explaining both prior and current smoking. Attendance at public school was also an important factor in explaining previous (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.38) and current (OR = 7.20; 95% CI = 4.58, 11.32) smoking behavior. Finally, cultural variables such as valuing Hawaiian folklore, customs, activities and lifestyle were largely unassociated with smoking behavior among Native Hawaiian middle school youth. Conclusions Additional research is needed to understand what aspects of ethnic identity are associated with smoking behavior among Native Hawaiian youth. The strong influence of peer and parental smoking suggests the need for interventions that support the creation of social environments that discourage tobacco use. PMID:17454098

Glanz, Karen; Mau, Marjorie; Steffen, Alana; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob

2013-01-01

232

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

233

Microsatellite repeat instability fuels evolution of embryonic enhancers in Hawaiian Drosophila.  

PubMed

For ?30 million years, the eggs of Hawaiian Drosophila were laid in ever-changing environments caused by high rates of island formation. The associated diversification of the size and developmental rate of the syncytial fly embryo would have altered morphogenic gradients, thus necessitating frequent evolutionary compensation of transcriptional responses. We investigate the consequences these radiations had on transcriptional enhancers patterning the embryo to see whether their pattern of molecular evolution is different from non-Hawaiian species. We identify and functionally assay in transgenic D. melanogaster the Neurogenic Ectoderm Enhancers from two different Hawaiian Drosophila groups: (i) the picture wing group, and (ii) the modified mouthparts group. We find that the binding sites in this set of well-characterized enhancers are footprinted by diverse microsatellite repeat (MSR) sequences. We further show that Hawaiian embryonic enhancers in general are enriched in MSR relative to both Hawaiian non-embryonic enhancers and non-Hawaiian embryonic enhancers. We propose embryonic enhancers are sensitive to Activator spacing because they often serve as assembly scaffolds for the aggregation of transcription factor activator complexes. Furthermore, as most indels are produced by microsatellite repeat slippage, enhancers from Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, which experience dynamic evolutionary pressures, would become grossly enriched in MSR content. PMID:24978198

Brittain, Andrew; Stroebele, Elizabeth; Erives, Albert

2014-01-01

234

Microsatellite Repeat Instability Fuels Evolution of Embryonic Enhancers in Hawaiian Drosophila  

PubMed Central

For ?30 million years, the eggs of Hawaiian Drosophila were laid in ever-changing environments caused by high rates of island formation. The associated diversification of the size and developmental rate of the syncytial fly embryo would have altered morphogenic gradients, thus necessitating frequent evolutionary compensation of transcriptional responses. We investigate the consequences these radiations had on transcriptional enhancers patterning the embryo to see whether their pattern of molecular evolution is different from non-Hawaiian species. We identify and functionally assay in transgenic D. melanogaster the Neurogenic Ectoderm Enhancers from two different Hawaiian Drosophila groups: (i) the picture wing group, and (ii) the modified mouthparts group. We find that the binding sites in this set of well-characterized enhancers are footprinted by diverse microsatellite repeat (MSR) sequences. We further show that Hawaiian embryonic enhancers in general are enriched in MSR relative to both Hawaiian non-embryonic enhancers and non-Hawaiian embryonic enhancers. We propose embryonic enhancers are sensitive to Activator spacing because they often serve as assembly scaffolds for the aggregation of transcription factor activator complexes. Furthermore, as most indels are produced by microsatellite repeat slippage, enhancers from Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, which experience dynamic evolutionary pressures, would become grossly enriched in MSR content. PMID:24978198

Brittain, Andrew; Stroebele, Elizabeth; Erives, Albert

2014-01-01

235

Lobster's Violin: Why They do it  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio show focuses on why spiny lobsters make sounds using soft body parts. While the sounds of a lobster play in the background, the show's guest scientist explains that the spiny lobster, being an arthropod, goes through a molting process in order to grow. It produces these sounds to ward off predators when its new outer skeleton is not yet hard. The show, which is from the Pulse of the Planet radio program, is available here in audio and text. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2007-09-21

236

Native Hawaiian views on biobanking.  

PubMed

Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N?=?92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: (1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, (2) research transparency, (3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, (4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, (5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and (6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise "G.R.E.A.T. Research" (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai'i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

Tauali i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

2014-09-01

237

Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

1999-01-01

238

Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds.  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of the entire passerine radiation, this dramatic morphological radiation represents an extreme manifestation of a general clade-specific ability to evolve novel morphologies. PMID:11788034

Lovette, Irby J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

2002-01-01

239

Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui  

USGS Publications Warehouse

BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

2006-01-01

240

Identification of endangered Hawaiian ducks ( Anas wyvilliana ), introduced North American mallards ( A. platyrhynchos ) and their hybrids using multilocus genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawaiian ducks (Anas wyvilliana), or koloa, are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and are listed as a federal and state endangered species. Hybridization between\\u000a koloa and introduced mallards (A. platyrhynchos) is believed to be a primary threat to the recovery of koloa. We evaluated the utility of two sets of nuclear markers (microsatellite\\u000a loci and amplified fragment length polymorphisms) and

Ada C. Fowler; John M. Eadie; Andrew Engilis Jr

2009-01-01

241

Larry Gibson and the Lobster Boat 9 September 2014  

E-print Network

Larry Gibson and the Lobster Boat 9 September 2014 James Hansen Students at Virginia Tech in 2008 on trial, threatened with 9 months in jail, for using their lobster boat, Henry David T., to block shipment

Hansen, James E.

242

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size...

2010-10-01

243

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size...

2011-10-01

244

ROV Tiburon Investigation of Hawaiian Submarine Canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MBARI conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during an expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and Tiburon in the spring of 2001. Eight ROV dives were made to investigate five major submarine canyons offshore of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii in up to 3,434 m water depths. Four of these canyons are located off the windward (northern) side of these islands where onshore canyons are also well developed. Those canyons located offshore of Molokai and Oahu incise the head scars of the giant Nuuanu and Wailai submarine landslides. ROV observations and sediment and rock outcrop sampling were made in these canyons to determine their origin and present-day activity. The fifth canyon investigated is located on the leeward (southern) side of Molokai. The canyons along the windward side expose extensive stratigraphic sections that reveal the history of the islands' formation. In composite, these sections contain marine pillow basalt overlain by a substantial sequence of alternating subaerial lava flows, rounded boulder conglomerates, shallow water carbonates, and hyaloclastites that indicate coastal and marine deposition. These sequences illustrate the accretion and subsequent subsidence of the islands' flanks. These canyons also have morphologically distinct upper and lower sections. The upper reaches of the canyons are incised into the shallow water marine facies and contain broad axial channels through which active sediment transport is occurring. In contrast, the morphology of the lower canyons are strongly influenced by the giant landslides that massively altered the northern flanks of the Hawaiian chain. The lower canyons contain plunge pools and steep headwall scarps that are generally comprised of mechanically competent subaerial lava flows. The presence of multiple plunge pools with differentially eroded head scarps suggests retrogressive erosion (bottom-up process) with headward advancement of the various heads. Undercutting of the headwalls also produce periodic rockfalls and debris flows that in combination with the sediment supplied from the upper parts of the canyons is both lengthening and deepening the canyons. This progressive advancement of the erosion along the weaker haloclastite beds has produced a stair-step configuration. In contrast, the canyon we investigated on the leeward side of Molokai showed no evidence of active sediment transport and appears to be filling.

Paull, C. K.; Greene, H. G.; Caress, D. W.; Clague, D. A.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N. M.

2001-12-01

245

Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

246

Native Hawaiian Community College Students: What Happens?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using a weighted database of approximately 3,000 students, this study involves the tracing of the postsecondary history of 2,516 students who identified as Native Hawaiian, graduated from high school between 1993 and 1995, and attended college. Virtually none of the students are 100% Hawaiian. Due to a long history of intermarriage, the Hawaiian

Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Lester, Jaime; Moon, Hye Sun; Tibbetts, Katherine

2006-01-01

247

Firing Between Two Spike Thresholds: Implications for Oscillating Lobster Interneurons  

E-print Network

Firing Between Two Spike Thresholds: Implications for Oscillating Lobster Interneurons Abstract. An identified interneuron in the lobster commissural gangliafires spikes only between membrane potential values of the lobster can exhibit spike inactivation as a result of spontaneous depolarization. This phenomenon cannot

Robertson, Meldrum

248

Introduction The marine environment inhabited by the American lobster  

E-print Network

1245 Introduction The marine environment inhabited by the American lobster Homarus americanus for the lobster because as poikilotherms they are unable to regulate their own body temperature. The body temperature of the lobster closely matches the external temperature of the seawater (Worden et al., 2006

Grosell, Martin

249

Sustainable How does NMFS manage the American Lobster Fishery?  

E-print Network

Sustainable Fisheries How does NMFS manage the American Lobster Fishery? Federal management of the American lobster fishery is influenced by management recommendations made by the Atlantic States Marine, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The current management of American lobster

250

32.-WHAT WE KNOW OF THE LOBSTER." BY FRED MATHER,  

E-print Network

32.-WHAT WE KNOW OF THE LOBSTER." BY FRED MATHER, Superintendent of Nm York State Hatchpry at Co American lobster that is new, the most important item being a discovery of its spawning habits, which will simplify our attempts to hatch this valiiable crustacean on a large scale. We knew that the female lobster

251

LOBSTER: A European Platform for Passive Network Traffic Monitoring  

E-print Network

LOBSTER: A European Platform for Passive Network Traffic Monitoring Demetris Antoniadis, Michalis present a concerted European Effort to im- prove our understanding of the Internet through the LOBSTER hardware, LOBSTER empowers a large number of researchers and system administrators into reaching a better

Markatos, Evangelos P.

252

Myofibrillar Gene Expression in Differentiating Lobster Claw Muscles{  

E-print Network

Myofibrillar Gene Expression in Differentiating Lobster Claw Muscles{ SCOTT MEDLER1Ã?, TRAVIS R of California-Davis, Bodega Bay, California ABSTRACT Lobster claw muscles undergo a process of fiber switching of myofibrillar genes in differentiating juvenile lobster claw muscles. RNA probes complementary to fast and slow

Medler, Scott

253

Observations on the biology of the American lobster Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTBACT American lobsters (IIomarus ame~icanzcs) have been hatched and reared at the Mas- sachusctts State Lobster Hatchery, Oak Bluffs, Mass., since 1951. Individual lobsters have been held for as long as 10 years. Records have been maintained on seasonal occurrence of hatching, duration of the larval period, occurrence of molting with age and season, and rates of growth. The peak

JOHN T. HUGHES; GEORGE C. MATTHIESSEN

1962-01-01

254

S pin y Lobsters UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR  

E-print Network

?SI S pin y Lobsters UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU spiny lobster of Florida (Panulirus argus) is ahandsome crustacean mottled with blue, rich yellow, and brown and clotted with numerous spines. INT .DUP. ,D.C. 61-1 05 0 11 #12;SPINY LOBSTERS By Lola T. Dees

255

Lobsters-Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade  

E-print Network

Lobsters-Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade AUSTIN B. WILLIAMS Introduction Lobsters are valued throughout the world as prime seafood items wherever they are caught, sold, or consumed. Basically, three kinds are marketed for food, the clawed lobsters (superfamily Nephropoidea), the squat

256

Disentangling defense: the function of spiny lobster sounds  

E-print Network

Disentangling defense: the function of spiny lobster sounds E.R. Staaterman, T. Claverie & S spiny lobsters (Palinuridae: Panulirus interruptus) to a model predator, model conspecific and blank elicited no discernable changes in defensive behaviour, but the responses by the lobsters to aggressors

Claverie, Thomas

257

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27 Section...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH...Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a)...

2012-10-01

258

Occurrence and Behavior of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphins (Stenella longirostris) Along Oahu's Leeward and South Shores  

E-print Network

Occurrence and Behavior of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphins (Stenella longirostris) Along Oahu's Leeward and behavior of spinner dolphins resident along the southern and western shores of the island of Oahu, Hawaii of their occurrence and behavioral activities. Key Words: Spinner dolphin, Oahu, behav- ior, resting, foraging

259

Paleoceanography of coral reefs in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain - revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a review of the present knowledge of coral reef ecology and paleoecology in the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain during the last 70 Ma. Research on fossil coral deposits throughout the H-E Chain has played a major role in producing information concerning the subsidence, uplift and drowning of individual islands, as well as the paleocirculation of the North Pacific Ocean

R. W. Grigg

1997-01-01

260

A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

2010-01-01

261

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders  

E-print Network

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

Blackledge, Todd

262

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

263

Malathion immunotoxicity in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) upon experimental exposure.  

PubMed

A lobster die-off reduced the 1999 fall landings in western Long Island Sound by up to more then 99%. The die-off corresponded in time with the application of pesticides for the control of mosquitoes that carried West Nile virus, a new emerging disease in North America at the time. In order to determine the possible implication of pesticide application as a direct cause or contributing factor in the die-off, we studied the effects of experimental exposure to malathion on the health of lobsters. Lobsters were exposed in 20 gallon tanks, and the direct toxicity as well as sub-lethal effects on the immune system were determined. The 96 h LC50 for malathion upon single exposure was 38 microg/l. Malathion degraded rapidly in sea water, with 65-77% lost after 1 day and 83-96% lost after 3 days. Phagocytosis was significantly decreased 3 days after a single exposure to initial water concentrations as low as 5 ppb, when measured water concentrations were as low as 0.55 ppb. Similarly, effects on phagocytosis were observed at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after the initiation of weekly exposures. Cell counts did not differ significantly upon exposure to malathion. Malathion was not detected in muscle and hepatopancreas of exposed lobsters. Evaluation of phagocytosis is a sensitive indicator of subtle sub-lethal effects of malathion, and relatively small concentrations of malathion (6-7 times lower than the LC50) can affect lobster defense mechanisms. PMID:15168949

De Guise, Sylvain; Maratea, Jennifer; Perkins, Christopher

2004-03-10

264

Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Hawaii's Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database is a centralized database that includes monitoring data for Hawaii's natural resources. Designed to help meet the information needs of land managers in Hawaii, the database includes "standardized and fully-documented data collection efforts by federal, state, and private agencies." A license (free, with permission) is required to access the database. Recently, the site added an updated master species list for Hawaii and an update (from US Fish and Wildlife Service) on the Endangered/Threatened status of Hawaiian species (.zip format).

265

Age, geochemistry and melt flux variations for the Hawaiian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Ridge portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, the classic example of a mantle plume produced linear island chain, is 6000 km in length, active for 80+ Myr, and tectonically simple. Despite its importance to our understanding of mantle plumes and Cenozoic plate motion, there are large data gaps for the age and geochemistry of lavas from volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge (HR) portion of the Chain. Ages: Only volcanoes near the Hawaiian-Emperor bend and in the Hawaiian Islands have modern Ar-Ar ages, leaving a gap of 2000 km where existing K-Ar ages suggest synchronous volcanism over a 1000 km section. Geochemistry: There is a 2900 km gap in high precision geochemical data for the HR. The Emperor Seamounts (>45 Ma) have better regional coverage of recent isotopic data and show a correlation of Sr isotope composition with age of the underlying oceanic lithosphere (Regelous et al. 2003). The HR has an unexplained, exponential increase in magma flux over the last 30 Myr (Vidal & Bonneville 2004). Potential explanations for the increase in magma flux include: changes in melting conditions (temperature and/or pressure), change in source fertility related to rock type (pyroxenite vs. peridotite) or previous melting history, and/or changes in plate stresses resulting from reconfigurations of plate motion. Our new multi-disciplinary project will: 1) Determine 40Ar/39Ar ages, and whole-rock major, trace element, and Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic geochemistry for lavas from 20 volcanoes spanning ~2150 km of the HR (NW of the Hawaiian Islands). 2) Use the geochemical data to determine the long-term evolution of the Hawaiian mantle plume source components and to evaluate whether there have been systematic variations in mantle potential temperature, melting pressure, and/or source lithology during the creation of the HR. If so, are they responsible for the 300% variation in melt production along the Ridge? Also, we will assess when the more fertile Loa source component appeared. 3) Reassess models for the origin of the HR using the new 40Ar/39Ar ages. 4) Recompute and compare the magma flux rate for the Hawaiian and Louisville Ridges using our new HR ages and IODP results for Louisville Ridge, and updated bathymetric data for both chains. 5) Utilize the new ages to revise Cenozoic Pacific plate motions and to compute differential motions as proxies for stress changes along the HR with time to evaluate the effects of plate motion on magma flux rate. These studies will have fundamental implications for mantle plume sources, plume dynamics, and plate kinematics. Vidal V, Bonneville A, 2004. J. Geophys. Res., 109, B03104, doi:10.1029/2003JB002559 Regelous M, Hofmann AW, Abouchami W, Galer SJG, 2003. Jour. Petrol. 44, 113-140

Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Greene, A. R.; Wessel, P.; Harrison, L.; Tree, J.

2012-12-01

266

Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

2000-01-01

267

Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

Gibson, Andrea

2002-01-01

268

Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric lava tubes as well as the historic tubes located in the bombing range near Mauna Loa. These natural structures should be considered for use in planning for the expansion and advanced stages of the future manned lunar base.

Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

1991-01-01

269

Atlas of natural hazards in the Hawaiian coastal zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The purpose of this report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii. This information is the key to the wise use and management of coastal resources. The information contained in this document,we hope,will improve the ability of Hawaiian citizens and visitors to safely enjoy the coast and provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. This work is largely based on previous investigations by scientific and engineering researchers and county, state, and federal offices and agencies. The unique aspect of this report is that, to the extent possible, it assimilates prior efforts in documenting Hawaiian coastal hazards and combines existing knowledge into a single comprehensive coastal hazard data set. This is by no means the final word on coastal hazards in Hawaii. Every hazardous phenomenon described here, and others such as slope failure and rocky shoreline collapse, need to be more carefully quantified, forecast, and mitigated. Our ultimate goal, of course, is to make the Hawaiian coast a safer place by educating the people of the state, and their leaders, about the hazardous nature of the environment. In so doing, we will also be taking steps toward improved preservation of coastal environments, because the best way to avoid coastal hazards is to avoid inappropriate development in the coastal zone. We have chosen maps as the medium for both recording and communicating the hazard history and its intensity along the Hawaiian coast.Two types of maps are used: 1) smallscale maps showing a general history of hazards on each island and summarizing coastal hazards in a readily understandable format for general use, and 2) a large-scale series of technical maps (1:50,000) depicting coastal sections approximately 5 to 7 miles in length with color bands along the coast ranking the relative intensity of each hazard at the adjacent shoreline.

Fletcher, Charles H., III; Grossman, Eric E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.

2002-01-01

270

The Case of Lobster Shell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

2011-01-01

271

Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA.  

PubMed Central

The extinct moa-nalos were very large, flightless waterfowl from the Hawaiian islands. We extracted, amplified and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from fossil moa-nalo bones to determine their systematic relationships and lend insight into their biogeographical history. The closest living relatives of these massive, goose-like birds are the familiar dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini). Moa-nalos, however, are not closely related to any one extant species, but represent an ancient lineage that colonized the Hawaiian islands and evolved flightlessness long before the emergence of the youngest island, Hawaii, from which they are absent. Ancient DNA yields a novel hypothesis for the relationships of these bizarre birds, whereas the evidence of phylogeny in morphological characters was obscured by the evolutionary transformation of a small, volant duck into a giant, terrestrial herbivore. PMID:10649633

Sorenson, M D; Cooper, A; Paxinos, E E; Quinn, T W; James, H F; Olson, S L; Fleischer, R C

1999-01-01

272

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

273

HAWAIIAN OCEAN MIXING EXPERIMENT (HOME): FARFIELD PROGRAM HAWAIIAN TIDAL ENERGY BUDGET  

E-print Network

precision to quantify the tidal power dissipated in the nearfield of the Ridge. The data are vitalHAWAIIAN OCEAN MIXING EXPERIMENT (HOME): FARFIELD PROGRAM HAWAIIAN TIDAL ENERGY BUDGET Principal). This tidal energy budget will determine limits on the energy dissipated in the nearfield of the Hawaiian

Dushaw, Brian

274

Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomatogastric System: Spike Number-  

E-print Network

Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomatogastric dependence in two slow muscles in the lobster stomatogastric system. Our analysis shows that, func- tionally words: Panulirus interruptus; lobster; crustacea; stoma- togastric; pylorus; gastric mill; pyloric

Hooper, Scott

275

A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

PubMed Central

This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai‘i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and older youth) completed a web-based survey comprised of 15 drug-related problem situations and 413 responses developed by Hawaiian youth. The findings corroborated the youth-focused findings from prior research. Differences in the endorsement of different strategies were examined based on gender, ethnicity, and age of the stakeholders. Implications for culturally grounded drug prevention in rural Hawaiian communities are discussed. PMID:21809110

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

2011-01-01

276

Hawaii Forest Bird Interagency Database Project: Collecting, Understanding, and Sharing Population Data on Hawaiian Forest Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are distinguished by the diversity of endemic forms derived from a small number of ancestral colonists. However, the avifauna has been decimated by human activities both before and after Western contact. At least 71 species or subspecies disappeared before the arrival of Capt. James Cook in 1778, and an additional 24 went extinct after 1778, of which 11 were lost since the 1960s alone. Many of the remaining Hawaiian bird populations are declining or are in danger of extinction. Vigorous efforts to survey and monitor bird populations over the past 3 decades have generated considerable information from which to assess the current status of the Hawaiian forest birds.

Pratt, Thane K.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

2006-01-01

277

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 1. (Fig. 1) The Belfast Lobster; dorsal view of Male Lobster; living weight a little over 23 pounds. 252  

E-print Network

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Plate No. Page. 1. (Fig. 1) The Belfast Lobster; dorsal view of Male Lobster; living weight a little over 23 pounds. 252 2. (Fig. 2) Ventral view of large Lobster shown In Plate 1. (Flg.3) Ventral view of small Lobster for comparison with Fig. 1. Egg·bearlng Female

278

Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus Interruptus) Stomatogastric System: Slow Muscle  

E-print Network

Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus Interruptus) Stomatogastric: Panulirus interruptus; lobster; crustacea; stoma- togastric; pylorus; pyloric network; slow muscle; tonic

Hooper, Scott

279

Spatio-temporal variation in serum chemistry of the lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards.  

PubMed

Monthly variations in serum chemistry of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, were investigated at one location in Long Island Sound (LIS). Comparisons between three locations within and outside LIS were also made for a single time point. Most serum analytes displayed significant fluctuation over the study period and between locations. Temporal patterns could be classified as: low in cool months/high in warm months, i.e. Na, Cl, Na:K ratio, Ca, albumin:globulin ratio, percentage Fe saturation; high in cool months/low in warm months, i.e. pH, K, urea, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipaemia; June spike, i.e. glucose, cholesterol, creatine kinase, iron, transferrin iron-binding capacity; other less obvious fluctuations, i.e. Mg, PO4; and no apparent fluctuation, i.e. HCO3, alkaline phosphatase. The proportion of samples correctly classified into month of collection by a subset of 13 analytes using discriminant analysis improved as the months progressed from May (0.75) to October (>0.95). Discriminant analysis also resolved 96.5% of samples by location. The significant depression of serum calcium at the eastern LIS site correlates with excretory calcinosis, a calcium storage disease described from lobsters at this site, but contrasts with a seasonal elevation in serum calcium recorded in the temporal component of the study. Serum proteins, the electrolytes Ca and K and the enzymes ALT and AST proved to have the strongest spatio-temporal patterns of variation. Serum chemistry is a useful research tool for lobster populations, but the dearth of information on the homology of analyte functions in this species with those in vertebrate species makes interpretation of the results challenging. Late summer/autumn water conditions appear to cause stress for lobsters in LIS. PMID:16303028

Dove, A D M; Sokolowski, M S; Bartlett, S L; Bowser, P R

2005-11-01

280

Lobster eye: technology and imaging properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobster eye optics, as a wide field of view imaging system, is perfectly suited for x-ray astronomy but can be useful also in the lab. This paper presents a brief overview of the technologies developed in our group, where the glass and silicon mirrors are used to built up the Schmidt lobster eye design and mainly discuss the mirror design consequences on the resulting imaging properties of the system. Corrections of various image distortions and imperfections, either geometric, spectral or temporal in case of scanning observations have to be applied in order to get a valuable instrument. Several image processing methods are discussed and its strengths and weaknesses are shown for both astronomy and laboratory experiments.

Sveda, L.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Semencova, V.; Inneman, A.

2009-05-01

281

1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane disposition in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus and the American lobster, Homarus americanus  

SciTech Connect

1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane, a model compound for the non-volatile aliphatic hydrocarbon components of crude oil, was administered by intrapericardial injection to the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, and the clawed or American lobster, Homarus americanus. Experiments were conducted in Florida (spiny lobster) and Maine (American lobster). The animals were sacrificed at various times from 0.5 hr to 8 wks after administration of the dose. The tissues and fluids were analyzed for /sup 14/C content by digestion or catalytic oxidation and liquid scintillation counting. Selected tissues (hepatopancreas, tail muscle and hemolymph) were extracted with ethyl acetate to allow quantitation of the unmetabolized n-hexadecane by thin layer chromatography. n-Hexadecane-derived radioactivity was very persistent in both the spiny lobster (t1/2 = 4.6 wk) and the American lobster (t1/2 = 11.2 wk). In both lobsters, the hepatopancreas (HP) acquired the highest specific activity and the tail muscle had the longest half life for elimination from an individual tissue. Although hexadecane was metabolized more rapidly in the HP of the spiny lobster than in the HP of the American lobster, unmetabolized hexadecane persisted in the HPs of both species for at least 8 weeks after the dose (the longest time studied).

Little, P.J.; James, M.O.; Foureman, G.L.; Weatherby, R.P.; Bend, J.R.

1986-05-01

282

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

283

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

2010-07-01

284

Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

2013-11-01

285

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

SciTech Connect

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Czech Technical Universiry in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic); Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-07-15

286

The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings  

PubMed Central

Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal biodiversity surveys. Molecular data for the survey provide the most extensive assessment of Hawaiian red algal diversity and, in combination with the morphological/anatomical and distributional data collected as part of the project, provide a solid baseline data set for future studies of the flora. The data are freely available via the Hawaiian Algal Database (HADB), which was designed and constructed to accommodate the results of the project. We present the first DNA sequence reference collection for a tropical Pacific seaweed flora, whose value extends beyond Hawaii since many Hawaiian taxa are shared with other tropical areas. PMID:21092229

2010-01-01

287

Strategic light manipulation as a restoration strategy to reduce alien grasses and encourage native regeneration in Hawaiian mesic forests  

E-print Network

regeneration in Hawaiian mesic forests S. McDaniel & R. Ostertag Abstract Question: Is there a light level) forest that were actively logged to clear for ranchlands. After grazing pressures are released, koa has, allowing for native species regeneration in abandoned pastures? Location: Island of Hawaii, USA. Methods

Ostertag, Rebecca

288

The internal structure of lava flows—insights from AMS measurements II: Hawaiian pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 22 basaltic flow units, including S-type pahoehoe, P-type pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'? emplaced over different slopes in two Hawaiian islands. Systematic differences occur in several aspects of AMS (mean susceptibility, degree of anisotropy, magnetic fabric and orientation of the principal susceptibilities) among the morphological types that can be related to

Edgardo Cañón-Tapia; George P. L. Walker; Emilio Herrero-Bervera

1997-01-01

289

Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust). In contrast, younger soils are mainly supplied by calcium from weathering of volcanic bedrock. Based on the results of previous studies using strontium isotopic signatures and Sr/Ca ratios (e.g. Kennedy et al. 1998, Chadwick et al. 1999, Whipkey et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2001) we have conducted research focusing on the isotope composition of calcium as a new tool for the investigation of sources of calcium and biogeochemical processes effecting Ca isotope fractionation in the plant-soil system. The study combines ? 44Ca with 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca data of soils (bulk compositions and extractable Ca and Sr from soil exchange sites) and different plant species including native Ohia trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) from a soil chronosequence along the Hawaiian Island chain. The study sites differ in age of the underlying substrate from 0.3 ka to 4,100 ka, but show similar recent climate (mean annual temperature of 16 ° C) and amount of precipitation (about 2,500 mm/y). 44Ca/40Ca ratios were measured on a MAT262 at Stanford University, using a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and are reported as ? 44Ca values relative to seawater (? 44Ca = 0 ‰ ). Results of the extractable, plant available calcium from six soil sites show ? 44Ca values in the range of +1.2 ‰ to -1.3 ‰ with generally more negative values related to younger soil sites where calcium is mainly derived from weathering of volcanic rocks. Bulk soil samples, however, show ? 44Ca values between -0.1 ‰ and -2.5 ‰ , indicating differences in composition as a result of contributions from volcanic minerals, continental dust, and marine aerosols in different proportions. Leaves and wood material of different plant species have ? 44Ca values in the range of -0.1 ‰ and -2.1 ‰ , suggesting biological fractionation of Ca isotopes during calcium uptake in plants. From our results we conclude that the pattern of Ca isotope fractionation in the Hawaiian ecosystem depend on several factors (1) the source of calcium, (2) physiological processes, and (3) soil biogeochemical processes. References Chadwick et al. (1999) Nature 397: 491-497. Kennedy et al. (1998) Geology 26: 1015-1018. Stewart et al. (2001) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65: 1087-1099. Whipkey et al. (2000) Chem. Geol. 168: 37-48.

Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

2003-12-01

290

Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

Cuillandre, J. C.

291

Waves and Currents in Hawaiian Waters Induced by the Dispersive 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focuses on the effects of frequency dispersion on tsunami-induced coastal water waves and currents, exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. The investigation relies on numerical simulations. We start from a tsunami source constrained through the inversion algorithm of NOAA's tsunami inundation forecast system. The trans-Pacific propagation and the hydrodynamic processes in the Hawaiian Islands region are simulated with a weakly dispersive Boussinesq model and a shallow-water model that neglects dispersion effects. From these modeling results, boundary conditions are derived to force the high-resolution simulations in the coastal waters in the Hawaiian Islands region through MOST, a tsunami simulating code based on the shallow-water theory. We note that the dispersion effects generally lower the amplitudes of leading waves. Trailing waves of short wavelengths and high amplitudes can develop in coastal waters. A model neglecting dispersion effects could under-predict the wave heights and current speeds at the trailing waves.

Zhou, Hongqiang; Wei, Yong; Wright, Lindsey; Titov, Vasily V.

2014-12-01

292

Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

Atkinson, Carter T.

2005-01-01

293

16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ... SCHEDULE FOR REPAIRS.' Plan) elevation, and typical section. Photocopied from the original drawing in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

294

15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE ... JUNE 5, 1899.' Winslow Webber, City Engineer. Photocopied from the original plan in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

295

Chemical orientation of lobsters, homarus americanus, in turbulent odor plumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lobster,Homarus americanus, relies upon its lateral antennules to make initial directional choices in a turbulent odor plume. To determine whether chemical signals provide cues for source direction and distance during orientation, we studied the search patterns of the lobster orienting within a turbulent odor plume. In an odor plume, animals walked significantly more slowly and most often up the

Paul A. Moore; Nat Scholz; Jelle Atema

1991-01-01

296

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

297

Lease quota fishing in a changing rock lobster industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tasmanian rock lobster industry has been managed by Individually Transferable Quotas (ITQs) and several input control measures since 1998. In this study, nine years of rock lobster fishing business data were used to categorise the catch and quota ownership traits and examine the response to the introduction of ITQ management. More specifically the study investigates how profit drivers moderated

Ingrid van Putten; Caleb Gardner

2010-01-01

298

The eastern rock lobster, Jasus ver-reauxi, reportedly is the largest  

E-print Network

25 The eastern rock lobster, Jasus ver- reauxi, reportedly is the largest spiny rock lobster, comparisons of mitochondrial DNA from juvenile rock lobsters from NSW and New Zealand waters have suggested that the populations are genetically distinct (Brasher et al., 1992). The distribution of rock lobsters across habitat

299

Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery  

E-print Network

Essay Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery R. S (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture lobsters. Inflation- corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since

Matthews, Adrian

300

'THE SPINY LOBSTER, Panulirus argus, OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA: ITS NATURAL HISTORY AND UTILIZATION.  

E-print Network

'THE SPINY LOBSTER, Panulirus argus, OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA: ITS NATURAL HISTORY AND UTILIZATION lobster fishery of south- ern Florida . The spiny lobster fishery at Key West, Fla . Importance . Abuses in the fishery . Part 2.-Life history of the spiny lobster . Description

301

DYSBIOSIS IN EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS)  

E-print Network

DYSBIOSIS IN EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) NORMAN J. MERES,1 lobster (Homarus americanus) is continuing to affect the southern New England lobster population of the surface microflora of apparently healthy and diseased lobsters using multitag pyrosequencing to correlate

302

This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations.  

E-print Network

This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations. Florida Fish Lobster (Crawfish) Panulirus argus 7/2014 Regulations for Recreational Harvest and Lobster Information for Monroe County, Florida Facts For All Seasons: What To Know Before You Go. . . Possession: Lobster must

303

61(2), 1999 1 Homarid Lobster Hatcheries:Their History and Role  

E-print Network

61(2), 1999 1 Homarid Lobster Hatcheries:Their History and Role in Research, Management, and Aquaculture FRANK NICOSIA and KARI LAVALLI Frank W. Nicosia is with Tri-Aqua Gold Lobster Farms, P.O. Box 2--This paper provides an his- torical review of homarid lobster fisheries, the development and usage of lobster

304

Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic basalts is labradorite. The natural radiogenic dose rates for the alkalic basalts calculated on the basis of assumed secular equilibrium range from 0.228 to 0.462 rad per year and average 0.335 rad per year exclusive of the cosmic-ray energy dose and with the alpha-particle component equal to one-tenth of the total alpha decay energy. The TL measurements were made using material of a 37 to 44-micrometer size range; the crushing required during sample preparation was found to have a negligible effect on natural TL. Both natural and artificial TL were filtered to the bandwidth 3,500 A to 5,000 A to restrict the light detected to that from the plagioclase emission peak centered at about 4,500 A and associated with structural defects. Within this bandwidth, the natural TL from both the alkalic and tholeiitic basalt plagioclase consists of a single peak with a maximum amplitude at about 350?C; the artificial TL glow curves produced by an exposure of the drained samples to a standard dose of X-radiation consist of four broad, variably overlapping peaks with maxima at about 110?C, 150?C, 225?C, and 300?C. The maximum amplitude of the 350?C natural and 300?C artificial TL peaks, both produced by the same general activation energy distribution of trapping centers, were used for TL dating. The high-temperature artificial TL peak occurs at a lower temperature than the corresponding natural TL peak owing to the presence of a large number of electrons retained in traps near the lower end of the trap-depth energy range in samples whose TL is measured a short time after intense artificial irradiation. These traps remain essentially empty in the natural environment owing to spontaneous decay and do not produce measurable low-temperature natural TL peaks. With prolonged storage after irradiation, the 300?C artificial TL peak migrates to higher temperatures and decreases in amplitude.

May, Rodd James

1979-01-01

305

Heat flow and the thermal origin of hot spot swells: The Hawaiian Swell revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present 150 new heat flow measurements obtained at eight sites along a 1230-km-long profile across the Hawaiian Swell about 700 km ESE of Midway Island. Most of the measurements include in situ thermal conductivity determinations, which helped to reduce the statistical uncertainties (95% confidence) at all sites to <+\\/-2.1 mW m-2. Surprisingly, there is no systematic variation in heat

R. P. Von Herzen; M. J. Cordery; R. S. Detrick; Changle Fang

1989-01-01

306

Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot and its Geodynamic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of our ideas of where mantle plumes originate, how they interact with the convecting mantle and how plates have moved in the past rely on interpretations of the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track. One reason this volcanic lineament has attained this conceptual stature lies in its prominent bend at 43 Ma. The bend, which separates the westward trending Hawaiian islands from the northward-trending Emperor seamounts has no equal among the Earth's hotspot tracks; it is the clearest physical manifestation of a change in plate motion in a fixed hotspot reference frame. However, paleomagnetic data available from Suiko Seamount and Detroit Seamount of the Emperor trend (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 1997) suggest that the Emperor seamounts might primarily record drift of the Hawaiian hotspot in the mantle. ODP Leg 197 was designed to test this idea through drilling on Emperor trend seamounts. Record-setting basement penetration at five holes drilled during the leg has allowed us to both test this idea and learn more about the source and melting history of the Hawaiian hotspot. The paleolatitudes suggested from our preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of basement cores clearly differ from the latitude of Hawaii. The values are consistent with the hypothesis that the Hawaiian hotspot moved southward from 81 to 43 Ma at rates of 30 to 50 mm yr-1. These values, which are within the range of velocities typical of lithospheric plates, force us to reconsider the cause of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, rates of mantle convection and Pacific plate reconstructions based on the fixed hotspot assumption. This motion also precludes use of hotspots as a reference frame to calculate true polar wander, estimates of which may be too large by a factor of 5 when compared with global paleomagnetic data sets (Tarduno and Smirnov, EPSL, 2001).

Tarduno, J. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Scholl, D. W.

2002-05-01

307

Motion of Hawaiian Hotspot During Formation of the Emperor Seamounts: Initial Results of ODP Leg 197  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of our ideas of where mantle plumes originate, how they interact with the convecting mantle and how plates have moved in the past rely on interpretations of the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track. One reason this volcanic lineament has attained this conceptual stature lies in its prominent bent at 43 Ma. The bend, which separates the westward trending Hawaiian islands from the northward-trending Emperor seamounts has no equal among the Earth's hotspot tracks; it is the clearest physical manifestation of a change in plate motion in a fixed hotspot reference frame. However, attempts to model past plate motions have failed to predict the bend and there is no obvious change in spreading rate at 43 Ma in the well-studied marine magnetic anomaly record of the North Pacific. These observations, together with paleomagnetic data available from Suiko Seamount (Kono, 1980) and Detroit Seamount (Tarduno and Cottrell, 1997) suggest that the Emperor seamounts might primarily record drift of the Hawaiian hotspot in the mantle. ODP Leg 197 was designed to test this idea through basement drilling on Emperor trend seamounts. Record-setting basement penetration at five holes drilled during the leg has allowed us to both test this idea and learn more about the source and melting history of the Hawaiian hotspot. The paleolatitudes suggested from our preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of basement cores clearly differ from the latitude of Hawaii. The values are consistent with the hypothesis that the Hawaiian hotspot moved southward from 81 to 43 Ma at rates of 30 to 50 mm yr-1. These values, which are within the range of velocities typical of lithospheric plates, force us to reconsider the cause of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, rates of mantle convection and Pacific plate reconstructions based on the fixed hotspot assumption.

Tarduno, J. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Scholl, D. W.

2001-12-01

308

Effects of Terrain Heights and Sizes on Island-Scale Circulations and Rainfall for the Island of Hawaii during HaRP  

E-print Network

). The up- stream easterly trade wind flow is characterized by a moist conditionally unstable layer (2 km Islands in Hawaii have different sizes and terrain heights with notable differences in climate and weather- mate and weather. The island of Hawaii is the south- easternmost and the largest island in the Hawaiian

Chen, Yi-Leng

309

Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

Lafferty, K.D.

2004-01-01

310

The lobster fiefs: Economic and ecological effects of territoriality in the maine lobster industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobstermen from each community along the coast of central Maine claim inshore fishing rights in particular areas. Although their claims are unrecognized by the state, they are well established and backed by surreptitious violence. Two kinds of lobstering territories exist, here termed nucleated and perimeterdefended, which differ essentially in the extent to which exclusive fishing rights are maintained. These differences

James M. Acheson

1975-01-01

311

Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

312

Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

313

Evolutionary diversification and geographical isolation in Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is one the best examples of a plant adaptive radiation, exhibiting extensive morphological and ecological diversity. No research within this group has addressed the role of geographical isolation, independent of ecological adaptation, in contributing to taxonomic diversity. The aims of this study were to examine genetic differentiation among subspecies of Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae) to determine if allopatric or sympatric populations and subspecies form distinct genetic clusters to understand better the role of geography in diversification within the alliance. Methods Dubautia laxa is a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance, occurring on four of the five major islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, with four subspecies recognized on the basis of morphological, ecological and geographical variation. Nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequence data were examined. Data were analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methodologies to identify unique evolutionary lineages. Key Results Plastid DNA sequence data resolved two highly divergent lineages, recognized as the Laxa and Hirsuta groups, that are more similar to other members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance than they are to each other. The Laxa group is basal to the young island species of Dubautia, whereas the Hirsuta group forms a clade with the old island lineages of Dubautia and with Argyroxiphium. The divergence between the plastid groups is supported by Bayesian microsatellite clustering analyses, but the degree of nuclear differentiation is not as great. Clear genetic differentiation is only observed between allopatric populations, both within and among islands. Conclusions These results indicate that geographical separation has aided diversification in D. laxa, whereas ecologically associated morphological differences are not associated with neutral genetic differentiation. This suggests that, despite the stunning ecological adaptation observed, geography has also played an important role in the Hawaiian silversword alliance plant adaptive radiation. PMID:21193480

McGlaughlin, Mitchell E.; Friar, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

314

The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009¿2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae.  

PubMed

BackgroundA remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands.Results1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009¿2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as ¿cosmopolitan¿, 11.4% ¿endemic¿, and 61.3% as intermediate.ConclusionsThe Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which and serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:25343968

Sherwood, Alison R; Carlile, Amy L; Neumann, Jessica M; Kociolek, J; Johansen, Jeffrey R; Lowe, Rex L; Conklin, Kimberly Y; Presting, Gernot G

2014-10-25

315

Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45?years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000?km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the H?na and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85?g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

2013-01-01

316

Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.  

PubMed

Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and L?na'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

2012-01-24

317

Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states  

PubMed Central

Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and L?na‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

2012-01-01

318

Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett).  

PubMed

Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2-66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region. PMID:23617760

Work, T M; Aeby, G S

2014-04-01

319

Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

2014-01-01

320

Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

2012-12-01

321

A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods  

PubMed Central

Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O?ahu and Kaua?i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka?i, Lana?i, and Hawai?i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai?i, O?ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua?i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

2013-01-01

322

Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

2008-01-01

323

Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

2001-01-01

324

The imaging X-ray detector for Lobster-ISS  

E-print Network

Lobster-ISS is a revolutionary astrophysical X-ray all-sky monitor scheduled for deployment as an attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2009. Using a new wide field-of-view focusing optic, Lobster-ISS provides an order-of-magnitude improvement in the sensitivity of all-sky monitors in the soft X-ray band (0.1-3.0 keV). This lobster-eye optic presents unique challenges to the imaging X-ray detector at its focus. Micro-patterned imaging proportional counters, with thier mechanical simplicity and high performance, are the most practical means of meeting the requirements. We describe our design for the Lobster-ISS imaging detector based on direct-imaging micro-well proportional counters and the expected performance.

J. K. Black; A. N. Brunton; N. P. Bannister; P. Deines-Jones; K. Jahoda

2003-05-07

325

Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kama?ina i Na Makani a Me N? Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, N? 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian language teacher would use newspaper articles for terms, expressions, and ways native speakers expressed what they saw. She wrote "My students could then create their own observations, in Hawaiian, on today's climate and current conditions." Teachers recognize systems-oriented Hawaiian knowledge contributes to science instruction, but express constraints of schedules and policies. This feedback underscores the importance of 1) teacher teams collaborating across content areas and grade levels and 2) developing lessons that teachers adopt for their potential to engage culturally diverse and underrepresented students. Teachers recognize the need to develop their own local expertise and ability to integrate culture and science to create instructional spaces where Hawaiian and western science complement each other. Stories and science of local winds inspire teachers to learn and teach more about their places. Broader Impacts: Equity Science Education As over 95% of 1.5 million pages of text are in Hawaiian, the project 1) increases resources for science teachers, scientists, and informal science educators and 2) conveys the science underlying Hawaiian cultural practices.

Chinn, P. W.

2012-12-01

326

Spiny lobster, Jasus edwardsii, recovery in New Zealand marine reserves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abundance, size, biomass and reproductive output of spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, from replicated sites nested within four marine reserves and similar non-reserve locations in north-eastern New Zealand were compared. No time–series data were available from three of the reserves so the ages of the reserves (3–21 years) were used to infer temporal patterns of lobster population recovery. Linear models

S Kelly; D Scott; A. B MacDiarmid; R. C Babcock

2000-01-01

327

Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid  

E-print Network

Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes the growing interest in Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) as a contemporary cephalopod developmental, and potential uses of E. scolopes as model organisms, see The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

328

mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000–500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

2002-01-01

329

Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.  

PubMed

In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization. PMID:22844071

Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

2012-12-01

330

Effects of molting and environmental factors on trace metal body-burdens and hemocyanin concentrations in the American lobster, Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Hemocyanin concentrations in the hemolymph of marine crustacea are dependent on the molt cycle and on environmental conditions. Studies in our laboratories have found that hemocyanin levels in blue crabs are reduced after ecdysis and under conditions of environmental stress (Engel, Brouwer, & McKenna, 1993. Hemocyanin concentrations in marine crustaceans as a function of environmental conditions. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 93, 233-244). We have extended those studies to include the American lobster, Homarus americanus. Hemolymph and digestive gland tissues from Long Island Sound lobsters were analyzed for hemocyanin, copper, and zinc during different stages of the molt cycle. Hemocyanin, copper and zinc in the hemolymph were highest in premolt stages (D1-D4), and lowest in the postecdysal papershell stages (B1-B2). Concomitantly, copper in digestive glands decreased significantly following ecdysis, but no significant changes in the metals bound to metallothionein (MT) were observed. Copper-MT was the predominant form throughout the molt cycle, presumably because lobsters were obtained from copper-contaminated areas. To examine the effects of environmental factors, intermolt lobsters were collected from locations of different environmental quality along the Atlantic coast, and were analyzed for hemocyanin and trace metals. In general, animals from areas with a history of contamination showed the highest hemocyanin concentrations. PMID:11570806

Engel, D W; Brouwer, M; Mercaldo-Allen, R

2001-09-01

331

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

2011-01-01

332

Population Structure of Island-Associated Pantropical Spotted Dolphins Sarah Courbis1, Robin W. Baird2, Deborah Duffield1  

E-print Network

Population Structure of Island-Associated Pantropical Spotted Dolphins Sarah Courbis1, Robin W-identification studies of bottlenose and spinner dolphins have suggested they show site fidelity to individual Hawaiian islands, while photo-identification suggests other dolphins regularly move among islands. Coastal dolphin

Baird, Robin W.

333

Succulent and spiny : the Bahamas' quest for a sustainable lobster fishery  

E-print Network

The Caribbean spiny lobster fishery is one of the most important industries in the economy of the Bahamas, and in turn it is one of the largest lobster industries in the world. The natural geography of the Bahamas makes ...

Rood, Jennifer E., S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2014-01-01

334

33 CFR 100.110 - World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME. 100.110 Section...110 World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME. (a) Regulated area...commander may delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2010-07-01

335

33 CFR 100.118 - Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME. 100.118... § 100.118 Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated...commander may delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2010-07-01

336

78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...abide by the regulations, and lends credence to the overall management process. Removing abandoned gear (also called ``ghost gear'') would benefit the lobster resource because abandoned gear still traps, and potentially kills, lobster. NMFS...

2013-06-12

337

Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. ?13C and ?15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather ?15N and ?13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in ?15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in ?15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1,000 years. These data offer rare insight into the long-term fluxuations of seabird foraging habits as well as important information for the conservation of Hawaiian petrels and ultimately, the ecosystems they inhabit.

Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

2010-12-01

338

Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

2006-01-01

339

Asymmetric shallow mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian Swell—evidence from Rayleigh waves recorded by the PLUME network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present models of the 3-D shear velocity structure of the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the Hawaiian hotspot and surrounding region. The models are derived from long-period Rayleigh-wave phase velocities that were obtained from the analysis of seismic recordings collected during two year-long deployments for the Hawaiian Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment. For this experiment, broad-band seismic sensors were deployed at nearly 70 seafloor sites as well as 10 sites on the Hawaiian Islands. Our seismic images result from a two-step inversion of path-averaged dispersion curves using the two-station method. The images reveal an asymmetry in shear velocity structure with respect to the island chain, most notably in the lower lithosphere at depths of 60 km and greater, and in the asthenosphere. An elongated, 100-km-wide and 300-km-long low-velocity anomaly reaches to depths of at least 140 km. At depths of 60 km and shallower, the lowest velocities are found near the northern end of the island of Hawaii. No major velocity anomalies are found to the south or southeast of Hawaii, at any depth. The low-velocity anomaly in the asthenosphere is consistent with an excess temperature of 200-250 °C and partial melt at the level of a few percent by volume, if we assume that compositional variations as a result of melt extraction play a minor role. We also image small-scale low-velocity anomalies within the lithosphere that may be associated with the volcanic fields surrounding the Hawaiian Islands.

Laske, Gabi; Markee, Amanda; Orcutt, John A.; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Collins, John A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Detrick, Robert S.; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H.

2011-12-01

340

Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea  

E-print Network

Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea Szu-Ying Chou-old socially naïve male (SNM) lobster cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) spontaneously adopted an aggressive; Spontaneous aggressive posture Introduction The lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea (Dictyoptera: Bla

Huang, Zachary

341

Lobster neuromuscular junctions treated with black widow spider venom: Correlation between ultrastructure and physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Black widow spider venom (BWSV) causes marked physiological and morphological alterations at the lobster neuromuscular junction. BWSV is also active at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions but the component which acts on the lobster preparation is different from the one which affects vertebrates. Following exposure to BWSV, lobster neuromuscular junctions showed elevated frequencies of spontaneous miniature synaptic potentials for 15–30 min.

L. C. Fritz; H. L. Atwood; S. S. Jahromi

1980-01-01

342

INCIDENCE OF CULL LOBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH CATCHES OFF THE MAINE COASTI  

E-print Network

INCIDENCE OF CULL LOBSTERS, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN COMMERCIAL AND RESEARCH CATCHES OFF THE MAINE COASTI JAY S. KROUSE2 ABSTRACf Data obtained by port sampling the Maine commercial lobster catch (1968.74) and the natural lobster population near Boothbay Harbor, Maine, with research gear (1969-74) indicate that 6

343

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A person or vessel holding...engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval of the...

2012-10-01

344

American Lobster Fishery Proposed Rule Limited Entry and Trap Transfer Program  

E-print Network

American Lobster Fishery Proposed Rule Limited Entry and Trap Transfer Program June 12, 2013 What, Massachusetts) by capping the number of Federal lobster trap permits in these two areas based on a permit's lobster trap fishing history. The proposed rule also describes a trap transfer program that would allow

345

Serotonin in the Developing Stomatogastric System of the Lobster, Homarus americanus  

E-print Network

Serotonin in the Developing Stomatogastric System of the Lobster, Homarus americanus Kathryn S the development of the serotonergic modulation of the stomatogastric nervous system of the lobster, Homarus in lobsters, where it acts both as a circulating hormone and a neu- rally released signal to influence a large

Beltz, Barbara S.

346

50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26...

2011-10-01

347

Ionotropic GABA Receptor From Lobster Olfactory Projection A. B. ZHAINAZAROV,1  

E-print Network

Ionotropic GABA Receptor From Lobster Olfactory Projection Neurons A. B. ZHAINAZAROV,1 M. WACHOWIAK and B. W. Ache. Ionotropic GABA receptor from lobster olfactory additional diversity within these two lobster and analyzed by whole cell and of crustacean (Dudel and Hatt 1976).cell-free patch-clamp recording

Boettcher, Anne

348

THE PROTECTION OF THE LOBSTER FISHERY. By FRANCIS H. HERRICK, PH. D.,  

E-print Network

THE PROTECTION OF THE LOBSTER FISHERY. By FRANCIS H. HERRICK, PH. D., Professor ofBiology, Adelbert College. In the lobster fisheries we have an example of an industry which has increased rap. idly in value,062,392).2 In 1896 there were 14,285,157 cans of lobster packed in Oanada, having a value of $2,400,000. .The average

349

Vol 441|25 May 2006 Avoidance of disease by social lobsters  

E-print Network

Vol 441|25 May 2006 421 Avoidance of disease by social lobsters, nor- mally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected by healthy lobsters con- fers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour

350

Long-Term Consequences of Agonistic Interactions Between Socially Naive Juvenile American Lobsters  

E-print Network

Long-Term Consequences of Agonistic Interactions Between Socially Nai¨ve Juvenile American Lobsters¨ve juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) by examining the time frame over which be- havior changes- cially nai¨ve juvenile lobsters is influenced by fight experi- ence for at least 4 days. Though

Cromarty, Stuart I.

351

Temporal Dynamics of Graded Synaptic Transmission in the Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion  

E-print Network

Temporal Dynamics of Graded Synaptic Transmission in the Lobster Stomatogastric Ganglion Yair Manor of the lobster Panulirus interruptus is a graded func- tion of membrane potential, with a threshold of the spiny lobster Panulirus interruptus. The pyloric network of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of P

Columbia University

352

Follower Neurons in Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network Regulate Pacemaker Period in Complementary Ways  

E-print Network

Follower Neurons in Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network Regulate Pacemaker Period November 2002 Weaver, Adam L. and Scott L. Hooper. Follower neurons in lobster (Panulirus interruptus this technique to study cycle period control in the rhythmic pyloric network of the lobster, Panulirus

Hooper, Scott

353

The western Atlantic spiny lobster Panulirus argus undergoes an annual mass migration in which thousands of  

E-print Network

The western Atlantic spiny lobster Panulirus argus undergoes an annual mass migration in which thousands of lobsters vacate shallow, inshore areas and crawl seaward in single-file head-to-tail processions (reviewed by Kanciruk and Herrnkind, 1978; Herrnkind, 1980). Lines of lobsters within the same

Stetten, George

354

645Chen et al.--Lobster model Developing and evaluating a size-structured stock assessment  

E-print Network

645Chen et al.--Lobster model Developing and evaluating a size-structured stock assessment model for the American lobster, Homarus americanus, fishery YONG CHEN MINORU KANAIWA School of Marine Sciences University Resources West Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575 United States Abstract The American lobster, Homarus americanus

Chen, Yong

355

the American lobster (JIomaros americanus). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 30:1337-1344.  

E-print Network

the American lobster (JIomaros americanus). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 30:1337-1344. AIKEN, D. E. N.Y. 1980b. Maturity and reproduction in the American lobster. In V. C. Anthony and J. F. Caddy Lobster (Homaros americanus) Stocks, St. Andrews, N.B., Oct. 24-26, 1978. p. 59-71. Can. Tech. Rep. Fish

356

50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26...

2013-10-01

357

Genetic homogeneity and historical expansions of the slipper lobster, Scyllarides brasiliensis, in the south-west  

E-print Network

Genetic homogeneity and historical expansions of the slipper lobster, Scyllarides brasiliensis and population dynamics. The Brazilian slipper lobster, Scyllarides brasiliensis, is one of the most commercially important slipper lobster species in South America. We investigated, for the first time, the population

Solé-Cava, Antonio M.

358

Robotics and Autonomous Systems 30 (2000) 115131 Biomimetic robot lobster performs chemo-orientation in turbulence  

E-print Network

Robotics and Autonomous Systems 30 (2000) 115­131 Biomimetic robot lobster performs chemo Lobsters are capable of tracking turbulent plumes to their sources faster than can be accomplished by estimating a spatial gradient from time-averaging the concentration signal. We have used RoboLobster

359

Serotonin Depletion In Vivo Inhibits the Branching of Olfactory Projection Neurons in the Lobster Deutocerebrum  

E-print Network

Serotonin Depletion In Vivo Inhibits the Branching of Olfactory Projection Neurons in the Lobster pre- viously to retard the growth of the olfactory and accessory lobes of the lobster deutocerebrum neuropils. Key words: serotonin; development; lobster; Homarus ameri- canus; olfaction; olfactory projection

Beltz, Barbara S.

360

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Muscles Express the  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Muscles Express the Motor innervated by each motor neuron type of the rapid, rhythmic (cycle period, 1 sec) lobster pyloric network neural networks, although only one (the pyloric) innervates the muscles. Keywords:pyloricnetwork;lobster

Weaver, Adam Lee

361

The American lobster (Homarus ameri-canus Milne-Edwards, 1837) fishery in  

E-print Network

181 The American lobster (Homarus ameri- canus Milne-Edwards, 1837) fishery in the southwestern in the fluctuations of landings, including pos- sible lobster movements between lob- ster fishing areas (LFAs). Fishermen are particularly concerned by lobster movements because the minimal legal size increased

362

EFFECTIVENESS OF ESCAPE VENT SHAPE IN TRAPS FOR CATCHING LEGAL-SIZED LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS,  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVENESS OF ESCAPE VENT SHAPE IN TRAPS FOR CATCHING LEGAL-SIZED LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS was conducted to find an escape vent that would select similar sized lobsters as the rectangular vent, yet.4 mm) vents release shorts and retain legal lobsters (;;;'81 mm carapace length) equally well

363

INTRODUCTION The American Lobster in a Changing Ecosystem: A USCanada Science  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION The American Lobster in a Changing Ecosystem: A US­Canada Science Symposium, 27 To the American lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery in the Northeast US and Atlantic Canada, 2012 may have gone the relatively harmonious economics of Canada's winter and New England's summer lobster fisheries. The early molt

Bernatchez, Louis

364

A Description of a New ``Amoebozoan'' Isolated from the American Lobster, Homarus americanus  

E-print Network

A Description of a New ``Amoebozoan'' Isolated from the American Lobster, Homarus americanus of an amoeboid disease afflicting lobsters on the East Coast, samples were examined for the presence of amoebae from the carapace washings of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. During this survey a unique

Katz, Laura

365

50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622.453 Wildlife...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S...Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny...

2013-10-01

366

This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations.  

E-print Network

This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations. Florida Fish) 289-2805 Florida Spiny Lobster (Crawfish) Panulirus argus 7/2013 Regulations for Recreational Harvest and Lobster Information for Monroe County, Florida Facts For All Seasons: What To Know Before You Go

Florida, University of

367

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A person or vessel holding...engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval of the...

2013-10-01

368

Mechanisms Underlying Stabilization of Temporally Summated Muscle Contractions in the Lobster (Panulirus) Pyloric System  

E-print Network

Mechanisms Underlying Stabilization of Temporally Summated Muscle Contractions in the Lobster in the lobster (Panulirus) pyloric system. J Neurophysiol 85: 254­268, 2001. Mus- cles are the final effectors contraction in the well- investigated lobster pyloric system. We report here the mechanisms underlying

Hooper, Scott

369

LOBSTER FISHERY BY THE KUNA INDIANS IN THE SAN BLAS REGION OF PANAMA (KUNA YALA)  

E-print Network

LOBSTER FISHERY BY THE KUNA INDIANS IN THE SAN BLAS REGION OF PANAMA (KUNA YALA) BY ARCADIO maintain the rights to exploit shery resources in the area. Exportation of the spiny lobster, Panulirus. We gathered data on weight, length, sex, and reproductive state of all lobsters comprising the catch

Bermingham, Eldredge

370

50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26...

2010-10-01

371

50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26...

2012-10-01

372

50 CFR 622.406 - Areas closed to lobster trap gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Areas closed to lobster trap gear. 622.406 Section 622...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.406 Areas closed to lobster trap gear. (a) Fishing with...

2013-10-01

373

In situ observations of predatory feeding behaviour of the galatheid squat lobster Munida sarsi (Huus, 1935)  

E-print Network

In situ observations of predatory feeding behaviour of the galatheid squat lobster Munida sarsi squat lobster within the ¢eld of view (2 m2 ) was constantly surrounded by swarming krill. These swarms to the behaviour of the squat lobster. Selected sequences from the record were transferred from SVHS to DVD

National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

374

Intrinsic properties of amine-containing neurosecretory cells of lobsters: Spontaneous activity and autoinhibition  

E-print Network

1 Intrinsic properties of amine-containing neurosecretory cells of lobsters: Spontaneous activity roles in regulating or controlling aspects of the behavioral repertoire of animals. In lobsters; Edwards and Kravitz 1997). Immunocytochemical studies in the lobster central nervous system revealed about

Cromarty, Stuart I.

375

Patterns of Neurogenesis in the Midbrain of Embryonic Lobsters Differ from Proliferation in the  

E-print Network

Patterns of Neurogenesis in the Midbrain of Embryonic Lobsters Differ from Proliferation of the American lobster, Homarus americanus. In vivo bro- modeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling patterns show that three that the clearing time for BrdU is 2­3 days in lobster embryos, and that the sequence of proliferative events

Beltz, Barbara S.

376

EFFECTS OF TRAP SELECTIVITY AND SOME POPULATION PARAMETERS ON SIZE COMPOSITION OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER,  

E-print Network

LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, CATCH ALONG THE MAINE COASTl JAY S. KROUSE AND JAMES C. THOMAS' ABSTRACf Information collected aboard commercial lobster boats along the Maine coast (1971-73) revealed, among other things, high numbers of sublegal lobsters «81 mm carapace length) being handled by fishermen while

377

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER By Francis Hobart Herrick, Ph. D., Sc. D.  

E-print Network

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER J!. By Francis Hobart Herrick, Ph. D., Sc. D. Professor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 CHAPTER I. The lobsters and allied Crustacea; their zoological relations, habits, development. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 II. The American lobster; its economic importance and general habits. .. . . . . . . . . . . 169

378

MATURITY, SEX RATIO, AND SIZE COMPOSITION OF THE NATURAL POPULATION OF AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS A MERICANUS,  

E-print Network

MATURITY, SEX RATIO, AND SIZE COMPOSITION OF THE NATURAL POPULATION OF AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS A MERICANUS, ALONG THE MAINE COAST' JAY S. KROUSE' ABSTRACT From 1968 through 1970, American lobsters, Homarus graphically displayed the marked effects of high commercial exploitation on the natural lobster population

379

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A person or vessel holding...engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval of the...

2010-10-01

380

Serotonin Depletion by 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine Alters Deutocerebral Development in the Lobster,  

E-print Network

Serotonin Depletion by 5,7-Dihydroxytryptamine Alters Deutocerebral Development in the Lobster structures within the ric analyses suggested that serotonin depletionlarval and mature lobster deutocerebrum structures was investigated in Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 33: 357­373, 1997lobster embryos after

Beltz, Barbara S.

381

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24...Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A person or vessel holding...engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval of the...

2011-10-01

382

11.-THE TRANSPLANTING OF LOBSTERS TO THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES.  

E-print Network

11.-THE TRANSPLANTING OF LOBSTERS TO THE PACIFIC COAST OF THE UNITED STATES. RY RICHARD RATHBUN for reference the several attempts that have been made to iutroduce the Amer- ican lobster (Homarus amerioanus of the shipments should be pre- ceded by a few general remarks. The genuine lobsters of the North Atlantic Ocean

383

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network  

E-print Network

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus in the lobster (Panulirus interrup- tus) pyloric network. J Neurophysiol 90: 2378­2386, 2003. First published June 11, 2003; 10.1152/jn.00705.2002. The lobster pyloric network has a densely interconnected synaptic

Hooper, Scott

384

Development of chemically mediated prey-search response in postlarval lobsters (Homarus americanus) through feeding experience.  

PubMed

Postlarval lobsters were fed live amphipods (Gammarus oceanicus), soft clam spat (Mya arenaria), or frozen brine shrimp (Artemia salina) for five weeks in order to determine by behavioral bioassay if chemically mediated prey-search behavior is established by feeding experience. Chemosensory responses of predatorily naive lobsters to live clam and amphipod metabolites were low and erratic. After five weeks, amphipod-fed lobsters had developed strong responses towards amphipod metabolites but not clam metabolites. In contrast, clam-fed lobsters did not develop responses to either prey. Chemical fractionation of amphipod metabolites indicated that attractants were confined to the same fraction as for prey extracts, i.e., polar, low-molecular-weight compounds. Survival (80-90%) was similar for each diet group; growth was greatest for amphipod-fed lobsters (100%), followed by clam-fed lobsters (72%) and brine shrimp-fed lobsters (18%); and feeding rates increased for amphipod-fed lobsters and decreased for clam-fed lobsters. Coloration of lobsters indicated that only amphipod diet provided desirable pigments. Differences in ingestive conditioning results between clamfed and amphipod-fed lobsters may have been related to (1) clam metabolites being qualitatively or quantitatively less attractive than amphipod metabolites or (2) differences in the predisposition of lobsters to show ingestive conditioning to different prey and their associated metabolites as a function of quality of prey as a diet. PMID:24302144

Daniel, P C; Bayer, R C

1987-05-01

385

Development of chemically mediated prey-search response in postlarval lobsters ( Homarus americanus ) through feeding experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval lobsters were fed live amphipods (Gammarus oceanicus), soft clam spat (Mya arenaria), or frozen brine shrimp (Artemia salina) for five weeks in order to determine by behavioral bioassay if chemically mediated prey-search behavior is established by feeding experience. Chemosensory responses of predatorily naive lobsters to live clam and amphipod metabolites were low and erratic. After five weeks, amphipod-fed lobsters

Peter C. Daniel; Robert C. Bayer

1987-01-01

386

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J H

2001-07-01

387

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed Central

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J. H.

2001-01-01

388

Tropical Islands as Paleoecological Laboratories: Gauging the Consequences of Human Arrival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-island paleoecological comparisons have provided useful information concerning the role of humans vs. background-level disturbance in tropical ecosystems. Major ecological changes have occurred since human arrival in Madagascar, the West Indies, the Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere. Prehuman vegetation changes and disturbances have also been documented for many islands. Instructive inter-island similarities and differences have been detected in the chronology, distribution,

David A. Burney

1997-01-01

389

Thomas A. Jaggar, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Thomas A. Jaggar founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912 and served as its Director until 1940.  Shown here in 1925, Jaggar is at work in HVO's first building, which, at the time, was located on the northeast rim of K?lauea Volcano’s summit caldera, near the present-day Volc...

390

Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1994-01-01

391

Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

1976-01-01

392

It is generally accepted that temperature has a pervasive influence on the behavior and movements of lobsters  

E-print Network

of lobsters (Herrnkind, 1980; Factor, 1995). For example, pelagic lobster larvae actively avoid passing through a thermocline, choosing to remain in water warmer than 17°C (Boudreau et al. 1992), adult lobsters appear to follow isotherms to stay in warmer water (Ennis, 1984) and autumn migrations of spiny lobsters

Hinch, Scott G.

393

Movement of sterile male Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in a Hawaiian agroecosystem.  

PubMed

The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, invaded the Hawaiian Island chain in 1895. In 1999, a program sponsored by the USDA-ARS to control melon fly and other tephritid pests in Hawaii over a wide area was initiated on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Oahu. To control these flies in an areawide setting, understanding how flies move within the landscape is important. To explore the movement of this fly, we examined the movement of marked, male, sterile, laboratory-reared B. cucurbitae on the island of Hawaii in an agricultural setting. Two releases of dyed, sterile flies consisting of approximately 15,000 flies, were released 6 wk apart. Released flies were trapped back by using Moroccan traps baited with a male attractant. These two releases suggest that in the Hawaiian agricultural areas where the areawide control is being sought, melon flies do not move extensively when there are abundant larval host and adult roosting sites. Over the course of this study, only one fly made it the maximum distance that we could detect fly movement (approximately 2,000 m in 2 wk). From these data, it seems that the flies dispersed throughout the study area but then moved very little thereafter. This is very apparent in the second release where the recovery rate after the second week was still fairly high, suggesting that if there are plenty of host fields and roosting sites the flies are unlikely to move. PMID:16334322

Peck, Steven L; McQuate, Grant T; Vargas, Roger I; Seager, Dennis C; Revis, Hannah C; Jang, Eric B; McInnis, Don O

2005-10-01

394

Role of the deep mantle in generating the compositional asymmetry of the Hawaiian mantle plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear chains of volcanic ocean islands are one of the most distinctive features on our planet. The longest, the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, has been active for more than 80 million years, and is thought to have formed as the Pacific Plate moved across the Hawaiian mantle plume, the hottest and most productive of Earth's plumes. Volcanoes fed by the plume today form two adjacent trends, including Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa, that exhibit strikingly different geochemical characteristics. An extensive data set of isotopic analyses shows that lavas with these distinct characteristics have erupted in parallel along the Kea and Loa trends for at least 5 million years. Seismological data suggest that the Hawaiian mantle plume, when projected into the deep mantle, overlies the boundary between typical Pacific lower mantle and a sharply defined layer of apparently different material. This layer exhibits low seismic shear velocities and occurs on the Loa side of the plume. We conclude that the geochemical differences between the Kea and Loa trends reflect preferential sampling of these two distinct sources of deep mantle material. Similar indications of preferential sampling at the limit of a large anomalous low-velocity zone are found in Kerguelen and Tristan da Cunha basalts in the Indian and Atlantic oceans, respectively. We infer that the anomalous low-velocity zones at the core-mantle boundary are storing geochemical anomalies that are enriched in recycled material and sampled by strong mantle plumes.

Weis, Dominique; Garcia, Michael O.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Jellinek, Mark; Scoates, James S.

2011-12-01

395

An Invasive Fish and the Time-Lagged Spread of Its Parasite across the Hawaiian Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

Gaither, Michelle R.; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Bowen, Brian W.

2013-01-01

396

Surveys on the distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct wildlife surveys relative to identifying potential impacts of geothermal resource development on the native biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Hawaiian bat), or opeapea (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), within the proposed Hawaii geothermal subzones. Potential effects of geothermal development on Hawaiian bat populations are also discussed. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of bats throughout the District of Puna. Baseline information was collected to evaluate the status of bats within the study area and to identify important foraging habitats. Little specific data exists in the published literature on the population status and potential limiting factors affecting the Hawaiian bat. A USFWS recovery plan does not exist for this endangered species.

Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Dwyer, J.; Viggiano, A.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

1994-08-01

397

Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.  

PubMed

Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

2014-11-15

398

Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)  

SciTech Connect

A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

Ray, J.; White, M.

1981-12-01

399

Predicting The Timing And Location of the Next Hawaiian Volcano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also included in which students use their own calculations to predict when the next volcano on the Kea trend should appear.

Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kidau, Nicole

2010-01-01

400

Genetic divergence among extant and extirpated colonies of an endangered pelagic seabird, the Hawaiian petrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to consider both the temporal and spatial dimensions of variability in ecology and evolution. Given the potentially great dispersal capabilities and long generation times of pelagic seabirds, genetic diversity in these species seems likely to be homogeneously distributed and relatively static over time. Investigating temporal and spatial processes involved in the ecology and evolution of seabird populations is important to island ecosystem sustainability, as they play a significant role in transferring marine derived nutrients to terrestrial oceanic ecosystems. Additionally, many seabird species are threatened by extinction due to increasing mortality both at land and at sea. Here we investigate population divergence of the endemic and endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). We examined four extant colonies on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and Kauai, and employed ancient DNA techniques to study a prehistorically extirpated colony on Oahu, and a historically large, but likely extirpated, colony on the island of Molokai. Analyses of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene as well as nuclear microsatellite markers indicate substantial differentiation (global ?st of 0.38, p < 0.0001). Significant divergence was found among each pair of the six islands except between Oahu and Molokai (?st = 0.10, p = 0.07). However, this could result from low power due to the limited availability of amplifiable samples, especially for the hot, low elevation colony formerly present on Oahu. The largest differentiation occurred between the islands of Lanai and Kauai (?st = 0.58, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that despite their great dispersal capabilities, spatially proximate colonies of the Hawaiian petrel are not genetically homogenous. Additionally, the extirpation of large colonies, such as those on Oahu and Molokai, could result in loss of a substantial amount of genetic diversity. Future work should further investigate temporal population dynamics of this endangered species.

Welch, A. J.; Fleischer, R. C.; James, H. F.

2010-12-01

401

Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

2012-01-01

402

Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

1988-05-01

403

Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced inshore\\/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with non-pelagic eggs are most abundant close

J. M. Leis; J. M. Miller

1976-01-01

404

Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

405

Antioxidant activity of Hawaiian marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J; Tabandera, Nicole K; Wright, Patrick R; Wright, Anthony D

2012-02-01

406

Chemoreception in the antennule of the lobster, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemoreceptors in the lobster antennule respond electrophysiologically to a large range of pure chemical substances including amino acids, sugars, alcohols, amines and fatty acids, in several cases down to thresholds below 10 or 10 M. Test substances were introduced by pipette into a current of sea water flowing over the isolated antennule and responses were recorded by hook electrode from

Peter Shepheard

1973-01-01

407

Photodynamic Alteration of Sodium Currents in Lobster Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photodynamic alteration of lobster giant axons drastically changed the magnitude and kinetics of sodium currents seen under voltage clamp using the sucrose gap technique. Illumination of axons following treatment with acridine orange or eosin Y decreased the maximum sodium conductance to a zero asymptote as an exponential function of illumination time. Normal sodium inactivation was slowed, with rh more than

JOHN POOLER

1972-01-01

408

Modulation of the Lobster Pyloric Rhythm by the Peptide Proctolin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulation of the pyloric network of the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) of the lobster Panulirus interruptus by the neuropeptide proctolin is described. First, the effects of proctolin on the pyloric motor patterns were characterized in terms of frequency and phase rela- tions. Pyloric cycle frequency and lateral pyloric (LP) neuron activity increased and ventricular dilator (VD) neuron activity decreased with

Scott L. Hoopera; Eve Marder

1987-01-01

409

Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage- clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations

TOSHIO NARAHASHI; JOHN W. MOORE; WILLIAM R. SCOTT

1964-01-01

410

The Lobster Tale: An Exercise in Critical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…

Stepanovich, Paul L.

2009-01-01

411

Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment  

PubMed Central

In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

2011-01-01

412

Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

2010-02-01

413

Koolau Revisited: Vertical, Short-Scale Heterogeneities in the Hawaiian Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The subaerial Makapuu stage lavas on the Koolau volcano define the isotopically enriched endmember of the Hawaiian lavas. Their compositions are central to the debate for the presence of recycled oceanic crust and the scales of heterogeneity in the Hawaiian plume. Despite their importance, however, relatively few isotope analyses exist. Here we report new high precision isotope data (Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb) and major / trace element compositions on newly collected samples from the Makapuu Head, Koolau. The new data extends to more unradiogenic isotopic compositions (?Nd= -1.3 - 3.0) than previously reported in Hawaiian lavas. In ?Hf - ?Nd space the Makapuu lavas define a shallower slope (0.75, r2 = 0.92) than all other Hawaiian lavas, while in Sr-Nd isotope space they define the steepest slope. On a 208Pb/204Pb vs. ?Nd plot, these lavas define a well correlated negative array that is best explained by the presence of a depleted component (low 208Pb/204Pb - high ?Nd) in the Makapuu source, similar to the isotopic characteristics of pyroxenite xenoliths and rejuvenated stage lavas from the Oahu and Kaula island. When plotted on any combination of 3-isotope systems (3D plots) the Makapuu and the stratigraphically lower KSDP lavas, show well defined but non-intersecting binary arrays. This feature cannot be explained by any two or three- component mixing, and requires that the plume source changed significantly and abruptly during the shield stage volcanism at Koolau. A reexamination of available high precision isotope data from other Hawaiian volcanoes further shows that each shield volcano defines a unique linear array (implying binary mixing) in all 3D isotope plot combinations that involve Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes. Note that, in general, there is very little overlap between the individual arrays. This requires that only a unique set of two end members, responsible for the isotopic variability of each volcano, is available during the eruption of that particular volcano. This observation is consistent with vertical heterogeneity within the Hawaiian plume. If vertical streaks are present within the upwelling plume (i.e. 'spaghetti' model), then the tight binary arrays defined by each volcano require that the compositions of the "streaks" are relatively constant but only present during the life cycle of each shield volcano (~500 ky). The "streaks" must have a finite length (i.e. short 'spaghetti', perhaps 'penne') in order to account for the volcano-to-volcano variability. While the concentrically zoned plume or the asymmetrically bilateral plume models are consistent with some large-scale lateral features of the Hawaiian plume (e.g. Loa - Kea trends) our data suggests that there is also considerable vertical heterogeneity within the Hawaiian plume.

Bizimis, M.; Salters, V. J.; Huang, S.

2008-12-01

414

Diversification and Dispersal of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae: the evolution of Scaptomyza  

PubMed Central

The genus Scaptomyza is emerging as a model lineage in which to study biogeography and ecological adaptation. To place future research on these species into an evolutionary framework we present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Scaptomyza to date, based on 5042 bp of DNA sequence data and representatives from 13 of 21 subgenera. We find evidence that the lineage originated in the Hawaiian Islands and subsequently dispersed to the mainland and other remote oceanic islands. We also identify that many of the unique ecological niches exploited by this lineage (e.g., herbivory, spider predation) arose singly and independently. We find strong support for the monophyly of almost all subgenera with exceptions corroborating hypotheses of conflict inferred from previous taxonomic studies. PMID:23669011

Lapoint, Richard T.; O'Grady, Patrick M.; Whiteman, Noah K.

2013-01-01

415

DIRECTIONALITY IN THE WHISTLES OF HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHINS  

E-print Network

DIRECTIONALITY IN THE WHISTLES OF HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHINS (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS): A SIGNAL@hawaii.edu ABSTRACT Dolphins produce frequency modulated (FM) whistles that are thought to promote the synchrony-ranging Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) were obtained using a towed, three-hydrophone line array

416

BEHAVIOR OF THE HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHIN, STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS  

E-print Network

BEHAVIOR OF THE HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHIN, STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS KENNETH S. NORRIS AND THOMAS P. Thus, however difficult it might be, the naturalist who would study dolphin behavior feels the need. DOHL' ABSTRACT The Hawaiian spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, was recorded from Kure Atoll

417

Teacher Technology Narratives: Native Hawaiian Views on Education and Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Narrative inquiry is a method by which "silenced voices" may be heard. In this study, eight Native Hawaiian teachers share their experiences of the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP), or Papahana Kaiapuni, within the Hawai'i public school system. The teachers describe change over time in HLIP with a focus on technology and…

Yong, D. Lilinoe; Hoffman, Ellen S.

2014-01-01

418

HAWAIIAN VASCULAR PLANT UPDATES: A SUPPLEMENT TO THE MANUAL OF  

E-print Network

Page 1 HAWAIIAN VASCULAR PLANT UPDATES: A SUPPLEMENT TO THE MANUAL OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF HAWAI and other literature on Hawaiian vascular plants, including other research papers currently in press or soon to the two volume book on flowering plants [Wagner, W. L., D. R. Herbst, and S. H. Sohmer. 1999. Manual

Mathis, Wayne N.

419

Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

2012-01-01

420

Asian\\/Pacific Islander Youth Violence Prevention Center: Interpersonal Violence and Deviant Behaviors among Youth in Hawai‘i  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeThis study investigates the prevalence rates of violent and deviant behaviors among a sample of Filipino, Hawaiian, Japanese, and Samoan public high school students residing in Hawai‘i, and is the first relatively large-scale study of its kind regarding a disaggregated sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) youth. Filipino, Hawaiian, and Samoan adolescents were the chosen ethnic groups for

David T. Mayeda; Earl S. Hishinuma; Stephanie T. Nishimura; Orlando Garcia-Santiago; Gregory Y. Mark

2006-01-01

421

The Hawaiian Archipelago: a microbial diversity hotspot.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian Archipelago is a "biodiversity hotspot" where significant endemism among eukaryotes has evolved through geographic isolation and local topography. To address the absence of corresponding region-wide data on Hawaii's microbiota, we compiled the first 16S SSU rDNA clone libraries and cultivated bacteria from five Hawaiian lakes, an anchialine pool, and the L?'ihi submarine volcano. These sites offer diverse niches over approximately 5000 m elevation and approximately 1150 nautical miles. Each site hosted a distinct prokaryotic community dominated by Bacteria. Cloned sequences fell into 158 groups from 18 Bacteria phyla, while seven were unassigned and two belonged in the Euryarchaeota. Only seven operational taxonomic units (each OTU comprised sequences that shared > or =97% sequence identity) occurred in more than one site. Pure bacterial cultures from all sites fell into 155 groups (each group comprised pure cultures that shared > or =97% 16S SSU rDNA sequence identity) from 10 Bacteria phyla; 15 Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were cultivated from more than one site. One hundred OTUs (60%) and 52 (33.3%) cultures shared <97% 16S SSU rDNA sequence identity with published sequences. Community structure reflected habitat chemistry; most delta-Proteobacteria occurred in anoxic and sulfidic waters of one lake, while beta-Proteobacteria were cultivated exclusively from fresh or brackish waters. Novel sequences that affiliate with an Antarctic-specific clade of Deinococci, and Candidate Divisions TM7 and BRC1, extend the geographic ranges of these phyla. Globally and locally remote, as well as physically and chemically diverse, Hawaiian aquatic habitats provide unique niches for the evolution of novel communities and microorganisms. PMID:15696384

Donachie, S P; Hou, S; Lee, K S; Riley, C W; Pikina, A; Belisle, C; Kempe, S; Gregory, T S; Bossuyt, A; Boerema, J; Liu, J; Freitas, T A; Malahoff, A; Alam, M

2004-11-01

422

Accounting for Subgroup Structure in Line-Transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian Waters  

PubMed Central

For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n?=?5) and NWHI (n?=?1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n?=?5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai’i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?479–5,030) and 552 (CV?=?1.09; 95% CI?=?97–3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns. PMID:24587372

Bradford, Amanda L.; Forney, Karin A.; Oleson, Erin M.; Barlow, Jay

2014-01-01

423

GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

2013-07-01

424

77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...possess undersized and berried Caribbean spiny lobster for non-lethal sampling (tagging) during the course of their normal fishing activities. This non-lethal sampling would include implanting a tag on each spiny lobster before...

2012-12-28

425

76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment...the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP),...

2011-09-23

426

76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment...the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP),...

2011-12-02

427

The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS  

E-print Network

Lobster-ISS is an X-ray all-sky monitor experiment selected by ESA two years ago for a Phase A study (now almost completed) for a future flight (2009) aboard the Columbus Exposed Payload Facility of the International Space Station. The main instrument, based on MCP optics with Lobster-eye geometry, has an energy passband from 0.1 to 3.5 keV, an unprecedented daily sensitivity of 2x10^{-12} erg cm^{-2}s$^{-1}, and it is capable to scan, during each orbit, the entire sky with an angular resolution of 4--6 arcmin. This X-ray telescope is flanked by a Gamma Ray Burst Monitor, with the minimum requirement of recognizing true GRBs from other transient events. In this paper we describe the GRBM. In addition to the minimum requirement, the instrument proposed is capable to roughly localize GRBs which occur in the Lobster FOV (162x22.5 degrees) and to significantly extend the scientific capabilities of the main instrument for the study of GRBs and X-ray transients. The combination of the two instruments will allow an unprecedented spectral coverage (from 0.1 up to 300/700 keV) for a sensitive study of the GRB prompt emission in the passband where GRBs and X-Ray Flashes emit most of their energy. The low-energy spectral band (0.1-10 keV) is of key importance for the study of the GRB environment and the search of transient absorption and emission features from GRBs, both goals being crucial for unveiling the GRB phenomenon. The entire energy band of Lobster-ISS is not covered by either the Swift satellite or other GRB missions foreseen in the next decade.

L. Amati; F. Frontera; N. Auricchio; E. Caroli; A. Basili; A. Bogliolo; G. Di Domenico; T. Franceschini; C. Guidorzi; G. Landini; N. Masetti; E. Montanari; M. Orlandini; E. Palazzi; S. Silvestri; J. B. Stephen; G. Ventura

2006-05-11

428

THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF LOBSTER NEUROMUSCULAR SYNAPSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of drugs on resting potential, membrane resistance, and excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.'s and i.p.s.p.'s) of lobster muscle fibers were studied using intracellular microelectrodes Acetylcholine, d-tubocurarine, strychnine, and other drugs of respectively related actions on vertebrate synapses were without effects even in 1 per cent solutions (10 -2 w\\/v). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acted powerfully and nearly maximally at

H. Grundfest; J. P. REUBEN; W. H. RICKLES

1959-01-01

429

The Spectral Sensitivity of Crayfish and Lobster Vision  

PubMed Central

(1) The spectral sensitivity function for the compound eye of the crayfish has been determined by recording the retinal action potentials elicited by monochromatic stimuli. Its peak lies at approximately 570 mµ. (2) Similar measurements made on lobster eyes yield functions with maxima in the region of 520 to 525 mµ, which agree well with the absorption spectrum of lobster rhodopsin if minor allowances are made for distortion by known screening pigments. (3) The crayfish sensitivity function, since it is unaffected by selective monochromatic light adaptation, must be determined by a single photosensitive pigment. The absorption maximum of this pigment may be inferred with reasonable accuracy from the sensitivity data. (4) The visual pigment of the crayfish thus has its maximum absorption displaced by 50 to 60 mµ towards the red end of the spectrum from that of the lobster and other marine crustacea. This shift parallels that found in both rod and cone pigments between fresh water and marine vertebrates. In the crayfish, however, an altered protein is responsible for the shift and not a new carotenoid chromophore as in the vertebrates. (5) The existence of this situation in a new group of animals (with photoreceptors which have been evolved independently from those of vertebrates) strengthens the view that there may be strong selection for long wavelength visual sensitivity in fresh water. PMID:13752502

Kennedy, Donald; Bruno, Merle S.

1961-01-01

430

Lobster attack induces sensitization in the sea hare, Aplysia californica.  

PubMed

Studies of the neural mechanisms of learning, especially of sensitization, have benefitted from extensive research on the model species, Aplysia californica (hereafter Aplysia). Considering this volume of literature on mechanisms, it is surprising that our understanding of the ecological context of sensitization in Aplysia is completely lacking. Indeed, the widespread use of strong electric shock to induce sensitization (an enhancement of withdrawal reflexes following noxious stimulation) is completely unnatural and leaves unanswered the question of whether this simple form of learning has any ecological relevance. We hypothesized that sublethal attack by a co-occurring predator, the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, might be a natural sensitizing stimulus. We tested reflex withdrawal of the tail-mantle and head of individual Aplysia before and after attack by lobsters. Lobster attack significantly increased the amplitude of both reflexes, with a temporal onset that closely matched that observed with electric shock. This result suggests that electric shock may indeed mimic at least one naturally occurring sensitizing stimulus, suggesting, for the first time, an ecological context for this well studied form of learning. PMID:20720109

Watkins, Amanda J; Goldstein, Daniel A; Lee, Lucy C; Pepino, Christina J; Tillett, Scott L; Ross, Francis E; Wilder, Elizabeth M; Zachary, Virginia A; Wright, William G

2010-08-18

431

Pacific Islanders—Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

432

Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

2010-01-01

433

Synaptic connectivity of amine-containing neurosecretory cells of lobsters: Inputs to 5HT-and OCT-containing neurons  

E-print Network

- 1 - Synaptic connectivity of amine-containing neurosecretory cells of lobsters: Inputs to 5HT like aggression. In lobsters the biogenic amines 5HT and OCT appear to be involved in the modulation also influence how long losing lobsters and crayfish are willing to fight (Huber et al., 1997

Cromarty, Stuart I.

434

76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South...Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South...Amendment 10 proposes actions to revise the lobster species contained within the fishery...

2011-09-02

435

PaV1 infection in the Florida spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) fishery and its effects on trap  

E-print Network

PaV1 infection in the Florida spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) fishery and its effects on trap. Shields Abstract: The Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) supports the most economically valuable, sublegal-sized lobsters that attract other lob- sters due to their social nature. This species is also

436

THE FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF THE LATERAL PYLORIC AND VENTRICULAR DILATOR NEURONS IN THE PYLORIC NETWORK OF THE LOBSTER,  

E-print Network

OF THE LOBSTER, Panulirus interruptus. A dissertation presented to the faculty of the College of Arts AND VENTRICULAR DILATOR NEURONS IN THE PYLORIC NETWORK OF THE LOBSTER, Panulirus interruptus. BY ADAM L. WEAVER roles of the Lateral Pyloric and Ventricular Dilator neurons in the pyloric network of the lobster

Weaver, Adam Lee

437

Quantification of Gastric Mill Network Effects on a Movement Related Parameter of Pyloric Network Output in the Lobster  

E-print Network

Output in the Lobster JEFF B. THUMA AND SCOTT L. HOOPER Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological parameter of pyloric network output in the lobster. J Neurophysiol 87: 2372­2384, 2002; 10.1152/jn.00476 mill cycle [as measured from the beginning of Gastric Mill (GM) neuron bursts] in the lobster, Panu

Hooper, Scott

438

LOBSTER TRAP TAG REPLACEMENT FORM Your request for the replacement of trap tags in an amount exceeding 10 % of your  

E-print Network

LOBSTER TRAP TAG REPLACEMENT FORM Your request for the replacement of trap tags in an amount lobster fishery by helping to restrict the number of traps fished by an individual permit holder and thus enforce that provision of the effort reduction program for the American Lobster Fishery. Public reporting

439

The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS L. Amati a,*, F. Frontera a,b  

E-print Network

The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS L. Amati a,*, F. Frontera a,b , N. Auricchio a , E 11 December 2004; received in revised form 1 June 2005; accepted 2 June 2005 Abstract Lobster Space Station. The main instrument, based on MCP optics with Lobster-eye geometry, has an energy

Bogliolo, Alessandro

440

Effects of disease and ocean acidification on the den sharing behavior of juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus  

E-print Network

lobster, Panulirus argus Scott Donald Miller Calhoun Honors Undergraduate Thesis Department of BiologicalClellan, B Quirk-Royal, and K Smith, for their help with animal care. Their help keeping the lobsters alive Laboratory for assisting with lobster collection and the Clemson University Creative Inquiry Fund

Childress, Michael J.

441

2012 Tasha Seiter Feeding behavior of the lobster Paper: JB Thuma, KH Hobbs, HJ Burstein, NS Seiter, SL Hooper (2013)  

E-print Network

2012 Tasha Seiter Feeding behavior of the lobster Paper: JB Thuma, KH Hobbs, HJ Burstein, NS Seiter in lobster (Panulirus) pyloric network". 1999-2001 Kevin Hobbs. Identification of the muscles innervated, SL Hooper (2007) Muscle anatomy is a primary determinant of muscle relaxation dynamics in the lobster

Hooper, Scott

442

Biomimetic robot lobster performs chemo-orientation in turbulence using a pair of spatially separated sensors: Progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobsters are capable of tracking turbulent plumes to their sources faster than can be accomplished by estimating a spatial gradient from time-averaging the concentration signal. We have used RoboLobster, a biomimetic robot lobster to investigate biologically scaled chemotaxis algorithms using two point concentration sampling to track a statistically characterized turbulent plume. Our results identify the range of effectiveness of these

Frank W. Grasso; Thomas R. Consi; Jelle Atema

2000-01-01

443

A LONG~ERM STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR AND SURVIVAL OF EARLY JUVENILE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, IN  

E-print Network

A LONG~ERM STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR AND SURVIVAL OF EARLY JUVENILE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS lobsters. Hmn.a.rIl8 (uneriCanIl8, was conducted in three different naturalistic habitats of mud. rocks with algae. and eelgrass. Fifteen narrow aquaria (10 em wide) allowed visual observations of American lobster

444

Quantification of Cardiac Sac Network Effects on a Movement-Related Parameter of Pyloric Network Output in the Lobster  

E-print Network

Output in the Lobster JEFF B. THUMA AND SCOTT L. HOOPER Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological on a movement-related parameter of pyloric network output in the lobster. J Neurophysiol 89: 745­753, 2003; 10 of cardiac sac activity on the OSF of all pyloric neurons in the lobster, Panulirus interruptus

Hooper, Scott

445

Dispersal of lobster larvae within and between coastal bays in the eastern Gulf of Maine: Preliminary model studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lobster (Homarus americanus) supports the most important coastal fishery in the Gulf of Maine. Over the last decade, lobster landing rates have roughly doubled, leading to concerns about sustainable levels of the fishery. Informed management requires better understanding of the physical processes responsible for the dispersal of lobster larvae by shelf and coastal currents and the exchange of post-larvae

D. Brooks

2003-01-01

446

Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

2003-01-01

447

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697...Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A...permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person...

2014-10-01

448

33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section...100.109 Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated...commander may delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2010-07-01

449

33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section... § 100.111 Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. (a) Regulated area...the right to delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2010-07-01

450

A Quantitative Analysis of Agonistic Behavior in Juvenile American Lobsters (Homarus americanus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In these studies a quantitative analysis of agonistic (fighting) behavior in lobsters is presented as a first step in our attempt to relate patterns of behavior to underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The agonistic behavior of juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L.) was studied in laboratory tanks at the New England Aquarium. Using video analyses and statistical techniques: (1) an ethogram of

R. Huber; E. A. Kravitz

1995-01-01

451

Recruitment Habitats and Nursery Grounds of the American Lobster Homarus Americanus: A Demographic Bottleneck?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified benthic recruitment habitats and nursery grounds of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards in the coastal Gulf of Maine, USA, by systematically censusing subtidal sediment, cobble, and ledge substrata. We distinguish lobsters between settlement size (5 mm carapace length (CL) to ca 40 mm CL as the 'early benthic phase' (EBP) because they are ecologically and

Richard Wahle; Robert Steneck

1991-01-01

452

Finestkind: The American Lobster. A Learning Experience for Marine Education. Northern New England Marine Education Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This interdisciplinary unit is intended for use in the fourth grade. Through discussion of the American Lobster, its economics, history, literature, and biology, the unit describes the effects of the marine environment on human history and culture. Sections deal with how marine organisms have evolved. Detailed descriptions are provided of lobster

Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

453

Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

2014-08-01

454

Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules

D. V. Devine; JELLE ATEMA

1982-01-01

455

Quality Evaluation of American Lobsters Fed Diets Containing Crab Processing Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of incorporating wet crab processing waste (CW) into pelleted feeds on (1) weight gain; (2) shell strength; (3) sensory quality; and (4) proximate composition of American lobsters. Soft shell lobsters were fed one of three pelleted diets (0%, 20% or 40% CW) or a cod rack control (industry standard diet)

Denise I. Skonberg; Darrell W. Donahue; Robert C. Bayer; Eric Floreto; John G. Riley

2001-01-01

456

Changing lobster abundance and the destruction of kelp beds by sea urchins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study area in Nova Scotia, Canada, abundance of the lobster Homarus americanus decreased by nearly 50% in 14 years. The lobster is a major predator of sea urchins, and during the past 6 years the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis has destroyed 70% of the beds of Laminaria spp. in the area. Implications for management are discussed.

P. A. Breen; K. H. Mann

1976-01-01

457

Selective Allergy to Lobster in a Case of Primary Sensitization to House Dust Mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Allergy to only 1 kind of seafood is uncommon. We report a case of selective allergy to lobster. We studied a 30-year-old man who suffered generalized urticaria, facial erythema, and pharyngeal pruritus after eating lobster. He had a more than 10-year history of mild persistent asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. The study was performed by skin

A Iparraguirre; R Rodríguez-Pérez; S Juste; A Ledesma; I Moneo; ML Caballero

458

A Rapid Method for Determination of Oxytetracycline Levels in the American Lobster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxytetracycline (Terramycin) is used to control gaffkemia disease in American lobsters (Homarus americanus) held for commercial sale. A time-consuming zone diffusion residue test is used to ensure that no antibiotics remain in the edible tissue before lobsters are put on the market. The diffusion test was compared with a commercially available Delvotest P procedure – a simple, sensitive test that

Kathleen Anderson; Robert C. Bayer

1991-01-01

459

Hawaiian hoary bat occupancy at Kaloko-Honok?hau National Historical Park  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) vocalizations were recorded using Anabat SD1 and Song Meter SM2Bat ultrasonic recorders at four monitoring stations in Kaloko-Honok?hau National Historical Park on the island of Hawai‘i. We hypothesize that echolocation call events are more numerous during the reproductive season of this bat. Bat detectors recorded from 1700 to 0730 hrs on a total of 42 nights between October 2011 and September 2012. Peak activity occurred between 1800 and 2000 hrs, although in May a secondary peak occurred between 0100 and 0300 hrs. Detectability proportions (0 to 1.0) were calculated using the software program PRESENCE (v4.2) and reported for each seven day recording session which was repeated on a bimonthly schedule. Hawaiian hoary bats were present in four of the six bimonthly surveys: January, May, September, and October; however, no bat calls were detected in March or July. Detectability of bat calls was above 0.50 in January, May, and September. Foraging buzzes, indicating feeding activity, were recorded in all months that bats were present.

Bonaccorso, Frank; Pinzari, Corina; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina

2014-01-01

460

Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds  

PubMed Central

Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

461

48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

2010-10-01

462

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Monitors Klauea's Summit Eruption  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (foreground) is located on the caldera rim of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i?the most active volcano in the world.  The observatory's location provides an excellent view of summit eruptive activity, which began in 2008....

463

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Monitors Kilauea's Summit Eruption  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (foreground) is located on the caldera rim of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i?the most active volcano in the world.  The observatory's location provides an excellent view of summit eruptive activity, which began in 2008....

464

AN EXAMINATION OF MOVEMENTS OF BOTTLENOSE DOLPHINS BETWEEN ISLANDS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLAND CHAIN  

E-print Network

.5 individuals) were encountered during 28 days of field effort, and 58 individuals with long-term markings were Information on population size, residency and movements of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) around documented in the three areas. Of the 18 individuals identified off Maui/Lanai, 11 of these had been

Baird, Robin W.

465

A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.  

PubMed

Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

2014-01-01

466

Using molecular prey detection to quantify rock lobster predation on barrens-forming sea urchins.  

PubMed

We apply qPCR molecular techniques to detect in situ rates of consumption of sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). A non-lethal method was used to source faecal samples from trap-caught lobsters over 2 years within two no-take research reserves. There was high variability in the proportion of lobsters with faeces positive for sea urchin DNA across years and seasons dependent on lobster size. Independent estimates of lobster predation rate on sea urchins (determined from observed declines in urchin abundances in the reserves relative to control sites) suggest that rates of molecular prey detection generally overestimated predation rates. Also, small lobsters known to be incapable of directly predating emergent sea urchins showed relatively high rates of positive tests. These results indicate that some lobsters ingest non-predatory sources of sea urchin DNA, which may include (i) ingestion of C. rodgersii DNA from the benthos (urchin DNA is detectable in sediments and some lobsters yield urchin DNA in faeces when fed urchin faeces or sediment); (ii) scavenging; and/or predation by rock lobsters on small pre-emergent urchins that live cryptically within the reef matrix (although this possibility could not be assessed). While the DNA-based approach and direct monitoring of urchin populations both indicate high predation rates of large lobsters on emergent urchins, the study shows that in some cases absolute predation rates and inferences of predator-prey interactions cannot be reliably estimated from molecular signals obtained from the faeces of benthic predators. At a broad semi-quantitative level, the approach is useful to identify relative magnitudes of predation and temporal and spatial variability in predation. PMID:24844936

Redd, K S; Ling, S D; Frusher, S D; Jarman, S; Johnson, C R

2014-08-01

467

A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2–6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6–12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

2014-01-01

468

Heat flow and the thermal origin of hot spot swells: The Hawaiian Swell revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 150 new heat flow measurements obtained at eight sites along a 1230-km-long profile across the Hawaiian Swell about 700 km ESE of Midway Island. Most of the measurements include in situ thermal conductivity determinations, which helped to reduce the statistical uncertainties (95% confidence) at all sites to <±2.l mW m-2. Surprisingly, there is no systematic variation in heat flow across the axis of the swell. With one exception, the mean heat flow (corrected for sedimentation) at each site is within ±10% of the mean value of 57.7±4.3 (S.D.) mW m-2 for all sites. At the two sites at either end of the profile, clearly located off the swell, the observed heat flow is >59 mW m-2, about 20% higher than the predicted heat flow for 100 Ma seafloor based on simple lithospheric cooling models. Thus even though there is a small increase in heat flow with age along the swell, when compared with the off-swell heat flux, the anomalous heat flow associated with the Hawaiian Swell is probably of the order of 5-10 mW m-2 and arguably may not exist at all. A previous investigation [Von Herzen et al., 1982] may have overestimated the magnitude of the heat flow anomaly associated with the Hawaiian Swell by comparing heat flux measurements on the swell with values expected for simple lithospheric cooling models. The heat flow anomalies associated with the Bermuda Rise and the Cape Verde Rise may also be smaller than previously estimated, given the uncertainties in the heat flux on the normal seafloor surrounding these swells. The lack of a significant heat flow anomaly associated with the bathymetric expression of the Hawaiian Swell is inconsistent with simple models of lithospheric reheating. Dynamic support, accompanied by modest temperature increases (<100°-200°C) confined to the lower lithosphere, and underlying asthenosphere appear to be required to explain both the height of the swell and its small heat flow anomaly. However, detailed modeling of the origin of midplate swells, and their associated heat flow anomalies, is hampered by our lack of understanding of the thermal evolution of old (>80 Ma) oceanic lithosphere.

von Herzen, R. P.; Cordery, M. J.; Detrick, R. S.; Fang, Changle

1989-10-01