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Sample records for hawaiian islands lobster

  1. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2013 at zero lobsters....

  2. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in...

  3. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster...

  4. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2011 is established at...

  5. Some preliminary findings on the nutritional status of the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, F.A.; Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the nutritional status of spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) were collected on the commercial trapping grounds of Necker Bank, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, in the summers of 1991, 1994, and 1995. Glycogen levels measured in abdominal tissue of intermolt males were used as an index of nutritional health of the field population. The range of glycogen sampled from wild lobster was less than half the level measured in captive lobster fed to satiation in a previous study. An analysis of covariance identified significant interannual and spatial effects explaining 46% of the variance in the sample of wild lobsters. Most significant was a decline in lobster glycogen levels between samples collected in 1991 and 1994-1995. Seasonal influences on lobster nutrition are unknown and were identified as an obvious direction for future ecological research.

  6. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    In this view of the entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.0N, 157.0W), the islands perturb the prevailing northeastewrly winds producing extensive cloud wakes in the lee of the islands. The atmospheric haze within the wake is a result of the near continuous eruptions of Kilauea volcano on the southeast coast of the big island of Hawaii.

  7. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  8. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  9. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Practices Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS Infant Heath & Mortality ... Islanders and Cancer Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders and Chronic Liver Disease Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders and Diabetes Native Hawaiians/ ...

  10. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  11. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  12. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  13. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  14. Physiolography of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    Each of the eight principal Hawaiian Islands extending from Kauai on the northwestern end of the chain to Hawaii at the southeastern extremity represents the top of a great basaltic shield volcano that rises 4575 m above the ocean floor. The ages of the islands quite consistently decrease toward the southeast. Kauai is judged to be about 5.3 million years old, whereas Hawaii is less than 750,000 years in age. The ravages of time have had serious effects on the once domelike older volcanoes, so that the traditional shield shape is lost in a fretwork of peaks, ridges, palis, valleys, and plains. Age is not the only determinant of the degree of dissection by running water, waves, and chemical weathering. Another very important factor is the exposure of the particular side of island to excessive rainfall and mercilous trade-wind wave attack. The windward and high lee slopes receive 60 cm or more of rain annually, whereas the lower leeward slopes and coastal areas may receive 4 cm or less annually.

  15. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Spotlight VA60 May 10, 2013 Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects ... help prevent suicide. One such group is the Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander population. According ...

  16. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific ... seven times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times more ...

  17. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, ... 8 Native Hawaiian 9.6 1.7 Other Asian/Pacific Islander 4.7 0.8 Source: CDC ...

  18. PCB and metal concentrations in American lobsters from the Acushnet River estuary and Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.A.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G. )

    1994-12-01

    The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is commonly found in coastal waters adjacent to heavily industrialized areas where pollutant input generally occurs. Environmental contamination is known to affect many aspects of lobster biology. Heavy metals, pesticides, pulp mill effluent, petroleum hydrocarbons and other pollutants can adversely affect lobster physiology and behavior. Sublethal concentrations of contaminants can stress lobsters, making them more susceptible to disease or other conditions that would normally be tolerated. Lobster embryos and larvae, particularly the first-stage, are sensitive to a variety of organic and metal pollutants. Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); edible tissues of lobsters collected there have been found to contain PCB concentrations exceeding the FDA action level of 2 [mu]g/g wet wt. PCBs are strongly lipophilic and accumulate in fatty tissues including egg masses. Metals and PCBs are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. This study examines whether field exposure of ovigerous female lobsters to PCBs results in subsequent contamination of embryos, first-stage larvae, postlarvae, and juvenile offspring of [open quotes]berried[close quotes] lobsters from New Bedford Harbor and selected locations in Long Island Sound. Metal contamination in the embryos and offspring of Long Island Sound lobsters was also measured. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register A. Regulatory History and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI.... 14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following...

  20. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  1. On the Gravity of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Taylor, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are part of the most geologically studied intra-plate volcanic island chain. Surprisingly, the only chain wide compilation of marine and terrestrial gravity data is now more than 40 years old. Early terrestrial studies conducted by J. G. Moore, H.L Krivoy, G. P. Woollard, W. E Strange and others in the early 1960's were meant to serve as reconnaissance surveys only. In addition, early marine surveys were limited in both accurate positioning and data density. Detailed analysis of the crustal density structure of the island chain was limited. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation incorporating the original island-specific survey data, recently published data on the island of Kauai and Hawaii, as well as more than 10 years of newly incorporated marine data collected aboard the University of Hawaii's R/V Kilo Moana. This data was supplemented by surveys aboard the R/V Farnella among others. We present free-air (FAA), simple/complete Bouguer, and residual gravity maps on an unprecedented resolution and geographical extent for the area. This data will be hosted as an interactive Google-Earth overlay at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG - www.soest.hawaii.edu/HMRG) and made available to the scientific community. We hope that this dataset will be used for further comparison of the gravity fields of other intra-plate volcanic systems (French Polynesia, etc.) and to constrain seismic studies of crustal structure in the Hawaiian-chain through joint seismic-gravity inversions.

  2. Naturally occurring bacteraemia in American lobsters, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, S L; Wooster, G A; Sokolowski, M S; Dove, A D M; Bowser, P R

    2008-01-01

    The health status of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound (LIS) has been in decline, with seasonal mortality events occurring since 1998. In order to assess the potential effects of environmental conditions on lobster health via haemolymph analysis, lobsters collected from various sites in LIS were examined and sampled while concurrent environmental data (water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) were recorded. The pH of the haemolymph of each lobster was tested, followed by a collection of haemolymph for serum biochemistry analysis and bacterial culture. This report focuses on the results of the bacterial sampling. The majority of bacteria cultured were opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment, including some that are associated with sewage and pollution. The prevalence of bacteraemia was correlated with the site of collection, the month in which the lobsters were sampled, and water temperature. PMID:18086031

  3. Cancer No. 1 Killer of Asian-Americans, Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Asian-Americans, Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders: Study Though incidence lower than among white Americans, researchers say To ... Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, even though overall cancer incidence and death rates in these groups are lower ...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  7. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  8. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  9. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors,...

  10. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Thomas R; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2009-03-22

    The 'tree lobsters' are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the 'tree lobster' body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22 Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  11. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The tree lobsters are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4?kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the tree lobster body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22?Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  12. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  13. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (?6.3)?Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  14. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-07-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (-6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  15. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  16. Month-Year Rainfall Maps of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Diaz, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have one of the most spatially-diverse rainfall patterns on earth. Island topography, persistent trade winds, thermal effects of the islands, and the presence of the trade-wind inversion interact to cause air to be lifted in distinct spatial patterns anchored to the topography. The resulting clouds and rainfall produced by this uplift lead to extreme gradients in monthly and annual rainfall in the islands. Knowledge of the rainfall patterns is critically important for a variety of resource management issues, including ground water and surface water development and protection, controlling and eradicating invasive species, protecting and restoring native ecosystems, and planning for the effects of global warming. In this study, development of month-year rainfall maps from 1920-2007 for the six major Hawaiian islands using geostatistical methods is undertaken. While mean monthly and annual rainfall maps for Hawaii are available, spatially continuous maps of precipitation for individual months do not exist. Simple methods, such as linear interpolation or ordinary kriging, are not appropriate for interpolating month-year rainfall due to the extreme spatial diversity. A method comparison is performed here to choose the best interpolation method for each island. The comparison focuses on different kriging algorithms including kriging with an external drift and simple kriging with varying local means. Parameter sensitivity tests are used for each method, and several covariates are considered to reduce interpolation error. The different combinations of methods, covariates and parameters are evaluated using cross validation statistics. To produce the final maps, the anomaly method is used to relate station data from every individual month with the 1978-2007 mean monthly maps. The anomalies are interpolated using the best method determined from the comparison, and then recombined with the mean maps to produce the final maps for the six major Hawaiian Islands.

  17. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Elders: What Gerontologists Should Know.

    PubMed

    Braun, Kathryn L; Kim, Bum Jung; Ka'opua, Lana Sue; Mokuau, Noreen; Browne, Colette V

    2015-12-01

    Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) experience significant health disparities compared with other racial groups in the United States. Lower life expectancy has resulted in small proportions of elders in the population distribution of NHOPI, yet the number of NHOPI elders is growing. This article presents data on NHOPI elders and discusses possible reasons for continuing health disparities, including historical trauma, discrimination, changing lifestyle, and cultural values. We outline promising interventions with NHOPI and make suggestions for future research. PMID:25063936

  18. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council was... groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its habitat around the...

  19. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory..., and other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands...

  20. 75 FR 970 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... and alternate members of the following seats on its Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine... other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its habitat... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands...

  1. Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Matthew; Stewart, Brent S; Yochem, Pamela K; Braun, Robert; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Boyd, Daryle; Antonelis, George A; Atkinson, Shannon; Aguirre, A Alonso; Krahn, Margaret M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed blubber and blood samples for organochlorines (OCs) from 158 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at four of their six primary breeding colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Levels of OCs in blubber were lower in adult females compared to juveniles or adult males, evidently owing to the transfer of these lipophilic compounds to pups by pregnant and lactating females. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE in blubber generally increased with age until seals were sexually mature and then continued to increase with age in males after puberty. Average levels of PCBs and PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blubber were significantly higher in adult male and juvenile seals at Midway Atoll than the same age class of seals at the other colonies. Unlike concentrations of OCs in blubber, circulating levels of OCs in blood did not vary consistently among age classes of seals or among breeding colonies. Though the concentrations of OCs measured in Hawaiian monk seals were generally equal to or lower than those reported for other pinniped species in the North Pacific Ocean, they were high enough in a few seals to potentially affect their health. PMID:18031765

  2. Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment…

  3. Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment

  4. Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  5. The Origin of Rejuvenated Magmatism on the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    Rejuvenated volcanism on the Hawaiian islands has long been known for its enigmatic geochemical features, and both the geochemistry and geodynamics of "rejuvenation" are subject of debate. In particular, the consistently depleted nature of its isotopic compositions (unradiogenic Sr and radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes relative to shield and post-shield lavas) is seemingly at odds with high concentrations of incompatible and volatile elements. Also, the isotopic distinctions between the shield basalts of the two parallel lines of Hawaiian volcanoes are lost during rejuvenated stages. Some earlier attempts to explain these phenomena invoked melting of local oceanic lithosphere heated by the Hawaiian plume, but the isotopic compositions, though depleted, are systematically different from Pacific upper mantle. More recent explanations invoked renewed melting of plume material that had previously produced shield-type tholeiitic magmas from its more fertile components. The renewed melting would involve the more refractory portions of the source rock that had escaped the earlier melting. But such models fail to explain why the volatile budget survived the earlier melting history. Another recent explanation invoked melting of the outer sheath of the plume consisting of mantle material entrained by the plume during its ascent. However, such entrained material lacks the excess temperature needed to undergo any melting at all. Our numerical simulations show that, 200 to 400 km downstream from the locus of shield volcanism, previously unmelted material rises slowly in the deep 'underbelly' of the plume, crosses the solidus at ~ 5GPa, and generates rejuvenated magmas. This material is ultimately derived from the upper portion of the thermal boundary layer from which the plume originates. It consists of 'ordinary', depleted mantle, it has not lost its volatiles, and it is hot enough to undergo low degrees of melting. This model can therefore resolve several unexplained features of rejuvenated volcanism.

  6. Maternal and Child Health of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) women and infants, but do not ... and childbirth are meaningful and important to many AA and NHPI families. The health care system must ...

  7. Book review: Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds: Implications for island avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles, III

    2010-01-01

    Review info: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. By Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds., 2009. ISBN 978-0300141085, 707 pp.

  8. Stroke Disparities: Disaggregating Native Hawaiians from other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; MacDonald, Pippa R.; Asai, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical characteristics of Native Hawaiians (NH) and other Pacific Islanders (PI) who are hospitalized with ischemic stroke. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of medical records. Setting Tertiary, Primary Stroke Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Patients Consecutive patients with race/ethnicity identified as NH or PI who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between January 2006 and December 2012. Outcome Measures Age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) utilization rate and hospital length of stay. Results A total of 561 patients (57% NH and 43% PI) were studied. PI were younger (59 13 years vs 62 14 years, ,P=.002), had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (58% vs 41%, P<.0001) and prosthetic valve (6% vs 2%, P=.007), lower prevalence of smoking (14% vs 21%, P=.03), lower HDL cholesterol (38 11 mg/dL vs 41 13 mg/dL, P=.004), and higher discharge diastolic blood pressure (79 15 vs 76 mm Hg 14 mm Hg, P=.04) compared to NH. No difference was seen in other cardiovascular risk factors. The IV-tPA utilization rate (5% vs 6%, P=.48) and the hospital length of stay (10 17 days vs 10 49 days, P=.86) were not different between the two groups. Conclusion Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke have modestly different age of stroke presentation and burden of risk factors compared to each other. Disaggregating these two racial groups may be important to unmask any potential clinical differences in future studies. PMID:26118142

  9. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Forest, Hanalei, Hawaiian Islands, Howland Island, Hul `ia, James Campbell, Jarvis Island, Johnston... Atoll, O`ahu Forest, Palmyra Atoll, Pearl Harbor, Rose Atoll, and Wake Atoll. These refuges are located... some of the rarest endangered flora and fauna in the world, and extraordinary biological, chemical,...

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  11. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

  12. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and

  13. Numerical simulations of a storm-generated island-trapped wave event at the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merrifield, M. A.; Yang, L.; Luther, D. S.

    2002-10-01

    The structure and generation of subinertial trapped waves at the Hawaiian Islands are investigated using a primitive equation model with realistic bathymetry, stratification, and wind forcing. The strongest wave event measured on the island of Hawaii during the 1980s is selected as a case study. An extratropical cyclone traveling to the east provided the forcing. Three model runs are considered: a single island and a chain of islands forced by synoptic-scale winds and a chain of islands with enhanced winds to simulate features of the mesoscale forcing. Each model run documents the establishment of high and low surface elevation anomalies (0.05 m amplitudes) on opposite sides of the island of Hawaii due to convergences and divergences in the surface wind-driven current. Predicted along-shelf current amplitudes exceed 0.4 m/s, with the strongest currents near the surface and weak amplitudes (<0.1 m/s) below 100 m depth. Following the storm, a gravest mode island-trapped wave with a 59 hour period progresses around the island for at least five wave cycles. Although the storm itself lasts only 2 days, the rotation of the wind field in time reinforces the gravest mode wave at the island of Hawaii. A similar forced pattern is established at the other major islands; however, the free wave response is much weaker than at Hawaii because of a mismatch in the forcing and resonant wave mode frequencies. In comparison to tide gauge measurements and a current meter record from the northwest coast of Hawaii, the model shows similar time dependence, although amplitudes are underpredicted by approximately a factor of 2. Increasing the wind speeds near Hawaii yields closer agreement with the observations. Exchange of wave energy between the islands is weak (<10%) but noticeable, particularly in determining the decay rate of the Hawaii island-trapped wave.

  14. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. PMID:26578295

  15. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  16. Cardiometabolic Health Disparities in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K.; Sinclair, Kaimi; Saito, Erin P.; Baumhofer, Kaui N.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keaweaimoku

    2010-01-01

    Elimination of health disparities in the United States is a national health priority. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity are key features of what is now referred to as the cardiometabolic syndrome, which disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations, including Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). Few studies have adequately characterized the cardiometabolic syndrome in high-risk populations such as NHOPI. The authors systematically assessed the existing literature on cardiometabolic disorders among NHOPI to understand the best approaches to eliminating cardiometabolic health disparities in this population. Articles were identified from database searches performed in PubMed and MEDLINE from January 1998 to December 2008; 43 studies were included in the review. There is growing confirmatory evidence that NHOPI are one of the highest-risk populations for cardiometabolic diseases in the United States. Most studies found increased prevalences of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors among NHOPI. The few experimental intervention studies found positive results. Methodological issues included small sample sizes, sample bias, inappropriate racial/ethnic aggregation of NHOPI with Asians, and a limited number of intervention studies. Significant gaps remain in the understanding of cardiometabolic health disparities among NHOPI in the United States. More experimental intervention studies are needed to examine promising approaches to reversing the rising tide of cardiometabolic health disparities in NHOPI. PMID:19531765

  17. Cardiometabolic health disparities in native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Mau, Marjorie K; Sinclair, Ka'imi; Saito, Erin P; Baumhofer, Kau'i N; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

    2009-01-01

    Elimination of health disparities in the United States is a national health priority. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity are key features of what is now referred to as the "cardiometabolic syndrome," which disproportionately affects racial/ethnic minority populations, including Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI). Few studies have adequately characterized the cardiometabolic syndrome in high-risk populations such as NHOPI. The authors systematically assessed the existing literature on cardiometabolic disorders among NHOPI to understand the best approaches to eliminating cardiometabolic health disparities in this population. Articles were identified from database searches performed in PubMed and MEDLINE from January 1998 to December 2008; 43 studies were included in the review. There is growing confirmatory evidence that NHOPI are one of the highest-risk populations for cardiometabolic diseases in the United States. Most studies found increased prevalences of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular risk factors among NHOPI. The few experimental intervention studies found positive results. Methodological issues included small sample sizes, sample bias, inappropriate racial/ethnic aggregation of NHOPI with Asians, and a limited number of intervention studies. Significant gaps remain in the understanding of cardiometabolic health disparities among NHOPI in the United States. More experimental intervention studies are needed to examine promising approaches to reversing the rising tide of cardiometabolic health disparities in NHOPI. PMID:19531765

  18. 75 FR 40759 - Initiation of Review of Management Plan/Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    .../Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare Draft...) has initiated a review of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS or... regulations that became effective December 29, 1999 (64 FR 63262). NOAA anticipates completion of the...

  19. Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Kimberly L.; Royden, Leigh H.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2015-05-01

    Rates of island vertical motion above intra-plate hotspots record the processes that arise from interactions between lithospheric plates and mantle plumes. To assess the contribution of mantle and lithospheric processes to surface motion above the Hawaiian hotspot, we compare simple models of lithospheric deformation to vertical motion rates measured from dated paleoshorelines and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. Our analysis shows that observed uplift and subsidence rates mainly record the flexural response of the lithosphere to volcanic loads. The effective elastic plate thickness that best fits the spatial distribution of subsidence and uplift rates is ?40 km, consistent with previous estimates based on total vertical deflection. Because volcanic loading dominates the vertical motion signal, Hawaiian Islands appear to follow a predictable trajectory of vertical motion when they reside within one flexural half-wavelength of the active volcanic center. Islands initially subside at rapid and decreasing rates in the first ?1 Myr following their construction, uplift relatively slowly ?1-2.5 Myr following their construction, and eventually subside again, but at slow rates, within ?5 Myr of their construction. This observed pattern of uplift and subsidence is consistent with the pattern of vertical motion predicted to result from volcanic loading at the Hawaiian hotspot. Lithospheric migration over the long-wavelength topographic swell associated with the Hawaiian hotspot has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Its contribution to island vertical motion is not readily observed in our data, with the possible exception of some uplift observed in the past ?500 kyr on O'ahu that might correspond to non-steady state behavior of the Hawaiian plume.

  20. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  1. Giant Landslides, Mega-Tsunamis, and Paleo-Sea Level in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, P.; McMurtry, G. M.; Fryer, G. J.; Smith, J. R.; Imamura, F.

    2001-12-01

    We show considerable agreement between the ages of the two giant Alika landslides and dating of debris found tens to hundreds of meters above sea level in Hawaii. Despite the size of the landslides, controversy persists as to the ability to generate landslide tsunamis big enough to deposit the debris. We affirm that tsunami deposits are a sufficient explanation of the observed pattern of debris height. We also show that our tsunami simulations can be used to reduce the considerable uncertainty in subsidence history of the different Hawaiian islands, a current obstacle to interpreting the supposed deposits. Finally, we show that the onset of interglacials provides a probable explanation for the timing of these giant landslides over the last five million years. We predict that the greatest tsunami hazard facing the Hawaiian islands are giant landslides and that the current interglacial promotes the generation of mega-tsunamis from catastrophic volcano collapse. Hawaiian giant submarine landslide events have been recognized from detached submarine landslide blocks and fields of smaller debris by offshore surveys. Mega-tsunamis produced by giant landslides were first proposed for Hawaii and have since been implicated globally at other oceanic islands and along the continental margins. While not discounting the possibility of locally-generated tsunamis, some researchers have cast doubt upon the original hypothesis of giant waves impacting Lanai and other Hawaiian islands from flank failures of the nearby Mauna Loa Volcano on Hawaii island. Landslide tsunami simulations have advanced to the point where the tsunamigenic potential of the giant submarine landslides can be affirmed, while the subsidence history of different Hawaiian islands is still subject to debate.

  2. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Honolulu County (primary only), Research..., and other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands...

  3. A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

  4. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  5. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR Part... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal...

  6. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine protected area designed to...

  7. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory....byers@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a ]...

  8. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI) include: (1) Local Education Agencies (LEAs) With the Largest Number…

  9. 33 CFR 165.14-1414 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... All other applicable regulations in 33 CFR 165 remain in effect and subject to enforcement. You may... Commercial Harbors; HI. 165.14-1414 Section 165.14-1414 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The...

  10. When worlds collide: challenges and opportunities for conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Pratt, Thane K.; Banko, Paul C.; Jacobi, James D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long-term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These challenges are also relevant to other threatened terrestrial taxonomic groups (i.e., plants and invertebrates) in the Hawaiian Islands. Such threats are familiar to conservation biologists the world over, but rarely do they act as synergistically as they do in the Hawaiian Islands. The chapter reviews conservation successes and failures in Hawaii, and provides an example of the possible future course of conservation in other island communities.

  11. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Stephen A.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Steve; Simon, Chris; Foote, David; Englund, Ronald A

    2005-10-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1alpha gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. PMID:16156815

  13. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources. PMID:26309285

  14. 78 FR 59626 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2013-14

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed specifications, finalized here, and a request for public comments (78 FR 52125). Additional... Hawaiian Islands for the 2013-14 fishing year. The action supports the long-term sustainability of...

  15. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  16. Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, H.A.

    1955-01-01

    Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

  17. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  18. Length-Based Assessment of Coral Reef Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  19. Species identification and chemical analysis of psychoactive fungi in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Merlin, M D; Allen, J W

    1993-09-01

    Several fungi species collected in the Hawaiian Islands have been reported to be psychoactive. Previous chemical analyses together with the present study indicate that 5 coprophilous and one non-coprophilous species occurring in the islands are now known to contain psychoactive alkaloids. At least some of these species are consumed in the Hawaiian Islands, as well as elsewhere, for non-traditional, recreational purposes. These include Copelandia cyanescens (Berk. et Br.) Singer, Copelandia tropicalis (Ola'h) Singer and Weeks (syn. Panaeolus tropicalis Ola'h), Copelandia anomala Murrill, and Panaeolus subbalteatus (Berk. and Br.) Sacc., which have already been described from the Hawaiian Islands. Three more mind-altering fungi and one non-psychoactive species are reported from this archipelago for the first time. These psychoactive fungi include Copelandia bispora (Malençon et Bertault) Singer and Weeks from O'ahu, Copelandia cambodginiensis (Ola'h et Heim) Singer and Weeks from O'ahu, and Amanita muscaria (L.) Hooker from Kaua'i. Panaeolus goossensiae Beeli identified from O'ahu contains tryptamine compounds; however, the psychoactive alkaloids psilocybin and psilocin were not found in this dung species. PMID:8246528

  20. Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-10-01

    The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

  1. Lobster Trap at Reed Point

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A lobster trap buoy rides in the waves of Seal Cove at Reed Point, along the southwestern coast of Mount Desert Island. Lobster traps rest at the bottom of the sea and are tethered to a buoy that marks their location....

  2. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands. This small population often is grouped with Asians ... Islanders often have unmet health needs and face barriers to good health. This group is more likely ...

  3. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head...

  4. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head...

  5. The search for Father Bachelot: first Catholic missionary to the Hawaiian Islands (1827-1837).

    PubMed

    Pietrusewsky, M; Willacker, L M

    1997-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine if the remains of Father Bachelot, leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands, can be identified among the commingled human skeletal remains brought back from Pohnpei, Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, in 1977. An osteological/forensic examination of these remains, a review of the literature, interviews with leaders of the expedition, and ancillary considerations suggest that, in all probability, none of the skeletal remains from Pohnpei are those of Father Bachelot. Father Alexis Bachelot, born in France, in 1796, was leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands. He died in 1837, after being exiled from the Hawaiian Kingdom. His remains were buried on the small islet of Na, off the coast of Pohnpei, the same year. An expedition to Pohnpei in 1977, to recover the remains of Father Bachelot, resulted in the recovery of several sets of commingled remains which are the subject of this study. A detailed osteological/forensic study of these remains indicates the presence of at least ten individuals, including two subadults, two adult females, and six adult males. Stature estimates, the presence of osseous changes suggestive of treponemal disease, and other cranial, dental, and skeletal features are more consistent with Pohnpean than European ancestry. The presence of shell beads and other mortuary features strengthens this assertion. Recommendations for any future attempts to recover the remains of this famous personage are made. PMID:9068178

  6. Shallow terraces in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Implications for carbonate accretion and sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Edwards, M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Rooney, J. J.; Clague, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data recently collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division permit the first detailed analysis of the submarine geomorphology of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Here we focus on the character, spatial extent, depth, and number of terraces, scarps, and other shallow seafloor features in the NWHI. The islands and atolls at or near sea level and the flat top banks have terraces and scarps at a variety of depths above the major breaks in slope and consistent paleoreef complexes are present at average depths of 30-45 m, 55-65 m, and 110-130 m. Their geomorphology is controlled by vertical coral reef accretion during sea-level highstands and erosion and karstification during lowstands. Wave energy also plays a major role in shaping the NWHI. Our results suggest that although the NWHI features are discontinuous and probably occupied by sea level on more than one occasion they group into general depth ranges that correlate with late-Quaternary sea-level features in the MHI and phases of postglacial reef growth separated by melt-water pulses. Identification and correlation of these features is important for developing sea-level and reef accretion histories in the Hawaiian Islands. Further work is needed to constrain the absolute ages of these reef features and construct an accurate sea-level curve for the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  7. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  8. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  9. More than black and white: differences in predictors of obesity among Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Madan, Alok; Archambeau, Olga G; Milsom, Vanessa A; Goldman, Rachel L; Borckardt, Jeffery J; Grubaugh, Anouk L; Tuerk, Peter W; Frueh, B Christopher

    2012-06-01

    Although Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders exhibit the highest rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases of any racial/ethnic group, they remain vastly underrepresented in health research. In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 402) we examined BMI and health outcomes in an ethno-racially diverse rural sample of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (25.1%), Asian Americans (39.8%), and European Americans (35.1%). Measures assessed BMI, health status, health behaviors, frequency of exercise, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance abuse and dependence). Regression analyses revealed that an overall model of five predictors (gender, race, regular exercise, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety) was significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.001) and correctly classified 84.2% of cases. A 30.7% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were obese as compared with 9.2% of European Americans and 10.6% of Asian Americans. These findings suggest that Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islanders are at high risk for obesity and associated medical comorbidities, but that regular physical activity may ameliorate this risk. Further, these results support the consideration of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial/ethnic subgroup separate from other Asian populations. PMID:22286530

  10. Polyglutamine variation in a flowering time protein correlates with island age in a Hawaiian plant radiation

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Charlotte; Laakkonen, Liisa; Albert, Victor A

    2007-01-01

    Background A controversial topic in evolutionary developmental biology is whether morphological diversification in natural populations can be driven by expansions and contractions of amino acid repeats in proteins. To promote adaptation, selection on protein length variation must overcome deleterious effects of multiple correlated traits (pleiotropy). Thus far, systems that demonstrate this capacity include only ancient or artificial morphological diversifications. The Hawaiian Islands, with their linear geological sequence, present a unique environment to study recent, natural radiations. We have focused our research on the Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae), a large and diverse lineage with paradoxically low genetic variation, in order to test whether a direct relationship between coding-sequence repeat diversity and morphological change can be observed in an actively evolving system. Results Here we show that in the Hawaiian mints, extensive polyglutamine (CAG codon repeat) polymorphism within a homolog of the pleiotropic flowering time protein and abscisic acid receptor FCA tracks the natural environmental cline of the island chain, consequent with island age, across a period of 5 million years. CAG expansions, perhaps following their natural tendency to elongate, are more frequent in colonists of recently-formed, nutrient-rich islands than in their forebears on older, nutrient-poor islands. Values for several quantitative morphological variables related to reproductive investment, known from Arabidopsis fca mutant studies, weakly though positively correlate with increasing glutamine tract length. Together with protein modeling of FCA, which indicates that longer polyglutamine tracts could induce suboptimally mobile functional domains, we suggest that CAG expansions may form slightly deleterious alleles (with respect to protein function) that become fixed in founder populations. Conclusion In the Hawaiian mint FCA system, we infer that contraction of slightly deleterious CAG repeats occurred because of competition for resources along the natural environmental cline of the island chain. The observed geographical structure of FCA variation and its correlation with morphologies expected from Arabidopsis mutant studies may indicate that developmental pleiotropy played a role in the diversification of the mints. This discovery is important in that it concurs with other suggestions that repetitive amino acid motifs might provide a mechanism for driving morphological evolution, and that variation at such motifs might permit rapid tuning to environmental change. PMID:17605781

  11. Volcanic Features in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Revealed by SWATH Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Miller, J.; Evans, B. K.; Johnson, P.; Weirich, J. B.

    2003-12-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (NWHICRER) has only recently been established, and has already caused an infusion of interest and funds for studies to assess what is there to preserve and how best to do it. The Northwestern chain stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). The MHI have only in recent years been systematically mapped with modern multibeam swath sonar systems and the work is not yet complete. With these southeastern islands being the population center, it is easy to imagine the lack of coverage along the Northwestern chain where no one lives except those stationed at remote outposts for scientific study. Manned and robotic submersible studies and limited multibeam mapping have been carried out by the Hawaii Undersea Research Lab every year in the NWHICRER for the past several years though focused on relatively shallow water biological sites. In late 2002, the first dedicated exploratory multibeam mapping expedition took place aboard the new University of Hawaii SWATH ship R/V Kilo Moana. While the primary mission was shallow mapping on carbonate platforms in support of the NWHICRER boundaries, a large amount of data were collected over the deeper volcanic foundations of the atolls. These surveys revealed dramatic rift zones on the same scale as those in the MHI, sea level terraces, submarine canyons cutting through the platforms with debris chutes continuing down to base of the islands, additional submarine landslide scars and debris fields in more detail than the USGS GLORIA sidescan program of the previous decade, and previously unmapped seamounts with some likely resulting from Hawaiian hot spot activity while others formed during creation of the Pacific Plate. A diving program is planned on many of these features in late 2003 and preliminary results will be presented.

  12. Developing and testing solar irradiance forecasting techniques in the Hawaiian Islands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. K.; Souza, J. M.; Stein, K.

    2014-12-01

    Irradiance variability, primarily driven by cloud formation and advection, can be problematic in the state of Hawai, because of the high penetration of distributed solar and the small scale of the island electrical grids. The Hawai Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is developing an operational system in order to research and test new techniques to generate solar forecasts for the Hawaiian Islands. The operational system comprises the following three components.(i) A ground-observation-based advection model, using sky imagers and a ceilometer located at the University of Hawai at M?noa. Every 10 minutes (during daylight hours), this component generates a high-resolution 1 hour Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) prediction for a region that is within ~15 km of the instrumentation. (ii) A satellite-image-based advection model, using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery and the Heliosat-II method. Every 30 minutes (during daylight hours), this component generates a 1 km resolution, 6 hour GHI prediction for the entire Hawaiian Archipelago. (iii) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model, using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, including newly available microphysics, shallow convection parameterization, and radiative transfer model options. Nightly, this component generates 48 hour GHI, Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiance (DHI) predictions for (a) a 10 km resolution domain covering the full Hawaiian Archipelago and (b) a nested 2 km resolution domain covering the islands of Maui, ahu, and Hawai. We discuss the development and validation of the system, and the scales of forecasting accuracy for each component. We also examine the impact of the coupled model on the simulations of surface flux processeses and ocean-atmosphere feedbacks, both of which influence the prediction of regional cloud properties.

  13. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

  14. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits. PMID:22787424

  15. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  16. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  17. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  18. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  19. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M., III; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing invasive species, and planning of conservation efforts.

  20. Phylogeny of the island populations of the Hawaiian Drosophila grimshawi complex: evidence from combined data.

    PubMed

    Piano, F; Craddock, E M; Kambysellis, M P

    1997-04-01

    The picture-winged species Drosophila grimshawi is unique among Hawaiian Drosophila in its wide geographic range, having populations on several islands of the Hawaiian archipelago. This distribution contrasts with the pattern of single-island endemism observed in most of the picture-winged group; significantly, it does not concur with predictions of the founder theory, where speciation is the typical outcome of founder events involving colonization of a new island. To examine this anomalous situation, we have taken a phylogenetic approach in an attempt to resolve the relationships among taxa and decipher the most probable colonization scenario. We have obtained both morphological and molecular data for all the D. grimshawi populations as well as the closely related species D. pullipes, and two outgroup species, using scanning electron microscopy to score ultrastructural features of the chorion or eggshell, and PCR amplification and nucleotide sequencing to acquire sequence data on Yp1, one of the three Yolk protein genes. In addition, we have used available data on Yolk Protein electrophoretic pattern and jousting, oviposition, and mating behavioral characters. Analyses of these data sets, either individually or in combination, indicate that there are two separate and ecologically distinct clades within this species complex. One clade includes the Kauai and Oahu populations of grimshawi, as well as the closely related species D. pullipes from Hawaii, all of which are classified as ecological specialists with respect to their oviposition and breeding substrate. The other clade includes all the ecologically generalist grimshawi populations of the Maui Nui island complex. The phylogenetic results do not concur with the previously proposed hypothesis that D. pullipes originated from a founder derived from the Maui Nui complex and further suggest that these taxa are in need of taxonomic revision. PMID:9126558

  1. Genetic population structure of an anchialine shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena (Crustacea: Alpheidae), in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Russ, Atlantis; Santos, S R; Muir, C

    2010-03-01

    Anchialine habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, characterized as coastal bodies of land-locked salt or brackish water that fluctuate with the tides due to subterranean connections, are the only ecosystems of this type found within the United States. These habitats are currently subject to anthropogenic impacts that threaten their future existence. Previous research has shown strong genetic population structure of an endemic atyid shrimp, Halocaridina rubra, in these habitats. The native alpheid shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena, whose known range entirely overlaps that of H. rubra, has feeding and reproductive behaviors that are biologically distinct from H. rubra. Its historic scarcity and status as a candidate for the US Fish and Wildlife Department's Endangered Species List, make M. lohena an ideal species to compare against the known genetic structure of H. rubra. We investigated the population structure of this native anchialine shrimp to test the hypothesis that genetic population structure differs between the two shrimp species and that M. lohena is genetically unstructured across its range. A survey of 605 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 127 individuals collected at 7 sites spanning the islands of O'ahu, Maui and Hawaii revealed 43 haplotypes. The most common haplotype was represented in similar proportions from all sites sampled, accounting for 44% of the surveyed sequences. Analyses of molecular variation (AMOVA), pairwise PhiST values, Bayesian estimates of migration (M), Mantel tests and Nested Clade Analyses (NCAs) all failed to reveal evidence of major barriers to gene flow among most populations separated by inter-island channels. This lack of genetic structure in M. lohena is found to be in stark contrast with the highly structured population of H. rubra, and may be attributed to oceanic dispersal strategies and/or a recent introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:20411714

  2. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  3. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates of the Lateral Boundary Closures and Excluded Areas. A Appendix A to Subpart Q of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued)...

  4. Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands 9. Five new white-spored species from native montane wet forests.

    PubMed

    Desjardin, Dennis E; Hemmes, Don E

    2011-01-01

    Five new species of white-spored agarics are described from native montane wet forests in the Hawaiian Islands as follows: Callistosporium vinosobrunneum, Marasmiellus hapuuarum, Marasmius koae, Mycena marasmielloides, Pleurocybella ohiae. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. An itemization of the 24 known putatively endemic agarics described from this unique habitat is provided. PMID:21700634

  5. Improving Access to Healthy Foods for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders: Lessons Learned from the STRIVE Program

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona C.; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Edward; Lipman, Jesse; Kunkel, Sarah; Le, Daniel Q.; Chin, Kathy Ko; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) experience a large burden from certain chronic disease-related risk factors. The STRIVE Program funded four AANHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted community gardens and farmers' markets to increase access to healthy foods. CBO key informant interviews were conducted to understand processes and lessons learned. PMID:25981093

  6. A Challenge to Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Scholars: What the Research Literature Teaches Us about Our Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P.

    2006-01-01

    What do we currently know, in light of conceptual, empirical, and applied studies, about the status of educational research on Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders? And why is this knowing important? This article proposes that illuminating the themes of what has already been examined might help policymakers, researchers, educational leaders and

  7. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  8. Lithospheric flexure revealed by Pleistocene emerged marine terraces on the southern Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.T. . Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    New field and geochronological data from emerged marine deposits in the southern Hawaiian Islands suggest uplift of the islands of Molokai, Lanai and Oahu. Corals from these islands were dated by ESR. The accumulated dose for aragonitic coral at ESR signal, g = 2.0007, was determined by the additive dose method. The environmental dose rate was estimated from the Uranium concentration in corals and by using an estimate of 2.5 rad/a for the cosmic ray dose. The ESR ages of the highest terraces on Molokai are 290 [+-] 31 ka (30 m), on Lanai 217 [+-] 19 ka (50 m) and on Oahu 468 [+-] 36 ka (28 m). The age and elevation of the marine terraces are interpreted to imply uplift during the Late Quaternary. Lithospheric flexure combined with horizontal plate motion is proposed as a mechanism to describe the pattern of uplifted terraces on these islands. Using two-dimensional elastic plate models, the height of maximum bulge is approximately 4% to 7% of the maximum deflection for a continuous or broken plate model. Drowned reefs off Hawaii indicate subsidence of 1 km since 340 ka. Thus, the magnitude of observed uplift (30--50 m) is consistent with theoretical maximum bulge heights derived from numerical results.

  9. Lithospheric flexure at the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shijie; Watts, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    The response of the lithosphere to long-term geological loads such as volcanoes, sediments and ice provide important insights to both plate mechanics and mantle dynamics. One of the largest loads on Earth's surface are the shield volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean. We have developed a 3-D finite element model for calculating the flexure and stress associated with the emplacement of an arbitrary-shaped volcano load on a crust and mantle with realistic non-linear viscoelastic rheology, including frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. By comparing model predictions with seismic reflection and refraction observations of the depth to the top of the oceanic crust and the depth dependence of seismicity at the Hawaiian Islands, we have been able to constrain the long-term rheological properties of intraplate, plume influenced, Late Cretaceous (83-96 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Our calculations show that while the load-induced surface flexure is insensitive to high-temperature creep, it is sensitive to both the frictional sliding and low-temperature plasticity laws. Results show that a frictional coefficient ranging from 0.25 to 0.70 and a low-temperature plasticity law that is significantly weaker than ones recently proposed from experimental rock mechanics data are required in order to account for the observations. For example, a frictional coefficient of 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity while the low-temperature plasticity law of Mei et al (2010) strengthens the deep part of the lithosphere so much that it predicts too small an amplitude and long a wavelength flexure compared to the observed. Our best fit model suggest the maximum stress that accumulates in the flexed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is 100-200 MPa, and therefore this stress may be viewed as among the largest that Earth's lithosphere is capable of supporting on long geological time-scales.

  10. Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Holcomb, R.T.; Sinton, J.M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

  11. Health Behaviors of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Karen L.; Sallis, James F.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Ice, Christa L.; McEligot, Archana J.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking, diet and physical activity are associated with chronic diseases, but representative prevalence data on these behaviors for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) adults are scarce. Data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed for self-identified NHPI and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults. Ethnic and NHPI gender differences were examined for socio-demographic variables, obesity and health behaviors. Compared to NHW, NHPI displayed higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.001), smoking (p<0.05) and consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages (p<0.05). NHPI males were more likely than females to smoke (p<0.001). NHPI adults appear to be at higher risk for chronic disease than NHW due to obesity, smoking and intake of unhealthy foods and beverages. Culturally-specific health promotion interventions are needed to reduce risks among the underrepresented NHPI population. PMID:22426559

  12. Maximizing Multi-core Performance of the Weather Research and Forecast Model over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, K.; Stevens, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Hawaiian Islands consist of dramatic terrain changes over short distances, resulting in a variety of microclimates in close proximity. To handle these challenging conditions, weather models must be run at very fine vertical and horizontal resolutions to produce accurate forecasts. Computational demands require WRF to be executed in parallel on the Maui High Performance Computing Center’s Mana system, a PowerEdge M610 Linux cluster. This machine has 1,152 compute nodes, each with two 2.8 GHz quad-core Intel® Nehalem processors and 24 GB RAM. Realizing maximum performance on Mana relied on the determination of an optimal number of cores to use per socket, the efficiency of an MPI only implementation, an optimal set of parameters for adaptive time stepping, a way to meet the strict stability requirements necessary for Hawaii, effective choices for processor and memory affinity, and parallel automation techniques for producing forecast imagery.

  13. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Carbonate Chemistry in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, C.; Winn, C. D.; Kahng, S.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in atmospheric and surface ocean CO2 concentrations has the potential to drastically alter the metabolic processes particularly in nearshore ecosystems. However, much of what is known about carbonate chemistry is based on observations and analysis of surface waters of the open ocean where spatial and temporal variability is far less dynamic than in nearshore coral reef ecosystems. Carbon system dynamics data from four consecutive years has been examined in the coastal and nearshore waters of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This data has been collected for the purpose of improving our understanding of the carbon system dynamics in this unique and pristine environment. The data collected includes continuous CTD data and discrete bottle samples, as well as continuous underway measurements. In addition to standard hydrographic profile data, water column alkalinity and pH have been measured on discrete water samples, and continuous underway measurements of pCO2 and pH have been obtained. This data is used to investigate the impact of NWHI coral reef ecosystems on the carbon system in and surrounding the archipelago. The data demonstrates that a significant "island mass effect" with respect to the oceanographic carbon system exists around the islands within the archipelago. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of several oceanographic features that exhibit a radial, latitudinal, or longitudinal gradient in the nearshore waters of the NWHI islands, islets, and atolls will be described. Finally, a shallow pH maximum coincident with the shallow oxygen maximum is observed, which suggests an open ocean feature substantially influenced by turbulence surrounding the islands within the monument. The data analysis and coral reef ecosystem monitoring will aid in developing a long-term plan to assist in the sustainability of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  14. Drowned reefs and antecedent karst topography, Au'au channel, S.E. Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grigg, R.W.; Grossman, E.E.; Earle, S.A.; Gittings, S.R.; Lott, D.; McDonough, J.

    2002-01-01

    During the last glacial maximum (LGM), about 21,000 years ago, the Hawaiian Islands of Maui, Lanai, and Molokai were interconnected by limestone bridges, creating a super-island known as Maui-Nui. Approximately 120 m of sea-level rise during the Holocene Transgression flooded, and then drowned, these bridges separating the islands by inter-island channels. A new multibeam high-resolution bathymetric survey of the channels between the islands, coupled with observations and video-transects utilizing DeepWorker-2000 submersibles, has revealed the existence of numerous drowned reef features including concentric solution basins, solution ridges (rims), sand and sediment plains, and conical-shaped reef pinnacles. The concentric basins contain flat lagoon-like bottoms that are rimmed by steep-sided limestone walls. Undercut notches rim the basins at several depths, marking either sea-level still stands or paleo-lake levels. All of the solution basins shallower than 120 m were subaerial at the LGM, and at one stage or another may have been shallow shoreline lakes. Today, about 70 drowned reef pinnacles are scattered across the Maui-Lanai underwater bridge and all are situated in wave-sheltered positions. Most drowned during the interval between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago when sea-level rise averaged 15 mm/year. Virtually all of the surficial topography in the Au'au Channel today is a product of karst processes accentuated by marginal reef growth during the Holocene. Both the submerged basins and the drowned reefs represent an archive of sea-level and climate history in Hawaii during the late Quaternary.

  15. Geographic structure and host specificity shape the community composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, Michael; Yost, Denise M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-12-01

    How host-symbiont assemblages vary over space and time is fundamental to understanding the evolution and persistence of mutualistic symbioses. In this study, the diversity and geographic structure of coral-algal partnerships across the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands archipelago was investigated. The diversity of symbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium was characterised using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene in corals sampled at ten reef locations across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Symbiodinium diversity was reported using operational taxonomic units and the distribution of Symbiodinium across the island archipelago investigated for evidence of geographic structure using permutational MANOVA. A 97 % sequence similarity of the ITS2 gene for characterising Symbiodinium diversity was supported by phylogenetic and ecological data. Four of the nine Symbiodinium evolutionary lineages (clades A, C, D, and G) were identified from 16 coral species at French Frigate Shoals, and host specificity was a dominant feature in the symbiotic assemblages at this location. Significant structure in the diversity of Symbiodinium was also found across the archipelago in the three coral species investigated. The latitudinal gradient and subsequent variation in abiotic conditions (particularly sea surface temperature dynamics) across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompasses an environmental range that decouples the stability of host-symbiont assemblages across the archipelago. This suggests that local adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions by at least one partner in coral-algal mutualism occurs prior to the selection pressures associated with the maintenance of a symbiotic state.

  16. Strategies to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipina women in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Aitaoto, Nia; Tsark, Joann U; Tomiyasu, Danette Wong; Yamashita, Barbara A; Braun, Kathryn L

    2009-10-01

    The Hawai'i Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) offers free mammograms and Pap smears to women who are uninsured or underinsured through a statewide provider network. Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and Filipinas are priority populations for this program, and BCCCP providers are required through contract with the Hawai'i Department of Health to utilize half of their allotted mammograms and Pap smears for eligible women from these groups. To identify strategies for increasing use by these groups of mammographyand Pap smear screening services through BCCCP, we held focus groups with women who could potentially use BCCCP services, and we conducted key informant interviews with 9 of Hawai'i's 11 BCCCP providers and 9 non-BCCCP outreach workers serving these populations. Findings led to recommendations for promoting awareness of BCCCP and enhancing outreach to Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Filipina communities in Hawai'i. PMID:19842363

  17. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian island of Niihau during its first test f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian island of Niihau during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  18. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua during its f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  19. Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

    1994-12-31

    Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

  20. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for spec

  1. Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.; Kanamatsu, T.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Community Health Worker Programs: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Nadia S.; Zanowiak, Jennifer M.; Riley, Lindsey; Nadkarni, Smiti K.; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Community Health Workers (CHWs) are frontline health workers who often serve socially and linguistically isolated populations, including Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities in the United States (U.S.) and U.S. territories. We conducted a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature to assess the characteristics of CHW programs for AA and NHPI communities in the U.S. and U.S. territories, generating a total of 75 articles. Articles were coded using eight domains: ethnic group, health topic, geographic location, funding mechanism, type of analysis reported, prevention/management focus, CHW role, and CHW title. Articles describing results of an intervention or program evaluation, or cost-effectiveness analysis were further coded with seven domains: study design, intervention recruitment and delivery site, mode of intervention delivery, outcomes assessed, key findings, and positive impact. Results revealed gaps in the current literature and point towards recommendations for future CHW research, program, and policy efforts. PMID:25981099

  3. Erosion and landscape development affect plant nutrient status in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Porder, Stephen; Paytan, Adina; Vitousek, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    We quantified variation in plant nutrient concentrations and provenance along catenas in landscapes of three different ages (0.15, 1.4, and 4.1 ma) in the Hawaiian Islands. Strontium (Sr) isotopes demonstrate that erosion provides a renewed source of rock-derived nutrients to slopes in landscapes of all ages, in some cases reversing a million years of ecosystem development in a distance of 100 m. However the effects of this input vary with landscape age. Plants on uneroded surfaces in a 0.15-ma landscape derive approximately 20% of their Sr from local bedrock (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7085), while on adjacent slopes this increases to approximately 80% (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7045). Despite this shift in provenance, foliar N and P do not vary systematically with slope position. Conversely, eroded slopes in a 4.1-ma landscape show smaller increases in rock-derived cations relative to stable uplands (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7075 vs 0.7090), but have >50% higher foliar N and P. These results demonstrate both that erosion can greatly increase nutrient availability in older landscapes, and that the ecological effects of erosion vary with landscape age. In addition, there can be as much biogeochemical variation on fine spatial scales in eroding landscapes as there is across millions of years of ecosystem development on stable surfaces. PMID:15538635

  4. Diabetes Among Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders--United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Cho, Pyone; Geiss, Linda S

    2015-11-20

    Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) are fast-growing U.S. minority populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Although national studies have described diabetes prevalence, incidence, and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs compared with non-Hispanic whites, little is known about state-level diabetes prevalence among these two racial groups, or about how they differ from one another with respect to diabetes risk factors. To examine state-level prevalence of self-reported, physician-diagnosed (diagnosed) diabetes and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs aged ?18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2011-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among five states and Guam with sufficient data about NHPIs for analysis, the age-adjusted diabetes prevalence estimate for NHPIs ranged from 13.4% (New York) to 19.1% (California). Among 32 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Guam that had sufficient data about Asians for analysis, diabetes prevalence estimates for Asians ranged from 4.9% (Arizona) to 15.3% (New York). In the five states and Guam with sufficient NHPI data, NHPIs had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did Asians, and a higher proportion of NHPIs were overweight or obese and had less than a high school education compared with Asians. Effective interventions and policies might reduce the prevalence of diabetes in these growing, high-risk minority populations. PMID:26583766

  5. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  6. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

  7. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  8. Microsatellite variation and rare alleles in a bottlenecked Hawaiian Islands endemic: implications for reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Pearce, John M.; Lavretsky, Philip; Seixas, Pedro P.; Courtot, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of genetic biodiversity in endangered wildlife populations is an important challenge to address since the loss of alleles and genetic drift may influence future adaptability. Reintroduction aims to re-establish species to restored or protected ecosystems; however, moving a subset of individuals may result in loss of gene variants during the management-induced bottleneck (i.e. translocation). The endangered Laysan teal Anas laysanensis was once widespread across the Hawaiian archipelago, but became isolated on Laysan Island (415 ha) from the mid-1800s until 2004 when a translocation to Midway Atoll (596 ha) was undertaken to reduce extinction risks. We compared genetic diversity and quantified variation at microsatellite loci sampled from 230 individuals from the wild populations at Laysan (1999 to 2009) and Midway (2007 to 2010; n = 133 Laysan, n = 96 Midway birds). We identified polymorphic markers by screening nuclear microsatellites (N = 83). Low nuclear variation was detected, consistent with the species’ insular isolation and historical bottleneck. Six of 83 microsatellites were polymorphic. We found limited but similar estimates of allelic richness (2.58 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity within populations. However, 2 rare alleles found in the Laysan source population were not present in Midway’s reintroduced population, and a unique allele was discovered in an individual on Midway. Differentiation between island populations was low (FST = 0.6%), but statistically significant. Our results indicate that genetic drift had little effect on offspring generations 3 to 6 yr post-release and demonstrate the utility of using known founder events to help quantify genetic capture during translocations and to inform management decisions.

  9. Public Awareness of a Long-Established Siren-Based Warning System for Tsunami in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C.; Houghton, B.; Paton, D.; Johnston, D.

    2003-12-01

    Tsunami represent one of the greatest threats in the Hawaiian Islands because much of the built environment is located in the coastal areas and has been constructed after the last statewide damaging tsunami (1960). Moreover, the threat posed by short warning times of locally generated tsunami suggests an urgent need for a well briefed and prepared society. The Federal Emergency Alert System (EAS) is employed to communicate emergency information to the Hawaiian population (1.2 million residents; 6.4 million annual visitors). A network of sirens located throughout the islands supplements the EAS. These sirens have been used since the mid 20th Century to provide emergency information to islanders. The siren is currently defined as an "Attention Alert Signal" i.e. is intended to prompt people to listen to the radio or television for specific information. The sirens are tested monthly. Since the inception of the sirens there have been a range of tones and number of soundings used to indicate various threats and prompt specific public responses. However, the impact of these changes on interpretation of the sirens has received little attention (Lachman et al. 1961). The long time during which the warning system has been in place and the routine tests of the sirens would suggest that the population in Hawaii is largely aware of the siren. We present data from four Hawaiian Islands showing the relationship between awareness of the routine tests and interpretations of the sirens. We link this to findings from a tsunami preparedness study in Hilo, Hawaii.

  10. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ..., and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing... attempt will be made to estimate the spiny lobster population size in the U.S. Virgin Islands. Currently... the Federal waters of St. Croix and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Spiny lobsters would be...

  11. Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

    2012-08-01

    The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined to a more narrow coastal strip, although there is still much infrastructure at risk. Even for very strong storms in Oahu and Kauai, maximum still water surge is relatively small, and does not exceed 3 m in any storm modeled. In contrast, hurricane waves several kilometers from shore regularly exceed 10 m due to the lack of a continental shelf.

  12. Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai?ian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baza-Durn, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-12-01

    Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai?ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua?i, O?ahu, Lana?i, and Hawai?i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results suggest that spinner dolphin pods in the Main Hawai?ian Islands share characteristics in approximately 48% of their whistles. Spinner dolphin pods had similar whistle parameters regardless of the island, location, and date when they were sampled and the dolphins' behavioral state and pod size. The term ??whistle-specific subgroup'' (WSS) was used to designate whistle groups with similar whistles parameters (which could have been produced in part by the same dolphins). The emission rate of whistles was higher when spinner dolphins were socializing than when they were traveling or resting, suggesting that whistles are mainly used during close-range interactions. Spinner dolphins also seem to vary whistle duration according to their general behavioral state. Whistle duration and the number of turns and steps of a whistle may be more important in delivering information at the individual level than whistle frequency parameters. .

  13. Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai'ian Islands.

    PubMed

    Baza-Durn, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W L

    2004-12-01

    Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai'ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Lana'i, and Hawai'i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results suggest that spinner dolphin pods in the Main Hawai'ian Islands share characteristics in approximately 48% of their whistles. Spinner dolphin pods had similar whistle parameters regardless of the island, location, and date when they were sampled and the dolphins' behavioral state and pod size. The term "whistle-specific subgroup" (WSS) was used to designate whistle groups with similar whistles parameters (which could have been produced in part by the same dolphins). The emission rate of whistles was higher when spinner dolphins were socializing than when they were traveling or resting, suggesting that whistles are mainly used during close-range interactions. Spinner dolphins also seem to vary whistle duration according to their general behavioral state. Whistle duration and the number of turns and steps of a whistle may be more important in delivering information at the individual level than whistle frequency parameters. PMID:15658726

  14. Inversion of body-wave delay times for mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian islands: results from the PELENET experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Cecily J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Silver, Paul G.; VanDecar, John C.; Russo, Raymond M.

    2002-04-01

    As an experiment to assess the nature of resolvable seismic velocity anomalies in the mantle surrounding the Hawaiian Islands, we operated a temporary network - known as PELENET - consisting of seven broadband portable seismometers on the islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii during 1995-1999. Here we report the inversion of body-wave delay times across the network, including arrivals at the Global Seismic Network station KIP on Oahu and the Ocean Seismic Network Pilot Experiment south of Oahu, to determine the three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle of the region. The consistent feature observed in both P- and S-wave inversions is a low-velocity anomaly beneath Maui and Molokai, which we suggest may reflect a zone of secondary melting in the asthenosphere downstream from the hotspot locus. The inversions do not resolve a cylindrical low-velocity plume in the upper mantle beneath the island of Hawaii, but resolution tests indicate that this outcome could be the result of the sparse and nearly linear distribution of stations combined with the incomplete azimuthal coverage of earthquake sources. A determination of the detailed three-dimensional structure of the upper mantle beneath the Hawaiian hotspot will require a simultaneous deployment of both ocean-bottom and land seismometers.

  15. Paleohydrology of arid southeastern maui, hawaiian islands, and its implications for prehistoric human settlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Jonathan; Coil, James; Kirch, Patrick V.

    2003-01-01

    Arid slopes on the southeastern side of Maui are densely covered with archaeological remains of Hawaiian settlement from the late prehistoric to early postcontact period (ca. A.D. 1500-1860). Permanent habitation sites, agricultural features, and religious structures indicate perennial occupation and farming in a subregion called Kahikinui, yet there is presently no year-round water source. We explore the possibility that postcontact deforestation led to the loss of either (1) perennial channel flow or (2) perennial springs or seeps. To investigate the first possibility, we estimated ancient peak flows on 11 ephemeral channels in Kahikinui using field measurements and paleohydrology. Peak-flow estimates (3-230 m 3/s) for a given drainage area are smaller than those for current perennial Maui streams, but are equivalent to gauged peak flows from ephemeral and intermittent streams in the driest regions of Hawai'i and Maui islands. This is consistent with the long-term absence of perennial channel flow in Kahikinui. On the other hand, others have shown that canopy fog-drip in Hawai'i can be greater than rainfall and thus a large part of groundwater recharge. Using isolated live remnants and snags, we estimate the former extent of the forest upstream from archaeological sites. We use rough estimates of the loss of fog-drip recharge caused by deforestation and apply a simple, steady-state hydrologic model to calculate potential groundwater table fall. These order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that groundwater could have fallen by a minimum of several meters, abandoning perennial seeps. This is consistent with archaeological evidence for former perennial seeps, such as stonewalls enclosing potential seeps to protect them. Although longer-term reductions in rainfall cannot be ruled out as a factor, deforestation and loss of fog-drip recharge are obvious and more immediate reasons for a recent loss of perennial water in Kahikinui, Maui.

  16. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

  17. Translating Diabetes Prevention into Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Communities: The PILI Ohana Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keaweaimoku; West, Margaret R.; Leake, Anne; Efird, James T.; Rose, Charles; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl; Kekauoha, Puni B.; Gomes, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Native Hawaiians (NHs) and Other Pacific Islanders (OPIs) bear an excess burden of diabetes health disparities. To address this, Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to: 1) culturally-adapt the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention (DPP-LI) for NHOPI communities; and 2) implement and examine the effectiveness of the culturally-adapted program to promote weight loss in 5 NHOPI communities. . Methods Informant interviews (n=15) and focus groups (n=15, 112 NHOPI participants) were completed to inform the cultural adaptation of the DPP-LI program. A team of 5 community investigators and 1 academic research team collaboratively developed and implemented the 12-week pilot study to assess the effectiveness of the culturally-adapted program. Results A total of 127 NHOPIs participated in focus groups and informant interviews that resulted in the creation of a significantly modified version of the DPP-LI, entitled the PILI Ohana Lifestyle Intervention (POLI). In the pilot study, 239 NHOPIs were enrolled and after 12 weeks (post-program), mean weight loss was ?1.5 kg (95%CI ?2.0,?1.0) with 26% of participants losing ?3% of their baseline weight. Mean weight loss among participants who completed all 8 lessons at 12 weeks was significantly higher (?1.8 kg, 95%CI ?2.3, ?1.3) than participants who completed less than 8 lessons (?0.70 kg, 95%CI ?1.1, ?0.29). Conclusion A fully engaged CBPR approach was successful in translating an evidence based diabetes prevention program into a culturally relevant intervention for NHOPI communities. This pilot study demonstrates that weight loss in high risk minority populations can be achieved over a short period of time using CBPR approaches. PMID:20364073

  18. Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

  19. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  20. Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  1. Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  2. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

  3. Major element variations in Hawaiian shield lavas: Source features and perspectives from global ocean island basalt (OIB) systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew G.; Weis, Dominique; Huang, Shichun

    2012-09-01

    Among volcanic hot spots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. Olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. Individual data points exhibit remarkable trends and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lava at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. The Hawaiian data set exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt (OIB) database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian lavas with radiogenic Pb and SiO2-poor lavas are sourced by a SiO2-poor mafic component (pyroxenite) admixed with peridotite, while Hawaiian lavas with unradiogenic Pb and high SiO2 are sourced by a SiO2-rich mafic component (eclogite). The variable SiO2 in the mafic component may result from different degrees of SiO2-extraction from the slab during subduction.

  4. National assessment of shoreline change: Historical shoreline change in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2012-01-01

    Sandy beaches of the United States are some of the most popular tourist and recreational destinations. They also constitute some of the most valuable real estate in the country. Beaches are an ephemeral environment between water and land with unique and fragile natural ecosystems that have evolved in equilibrium with the ever-changing winds, waves, and water levels. Beachfront lands are the site of intense residential and commercial development even though they are highly vulnerable to several natural hazards, including marine inundation, flooding and drainage problems, effects of storms, sea level rise, and coastal erosion. Because the U.S. population continues to shift toward the coast where valuable coastal property is vulnerable to erosion, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a national assessment of coastal change. One aspect of this effort, the National Assessment of Shoreline Change, uses shoreline position as a proxy for coastal change because shoreline position is one of the most commonly monitored indicators of environmental change (for example, Fletcher, 1992; Dolan and others, 1991; Douglas and others, 1998; Galgano and others, 1998). Additionally, the National Research Council (1990) recommended the use of historical shoreline analysis in the absence of a widely accepted model of shoreline change. A principal purpose of the USGS shoreline change research is to develop a common methodology so that shoreline change analyses for the continental U.S., portions of Hawaii, and Alaska can be updated periodically in a consistent and systematic manner. The primary objectives of this study were to (1) develop and implement improved methods of assessing and monitoring shoreline movement, and (2) improve current understanding of the processes controlling shoreline movement. Achieving these ongoing long-term objectives requires research that (1) examines the original sources of shoreline data (for example, maps, air photos, global positioning system (GPS), Light Detection and Ranging (lidar)); (2) evaluates the utility of different shoreline proxies (for example, geomorphic feature, water mark, tidal datum, elevation), including the errors associated with each; (3) investigates bias and potential errors associated with integrating different shoreline proxies from different sources; (4) develops standard, uniform methods of shoreline change analysis; (5) examines the effects of human activities on shoreline movement and rates of change; and (6) investigates alternative mathematical methods for calculating historical rates of change and uncertainties associated with them. This report summarizes historical shoreline changes on the three most densely populated islands of the eight main Hawaiian Islands: Kauai, Oahu, and Maui. The report emphasizes the hazard from "chronic" (decades to centuries) erosion at regional scales and strives to relate this hazard to the body of knowledge regarding coastal geology of Hawaii because of its potential impact on natural resources, the economy, and society. Results are organized by coastal regions (island side) and sub-regions (common littoral characteristics). This report of Hawaii coasts is part of a series of reports that include text summarizing methods, results, and implications of the results. In addition, geographic information system (GIS) data used in the analyses are made available for download. The rates of shoreline change and products presented in this report are not intended for site-specific analysis of shoreline movement, nor are they intended to replace any official source of shoreline change information identified by local or State government agencies, or other Federal entities that are used for regulatory purposes. Rates of shoreline change presented herein may differ from other published rates, and differences do not necessarily indicate that the other rates are inaccurate. Some discrepancies are to be expected, considering the many possible ways of determining shoreline positions and rates of change, and the inherent uncertainty in calculating these rates.

  5. Cancer Incidence Trends Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs. Methods Utilizing 1990 and 2000 population census data, we estimated the annual populations by age and sex for Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Guamanians/Chamorros for 1990–2008 in regions covered by 13 of the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registries. Cancer diagnoses during 1990–2008 from these registries were used to calculate the age-adjusted (2000 US Standard) incidence rates by sex, calendar year/period, and cancer type for each population. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Results Statistically significant declining trends were found in Native Hawaiians, in men for lung and stomach cancers (APC = –2.3%; 95% CI = –3.3 to –1.3; and APC = –3.8%; 95% CI = –6.0 to –1.6, respectively), and in women for breast cancer (APC = –4.1%; 95% CI = –5.7 to –2.5) since 1998 and lung cancer (APC = –6.4%; 95% CI = –10.7 to –1.8) since 2001. Rising incidence trends were experienced by Samoans, especially by Samoan women for breast (APC = 2.7%; 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.5) and uterus (APC = 7.3%; 95% CI = 6.2 to 8.4) cancers. With limited data, Guamanians/Chamorros demonstrated lower, but increasing, incidence rates than other NHOPIs. Conclusions Population-based cancer incidence rates for disaggregated NHOPI populations help identify disparities in cancer burden and provide valuable information to improve cancer control efforts among NHOPIs. PMID:23878354

  6. Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ʻIʻiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Naturalists in the 1800s described the ʻIʻiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ʻIʻiwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ʻIʻiwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawaiʻi, east Maui, and Kauaʻi, with a few birds apparently persisting on Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, and west Maui. ʻIʻiwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ʻIʻiwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ʻIʻiwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ʻIʻiwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawaiʻi, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kauaʻi. ʻIʻiwi population trends vary across the islands. ʻIʻiwi population in Kauaʻi has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawaiʻi, population trends are mixed. On the windward side, populations are largely declining, although the northern section (Hakalau Forest) has stable populations. On the leeward side, results suggest a strongly increasing population, with estimates of as much as a 147 percent increase over a 25 year period from the Puʻu Waʻawaʻa region. However, it is unclear how much these results from the leeward side of Hawaiʻi show a population trend contrary to population trends in all other areas or are an artifact of a sparsely sampled area. Trends by elevation suggest a large decrease in numbers of ʻIʻiwi at elevations below 1,200 meters on Kauaʻi and northeast Maui. Low elevation ʻIʻiwi populations also appear to have decreased in other regions, although low-elevation areas are not surveyed as often as other areas because of their lack of native forest birds. An exception to this pattern was the lower portions of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Kona Unit in the central leeward part of the island of Hawaiʻi, where populations appeared stable at the lower elevations. Based on the most recent surveys (up to 2012), approximately 50 percent of ʻIʻiwi live in a narrow, 500-meter band at elevations of 1,200–1,700 meters, suggesting that ʻIʻiwi are vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

  7. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of Connecticut to the western entrance of Long Island Sound; then east along the New York coast of Long Island Sound and back to Point “T”. (h) EEZ Nearshore Outer Cape Lobster Management Area. EEZ... between Connecticut and Rhode Island to the coastal Connecticut/Rhode Island boundary and then back...

  8. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of Connecticut to the western entrance of Long Island Sound; then east along the New York coast of Long Island Sound and back to Point “T”. (h) EEZ Nearshore Outer Cape Lobster Management Area. EEZ... between Connecticut and Rhode Island to the coastal Connecticut/Rhode Island boundary and then back...

  9. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of Connecticut to the western entrance of Long Island Sound; then east along the New York coast of Long Island Sound and back to Point “T”. (h) EEZ Nearshore Outer Cape Lobster Management Area. EEZ... between Connecticut and Rhode Island to the coastal Connecticut/Rhode Island boundary and then back...

  10. Major Element Variations in Hawaiian Shield Lavas: Source Features and Perspectives from global Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Weis, D. A.; Huang, S.

    2012-12-01

    Among volcanic hotspots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. As originally discovered by Hauri (1996), olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. However, we find that individual data points exhibit remarkable trends, and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lavas at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). Only FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations (corrected to MgO 16%) do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. When plotted against 206Pb/204Pb, the fractionation-corrected FeOtotal concentrations of the extreme low 143Nd/144Nd Loa-trend lavasall from Koolau, Kahoolawe and Lanaiappear to be shifted to slightly lower values than Kea-trend volcanoes and Loihi. Fractionation-corrected Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations appear to be offset to somewhat higher values in most of Loa-trend lavas, while Hawaiian lavas with the highest 143Nd/144Nd, including Loihi and Kea-trend volcanoes, tend to have slightly lower Al2O3 and Na2O abundances. The Hawaiian dataset exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian lavas with radiogenic Pb and SiO2-poor lavas are sourced by a SiO2-poor mafic component (pyroxenite) admixed with peridotite, while Hawaiian lavas with unradiogenic Pb and high SiO2 are sourced by a SiO2-rich mafic component (eclogite). The variable SiO2 in the mafic component may result from different degrees of SiO2-extraction from the slab during subduction.

  11. The evolution of water and solute fluxes and pathways in post-constructional volcanic landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, L. A.; Schopka, H. H.

    2011-12-01

    Post-eruptive volcanic landscapes evolve rapidly in response to erosion, re-vegetation, and pedogenesis. The Hawaiian islands offer a time series to study the evolution of surface processes on a uniform lithology and under spatially varying but well-characterized climates. Young surfaces retain constructional topography largely controlled by the most recent lava flows and/or ash deposits. Young surfaces such as found on Mauna Loa (O 102 - 103 yrs) are highly permeable and surface runoff is rare or absent, even under conditions of high rainfall. We hypothesize that the development of soil is a key factor in reducing vertical infiltration rates and promoting lateral flow of water. Stream channelization begins with control by constructional topography and in some cases major faults or fracture zone. In areas with positive water balance stream erosion leads to rapid channel formation. On the windward side of Mauna Kea (O 104 - 105 yrs) stream incision into the shield topography is much more pronounced than on adjacent Mauna Loa surfaces. Flank collapse (e.g. windward Kohala, ? 105 yrs) leaves hanging valleys and drives deep canyon formation. On all of the Hawaiian islands direct submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the oceans is important. The ratio of water transported to the oceans as stream discharge (Q) vs SGD increases with surface age and incision, from near zero on Mauna Loa to > 1 on Kohala. Island wide, SGD ? 3.5 - 4x Q. The evolution of water pathways influences weathering fluxes to the oceans. Ground water from Hawaii has significantly larger concentrations of weathering-derived solutes than does stream water. This should result from longer path length and contact time, which increase interaction with reactive mineral surfaces, but the detailed controls on solute chemistry remain uncertain. Island-wide, the flux ratio of weathering solutes in SGD vs Q is near 15. SGDA is the dominant pathway for the delivery of silicate mineral weathering products to the oceans. These general results should apply to other young volcanic island or coastal terranes. Analysis of stream water fluxes may grossly underestimate weathering fluxes from volcanic terranes. Understanding the coupled evolution of land surface morphology, soil development, and hydrologic pathways is critical to evaluating the temporal behavior of surface processes in young volcanic terranes.

  12. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  13. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Koehler, Tobias B.; Marquez, Sebastian N.; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O‘ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the Kōnāhua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko‘olau Mountains, located on Windward O‘ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla. PMID:25829854

  14. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  15. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko'olau Mountains of O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J; Koehler, Tobias B; Marquez, Sebastian N; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Cyaneakonahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O'ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the K?n?hua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko'olau Mountains, located on Windward O'ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla. PMID:25829854

  16. Socio-demographic, Behavioral, and Biological Variables Related to Weight Loss in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; Townsend, Claire K.M.; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka`imi A.; Mau, Marjorie K.; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ≥3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n=49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n=51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (p≤.05) with ≥3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR=6.04; CI=1.14–32.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR=1.47; CI=1.22–1.86) and who were in the PLP (OR=4.50; CI=1.50–15.14) were more likely to achieve ≥3% weight loss [model; χ2 (7, N=100) = 45.50, p < .0001]. The same lifestyle intervention does not benefit all NHs/PIs equally, possibly due to differences in acculturation status and social support. The findings also point to the importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance. PMID:23404724

  17. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-11-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. These observations have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii. We have formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 10^20 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced deformation and mantle dynamics.

  18. An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

  19. New and poorly known species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea (Bairdiidae, Ostracoda) from French Frigate Shoals and O'ahu, the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Rosalie F

    2015-01-01

    Bairdoppilata scaura, n. sp. and five species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea in open nomenclature are described from encrusting communities on French Frigate Shoals and Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Some poorly documented anatomical traits (carapace setae, hingement, antennal claws, genitalia) are examined for their potential taxonomic significance, in order to confirm the coherence of the Genus Bairdoppilata and to explore its diversity. PMID:26701564

  20. Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine spatial planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.

  1. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  2. Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Kido, Michael H; Jokiel, Paul L; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai'i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management. PMID:22538320

  3. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  4. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  5. Wrecks as artificial lobster habitats in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, Roland; Schrder, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Once, the European lobster could be found in high abundances on rocky substrate around the island of Helgoland. Since the 1960s, the stock has been decreasing dramatically. Until now, it has been assumed that the lobster stock of Helgoland is the only one in the German Bight. Here, we provide first information about lobster distribution inside the German Bight off Helgoland. Diving in situ observations revealed that lobsters inhabit at least 15.6% of all 64 investigated wrecks. Considering the difficulties of detecting lobsters at wrecks, the true percentage is most likely much higher. Their locations are spatially homogenously distributed throughout the inspected area. The study indicates a broad distribution of the European lobster over the German Bight. The habitats provided by a considerable fraction of the more than one thousand wrecks outside the Wadden Sea are potential lobster refuges within the mud and sand dominated sea floor. Besides providing additional habitats, they represent stepping stones enhancing the connectivity of the North Sea lobster population.

  6. Disparities in Use of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services by Asian and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Women

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Van M.; Juon, Hee-soon; Gielen, Andrea C.; Steinwachs, Donald; Duggan, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if disparities exist in lifetime utilization of mental health/substance abuse services among Asian, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) and white mothers. The study sample was comprised of mothers assessed to be at-risk (n=491) and not at-risk (n=218) for child maltreatment in the Hawaii Healthy Start Program study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the effects of predisposing, need, and enabling factors on utilization of services. Results revealed that, among mothers with depressive symptoms, compared with whites, Asians and NHOPI were significantly less likely to have received services. There were no significant racial differences in use of mental health/substance use services by other factors. These results suggest that racial disparities exist in utilization of mental health/substance abuse services among mothers with depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing needed services for Asian and NHOPI women. PMID:17647106

  7. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  8. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  9. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993--2003.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H; Rameyer, Robert A; Morris, Robert A

    2004-11-23

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84 %) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20 %), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3 % each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores. PMID:15648843

  10. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

  11. GRB Astrophysics with LOBSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.

    2006-05-19

    We refer on the recent developments of LOBSTER project suggesting novel wide-field Lobster-Eye type of X-ray All Sky Monitor to detect and to analyze GRBs including XRF and X-ray rich GRBs. The triggers can be detected and localized by their X-ray emission in the 0.1 - 8 keV energy range. The system exhibits fine detecting sensitivities of order of 10-12 ergcm-2s-1 and the localization accuracy is of order of a few arcmin. The LOBSTER is expected to contribute significantly to analyses of GRBs and especially the XRFs.

  12. Hawaiian heat

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.

    2000-06-01

    Today, the island's people are still using the sun's energy in their daily tasks. In 1996, Maui Electric Company (MECO) and its sister companies (Hawaiian Electric on the island of Oahu, and Hawaii Electric Light on the island of Hawaii), implemented energy efficiency programs, including the largest solar water heating program in the US. The goal of these energy efficiency programs is to defer the need to build new power plants. With the expiration in 1985 of the Federal and State of Hawaii Energy Tax credits, the solar water heating industry in Hawaii went into a steady decline. During the industry's heyday in the early and mid-80's, approximately 5,000 solar system were being installed each year. Prior to the utilities' promotion of solar water heating in 1996, the number of solar water heaters installed dropped significantly to an average of about 1,200 systems per year. However, in the three years since the inception of the solar water heating program, Maui Electric and its sister companies have installed 10,000 solar water heating systems and have paid out over $10 million in cash incentives to island residents to install solar water heating systems. The utility support of the solar trade industry has also created nearly 400 jobs and generated about $14.9 million of investments within the state. The story behind these statistics is equally impressive.

  13. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria. PMID:24446093

  14. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria.

  15. Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

  16. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-12-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas including those from the Hilo scientific drilling hole [e.g., Lipman and Moore, 1996] indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies by Grigg and Jones [1997] of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate up to ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. Similar studies show that Oahu which is ~340 km from Hawaii has experienced smaller amount of uplift during approximately the same period. The observed patterns of vertical motions have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii on an elastic plate overlying an inviscid substratum. Such a model, however, is time-invariant and does not take into account any changes that may occur in the subsidence and uplift history during loading. We have therefore formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 1020 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. A feature of the model is that at the time-scales appropriate to loading at Hawaii a significant portion of the lithosphere with viscosity greater than 1022 Pa s may still support stresses, which results in a larger apparent elastic thickness than has been deduced from flexural loading studies. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model with a variable loading history can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift that is observed at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced stress relaxation in the lithosphere and dynamic effects in the underlying mantle. Future work should enable the vertical motion data to be used not only as constraints on models for rheology of the lithosphere but also on the nature of plume-plate interactions. Grigg and Jones, Marine Geol., 141, 11-25, 1997. Lipman and Moore, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11631-11641, 1996. Watts and Zhong, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 855-875, 2000.

  17. LIGA FOR LOBSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H.

    2000-09-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  18. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  19. Association of Modifiable Risk Factors and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction among Hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Todd B; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Howard, Barbara; Ratner, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010. Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age ? 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ? 40% or LVEF ? 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 151 participants, 69% were men, mean age 54.3 13.5 years, blood pressure 112 20/69 15 mmHg, and body mass index (BMI) 36.9 9 kg/m2. Twenty-five percent of participants were smokers, 45% used alcohol and 23% reported a history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/defibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently associated with lower LVEF (P < .05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality. PMID:25535596

  20. Impact of Diabetes on Prolonged Hospital Stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 14 years vs 72 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of Oahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

  1. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  2. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  3. Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). Design/Setting/Patient population: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Puuwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction ?45%, 3) Age of 21 years or older. Data were analyzed by odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and multiple logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Methamphetamine use. Results: Twenty-two percent of HF participants were identified as being current or prior methamphetamine users. Younger age and non-married status (combined never married or divorced/separated) were independently associated with MU after adjustment for sex, education, and other co-morbidities associated with HF (ie, age >50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.030.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.547; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.875). Conclusions: Risk factors associated with MU in NH and PIPs with heart failure include: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs. PMID:19436660

  4. Impact of diabetes on prolonged hospital stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 ± 14 years vs 72 ± 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of O'ahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

  5. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  6. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  7. Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a healthy reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  8. Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

  9. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  10. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    PubMed

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid organizations like the H.O.M.E. project to better address the health needs of the Native Hawaiian homeless population. PMID:20540000

  11. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A. C.

    2012-03-01

    Over historic time Hawaii's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawaii, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  12. Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

  13. Hawaiian health practitioners in contemporary society.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K

    2001-09-01

    Hawaiian medical practices in Hawai'i became fragmented and deteriorated following the arrival of Western civilization. With the resurgence of Hawaiian pride, interest has risen to preserve what remains of Hawaiian healing methods. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which Hawaiian healing modalities are still in existence and practiced in the 1990s by Hawaiian health practitioners. Twenty-five Hawaiian health practitioners on the island of O'ahu agreed to in-depth interviews on their specific training and current practices of Hawaiian healing. Data collection included demographic characteristics, cultural attributes, training patterns, healing modalities, motivation to practice, spirituality and health, use of Hawaiian medicines, and training of haumana (students). Common practices as well as differences between practitioners and specialties were explored. This study found that a small, but substantive, component of Hawaiian healing is practiced by a growing number of Hawaiian practitioners. Content analyses identified two major components of Hawaiian healing: (1) attributes of Hawaiian culture, and (2) elements of spirituality in health and healing. Three significant modalities remain: ho'olomilomi, massage; la'au lapa'au, herbal medicine; and ho'oponopono, conflict resolution. Seventeen or 68% reported being skilled in more than one healing modality and 56% were training haumana. All practitioners reported apprenticeships under one or more master healers or a recognized elder healer--often a family member. Prior to, and after, the administration of any healing modality, spiritual blessings were administered by all practitioners to initiate the healing process and end the healing session. Hawaiian values--such as lokahi, harmony between man, nature, and the gods--are essential for holistic health. Without lokahi, there is illness. In summary, this study provides data that previously did not exist on contemporary Hawaiian health practitioners. Public health planners and health care professionals may find this information useful in developing culturally competent health programs for Hawaiian clients or patients. PMID:12180505

  14. The Perception of Innovation in the Delivery of Services for Hawaiian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jamee Mahealani

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiians come from a tradition of success and resilience. Sumida and Meyer (2006) report that Native Hawaiians were among the most literate people in the world in the 1840's where they had the highest literacy rate west of the Rockies. By 1893, nearly 100 Hawaiian newspapers were in print and circulation in the Hawaiian Islands

  15. New R/V Falkor Multibeam Data from the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.; Kelley, C.; Boston, B.; Dechnik, B.; Habel, S.; Harrison, L.; Leonard, J.; Lichowski, F.; Luers, D.; Miller, J. E.; Orange, R.; Patterson, M. A.; Shiro, B.; Taylor, J.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.; Tucker, J.; Wagner, D.; Webster, J.; Wright, N.

    2014-12-01

    From March to June 2014, the Schmidt Ocean Institute, along with National Marine Sanctuaries and the National Science Foundation, supported 72 days of mapping surveys on two cruises using R/V Falkor in the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) located within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). PMNM is one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. Approximately 127,000 km2, 35% of the PMNM, were surveyed using dual multibeam systems from less than 30 to >5000 meters water depth, and thus covering the habitat depth ranges for shallow living corals, mesophotic corals, drowned reefs, to deep-sea corals and sponge communities. A total of 18 seamounts, guyots, banks, or atoll flanks (e.g., Midway and Kure) were mapped in the upper northwestern section of the monument, including the generically named Bank 9 Seamount, which appears to be a composite of a younger Hawaiian seamount and an older Cretaceous guyot. The middle segment of the PMNM consists mostly of large volcanic rift zone ridges and broad carbonate platforms. The rift zones located there are comparable in shape and size with those off Maui and the Island of Hawai'i in the main islands. Likewise, the magnitude of the largest carbonate platform of Gardner Pinnacles suggests its original high island may have met or exceeded the enormity of the Island of Hawai'i. Furthermore, the new mapping data have revealed the detail of numerous landslides and their deposits all along the chain, including an unusual rift zone flank failure creating a knife-edge ridge off Pioneer Bank. Dives with the Pisces V submersible were previously carried out on this feature, where extensive filter feeding biological communities were discovered. Not to be overlooked, the sidescan backscatter component of the multibeam data proved essential for identifying subtle reef features, numerous carbonate terraces, and debris channels that appear to transport sediment down the edifice flanks to the deep seafloor. Additionally, it was essential in delineating volcanic landforms such as lava flows, fissures, and eruptive cones. In short, the high quality and resolution of Falkor's bathymetric and backscatter data have exposed second and possibly third order deep-water geomorphologic and structural elements on a regional scale.

  16. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  17. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Benning, Tracy L; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T; Vitousek, Peter M

    2002-10-29

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae) represent a superb illustration of evolutionary radiation, with a single colonization event giving rise to 19 extant and at least 10 extinct species [Curnutt, J. & Pimm, S. (2001) Stud. Avian Biol. 22, 15-30]. They also represent a dramatic example of anthropogenic extinction. Crop and pasture land has replaced their forest habitat, and human introductions of predators and diseases, particularly of mosquitoes and avian malaria, has eliminated them from the remaining low- and mid-elevation forests. Landscape analyses of three high-elevation forest refuges show that anthropogenic climate change is likely to combine with past land-use changes and biological invasions to drive several of the remaining species to extinction, especially on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. PMID:12374870

  18. The Gils excursion and the Matuyama/Brunhes transition recorded in 40Ar/39Ar dated lavas from Lanai and Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, R.; McWilliams, M.; Heider, F.; Soffel, H. C.

    2009-10-01

    Directional results, Thellier-type palaeointensity determinations and Ar/Ar ages are presented from volcanic units of Pleistocene age from the Hawaiian islands of Maui and Lanai. Twenty-nine non-contiguous lava flows were sampled on Lanai. The lava flows formed during the late Matuyama polarity chron about 1.6 Ma and recorded the Gils geomagnetic polarity excursion. The obtained ages of 1.6 Ma for the Lanai lavas are significantly older than ages previously obtained for this island. These new ages are, however, in agreement with the age progression of the Hawaiian hotspot. The palaeomagnetic record over the sampled succession is characterized by reversed and intermediate directions. palaeointensities are generally very low, about half the present-day field intensity, dropping to values of ~5 ?T during transitional field states. Transitional virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from Lanai are situated first near the west coast of South America and then switch to offshore western Australia. Normal polarity is never reached in the sampled succession. Transitional VGPs located close to Australia accompanied by relatively low palaeointensities are found in most records of short geomagnetic excursions during the Matuyama polarity chron (e.g. the Cobb Mountain subchron, the Punaru event and the Matuyama/Brunhes precursor) suggesting very similar physical processes likely related to dipolar dominance during the onset of these excursions and influences of lower mantle heterogeneities. Approximately 800 kyr after the Gils excursion, lava flows on Maui recorded the last reversal, the Matuyama/Brunhes transition. Fourteen lava flows were sampled which recorded the pre- and post-transitional behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field. The geomagnetic field intensity is low prior to the reversal, approximately 8?T, and increases strongly afterwards up to ~63 ?T. These values of about twice the present field intensity of Hawaii after the transition emphasize a strong asymmetry between pre- and post-transitional fields, which is particularly strong in the region of Hawaii.

  19. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  20. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew, Jr.; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  1. 186Os- 187Os systematics of Hawaiian picrites revisited: New insights into Os isotopic variations in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.

    2011-08-01

    Eighteen picrites (MgO > 13 wt.%) and three related basalts from six Hawaiian volcanoes were analyzed for 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os. Variations in these ratios reflect long-term Re/Os and Pt/Os differences in the mantle source regions of these volcanoes. 187Os/ 188Os ratios vary from 0.129 to 0.136, consistent with the range defined by previous studies of Hawaiian picrites and basalts. Samples with lower 187Os/ 188Os are mainly from Kea trend volcanoes (Mauna Kea and Kilauea), and the more radiogenic samples are mainly from Loa trend volcanoes (Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Koolau and Loihi). As previously suggested, differences in 187Os/ 188Os between volcanic centers are most consistent with the presence of variable proportions of recycled materials and/or pyroxenitic components in the Hawaiian source. 186Os/ 188Os ratios vary from 0.1198332 26 to 0.1198480 20, with some samples having ratios that are significantly higher than current estimates for the ambient upper mantle. Although the range of 186Os/ 188Os for the Hawaiian suite is consistent with that reported by previous studies, the new data reveal significant heterogeneities among picrites from individual volcanoes. The linear correlation between 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os reported by a previous study is no longer apparent with the larger dataset. The postulated recycled materials and pyroxenites responsible for the dominant variations in 187Os/ 188Os are likely not responsible for the variations in 186Os/ 188Os. Such materials are typically characterized by both insufficiently high Os concentrations and Pt/Os to account for the 186Os/ 188Os heterogeneities. The lack of correspondence between 186Os/ 188Os variations and the Kea and Loa trends supports this conclusion. The primary cause of 186Os/ 188Os variations are evaluated within the framework of two mixing scenarios: (1) metasomatic transport of Pt and/or 186Os-rich Os into some portions of the Hawaiian source, and (2) interaction between an isotopically complex plume source with a common, Os- and 186Os-enriched reservoir (COs). Both scenarios require large scale, selective transport of Pt, Re and/or Os. Current estimates of HSE concentrations in the mantle source of these rocks, however, provide little evidence for either process, so the dominant cause of the 186Os/ 188Os variations remains uncertain.

  2. 75 FR 35990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flying Earwig Hawaiian Damselfly and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for two species of Hawaiian damselflies, the flying earwig Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion nesiotes) on the island of Maui and the Pacific Hawaiian damselfly (M. pacificum) on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Molokai. This final rule implements the Federal......

  3. Multibeam Synthesis of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Supports Diverse Research in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Kelley, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) was established in 2006 and is both the single largest conservation area under U.S. jurisdiction (366,631 km2), and one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. The NWHI stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main or Southeastern Hawaiian Islands and contains 47 individual islands, seamounts, atolls, ridges, and submerged banks. The PMNM boundary is 100 nm (185 km) wide centered on the emergent landforms and thus nearly the entire monument (98%) is in deepwater (>100 m) beyond the range of technical wet diving. Because of its remote location, dedicated multibeam mapping of the PMNM region began only ten years ago, although research in the NWHI has taken place for decades. In an effort to consolidate the more recent systematic surveys with older transit data swaths for this region, a synthesis of all existing multibeam data was undertaken between 2009 and 2010. This dataset was then merged with the much lower resolution global bathymetry dataset to generate a more complete picture and allow users to visualize the remainder of the as yet unmapped features within and adjacent to the PMNM boundaries. One of the primary benefits of the synthesis has been to provide researchers with base maps for study site selection including submersible and ROV dive locations. In addition, fusion with the global dataset permits calculation of statistics using geospatial software and may serve as input for physical oceanographic models. With a number of different entities carrying out mapping activities in the PMNM in recent years, this data compilation also provides a road map showing where existing multibeam data are located so as to avoid duplication of effort. The synthesis was prepared with a grid cell interval of 120 m in order to accommodate the large area and water depths to >5000 m, although some of the individual surveys are of much higher resolution, especially in shallow water. Nearly all of the data included are currently available from the National Geophysical Data Center. Mapping products showing the synthesis will be presented along with an example of how it is being used in a deepwater biological survey project in the PMNM studying ancient volcanic ridges, seamounts, and isolated pinnacles where extensive deep-sea coral and sponge communities were discovered. The synthesis also reveals many other complex deepwater features in the monument where important biological resources will likely be revealed.

  4. Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800?m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80?kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30?s every 5?min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night. PMID:23654414

  5. Effects of habitat patchiness on American lobster movement across a gradient of predation risk and shelter competition.

    PubMed

    Hovel, Kevin A; Wahle, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of landscape structure on marine ecological processes is receiving increasing attention. However, few studies conducted in coastal marine habitats have evaluated whether the effects of landscape structure on species interactions and organismal behavior are consistent across the range of an organism, over which landscape context and the strength of species interactions typically vary. American lobster (Homarus americanus) juveniles seek refuge from predators within shallow rocky habitat but make short-distance movements to forage outside of shelter. We evaluated how the patchiness of cobble habitat influences juvenile lobster movement by conducting mark-recapture experiments on lobsters placed within patchy and contiguous cobble plots in three regions of New England among which risk of predation and intraspecific shelter competition vary (Rhode Island, mid-coast Maine, and eastern Maine, USA). We also evaluated whether habitat patchiness influenced lobster colonization of plots and whether lobster fidelity to individual shelters corresponds to variability in predator abundance and conspecific density among regions. Cobble patchiness reduced rates of lobster movement in all three regions in 2004 and in two of three regions in 2005, despite large differences in landscape context among regions. Region had much larger effects on lobster colonization than did patchiness, but patchy plots were colonized at higher rates than were contiguous plots where lobster densities were highest. Fidelity to shelter was higher in regions with low conspecific density (Rhode Island and eastern Maine) than in mid-coast Maine where conspecific density is high and where unmarked lobsters often occupied shelters vacated by marked lobsters. Our results indicate that cobble patchiness influences juvenile lobster movement at small scales, but that the effects of patchiness on movement were consistent across much of the range of the American lobster despite strong regional variation in predator abundance and conspecific density. PMID:20715622

  6. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  7. The Return of Hawaiian: Language Networks of the Revival Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenzinger, Matthias; Heinrich, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Some 40 years ago, language transmission in Hawai'i was interrupted among Hawaiians across all islands with the sole exception of language maintenance among a small community on the tiny, isolated Ni'ihau Island. Today, Hawaiian has returned as spoken and written medium with some 5000-7000 new speakers. The present paper provides an

  8. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with sky islands of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high-elevation settings in the Hawaiian chain immediately prior to formation of the oldest, modern high-elevation island, Kauai. PMID:20382966

  9. ISS-Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  10. GPS monitoring of Hawaiian Volcanoes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory uses a variety of ground- and satellite-based techniques to monitor Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes.  Here, an HVO scientist sets up a portable GPS receiver to track surface changes during an island-wide survey of Hawai‘i’s volcanoes. &n...

  11. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  12. Exploring Hawaiian Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-02-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pele in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai`i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO's founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists' understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  13. New Hawaiian Bathymetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Kunikiyo, T.; Smith, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    A collaborative effort between Japanese and US scientists sponsored by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) has studied marine volcanology and sedimentation off shore of the Hawaiian Islands. The focus of the cruises is to build a greater understanding of the Hawaiian Volcanoes through manned and robotic submersible diving programs, collection of piston cores and dredges, and the surveying of the seafloor with single channel seismic and a multibeam sonar mapping system. During the first leg of the 2001 effort, approximately 29,000 km2 was surveyed using the multibeam sonar in addition to the previously collected 115,000 km2. The broad coverage and moderate resolution of these maps provide the base necessary for further research. The new data provide insights into several features that were partially mapped. The western end of the southernmost strand of the Molokai fracture zone were it is down warped beneath the Hawaiian Ridge shows a bifurcating structure. The structure may be due to either splaying of the fracture or involvement with an older seamount. A series of horst and grabens were mapped south east of the Island of Hawaii. These features appear to contradict the previous satellite-based gravity derived bathymetry for the area. The Waianae slide southwest of Oahu was also mapped in its entirety. A little studied volcanic field southwest of Oahu lies at approximately 159° 10' W and 21° 30' N. The volcanic field was first recognized using the GLORIA sidescan sonar surveys of the Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone by the USGS (J. Moore et al.,1989). The GLORIA surveys show that the area is characterized by a high sonar backscatter similar in nature to the South Arch and North Arch volcanic fields. Preliminary interpretation of the new sonar data reveal the shield-like nature of the Southwest volcanic field, numerous cones and a southwest/northeast trending lava flow originating from a cone.

  14. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing of coral reefs: Deriving bathymetry, aquatic optical properties and a benthic spectral unmixing classification using AVIRIS data in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, James Ansell

    My research focuses on the development and application of hyperspectral remote sensing as a valuable component in the assessment and management of coral ecosystems. Remote sensing provides an important quantitative ability to investigate the spatial dynamics of coral health and evaluate the impacts of local, regional and global change on this important natural resource. Furthermore, advances in detector capabilities and analysis methods, particularly with respect to hyperspectral remote sensing, are also increasing the accuracy and level of effectiveness of the resulting data products. Using imagery of Kaneohe Bay and French Frigate Shoals in the Hawaiian Islands, acquired in 2000 by NASA's Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), I developed, applied and evaluated algorithms for analyzing coral reefs using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Research included developing methods for acquiring in situ underwater reflectance, collecting spectral measurements of the dominant bottom components in Kaneohe Bay, applying atmospheric correction and sunglint removal algorithms, employing a semianalytical optimization model to derive bathymetry and aquatic optical properties, and developing a linear unmixing approach for deriving bottom composition. Additionally, algorithm development focused on using fundamental scientific principles to facilitate the portability of methods to diverse geographic locations and across variable environmental conditions. Assessments of this methodology compared favorably with available field measurements and habitat information, and the overall analysis demonstrated the capacity to derive information on water properties, bathymetry and habitat composition. Thus, results illustrated a successful approach for extracting environmental information and habitat composition from a coral reef environment using hyperspectral remote sensing.

  16. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  17. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  18. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  19. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  20. Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at least 8 weeks among Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander race subgroups in Hawaii, 2004-2008.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Donald K; Mitchell, Kristen M; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2014-07-01

    Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004-2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and socio-demographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3%. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.53-0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.52-0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.58-0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.61-0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates. PMID:24096640

  1. Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding at Least 8 Weeks Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawaii, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kristen M.; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L.; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004–2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and sociodemographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3 %. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95 % CI 0.43–0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.53–0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.52–0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.58–0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.61–0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95 % CI 0.64–0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95 % CI 0.65–0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates. PMID:24096640

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences confirm a unique plant intercontinental disjunction between tropical Africa, the Caribbean, and the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Namoff, Sandra; Luke, Quentin; Jimnez, Francisco; Veloz, Alberto; Lewis, Carl E; Sosa, Victoria; Maunder, Mike; Francisco-Ortega, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8 regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and of the trnH-psbA spacer of the chloroplast genome confirm that the three taxa of the Jacquemontia ovalifolia (Choicy) Hallier f. complex (Convolvulaceae) form a monophyletic group. Levels of nucleotide divergence and morphological differentiation among these taxa support the view that each should be recognized as distinct species. These three species display unique intercontinental disjunction, with one species endemic to Hawaii (Jacquemontia sandwicensis A. Gray.), another restricted to eastern Mexico and the Antilles [Jacquemontia obcordata (Millspaugh) House], and the third confined to East and West Africa (J. ovalifolia). The Caribbean and Hawaiian species are sister taxa and are another example of a biogeographical link between the Caribbean Basin and Polynesia. We provide a brief conservation review of the three taxa based on our collective field work and investigations; it is apparent that J. obcordata is highly threatened and declining in the Caribbean. PMID:19760138

  3. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  4. Attraction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects to methyl eugenol bucket traps with different preservative fluids on Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Grant K; Mackey, Bruce E; McInnis, Donald O; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-06-01

    Attraction of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and nontarget insects to preservative fluids ethylene glycol antifreeze, propylene glycol antifreeze, or mineral oil in bucket traps that contained captured decaying male oriental fruit flies, a male lure (methyl eugenol), and a toxicant (DDVP vapor insecticidal strip) were compared with dry control traps. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater numbers of B. dorsalis were captured in propylene glycol antifreeze traps than in other attractant trap types. Among attractant trap types with lowest negative impacts on nontarget insects, control traps captured significantly lower numbers of three species and one morphospecies of scavenger flies, one species of plant-feeding fly, and one species each of sweet-and lipid-feeding ants. Mineral oil traps captured significantly lower numbers of two species of scavengers flies and one morphospecies of plant-feeding fly, and one species of sweet-feeding ant. Because of the fragile nature of endemic Hawaiian insect fauna, the propylene glycol antifreeze bucket trap is best suited for use in environments (e.g., non-native habitats) where endemic species are known to be absent and mineral oil traps are more suited for minimizing insect captures in environmentally sensitive habitats. PMID:17598531

  5. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  6. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ? 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  7. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 1234 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individualsthe fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 1234 years in the 20052012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; got them from a friend/relative for free and bought them from a friends/relative were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 1825) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  8. Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMartini, E.E.; Zgliczynski, B.J.; Boland, R.C.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave "exposed" sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes) at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore water flow and transport by surface currents. The densities of recruits (juveniles ???5 cm total length) were higher overall on windward versus leeward sectors of carbonate rock-rubble back reefs at both atolls, and the pattern was stronger for smaller (likely younger, more recently settled) recruits of four of the five most abundant species and the remainder pooled as an "Other" taxon. The windward-leeward disparity was four-fold greater at Pearl Hermes (the atoll with a three-fold longer perimeter) than at Kure. Resident predator biomass also was correlated with recruit densities, but habitat (benthic substratum) effects were generally weak. The distribution and abundance of recruits and juveniles of the primarily endemic reef fishes on shallow back reefs at these atolls appear partly influenced by relative rates of water flow over windward vs. leeward sectors of barrier reef and by the size, shape, and orientation of habitat parcels that filter out postlarval fishes with relatively weak swimming capabilities like labroids. Whole-reef geomorphology as well as fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and rugosity should be considered among the suite of many factors used to interpret observed spatial patterns of post-settlement juvenile fish distribution at atolls and perhaps some other tropical reefs. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  9. Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The Hawaiian Islands provide a cultural setting where the prominent place of astronomy within religious, navigational, and calendrical traditions is evident from a rich ethnohistoric record. The many hundreds of temple platforms and enclosures (heiau) whose remains survive across the archipelago have provided a natural focus for archaeoastronomers not only to examine orientations and structural alignments but to explore a range of issues relating to field method and practice in a context where spatially patterned archaeological data and ethnohistorical evidence exist in relatively fine balance. As archaeoastronomy has developed within the islands, it has become better integrated into archaeological investigations tackling questions of broader anthropological significance, one of the most fascinating being when, how, and why Polynesian chiefdoms became transformed into archaic states, something that happened here but nowhere else in Polynesia.

  10. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  11. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-10

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  12. Natural hazards on the island of Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.W.; Mullineaux, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    The island of Hawaii and the other islands of the Hawaiian chain are products of volcanic eruptions. Lava flows from hundreds of thousands of eruptions through countless centuries have built the Hawaiian Islands. Some volcanoes on the island of Hawaii have been very active during historic time, and similar activity is expected to continue throughout the foreseeable future.

  13. A comparison of static versus dynamic models of sea-level rise impacts to atolls: Insights from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Berkowitz, P.; Reynolds, M.; Logan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and impact terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islets on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an islet at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using US Army Corps of Engineers hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled Delft3D wave, current, and water level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the islet shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and islet configuration. Islet inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested by passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models.

  14. Disparities in self-reported postpartum depression among Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Women in Hawaii: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Donald K; Ta, Van M; Hurwitz, Eric L; Mitchell-Box, Kristen M; Fuddy, Loretta J

    2010-09-01

    Postpartum depression affects 10-20% of women and causes significant morbidity and mortality among mothers, children, families, and society, but little is known about postpartum depression among the individual Asian and Pacific Islander racial/ethnic groups. This study sought to indentify the prevalence of postpartum depression among common Asian and Pacific Islander racial/ethnic groups. Data from the Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS), a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after the birth of a live infant, were analyzed from 2004 through 2007 and included 7,154 women. Questions on mood and interest in activities since giving birth were combined to create a measure of Self-reported Postpartum Depressive Symptoms (SRPDS). A series of generalized logit models with maternal race or ethnicity adjusted for other sociodemographic characteristics evaluated associations between SRPDS and an intermediate level of symptoms as possible indicators of possible SRPDS. Of all women in Hawaii with a recent live birth, 14.5% had SRPDS, and 30.1% had possible SRPDS. The following Asian and Pacific Islander racial or ethnic groups were studied and found to have higher odds of SRPDS compared with white women: Korean (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.8;95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-4.0), Filipino (AOR = 2.2;95% CI: 1.7-2.8), Chinese (AOR = 2.0;95% CI: 1.5-2.7), Samoan (AOR = 1.9;95% CI: 1.2-3.2), Japanese (AOR = 1.6;95% CI: 1.2-2.2), Hawaiian (AOR = 1.7;95% CI: 1.3-2.1), other Asian (AOR = 3.3;95% CI: 1.9-5.9), other Pacific Islander (AOR = 2.2;95% CI: 1.5-3.4), and Hispanic (AOR = 1.9;95% CI: 1.1-3.4). Women who had unintended pregnancies (AOR = 1.4;95% CI: 1.2-1.6), experienced intimate partner violence (AOR = 3.7;95% CI: 2.6-5.5), smoked (AOR = 1.5;95% CI: 1.2-2.0), used illicit drugs (AOR = 1.9;95% CI: 1.3-3.9), or received Women, Infant, and Children (WIC) benefits during pregnancy (AOR = 1.4;95% CI: 1.2-2.6) were more likely to have SRPDS. Several groups also were at increased risk for possible SRPDS, although this risk was not as prominent as seen with the risk for SRPDS. One in seven women reported SRPDS, and close to a third reported possible SRPDS. Messages about postpartum depression should be incorporated into current programs to improve screening, treatment, and prevention of SRPDS for women at risk. PMID:19653084

  15. Constraints on the Composition and Hydrothermal Alteration History of the Pacific Lower Crust beneath the Hawaiian Islands: Geochemical Investigation of Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the composition and hydrothermal alteration history of the lower oceanic crust (LOC) can help constrain deep hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, which may have a substantial impact on the thermal regime and magmatic processes at spreading centers. Previous studies of LOC primarily examined ophiolites or layer-3 gabbros exposed at the seafloor through faulting. These potentially have experienced secondary hydrothermal alteration in response to faulting, uplift and exposure. We examined major and trace element and isotopic compositions of a suite of gabbroic xenoliths derived from the 1800-1801 Kapulehu flow, Hualalai, Hawaii to constrain the composition and 'primary' hydrothermal alteration history of the in situ Pacific crust beneath the Hawaiian Islands (HI). Although most Hualalai gabbros have trace element and isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from Hualalai magmas, a subset has characteristics indicative of an origin from MORB-related melts. These gabbros contain LREE-depleted clinopyroxene, have Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions that overlap the range of EPR basalts, and are geochemically distinct from Hualalai-related xenoliths and lavas. Despite the limited range recorded, plagioclase and clinopyroxene oxygen isotope compositions correlate well for both MORB-related and Hualalai-related gabbroic xenoliths. This suggests clinopyroxene and plagioclase are in equilibrium. The ?plag-cpx (~0.6-0.9) is consistent with closure temperatures of ~1170-1220 C.?18Ocpx (+4.9-5.3) of the MORB-related gabbros are negatively correlated with cpx 87Sr/86Sr, but not with 143Nd/144Nd or La/Sm. In contrast, ?18Oplag does not correlate with plag 87Sr/86Sr. Cpx Sr-isotopes may be affected by seawater alteration, which is not as apparent in plag due to higher Sr concentrations. However, the MORB-related gabbros have ?18O values that are largely in the range for normal, fresh MORB (?18Omelt/NMORB = +5.7-6.0, ?melt-cpx~0.7). This suggests that only limited hydrothermal circulation penetrated to the depth of the layer-3 LOC gabbros beneath the HI, which resulted in only minor hydrothermal alteration. This is in contrast with observations from several ophiolite sequences and fault-exposed gabbros, which show significantly greater hydrothermal alteration and larger shifts in ?18O from normal mantle values (e.g., ?18O down to +3.5; c.f., [1]). The greater alteration recorded in these samples may result from hydrothermal circulation triggered by faulting/uplift associated with their exposure. The relatively uniform and 'normal' ?18O values of the MORB-related gabbros also suggest that assimilation of Pacific crust by Hawaiian magmas ponding within the lower crust is unlikely to produce significant shifts in the magma oxygen isotope composition, and is therefore unlikely to account for the low ?18O values recorded in some Kea-trend lavas as previously proposed (c.f., [2]). [1] Gregory, R. T. & Taylor Jr, H. P., 1981, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2737-2755. [2] Eiler, J. M., Farley, K. A., Valley, J. W., Hofmann, A. W. and Stolper, E. M, 1996, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 144, 453-468.

  16. Patterns of endangerment in the hawaiian flora.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Ann K; Wagner, Warren L; Mehrhoff, Loyal A

    2002-04-01

    The Hawaiian flora, because of its great isolation, high levels of endemism, known lineages, and high rates of endangerment, offers unique opportunities to explore patterns of endangerment related to phylogeny, ecological and life history traits, and geographic patterns. Nine percent of the native flora of 1159 taxa are already extinct, and 52.5% are at risk (extinct, endangered, vulnerable, or rare). Risk is strongly associated with limited geographic distribution at several scales: endemic taxa (native only to the Hawaiian Islands) are at far greater risk than indigenous taxa (with both Hawaiian and extra-Hawaiian ranges); single-island endemics are more at risk than multi-island endemics; small islands have the highest proportion of endemic taxa at risk; and endemics with more limited habitat distributions (elevation, community type) are more at risk. Historic population density is a strong predictor of risk, and taxa with low historic population densities are at greatest risk with rapid anthropogenic changes. Among the major islands, Maui Nui has the highest percent of taxa that are extinct. Kaua'i has the lowest percent of extinct taxa and the highest proportion of single-island endemic taxa that are rare. Endemic taxa at risk are associated with distributions in shrublands, forests, bogs, and cliff habitats. Endemic taxa with distributions in low elevation dry habitats have the highest proportion of taxa at risk, but the greatest absolute numbers of taxa at risk have distributions in mesic lowland and montane forests, and in wet montane forests. The life history patterns associated with risk are complicated, and inclusion of the effects of evolutionary relationships (lineages) changes some of these patterns. Species level analyses without respect to lineage shows risk associated with monomorphic (hermaphroditic) breeding systems and bird pollination because of the large number of hermaphroditic, bird-pollinated species in the Campanulaceae. Analyses incorporating the effect of lineage greatly reduce the impact of large lineages and result in an association of risk with insect pollination, and no effect of breeding system. There is no association of lineage size and the percent of taxa at risk within the lineage; endemic taxa from lineages with large radiations are at no greater risk than endemic single-taxon lineages. The percentages of taxa at risk at the family level in the Hawaiian Islands and worldwide (excluding Hawaiian taxa) are positively correlated, although flowering plant families in the Hawaiian Islands have a much greater proportion of taxa at risk. Some of the approaches described here may be useful to predict geographical and biological patterns of endangerment in island and island-like ecosystems under increasing pressures of endangerment and extinction. PMID:12028733

  17. Barnacles on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

  18. Speciation and phylogeography of Hawaiian terrestrial arthropods.

    PubMed

    Roderick, G K; Gillespie, R G

    1998-04-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago is arguably the world's finest natural laboratory for the study of evolution and patterns of speciation. Arthropods comprise over 75% of the endemic biota of the Hawaiian Islands and a large proportion belongs to species radiations. We classify patterns of speciation within Hawaiian arthropod lineages into three categories: (i) single representatives of a lineage throughout the islands; (ii) species radiations with either (a) single endemic species on different volcanoes or islands, or (b) multiple species on each volcano or island; and (iii) single widespread species within a radiation of species that exhibits local endemism. A common pattern of phylogeography is that of repeated colonization of new island groups, such that lineages progress down the island chain, with the most ancestral groups (populations or species) on the oldest islands. While great dispersal ability and its subsequent loss are features of many of these taxa, there are a number of mechanisms that underlie diversification. These mechanisms may be genetic, including repeated founder events, hybridization, and sexual selection, or ecological, including shifts in habitat and/or host affiliation. The majority of studies reviewed suggest that natural selection is a primary force of change during the initial diversification of taxa. PMID:9628003

  19. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  20. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  1. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  2. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  3. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  4. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

    2004-03-10

    A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts. PMID:15109145

  5. Predictors of Dental Cleaning Over a Two-year Time Period Around Pregnancy Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawai'i, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Donald K; Turnure, Matthew; Mattheus, Deborah J; Shannon, Maureen T

    2015-10-01

    Oral health disease is linked to several chronic diseases including adverse health outcomes around pregnancy. Optimizing a woman's oral health before, during, and after pregnancy can impact her health and the health of her children. Preventive, diagnostic, and restorative dental services can be done safely and effectively including during pregnancy. We examined data from the 2009-2011 Hawai'i Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess the prevalence of dental cleanings over an approximately 2 year (Median: 2.0 years, Range:1.6-2.5 years) time period (12 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first few months postpartum) among 4,735 mothers who recently had a live birth. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) of dental cleanings were calculated for both race and Medicaid/QUEST insurance status adjusting for maternal age and education. During a two-year span before, during, and after pregnancy an estimated 60.8% of women had dental cleanings. Native Hawaiian (APR=0.87; 95% CI=0.80-0.93), Other Pacific Islander (0.70; 0.58-0.83), Filipino (0.90; 0.82-0.97), and Chinese (0.76; 0.63-0.93) mothers were less likely to have had dental cleanings compared to white mothers. Additionally, mothers with Medicaid/QUEST health insurance (0.73; 0.68-0.79) were less likely to have had cleanings. More than one-third of recently pregnant mothers did not have dental cleanings in the approximately two-year time period. Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, Filipino, and Chinese mothers and those on Medicaid/QUEST health insurance were less likely to receive regular dental care. Identification of the reasons why these populations do not seek regular dental care can inform programmatic efforts to improve oral health outcomes for women and families. PMID:26535162

  6. Predictors of Dental Cleaning Over a Two-year Time Period Around Pregnancy Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawaii, 20092011

    PubMed Central

    Turnure, Matthew; Mattheus, Deborah J; Shannon, Maureen T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral health disease is linked to several chronic diseases including adverse health outcomes around pregnancy. Optimizing a woman's oral health before, during, and after pregnancy can impact her health and the health of her children. Preventive, diagnostic, and restorative dental services can be done safely and effectively including during pregnancy. We examined data from the 20092011 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess the prevalence of dental cleanings over an approximately 2 year (Median: 2.0 years, Range:1.62.5 years) time period (12 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first few months postpartum) among 4,735 mothers who recently had a live birth. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) of dental cleanings were calculated for both race and Medicaid/QUEST insurance status adjusting for maternal age and education. During a two-year span before, during, and after pregnancy an estimated 60.8% of women had dental cleanings. Native Hawaiian (APR=0.87; 95% CI=0.800.93), Other Pacific Islander (0.70; 0.580.83), Filipino (0.90; 0.820.97), and Chinese (0.76; 0.630.93) mothers were less likely to have had dental cleanings compared to white mothers. Additionally, mothers with Medicaid/QUEST health insurance (0.73; 0.680.79) were less likely to have had cleanings. More than one-third of recently pregnant mothers did not have dental cleanings in the approximately two-year time period. Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, Filipino, and Chinese mothers and those on Medicaid/QUEST health insurance were less likely to receive regular dental care. Identification of the reasons why these populations do not seek regular dental care can inform programmatic efforts to improve oral health outcomes for women and families. PMID:26535162

  7. Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the endmember sites where OM accumulated at the surfaces of larger mineral grains, topsoil MOAs of the 20-400-kyr sites are composed of a homogeneous admixture of small-sized PC minerals and OM, which originated from both adsorption and precipitation processes. The chemical composition of OM in surface-horizon MOAs, however, was largely controlled by the uniform source vegetation irrespective of the substrate age whereas in subsoil horizons, aromatic and carboxylic C correlated positively with oxalate-extractable Al and Si and CuCl 2-extractable Al concentrations representing PC aluminosilicates and Al-organic complexes ( r2 > 0.85). Additionally, XPS depth profiles suggest a zonal structure of sorbed OM with aromatic carbons being enriched in the proximity of mineral surfaces and amide carbons (peptides/proteins) being located in outer regions of MOAs. Albeit the mineralogical and compositional changes of OM, the rigidity of mineral-associated OM as analyzed by DSC changed little over time. A significantly reduced side chain mobility of sorbed OM was, however, observed in subsoil MOAs, which likely arose from stronger mineral-organic bindings. In conclusion, our study shows that the properties of soil MOAs change substantially over time with different mineral assemblages favoring the association of different types of OM, which is further accentuated by a vertical gradient of OM composition on mineral surfaces. Factors supporting the stabilization of sorbed OM were (i) the surface area and reactivity of minerals (primary or secondary crystalline minerals versus PC secondary minerals), (ii) the association of OM with micropores of PC minerals (via 'sterically' enhanced adsorption), (iii) the effective embedding of OM in 'well mixed' arrays with PC minerals and monomeric/polymeric metal species, (iv) the inherent stability of acidic aromatic OM components, and (iv) an impaired segmental mobility of sorbed OM, which might increase its stability against desorption and microbial utilization.

  8. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    PubMed

    Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

    2000-06-22

    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume. PMID:10879532

  9. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle. PMID:25804485

  10. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Puccinia psidii was first described by Winter (1884) on guava (Psidium guajava L.) in Brazil. The rust is still a major pest of native guava in Brazil and is often referred to as “guava rust” internationally. It is unusual among rust fungi because of its broad and ever-expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae plant family (Simpson et al. 2006). The pathogen is regarded as a major threat to Eucalyptus plantations and other Myrtaceae worldwide (Coutinho et al. 1998, Grgurinovic et al. 2006, Glen et al. 2007). Infections of leaves and meristems are particularly severe on susceptible seedlings, cuttings, young trees, and coppice, causing plants to be stunted and multi-branched, inhibiting normal growth and development, and sometimes causing death to young seedlings (Booth et al. 2000, Rayachhetry et al. 2001). The fungus has expanded its host-range in Brazil, affecting both native and introduced Myrtaceae (Coutinho et al. 1998).


    Since its discovery in 1884, P. psidii has continually been discovered to have an expanding host-range within the Myrtaceae, affecting hosts throughout much of South and Central America and the Caribbean. Spreading out originally from Brazil in 1884, the fungus has been reported on hosts in the following countries (first record in parentheses): Paraguay (1884), Uruguay (1889), Ecuador (1891), Colombia (1913), Puerto Rico (1913), Cuba (1926), Dominican Republic (1933), Venezuela (1934), Jamaica (1936), Argentina (1946), Dominica (1948), Trinidad and Tobago (1951), Guatemala (1968), United States (Florida; 1977), Mexico (1981), El Salvador (1987), and Costa Rica (1998) (Simpson et al. 2006). It is possible that P. psidii was present in El Salvador and Costa Rica prior to 1980, but was not reported until 1987 and 1998, respectively.


    Until recently, Puccinia psidii was restricted to the Neotropics, Mexico, and the state of Florida in the United States. While the rust has been present in Florida for over 30 years, only recently has it spread westward. Although possibly present earlier, P. psidii was found in California in November 2005 in a nursery in San Diego County on Myrtus communis and documented by a report in a nursery newsletter (Mellano 2006). Puccinia psidii was first found in Hawai`i on a young plant of `ōhi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) in April 2005, in a nursery on the island of O`ahu (Killgore and Heu 2005; Uchida et al. 2006). The fungus subsequently spread to most islands of the Hawaiian chain, infecting `ōhi`a and other myrtaceous hosts (Hauff 2006, Anderson et al. 2007). P. psidii was first found in Japan in May 2007 on cultivated `ōhi`a (Kawanishi et al. 2009).


    Most recently, a rust identified as Uredo rangelii was discovered in April 2010 in New South Wales, Australia (Carnegie et al. 2010). This rust is closely related to Puccinia psidii and is part of the guava rust complex described by Simpson et al. (2006). Although treated as a separate species by Simpson et al. (2006), many authors now consider U. rangelii a synonym for U. psidii, which is the anamorph (asexual stage) of P. psidii, and therefore, the same species (Glen et al. 2007, Carnegie et al. 2010). Because of the large diversity of native Myrtaceae present in Australia, the number of Myrtaceae hosts attacked by species of the guava rust complex will likely grow now that U. rangelii has arrived and is spreading in the country. As of this writing (June 2011), 94 species of Myrtaceae have been identified as hosts of U. rangelii in the states of New South Wales and Queensland. Damage is severe on nearly one-third of the species affected, and 16 of these species are threatened or endangered native species (Secretary of Australia, May 2011).


    The presence of Puccinia psidii in Hawai`i is particularly alarming for at least two reasons: (1) M. polymorpha is the dominant overstory tree of the native forest, and (2) P. psidii is now established in the Pacific region, where numerous Myrtaceae species are native. Native ecosystems in Hawai`i and the Pacific could be seriously affected by the spread of P. psidii, as both native and introduced Myrtaceae are significant components of many different plant communities throughout the region (Glen et al. 2007). Because the guava rust complex (i.e., P. psidii and U. rangelii) now attacks well over 100 species of Myrtaceae worldwide, it is currently a priority for international quarantine and import restrictions in an effort to prevent further spread among Australasian and Pacific Myrtaceae.


    Several different studies have been done to determine what degree of genetic variation exists between isolates of Puccinia psidii from many different host plants and many different locations (Langrell et al. 2008, Kawanishi et al. 2009, Kadooka 2010, Graça et al. 2011). So far, all of these studies have shown that all of the Hawaiian samples tested so far have had the same genetic composition. Given that the P. psidii strain in Hawai`i has continually been shown for over five years to lack genetic variation at microsatellite marker sites (which are believed to undergo relatively rapid genetic change), a baseline evaluation of incidence and severity should be especially valuable to provide comparisons with future conditions.


    Worldwide, 23 Neotropical species in 11 genera and 59 Australasian and Pacific species in 13 genera had been recorded as hosts of Puccinia psidii before 2010 (Simpson et al. 2006, Anderson et al. 2007). Of those 82 species known to be hosts elsewhere, 42 are cultivated or naturalized in Hawai`i. Because of its wide host-range and aggressive pathogenicity, rust disease caused by P. psidii poses a considerable disease threat to many native and cultivated Myrtaceae throughout the world (Coutinho et al. 1998, Booth et al. 2000, Simpson et al. 2006). However, there are few reports comparing the severity of rust infection on native, introduced, and cultivated Myrtaceae (Rayachhetry et al. 2001, Perez et al. 2010). Since government agencies and the public are concerned about the extent of the rust movement within and to Hawai`i (Loope and La Rosa 2008, Loope 2010), there is a need to better understand the incidence, severity, and distribution of P. psidii in Hawai`i. To address that need, this research project was initiated to survey forests, surrounding plant communities, botanical gardens, and commercial nurseries to detect the presence and severity of P. psidii rust infections throughout Hawai`i on plants in the Myrtaceae family. This study provides a baseline on the host distribution and severity to compare current and future impacts of rust infections caused by P. psidii on native, naturalized, and cultivated Myrtaceae in Hawai`i.

  11. 78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... for the Main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct population... information that may help inform the recovery plan is the False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan and the...

  12. Native Hawaiian Education Act: Greater Oversight Would Increase Accountability and Enable Targeting of Funds to Areas with Greatest Need. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-422

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Native Hawaiian Education Act (NHEA) seeks to develop innovative educational programs to assist Native Hawaiians. The Department of Education (Education) administers NHEA and has provided grants for a wide range of activities. Education is authorized to establish a Native Hawaiian Education Council and seven island councils to help implement

  13. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  14. 76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Service. For the reasons set out in the preamble, 50 CFR part 622, as proposed to be amended at 76 FR..., Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates Fishery Management... Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Amendment 3 to the FMP for...

  15. NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

  16. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.409 Spiny lobster...

  17. The Hawaiian Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navalta, Wilfred

    1981-01-01

    The history and tradition of the ceremonial games of ancient Hawaii are described. A physical education unit was developed for grades 7-12 to preserve this part of Hawaiian culture. The legend of the origin of games and various athletic activities unique to the Hawaiian people are presented. (JN)

  18. Inferring Properties of the Hawaiian Plume from the Hawaiian Swell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribe, N. M.

    2012-04-01

    The most prominent geophysical signature associated with the Hawaiian island chain is a broad topographic anomaly ('swell') some 1000 km wide and 2500 km long. Isostasy requires the swell to be compensated by a layer of low-density material at depth whose shape in mapview is similar to that of the swell itself. That shape can be predicted using a simple 2-D thin-layer flow model in which buoyant fluid with constant viscosity is supplied at a volumetric rate Q by a fixed mantle plume and spreads laterally over the base of a plate moving at speed U. A more realistic 3-D version of the model involves a hot thermal plume in a fluid with temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity that interacts with the shear flow generated by the plate motion. Comparison of the predictions of these models with observations of the Hawaiian swell yields several important inferences about the Hawaiian plume: (1) Plume buoyancy flux B. The observed height and width of the swell imply B ≈ 3000 kg s-1, much less than earlier estimates B = 6300-8700 kg s-1 based solely on the horizontal flux of (negative) swell buoyancy carried by the moving plate. The reason for the discrepancy is that the horizontal flux calculation neglects (a) the contribution of the buoyant residue of partial melting to the swell topography, and (b) the fact that the mean speed of downstream transport of the buoyant material by the shear flow is less than the plate speed. (2) Depth of compensation. The 3-D model predicts a geoid/topography ratio (GTR) ≈ 7-8 m/km for the Hawaiian swell, in apparent contradiction with earlier estimates ≈ 4-5 m/km based on the observed geoid and bathymetry alone. However, an extended version of the 3-D model including volcanic loading and lithospheric flexure reveals that the low values GTR≈ 4-5 m/km are artifacts of incomplete removal of the shallowly compensated volcanic islands and the surrounding flexural moat. The GTR of the swell itself is therefore ≈ 7-8 m/km, implying a compensation depth ≈ 70-80 km. (3) Rheology of the plume material. The young (≈ 5 Ma) and old (≈ 20 Ma) parts of the Hawaiian swell have very nearly the same amplitude and width, implying that the swell decays very slowly downstream from the hotspot. An extended version of the thin-layer model with a power-law rheology (strain rate proportional to the power n of the stress) predicts that the swell should decay as the power -1/(3n + 2) of the downstream distance. The slow decay of the Hawaiian swell requires the plume material to have a dislocation-creep rheology with n ≈ 3.5.

  19. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ?3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. PMID:25463753

  20. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1α) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ∼5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. PMID:25219449

  1. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  2. A Submarine Perspective on Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Postwar improvements in navigation, sonar-based mapping, and submarine photography enabled the development of bathymetric maps, which revealed submarine morphologic features that could be dredged or explored and sampled with a new generation of manned and unmanned submersibles. The maps revealed debris fields from giant landslides, the great extent of rift zones radiating from volcanic centers, and two previously unknown submarine volcanoes named Mahukona and Loihi, the youngest Hawaiian volcano. About 70 major landslides cover half the flanks of the Hawaiian Ridge out to Midway Island. Some of the landslides attain lengths of 200 km and have volumes exceeding 5,000 km3. More recent higher resolution bathymetry and sidescan data reveal that many submarine eruptions construct circular, flat-topped, monogenetic cones; that large fields of young strongly alkalic lava flows, such as the North Arch and South Arch lava fields, erupt on the seafloor within several hundred km of the islands; and that alkalic lavas erupt during the shield stage on Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The North Arch flow field covers about 24,000 km2, has an estimated volume between about 1000 and 1250 km3, has flows as long as 108 km, and erupted from over 100 vents. The source and melting mechanisms for their production is still debated. The maps also displayed stair-step terraces, mostly constructed of drowned coral reefs, which form during early rapid subsidence of the volcanoes during periods of oscillating sea level. The combination of scuba and underwater photography facilitated the first motion pictures of the mechanism of formation of pillow lava in shallow water offshore Kilauea. The age progression known from the main islands was extended westward along the Hawaiian Ridge past Midway Island, around a bend in the chain and northward along the Emperor Seamounts. Radiometric dating of dredged samples from these submarine volcanoes show that the magma source that built the chain has been active for over 80 Ma and established the remarkable linearity of the age-progression along the chain. Glass rinds on submarine lava quenched at depth contain initial magmatic volatiles and yield data on the juvenile water, sulfur, CO2, and rare gas contents of basaltic magmas, and continue to reveal nuances of the volatile contents of lava. Rock sampling at Loihi Seamount led to the discovery of the pre-shield alkalic phase of Hawaiian volcanism, which mirrors the well-known post-shield alkalic phase. Lava compositions from the Hawaiian Ridge and Emperor Seamounts have clear affinities to present-day Hawaiian lavas, but subtle source differences as well. The progression from small to large and back to small degrees of melting at individual volcanoes and the compositional changes along the chain constrain the melting processes and source compositions of Hawaiian volcanism. Coupling the age of lavas with that of submerged coral reefs has provided data on the growth and subsidence of volcanic centers. This information has meshed nicely with the age, composition, and morphology of lavas from the 3.2-km-deep Hawaiian Scientific Drill Hole. Submarine studies have taught us much about the workings of Hawaiian Volcanoes, and in the process have stimulated new work and concepts on marine volcanism worldwide.

  3. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous geologic features can be discerned on ERTS-1 imagery of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A thick homoclinal sequence of north-dipping Tertiary marine strata along the northwestern Olympic Peninsula is readily discernible because of the banded nature of its outcrop. The submarine basalt on which the sequence rests shows as a high, rugged ridge. Within the sedimentary sequence, alternating sandstone and siltstone members 100 m or more thick show in the southeast corner of the image. Broad folds in this banded sequence and faults that cut it can be detected. One large fault, the Pysht River fault, and a large syncline in sandstone and siltstone east of it show prominently on the image. Numerous lineations on the image of southern Vancouver Island correlate with faults shown on Muller's map. Particularly prominent are the Leech River and San Juan faults along the southernmost part of the island.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  5. The whistles of Hawaiian spinner dolphins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baza-Durn, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2002-12-01

    The characteristics of the whistles of Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) are considered by examining concurrently the whistle repertoire (whistle types) and the frequency of occurrence of each whistle type (whistle usage). Whistles were recorded off six islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In this study Hawaiian spinner dolphins emitted frequency modulated whistles that often sweep up in frequency (47% of the whistles were upsweeps). The frequency span of the fundamental component was mainly between 2 and 22 kHz (about 94% of the whistles) with an average mid-frequency of 12.9 kHz. The duration of spinner whistles was relatively short, mainly within a span of 0.05 to 1.28 s (about 94% of the whistles) with an average value of 0.49 s. The average maximum frequency of 15.9 kHz obtained by this study is consistent with the body length versus maximum frequency relationship obtained by Wang et al. (1995a) when using spinner dolphin adult body length measurements. When comparing the average values of whistle parameters obtained by this and other studies in the Island of Hawaii, statistically significant differences were found between studies. The reasons for these differences are not obvious. Some possibilities include differences in the upper frequency limit of the recording systems, different spinner groups being recorded, and observer differences in viewing spectrograms. Standardization in recording and analysis procedure is clearly needed.

  6. The whistles of Hawaiian spinner dolphins.

    PubMed

    Baza-Durn, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W L

    2002-12-01

    The characteristics of the whistles of Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) are considered by examining concurrently the whistle repertoire (whistle types) and the frequency of occurrence of each whistle type (whistle usage). Whistles were recorded off six islands in the Hawaiian Archipelago. In this study Hawaiian spinner dolphins emitted frequency modulated whistles that often sweep up in frequency (47% of the whistles were upsweeps). The frequency span of the fundamental component was mainly between 2 and 22 kHz (about 94% of the whistles) with an average mid-frequency of 12.9 kHz. The duration of spinner whistles was relatively short, mainly within a span of 0.05 to 1.28 s (about 94% of the whistles) with an average value of 0.49 s. The average maximum frequency of 15.9 kHz obtained by this study is consistent with the body length versus maximum frequency relationship obtained by Wang et al. (1995a) when using spinner dolphin adult body length measurements. When comparing the average values of whistle parameters obtained by this and other studies in the Island of Hawaii, statistically significant differences were found between studies. The reasons for these differences are not obvious. Some possibilities include differences in the upper frequency limit of the recording systems, different spinner groups being recorded, and observer differences in viewing spectrograms. Standardization in recording and analysis procedure is clearly needed. PMID:12509029

  7. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by

  8. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  9. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitril...

  10. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  11. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks

  12. The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Ingle, Stephanie; Takahashi, Eiichi; Hirano, Naoto; Hirata, Takafumi

    2005-08-11

    The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain is usually attributed to a hot mantle plume, located beneath the Pacific lithosphere, that delivers material sourced from deep in the mantle to the surface. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear, parallel trends (termed 'Kea' and 'Loa'), whose rocks are characterized by general geochemical differences. This has led to the proposition that Hawaiian volcanoes sample compositionally distinct, concentrically zoned, regions of the underlying mantle plume. Melt inclusions, or samples of local magma 'frozen' in olivine phenocrysts during crystallization, may record complexities of mantle sources, thereby providing better insight into the chemical structure of plumes. Here we report the discovery of both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes--even within single rock samples. We infer from these data that one mantle source component may dominate a single lava flow, but that the two mantle source components are consistently represented to some extent in all lavas, regardless of the specific geographic location of the volcano. We therefore suggest that the Hawaiian mantle plume is unlikely to be compositionally concentrically zoned. Instead, the observed chemical variation is probably controlled by the thermal structure of the plume. PMID:16100780

  13. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, I.G.; Stokoe, K.H., II; Cox, B.R.; Yuan, J.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Terra, F.; Okubo, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical groundmotion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectralanalysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  14. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Large Hawaiian volcanoes can persist as islands through the rapid subsidence by building upward rapidly enough. But in the long run, subsidence, coupled with surface erosion, erases any volcanic remnant above sea level in about 15 m.y. One consequence of subsidence, in concert with eustatic changes in sea level, is the drowning of coral reefs that drape the submarine flanks of the actively subsiding volcanoes. At least six reefs northwest of the Island of Hawai‘i form a stairstep configuration, the oldest being deepest.

  15. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  16. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  17. 1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane disposition in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Little, P.J.; James, M.O.; Foureman, G.L.; Weatherby, R.P.; Bend, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane, a model compound for the non-volatile aliphatic hydrocarbon components of crude oil, was administered by intrapericardial injection to the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, and the clawed or American lobster, Homarus americanus. Experiments were conducted in Florida (spiny lobster) and Maine (American lobster). The animals were sacrificed at various times from 0.5 hr to 8 wks after administration of the dose. The tissues and fluids were analyzed for /sup 14/C content by digestion or catalytic oxidation and liquid scintillation counting. Selected tissues (hepatopancreas, tail muscle and hemolymph) were extracted with ethyl acetate to allow quantitation of the unmetabolized n-hexadecane by thin layer chromatography. n-Hexadecane-derived radioactivity was very persistent in both the spiny lobster (t1/2 = 4.6 wk) and the American lobster (t1/2 = 11.2 wk). In both lobsters, the hepatopancreas (HP) acquired the highest specific activity and the tail muscle had the longest half life for elimination from an individual tissue. Although hexadecane was metabolized more rapidly in the HP of the spiny lobster than in the HP of the American lobster, unmetabolized hexadecane persisted in the HPs of both species for at least 8 weeks after the dose (the longest time studied).

  18. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  20. Perinatal Outcomes for Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islander Mothers of Single and Multiple Race/Ethnicity: California and Hawaii, 2003–2005

    PubMed Central

    Mendola, Pauline; Hamilton, Brady E.; Hayes, Donald K.; Makuc, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We examined characteristics and birth outcomes of Asian/Pacific Islander (API) mothers to determine whether differences in outcomes existed between mothers of single race/ethnicity and multiple race/ethnicity. Methods. We used data from California and Hawaii birth certificates from 2003 through 2005 to describe variation in birth outcomes for API subgroups by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (single versus multiple race or API subgroup), and we also compared these outcomes to those of non-Hispanic White women. Results. Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) varied more among API subgroups than between mothers of single versus multiple race/ethnicity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors, API mothers of multiple race/ethnicity had outcomes similar to mothers of single race/ethnicity, with exceptions for multiple-race/ethnicity Chinese (higher PTB), Filipino (lower LBW and PTB), and Thai (higher LBW) subgroups. Compared with single-race non-Hispanic Whites, adverse outcomes were elevated for most API subgroups: only single-race/ethnicity Korean mothers had lower rates of both LBW (3.4%) and PTB (5.6%); single-race/ethnicity Cambodian, Laotian, and Marshallese mothers had the highest rates of both LBW (8.8%, 9.2%, and 8.4%, respectively) and PTB (14.0%, 13.7%, and 18.8%, respectively). Conclusions. Strategies to improve birth outcomes for API mothers should consider variations in risk by API subgroup and multiple race/ethnicity. PMID:20299645

  1. Discrimination and obesity among Native Hawaiians.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, Laurie D; Antonio, Mapuana

    2012-12-01

    Among ethnic populations in Hawai'i, Native Hawaiians continue to be over-represented with the highest rates in: morbidity and mortality, chronic health conditions, and the health risks of being overweight and obese. Focused on these two health risks, the investigation reported in this article has a specific aim of empirically determining whether social stigma as manifested in the form of perceived overt or covert discrimination is a contributing factor. Current studies focused on select ethnic populations, particularly African Americans point to discrimination as an important but understudied predictor of adverse health outcomes. Acknowledging the paucity of research on discrimination and its role in the health of Native Hawaiians, this investigation utilizes data from the 2007 Hawaiian Health Survey which was coordinated by the Department of Health, and the Office of Health Status Monitoring and implemented by SMS Hawai'i. The weighted sample of Hawai'i adults included measures of race/ethnicity and of everyday discrimination and the BMI (Body Mass Index). Logistic regression analyses were applied to determine if: (a) discrimination was significantly related to being overweight and/or obesity; and (b) whether this relationship remained a salient predictor after key demographic factors of gender, age, education, income, and length of time in the Islands were taken into account. This study confirmed the negative influence of overt discrimination as well as the protective nature of covert discrimination in explaining the variability in obesity/overweight in Native Hawaiians. The implications of this study for strategic interventions and research are discussed. PMID:23251872

  2. Hf isotope evidence for pelagic sediments in the source of hawaiian basalts

    PubMed

    Blichert-Toft; Frey; Albarede

    1999-08-01

    Lead, oxygen, and osmium isotopic ratios measured on Hawaiian basalts can be matched with the isotopic ratios inferred for recycled ancient oceanic crust. High-precision hafnium isotopic data for lavas from several Hawaiian volcanoes identify old pelagic sediments in their source. These observations support the recycling hypothesis, whereby the mantle source of ocean island basalts includes ancient subducted oceanic crust. Hyperbolic lead-hafnium isotopic relations among Hawaiian basalts further indicate that upper mantle material is not involved in the production of hot spot basalts. PMID:10436154

  3. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  4. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....

  5. Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, a species that is sometimes killed by wind turbines. USGS scientists from Hawaii and Colorado are devising a way to directly observe bat occurrence and behavior at wind turbines using a video system composed of high-powered illuminators and near-infrared cameras.&nb...

  6. 15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE ... JUNE 5, 1899.' Winslow Webber, City Engineer. Photocopied from the original plan in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  7. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.458 Section 622.458 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery...

  8. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27 Section 640.27 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27...

  9. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27 Section 640.27 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND...

  10. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.409 Section 622.409 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

  11. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27 Section 640.27 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND...

  12. 16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ... SCHEDULE FOR REPAIRS.' Plan) elevation, and typical section. Photocopied from the original drawing in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  13. DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

  14. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ...NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would limit entry into the lobster trap fishery in Lobster Conservation Management Area 1 (Federal inshore waters-Gulf of Maine). Upon qualification, permit holders would be allowed to fish in Area 1 with up to 800 lobster traps. The proposed limited entry program responds to the recommendations for Federal action in the Atlantic......

  15. 50 CFR 622.406 - Areas closed to lobster trap gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Areas closed to lobster trap gear. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic 622.406 Areas closed to lobster trap gear. (a) Fishing with spiny lobster trap gear is prohibited year-round in the following...

  16. 50 CFR 622.406 - Areas closed to lobster trap gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Areas closed to lobster trap gear. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic 622.406 Areas closed to lobster trap gear. (a) Fishing with spiny lobster trap gear is prohibited year-round in the following...

  17. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities. PMID:20662372

  18. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,

  19. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  20. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

  1. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  2. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an introduction to the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This poster presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  3. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  4. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  5. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  6. Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Exploring Hawaiian Views of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1998-01-01

    Empiricism is culturally defined in that culture shapes sensory knowledge. Hawaiians recognize senses beyond the five that Western culture recognizes. Hawaiians are not unempirical; they draw conclusions of their own from their empirical experiences. It is time to validate other ways of knowing, long suppressed in the U.S. educational system. (TD)

  7. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  8. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  9. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark J.; Behringer, Donald C.; Dolan, Thomas W.; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of “behavioral immunity”; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  10. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to

  11. Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, A Y; Rubinoff, D

    2013-08-01

    Species occurring in unconnected, but similar habitats and under similar selection pressures often display strikingly comparable morphology, behaviour and life history. On island archipelagos where colonizations and extinctions are common, it is often difficult to separate whether similar traits are a result of in situ diversification or independent colonization without a phylogeny. Here, we use one of Hawaii's most ecologically diverse and explosive endemic species radiations, the Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar genus Hyposmocoma, to test whether in situ diversification resulted in convergence. Specifically, we examine whether similar species utilizing similar microhabitats independently developed largely congruent larval case phenotypes in lineages that are in comparable, but isolated environments. Larvae of these moths are found on all Hawaiian Islands and are characterized by an extraordinary array of ecomorphs and larval case morphology. We focus on the 'purse cases', a group that is largely specialized for living within rotting wood. Purse cases were considered a monophyletic group, because morphological, behavioural and ecological traits appeared to be shared among all members. We constructed a phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 38 Hyposmocoma species, including all 14 purse case species and 24 of non-purse case congeners. Divergence time estimation suggests that purse case lineages evolved independently within dead wood and developed nearly identical case morphology twice: once on the distant Northwest Hawaiian Islands between 15.5 and 9 Ma and once on the younger main Hawaiian Islands around 3.0 Ma. Multiple ecomorphs are usually found on each island, and the ancestral ecomorph of Hyposmocoma appears to have lived on tree bark. Unlike most endemic Hawaiian radiations that follow a clear stepwise progression of colonization, purse case Hyposmocoma do not follow a pattern of colonization from older to younger island. We postulate that the diversity of microhabitats and selection from parasitism/predation from endemic predators may have shaped case architecture in this extraordinary endemic radiation of Hawaiian insects. PMID:23866031

  12. Unusual Flavonoid Glycosides from the Hawaiian Tree Metrosideros polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Clark, Benjamin R; Pramanick, Swapan; Arancon, Norman; Borris, Robert P

    2015-06-01

    Metrosideros polymorpha is a highly variable and widely-distributed tree native to the Hawaiian islands. We describe here the isolation of two new gossypetin derivatives and three new C-methylated flavonol glycosides, which are highly uncommon and may prove to be useful chemotaxonomic markers for the species. In addition, a wide range of known flavonoid glycosides, chalcones, and terpenoids were isolated alongside the new compounds. PMID:26197518

  13. Microsatellite Repeat Instability Fuels Evolution of Embryonic Enhancers in Hawaiian Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Andrew; Stroebele, Elizabeth; Erives, Albert

    2014-01-01

    For ?30 million years, the eggs of Hawaiian Drosophila were laid in ever-changing environments caused by high rates of island formation. The associated diversification of the size and developmental rate of the syncytial fly embryo would have altered morphogenic gradients, thus necessitating frequent evolutionary compensation of transcriptional responses. We investigate the consequences these radiations had on transcriptional enhancers patterning the embryo to see whether their pattern of molecular evolution is different from non-Hawaiian species. We identify and functionally assay in transgenic D. melanogaster the Neurogenic Ectoderm Enhancers from two different Hawaiian Drosophila groups: (i) the picture wing group, and (ii) the modified mouthparts group. We find that the binding sites in this set of well-characterized enhancers are footprinted by diverse microsatellite repeat (MSR) sequences. We further show that Hawaiian embryonic enhancers in general are enriched in MSR relative to both Hawaiian non-embryonic enhancers and non-Hawaiian embryonic enhancers. We propose embryonic enhancers are sensitive to Activator spacing because they often serve as assembly scaffolds for the aggregation of transcription factor activator complexes. Furthermore, as most indels are produced by microsatellite repeat slippage, enhancers from Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, which experience dynamic evolutionary pressures, would become grossly enriched in MSR content. PMID:24978198

  14. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; OGrady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran familiesDolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

  15. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for... Islands during the period July 1, 1968, to July 1, 1971. (ii) Abalone permits for Anacapa and Santa... and Game fish receipts for abalone caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands during the period...

  16. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for... Islands during the period July 1, 1968, to July 1, 1971. (ii) Abalone permits for Anacapa and Santa... and Game fish receipts for abalone caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands during the period...

  17. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for... Islands during the period July 1, 1968, to July 1, 1971. (ii) Abalone permits for Anacapa and Santa... and Game fish receipts for abalone caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands during the period...

  18. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for... Islands during the period July 1, 1968, to July 1, 1971. (ii) Abalone permits for Anacapa and Santa... and Game fish receipts for abalone caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands during the period...

  19. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for... Islands during the period July 1, 1968, to July 1, 1971. (ii) Abalone permits for Anacapa and Santa... and Game fish receipts for abalone caught at Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands during the period...

  20. Hawaiian sandalwood: oil composition of Santalum paniculatum and comparison with other sandal species.

    PubMed

    Braun, Norbert A; Sim, Sherina; Kohlenberg, Birgit; Lawrence, Brian M

    2014-09-01

    Four commercial qualities of Hawaiian sandalwood oil produced from wood of Santalum paniculatum originating from the island of Hawaii ("The Big Island") were analyzed using GC and GC-MS. Main constituents of the oils were (Z)-?-santalol (34.5-40.4%) and (Z)-?-santalol (11.0-16.2%). An odor evaluation of the oils was carried out against East Indian sandalwood oil. In addition, the chemical composition of Hawaiian sandalwood oil was compared with four different Santalum species originating from East India, New Caledonia, Eastern Polynesia and Australia, respectively. PMID:25918813

  1. Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). PPT Version CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report, 2011 (CHDIR) CHDIR, 2011 CHDIR Slides Top ... Month Observance Asian American & NHOPI NEWS Page CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

  2. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Action Campaigns and Initiatives Performance Improvement and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Minority Population Profiles Data Collection ...

  3. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Action Campaigns and Initiatives Performance Improvement and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Minority Population Profiles Data Collection ...

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Action Campaigns and Initiatives Performance Improvement and Management System Report to Congress Knowledge Center Capacity Building Information Services Events Calendar Minority Population Profiles Data Collection ...

  5. Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds.

    PubMed

    Lovette, Irby J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of the entire passerine radiation, this dramatic morphological radiation represents an extreme manifestation of a general clade-specific ability to evolve novel morphologies. PMID:11788034

  6. A PCR test for avian malaria in Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Freed, L A; Cann, R L

    1995-12-01

    The decline of native Hawaiian forest birds since European contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. Remaining populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Fringillidae: Drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. In order to detect low levels of malarial infection and quantify prevalence of Plasmodium in high elevation natural populations of Hawaiian birds, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic test was developed that identifies rRNA genes of Plasmodium in avian blood samples. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) experiments indicate that the detection limit of our test is an order of magnitude greater than that reported for human malaria DNA blot tests. Compared with standard histological methods, the PCR test detected a higher prevalence of diseased birds at mid-elevations. Malaria was detected in three species of native birds living in a high elevation wildlife refuge on the island of Hawaii and in four species from Maui. Our results show that avian malaria is more widespread in Hawaiian forests than previously thought, a finding that has important conservation implications for these threatened species. PMID:8564006

  7. Genetic Consequences of Pleistocene Sea-Level Change on Hawaiian Megalagrion Damselflies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brandon R; Jordan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have long been an important laboratory for evolutionary research because their geological histories offer many natural experiments. For example, the Maui Nui complex, 4 islands that have been repeatedly connected and separated by fluctuating sea levels, lie near Hawaii Island, which has never been connected to another island. Here, we examine the genetic consequences of fluctuating island areas and connectivity using microsatellite analysis of 2 widespread, endemic Hawaiian damselflies. We screened 152 Megalagrion xanthomelas individuals from 5 islands at 14 loci and 34 Megalagrion pacificum from 3 islands at 11 loci to explore dispersal patterns and genetic diversity. Our data suggest that Pleistocene fluctuations in sea level alternated between creating land bridges that facilitated gene flow between once and future islands, and ocean channels that inhibited dispersal. Furthermore, interglacial periods of high sea stands likely reduced suitable habitat availability, causing the loss of genetic diversity on Maui Nui due to bottlenecks and founder events. Finally, we propose that gene flow from Molokai to Lanai may be enhanced by assisted dispersal from the trade winds that are channeled between volcanoes on western Maui and eastern Molokai. Our results emphasize the importance of variable microevolutionary processes in Hawaiian biogeography. PMID:26093025

  8. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  9. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  10. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  11. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Hawaiian craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  12. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session. PMID:23186696

  13. Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

    1985-01-01

    Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies. PMID:3860822

  14. Native Hawaiian Views on Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Tauali‘i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N=92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: 1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, 2) research transparency, 3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, 4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, 5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and 6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise “G.R.E.A.T. Research:” (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai‘i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  15. Fungal Diversity Associated with Hawaiian Drosophila Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Brian S.; Bantay, Roxanne M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; OGrady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ?97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation. PMID:22911703

  16. ‘Imi Hale – The Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training Network: Second-Year Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn; Ann Santos, Lorrie; Abrigo, Lehua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe ‘Imi Hale, a program developed and managed by Native Hawaiians to increase cancer awareness and research capacity among Native Hawaiians. This US subgroup of indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands has disproportionately high rates of cancer mortality and low rates of participation in health and research careers. Methods As a community-based research project, ‘Imi Hale spent its first year gathering data from Native Hawaiians about their cancer awareness and research priorities. These findings guide ‘Imi Hale’s community and scientific advisors, a community-based Institutional Review Board, Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), and staff in developing and carrying out projects that address these priority areas. Emphasis is placed on transferring skills and resources to Native Hawaiians through training, technical assistance, and mentorship. A biennial survey assesses the extent to which community-based participatory research principles are being followed. Principal Findings By the end of the second year, statewide and island-specific awareness plans were produced, and 9 funded awareness projects are supporting the development and dissemination of Hawaiian health education materials. Research accomplishments include the enrollment of 42 Native Hawaiian Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), 22 of which are involved in 14 funded research projects. The biennial evaluation survey found that 92% of our advisors felt that ‘Imi Hale was promoting scientifically rigorous research that was culturally appropriate and respectful of Native Hawaiian beliefs, and 96% felt that ‘Imi Hale was following its own principles of community-based participatory research. Conclusion ‘Imi Hale’s community-based approach to promoting cancer awareness will result in a sustainable infrastructure for reducing the cancer burden on Native Hawaiians. PMID:15352771

  17. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Heather R L; Meyer, Matthias; James, Helen F; Hofreiter, Michael; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Evolutionary theory has gained tremendous insight from studies of adaptive radiations. High rates of speciation, morphological divergence, and hybridization, combined with low sequence variability, however, have prevented phylogenetic reconstruction for many radiations. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are an exceptional adaptive radiation, with high phenotypic diversity and speciation that occurred within the geologically constrained setting of the Hawaiian Islands. Here we analyze a new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny. We show that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches (Carpodacus) and probably came to Hawaii from Asia. We use island ages to calibrate DNA substitution rates, which vary substantially among gene regions, and calculate divergence times, showing that the radiation began roughly when the oldest of the current large Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Niihau) formed, ~5.7 million years ago (mya). We show that most of the lineages that gave rise to distinctive morphologies diverged after Oahu emerged (4.0-3.7 mya) but before the formation of Maui and adjacent islands (2.4-1.9 mya). Thus, the formation of Oahu, and subsequent cycles of colonization and speciation between Kauai and Oahu, played key roles in generating the morphological diversity of the extant honeycreepers. PMID:22018543

  18. A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior

  19. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing... Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ must be returned to the water unharmed. An egg-bearing spiny lobster may be retained in a trap,...

  20. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing... Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ must be returned to the water unharmed. An egg-bearing spiny lobster may be retained in a trap,...

  1. Sound detection and production in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: Sensitivity range and behavioral implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Heidi J.; Watson, Winsor H.

    2001-05-01

    Many crustaceans including spiny lobsters, some crabs, and a few shrimp are known to produce sounds for a variety of purposes. One brief report and several preliminary studies indicate that American lobsters also produce sounds, and may be capable of detecting acoustic signals. The focus of this study was to (1) quantify the frequency range over which lobsters are capable of detecting sounds and (2) characterize the sounds that lobsters produce. Twelve sexually immature and 11 mature lobsters were tested for their ability to detect frequencies in the range of 20-10000 Hz. Immature lobsters of both sexes detected sounds in the range of 20-1000 Hz (>50%), while sexually mature lobsters exhibited two distinct peaks in their acoustic sensitivity (20-300 Hz and 1000-5000 Hz). Lobsters of both sexes produced a buzzing vibration when grasped but larger lobsters (120-149 mm in carapace length) vibrated most consistently (>35% of surveyed lobsters). The greater tendency for sound production in large lobsters may indicate a role in mating behavior. Currently, we are characterizing the acoustical properties of produced sounds and investigating the possibility that the American lobster may produce sounds for more than one purpose. [Work supported by University of New Hampshire Center for Marine Biology.

  2. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  3. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  4. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  5. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  6. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  7. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  8. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  9. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  10. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  11. N? Inoa H?k?: Hawaiian and Polynesian star names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.; Kaipo Mahelona, John; Kawena Johnson, Rubellite

    2015-08-01

    In this paper we report on a 15-year project to construct a comprehensive catalogue of Hawaiian star names documented in historical sources, which is being published this year.While a number of Hawaiian star names are well known, a major challenge is to separate reliable first-hand information, mostly in Hawaiian-language archival sources dating back to the mid-19th century, from later commentaries and interpretations, many of which have introduced assumptions and errors that have become embedded in the literature. Some new star names have also been introduced recently, in the traditional style, as part of the living tradition of Hawaiian and Polynesian voyaging.The starting point for our project was a catalogue of Hawaiian and Polynesian star names published by two of the authors (Johnson and Mahelona) 40 years ago, which contained many first-hand translations of primary sources researched in archives during the 1950s to 1970s. Since that time, a number of new primary sources have been identified, and these and other primary sources have been translated or re-translated as part of the project. The sources, often fragmentary, reveal much more than just the use of star observations for navigation and wayfinding, hugely important as this was. There was no single tradition but a complex and dynamic body of astronomical knowledge. Particular star names are not always consistently applied to the same stars. Accounts of physical characteristics such as the dates and times of appearance and disappearance of particular stars do not necessarily make sense in a Western, objective sense: they may, for example, represent times when the asterisms in question became important for divinatory purposes.Such challenges make it all the more important to construct a resource that is as reliable as possible for future scholars, not only within Hawaiian cultural studies but also for comparative analyses with star names in other parts of Polynesia, which have the potential to shed important new light on beliefs and practices brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the earliest Polynesian settlers.

  12. Deformation-related volcanism in the Pacific Ocean linked to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John M.; Hoernle, Kaj; Müller, R. Dietmar; Morgan, Jason P.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Hauff, Folkmar; Sandwell, David T.; Jokat, Wilfried; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Stoffers, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ocean islands, seamounts and volcanic ridges are thought to form above mantle plumes. Yet, this mechanism cannot explain many volcanic features on the Pacific Ocean floor and some might instead be caused by cracks in the oceanic crust linked to the reorganization of plate motions. A distinctive bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain has been linked to changes in the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate, movement of the Hawaiian plume, or a combination of both. However, these links are uncertain because there is no independent record that precisely dates tectonic events that affected the Pacific Plate. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of lava samples collected from the Musicians Ridges, lines of volcanic seamounts formed close to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. We find that the geochemical signature of these lavas is unlike typical ocean island basalts and instead resembles mid-ocean ridge basalts. We infer that the seamounts are unrelated to mantle plume activity and instead formed in an extensional setting, due to deformation of the Pacific Plate. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the Musicians Ridges formed during two time windows that bracket the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, 53-52 and 48-47 million years ago. We conclude that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend was formed by plate-mantle reorganization, potentially triggered by a series of subduction events at the Pacific Plate margins.

  13. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use

  14. Hawaiian Nonverbal Communication: Two Classroom Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Alberta Pualani

    Although there are only about 2,000 active speakers of the Hawaiian language, there exists a coherent system of nonverbal behavior which can be identified as Hawaiian and which contrasts sharply with middle class white American behavior. Teachers of Hawaiian children should be aware of this in order to avoid potential misunderstandings in the

  15. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaa, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  16. The whistles of Hawai'ian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris): Description and geographic variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazua Duran, Maria Del Carmen

    Spinner dolphin whistles were recorded throughout the main Hawai'ian Islands and in Midway Atoll and Mo'orea, French Polynesia to study geographic variations. This project is the first to encompass more than one region of the Hawai'ian Archipelago and to include different spinner populations. Whistles were described and analyzed to understand how they varied. Hawai'ian spinner dolphins emit high pitch whistles (average mean frequency = 12.90 kHz) that often sweep up in frequency (47%) and are relatively short (average = 0.493 s). Whistles did not vary due to location, day, year, or time. The concept of whistle-specific subgroup was created to explain similarities in whistle characteristics between groups of spinners recorded in different locations and days. Recorded whistles were assigned to whistle-specific subgroups within each of the main Hawai'ian Islands. These subgroups presumably consist of spinners that may spend time together and/or are kin related. Whistles varied due to activity state and group size. Traveling groups used different whistles than social groups, and larger groups used different whistles than groups of smaller sizes. Macro- and microgeographic variations exist in the whistles of spinner dolphins, but differences are very small. More than 75% of the whistles were shared. Macrogeographic variations were larger than microgeographic variations. Spinner dolphins may develop more changes in their whistle characteristics as a result of isolation due to geographic barriers or due to adaptations to their habitat. The whistles of specific- subgroups from the main Hawai'ian Islands were more similar, suggesting that individuals frequent the waters of several Islands. Spinner groups may have home ranges that involve several Islands, and they may be part of a single spinner population for these main Hawai'ian Island groups. The results of this study indicate that the use of an acoustic approach to gain insight on some aspects of the population structure of Hawai'ian spinner dolphins is possible. Future studies are needed to investigate these aspects of the spinner society in order to validate those proposed here. With the current development of recording and signal processing techniques, the use of an acoustic approach to gain detailed information on the population structure of delphinids is very promising.

  17. Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.; White, M.

    1981-12-01

    A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

  18. Hygienic Responses to Varroa Destructor by Commercial and Feral Honey Bees from the Big Island of Hawaii Before Exposure to Mites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The important honey bee queen production industry on the Big Island of Hawaii is threatened by the recent discovery of Varroa destructor on the island. We tested the pre-exposure level of resistance to mites of three sources of commercial Hawaiian bees and feral Hawaiian bees based on their expressi...

  19. Short- and long-term dietary effects on disease and mortality in American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Tlusty, Michael F; Myers, Anna; Metzler, Anita

    2008-01-24

    The American lobster Homarus americanus fishery is heavily dependent on the use of fish as bait to entice lobsters into traps. There is concern that this food supplementation is nutritionally insufficient for lobsters, but previous experiments reported conflicting results. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in which 1 yr old American lobsters were fed one of 7 diets for a period of 352 d, a time that allowed the lobsters to molt thrice. The diets consisted of fresh frozen herring, a 'wild' diet (rock crab, mussel, and Spirulina algae), a formulated artificial diet for shrimp, paired combinations of these 3 diets or a diet formulated at the New England Aquarium (Artemia, fish and krill meal, Spirulina algae, soy lecithin, vitamins and minerals). The lobsters fed the diet of 100% fish had higher initial molting rates, but within the period of this experiment all either contracted shell disease or died. Mixed diets resulted in higher survival and a lower probability of mortality. This research demonstrated a critical time component to diet studies in lobsters. Short- and long-term impacts of diet differ. In the long term, continual high consumption rates of fish by the lobsters promote poor health in all lobsters, not just those of market size. The use of fish as bait may make lobsters more susceptible to the stress associated with environmental fluctuation, thereby leading to increased disease and mortality. This nutritional stress can be used to develop a laboratory model of shell disease in American lobsters. PMID:18380224

  20. Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric lava tubes as well as the historic tubes located in the bombing range near Mauna Loa. These natural structures should be considered for use in planning for the expansion and advanced stages of the future manned lunar base.

  1. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  2. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceo, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  3. Colonization of the Hawaiian Archipelago via Johnston Atoll: a characterization of oceanographic transport corridors for pelagic larvae using computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Donald R.

    2006-08-01

    Larval transport between Johnston Atoll and the Hawaiian Archipelago was examined using computer simulation and high-resolution ocean current data. The effects of pelagic larval duration and spawning seasonality on long-distance transport and local retention were examined using a Lagrangian, individual-based approach. Retention around Johnston Atoll appeared to be low, and there appeared to be seasonal effects on both retention and dispersal. Potential larval transport corridors between Johnston Atoll and the Hawaiian Archipelago were charted. One corridor connects Johnston Atoll with the middle portion of the Hawaiian Archipelago in the vicinity of French Frigate Shoals. Another corridor connects Johnston Atoll with the lower inhabited islands in the vicinity of Kauai. Transport appears to be related to the subtropical countercurrent and the Hawaiian Lee countercurrent, both located to the west of the archipelago and flowing to the east. A new analytical tool, termed CONREC-IRC is presented for the quantification of spatial patterns.

  4. Extremophilic Eukaryote Life in Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms exist in all three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria), but are less known in eukaryotes. Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for these organisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent with all forming within geochemically similar basalt substrates. We used metagenomics to detect 18S rDNA from eukaryotic extremophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (temperature and pH) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, 11 samples from 3 fumaroles were collected over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 31.0oC to 62.7oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93 allowing for 8 different microenvironments. Fifty sequences per sample were analyzed with eighteen different organisms identified, the majority belonging to the family Cercozoa. The most diverse fumarole consisted of 8 different genera residing in a temperature of 34.1oC and a pH of 3.0. Unclassified mosses were identified in the fumarole with the highest temperature and Phaeoceros (hornworts) were identified at the most acidic fumarole. Both of these groups have been previously identified in geothermal areas.

  5. Multiple Reversals of Bill Length over 1.7 Million Years in a Hawaiian Bird Lineage.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Cann, Rebecca L

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary change has been documented over geological time, but reversals in morphology, from an ancestral state to a derived state and back again, tend to be rare. Multiple reversals along the same lineage are even rarer. We use the chronology of the Hawaiian Islands and an avian example, the Hawaiian honeycreeper 'amakihi (Hemignathus spp.) lineage, which originated on the oldest main island of Kaua'i 1.7 million years ago, to examine the process of sequential reversals in bill length. We document three single and two multiple reversals of bill length on six main islands from oldest to youngest, consistent with the phylogeny of the lineage. Longer bills occur on islands with endemic species, including phylogenetically relevant outgroups, that may compete with or dominate the 'amakihi. On islands without those species, the 'amakihi had shorter bills of similar length. Both types of reversals in morphology in this lineage integrate microevolutionary processes with macroevolution in the adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers. PMID:26913948

  6. Petrology and Geochronology of Kaula Volcano lavas: An off-axis window into the Hawaiian Mantle Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Jicha, B. R.; Tree, J. P.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands extend NW for 625 km from Lō'ihi to Ka'ula island. One anomalous feature cross-cutting the Hawaiian Islands is the Kaua'i Ridge, a 165 km-long bathymetric high with three well-defined gravity highs. These gravity highs are centered under or near the islands of Ka'ula, Ni'ihau and Kaua'i, and represent the cores of three shield volcanoes whose volumes decrease dramatically with distance from the axis of the Hawaiian Chain (Kaua'i, 58 x 103 km3, Ni'ihau x 103 km, Ka'ula 10 x 103 km; Robinson and Eakins 2006). Ka'ula Volcano, on the SW end of the Kaua'i Ridge, is centered 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The volcano is capped by a small island, which is a remnant of a nephelinitic tuff cone. The cone contains abundant accidental bombs of lava (tholeiite, phonolite and basanite), peridotite and pyroxenite, and unexploded ordnance from US military bombing. Two JASON dives on the flanks of Ka'ula recovered only alkalic lavas. Three stage of Ka'ula volcanism have been identified from sampling the volcanic bombs and flanks of the volcano. These rocks were dated using 40Ar/39Ar methods for the basalts and K-Ar for the phonolites. A tholeiitic shield basalt yielded an age of 6.2 Ma, the oldest reliable age for any Hawaiian Island tholeiite. Post-shield phonolites gave ages of 4.0 to 4.2 Ma (Garcia et al., 1986) and rejuvenation stage alkalic basalts yielded ages of 1.9 to 0.5 Ma. These ages are nearly identical to those for the same stages for adjacent Ni'ihau volcano but slightly older than on Kauai, 100 km to the NE (Sherrod et al. 2007). Thus, volcanism was nearly simultaneous along Kaua'i Ridge. The new age results extend to 420 km the distance within the Hawaiian Islands that experienced coeval rejuvenated volcanism. Geochemically, the rejuvenated and tholeiitic lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge are very similar with mixed source signatures of Loa and Kea trend compositions. Mixed Loa-Kea sources have been found for many other Hawaiian volcanoes. These results indicate that the Hawaiian mantle plume was broadly homogeneous over 100 km distance but also heterogeneous on a fine scale. Garcia et al., 1986. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 94, 461-471; Robinson and Eakins, 2006. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 151, 309-317; Sherrod et al., 2007. USGS Open-File Rept. 2007-1089.

  7. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  8. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are

  9. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.50 Section 622.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50...

  10. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.50 Section 622.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND...

  11. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.50 Section 622.50 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND...

  12. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622.458 Section 622.458 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF...

  13. Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Battison, A L

    2013-05-01

    An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 μmol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented. PMID:22566215

  14. The Lobster Tale: An Exercise in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanovich, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of

  15. Hawaii Forest Bird Interagency Database Project: Collecting, Understanding, and Sharing Population Data on Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thane K.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are distinguished by the diversity of endemic forms derived from a small number of ancestral colonists. However, the avifauna has been decimated by human activities both before and after Western contact. At least 71 species or subspecies disappeared before the arrival of Capt. James Cook in 1778, and an additional 24 went extinct after 1778, of which 11 were lost since the 1960s alone. Many of the remaining Hawaiian bird populations are declining or are in danger of extinction. Vigorous efforts to survey and monitor bird populations over the past 3 decades have generated considerable information from which to assess the current status of the Hawaiian forest birds.

  16. Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

    2001-03-01

    Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are consistent with those found in the native Hawaiian Drosophila. PMID:11298985

  17. Atlas of natural hazards in the Hawaiian coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H., III; Grossman, Eric E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii. This information is the key to the wise use and management of coastal resources. The information contained in this document,we hope,will improve the ability of Hawaiian citizens and visitors to safely enjoy the coast and provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. This work is largely based on previous investigations by scientific and engineering researchers and county, state, and federal offices and agencies. The unique aspect of this report is that, to the extent possible, it assimilates prior efforts in documenting Hawaiian coastal hazards and combines existing knowledge into a single comprehensive coastal hazard data set. This is by no means the final word on coastal hazards in Hawaii. Every hazardous phenomenon described here, and others such as slope failure and rocky shoreline collapse, need to be more carefully quantified, forecast, and mitigated. Our ultimate goal, of course, is to make the Hawaiian coast a safer place by educating the people of the state, and their leaders, about the hazardous nature of the environment. In so doing, we will also be taking steps toward improved preservation of coastal environments, because the best way to avoid coastal hazards is to avoid inappropriate development in the coastal zone. We have chosen maps as the medium for both recording and communicating the hazard history and its intensity along the Hawaiian coast.Two types of maps are used: 1) smallscale maps showing a general history of hazards on each island and summarizing coastal hazards in a readily understandable format for general use, and 2) a large-scale series of technical maps (1:50,000) depicting coastal sections approximately 5 to 7 miles in length with color bands along the coast ranking the relative intensity of each hazard at the adjacent shoreline.

  18. Hawaiian update - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, G.

    1987-06-01

    Progress with geothermal development on the Island of Hawaii has been slow since the July 1987 report. Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV), which plans to have 25 megawatts on line by 1993, is in the midst of changing owners. Although PGV hasn't drilled additional wells since the successful Kapoho State-1A in late 1985, the venture has been moving ahead with planning and design for the 25 megawatt project. The other developer in Hawaii is True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture. Principals of both True Geothermal and Mid-Pacific Geothermal are from Wyoming. This group has run into local opposition since late 1981. Originally, they planned to construct a 250 megawatt project in the upper end of the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) on the Island of Hawaii, near the Volcanoes National Park. Then, they changed to a 100 megawatt project in the middle of the KERZ. The EIS has been accepted and the group has received the necessary, state land-use permit. However, the permit action was appealed by a few Pele practitioners. In July 1987, the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled unanimously in favor of the development project. In August 1987, Governor John Waihee established a blue-ribbon panel to study the feasibility of developing an inter-island cable system to transmit 500 megawatts of geothermally-produced electricity from the KERZ on the Island of Hawaii to the Islands of Maui and Oahu, where 80% of the state's population live. This system has a price tag of $475 million (1986). It will span a greater length of ocean and lie in deeper ocean depths than any other high-voltage submarine cable. There is no known US manufacturer with the capability to build such a cable.

  19. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways

  20. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

  1. Teaching in a Hawaiian Context: Educator Perspectives on the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Ceppi, Andrea K.; Lau-Smith, Jo-Anne

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups and interviews with 37 teachers and 4 principals examined their roles and experiences in Papahana Kaiapuni, a K-12 program taught entirely in Hawaiian. Teachers integrated Hawaiian culture into the curriculum and viewed the program as a model of school reform for Native Hawaiians. The program transformed many teachers' views of

  2. Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

  3. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New Distributional Records for Endemic Asteia (Asteiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New island records are reported for five species of Asteia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Asteia hawaiiensis, Asteia mauiensis, Asteia molokaiensis, Asteia palikuensis, Asteia sabroskyi). These new records expand our understanding of distributions in Asteia, change the percentage of single island endemics from 78% to 33%, and have significance in how we view the process of diversification acting in this lineage. We also present a list of the known rearing records for two species in this group. Asteia montgomeryi has been recorded from Erythrina and Asteia sabroskyi has been reared from Pisonia, Urera, Charpentiera and Hibiscadelphus. PMID:24855434

  4. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  5. Mercury sources and trophic ecology for Hawaiian bottomfish.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian; Pitz, Gerald L

    2015-06-01

    In Hawaii, some of the most important commercial and recreational fishes comprise an assemblage of lutjanids and carangids called bottomfish. Despite their importance, we know little about their trophic ecology or where the mercury (Hg) that ultimately resides in their tissue originates. Here we investigated these topics, by analyzing muscle samples for mercury content, nitrogen, carbon, and amino acid specific nitrogen isotope ratios in six species distributed across different depths from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Fishes had different sources of nitrogen and carbon, with isotopic values suggesting benthic food sources for shallow nearshore species. High trophic position lutjanids that foraged in deeper water, benthic environments generally had higher Hg levels. Model results also suggested that benthic Hg methylation was an important source of Hg for shallow benthic feeders, while deepwater sources of mercury may be important for those with a diet that derives, at least in part, from the pelagic environment. Further, despite the lack of freshwater sources of Hg in the NWHI, statistical models explaining the variation in tissue Hg in the MHI and NWHI were nearly identical, suggesting freshwater Hg inputs were not a major source of Hg in fish tissue. PMID:25936419

  6. Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1? and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else. PMID:20308549

  7. Earthquakes of Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35km S of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and S most island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close to Loihi's bathymetric summit, except for earthquakes during the second stage of the 1971-1972 swarm, which occurred well onto Loihi's SW flank. The flank earthquakes appear to have been triggered by the preceding activity and possible rifting along Loihi's long axis, similar to the rift-flank relationship at Kilauea volcano. Other changes accompanied the shift in locations from Loihi's summit to its flank, including a shift from burst to continuous seismicity, a rise in maximum magnitude, a change from small earthquake clusters to a larger elongated zone, a drop in b value, and a presumed shift from concentrated volcanic stresses to a more diffuse tectonic stress on Loihi's flank. - Author

  8. Temperature and acid-base balance in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed Aman; Camacho, Joseph; Wang, Hongkun; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Worden, Mary Kate

    2007-04-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) in the wild inhabit ocean waters where temperature can vary over a broad range (0-25 degrees C). To examine how environmental thermal variability might affect lobster physiology, we examine the effects of temperature and thermal change on the acid-base status of the lobster hemolymph. Total CO(2), pH, P(CO)2 and HCO(-)(3) were measured in hemolymph sampled from lobsters acclimated to temperature in the laboratory as well as from lobsters acclimated to seasonal temperatures in the wild. Our results demonstrate that the change in hemolymph pH as a function of temperature follows the rule of constant relative alkalinity in lobsters acclimated to temperature over a period of weeks. However, thermal change can alter lobster acid-base status over a time course of minutes. Acute increases in temperature trigger a respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis of the hemolymph. Both the strength and frequency of the lobster heartbeat in vitro are modulated by changes in pH within the physiological range measured in vivo. These observations suggest that changes in acid-base status triggered by thermal variations in the environment might modulate lobster cardiac performance in vivo. PMID:17371923

  9. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

  10. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-12-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

  11. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal biodiversity surveys. Molecular data for the survey provide the most extensive assessment of Hawaiian red algal diversity and, in combination with the morphological/anatomical and distributional data collected as part of the project, provide a solid baseline data set for future studies of the flora. The data are freely available via the Hawaiian Algal Database (HADB), which was designed and constructed to accommodate the results of the project. We present the first DNA sequence reference collection for a tropical Pacific seaweed flora, whose value extends beyond Hawaii since many Hawaiian taxa are shared with other tropical areas. PMID:21092229

  12. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  13. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  14. Transcriptional responses to teflubenzuron exposure in European lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pl A; Samuelsen, Ole B; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Lunestad, Bjrn T

    2015-10-01

    Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.30.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined. One claw from each animal was collected for transcriptional analysis. Overall, exposed animals showed low cumulative mortality. Six animals, two from the low dose treatment and four from the high dose, showed exoskeletal abnormalities (claw deformities or stiff walking legs). Residual levels of teflubenzuron in juvenile lobster were 2.7-fold higher in the high dose (282 ng/g) compared to the low dose treatment (103 ng/g). The transcriptional examination showed significant effects of teflubenzuron on 21 out of 39 studied genes. At the transcriptional level, environmentally relevant levels of the anti-salmon lice drug impacted genes linked to drug detoxification (cyp3a, cyp6a2, cyp302a, sult1b1, abcc4), cellular stress (hsp70, hsp90, chh), oxidative stress (cat, gpx3) and DNA damage (p53), as well as molting and exoskeleton regulation (chi3l1, ecr, jhl1, chs1, ctbs, gap65, jhel-ces1) in claw tissue (muscle and exoskeleton). In conclusion, teflubenzuron at sub-lethal levels can affect many molecular mechanisms in European lobster claws. PMID:26318677

  15. Hawaiian materia medica for asthma.

    PubMed

    Hope, B E; Massey, D G; Fournier-Massey, G

    1993-06-01

    A literature search and traditional narration determined that at least 58 herbs with scientific names were commonly used by Hawaiians for asthma. Of particular note were Piper methysticum, solanum americanum, and Aleurites molucana with oral tradition singling out Sophora chrysophylla. These four therapeutic agents, especially Sophora, have scientific merit and warrant further investigation because of the recent increase in asthma mortality, their potential for improved patient compliance, minimal of side effects, and the low cost. PMID:8340222

  16. Lobster attack induces sensitization in the sea hare, Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Amanda J; Goldstein, Daniel A; Lee, Lucy C; Pepino, Christina J; Tillett, Scott L; Ross, Francis E; Wilder, Elizabeth M; Zachary, Virginia A; Wright, William G

    2010-08-18

    Studies of the neural mechanisms of learning, especially of sensitization, have benefitted from extensive research on the model species, Aplysia californica (hereafter Aplysia). Considering this volume of literature on mechanisms, it is surprising that our understanding of the ecological context of sensitization in Aplysia is completely lacking. Indeed, the widespread use of strong electric shock to induce sensitization (an enhancement of withdrawal reflexes following noxious stimulation) is completely unnatural and leaves unanswered the question of whether this simple form of learning has any ecological relevance. We hypothesized that sublethal attack by a co-occurring predator, the spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, might be a natural sensitizing stimulus. We tested reflex withdrawal of the tail-mantle and head of individual Aplysia before and after attack by lobsters. Lobster attack significantly increased the amplitude of both reflexes, with a temporal onset that closely matched that observed with electric shock. This result suggests that electric shock may indeed mimic at least one naturally occurring sensitizing stimulus, suggesting, for the first time, an ecological context for this well studied form of learning. PMID:20720109

  17. Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Solomon, Sean C; Laske, Gabi; Collins, John A; Detrick, Robert S; Orcutt, John A; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H

    2009-12-01

    Defining the mantle structure that lies beneath hot spots is important for revealing their depth of origin. Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a parabola-shaped high-velocity anomaly. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 kilometers depth, a result that is in agreement with prior observations of transition-zone thinning. The inclusion of SKS observations extends the resolution downward to a depth of 1500 kilometers and reveals a several-hundred-kilometer-wide region of low velocities beneath and southeast of Hawaii. These images suggest that the Hawaiian hot spot is the result of an upwelling high-temperature plume from the lower mantle. PMID:19965755

  18. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  19. A young source for the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Stoll, Brigitte

    2011-08-25

    Recycling of oceanic crust through subduction, mantle upwelling, and remelting in mantle plumes is a widely accepted mechanism to explain ocean island volcanism. The timescale of this recycling is important to our understanding of mantle circulation rates. Correlations of uranogenic lead isotopes in lavas from ocean islands such as Hawaii or Iceland, when interpreted as model isochrons, have yielded source differentiation ages between 1 and 2.5 billion years (Gyr). However, if such correlations are produced by mixing of unrelated mantle components they will have no direct age significance. Re-Os decay model ages take into account the mixing of sources with different histories, but they depend on the assumed initial Re/Os ratio of the subducted crust, which is poorly constrained because of the high mobility of rhenium during subduction. Here we report the first data on (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios for 138 melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from lavas of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii, indicating enormous mantle source heterogeneity. We show that highly radiogenic strontium in severely rubidium-depleted melt inclusions matches the isotopic composition of 200-650-Myr-old sea water. We infer that such sea water must have contaminated the Mauna Loa source rock, before subduction, imparting a unique 'time stamp' on this source. Small amounts of seawater-derived strontium in plume sources may be common but can be identified clearly only in ultra-depleted melts originating from generally highly (incompatible-element) depleted source components. The presence of 200-650-Myr-old oceanic crust in the source of Hawaiian lavas implies a timescale of general mantle circulation with an average rate of about 2 (±1) cm yr(-1), much faster than previously thought. PMID:21832996

  20. Tenure Experiences of Native Hawaiian Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka opua, Heipua

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the status of women of color in academe with a particular focus on Native Hawaiian women faculty. Using a qualitative narrative design, this research examined the experiences of tenured instructional Native Hawaiian women faculty (Na Wahine) at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Two research questions guided this inquiry:…

  1. Tenure Experiences of Native Hawaiian Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka opua, Heipua

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the status of women of color in academe with a particular focus on Native Hawaiian women faculty. Using a qualitative narrative design, this research examined the experiences of tenured instructional Native Hawaiian women faculty (Na Wahine) at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Two research questions guided this inquiry:

  2. Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.

    PubMed

    Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

    2014-02-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis. PMID:24689281

  3. Detailed surface morphology of the 'lobster louse' copepod, Nicotho astaci, a haematophagous gill parasite of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Thomas, Gethin R; Maffeis, Thierry G G; Wootton, Emma C; Penny, Mark W; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-10-01

    The ectoparasitic copepod, Nicotho astaci (the 'lobster louse'), infests the gills of the European lobster, Homarus gammarus. There have been limited studies on this haematophagous species; therefore knowledge of this parasite is rudimentary. The current study examines the surface morphology of this parasitic copepod, detached from the host, concentrating on adaptations of the suctorial mouthpart, the oral disc. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy revealed structural adaptations that facilitate attachment of these parasites to the gill filaments of their lobster host. The aperture of the feeding channel, through which host haemolymph is drawn, is only ca. 5?m in diameter. The edge of the oral disc is lined with numerous setae, whilst the surface of the disc is covered with large numbers of small (<1?m in diameter) teeth-like structures, which presumably pierce through, and grip, the cuticle lining of the host's gill. Overall, these structures are thought to provide a 'vacuum seal' to assist in pumping of blood, via peristalsis, into the alimentary canal of the copepod host. PMID:25196471

  4. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

  5. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  6. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Area 1 trap limits. The Area 1 trap limit is 800 traps. Federally permitted lobster fishing vessels shall not fish with, deploy in, possess in, or haul back...

  7. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  8. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  9. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  10. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to

  11. New species, corallivory, in situ video observations and overview of the Goniasteridae (Valvatida, Asteroidea) in the Hawaiian Region.

    PubMed

    Mah, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Goniasteridae, Astroceramus eldredgei n. sp. and Apollonaster kelleyi n. sp. are described from the Hawaiian Islands region. Prior to this occurrence, Apollonaster was known only from the North Atlantic. The Goniasteridae is the most diverse family of asteroids in the Hawaiian region. Additional in situ observations of several goniasterid species, including A. eldredgei n. sp. are reported. These observations extend documentation of deep-sea corallivory among goniasterid asteroids. New species occurrences presented herein suggested further biogeographic affinities between tropical Pacific and Atlantic goniasterid faunas. PMID:25781779

  12. Patterns of mtDNA variation in Hawaiian freshwater fishes: the phylogeographic consequences of amphidromy.

    PubMed

    Chubb, A L; Zink, R M; Fitzsimons, J M

    1998-01-01

    MtDNA sequencing was used to assess the phylogeographic structure of four species of Hawaiian freshwater fishes: Lentipes concolor, Stenogobius hawaiiensis, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Awaous guamensis. Samples of each species were collected from streams on the northeast side of Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Oahu, and Hawaii. We sequenced segments from both coding and noncoding regions (638-1391 bp) in each species. Sequence analysis uncovered genetic variability in these fishes but no evidence of strong geographic structure among island populations. This result is most readily explained by the fishes' larval marine life stage (amphidromy), which likely facilitates gene flow among island populations. By constraining genetic differentiation among populations, amphidromy may impede speciation in these fishes, possibly explaining why the Hawaiian freshwater fish fauna is depauperate compared to other species-rich Hawaiian faunas. It may also provide them with a kind of evolutionary flexibility atypical of other, more isolated island faunas and allow natural restocking to occur in streams that have been restored to suitable conditions. Comparisons of restriction site and sequence data suggested similar population genetic conclusions for all species except S. stimpsoni, for which the restriction site data is questioned. PMID:9487675

  13. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... fishery could potentially involve limiting access to Federal Lobster Conservation Management Areas (64 FR... comment on the issue on September 5, 2002 (67 FR 56800). When the Commission added effort control as a... separate the effort control rulemakings from lobster brood stock protection rulemakings (70 FR 24495,...

  14. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. homaria (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  15. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-06-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. 'homaria' (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  16. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  20. 33 CFR 100.118 - Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME. 100.118 Section 100.118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated Area. The regulated area includes all waters...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  2. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  3. Finestkind: The American Lobster. A Learning Experience for Marine Education. Northern New England Marine Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. Coll. of Education.

    This interdisciplinary unit is intended for use in the fourth grade. Through discussion of the American Lobster, its economics, history, literature, and biology, the unit describes the effects of the marine environment on human history and culture. Sections deal with how marine organisms have evolved. Detailed descriptions are provided of lobster

  4. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  5. Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust). In contrast, younger soils are mainly supplied by calcium from weathering of volcanic bedrock. Based on the results of previous studies using strontium isotopic signatures and Sr/Ca ratios (e.g. Kennedy et al. 1998, Chadwick et al. 1999, Whipkey et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2001) we have conducted research focusing on the isotope composition of calcium as a new tool for the investigation of sources of calcium and biogeochemical processes effecting Ca isotope fractionation in the plant-soil system. The study combines ? 44Ca with 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca data of soils (bulk compositions and extractable Ca and Sr from soil exchange sites) and different plant species including native Ohia trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) from a soil chronosequence along the Hawaiian Island chain. The study sites differ in age of the underlying substrate from 0.3 ka to 4,100 ka, but show similar recent climate (mean annual temperature of 16 C) and amount of precipitation (about 2,500 mm/y). 44Ca/40Ca ratios were measured on a MAT262 at Stanford University, using a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and are reported as ? 44Ca values relative to seawater (? 44Ca = 0 ). Results of the extractable, plant available calcium from six soil sites show ? 44Ca values in the range of +1.2 to -1.3 with generally more negative values related to younger soil sites where calcium is mainly derived from weathering of volcanic rocks. Bulk soil samples, however, show ? 44Ca values between -0.1 and -2.5 , indicating differences in composition as a result of contributions from volcanic minerals, continental dust, and marine aerosols in different proportions. Leaves and wood material of different plant species have ? 44Ca values in the range of -0.1 and -2.1 , suggesting biological fractionation of Ca isotopes during calcium uptake in plants. From our results we conclude that the pattern of Ca isotope fractionation in the Hawaiian ecosystem depend on several factors (1) the source of calcium, (2) physiological processes, and (3) soil biogeochemical processes. References Chadwick et al. (1999) Nature 397: 491-497. Kennedy et al. (1998) Geology 26: 1015-1018. Stewart et al. (2001) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65: 1087-1099. Whipkey et al. (2000) Chem. Geol. 168: 37-48.

  6. Chasing Lava: A Geologist's Adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varekamp, Johan C.

    2004-01-01

    Many popular volcano books have appeared over the last few years; for example, Vulcan's Fury by A. Scarth, Melting the Earth by H. Sigurdsson, and Volcanoes in Human History by J.Z. deBoer and D.T. Sanders. All of these books have their own qualities. Duffield's Chasing Lava-A Geologist's Adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory stands apart from that crowded field and is comparable to Out of the Crater by R.V. Fisher. The book presents a very personal view of volcanology, erupting volcanoes, and what it means to be part of a team that investigates them. The author mixes scientific observations with accounts of the grandeur of Hawaii, musings about his own personal life 30 years ago, and the pleasure that one derives from working in an organization like the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) on a gorgeous tropical island. The book starts out with the history of the HVO and the accomplishments of T.A. Jaggar as scientist-in-charge. The author then gives accounts of his own work on Hawaii and introduces the reader to, among other topics, tilt measurements and laser reflector instruments. He discusses the search for fresh water on the island, and notes that the need for clean water ultimately may become one of the most pressing issues of this island world. He alternates between descriptions of geological features with great photographic close-ups of flowing lavas, and narrow escapes; and casually introduces fundamental geological perspectives in the process. Most geologists are familiar with Duffield's ideas about the shifting plates on the surface of Mauna Ulu lava lake as an analog of global plate movements. I was not aware of his experiments with bastnaesite-doping of the magma to add a La-rich tracer to the magma to track its lateral flow, but in this book readers learn about both.

  7. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kathleen E; Ray, Chittaranjan; Ki, Seo Jin; Spokas, Kurt A; Koskinen, William C

    2015-08-15

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole (DKN)] and two neutral non-ionizable herbicides [oxyfluorfen, alachlor], their sorption coefficients were determined on three prevalent soils from the island of Oahu. Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocylcopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN were relatively low sorbing herbicides (K(oc) = 3-53 mL g(-1)), alachlor was intermediate (K(oc) = 120-150 mL g(-1)), and oxyfluorfen sorbed very strongly to the three soils (K(oc) > 12,000 mL g(-1)). Following determination of K(oc) values, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) indices for these compounds were calculated to predicted their behavior with the Comprehensive Leaching Risk Assessment System (CLEARS; Tier-1 methodology for Hawaii). Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN would be categorized as likely leachers in all three Hawaiian soils, indicating a high risk of groundwater contamination across the island of Oahu. In contrast, oxyfluorfen, regardless of the degradation rate, would possess a low and acceptable leaching risk due to its high sorption on all three soils. The leaching potential of alachlor was more difficult to classify, with a GUS value between 1.8 and 2.8. In addition, four different biochar amendments to these soils did not significantly alter their sorption capacities for aminocyclopyrachlor, indicating a relatively low impact of black carbon additions from geologic volcanic inputs of black carbon. Due to the fact that pesticide environmental risks are chiefly dependent on local soil characteristics, this work has demonstrated that once soil specific sorption parameters are known one can assess the potential pesticide leaching risks. PMID:26024994

  8. Evolutionary diversification and geographical isolation in Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance

    PubMed Central

    McGlaughlin, Mitchell E.; Friar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is one the best examples of a plant adaptive radiation, exhibiting extensive morphological and ecological diversity. No research within this group has addressed the role of geographical isolation, independent of ecological adaptation, in contributing to taxonomic diversity. The aims of this study were to examine genetic differentiation among subspecies of Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae) to determine if allopatric or sympatric populations and subspecies form distinct genetic clusters to understand better the role of geography in diversification within the alliance. Methods Dubautia laxa is a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance, occurring on four of the five major islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, with four subspecies recognized on the basis of morphological, ecological and geographical variation. Nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequence data were examined. Data were analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methodologies to identify unique evolutionary lineages. Key Results Plastid DNA sequence data resolved two highly divergent lineages, recognized as the Laxa and Hirsuta groups, that are more similar to other members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance than they are to each other. The Laxa group is basal to the young island species of Dubautia, whereas the Hirsuta group forms a clade with the old island lineages of Dubautia and with Argyroxiphium. The divergence between the plastid groups is supported by Bayesian microsatellite clustering analyses, but the degree of nuclear differentiation is not as great. Clear genetic differentiation is only observed between allopatric populations, both within and among islands. Conclusions These results indicate that geographical separation has aided diversification in D. laxa, whereas ecologically associated morphological differences are not associated with neutral genetic differentiation. This suggests that, despite the stunning ecological adaptation observed, geography has also played an important role in the Hawaiian silversword alliance plant adaptive radiation. PMID:21193480

  9. Evolution of Hawaiian shield volcano revealed by antecryst-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sakyi, P. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, E.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean island basalts, exemplified by the Hawaiian Volcanics, are often considered to be the best targets for understanding the chemical and thermal structure of upwelling mantle plumes. The important feature with regards to the petrogenesis of the recent Hawaiian shield building lavas is the existence of a double volcanic loci (Loa and Kea), which has resulted in large-scale heterogeneity between the north-western and south-eastern sides of the plume. The temporal Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic trends displayed by the Loa-type lavas may have been caused by systematic vertical heterogeneity of the SW part of the Hawaiian plume. The majority of the available OIB samples are limited to the youngest lava flows covering the shield, with the exception of samples obtained from drilled cores and land slide deposits. Thus, sampling is biased to the latest stages of the shield building process, and consequently, so are geochemical studies. We found that the majority of olivine crystals coarser than ˜1 mm in the Hawaiian lavas are antecryst, which originally crystallized from previous stages of Hawaiian magmatism. These anatecrysts were then plastically deformed prior to entrainment in the erupted host magmas. The Pb isotopic compositions of antecryst-hosted melt inclusions reveal that the mantle source components that formed Hawaiian shields successively changed during shield formation. The temporal geochemical trend in the Kilauea melt inclusion could be caused by increasing the degree of partial melting by moving the melting source of the volcano from the periphery to the centre of the plume. The Pb isotopic trend of Koolau melt inclusions are consistent with the previously identified temporal isotopic trend, which shows that the 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb of the Koolau magma systematically increased with time. Thus, antecryst-hosted melt inclusions preserve geochemical information regarding the petrogenesis of the Hawaiian shield lavas, which is unobtainable via whole rock geochemical studies. These observations also demonstrate that a significant fraction of olivine antecrysts are derived from dunite or harzburgite channels/cumulates that were formed by dissolution and/or crystallization processes during previous magmatic events. Thus, the entrainment of inherited mantle-derived crystallization products by younger batches of magma is a common phenomenon in the Hawaiian magma plumbing system.

  10. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  11. Using molecular prey detection to quantify rock lobster predation on barrens-forming sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Redd, K S; Ling, S D; Frusher, S D; Jarman, S; Johnson, C R

    2014-08-01

    We apply qPCR molecular techniques to detect in situ rates of consumption of sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). A non-lethal method was used to source faecal samples from trap-caught lobsters over 2years within two no-take research reserves. There was high variability in the proportion of lobsters with faeces positive for sea urchin DNA across years and seasons dependent on lobster size. Independent estimates of lobster predation rate on sea urchins (determined from observed declines in urchin abundances in the reserves relative to control sites) suggest that rates of molecular prey detection generally overestimated predation rates. Also, small lobsters known to be incapable of directly predating emergent sea urchins showed relatively high rates of positive tests. These results indicate that some lobsters ingest non-predatory sources of sea urchin DNA, which may include (i) ingestion of C.rodgersii DNA from the benthos (urchin DNA is detectable in sediments and some lobsters yield urchin DNA in faeces when fed urchin faeces or sediment); (ii) scavenging; and/or predation by rock lobsters on small pre-emergent urchins that live cryptically within the reef matrix (although this possibility could not be assessed). While the DNA-based approach and direct monitoring of urchin populations both indicate high predation rates of large lobsters on emergent urchins, the study shows that in some cases absolute predation rates and inferences of predator-prey interactions cannot be reliably estimated from molecular signals obtained from the faeces of benthic predators. At a broad semi-quantitative level, the approach is useful to identify relative magnitudes of predation and temporal and spatial variability in predation. PMID:24844936

  12. A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2–6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6–12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  13. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  14. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:25343968

  15. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  16. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O?ahu and Kaua?i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka?i, Lana?i, and Hawai?i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai?i, O?ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua?i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

  17. A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

  18. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Roderick, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host-parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens. also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discrimination learning with light stimuli in restrained American lobster.

    PubMed

    Tomina, Yusuke; Takahata, Masakazu

    2012-04-01

    Operant discrimination learning has been extensively utilized in the study on the perceptual ability of animals and their higher order brain functions. We tested in this study whether American lobster Homarus americanus, which was previously found to possess ability of operant learning with claw gripping, could be trained to discriminate light stimuli of different intensities. For the current purpose, we newly developed a PC-controlled operant chamber that allowed the animal under a body-fixed condition to perform operant reward learning with claw gripping. Lobsters were first reinforced when they gripped the sensor bar upon presentation of a light cue. Then they were trained to grip the bar only when the light stimulus of a specific intensity was presented to obtain food reward while the stimuli of three different intensities including the reinforced one were presented in a random order. Finally, they were re-trained to grip the bar only when the light stimulus of another intensity that was not rewarded in the preceding training to obtain food while other intensities including the one that was rewarded previously were not rewarded any more. In these training procedures, the operant behavior occurred more frequently in response to the rewarded cue than to the non-rewarded one. The action latency for the reinforced stimuli showed a significant decrease in the course of training. These data demonstrate that lobsters can be trained with the light cues of different intensity as discriminative stimuli under a restrained condition that would allow application of electrophysiological techniques to the behaving subjects. PMID:22245256

  20. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Rodd James

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic basalts is labradorite. The natural radiogenic dose rates for the alkalic basalts calculated on the basis of assumed secular equilibrium range from 0.228 to 0.462 rad per year and average 0.335 rad per year exclusive of the cosmic-ray energy dose and with the alpha-particle component equal to one-tenth of the total alpha decay energy. The TL measurements were made using material of a 37 to 44-micrometer size range; the crushing required during sample preparation was found to have a negligible effect on natural TL. Both natural and artificial TL were filtered to the bandwidth 3,500 A to 5,000 A to restrict the light detected to that from the plagioclase emission peak centered at about 4,500 A and associated with structural defects. Within this bandwidth, the natural TL from both the alkalic and tholeiitic basalt plagioclase consists of a single peak with a maximum amplitude at about 350?C; the artificial TL glow curves produced by an exposure of the drained samples to a standard dose of X-radiation consist of four broad, variably overlapping peaks with maxima at about 110?C, 150?C, 225?C, and 300?C. The maximum amplitude of the 350?C natural and 300?C artificial TL peaks, both produced by the same general activation energy distribution of trapping centers, were used for TL dating. The high-temperature artificial TL peak occurs at a lower temperature than the corresponding natural TL peak owing to the presence of a large number of electrons retained in traps near the lower end of the trap-depth energy range in samples whose TL is measured a short time after intense artificial irradiation. These traps remain essentially empty in the natural environment owing to spontaneous decay and do not produce measurable low-temperature natural TL peaks. With prolonged storage after irradiation, the 300?C artificial TL peak migrates to higher temperatures and decreases in amplitude.

  1. Mechanisms of afterhyperpolarization in lobster olfactory receptor neurons.

    PubMed

    Corotto, F S; Michel, W C

    1998-09-01

    In lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), depolarizing responses to odorants and current injection are accompanied by the development of an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) that likely contributes to spike-frequency adaptation and that persists for several seconds after termination of the response. A portion of the AHP can be blocked by extracellular application of 5 mM CsCl. At this concentration, CsCl specifically blocks the hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih) in lobster ORNs. This current is likely to be active at rest, where it provides a constant, depolarizing influence. Further depolarization deactivates Ih, thus allowing the cell to be briefly hyperpolarized when that depolarizing influence is removed, thus generating an AHP. Reactivation of Ih would terminate the AHP. The component of the AHP that could not be blocked by Cs+ (the Cs(+)-insensitive AHP) was accompanied by decreased input resistance, suggesting that this component is generated by increased conductance to an ion with an equilibrium potential more negative than the resting potential. The Cs(+)-insensitive AHP in current clamp and the underlying current in voltage clamp displayed a reversal potential of approximately -75 mV. Both EK and ECl are predicted to be in this range. Similar results were obtained with the use of a high Cl- pipette solution, although that shifted ECl from -72 mV to -13 mV. However, when EK was shifted to more positive or negative values, the reversal potential also shifted accordingly. A role for the Ca(2+)-mediated K+ current in generating the Cs(+)-independent AHP was explored by testing cells in current and voltage clamp while blocking IK(Ca) with Cs+/Co(2+)-saline. In some cells, the Cs(+)-independent AHP and its underlying current could be completely and reversibly blocked by Cs+/Co2+ saline, whereas in other cells some fraction of it remained. This indicates that the Cs(+)-independent AHP results from two K+ currents, one that requires an influx of extracellular Ca2+ and one that does not. Collectively, these findings indicate that AHPs result from three phenomena that occur when lobster ORNs are depolarized: 1) inactivation of the hyperpolarization-activated cation current, 2) activation of a Ca(2+)-mediated K+ current, and 3) activation of a K+ current that does not require influx of extracellular Ca2+. Roles of these processes in modulating the output of lobster ORNs are discussed. PMID:9744937

  2. Time-Domain Astronomy with Swift, Fermi and Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-04-01

    The dynamic transient gamma-ray sky is revealing many interesting results, largely due to findings by Fermi and Swift. The list includes new twists on gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), a GeV flare from a symbiotic star, GeV flares from the Crab Nebula, high-energy emission from novae and supernovae, and, within the last year, a new type of object discovered by Swift-a jetted tidal disruption event. In this review we present highlights of these exciting discoveries. A new mission concept called Lobster is also described; it would monitor the X-ray sky at order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions can.

  3. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and L?na'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  4. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  5. Displaced helium and carbon in the Hawaiian plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Farnetani, Cinzia G.; Spiegelman, Marc; Class, Cornelia

    2011-12-01

    High relative abundances of primordial 3He are commonly found in ocean island basalts (OIB) thought to be derived from mantle plumes, and high 3He/ 4He ratios have been used to distinguish plume-type from non-plume OIBs. In simple plume models, one expects to find the highest 3He/ 4He ratios in the axial part of the plume conduit, which is sampled during the shield building stage of the volcanoes. However, the actual locus of the highest 3He/ 4He ratios is sometimes significantly displaced. This is best documented for the Hawaiian plume, where the highest- 3He/ 4He basalts are found on Loihi, a volcano tens of kilometers ahead of the inferred plume center, and 3He/ 4He ratios decrease systematically toward MORB-type values during the main and late phases of eruption. We propose that this effect is caused by small amounts of carbonatite melt formed in plumes as they rise through the transition zone. If the plume conduit is tilted by plate-driven upper mantle flow, the carbonatite melt infiltrates more vertically due to its low density and viscosity and is thus displaced from the plume center. Helium, if partitioned into the carbonatite melt, will also be displaced from the plume center. To test this model we use a numerical simulation of the Hawaiian plume interacting with the fast-moving Pacific lithosphere. We obtain vertical separation velocities of the carbonatite melt on the order of a meter/year. Consequently, helium and carbon, initially located in the plume center at > 450 km depth, are laterally displaced by 50 to 80 km in the shallow mantle, depending on grain size, porosity and melt production rate. This can explain why the highest 3He/ 4HE ratios (R/Ra up to 39; R/Ra ? ( 3He/ 4He) sample/( 3He/ 4He) atmosphere) occur on pre-shield Loihi, why they decline during the shield phases of Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and Haleakala, and why post-shield and rejuvenated Hawaiian volcanism delivers only low 3He/ 4He ratios (R/Ra = 8-10). Our results quantify the potential role of carbonatite liquids in transporting helium in the Hawaiian conduit, and they appear to apply also to other plumes tilted by upper-mantle 'wind'.

  6. Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

    2014-10-01

    Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10?430?km(2) island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500?000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

  7. Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

    2014-01-01

    Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10?430?km2 island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500?000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

  8. High Precision Relocations of Deep Hawaiian Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, C. J.; Okubo, P. G.; Shearer, P. M.

    2001-12-01

    The abundant earthquakes in Hawaii provide key information on the nature of magmatic and tectonic processes at this oceanic hotspot. Here, we present the results of a project to relocate deep earthquakes (> 14 km) recorded on the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) Network. While many deep earthquakes are believed to reflect pathways of magma movement, the hypocenter distributions suggest additional processes may play a role. We are pursuing two lines of research to obtain a more accurate picture of deep seismicity characteristics. First, both the source specific station term method of Richards-Dinger and Shearer (2000) as well as the double difference method of Waldhauser and Ellsworth (2000) are being applied to relocate earthquakes dating back to 1974 using HVO catalog travel time picks. These methods help remove the biasing effects of velocity heterogeneity and thus improve the relative locations between nearby earthquakes. Second, for specific target areas in space and time, we are measuring accurate differential arrival times using waveform cross-correlation, which can be used to further refine hypocenter locations. At present, we have applied cross-correlation analysis to two areas: 1) a 1994 mb 5.3 30-km deep earthquake and its aftershocks, which occurred slightly south of Kilauea, and 2) all deep earthquakes recorded at HVO in 1997. We find that a significant percentage of aftershocks following the 1994 earthquake are strongly correlated multiplets and that a double difference solution using catalog and cross correlation data yields a horizontal line of seismicity, consistent with a horizontal fault plane. This region has also experienced several previous mL ~4.5 earthquakes, suggesting that a mantle fault has been active over the past few decades. In contrast, only a small percentage of deep earthquakes recorded in 1997 are multiplets that provide correlated waveforms, and we find these multiplets occur in areas scattered beneath the island of Hawaii.

  9. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Clesceri, Erika J.; Baukus, Adam J.; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Conclusions/Significance Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions. PMID:20419167

  11. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Island to the coast; then west along the coast of Connecticut to the western entrance of Long Island Sound; then east along the New York coast of Long Island Sound and back to Point “T”. (h) EEZ Nearshore... the maritime boundary between Connecticut and Rhode Island to the coastal Connecticut/Rhode...

  12. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Island to the coast; then west along the coast of Connecticut to the western entrance of Long Island Sound; then east along the New York coast of Long Island Sound and back to Point “T”. (h) EEZ Nearshore... the maritime boundary between Connecticut and Rhode Island to the coastal Connecticut/Rhode...

  13. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  14. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  15. Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kamaāina i Na Makani a Me Nā Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, Nā 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian language teacher would use newspaper articles for terms, expressions, and ways native speakers expressed what they saw. She wrote "My students could then create their own observations, in Hawaiian, on today's climate and current conditions." Teachers recognize systems-oriented Hawaiian knowledge contributes to science instruction, but express constraints of schedules and policies. This feedback underscores the importance of 1) teacher teams collaborating across content areas and grade levels and 2) developing lessons that teachers adopt for their potential to engage culturally diverse and underrepresented students. Teachers recognize the need to develop their own local expertise and ability to integrate culture and science to create instructional spaces where Hawaiian and western science complement each other. Stories and science of local winds inspire teachers to learn and teach more about their places. Broader Impacts: Equity Science Education As over 95% of 1.5 million pages of text are in Hawaiian, the project 1) increases resources for science teachers, scientists, and informal science educators and 2) conveys the science underlying Hawaiian cultural practices.

  16. Trophic Cascades Induced by Lobster Fishing Are Not Ubiquitous in Southern California Kelp Forests

    PubMed Central

    Guenther, Carla M.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Grant, Laura E.; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and that lobster fishing does not always catalyze a top-down trophic cascade. PMID:23209573

  17. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and that lobster fishing does not always catalyze a top-down trophic cascade. PMID:23209573

  18. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities. PMID:21166713

  19. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  20. On the origin and variation of colors in lobster carapace.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamima; Cianci, Michele; Durbeej, Bo; Falklf, Olle; Hdener, Alfons; Helliwell, John R; Helliwell, Madeleine; Regan, Andrew C; Ian F Watt, C

    2015-07-14

    The chemical basis of the blue-black to pink-orange color change on cooking of lobster, due to thermal denaturation of an astaxanthin-protein complex, ?-crustacyanin, in the lobster carapace, has so far been elusive. Here, we investigate the relaxation of the astaxanthin pigment from its bound enolate form to its neutral hydroxyketone form, as origin of the spectral shift, by analyzing the response of UV-vis spectra of a water-soluble 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-?-ionone model of astaxanthin to increases in pH, and by performing extensive quantum chemical calculations over a wide range of chemical conditions. The enolization of astaxanthin is consistent with the X-ray diffraction data of ?-crustacyanin (PDB code: ) whose crystals possess the distinct blue color. We find that enolate formation is possible within the protein environment and associated with a large bathochromic shift, thus offering a cogent explanation for the blue-black color and the response to thermal denaturation and revealing the chemistry of astaxanthin upon complex formation. PMID:25797168

  1. Lobster (Panulirus argus) hepatopancreatic trypsin isoforms and their digestion efficiency.

    PubMed

    Perera, Erick; Rodrguez-Casariego, Javier; Rodrguez-Viera, Leandro; Calero, Jorge; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Mancera, Juan M

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that crustaceans exhibit several isoforms of trypsin in their digestive system. Although the number of known crustacean trypsin isoforms continues increasing, especially those derived from cDNA sequences, the role of particular isoenzymes in digestion remains unknown. Among invertebrates, significant advances in the understanding of the role of multiple trypsins have been made only in insects. Since it has been demonstrated that trypsin isoenzyme patterns (phenotypes) in lobster differ in digestion efficiency, we used this crustacean as a model for assessing the biochemical basis of such differences. We demonstrated that the trypsin isoform known to be present in all individuals of Panulirus argus has a high catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m) ) and is the most reactive toward native proteinaceous substrates, whereas one of the isoforms present in less efficient individuals has a lower k(cat) and a lower k(cat)/K(m), and it is less competent at digesting native proteins. A fundamental question in biology is how genetic differences produce different physiological performances. This work is the first to demonstrate that trypsin phenotypic variation in crustacean protein digestion relies on the biochemical properties of the different isoforms. Results are relevant for understanding trypsin polymorphism and protein digestion in lobster. PMID:22589406

  2. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Disposition of phenanthrene and octachlorostyrene in spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, after intragastric administration

    SciTech Connect

    Solbakken, J.E.; Knap, A.H.

    1986-11-01

    Spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is a commercial crustacean in Bermuda. It was therefore of interest to study the fate of xenobiotics in the species as very little attention has been paid to toxicological studies with spiny lobsters. Earlier it was found that the temperate crustacean, Nephrops norveqicus (Norway lobster) had the ability to accumulate and eliminate phenanthrene. The aim of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the fate of xenobiotics in crustaceans under different environmental conditions, and to compare the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenenthrene, with the more environmentally persistent chlorinated compound octachlorostyrene, a by-product of magnesium metal production.

  4. Lobster eye optics for nano-satellite x-ray monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tich, Vladimr; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Hrom?k, Martin; Hudec, Ren; Inneman, Adolf; Mark, Ji?; Markov, Veronika; Pna, Ladislav; imon, Vojt?ch; Varisco, Salvatore

    2011-05-01

    The Lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it would be a convenient approach for the construction of space X-ray monitors. In this paper, we compare previously reported measurements of prototype lobster eye X-ray optics called P-25 with computer simulations and discuss differences between the theoretical end experimentally obtained results. Usability of this prototype lobster eye and manufacturing technology for the nano-satellite mission is assessed. The specific scientific goals are proposed.

  5. Leg 197 synthesis: Southward motion and geochemical variability of the Hawaiian hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, R.A.; Tarduno, J.A.; Scholl, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is an often-cited example of a change in plate motion with respect to a stationary hotspot. Growing evidence, however, suggests that the bend might instead record variable drift of the Hawaiian hotspot within a convecting mantle. Paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating that the Emperor Seamounts volcanic trend was formed principally by rapid (4-5 cm/yr) southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot during Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time (81-47 Ma). Paleointensity data derived from Leg 197 suggest an inverse relationship between field strength and reversal frequency, consistent with an active lower mantle that controls the efficiency of the geodynamo. Petrochemical data and observations of volcanic products (lava flows and volcaniclastic sediments) from Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko Seamounts provide records of the evolution of these volcanic systems for comparison with recent activity in the Hawaiian Islands. We find that the Emperor Seamounts formed from similar mantle sources for melting (plume components and lithosphere) and in much the same stages of volcanic activity and time span as the Hawaiian volcanoes. Changes in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of shield lavas along the lineament can be related to variations in thickness of the lithosphere overlying the hotspot that control the depth and extent of partial melting. Other geochemical tracers, such as He, Pb, and Hf isotopic compositions, indicate persistent contributions to melting from the plume throughout the volcanic chain.

  6. Implications for the origin of Hawaiian volcanism from a converted wave analysis of the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckfeldt, Matthew; Courtier, Anna M.; Leahy, Garrett M.

    2013-07-01

    The debate over the origin of intraplate volcanism has been ongoing since the discovery of age-progression at oceanic "hotspots." The causes of such anomalous volcanic activity have been attributed to either deep-seated thermal plumes in the convecting mantle or shallower causes such as lithospheric structure and deformation or localized mantle flow. Data from the Hawaiian Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment (PLUME) have made it possible to provide detailed images of upper mantle heterogeneity beneath the Hawaiian Islands with much greater resolution than previous experiments. Using receiver function analysis, we determine the depth to and topography along the mantle transition zone discontinuities. Our results indicate that the 410-km discontinuity deepens from northwest to southeast beneath the Hawaiian Islands, corresponding to an average thermal anomaly of 325 K located beneath and southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii. In general, temperatures remain elevated by at least 150 K directly beneath the Big Island, as far as 200 km away from the hottest measurement inferred from the discontinuity structure. Heterogeneity at these length scales raises questions about rheology, convective circulation, and melt transport in the mantle. Our results also robustly indicate the presence of a low-velocity converter in the deep upper mantle, which carries additional implications for melt transport, volatile budget, and chemical composition of the hotspot source.

  7. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000–500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

  8. Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization. PMID:22844071

  9. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15

  10. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  11. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

  12. Hawaiian Volcanoes: Deep Underwater Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Eiichi; Lipman, Peter W.; Garcia, Michael O.; Naka, Jiro; Aramaki, Shigeo

    In the summer of 1963, when a group of Japanese scientists arrived at the aged building of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, run by the U.S. Geological Survey, there began a program of cooperation and friendship between American and Japanese volcanologists that continues to the present. The late Professor Takeshi Minakami, a top volcano-physicist long involved in research at various volcanoes, including Asama, then the most active volcano in Japan, led the Japanese group. The time coincided with a changeover in Hawaii, from the pioneering volcanologic studies of Harold Stearns, Gordon Macdonald, and Jerry Eaton to more comprehensive research by younger volcanologists. The Japanese team was also fortunate enough to witness a rift zone eruption at Kilauea volcano (Alae eruption, July 1963), a direct, eye-opening encounter with a volcano plumbing system in action.

  13. Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

    2013-01-01

    This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.

  14. Bitentaculate Cirratulidae (Annelida: Polychaeta) from the northwestern Pacific Islands with description of nine new species.

    PubMed

    Magalhes, Wagner F; Bailey-Brock, Julie H

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen cirratulid species from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall Islands are described. Nine species are new to science: Aphelochaeta arizonae sp. nov., Aphelochaeta honouliuli sp. nov., Caulleriella cordiformia sp. nov., Chaetozone michellae sp. nov., Chaetozone ronaldi sp. nov., Monticellina anterobranchiata sp. nov., Monticellina hanaumaensis sp. nov., and Tharyx tumulosa sp. nov., from Oahu, Hawaii and Aphelochaeta saipanensis sp. nov., from Saipan in the Mariana Islands. Dodecaceria fewkesi and Monticellina nr. cryptica are newly recorded from the Hawaiian Islands. Dodecaceria laddi is widely distributed in the western Pacific and material collected from the Hawaiian, Mariana and Marshall islands is described. We provide SEM photographs for all species in addition to line drawings and methyl green staining pattern photographs for the new species. PMID:26131500

  15. High genetic diversity in a remote island population system: sans sex.

    PubMed

    Karlin, Eric F; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Boles, Sandra B; Stenøien, Hans K; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell I; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    It has been proposed that long-distance dispersal of mosses to the Hawaiian Islands rarely occurs and that the Hawaiian population of the allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum palustre probably resulted from a single dispersal event. Here, we used microsatellites to investigate whether the Hawaiian population of the dioicous S. palustre had a single founder and to compare its genetic diversity to that found in populations of S. palustre in other regions. The genetic diversity of the Hawaiian population is comparable to that of larger population systems. Several lines of evidence, including a lack of sporophytes and an apparently restricted natural distribution, suggest that sexual reproduction is absent in the Hawaiian plants. In addition, all samples of Hawaiian S. palustre share a genetic trait rare in other populations. Time to most recent ancestor (TMRCA) analysis indicates that the Hawaiian population was probably founded 49-51 kyr ago. It appears that all Hawaiian plants of S. palustre descend from a single founder via vegetative propagation. The long-term viability of this clonal population coupled with the development of significant genetic diversity suggests that vegetative propagation in a moss does not necessarily preclude evolutionary success in the long term. PMID:22188609

  16. Hawaiian Language Immersion: The Role of Kamehameha Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleka, Hinano; Hammond, Ormond

    1992-01-01

    Hawaii has a strong crusade to revive the Hawaiian language to preserve the Hawaiian culture. The article examines the events leading up to the implementation of Hawaiian language immersion programs through the State Department of Education and lists specific immersion school goals and strategies. (SM)

  17. Hawaiian Language Immersion Adoption of an Innovation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, D. Lilinoe

    2012-01-01

    This is a story about some Native Hawaiian people written by Native Hawaiian people of the Papahana Kaiapuni, or the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP) of the Hawai`i public schools. Together they "talk story" and become the voice for the HLIP by painting a picture of their past, present, and future experiences with technology.…

  18. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also

  19. A Sociohistorical Analysis of the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Ceppi, Andrea K.; Lau-Smith, Jo-Anne

    Papahana Kaiapuni is a K-12 indigenous language immersion program in selected public schools in the State of Hawai'i. Instruction in Kaiapuni classrooms is conducted in the Hawaiian language. Program goals include students' development of a high level of proficiency in both Hawaiian and English. For nearly a century, policy banning the Hawaiian

  20. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  1. Effect of the copepod parasite Nicotho astaci on haemolymph chemistry of the European lobster Homarus gammarus.

    PubMed

    Davies, Charlotte E; Vogan, Claire L; Rowley, Andrew F

    2015-03-01

    The gills of the European lobster Homarus gammarus (L.) are susceptible to parasitization by the copepod Nicotho astaci, the lobster louse. This copepod feeds on haemolymph of the host and can damage the gills, potentially affecting gaseous exchange capabilities. To investigate the host response to the parasite, haemolymph levels of total protein, haemocyanin, glucose and ammonia were quantified in adult lobsters carrying varying parasite loads. Parasite loads correlated positively with total haemolymph protein and haemocyanin concentrations but not with glucose or ammonia concentrations. The data suggest that lobsters with gills damaged by the feeding activities of N. astaci respond by producing higher levels of haemocyanin, which is both a key defence response and may compensate for their decreased respiratory functioning. PMID:25751860

  2. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DURING AGONISITC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During fighting, American lobsters urinate on each other with antennule flicking highest during this period. Blocking excretion of urine obliterates previously established dominance relationships, suggesting that individual recognition requires a urine signal (Breithaupt et al.,...

  3. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass detection limits of 0.1–0.3 ng L−1. Pesticide levels were often detected in the ng L−1 range in Long Island surface waters and western LIS (except in open waters), but rarely at concentrations found to be toxic in flow-through laboratory exposures, even immediately after spray events.

  4. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  5. Characterization and functional classification of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser

    2014-11-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most important commercially exploited marine species in Canada. Very little is known about the H.americanus molecular humoral immune response or how to determine if a seemingly healthy lobster is infected with a pathogen. The goal of this work is to characterize several important H.americanus immune genes as well as highlight and classify hundreds of others into functional immune groups. The protein sequence of H.americanus acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was found to be similar to that of vertebrate SAA, and is likely a good clinical marker for immune activation in lobsters and some crustaceans. Additionally, only one gene, Trypsin 1b, was found to be differentially regulated during bacterial, microparasitic and viral challenges in lobster and is likely critical for the activation of the H.americanus immune response. Bioinformatic analysis was used to functionally annotate, 263 H.americanus immune genes and identify the few shared patterns of differential gene expression in lobsters in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral challenge. Many of the described immune genes are biomarker candidates which could be used as clinical indicators for lobster health and disease. Biomarkers can facilitate early detection of pathogens, or anthropomorphic stressors, so that mitigation strategies can be developed in order to prevent the devastating economic losses that have occurred in Southern New England, USA. This work is contributes to further our understanding of how the lobster immune system works and how it can be used to maintain the health and sustainability of the overall American lobster fishery. PMID:24981290

  6. Analytical description of lobster eye and similar multi-foil optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tich, Vladimr.; Hudec, Ren; Barbera, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Analytical equations describing lobster eye optical parameters on dependence on its geometric parameters are presented. The paper partially gives review of main previously known results. At next, the paper gives new results discussing parameters, that were not included to previously published models but may be significant. The results are applicable for a Schmidt as well as for an Angel lobster eye and for some related multi-foil systems.

  7. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2013-03-26

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required. PMID:23548364

  8. Evolution of Drosophila on the newer Hawaiian volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Carson, H L

    1982-02-01

    The 20-year odyssey taken by the Hawaiian Drosophila project has recently become focussed on a selected microcosm: this consists of the Island of Hawaii ("the Big Island") and one of its endemic species. Drosophila silvestris. Both the island and the species are considerably less than one million years old. Along with a morphologically distinct, but partially sympatric, close relative, D. heteroneura, silvestris inhabits moderate-altitude rainforests. They are the only members of the planitibia subgroup that occur on this island. The distribution of these species discontinuous due to the dissection of the forests by recent lava flows and to the irregular distribution of their main host plants. Although allozyme heterozygosity within both species is considerable, local populations of both species show high similarity coefficients. The two species are, furthermore, virtually indistinguishable electrophoretically; nevertheless, significant differences in single-copy DNA have been demonstrated. Within silvestris, five inversion polymorphisms are widespread; six others have more restricted distributions. Populations in some of the geologically newer areas are the most polymorphic, both chromosomally and morphologically. Altitudinal clines of gene arrangement frequency are clear in areas on both sides of the island. The same inversions are involved in these clines on the two sides of the island. Males of silvestris from populations from the north and east side of the island ("Hilo-side") display a novel morphological secondary sexual character. This is absent not only from south and west ("Kona-side") silvestris but also from heteroneura and from the three closely related species endemic to older adjacent islands. In view of the phylogenetic novelty of this evolutionary development, Hilo-side silvestris is judged to be derived from Kona-side rather than vice versa. The character in question involves the addition of about 25 large cilia to the dorsal surface of the tibia of the male. This portio of the leg is used in a very specific fashion to stimulate the female's abdomen during the courtship ritual. Studies of sexual behaviour of individuals drawn from various natural and laboratory populations of silvestris and its relatives have been carried out. Hybrid sterility and/or inviability is lacking in crosses both within and between populations of heterneura and silvestra. An interesting regularity has been widely observed; there is a positive correlation between the phylogenetic age of the population and the degree of discrimination by the female sex in mating. When this principle is applied to silvestris populations, the Kona-side populations of Hualalai volcano are judged to be the oldest in the species. As expected, Hilo-side populations with the novel bristle character appear to be newly-derived... PMID:7042651

  9. Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. δ13C and δ15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather δ15N and δ13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in δ15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in δ15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1,000 years. These data offer rare insight into the long-term fluxuations of seabird foraging habits as well as important information for the conservation of Hawaiian petrels and ultimately, the ecosystems they inhabit.

  10. Changes in digestive enzymes through developmental and molt stages in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus.

    PubMed

    Perera, Erick; Moyano, F J; Daz, M; Perdomo-Morales, R; Montero-Alejo, V; Rodriguez-Viera, L; Alonso, E; Carrillo, O; Galich, G S

    2008-11-01

    Changes in major digestive enzymes through developmental and molt stages were studied for the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. There were significant positive relationships between specific activity of trypsin and amylase enzymes and lobster size, whereas esterase and lipase specific activities decreased as lobsters aged. No relationship was found between amylase/trypsin ratio and lobster size. Positive trends were found, however, for trypsin/lipase and amylase/lipase ratios. Results suggest that changes in enzyme activity respond to the lobsters' physiological needs for particular dietary components although multivariate analysis suggested that enzyme activities could be not totally independent of diet. On the other hand, the pattern of changes of major enzyme activities through molt cycle was similar for most enzymes studied. Following molt, trypsin, chymotrypsin, amylase, and lipase activities gradually increased to maximal levels at late intermolt (C4) and premolt (D). There were no variations in the electrophoretic pattern of digestive enzymes through developmental and molt stages and thus, it is demonstrated that regulation is exerted quantitatively rather than qualitatively. Further studies on the effect of other intrinsic and extrinsic factors on digestive enzyme activities are needed to fully understand digestive abilities and regulation mechanisms in spiny lobsters. PMID:18692150

  11. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  12. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Lucas B; Vorsino, Adam E; Amidon, Fred A; Paxton, Eben H; Jacobi, James D

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations. PMID:26509270

  13. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria’s life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations. PMID:26509270

  14. The precursors of governance in the Maine lobster fishery.

    PubMed

    Wilson, James; Yan, Liying; Wilson, Carl

    2007-09-25

    Collective action is more likely to occur and to be effective when it is consistent with the self-interest of the affected individuals. The Maine lobster fishery is an instructive example of biological and technological circumstances combining with individual self-interest to create conditions favorable to collective action. The model describes the way social structure emerges from the adaptive behavior of competing fishers. Fishers compete in two ways: in a scramble to find the lobsters first and by directly interfering in other fishers' ability to compete, i.e., by cutting their traps. Both forms of competition lead fishers to interact frequently and to self-organize into relatively small groups. They learn to restrain their competitive behavior toward their neighbors but do not extend that same restraint to nonneighbors. Groups work within well defined boundaries, contact one another frequently, actively exchange information about the resource, and, most importantly, depend on continuing mutual restraint for their economic well-being. These self-organizing, competitive processes lay the foundation for successful collective action, i.e., mutual agreements that create the additional restraint required for conservation. The modeling approach we use is a combined multiagent and classifier systems simulation. The model allows us to simulate the dynamic adaptation (learning) of multiple individuals interacting in a complex, changing environment and, consequently, provides a way to analyze the fine-scale processes that emerge as the broad social-ecological patterns of the fishery. Patterns generated by the model are compared with patterns observed in a large dataset collected by 44 Maine fishers. PMID:17881579

  15. Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic constraints on the origin of Hawaiian basalts and evidence for a unique mantle source

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stille, P.; Unruh, D.M.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1986-01-01

    Pb, Sr, Nd, and Hf isotopic relationships among basalts from the Hawaiian Islands suggest that these basalts were derived from three sources; the oceanic lithosphere (Kea end member), the depleted asthenosphere (posterosional end member) and a deep-mantle plume (Koolau end member). Hawaiian tholeiites are derived within the lithosphere and the isotopic trends collectively defined by the tholeiite data are interpreted as a plume-lithosphere mixing trend. The isotopic characteristics of late-stage basalts are derived from the tholeiite source (lithosphere + plume) with additional input from the lithosphere, asthenosphere, or both. These basalts probably originate from near the asthenosphere-lithosphere boundary. Posterosional basalts are derived from the depleted asthenosphere, but their isotopic characteristics have been slightly modified by either the plume or the source of previously erupted volcanics. The isotopic data require little or no mixing of asthenospheric material into the plume during tholeiite production and thus are consistent with the concept of a rapidly ascending, fluid-rich plume. In addition to providing a source of heat, the plume may supply volatiles to both the sources of tholeiites and posterosional basalts. The isotopic characteristics of the Koolau (plume) component are unique among OIB sources. If undifferentiated or "primitive" mantle material still exists, then the radiogenic-isotope data for Koolau in combination with rare gas data for Hawaiian basalts in general suggest that the Hawaiian plume may be derived from such material. In any case, the Hawaiian Islands data, when compared to those of other OIB, serve to illustrate the isotopically diverse nature of mantle sources. ?? 1986.

  17. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (North Atlantic). American lobster. [Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, C.; Moring, J.R.

    1985-04-01

    This species profile is a literature summary of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). These species profiles are designed to assist in the preparation of environmental impact assessments. The American lobster is a valuable commercial shellfish. After spawning, lobsters undergo a series of molts; as adults they live in coastal and offshore waters. Lobsters are captured in baited traps and incidentally in trawls. About 5 to 6 million pounds were captured commercially in 1983, a downward trend from 1971. Major environmental factors affecting reproduction, growth, and survival are water temperature, oxygen concentration, salinity, and substrate. 82 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Surveys on the distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Dwyer, J.; Viggiano, A.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    In 1993 the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct wildlife surveys relative to identifying potential impacts of geothermal resource development on the native biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Hawaiian bat), or opeapea (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), within the proposed Hawaii geothermal subzones. Potential effects of geothermal development on Hawaiian bat populations are also discussed. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of bats throughout the District of Puna. Baseline information was collected to evaluate the status of bats within the study area and to identify important foraging habitats. Little specific data exists in the published literature on the population status and potential limiting factors affecting the Hawaiian bat. A USFWS recovery plan does not exist for this endangered species.

  19. Spectral properties of Hawaiian microearthquakes: source, site, and attenuation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    Shear-wave spectra were determined for 397 Hawaiian earthquakes located near Kilauea Caldera, and on its south flank, with moments (M/sub 0/) from 10/sup 17.4/ to 10/sup 20.8/ dyne-cm. An inversion of the spectra averaged the path effects, and separated the source spectra from the effects of site response relative to assumed good stations. Large variations in site response explain the station dependence of corner frequencies and magnitude that were seen in earlier studies. The theoretical spectra for the Brune source model, modified by an assumed spectral decay parameter related to near-surface attenuation, were examined. Previous investigators hypothesized that the south flank of Kilauea is moving away from the rest of the island along the old oceanic sediment layer. The author suggests that this layer is divided into a rupture zone defined by the earthquakes at depths of 9 km, and one or two slide zones that allow sliding but not fracture. The smaller, shallower earthquakes may result from stresses in the block above the rupture zone, caused by motion of the block away from the rest of the island. The author speculates that near the rift zones, the old sedimentary layer has been strengthened and made capable of fracture by intrusion of sills into the sediments, or by thermal or hydrothermal alteration of sediments, or both.

  20. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...