Sample records for hawaiian islands lobster

  1. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline...annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  2. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  3. Predation on Released Spiny Lobster, Panulirus marginatus, During Tests in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Predation on Released Spiny Lobster, Panulirus marginatus, During Tests in the Northwestern Fisheries Center's ABSTRACT-In the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands fishery for spiny lobster, Panulirus marginatus, undersized and ber- ried lobsters must be released. Such lobsters released in the conventional

  4. Evaluation of Rectangular and Circular Escape Vents in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALAN R. EVERSON; ROBERT A. SKILLMAN; JEFFREY J. POLOVINA

    1992-01-01

    Research was conducted in Hawaii during 1984-1 987 to investigate the possibility that escape vents fitted in traps used by the commercial lobster fishery in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands would reduce the catch and mortality of sublegal spiny lobsters Panulim margrnatus (<50 mm tail width) and slipper lobsters Scyllurides spp. (< 56 mm tail width) without significantly reducing legal catch.

  5. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  6. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  7. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  8. Estimates of lobster-handling mortality associated with the Northwestern Hawaiian

    E-print Network

    128 Estimates of lobster-handling mortality associated with the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands lobster-trap fishery Gerard T. DiNardo Edward E. DeMartini Honolulu Laboratory, Southwest Fisheries Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 The commercial lobster fishery in the which are close to the sizes at first ma

  9. Evaluation of ghost fishing in the Hawaiian lobster fishery

    E-print Network

    Evaluation of ghost fishing in the Hawaiian lobster fishery Frank A. Parrish Thomas K. Kazama Honol, Honolulu Hawaii 96822-2396 Abstract.- Mortality due to re- tention of lobsters in derelict traps. Numerous entries and exits of lob- sters were recorded. For the second test, the ability of lobsters

  10. Some preliminary findings on the nutritional status of the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, F.A.; Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the nutritional status of spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) were collected on the commercial trapping grounds of Necker Bank, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, in the summers of 1991, 1994, and 1995. Glycogen levels measured in abdominal tissue of intermolt males were used as an index of nutritional health of the field population. The range of glycogen sampled from wild lobster was less than half the level measured in captive lobster fed to satiation in a previous study. An analysis of covariance identified significant interannual and spatial effects explaining 46% of the variance in the sample of wild lobsters. Most significant was a decline in lobster glycogen levels between samples collected in 1991 and 1994-1995. Seasonal influences on lobster nutrition are unknown and were identified as an obvious direction for future ecological research.

  11. The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery

    E-print Network

    The Lobster and Shrimp Fisheries in Hawaii The Lobster Fishery Introduction The commercial lobster fishery in Hawaii is a trap fishery which harvests several lobster species in the North western Hawaiian, from Nihoa Island to Kure Atoll (Fig. 1). The fishery targets two species: the endemic spiny lobster

  12. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  13. THE STARFISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. By VVALTER K. FISHER,

    E-print Network

    THE STARFISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. By VVALTER K. FISHER, Adi1tg Instructor in Zoology. Leland Stanford JUllior University. 987 #12;CONTENTS Introduction _ _ _ _. _ _ _.. Synopsis of Hawaiian starfishes __ __ _.· __ _.. . .. __ __ _: __ _ . Relationships of the Hawaiian starfish fauna _. __ ._ _'..' _" _ . Species common to the Hawaiian Islands

  14. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

  15. Marine Algae of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ISABELLA A. ABBOTT

    Reexamination of some previous collections of marine algae from the Northwest Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), also known as the Leeward Hawaiian Islands, and the addition of more recent collections have resulted in recognition of 48 taxa of Chlorophyta (green algae), with eight new records for the NWHI; 33 taxa of Phaeophyta (brown algae), with seven new records; and 124 species ofRhodophyta

  16. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  17. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  18. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial harbors are...

  19. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones:...

  20. Reevaluation of the DPS Designation for Hawaiian (now Main Hawaiian Islands)

    E-print Network

    1 Reevaluation of the DPS Designation for Hawaiian (now Main Hawaiian Islands) Insular False Resources Defense Council (NRDC) requesting that the insular population of Hawaiian false killer whales of the insular population of Hawaiian false killer whales to determine if listing under the ESA was warranted

  1. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

  2. THE BRACHYURA AND MACRURA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.

    E-print Network

    THE BRACHYURA AND MACRURA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. By MARY J. RATHBUN. 827 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;sen. U. S. F. C. 1903. NA T1VE HAWAIIAN BOY CATCHIN G CRABS. From p hotogruph lJy u . W. Il cn shuw. PLATE I. #12;THE BRACHYURA AND MACRURA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. By MARY J. RATHBUN. Relatively

  3. THE CEPHALOPODA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS By S. Stillman Berry

    E-print Network

    THE CEPHALOPODA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS J!. By S. Stillman Berry :155 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;TIlE CEPHALOPODA OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. ,;;. By S. STILLMAN BERRY, .:I- INTRODUCTION by the United States Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross during her Hawaiian cruise of 1902. It was found

  4. EFFECTS OF TRAP VENTING ON GEAR SELECTIVITY IN THE INSHORE RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN LOBSTER,

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF TRAP VENTING ON GEAR SELECTIVITY IN THE INSHORE RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS devices in lobster traps has proven effective in allowingthe release of sublegal-sized American lobster Rhode Island lobster fishery. The use ofrectangular vents (42 x 152mm) resulted in a 79% decrease

  5. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND: II. IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN LOBSTERS

    E-print Network

    Allam, Bassem

    INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND: II. IMMUNE PARAMETERS IN LOBSTERS AND RELATIONSHIPS TO THE DISEASE MARGARET HOMERDING,1 ANNE 30313 ABSTRACT Epizootic shell disease (ESD) affects lobsters (Homarus americanus) in eastern Long

  7. Restoring the lobster stock near Rhode Island: the North Cape lobster restoration program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Cooper; M. Clancy

    2005-01-01

    In a winter storm in January 1996, the oil barge North Cape ran aground on Moonstone Beach in Rhode Island, spilling approximately 800,000 gallons of home heating oil into Block Island Sound and onto the shore. It is estimated that 9 million American lobsters from juveniles to adults were killed in the spill, along with several thousand birds, and millions

  8. FALSE KILLER WHALES AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF INTER-ISLAND MOVEMENTS AND

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    FALSE KILLER WHALES AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF INTER-ISLAND MOVEMENTS Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service, 7600 Sand Point Way N.E., Seattle, WA 98115 5 Hawaiian Islands best estimate of population size for false killer whales within Hawaiian waters is only 268 individuals

  9. Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Wave Resources for Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Farms: Siting, Ocean Area Requirements p7 Offshore Wave Power Resources: Update p9 Shallow Water WaveWave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Wave Resources for Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands Table of Contents Summary p2 Background: Wave Power Conversion p

  10. ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

  11. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ethnic group. ... year millions of adults think about and attempt suicide. Raising awareness within racial and ethnic groups can ...

  12. Wave Energy Resources Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    and Barriers p4 Wave Power Resources: Previous Work p5 Wave Farms: Siting, Ocean Area Requirements p7 OffshoreW/m)=f(Hs;Te;) Proprietary kWh Ocean Area not 24/7 Transfer Function #12;Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands. Vega Ph.D October 11, 2010 #12;Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands October 11, 2010 1

  13. MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1

    E-print Network

    MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1 MICHAEL J. FOGARTY? DAVID v. D. BORDEN, 3 AND HOWARD J. RUSSELL' ABSTRACT In 1974 and 1975 a total of3,063 American lobster movement patterns. Lobster movements at inshore locations were generally localized; the mean distance

  14. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation,...

  15. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...alternate only), Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation,...

  16. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine...

  17. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a [[Page...

  18. 33 CFR 165.14-1414 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... false Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. 165.14-1414 Section 165.14-1414 Navigation and...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial harbors are...

  19. Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Shijie

    Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle to volcano loading in the Hawaiian Islands region for the last few million years. By comparing model of seismicity in the Hawaiian Islands region, we have sought to constrain lithospheric rheology. Our

  20. Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands Shuiming Chen1 and Bo Qiu height (SSH) field northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. The annual harmonic amplitudes for the SSH the Hawaiian Islands. The annual SSH signals are then described by using trapped annual waves and a basin

  1. MEDUSiE OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902.

    E-print Network

    MEDUSiE OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902. By ALFRED GOLDSBOROUGI;Blank page retained for pagination #12;MEDUS.;f OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER, Hydrome- dusee, Siphonophorre, and Ctenophores collected by the Albatross while in the Hawaiian Islands

  2. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Class E airspace for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response...above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. This action enhances the safety and...

  3. Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are erosional in the long-term with an average rate of all transects of -0.083 ± 0.012 m/yr and 65% of transects are either significantly erosional or more likely erosional than accretional. Short-term summary results for Kauai are inconclusive, with the average rate of all transects, 0.033 ± 0.023, suggesting short-term accretion, but with more transects (51%) indicating short-term erosion than accretion (36%). Eight percent of the beach on both Kauai and Oahu was lost to erosion in the time-span of available data. Oahu beaches are slightly erosional in the long and short-term with average rates of -0.006 ± 0.005 m/yr and -0.007 ± 0.006 m/yr, respectively, and more transects are erosional than accretional. Maui beaches are the most erosive of the three islands with 11% of beach lost to erosion and over 75% of transects erosional in the long and short-term. The average rates of all transects on Maui beaches are -0.131 ± 0.009 for long-term data and -0.119 ± 0.011 m/yr in the short-term.

  4. Persistent organic pollutants in the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jessica; Boyd, Daryle; Ylitalo, Gina M; Littnan, Charles; Pearce, Ronald

    2012-11-01

    Little is known about levels or effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Hawaiian monk seals (HMS) from the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) subpopulation. This study examined concentrations of a large suite of POPs in blubber and serum of juvenile and adult HMS from the MHI. Adult females have the lowest blubber levels of most POPs, whereas adult males have highest levels. POPs in serum were significantly different in adult males compared with adult females for chlordanes and summed dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Lipid-normalized concentrations of chlordanes, DDTs, polychlorinated biphenyls, and mirex in paired blubber and serum samples were significantly correlated. Contaminant levels from the MHI were at similar or lower levels than those from remote Northwestern Hawaiian Island populations. Determining initial ranges of POPs is an important step towards assessing one of the many potential health threats to this critically endangered species. PMID:22884537

  5. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana M. Percy; Adam M. Garver; Warren L. Wagner; Helen F. James; Clifford W. Cunningham; Scott E. Miller; Robert C. Fleischer

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and

  6. Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR

    E-print Network

    Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea) Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR

  7. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands K forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands, Geophys. Res. Lett., 39] that was once an important resource for ancient Hawaiians [Medeiros, 2003; Medeiros et al., 1998]. A 10 acre

  8. Constraints on the dynamics of mantle plumes from uplift of the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Watts, A. B. "Tony"

    Constraints on the dynamics of mantle plumes from uplift of the Hawaiian Islands Shijie Zhong a; received in revised form 16 July 2002; accepted 16 July 2002 Abstract The V0.2 mm/yr uplift of Hawaiian islands Lanai and Molokai and Hawaiian swell topography pose important constraints on the structure

  9. REPORT ON COLLECTIONS OF FISHES MADE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS . . WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. '

    E-print Network

    REPORT ON COLLECTIONS OF FISHES MADE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS . . WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES of fishes from the Hawaiian Islands is based mainly on a large collection made by me in the summer of 1889 Commission steamer Albatro88 in 1891 at Honolulu, during the Hawaiian cable survey made by that vessel

  10. HYDROIDS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902.

    E-print Network

    HYDROIDS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902. By C. c. NUTTING OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS COLLECTED BY THE STEAMER ALBATROSS IN 1902. By C. C. NUTTING, Professor ofZoology, State University ofIowa. Previous to the Hawaiian cruise of the Albat'ro88 almost nothing was known regarding

  11. he volcanic Hawaiian Islands are the most

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    fin of an adult male short-finned pilot whale, sporting a white scar, probably from a cookie focused on whales and dolphins in Hawaiian waters, but despite being home to more than 15 species of humpback whales return to the waters of Hawai`i to mate and give birth. The large number of humpbacks close

  12. Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Ocean Thermal Resources off and Barriers p5 Ocean Thermal Resource in Hawaii: Introduction p6 Ocean Thermal Resource in Hawaii: Conclusion Cost: Update p16 References p19 Appendix A p20 List of Figures Figure 1 ­ Worldwide average ocean

  13. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (?6.3)?Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  14. PCB and metal concentrations in American lobsters from the Acushnet River estuary and Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.A.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G. (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Milford, CT (United States))

    1994-12-01

    The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is commonly found in coastal waters adjacent to heavily industrialized areas where pollutant input generally occurs. Environmental contamination is known to affect many aspects of lobster biology. Heavy metals, pesticides, pulp mill effluent, petroleum hydrocarbons and other pollutants can adversely affect lobster physiology and behavior. Sublethal concentrations of contaminants can stress lobsters, making them more susceptible to disease or other conditions that would normally be tolerated. Lobster embryos and larvae, particularly the first-stage, are sensitive to a variety of organic and metal pollutants. Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); edible tissues of lobsters collected there have been found to contain PCB concentrations exceeding the FDA action level of 2 [mu]g/g wet wt. PCBs are strongly lipophilic and accumulate in fatty tissues including egg masses. Metals and PCBs are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. This study examines whether field exposure of ovigerous female lobsters to PCBs results in subsequent contamination of embryos, first-stage larvae, postlarvae, and juvenile offspring of [open quotes]berried[close quotes] lobsters from New Bedford Harbor and selected locations in Long Island Sound. Metal contamination in the embryos and offspring of Long Island Sound lobsters was also measured. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  15. Survey for Selected Pathogens and Evaluation of Disease Risk Factors for Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seals in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles L. Littnan; Brent S. Stewart; Pamela K. Yochem; Robert Braun

    2006-01-01

    A recently reestablished and increasing population of Hawaiian monk seals in the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) is encouraging\\u000a for this endangered species. However, seals in the MHI may be exposed to a broad range of human, pet, livestock, and feral\\u000a animal pathogens. Our objective was to determine the movement and foraging habitats of Hawaiian monk seals in the MHI relative

  16. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  17. Geology and Geomorphology of Coral Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Rooney; Pal Wessel; Ronald Hoeke; Jonathan Weiss; Jason Baker; Frank Parrish; Charles H. Fletcher; Joseph Chojnacki; Michael Garcia; Russell Brainard; Peter Vroom

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) comprise a portion of the middle of the 6,126 km long Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain,\\u000a considered to be the longest mountain chain in the world Grigg (1983) (Fig. 13.1). Located in the middle of the North Pacific\\u000a Ocean, the Hawaiian Islands have been referred to as the most geographically isolated archipelago in the world. The islands

  18. Diet of the Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi?) from the Northwestern Hawaiian islands during 1991 to 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Goodman-Lowe

    1998-01-01

    This study provides the first detailed description of the diet of the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi. A total of 940 fecal and regurgitate samples were collected from the beaches of five islands in the Northwestern Hawaiian\\u000a Islands (NWHI) between 1991 and 1994. Some samples were collected from known ages and sexes of seals. Prey were identified\\u000a from all available

  19. THE EFFECTS OF BOTTOM TRAWLING ON AMERICAN LOBSTERS, HOMAR.uS AMERICANUS, IN LONG ISLAND SOUND

    E-print Network

    THE EFFECTS OF BOTTOM TRAWLING ON AMERICAN LOBSTERS, HOMAR.uS AMERICANUS, IN LONG ISLAND SOUND Eme M. SMITH AND PENELOPE T. HOWELL1 ABSTRACT American lobsters taken in the commercial trawl fishery with bottom trawling. Similar sampling was conducted in the pot fishery. American lobsters from trawl and pot

  20. INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND SOUND: I. CHARACTERIZATION OF ASSOCIATED

    E-print Network

    INVESTIGATION OF EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE IN AMERICAN LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) FROM LONG ISLAND ABSTRACT Epizootic shell disease (ESD) is a degradative process of the carapace in the American lobster compositions in diseased shell, healthy shell subsamples from lobsters exhibiting signs of disease

  1. Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment…

  2. Naturally occurring bacteraemia in American lobsters, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, S L; Wooster, G A; Sokolowski, M S; Dove, A D M; Bowser, P R

    2008-01-01

    The health status of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, in Long Island Sound (LIS) has been in decline, with seasonal mortality events occurring since 1998. In order to assess the potential effects of environmental conditions on lobster health via haemolymph analysis, lobsters collected from various sites in LIS were examined and sampled while concurrent environmental data (water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) were recorded. The pH of the haemolymph of each lobster was tested, followed by a collection of haemolymph for serum biochemistry analysis and bacterial culture. This report focuses on the results of the bacterial sampling. The majority of bacteria cultured were opportunistic pathogens commonly found in the environment, including some that are associated with sewage and pollution. The prevalence of bacteraemia was correlated with the site of collection, the month in which the lobsters were sampled, and water temperature. PMID:18086031

  3. Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Matthew; Stewart, Brent S; Yochem, Pamela K; Braun, Robert; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Boyd, Daryle; Antonelis, George A; Atkinson, Shannon; Aguirre, A Alonso; Krahn, Margaret M

    2008-02-01

    We analyzed blubber and blood samples for organochlorines (OCs) from 158 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at four of their six primary breeding colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Levels of OCs in blubber were lower in adult females compared to juveniles or adult males, evidently owing to the transfer of these lipophilic compounds to pups by pregnant and lactating females. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE in blubber generally increased with age until seals were sexually mature and then continued to increase with age in males after puberty. Average levels of PCBs and PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blubber were significantly higher in adult male and juvenile seals at Midway Atoll than the same age class of seals at the other colonies. Unlike concentrations of OCs in blubber, circulating levels of OCs in blood did not vary consistently among age classes of seals or among breeding colonies. Though the concentrations of OCs measured in Hawaiian monk seals were generally equal to or lower than those reported for other pinniped species in the North Pacific Ocean, they were high enough in a few seals to potentially affect their health. PMID:18031765

  4. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    E-print Network

    Ito, Garrett

    Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai January 2010; accepted 16 March 2010; published 31 August 2010. [1] New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua

  5. Evidence of a Possible Decline since 1989 in False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around the Main Hawaiian Islands1

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    the Main Hawaiian Islands1 Randall R. Reeves,2 Stephen Leatherwood,3 and Robin W. Baird4,5 Abstract: Recent killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around the main Hawaiian Islands. Although it is known that false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands. The false killer whale was the third most commonly seen

  6. Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  7. Idiopathic lesions and visual deficits in the american lobster (Homarus americanus) from Long Island Sound, NY.

    PubMed

    Magel, Christopher R; Shields, Jeffrey D; Brill, Richard W

    2009-08-01

    In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred in western Long Island Sound (WLIS). Although the etiology of this event remains unknown, bottom water temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS continue to display signs of morbidity, including lethargy and cloudy grey eyes that contain idiopathic lesions. As the effect of these lesions on lobster vision is unknown, we used electroretinography (ERG) to document changes in visual function in lobsters from WLIS, while using histology to quantify the extent of physical damage. Seventy-three percent of lobsters from WLIS showed damage to photoreceptors and optic nerve fibers, including necrosis, cellular breakdown, and hemocyte infiltration in the optic nerves, rhabdoms, and ommatidia. Animals with more than 15% of their photoreceptors exhibiting damage also displayed markedly reduced responses to 10-ms flashes of a broad-spectrum white light. Specifically, maximum voltage (Vmax) responses were significantly lower and occurred at a lower light intensity compared to responses from lobsters lacking idiopathic lesions. Nearly a decade after the 1999 mortality event, lobsters from WLIS still appear to be subjected to a stressor of unknown etiology that causes significant functional damage to the eyes. PMID:19679726

  8. Surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kwok Fai; Bai, Yefei; Yamazaki, Yoshiki

    2013-10-01

    The 2011 Tohoku tsunami devastated the northeastern Japan coasts and caused localized damage to coastal infrastructure across the Pacific. The tsunami resulted in strong currents around the Hawaiian Islands that led to closure of harbors and marinas for up to 38 h after its arrival. We utilize a nonhydrostatic model to reconstruct the tsunami event from the seismic source for elucidation of the physical processes and inference of the coastal hazards. A number of tide gauges, bottom pressure sensors, and ADCPs provided point measurements for validation and assessment of the model results in Hawaii. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation and current reveals complex flow patterns due to multiscale resonance. Standing waves with 33-75 min period develop along the island chains, while oscillations of 27 min or shorter are primarily confined to an island or an island group with interconnected shelves. Standing edge waves with periods 16 min or shorter, which are able to form nodes on the reefs and inside harbors, are the main driving force of the observed coastal currents. Resonance and constructive interference of the oscillation modes provide an explanation of the impacts observed in Hawaii with implications for emergency management in Pacific island communities.

  9. Far-Reaching Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-Ping Xie; W. Timothy Liu; Qinyu Liu; Masami Nonaka

    2001-01-01

    Ocean islands modify surface winds on the leeside. Such an island wakegenerally dissipates quickly and lasts only a few hundred kilometers downwind. Using new satellite data, we detect a wake trailing behind the Hawaiian Islands for 3000 km, a length many times greater than observed anywhere else on Earth. The Islands' influence is not limited to the wind velocity field

  10. New Species of Endemic Kleptoparasitic Spiders of the Genus Argyrodes (Araneae: Theridiidae) in the Hawaiian Islands1

    E-print Network

    Gillespie, Rosemary

    ) in the Hawaiian Islands1 Malia Rivera2 and Rosemary G. Gillespie3 Abstract: This study examined the endemic species of kleptoparasitic spiders in the genus Argyrodes from the Hawaiian Islands, a lineage previously on the sheet webs of large nocturnal spiders in the genus Orson- welles (Linyphiidae). Hawaiian Argyrodes

  11. Tetraplasandra lydgatei (Araliaceae): Taxonomic Recognition of a Rare, Endemic Species from O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands1

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Kent E.

    `ahu, Hawaiian Islands1 Timothy J. Motley2 Abstract: Tetraplasandra is a genus of seven species endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago. Recent field studies in the Ko`olau Mountains on the island of O`ahu have led of the dry and mesic Hawaiian forests for housing and agriculture and also that the species was always only

  12. The Origin of Rejuvenated Magmatism on the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

    2013-12-01

    Rejuvenated volcanism on the Hawaiian islands has long been known for its enigmatic geochemical features, and both the geochemistry and geodynamics of "rejuvenation" are subject of debate. In particular, the consistently depleted nature of its isotopic compositions (unradiogenic Sr and radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes relative to shield and post-shield lavas) is seemingly at odds with high concentrations of incompatible and volatile elements. Also, the isotopic distinctions between the shield basalts of the two parallel lines of Hawaiian volcanoes are lost during rejuvenated stages. Some earlier attempts to explain these phenomena invoked melting of local oceanic lithosphere heated by the Hawaiian plume, but the isotopic compositions, though depleted, are systematically different from Pacific upper mantle. More recent explanations invoked renewed melting of plume material that had previously produced shield-type tholeiitic magmas from its more fertile components. The renewed melting would involve the more refractory portions of the source rock that had escaped the earlier melting. But such models fail to explain why the volatile budget survived the earlier melting history. Another recent explanation invoked melting of the outer sheath of the plume consisting of mantle material entrained by the plume during its ascent. However, such entrained material lacks the excess temperature needed to undergo any melting at all. Our numerical simulations show that, 200 to 400 km downstream from the locus of shield volcanism, previously unmelted material rises slowly in the deep 'underbelly' of the plume, crosses the solidus at ~ 5GPa, and generates rejuvenated magmas. This material is ultimately derived from the upper portion of the thermal boundary layer from which the plume originates. It consists of 'ordinary', depleted mantle, it has not lost its volatiles, and it is hot enough to undergo low degrees of melting. This model can therefore resolve several unexplained features of rejuvenated volcanism.

  13. SPATIOTEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF LOBSTER TRAP CATCHES: IMPACTS OF TRAP FISHING ON COMMUNITY STRUCTURE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT B. MOFFITT; JAMI JOHNSON; GERARD DINARDO

    Commercial and research lobster trapping, targeting two species of lobster (Panulirus marginatus and Scyllarides squammosus), began in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the mid 1970s. Commercial fishing effort peaked in 1986 at 1.3 million trap hauls. A corresponding site-specific, depth-stratified research-monitoring program began in 1??? with two sites, Necker Island and Maro Reef, visited annually. Two types of traps were

  14. Pulling back the curtain : revealing the production of performance in the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Stephanie (Stephine I.)

    2008-01-01

    Harbors throughout the Hawaiian Islands serve as the dating a growing commercial cruise ship industry, foreign activity. They are also increasingly sites of controversy structures restrict local access and use of harbor ...

  15. An Ecological Perspective on Inshore Fisheries in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Geography and Fishing Pressure The volcanic peaks and platforms that make up the Hawaiian Islands rise from in wind ward and leeward climate. Expansive coastal development, increased erosion, and sedimentation

  16. Sightings of Dwarf (Kogia sima) and Pygmy (K. breviceps) Sperm Whales from the Main Hawaiian Islands1

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    461 Sightings of Dwarf (Kogia sima) and Pygmy (K. breviceps) Sperm Whales from the Main Hawaiian in Hawaiian waters have only rarely been reported. As part of boat-based sur- veys of odontocete cetaceans around the main Hawaiian Islands between 2000 and 2003, Kogia were observed on 18 occasions. Kogia were

  17. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

  18. Variability and predictability of sea-level extremes in the Hawaiian and U.S.-Trust Islands--a knowledge base

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Variability and predictability of sea-level extremes in the Hawaiian and U.S.-Trust Islands and the U.S-Trust islands. Observations revealed that the Hawaiian and U.S.- Trust islands, by and large of extremes (20- to 100-year return periods), the deviations in most of the Hawaiian Islands (except

  19. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The ‘tree lobsters’ are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4?kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the ‘tree lobster’ body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22?Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  20. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, D.; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  1. Hawaiian Islands Captured by Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. A 200-ft long (60 meter) mast supporting the SRTM jutted into space from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth, the giant structure was deployed on February 12, 2000 and the C-band and X-band anternae mounted on it quickly went to work mapping parts of the Earth. The SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, and obtained 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs. This image is an example of the data required by the SRTM. This is a view of the three Hawaiian Islands; Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, ranging from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 5900 feet (1800 meters) of total relief. SRTM will help local officials to better understand and prepare for volcanic, tidal wave, and earthquake activities.

  2. Estimation of Main Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish CPUE using the Delta Method

    E-print Network

    Estimation of Main Hawaiian Islands Bottomfish CPUE using the Delta Method and HDAR Catch Data the Delta Method and HDAR Catch Data for 1948­2010 Kevin Piner and Hui-Hua Lee NOAA Pacific Islands the delta approach where one model is used to estimate the proportion of positive catches and a separate

  3. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  4. A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy…

  5. Baird et al. 2008 false killer whale movements Movements of satellite-tagged false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    around the main Hawaiian Islands Robin W. Baird1 , Gregory S. Schorr1 , Daniel L. Webster2 , Daniel J. Mc remotely deployed on 11 false killer whales in Hawaiian waters in 2007 and 2008, 10 on individuals from of the islands. One insular individual moved extensively, ranging among the main Hawaiian Islands as far as Kaua

  6. Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial. PMID:11076241

  7. Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

  8. Hull fouling of maritime vessels as a pathway for marine species invasions to the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Godwin, L Scott

    2003-04-01

    The natural barriers to species invasions that exist in isolated marine environments such as Hawaii are overcome by anthropogenic influences on the dispersal patterns of marine organisms. This creates a situation where the marine habitats of the Hawaiian Archipelago are more readily exposed to marine non-indigenous species. A case study of a particular anthropogenic dispersal mode, maritime vessel hull fouling, is reviewed. This mode has effects on altered environments, such as harbors, as well as unaltered coastal habitats. Hull fouling of commercial maritime vessels is documented as a transport vector, and an inter-island dispersal mechanism for marine non-indigenous species to the main Hawaiian Islands. PMID:14618713

  9. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Wang, Zhihong; Littnan, Charles; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are potent algal neurotoxins that concentrate in fish preyed upon by the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). The only report for Hawaiian monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins occurred during a 1978 mortality event when two seal liver extracts tested positive by mouse bioassay. Ciguatoxins were thus proposed as a potential threat to the Hawaiian monk seal population. To reinvestigate monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins we utilized more selective detection methods, the Neuro-2A cytotoxicity assay, to quantify ciguatoxin activity and an analytical method LC-MS/MS to confirm the molecular structure. Tissue analysis from dead stranded animals revealed ciguatoxin activity in brain, liver, and muscle, whereas analysis of blood samples from 55 free-ranging animals revealed detectable levels of ciguatoxin activity (0.43 to 5.49 pg/mL P-CTX-1 equiv) in 19% of the animals. Bioassay-guided LC fractionation of two monk seal liver extracts identified several ciguatoxin-like peaks of activity including a peak corresponding to the P-CTX-3C which was confirmed present by LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this work provides first confirmation that Hawaiian monk seals are exposed to significant levels of ciguatoxins and first evidence of transfer of ciguatoxin to marine mammals. This threat could pose management challenges for this endangered marine mammal species. PMID:21591690

  10. A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

  11. Seismicity around the Hawaiian Islands Recorded by the PLUME Seismometer Networks: Insight into Faulting near

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Cecily J.

    Seismicity around the Hawaiian Islands Recorded by the PLUME Seismometer Networks: Insight of ocean-bottom seismometers (OBSs) as part of the Plume- Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment (PLUME after 1903. A seismometer was installed at the Honolulu Magnetic Obser- vatory in 1903, and the first

  12. THE IMPACTS OF BOTTOMFISHING ON RAITA AND WEST ST. ROGATIEN BANKS IN THE NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTOPHER KELLEY; WALTER IKEHARA

    The authors assessed the impacts of bottomfishing in the Raita and West St. Rogatien Bank Reserve Preservation Areas (RPAs) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve (NWHICRER). The executive order creating NWHICRER stipulates that bottomfishing will be allowed in these RP As only if it is determined not to be having an adverse impact on their resources. In

  13. AGE AND GROWTH OF THE NEHU, STOLEPHORUS PURPUREUS (PISCES: ENGRAULIDAE), FROM THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AS

    E-print Network

    standard length. Preliminary evidence is presented that the nehu population ofPearl Harbor may grow more with three types of gear in Pearl Harbor and the southeastern end of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands (square mesh measuring 3.2 mm to a bar) in Pearl Harbor. Postlarvae (about ~ 20 mm SL

  14. Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    , invasive species, Hawaiian Islands Introduction: Escape from antagonistic interactions is the classic model for invasion success and underlies modern attempts at biological control. However, the potential role invasive species have been characterized as an invasional meltdown, and could lead to detrimental effects

  15. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  16. The ecological distribution of C 4 and C 3 grasses in the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip W. Rundel

    1980-01-01

    Nearly two-thirds of both the native and exotic grasses of the Hawaiian Islands are C4 species. Elevational gradients on the island of Hawaii demonstrate that C4 taxa dominate both species composition and coverage of grasses up to 1,000 m, while C3 taxa predominate above 1,400 m. The elevational transition of dominance between the two metabolic systems is much sharper on

  17. Changing sources of base cations during ecosystem development, Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Derry, Louis A.

    ; Graustein and Armstrong, 1983), the lithospheric sources include P, K, Ca, and Mg Hawaiian chronosequence evaluation of the paradigm are suggested by (1) studies identifying developmental shift from weathering in mineral-acid impacted soils (Likens et al., 1996; Sr ISOTOPES AS TRACERS IN Schultze, 1989); and (3) Sr

  18. removing marine debris in the northwestern hawaiian islands2012

    E-print Network

    , such as the green sea turtle, listed as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act, and Hawaiian monkseal monk seal, green sea turtle, and humpback whale, which is listed as endangered under the U,whichislistedascriticallyendangered under the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List and as endangered under the U

  19. Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities: the PILI 'Ohana Project.

    PubMed

    Kaholokula, J K; Wilson, R E; Townsend, C K M; Zhang, G X; Chen, J; Yoshimura, S R; Dillard, A; Yokota, J W; Palakiko, D M; Gamiao, S; Hughes, C K; Kekauoha, B K; Mau, M K

    2014-06-01

    Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders experience a high prevalence of overweight/obesity. The Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention (DPP-LI) was translated into a 3-month community-based intervention to benefit these populations. The weight loss and other clinical and behavioral outcomes of the translated DPP-LI and the socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors associated with the weight loss were examined. A total of 239 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults completed the translated DPP-LI through four community-based organizations (CBOs). Changes from pre- to post-intervention assessments in weight, blood pressure, physical functioning, exercise frequency, and fat in diet were measured. Significant improvements on all variables were found, with differences observed across the four CBOs. CBOs with predominately Native Hawaiian and ethnically homogenous intervention groups had greater weight loss. General linear modeling indicated that larger baseline weight and CBO predicted weight loss. The translated DPP-LI can be effective for Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, especially when socio-cultural, socio-economic, and CBO-related contextual factors are taken into account. PMID:24904698

  20. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  1. Distribution and Abundance of the Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, on the Island of Hawai'i 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID S. JACOBS

    The endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (H. Allen), has an island-wide distribution on the island of Hawai'i. However, abundance estimates suggest that its endangered status is appropriate. Although distributed across wide ranges in elevation, temperature, and rainfall, this bat is most often associated with native vegetation. Its diurnal and seasonal activity patterns argue against migration within the island

  2. Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, K.; Royden, L.; Perron, J.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ocean islands offer numerous advantages as natural experiments in landscape evolution, including homogeneous bedrock, dramatic climate gradients, and an initial surface that can often be reconstructed and dated. Uplift and subsidence set the time-dependent base level and elevations that strongly influence an island's evolution, yet the vertical motion history from an ocean island's construction to its eventual submergence below sea level is not well understood. Volcanic ocean islands may uplift or subside due to flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to volcanic loading and island migration over bathymetric swells associated with hotspots. With an abundance of dated paleoshoreline markers, the Hawaiian Islands provide a unique opportunity to compare observations of island uplift and subsidence to various models of lithospheric deformation. We calculated 444 rates of island vertical motion, averaged over 50 years to 5 Myr, from drowned and emerged corals, subaerially erupted basalt, and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. To compare these observations to theoretical predictions for migration over hotspot topography, we filtered Hawaiian bathymetry to isolate the regional swell component and tracked its elevation change between the present and paleo locations of the rate observations, assuming constant plate velocity. For volcanic loading, we determined the deflection resulting from individual volcanoes by modeling the lithosphere as a thin elastic plate. We used radiometric basalt ages to calculate vertical motion rates averaged over discrete volcanic loading events. More than 60% of the rate observations averaged over >100 kyr lie within uncertainty of modeled rates of vertical motion for volcanic loading calculated using an effective elastic thicknesses of the lithosphere Te within the range of previously determined Te for Hawai'i. Migration over swell topography has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Accounting for migration over swell topography, we find that the best-fit Te to the rate observations is consistent with Te estimates from seismic refraction and gravity anomaly data. Our comparisons suggest that the Hawaiian Islands follow a relatively predictable trajectory of vertical motion that could be incorporated into landscape evolution models.

  3. Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha Sponsored by the University of Hawai`i, GEAR UP Hawai`i, Office of Hawaiian Affairs, Pacific Financial Aid Association & Native Hawaiian Education Association Hawaiians including eligibility criteria and qualification requirements. Hawai`i Island Waimea @ Hawaiian

  4. Promising practices to eliminate tobacco disparities among Asian American, native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities.

    PubMed

    Lew, Rod; Chen, W William

    2013-09-01

    Tobacco use continues to be the single most preventable cause of death for all groups in the United States, including Asian Americans (AAs) and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs). Despite efforts in tobacco control over the past two decades, tobacco-related health disparities remain in some priority population groups, including AAs and NHPIs. This special supplement features strategies and promising practices for addressing the critical problem of tobacco in the AA and NHPI communities. PMID:23950540

  5. Habitat and reef-fish assemblages of banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Parrish; Raymond C. Boland

    2004-01-01

    The moderately deep terraces and banks of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) were surveyed to describe their habitat and reef-fish assemblages. These tracts of bottom at 30–40 m comprise more than 4,500 km 2of the region’s reef area. The habitat was found to be dominated by algal meadows (65% cover of exposed bottom), with infrequent relief features. Annual monitoring of select stations

  6. Invasive slugs as under-appreciated obstacles to rare plant restoration: evidence from the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Joe; Curtis C. Daehler

    2008-01-01

    Introduced slugs have invaded many parts of the world where they were recognized as important pests of gardens and agriculture,\\u000a but we know little about the effects of introduced slugs on rare plants in natural areas. The Hawaiian Islands have no native\\u000a slugs, but over a dozen introduced slug species are now established. We reviewed Rare Plant Recovery Plans produced

  7. Hawaii's real life marine park: interpretation and impacts of commercial marine tourism in the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlie S. Wiener; Mark D. Needham; Paul F. Wilkinson

    2009-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are a popular tourism destination for over seven million travelers annually. Commercial marine tourism in Hawai‘i (e.g., snorkel and dive trips, wild dolphin swims, whale watching) is a multi-million dollar industry attracting visitors from around the world. By using proper interpretation, these operators may reduce some impacts on the marine environment. This article examines marine tour excursion

  8. Covariation of climate and long-term erosion rates across a1 steep rainfall gradient on the Hawaiian island of Kaua`i2

    E-print Network

    Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

    on the Hawaiian island of Kaua`i2 3 Ken L. Ferrier1 , J. Taylor Perron1 , Sujoy Mukhopadhyay2 , Matt Rosener3 ,4-year timescales on the Hawaiian island of Kaua`i, across which mean20 annual precipitation ranges from 0.5 to 9 INTRODUCTION34 A glance at a topographic map of the Hawaiian Islands makes it clear that a great35 deal of rock

  9. Leptospira Infection Prevalence in Small Mammal Host Populations on Three Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Mayee; Katz, Alan R.; Li, Dongmei; Wilcox, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the geographic distribution and variation in host-pathogen specificity for Leptospira-infected small mammals collected concurrently from three Hawaiian Islands over a period of 14 years: 1990–2003. Four serogroups (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis) were identified from the 15,171 animals tested. Serogroup prevalence differed across host species and islands (P < 0.0001 for each), but not across years. The host associations and biogeographic patterns of Leptospira in Hawaii indicate a pathogen community shaped by ecological factors. PMID:22855767

  10. Idiopathic Lesions and Visual Deficits in the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) From Long Island

    E-print Network

    Idiopathic Lesions and Visual Deficits in the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) From Long, Massachusetts Abstract. In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS

  11. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  12. A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982-1998.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J R

    2001-07-01

    Entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, were documented in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from 1982 to 1998, and debris which presented a threat of entanglement was inventoried and removed from 1987 to 1996. A total of 173 entanglements was documented. The number of entanglements did not change after implementation of MARPOL Annex V in 1989. Pups and juvenile seals were more likely to become entangled than older seals, and became entangled primarily in nets, whereas entanglement of subadults and adults was more likely to involve line. The subpopulation of seals at Lisianski Island experienced the most entanglements, although Lisianski did not accumulate the most debris. Localized high entanglement rates may gravely affect individual monk seal subpopulations. Accumulation of debris has not diminished since implementation of Annex V, nor has occurrence of derelict drift nets abated since a 1989 moratorium. Debris washing ashore has likely been circulating in the North Pacific Ocean for some time. PMID:11488238

  13. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

  14. Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Naturalists in the 1800s described the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ?I?iwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ?I?iwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawai?i, east Maui, and Kaua?i, with a few birds apparently persisting on O?ahu, Moloka?i, and west Maui. ?I?iwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ?I?iwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ?I?iwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ?I?iwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawai?i, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kaua?i. ?I?iwi population trends vary across the islands. ?I?iwi population in Kaua?i has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawai?i, population trends are mixed. On the windward side, populations are largely declining, although the northern section (Hakalau Forest) has stable populations. On the leeward side, results suggest a strongly increasing population, with estimates of as much as a 147 percent increase over a 25 year period from the Pu?u Wa?awa?a region. However, it is unclear how much these results from the leeward side of Hawai?i show a population trend contrary to population trends in all other areas or are an artifact of a sparsely sampled area. Trends by elevation suggest a large decrease in numbers of ?I?iwi at elevations below 1,200 meters on Kaua?i and northeast Maui. Low elevation ?I?iwi populations also appear to have decreased in other regions, although low-elevation areas are not surveyed as often as other areas because of their lack of native forest birds. An exception to this pattern was the lower portions of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Kona Unit in the central leeward part of the island of Hawai?i, where populations appeared stable at the lower elevations. Based on the most recent surveys (up to 2012), approximately 50 percent of ?I?iwi live in a narrow, 500-meter band at elevations of 1,200–1,700 meters, suggesting that ?I?iwi are vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

  15. On the possibility of a ridge current along the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, James Michael; Van Woert, Michael L.; Vitousek, Martin

    1994-01-01

    Four evenly spaced aircraft-deployed expendable bathythermograph and concurrent satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) surveys were made over an extended areas during a 1-year period to observe possible ridge currents along the Hawaiian Islands predicted or hypothesized by other investigators. None of the surveys found extended currents running along the ridge. Instead, fields of energetic eddies were found, and a curious cusp-shaped sea surface temperature pattern was observed in two of the AVHRR fields. Apparent cyclonic currents around the island of Hawaii were also observed. We conclude that either ridge currents do not exist or that they exist but are intermittent (episodic) in nature or exist in a form more complicated than could be observed by this study.

  16. Atlas of the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By the Remote Sensing Team (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), these detailed maps released in February 2003 focus on the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This part of the island chain extends across over 2200 kilometers of open ocean, and the total shallow water area of the ten atolls encompasses over 8000 square kilometers. Most of the information for these maps was obtained through the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, along with field data collected during 2001. For each of the ten atolls covered in this project, visitors can read a brief description and history, along with viewing maps generated from the satellite images and the habitat cover of each particular atoll. Those seeking to learn more about the map development process will be pleased to find a document on this subject, and a description of the classification scheme used in the maps.

  17. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  18. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  19. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  20. Geographical Maldistribution of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Physicians in Hawai‘i

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Rachel Y; Greidanus, Benjamin D; Macdonald, Pippa R; Racsa, C Philip; Shibuya, Kyle T; Tavares, Tanya PM; Yamada, Seiji

    2012-01-01

    Background Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) have high prevalence of overweight status, obesity, and hypertension, as well as high rates of asthma and cancer mortality. Some barriers to health care delivery for this population are a physician shortage in Hawai‘i and a geographical maldistribution of actively practicing physicians. This study examines the distribution of NHOPI physicians compared to the NHOPI population in Hawai‘i through Geographical Information System choropleth mapping. Methods The maps and results were gathered and constructed from Census Tract data from the US Department of Commerce, the Census Bureau, the Physician Workforce Assessment, and the ‘Ahahui o n? Kauka reports. Results With the exception of East Honolulu, all areas of Hawai‘i show drastic disparities in the ratio of NHOPI physicians to NHOPI populations as compared to the ratio of total physicians to the total population. Discussion Given the NHOPI physician shortage and their geographical maldistribution, this study underscores the importance of increasing the number of NHOPI medical school applicants, graduates, residents, and physicians in permanent active practices in rural areas and the neighbor islands. Current institutional and academic programs, such as the John A. Burns School of Medicine, Imi Ho‘ola, and the Native Hawaiian Center of Excellence, are contributing to resolving some of the health disparities and should consider expanding their efforts. PMID:22737637

  1. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M., III; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing invasive species, and planning of conservation efforts.

  2. A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

  3. A Challenge to Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Scholars: What the Research Literature Teaches Us about Our Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, Maenette K. P.

    2006-01-01

    What do we currently know, in light of conceptual, empirical, and applied studies, about the status of educational research on Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders? And why is this knowing important? This article proposes that illuminating the themes of what has already been examined might help policymakers, researchers, educational leaders and…

  4. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  5. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  6. Mantle Anisotropy Beneath the Hawaiian Islands from Measurements... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 5/18/09 5:27 PM

    E-print Network

    Laske, Gabi

    Mantle Anisotropy Beneath the Hawaiian Islands from Measurements... http://www21A-1727 TI: Mantle Anisotropy Beneath the Hawaiian Islands from Measurements of Shear-wave Splitting States AB: The fieldwork component of the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment

  7. Estimated prevalence of Aerococcus viridans and Anophryoides haemophila in American lobsters Homarus americanus freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, J; Hammell, K L; Spangler, E S; Cawthorn, R J

    2001-10-01

    The Canadian lobster industry holds lobsters Homarus americanus in captivity for various periods to supply markets with live product year-round. Mortality during holding results in considerable losses, estimated at 10 to 15 % yr(-1) by the industry. This study examined the prevalence of Anophryoides haemophila and Aerococcus viridans, causative agents of 'bumper car' disease and gaffkemia, respectively, in lobsters freshly captured in the waters of Prince Edward Island during the spring and fall fishing seasons of 1997. A total of 116 lobsters were sampled in the spring, and 138 in the fall. A. haemophila was not detected in the spring, while the prevalence was 0.72 % in the fall with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.02 to 3.97% and an overall prevalence of 0.39% (95% CI: 0.01 to 2.17%). The prevalence of A. viridans was estimated at 6.9% (95% CI: 3.0 to 13.14%) in the spring, 5.8% in the fall (95% CI: 2.54 to 11.10%), and 6.30% overall (95% CI: 3.64 to 10.03%). Because of the reduced interest in food of diseased lobsters, and compromised metabolism in the case of gaffkemia, these prevalence estimates are likely underestimates of the true prevalence of gaffkemia and 'bumper car' disease in the wild populations of lobster around Prince Edward Island. PMID:11710558

  8. Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Holcomb, R.T.; Sinton, J.M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

  9. Maximizing Multi-core Performance of the Weather Research and Forecast Model over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, K.; Stevens, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Hawaiian Islands consist of dramatic terrain changes over short distances, resulting in a variety of microclimates in close proximity. To handle these challenging conditions, weather models must be run at very fine vertical and horizontal resolutions to produce accurate forecasts. Computational demands require WRF to be executed in parallel on the Maui High Performance Computing Center’s Mana system, a PowerEdge M610 Linux cluster. This machine has 1,152 compute nodes, each with two 2.8 GHz quad-core Intel® Nehalem processors and 24 GB RAM. Realizing maximum performance on Mana relied on the determination of an optimal number of cores to use per socket, the efficiency of an MPI only implementation, an optimal set of parameters for adaptive time stepping, a way to meet the strict stability requirements necessary for Hawaii, effective choices for processor and memory affinity, and parallel automation techniques for producing forecast imagery.

  10. Health Behaviors of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Moy, Karen L.; Sallis, James F.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Ice, Christa L.; McEligot, Archana J.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking, diet and physical activity are associated with chronic diseases, but representative prevalence data on these behaviors for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) adults are scarce. Data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed for self-identified NHPI and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults. Ethnic and NHPI gender differences were examined for socio-demographic variables, obesity and health behaviors. Compared to NHW, NHPI displayed higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.001), smoking (p<0.05) and consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages (p<0.05). NHPI males were more likely than females to smoke (p<0.001). NHPI adults appear to be at higher risk for chronic disease than NHW due to obesity, smoking and intake of unhealthy foods and beverages. Culturally-specific health promotion interventions are needed to reduce risks among the underrepresented NHPI population. PMID:22426559

  11. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  12. Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the vertical structure of low-level clouds from CALIPSO lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Wu; Xie, Shang-Ping; Zhang, Su-Ping

    2015-01-01

    steady northeast trade winds impinge on the Hawaiian Islands, producing prominent island wakes of multispatial scales from tens to thousands of kilometers. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) reveal rich three-dimensional structures of low-level clouds that are induced by the islands, distinct from the background environment. The cloud frequency peaks between 1.5 and 2.0 km in cloud top elevation over the windward slopes of the islands of Kauai and Oahu due to orographic lifting and daytime island heating. In the nighttime near-island wake of Kauai, CALIPSO captures a striking cloud hole below 1.6 km as the cold advection from the island suppresses low-level clouds. The cyclonic eddy of the mechanical wake behind the island of Hawaii favors the formation of low-level clouds (below 2.5 km), and the anticyclonic eddy suppresses the low-level cloud formation, indicative of the dynamical effect on the vertical structure of low-level clouds. In the long Hawaiian wake due to air-sea interaction, low-level clouds form over both the warmer and colder waters, but the cloud tops are 400-600 m higher over the warm than the cold waters. In addition, the day-night differences and the sensitivity of low-level clouds to the background trade wind inversion height are also studied.

  13. Drowned reefs and antecedent karst topography, Au'au channel, S.E. Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grigg, R.W.; Grossman, E.E.; Earle, S.A.; Gittings, S.R.; Lott, D.; McDonough, J.

    2002-01-01

    During the last glacial maximum (LGM), about 21,000 years ago, the Hawaiian Islands of Maui, Lanai, and Molokai were interconnected by limestone bridges, creating a super-island known as Maui-Nui. Approximately 120 m of sea-level rise during the Holocene Transgression flooded, and then drowned, these bridges separating the islands by inter-island channels. A new multibeam high-resolution bathymetric survey of the channels between the islands, coupled with observations and video-transects utilizing DeepWorker-2000 submersibles, has revealed the existence of numerous drowned reef features including concentric solution basins, solution ridges (rims), sand and sediment plains, and conical-shaped reef pinnacles. The concentric basins contain flat lagoon-like bottoms that are rimmed by steep-sided limestone walls. Undercut notches rim the basins at several depths, marking either sea-level still stands or paleo-lake levels. All of the solution basins shallower than 120 m were subaerial at the LGM, and at one stage or another may have been shallow shoreline lakes. Today, about 70 drowned reef pinnacles are scattered across the Maui-Lanai underwater bridge and all are situated in wave-sheltered positions. Most drowned during the interval between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago when sea-level rise averaged 15 mm/year. Virtually all of the surficial topography in the Au'au Channel today is a product of karst processes accentuated by marginal reef growth during the Holocene. Both the submerged basins and the drowned reefs represent an archive of sea-level and climate history in Hawaii during the late Quaternary.

  14. Encounters of Hawaiian Monk Seals With Fishing Gear at Lisianski Island, 1982

    E-print Network

    and figures. 46(3) ner and McCann, 1982). Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, are also known, and K. W. Kenyon. 1978. Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandl) survey of the Northwestern (Leeward

  15. Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

    1994-12-31

    Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

  16. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian island of Niihau during its first test f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian island of Niihau during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  17. The Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua during its f

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The solar-electric Helios Prototype flying wing is shown near the Hawaiian islands of Niihau and Lehua during its first test flight on solar power from the U.S. Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility on Kauai, Hawaii, July 14, 2001. The 18-hour flight was a functional checkout of the aircraft's systems and performance in preparation for an attempt to reach sustained flight at 100,000 feet altitude later this summer.

  18. Transient hydrogeologic models for submarine flow in volcanic seamounts: 2. Comparison of the Hawaiian, Canary, and Marquesas Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Christiansen; G. Garven

    2004-01-01

    Large bathymetric gradients associated with volcanic seamounts can drive convective flow, while thick sedimentary aprons that typically surround volcanic edifices host compaction-driven flow. In these submarine environments the interactions of compaction-driven and buoyancy-driven fluid flow lead to complex hydrogeologic regimes. We apply transient numerical models of coupled fluid flow and heat transport to the Hawaiian, Canary, and Marquesas Islands to

  19. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (°C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for spec

  20. Cancer research in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander populations: accelerating cancer knowledge by acknowledging and leveraging heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Glaser, Sally L; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Cheng, Iona; Quach, Thu; Clarke, Christina A; Reynolds, Peggy; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Lee, Marion M; Satariano, William A; Hsing, Ann W

    2014-11-01

    The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population is large, growing, and extremely heterogeneous. Not only do they bear unique burdens of incidence and outcomes for certain cancer types, they exhibit substantial variability in cancer incidence and survival patterns across the ethnic groups. By acknowledging and leveraging this heterogeneity through investing in cancer research within these populations, we have a unique opportunity to accelerate the availability of useful and impactful cancer knowledge. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Cancer in Asian and Pacific Islander Populations." PMID:25368394

  1. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  2. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  3. Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

    2012-08-01

    The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined to a more narrow coastal strip, although there is still much infrastructure at risk. Even for very strong storms in Oahu and Kauai, maximum still water surge is relatively small, and does not exceed 3 m in any storm modeled. In contrast, hurricane waves several kilometers from shore regularly exceed 10 m due to the lack of a continental shelf.

  4. Favorable outcomes for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Hoshide, Reid R; Asai, Susan M; Johnson, Katherine G; Beniga, Juliet G; Albano, Melanie C; del Castillo, Johnna L; Donovan, Daniel J; Chang, Cherylee W; Koenig, Matthew A

    2013-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disproportionately impacts minority racial groups. However, limited information exists on TBI outcomes among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI). All patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <9) who were hospitalized at the state-designated trauma center in Hawai'i from March 2006 to February 2011 were studied. The primary outcome measure was discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale ([GOS]: 1, death; 2, vegetative state; 3, severe disability; 4, moderate disability; 5, good recovery), which was dichotomized to unfavorable (GOS 1-2) and favorable (GOS 3-5). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors predictive of discharge functional outcome. A total of 181 patients with severe TBI (NHPI 27%, Asians 25%, Whites 30%, and others 17%) were studied. NHPI had a higher prevalence of assault-related TBI (25% vs 6.5%, P = .046), higher prevalence of chronic drug abuse (20% vs 4%, P = .02) and chronic alcohol abuse (22% vs 2%, P = .003), and longer intensive care unit length of stay (15±10 days vs 11±9 days, P < .05) compared to Asians. NHPI had lower prevalence of unfavorable functional outcomes compared to Asians (33% vs 61%, P = .006) and Whites (33% vs 56%, P = .02). Logistic regression analyses showed that Asian race (OR, 6.41; 95% CI, 1.68-24.50) and White race (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.27-14.62) are independently associated with unfavorable outcome compared to NHPI. Contrary to the hypothesis, NHPI with severe TBI have better discharge functional outcomes compared to other major racial groups. PMID:23795313

  5. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

  6. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

  7. Lobster Trap at Reed Point

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    A lobster trap buoy rides in the waves of Seal Cove at Reed Point, along the southwestern coast of Mount Desert Island. Lobster traps rest at the bottom of the sea and are tethered to a buoy that marks their location....

  8. Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

  9. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

  10. Marine debris from the Oregon Dungeness crab fishery recovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: identification and oceanic drift paths.

    PubMed

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis C; Ingraham, W J; Jones, Jason A; Donohue, Mary J

    2012-01-01

    Two Dungeness crab trap tags and floats lost off the State of Oregon, USA during the 2006-2007 fishing season were recovered 4years later in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI): on Lisianski Island on July 15, 2010; and on Kure Atoll on December 10, 2010. This is the first documented recovery of marine debris from Oregon fisheries in the NWHI. We simulate the oceanic drift tracks of the derelict fishing gear with the Ocean Surface Current Simulator (OSCURS) model using estimated loss dates in Oregon based on interviews with the crab trap owners and known recovery sites and dates in the NWHI. These data confirm the US Pacific Northwest as a source of marine debris deposited in the NWHI and provide enhanced understanding of the oceanic drift pathways of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:22014917

  11. Eliminating tobacco disparities among native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders through policy change: the role of community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P

    2013-09-01

    Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California. PMID:23667058

  12. Eliminating Tobacco Disparities Among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders Through Policy Change: The Role of Community-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P.

    2013-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California. PMID:23667058

  13. Ethnoracial Disparities in Sexual Assault among Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Crisanti, Annette S.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Gundaya, Debbie; Salvail, Florentina R.; Triffleman, Elisa G.

    2010-01-01

    Context Ethnoracial differences may exist in exposure to trauma and post-traumatic outcomes. However, Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) are vastly underrepresented in research pertaining to trauma and health status sequelae. Objective To determine whether there are ethnoracial disparities in sexual trauma exposure and its sequelae for health and functioning among Asian-Americans and NHOPI. Design, Setting, Participants We examined data on sexual assault exposure from the 2006–2007 Hawai`i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (H-BRFSS), cross-sectional adult community-based probability sample (n = 12,573). Data were collected via computer-assisted random-digit landline telephone survey. Survey response rate was found to be about 48% in 2006 and 52% in 2007. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information, the Sexual Violence Module regarding unwanted sexual experiences, and questions about health lifestyles, chronic diseases and disability, and health status and quality of life. Results Participants were 42.3% White, 14.4% NHOPI, and 39.3% Asian-American. NHOPI had a higher 12-month period prevalence (2.24 per 100, CI=1.32–3.78) of any unwanted sexual experience, but a lower prevalence estimate and odds ratio for any lifetime unwanted sexual experience (prevalence: 9.38 per 100, CI=7.59–11.55; odds ratio: 0.61, CI=0.47–0.81) relative to Whites, after adjusting for age, gender, income and education level. Asian-Americans had lower prevalence estimates for 12-month period prevalence (0.78 per 100, CI=0.44–1.39), and lower lifetime prevalence estimates and odds ratios (prevalence: 3.91 per 100, CI=3.23–4.72; odds ratio: 0.27, CI=0.21–0.34). 12-month and lifetime prevalence estimate any unwanted sexual experiences for Whites were 0.71 per 100 (CI=0.45–1.12) and 12.01 per 100 (CI=10.96–13.14), respectively. Sexual assault experiences were highly associated with adverse health status sequelae (e.g., disability, poor general health), but there were no significant ethnoracial disparities on self-reported health outcomes among those with a lifetime history of unwanted sexual experiences. Conclusions Data revealed significant ethnoracial differences among Whites, Asian-Americans, and NHOPIs on unwanted sexual experiences, with relative risk differing by time period. This pattern of disparity could represent early stages of a new trend in local assaultive behaviors toward NHOPIs and merits attention. Across all ethnoracial groups, a lifetime history of any unwanted sexual experience is associated with a wide range of adverse health status sequelae. PMID:21208575

  14. Derelict fishing gear in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands: diving surveys and debris removal in 1999 confirm threat to coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Donohue, M J; Boland, R C; Sramek, C M; Antonelis, G A

    2001-12-01

    Marine debris threatens Northwestern Hawaiian Islands' (NWHI) coral reef ecosystems. Debris, a contaminant, entangles and kills endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), coral, and other wildlife. We describe a novel multi-agency effort using divers to systematically survey and remove derelict fishing gear from two NWHI in 1999. 14 t of derelict fishing gear were removed and debris distribution, density, type and fouling level documented at Lisianski Island and Pearl and Hermes Atoll. Reef debris density ranged from 3.4 to 62.2 items/km2. Trawl netting was the most frequent debris type encountered (88%) and represented the greatest debris component recovered by weight (35%), followed by monofilament gillnet (34%), and maritime line (23%). Most debris recovered, 72%, had light or no fouling, suggesting debris may have short oceanic circulation histories. Our study demonstrates that derelict fishing gear poses a persistent threat to the coral reef ecosystems of the Hawaiian Archipelago. PMID:11827117

  15. Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vignon, Matthias; Sasal, Pierre; Galzin, René

    2009-03-01

    The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction, this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii). Polynesian groupers were infected with a highly diversified parasite community whereas Hawaiian groupers exhibited a depauperate ensemble of parasite species, C. argus having lost most of the parasites common in their native range. Interestingly, the grouper has not acquired new parasites present in Hawaiian waters. This study provides the first field evidence of significant parasite release in a wild but previously introduced fish in coral reefs and is discussed in relation to the Enemy-Release Hypothesis which has never been assessed in those ecosystems. PMID:19002714

  16. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R C; McIntosh, C E; Tarr, C L

    1998-04-01

    The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods. PMID:9628004

  17. Native Hawaiian Scholarship`Aha

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship`Aha Hawai`i Island Waimea Hawaiian Homestead Hall Tuesday, November 18 & Int. School Cafeteria Thursday, January 29, 2015 @ 6:00 pm Learn about scholarships available to Native Hawaiian college students. Meet with scholarship providers from: Kamehameha Schools, Keali

  18. Lobster Conservancy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Organization brings Gulf of Maine fishermen, scientists, volunteers together to sustain the lobster fishery. Lobster Life Studies Center and programs educate the public about the biology and importance of American lobster (Homaris americanus), conduct research, monitoring populations, recruitment and survival. Detailed profile with diagrams covers lobster classification, anatomy, growth, physiology, life cycle, distribution, behavior, and fisheries. Table lists life history stage, environmental threats, regulations providing protection. Question/answer feature posts scientists' responses to questions.

  19. LEl96TH-WEIGHT AND STARDARD LENGTH-FORK LENGTH RELATIONSHIPS OF DEBPSEA HANDLINE FISHES OF THE NOR!k!EWBSTBRN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Uchiyama; Sally H. Kuba; Darryl T. Tagami

    Predictive and functional length-weight and standard length-fork (or total) length relationships were cal- culated from lengths and weights of eight major deep- sea species caught by handline in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Data collected on RV Townsend :romwell cruises from August 1978 to September 1981 were grouped by sex, cruise, and location of capture. Differences in slopes of regression

  20. A NEW SPECIES OF OTOPHEIDOMENIS (ACARI: OTOPHEIDOMENIDAE) ECTOPARASITIC ON ASCALAPHA ODORATA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, WITH A KEY TO THE SPECIES IN THE GENUS1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rahman Syed; M. Lee Goff

    Otopheidomenis ascalaphae is described as new from specimens taken from a noctuid moth, Ascalapha odorata (Linnaeus), collected on Oahu I, Hawaiian Islands. A key to the species of Otopheidomenis is given. Treat (1955) proposed the family Otopheidomenidae and the genus Otopheidomenis to accommodate a single species, 0. zalelestes, collected from a noctuid moth. Sub­ sequently, 8 additional species of Otopheidomenis

  1. Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthias Vignon; Pierre Sasal; René Galzin

    2009-01-01

    The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction,\\u000a this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii).\\u000a Polynesian

  2. Evolution of cave living in Hawaiian Schrankia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with description of a

    E-print Network

    Davis, Don R.

    Evolution of cave living in Hawaiian Schrankia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with description of reportedly flightless Hawaiian cave moths, we tested the flight ability of 54 Schrankia individuals from separate Hawaiian islands. A revision of the other Hawaiian Schrankia is presented, revealing

  3. Cancer Incidence Trends Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990–2008

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs. Methods Utilizing 1990 and 2000 population census data, we estimated the annual populations by age and sex for Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Guamanians/Chamorros for 1990–2008 in regions covered by 13 of the National Cancer Institute’s SEER registries. Cancer diagnoses during 1990–2008 from these registries were used to calculate the age-adjusted (2000 US Standard) incidence rates by sex, calendar year/period, and cancer type for each population. The annual percentage change (APC) in incidence rates was estimated with the 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) calculated for both the rate and APC estimates. Results Statistically significant declining trends were found in Native Hawaiians, in men for lung and stomach cancers (APC = –2.3%; 95% CI = –3.3 to –1.3; and APC = –3.8%; 95% CI = –6.0 to –1.6, respectively), and in women for breast cancer (APC = –4.1%; 95% CI = –5.7 to –2.5) since 1998 and lung cancer (APC = –6.4%; 95% CI = –10.7 to –1.8) since 2001. Rising incidence trends were experienced by Samoans, especially by Samoan women for breast (APC = 2.7%; 95% CI = 0.9 to 4.5) and uterus (APC = 7.3%; 95% CI = 6.2 to 8.4) cancers. With limited data, Guamanians/Chamorros demonstrated lower, but increasing, incidence rates than other NHOPIs. Conclusions Population-based cancer incidence rates for disaggregated NHOPI populations help identify disparities in cancer burden and provide valuable information to improve cancer control efforts among NHOPIs. PMID:23878354

  4. The evolution of water and solute fluxes and pathways in post-constructional volcanic landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, L. A.; Schopka, H. H.

    2011-12-01

    Post-eruptive volcanic landscapes evolve rapidly in response to erosion, re-vegetation, and pedogenesis. The Hawaiian islands offer a time series to study the evolution of surface processes on a uniform lithology and under spatially varying but well-characterized climates. Young surfaces retain constructional topography largely controlled by the most recent lava flows and/or ash deposits. Young surfaces such as found on Mauna Loa (O 102 - 103 yrs) are highly permeable and surface runoff is rare or absent, even under conditions of high rainfall. We hypothesize that the development of soil is a key factor in reducing vertical infiltration rates and promoting lateral flow of water. Stream channelization begins with control by constructional topography and in some cases major faults or fracture zone. In areas with positive water balance stream erosion leads to rapid channel formation. On the windward side of Mauna Kea (O 104 - 105 yrs) stream incision into the shield topography is much more pronounced than on adjacent Mauna Loa surfaces. Flank collapse (e.g. windward Kohala, ? 105 yrs) leaves hanging valleys and drives deep canyon formation. On all of the Hawaiian islands direct submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the oceans is important. The ratio of water transported to the oceans as stream discharge (Q) vs SGD increases with surface age and incision, from near zero on Mauna Loa to > 1 on Kohala. Island wide, SGD ? 3.5 - 4x Q. The evolution of water pathways influences weathering fluxes to the oceans. Ground water from Hawaii has significantly larger concentrations of weathering-derived solutes than does stream water. This should result from longer path length and contact time, which increase interaction with reactive mineral surfaces, but the detailed controls on solute chemistry remain uncertain. Island-wide, the flux ratio of weathering solutes in SGD vs Q is near 15. SGDA is the dominant pathway for the delivery of silicate mineral weathering products to the oceans. These general results should apply to other young volcanic island or coastal terranes. Analysis of stream water fluxes may grossly underestimate weathering fluxes from volcanic terranes. Understanding the coupled evolution of land surface morphology, soil development, and hydrologic pathways is critical to evaluating the temporal behavior of surface processes in young volcanic terranes.

  5. Recommendations for implementing policy, systems, and environmental improvements to address chronic diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  6. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Koehler, Tobias B.; Marquez, Sebastian N.; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O‘ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the K?n?hua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko‘olau Mountains, located on Windward O‘ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla.

  7. Interpersonal Violence and Mental Health Outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander College Students

    PubMed Central

    Archambeau, Olga G.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Herman, Steve; Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 614) we studied interpersonal violence victimization, perpetration, and mental health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural-based sample of Asian Americans (27%), and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (25%), two groups vastly underrepresented in trauma research. High rates of interpersonal violence (34%), violence perpetration (13%), and probable psychiatric diagnoses (77%), including posttraumatic stress disorder, were found. Exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology. Female participants were associated with higher likelihood of sexual violence victimization compared to male participants, and Asian American status (especially among males) was associated with lower likelihood of physical and sexual violence compared with European Americans. These data enhance our understanding of interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among previously understudied minority groups. PMID:21297936

  8. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  9. An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

  10. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-11-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. These observations have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii. We have formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 10^20 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced deformation and mantle dynamics.

  11. Copyright 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Genetics of Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian and Cook Islands Species of

    E-print Network

    Whitkus, Richard

    Copyright © 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Genetics of Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian, 1998 ABSTRACT In a study of the genetic mechanisms associated with adaptive radiation in Hawaiian and diversification. a well-resolved pattern of relationships. All Hawaiian Carlquist (1974, 1980) has provided

  12. Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine spatial planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.

  13. Occurrence of Pasteuria-like Organisms on Selected Plant-Pamsitic Nematodes of Pineapple in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Bernard, E. C.; Schmitt, D. P.; Sipes, B. S.

    1995-01-01

    Soils from 320 sites representing diverse undisturbed habitats from five Hawaiian Islands were assessed for occurrence of Pasteuria-like organisms. Mean annual rainfall at sites ranged from 125-350 cm, elevation from 69-2,286 m, and annual mean temperature from 12-24 C. Seven different natural communities were represented: wet lowland, mesic lowland, wet montane, mesk montane, dry montane, mesic subalpine, and dry alpine. Pasteuria spp. in a soil sample was detected by baiting with infective stages of Helicotylenchus dihystera, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis, followed by cultivation of the nematodes on pineapple plants for 10-11 months. All nematode baits except R. reniformis were readily recovered from the soil samples. A sample was considered Pasteuria-positive if at least 5 % of the nematode specimens showed endospore attachment. Thirteen percent of all samples were positive for Pasteuria-like organisms. The frequencies of association between Pasteuria spp. and Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, or Pratylenchus species were 52%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. Positive samples were more prevalent on the older islands of Kauai and Oahu (75%), in lowland communities (61%), and in areas with introduced vegetation (60%). More than 27% of the positive samples were associated with plant species in a few selected families that included Meliaceae and Myrtaceae. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. seemed to be positively associated with mean annual rainfall or temperature, but negatively associated with elevation. PMID:19277305

  14. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  15. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  16. Fishing Effort Allocation and Fishermen's Decision Making Process in a Multi-Species Small-Scale Fishery: Analysis of the Conch and Lobster Fishery in Turks and Caicos Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Béné; Alexander Tewfik

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the fishing effort allocation of fishermen in the artisanal fisheries of the Turks and Caicos Islands (British West Indies). These fishermen use a free-diving technique to simultaneously exploit the local stocks of queen conch and spiny lobster. Using an integrated framework combining a set of analytical tools within a multi-disciplinary holistic approach, we attempt to

  17. Horizontal movements and depth distribution of large adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) near the Hawaiian Islands, recorded using ultrasonic telemetry: implications for the physiological ecology of pelagic fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Brill; B. A. Block; C. H. Boggs; K. A. Bigelow; E. V. Freund; D. J. Marcinek

    1999-01-01

    We measured the horizontal and vertical movements of five adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, estimated body mass 64 to 93?kg) near the main Hawaiian Islands, while simultaneously gathering data on oceanographic conditions\\u000a and currents. Fish movements were recorded by means of ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters. Depth–temperature and depth–oxygen\\u000a profiles were measured with vertical conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, and the current-velocity field was

  18. The Impact of Resort Development on an Hawaiian Island: Implications for Community Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsuoka, Jon K.; Shera, Wes J.

    1991-01-01

    The impact of resort development on Lana'i island (Hawaii) was investigated through community and island assessments, surveys of households and high school students, and focus groups. Assessment results relate to economic impacts, community services, community satisfaction, quality of life, and social impacts. Recommendations are included for…

  19. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455 Section 622.455...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny...

  20. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455 Section 622.455...OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny...

  1. LOBSTERS AND THE LOBSTER PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS

    E-print Network

    LOBSTERS AND THE LOBSTER PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS $ By George W. Field Chairman Massachusetts Board #12;LOBSTERS AND THE LOBSTER PROBLEM IN MASSACHUSETTS. By GEORGE W. FIELD, Chairmasi Massachusetts necessary in the state of Massachusetts to make some regulations restricting the catching of lobsters

  2. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  3. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  4. Tsunami surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 1 April 2014 North Chile Mw 8.1 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yefei; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Yamazaki, Yoshiki; Lay, Thorne; Ye, Lingling

    2014-12-01

    The 1 April 2014 Iquique Mw 8.1 earthquake ruptured a segment of the megathrust fault offshore of northern Chile and generated a moderate-size tsunami across the Pacific. Tide gauges in Hawaii recorded over 1 m of wave height despite the long distance from the source and position away from the main radiated energy lobe. Inversion of global teleseismic body waves combined with forward modeling of the tsunami at four near-field DART stations arrives iteratively at a self-consistent finite-fault model with very compact dimensions. The slip distribution produces a NNE-SSW trending seafloor uplift patch that enhances the tsunami directionality in the WNW, resulting in good matches to observed DART and tide gauge records around the Hawaiian Islands. The relatively large waves at selected locations in Hawaii can be attributed to a combination of the spatial slip distribution and the resulting short-period waves that triggered localized resonance over the insular shelves. This event highlights the importance of characterizing detailed slip distributions in analysis or forecasting of tsunamis even for a compact source.

  5. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

  6. Transient hydrogeologic models for submarine flow in volcanic seamounts: 1. The Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. B. Christiansen; G. Garven

    2004-01-01

    Seamounts and volcanic islands are regions of the seafloor where pressure gradients, caused by temperature variations, are large enough to drive fluid flow. Compaction in surrounding sedimentary aprons, formed during mass wasting of these features, drives fluid flow as well. In seamount environments a complex flow pattern evolves as effects of compaction and free convection interact. We use transient finite

  7. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-12-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas including those from the Hilo scientific drilling hole [e.g., Lipman and Moore, 1996] indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies by Grigg and Jones [1997] of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate up to ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. Similar studies show that Oahu which is ~340 km from Hawaii has experienced smaller amount of uplift during approximately the same period. The observed patterns of vertical motions have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii on an elastic plate overlying an inviscid substratum. Such a model, however, is time-invariant and does not take into account any changes that may occur in the subsidence and uplift history during loading. We have therefore formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 1020 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. A feature of the model is that at the time-scales appropriate to loading at Hawaii a significant portion of the lithosphere with viscosity greater than 1022 Pa s may still support stresses, which results in a larger apparent elastic thickness than has been deduced from flexural loading studies. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model with a variable loading history can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift that is observed at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced stress relaxation in the lithosphere and dynamic effects in the underlying mantle. Future work should enable the vertical motion data to be used not only as constraints on models for rheology of the lithosphere but also on the nature of plume-plate interactions. Grigg and Jones, Marine Geol., 141, 11-25, 1997. Lipman and Moore, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 11631-11641, 1996. Watts and Zhong, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 855-875, 2000.

  8. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria.

  9. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria. PMID:24446093

  10. Impact of Diabetes on Prolonged Hospital Stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 ± 14 years vs 72 ± 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of O‘ahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

  11. Diverse gastropod hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, globally and with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W; Cowie, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  12. Impact of diabetes on prolonged hospital stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 ± 14 years vs 72 ± 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of O'ahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

  13. Association of Modifiable Risk Factors and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction among Hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Todd B; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Howard, Barbara; Ratner, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010. Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age ? 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ? 40% or LVEF ? 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 151 participants, 69% were men, mean age 54.3 ± 13.5 years, blood pressure 112 ± 20/69 ± 15 mmHg, and body mass index (BMI) 36.9 ± 9 kg/m2. Twenty-five percent of participants were smokers, 45% used alcohol and 23% reported a history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/defibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently associated with lower LVEF (P < .05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality. PMID:25535596

  14. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  15. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ?12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  16. Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

  17. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  18. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  19. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  20. Long-term population trends of endangered Hawaiian waterbirds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Michael ReedChris; Chris S. Elphick; Elena N. Ieno; Alain F. Zuur

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed long-term winter survey data (1956–2007) for three endangered waterbirds endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, the\\u000a Hawaiian moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis), Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai), and Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Time series were analyzed by species–island combinations using generalized additive models, with alternative models compared\\u000a using Akaike information criterion (AIC). The best model included three smoothers, one for

  1. Latitudinal limits to coral reef accretion: Testing the Darwin Point hypothesis at Kure Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, using new evidence from high resolution remote sensing and in situ data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daria Siciliano

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on assessing patterns of carbonate production in a marginal reef environment as the key to understand the mechanisms that limit modern reef distribution, and those that effect the response of coral reefs to a changing environment. This investigation was carried out at Kure atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the northernmost atoll in the world. A less

  2. [Book review] Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna, edited by T. K. Pratt, C. T. Atkinson, P. C. Banko, J. D. Jacobi, B. L. Woodworth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles, III

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds. Yale University Press, New Haven. 2009. 707 pp. ISBN 9780300141085. Hardcover, $69.99.

  3. 76 FR 46719 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...target, ACT) of 325,000 lb (147,418 kg) of Deep 7 bottomfish in the main Hawaiian...limit (ACL) of 346,000 lb (156,943 kg). When the fishery is projected to reach...recommendation of an ACL of 346,000 lb (156,943 kg) considers the most recent bottomfish...

  4. Enhancement of Lobster Growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Hughes; John J. Sullivan; Robert Shleser

    1972-01-01

    Selected captive lobsters have been successfully mated at the Massachusetts Lobster Hatchery. Progeny raised in warm seawater grew at least four times as fast as lobsters grown at ambient ocean temperatures. These studies demonstrate that lobsters will reach sexual maturity (a weight of about 454 grams) in less than 2 years, compared to 8 years at ambient temperatures in Canadian

  5. A METHOD OF LOBSTER CULTURE By A. D. Mead, Ph. D.

    E-print Network

    A METHOD OF LOBSTER CULTURE By A. D. Mead, Ph. D. Member ot the Rhode Island Commission.ot Inland for an original and practical method of lobster culture 21 9 #12;CONTENTS. Page. Theproblem -,----------------------___ 229 FIatching methods ----_____________ 230 Handling' the egg lobsters U u u 230 Precaution as to age

  6. 1201Iacchei et al.--Catalina spiny lobster fisheries Direct impacts of commercial and recreational fishing

    E-print Network

    Costa, Daniel P.

    1201Iacchei et al.--Catalina spiny lobster fisheries Direct impacts of commercial and recreational fishing on spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, populations at Santa Catalina Island, California, United: kathyannmiller@berkeley.edu Abstract The California spiny or red rock lobster, Panulirus interruptus

  7. Plate Tectonics: The Hawaiian Archipelago

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since the Hawaiian Islands were all created by volcanic activity, it is somewhat surprising that only the island of Hawaii now possesses any active volcanoes. Why did the volcanoes that built the other islands stop erupting and why are those on the big island still active? This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, shows how plumes of hot material rise from the Earth's interior to create 'hot spots' in the crust which are the locations of volcanic activity. Movement of the Pacific Plate causes volcanic islands to continually form, migrate away from the hot spot, and become extinct, forming chains of islands like the Hawaiian Islands. The segment is four minutes thirty-seven seconds in length.

  8. Influence of Precipitation Rates on Bedrock River Incision Rates on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, K. L.; Ferrier, K.; Perron, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bedrock river incision mediates the interaction between surface processes and tectonics by conveying base level change across landscapes, driving rock exhumation, and modulating rates of hillslope erosion. Despite longstanding expectations that river incision should depend on precipitation, quantifying the effects of precipitation rates on river incision rates in the field has proven difficult, in part because other factors that influence river incision often co-vary with precipitation. With minimal variation in lithology, a well-constrained history of volcanic construction, and a steep gradient in mean annual precipitation that ranges from 0.5 m/yr to 9.5 m/yr over just 25 km, the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i provides an exceptional natural laboratory for quantifying the influence of precipitation on bedrock river incision. We performed two analyses to relate the efficiency of river incision to mean annual precipitation on Kaua'i. Each analysis is based on the stream power equation (E = KAm}S{n), a physically based rule that relates channel incision rate E to drainage area A and channel slope S through an erodibility coefficient K. In the first analysis, we calculated time-averaged river incision rates from the depths of river canyons and radiometric ages for the initial volcano surface along 32 major river channels on Kaua'i, and then estimated best-fit values for the stream power parameters K, m, and n by regressing the measured values of E against present-day values of A and S. In the second analysis, we modeled the transient evolution of 93 channel segments from their initial topographic profiles to their modern profiles, restricting this analysis to channel segments with minimal internal variation in precipitation rates (upstream precipitation rates with standard deviation < 20% of their mean). We found best-fit values of K and m for each channel by modeling profile evolution with a constant value of n = 2/3 and a range of values for K and m, and selecting the parameter values that minimized the error between the modeled and present-day profiles. Both analyses show positive correlations between the topographically normalized rate of bedrock river incision and upstream mean annual precipitation. In both analyses, the dependence is robust to uncertainties in bedrock age, methods of calculation, channel slope exponent n, and changes in channel slope over time. To account for this observed relationship, we write a modified version of the stream power law with an explicit power-law dependence on mean annual precipitation rates P, and we show that the time-averaged erosion rates on Kaua'i fit this model with a dependence on P to the power 0.67 ± 0.01 (mean ± s.e.). These results provide empirical evidence for climatic control of long-term erosion rates, and they illustrate the advantages of studying natural experiments in landscape evolution.

  9. SURVIVAL RATES FOR THE HAWAIIAN MONK SEAL (MONACHUS SCHAUINSLANDI)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Gilmartin; Thea C. Johanos; L. Lee Eberhardt

    1993-01-01

    Endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups at all the major breeding islands in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands have been tagged since the early 1980s. Pups were double flipper tagged as soon as possible post- weaning. With few exceptions, an extensive tag resighting effort was conducted annually at the same islands. These resighting data were used to estimate seal survival

  10. Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

  11. 3 Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: 4 Campsicnemus): Biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation

    E-print Network

    O'Grady, Patrick M.

    1 3 Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: 4 Campsicnemus: 22 Ecotype 23 Historical biogeography 24 Adaptive raQ4 diation 25 Hawaiian Islands 26 Divergence diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in 32the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian

  12. Existence and Formation Mechanism of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BO QIU; A. KOH; C LAUDE LUMPKIN; PIERRE FLAMENT

    1974-01-01

    Available surface drifter data are analyzed to determine the characteristics of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current (NHRC) and its relation to the ocean circulation around the Hawaiian waters. The NHRC is found to exist as a mean entity along the coasts of the Hawaiian Islands. It originates as a northern branch of westward moving interior flow and flows coherently along

  13. The Perception of Innovation in the Delivery of Services for Hawaiian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jamee Mahealani

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiians come from a tradition of success and resilience. Sumida and Meyer (2006) report that Native Hawaiians were among the most literate people in the world in the 1840's where they had the highest literacy rate west of the Rockies. By 1893, nearly 100 Hawaiian newspapers were in print and circulation in the Hawaiian Islands

  14. Genetics of adaptive radiation in Hawaiian and Cook Islands species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae). II. Genetic linkage map and its implications for interspecific breeding barriers.

    PubMed Central

    Whitkus, R

    1998-01-01

    In a study of the genetic mechanisms associated with adaptive radiation in Hawaiian Tetramolopium, a genetic linkage map was constructed in an interspecific cross. A total of 125 RFLP and RAPD markers were mapped into 117 different loci on nine linkage groups for a map length of 665.7 cM. Segregation distortion occurred in 49% of the mapped probes, located primarily in four linkage groups. High percentages of one parental species genotype (Tetramolopium rockii) were recovered in three of these blocks and the second parental species (T. humile) in the remaining block. The high degree of distorted segregation suggests the buildup of internal crossing barriers, even though island plant species are typically characterized as highly cross compatible with few to no internal crossing barriers. This work and a review of previous crossing studies in island plants show that internal (postmating) crossing barriers do exist. The weak crossing barriers have likely been overlooked because the main focus has been on diversification and speciation through adaptation to extremely diverse environments. PMID:9799272

  15. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew, Jr.; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  16. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  17. 78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct Population Segment...Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens...mechanisms; or (E) other natural or manmade factors affecting...recovery plan is the False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan...

  18. Effects of contaminants in roundnose grenadier ( coryphaenoides rupestris) and Norway lobster ( nephrops norvegicus) and contaminant levels in mussels ( mytilus edulis) in the skagerrak and kattegat compared to the faroe islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förlin, Lars; Baden, Susanne Pihl; Eriksson, Susanne; Granmo, Åke; Lindesjöö, Eric; Magnusson, Kerstin; Ekelund, Rolf; Esselin, Anders; Sturve, Joachim

    1996-02-01

    In situ biomonitoring of roundnose grenadier ( Coryphaenoides rupestris) and Norway lobster ( Nephrops norvegicus) and measurements of pollutants levels in caged common mussel ( Mytilus edulis) were used to assess the environmental impact of contaminants in the Skagerrak and Kattegat and near the Faroe Islands. By comparing the responses of a suite of established and potential biomarkers, i.e. different liver detoxification enzymes and histopathology in roundnose grenadier in the Skagerrak, and at a reference site off the Faroe Islands, evidence was found that the deeper parts of the Skagerrak are affected by anthropogenic contaminants. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and organochlorines in caged mussels were compared with those sediment. The Skagerrak/Kattegat area was found to be more polluted than the Faroe area and the caged mussels bioaccumulated the PAHs to a higher degree than the organochlorines. This seems to indicate that the PAHs in the sediments are more bioavailable than the organochlorines and that the induced ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities observed in Skagerrak roundnouse grenadier may be due to PAH exposure. The Norway lobster accumulated manganese to various degrees in the different parts of the organism. The excretion rate of manganese could not cope with the uptake rate at higher exposure concentrations. Enhanced manganese concentrations, especially in the gills and haemolymph, seem to be a useful indication of increased manganese levels in the water. Hypoxia makes a sediment-bound manganese much more bioavailable. The elevated levels of manganese in Norway lobster from the Skagerrak/Kattegat area therefore seem to reflect the increasing occurrence of hypoxic conditions in the Kattegat and coastal areas of the Skagerrak. Accumulated manganese in Norway lobster may thus serve as a biomarker of hypoxia. In conclusion, the use of a suite of different biomarkers in ecotoxicological and ecophysiological studies and analyses of contaminant levels have provided evidence of a large-scale environmental impact of pollutants and nutrients in the Skagerrak/Kattegat area. This should lead to further efforts to decrease transport into and deposition of waste compounds in the sea.

  19. Historical Evidence of Whale/Vessel Collisions in Hawaiian Waters (1975 Present)

    E-print Network

    Historical Evidence of Whale/Vessel Collisions in Hawaiian Waters (1975 ­ Present) Marc O. Lammers-01 Prepared for: NOAA's Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary #12;2 TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................25 #12;3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY · The main Hawaiian Islands are the principal wintering grounds of North

  20. American Journal of Botany 84(9): 12361246. 1997. GENETICS OF ADAPTIVE RADIATION IN HAWAIIAN AND

    E-print Network

    Whitkus, Richard

    1236 American Journal of Botany 84(9): 1236­1246. 1997. GENETICS OF ADAPTIVE RADIATION IN HAWAIIAN to study genetic diversity in Hawaiian and Cook Islands species of Tetramolopium for comparison diversity and relationships seen among species and sections of Hawaiian and Cook Islands Tetramolopium

  1. BIASES AND DATA LIMITATIONS OF ODONTOCETE CETACEAN SIGHTING DATA FROM SMALL-BOAT BASED SURVEYS AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS Robin W. Baird1 , Daniel L. Webster2 and Daniel J. McSweeney2 1 Cascadia-boat surveys were undertaken around the main Hawaiian Islands from February 2000 through February 2005 of the area around the main Hawaiian Islands. Survey effort was geographically biased (by region and by depth

  2. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  3. The Return of Hawaiian: Language Networks of the Revival Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenzinger, Matthias; Heinrich, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Some 40 years ago, language transmission in Hawai'i was interrupted among Hawaiians across all islands with the sole exception of language maintenance among a small community on the tiny, isolated Ni'ihau Island. Today, Hawaiian has returned as spoken and written medium with some 5000-7000 new speakers. The present paper provides an…

  4. Hawaiian Tourism: Costs, Benefits, Alternatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John S.

    1975-01-01

    Hawaiian tourism has greatly increased in the past ten years. With this increase, the island has been economically developed to attract and accommodate tourists. Now, citizen groups are becoming aware of the environmental costs of this business and are asking for a tourist reduction to save their natural resources. (MA)

  5. GPS monitoring of Hawaiian Volcanoes

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory uses a variety of ground- and satellite-based techniques to monitor Hawai‘i’s active volcanoes.  Here, an HVO scientist sets up a portable GPS receiver to track surface changes during an island-wide survey of Hawai‘i’s volcanoes. &n...

  6. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high-elevation settings in the Hawaiian chain immediately prior to formation of the oldest, modern high-elevation island, Kaua‘i. PMID:20382966

  7. Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding at Least 8 Weeks Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawaii, 2004–2008

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kristen M.; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L.; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J.

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004–2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and sociodemographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3 %. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95 % CI 0.43–0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.53–0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95 % CI 0.52–0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.58–0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.61–0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95 % CI 0.64–0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95 % CI 0.65–0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates. PMID:24096640

  8. Hawaiian magma-reservoir processes as inferred from the petrology of gabbro xenoliths in basalt, Kahoolawe Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. V. Fodor; E. A. Rudek; G. R. Bauer

    1993-01-01

    Gabbro xenoliths in a tholeiitic lava of Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii, a ~1.3–1.4 Ma shield volcano, are 1–3 cm in size and comprised of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and orthopyroxene. Gabbro textures — while intergranular and in part subophitic-are “open” due to 28–48 vol.% of vesicular basalt occupying xenolith space. Vesicles in and around the xenoliths are lined or filled with rhyolitic glass

  9. Congener-specific profile and toxicity assessment of PCBs in green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Sheng Miao; George H. Balazs; Shawn K. K. Murakawa; Qing X. Li

    2001-01-01

    Chemical pollution may play a role in the etiology fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (Chelonia mydas). In this preliminary study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the livers and adipose fats of green turtles collected after they were stranded on Oahu Island, Hawaii in 1992–1993. Average concentrations of total PCBs were 45–58 ng\\/g dry weight and 73–665 ng\\/g in the liver

  10. Wrecks as artificial lobster habitats in the German Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krone, Roland; Schröder, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Once, the European lobster could be found in high abundances on rocky substrate around the island of Helgoland. Since the 1960s, the stock has been decreasing dramatically. Until now, it has been assumed that the lobster stock of Helgoland is the only one in the German Bight. Here, we provide first information about lobster distribution inside the German Bight off Helgoland. Diving in situ observations revealed that lobsters inhabit at least 15.6% of all 64 investigated wrecks. Considering the difficulties of detecting lobsters at wrecks, the true percentage is most likely much higher. Their locations are spatially homogenously distributed throughout the inspected area. The study indicates a broad distribution of the European lobster over the German Bight. The habitats provided by a considerable fraction of the more than one thousand wrecks outside the Wadden Sea are potential lobster refuges within the mud and sand dominated sea floor. Besides providing additional habitats, they represent stepping stones enhancing the connectivity of the North Sea lobster population.

  11. RESPONSES OF NONTARGET INSECTS TO BUCKET TRAPS BAITED WITH METHYL EUGENOL, CUE-LURE, TRIMEDLURE, OR PROTEIN BAIT ON KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of nontarget insect species to bucket traps baited with different tephritid fruit fly attractants were examined in primarily native habitats at three localities on Kauai Island. Traps were made according to a previous design and no effort was made to control the odors given off by collect...

  12. Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMartini, E.E.; Zgliczynski, B.J.; Boland, R.C.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave "exposed" sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes) at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore water flow and transport by surface currents. The densities of recruits (juveniles ???5 cm total length) were higher overall on windward versus leeward sectors of carbonate rock-rubble back reefs at both atolls, and the pattern was stronger for smaller (likely younger, more recently settled) recruits of four of the five most abundant species and the remainder pooled as an "Other" taxon. The windward-leeward disparity was four-fold greater at Pearl Hermes (the atoll with a three-fold longer perimeter) than at Kure. Resident predator biomass also was correlated with recruit densities, but habitat (benthic substratum) effects were generally weak. The distribution and abundance of recruits and juveniles of the primarily endemic reef fishes on shallow back reefs at these atolls appear partly influenced by relative rates of water flow over windward vs. leeward sectors of barrier reef and by the size, shape, and orientation of habitat parcels that filter out postlarval fishes with relatively weak swimming capabilities like labroids. Whole-reef geomorphology as well as fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and rugosity should be considered among the suite of many factors used to interpret observed spatial patterns of post-settlement juvenile fish distribution at atolls and perhaps some other tropical reefs. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  13. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  14. THE AMERICAN LOBSTER Homarus americanus

    E-print Network

    7 THE AMERICAN LOBSTER Homarus americanus FISHERY LEAFLET 74 UNITED ST ATES DEPARTMENT Production Publications on lobsters Page 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 7 7 8 9 #12;THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, Homarus and Wildlife Service Boothbay Harbor, Maine C1assification.--The American lobster i s a c rus t acean belonging

  15. Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The Hawaiian Islands provide a cultural setting where the prominent place of astronomy within religious, navigational, and calendrical traditions is evident from a rich ethnohistoric record. The many hundreds of temple platforms and enclosures (heiau) whose remains survive across the archipelago have provided a natural focus for archaeoastronomers not only to examine orientations and structural alignments but to explore a range of issues relating to field method and practice in a context where spatially patterned archaeological data and ethnohistorical evidence exist in relatively fine balance. As archaeoastronomy has developed within the islands, it has become better integrated into archaeological investigations tackling questions of broader anthropological significance, one of the most fascinating being when, how, and why Polynesian chiefdoms became transformed into archaic states, something that happened here but nowhere else in Polynesia.

  16. Congener-specific profile and toxicity assessment of PCBs in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Miao, X S; Balazs, G H; Murakawa, S K; Li, Q X

    2001-12-17

    Chemical pollution may play a role in the etiology of fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (Chelonia mydas). In this preliminary study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the livers and adipose fats of green turtles collected after they were stranded on Oahu Island, Hawaii in 1992-1993. Average concentrations of total PCBs were 45-58 ng/g dry weight and 73-665 ng/g in the liver and adipose tissues, respectively. Hexachlorobiphenyls were predominant homologues, PCBs 153 and 138 were dominant congeners in all the turtle tissues. Among the most toxic coplanar congeners, in the order of abundance, were PCB 77 > 126 > 169. Estimated toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCBs to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were 8-15 pg/g in the livers and 13-48 pg/g in the adipose tissues. PCB 126 contributed 85-91% of the total TEQs. PMID:11778957

  17. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  18. All About Lobsters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Maine, or American, lobster is a crustacean with two strong claws: a big-toothed crusher claw for pulverizing shells and a finer-edged ripper claw resembling a steak knife, for tearing soft flesh. Website includes biological remarks, fisheries, economics, history of exploitation, and comparison with other lobsters. Also features educational activities and links to external sites.

  19. Journal of ShellfishResear~li,Vol. 24, No. 3, 761-765, 2005. A PROLONGED THERMAL STRESS EXPERIMENT ON THE AMERICAN LOBSTER,

    E-print Network

    Allam, Bassem

    ON THE AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS ALISTAIR D. M. DOVE,'* BASSEM ALL AM,^ JASON J. POWERS~AND MARK S groups of lobsters were maintained for 31 days at temperatures environmentally realistic for Long Island Sound to investigate the effectsof prolonged thermal stress on the physiology of lobsters. One group

  20. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  1. Natural history, biogeography, and endangerment of Hawaiian dry forest trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Pau; Thomas W. Gillespie; Jonathan P. Price

    2009-01-01

    We describe the floristic composition of Hawaiian dry forest trees and identify natural history characteristics and biogeographic\\u000a variables that are associated with risk of endangerment. Hawaiian dry forests are comprised of 109 tree species in 29 families,\\u000a with 90% of all species endemic, 10% indigenous, and 37% single-island endemics. Forty-five percent of Hawaiian dry forest\\u000a taxa are at risk of

  2. Constraints on the Composition and Hydrothermal Alteration History of the Pacific Lower Crust beneath the Hawaiian Islands: Geochemical Investigation of Gabbroic Xenoliths from Hualalai Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Lassiter, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the composition and hydrothermal alteration history of the lower oceanic crust (LOC) can help constrain deep hydrothermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, which may have a substantial impact on the thermal regime and magmatic processes at spreading centers. Previous studies of LOC primarily examined ophiolites or layer-3 gabbros exposed at the seafloor through faulting. These potentially have experienced secondary hydrothermal alteration in response to faulting, uplift and exposure. We examined major and trace element and isotopic compositions of a suite of gabbroic xenoliths derived from the 1800-1801 Kapulehu flow, Hualalai, Hawaii to constrain the composition and 'primary' hydrothermal alteration history of the in situ Pacific crust beneath the Hawaiian Islands (HI). Although most Hualalai gabbros have trace element and isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from Hualalai magmas, a subset has characteristics indicative of an origin from MORB-related melts. These gabbros contain LREE-depleted clinopyroxene, have Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions that overlap the range of EPR basalts, and are geochemically distinct from Hualalai-related xenoliths and lavas. Despite the limited range recorded, plagioclase and clinopyroxene oxygen isotope compositions correlate well for both MORB-related and Hualalai-related gabbroic xenoliths. This suggests clinopyroxene and plagioclase are in equilibrium. The ?plag-cpx (~0.6-0.9‰) is consistent with closure temperatures of ~1170-1220 C.?18Ocpx (+4.9-5.3‰) of the MORB-related gabbros are negatively correlated with cpx 87Sr/86Sr, but not with 143Nd/144Nd or La/Sm. In contrast, ?18Oplag does not correlate with plag 87Sr/86Sr. Cpx Sr-isotopes may be affected by seawater alteration, which is not as apparent in plag due to higher Sr concentrations. However, the MORB-related gabbros have ?18O values that are largely in the range for normal, fresh MORB (?18Omelt/NMORB = +5.7-6.0‰, ?melt-cpx~0.7‰). This suggests that only limited hydrothermal circulation penetrated to the depth of the layer-3 LOC gabbros beneath the HI, which resulted in only minor hydrothermal alteration. This is in contrast with observations from several ophiolite sequences and fault-exposed gabbros, which show significantly greater hydrothermal alteration and larger shifts in ?18O from normal mantle values (e.g., ?18O down to +3.5‰; c.f., [1]). The greater alteration recorded in these samples may result from hydrothermal circulation triggered by faulting/uplift associated with their exposure. The relatively uniform and 'normal' ?18O values of the MORB-related gabbros also suggest that assimilation of Pacific crust by Hawaiian magmas ponding within the lower crust is unlikely to produce significant shifts in the magma oxygen isotope composition, and is therefore unlikely to account for the low ?18O values recorded in some Kea-trend lavas as previously proposed (c.f., [2]). [1] Gregory, R. T. & Taylor Jr, H. P., 1981, J. Geophys. Res., 86, 2737-2755. [2] Eiler, J. M., Farley, K. A., Valley, J. W., Hofmann, A. W. and Stolper, E. M, 1996, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 144, 453-468.

  3. The Importance of Functional Morphology for Fishery Conservation and Management: Applications to Hawaiian Amphidromous Fishes

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    to Hawaiian Amphidromous Fishes HEIKO L. SCHOENFUSS Department of Biological Sciences, St. Cloud State to morphological features and limitations. In this review, we use the ichthyofauna of the Hawaiian Islands environmental conditions. Based on this analysis we make four key recommenda- tions. (1) Hawaiian stream

  4. Hybrid Origin and Genomic Mosaicism of Dubautia scabra (Hawaiian Silversword Alliance; Asteraceae, Madiinae)

    E-print Network

    Hybrid Origin and Genomic Mosaicism of Dubautia scabra (Hawaiian Silversword Alliance; Asteraceae incongruence is the placement of Dubautia scabra (DC.) D. D. Keck in the Hawaiian silversword alliance (HSA on Maui Nui and Hawai`i (the Big Island). Keywords--Dubautia, genome mosaic, Hawaiian silversword alliance

  5. Utility of RAPD Markers in Evaluating the Status of the Hawaiian Tree Fern Cibotium Dheleniae1

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Kent E.

    Utility of RAPD Markers in Evaluating the Status of the Hawaiian Tree Fern Cibotium Dheleniae1 occurring populations. Investigations of the Hawaiian pteri- dophytes over the past decade have revealed. Endemic island species, such as Hawaiian Cibotium, frequently exhibit large amounts of morphological

  6. Feeding Kinematics and Performance of Hawaiian Stream Gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    Feeding Kinematics and Performance of Hawaiian Stream Gobies, Awaous guamensis and Lentipes ABSTRACT Distributions of Hawaiian stream fishes are typically interrupted by waterfalls that divide of the Hawaiian Islands provides a novel system for evaluating how functional traits of animals correlate

  7. GRB Astrophysics with LOBSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Center of Advanced X-Ray Technologies, Reflex s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A. [Center of Advanced X-Ray Technologies, Reflex s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic)

    2006-05-19

    We refer on the recent developments of LOBSTER project suggesting novel wide-field Lobster-Eye type of X-ray All Sky Monitor to detect and to analyze GRBs including XRF and X-ray rich GRBs. The triggers can be detected and localized by their X-ray emission in the 0.1 - 8 keV energy range. The system exhibits fine detecting sensitivities of order of 10-12 ergcm-2s-1 and the localization accuracy is of order of a few arcmin. The LOBSTER is expected to contribute significantly to analyses of GRBs and especially the XRFs.

  8. LIGA FOR LOBSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H. [and others

    2000-09-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  9. Science Nation: Dying Lobsters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The lobster is important to many local economies. But this crustacean is threatened by a new virus. The level of infection is believed to be between five and eight percent of the population. Researchers are using a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to try to understand the dynamics of the disease, and specifically how it's spreading. A better understanding of how the virus spreads could lead to more effective management strategies for protecting uninfected lobsters from getting the disease.

  10. Chemical Communication in Lobsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Aggio; Charles D. Derby

    \\u000a Lobsters are fascinating animals that use chemicals as messages regarding their sexual status, their standing in a social\\u000a hierarchy, and whether they affiliate with or avoid conspecifics. This, plus their economic importance, makes them important\\u000a models for the study of intraspecific chemical communication. Our chapter is an overview of these processes, including the\\u000a types of interactions between lobsters influenced by

  11. A Detailed Receiver Function Study of The Hawaiian Plume Conduit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Woelbern; A. W. B. Jacob; T. A. Blake; R. Kind; X. Li; S. V. Sobolev; F. Duennebier; K. Priestley; M. Weber

    2002-01-01

    In summer 1999 eleven Guralp 40T seismic stations were set up by the DIAS, Dublin, in cooperation with the University of Hawaii, Honolulu, on four Hawaiian islands with concentration on the Big Island. Seismic data have been recorded until May 2001. A further STS-2 instrument has been installed on the island of MAUI by the GFZ, Potsdam, in 1999, which

  12. A Detailed Receiver Function Study of the Hawaiian Plume Conduit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Jacob; I. Woelbern; T. Blake; R. Kind; X. Li; S. Sobolev; F. Duennebier; K. Priestley; M. Weber

    2001-01-01

    In summer 1999 eleven Guralp 40T seismic stations have been set up by the DIAS, Dublin, in cooperation with the University of Hawaii, Honolulu on four Hawaiian islands with concentration on the Big Island. Seismic data have been recorded until May 2001. A further STS-2 instrument has been installed on the island of Maui by the GFZ, Potsdam, in 1999,

  13. Counseling Hawaiian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omizo, Michael M.; Omizo, Sharon A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the needs, problems, and issues of the Hawaiians, focusing on cultural differences in values in group orientation, concept of time, communication and learning, and appropriate behavior. Provides recommendations and implications for counselors of Hawaiian children. (ABL)

  14. Evolutionary Relationships of the Hawaiian and North American Telmatogeton (Insecta; Diptera: Chironomidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LESTER J. NEWMAN

    Species of Telmatogeton and the closely related genus Para­ clunio generally live on the rocky shores of the intertidal zone. Species of Tel­ matogeton have evolved from the marine environment into torrential freshwater streams of the Hawaiian Islands . An analysis of the banding sequences of the polytene chromosomes of species of Telmatogeton and Paraclunio from the Hawaiian Islands and

  15. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian alkalic basalts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rodd J. May

    1977-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 10 independently dated alkalic basalts from the Hawaiian Islands were studied for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. The samples range in composition from alkalic olivine basalt to trachyte and in age from 4500 years to 3.3 m.y. The TL process in basaltic plagioclase appears to

  16. Lobster Fishing: Shifting Cycles and Changing Traditions

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    Lobster Fishing: Shifting Cycles and Changing Traditions S teve Lawrence is a lobster fisherman in Kittery, Maine. He grew up in the area, and has been lobster fishing his entire life, similar to his Lobster Apprentice Program to earn his commercial lobster license before his 18th birthday. Business Steve

  17. Covariation of climate and long-term erosion rates across a steep rainfall gradient on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i

    E-print Network

    Ferrier, Ken L.

    Erosion of volcanic ocean islands creates dramatic landscapes, modulates Earth’s carbon cycle, and delivers sediment to coasts and reefs. Because many volcanic islands have large climate gradients and minimal variations ...

  18. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  19. American Journal of Botany 96(11): 20872099. 2009. The endemic Hawaiian flora provides many stunning exam-

    E-print Network

    Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2087 American Journal of Botany 96(11): 2087­2099. 2009. The endemic Hawaiian flora provides many (Givnish et al., 1995, 2004, 2009). In the context of the physical geography of the Hawaiian Islands to contribute to the majority of speciation events in endemic Hawaiian angiosperm lineages (Funk and Wagner

  20. 76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...fishery is managed under the Reef Fish FMP, spiny lobster is managed...fisheries are managed under the Reef Fish FMP and the Coral and Reef Associated...application of AMs in response to harvesting activities on a single island...units or complexes in the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, and...

  1. Lumpkin, R., and P.J. Flament. 2013. Extent and energetics of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent. Oceanography 26(1):5865, http://dx.doi.org/10.5670/oceanog.2013.05.

    E-print Network

    CITATION Lumpkin, R., and P.J. Flament. 2013. Extent and energetics of the Hawaiian Lee of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent abStract. Direct velocity observations from drogued drifters in the Hawaiian Island region are used to map the time-mean and seasonal variability of the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent

  2. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    PubMed

    Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

    2000-06-22

    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume. PMID:10879532

  3. Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mel Goodwin

    In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

  4. Effects of habitat patchiness on American lobster movement across a gradient of predation risk and shelter competition.

    PubMed

    Hovel, Kevin A; Wahle, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of landscape structure on marine ecological processes is receiving increasing attention. However, few studies conducted in coastal marine habitats have evaluated whether the effects of landscape structure on species interactions and organismal behavior are consistent across the range of an organism, over which landscape context and the strength of species interactions typically vary. American lobster (Homarus americanus) juveniles seek refuge from predators within shallow rocky habitat but make short-distance movements to forage outside of shelter. We evaluated how the patchiness of cobble habitat influences juvenile lobster movement by conducting mark-recapture experiments on lobsters placed within patchy and contiguous cobble plots in three regions of New England among which risk of predation and intraspecific shelter competition vary (Rhode Island, mid-coast Maine, and eastern Maine, USA). We also evaluated whether habitat patchiness influenced lobster colonization of plots and whether lobster fidelity to individual shelters corresponds to variability in predator abundance and conspecific density among regions. Cobble patchiness reduced rates of lobster movement in all three regions in 2004 and in two of three regions in 2005, despite large differences in landscape context among regions. Region had much larger effects on lobster colonization than did patchiness, but patchy plots were colonized at higher rates than were contiguous plots where lobster densities were highest. Fidelity to shelter was higher in regions with low conspecific density (Rhode Island and eastern Maine) than in mid-coast Maine where conspecific density is high and where unmarked lobsters often occupied shelters vacated by marked lobsters. Our results indicate that cobble patchiness influences juvenile lobster movement at small scales, but that the effects of patchiness on movement were consistent across much of the range of the American lobster despite strong regional variation in predator abundance and conspecific density. PMID:20715622

  5. The King of Crustaceans: Lobsters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    In the north Atlantic, the American Lobster is the undisputed king of crustaceans. It’s also a tremendously important commercial catch. While all the other fisheries are collapsing, why are lobsters resisting the trend? In this video, Jonathan goes out with a Maine lobsterman to learn why, and he dives down below to find the biggest lobsters he has ever seen. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  6. Barnacles on Folly Island

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Barnacles on a rock on Folly Island. Barnacles are crustaceans, related to lobsters and crabs, that often live in tidal zones. Once they become adults, they anchor themselves to a hard surface and filter feed. Folly Island, a preserve owned by the Maine Coast Heritage Trust, is about 7 acres. It is ...

  7. NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

  8. Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl

    E-print Network

    Entekhabi, Dara

    Blue Lobster Bowl 2013: Team Intent Form Preparations are underway for the Blue Lobster Bowl Forms will be requested at a later date. Up to 24 student teams can compete in the Blue Lobster Lobster Bowl The Blue Lobster Bowl is an annual academic competition that encourages high school

  9. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  10. Latitudinal limits to coral reef accretion: Testing the Darwin Point hypothesis at Kure Atoll, northwestern Hawaiian Islands, using new evidence from high resolution remote sensing and in situ data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siciliano, Daria

    This dissertation focused on assessing patterns of carbonate production in a marginal reef environment as the key to understand the mechanisms that limit modern reef distribution, and those that effect the response of coral reefs to a changing environment. This investigation was carried out at Kure atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, the northernmost atoll in the world. A less detailed comparative study was carried out throughout the 10 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, with the goal of revisiting Grigg's (1982) Darwin Point hypothesis on the limit of coral reef formation. Patterns of carbonate metabolism and benthic diversity at Kure Atoll were obtained from analysis of high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery; calcification rates were obtained from x-rayed slabs of coral samples and cores of the main coral reef-builders, collected in different habitats at Kure; data on habitat-specific bioerosion rates were obtained from in situ surveys of the main bioeroding taxa. These data were used to construct a habitat-specific carbonate budget for Kure Atoll. The main sources and sinks of CaCO3 at Kure Atoll were identified and their spatial extent quantified. Calcification rates vary significantly between the different habitats, with the warmer and wave-protected lagoonal patch reefs and back reef habitat exhibiting the largest growth rates. Average calcification rates were found to be one order of magnitude greater than those reported by Grigg (1982), as was the total amount of CaCO3 deposited by reef-building corals. The new habitat mapping techniques employed here show that the reef building area and amount of live coral cover in all three main geomorphic habitats of Kure Atoll is greater than previously estimated, and that the lagoonal environments of Kure Atoll contribute the greatest amount to the accretion potential of the atoll, followed by the actively accreting fore reef environment. Stable isotopic measurements indicate that the decrease in coral growth rate as a function of latitude may be explained by decreasing Sea Surface Temperatures (SST), but that this decline is habitat specific, and only applies to corals growing in exposed, high energy habitats. Stable oxygen isotopic analyses (delta18O) indicate that some species of reef-building corals may be responding to increases in SST by increasing their growth rates on decadal timescales. Comparison of accretionary vs. destructive processes for the entire atoll suggest that Kure has a net positive carbonate budget, where accretionary processes dominate the framework reef, keeping the atoll at sea level. Results from this research hope to contribute to our growing understanding and more accurate predictions of what limits coral reef distribution on both biological and geological time scales.

  11. Disparities in Self-Reported Postpartum Depression among Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Women in Hawaii: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004–2007

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald K. Hayes; Van M. Ta; Eric L. Hurwitz; Kristen M. Mitchell-Box; Loretta J. Fuddy

    2010-01-01

    Postpartum depression affects 10–20% of women and causes significant morbidity and mortality among mothers, children, families,\\u000a and society, but little is known about postpartum depression among the individual Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. This study sought to indentify the prevalence of postpartum depression among common Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. Data from the Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment and

  12. Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha !

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship `Aha ! 2011­2012" #12;Sponsored by" ·Native Hawaiian Education of Hawai`i" #12;Program" ·College Fair" ·College and Scholarship Overview" ·Scholarship Program of people who want to help !Scholarship program staff !Financial aid office !High school and college

  13. Native Hawaiian Scholarship Aha

    E-print Network

    Native Hawaiian Scholarship Aha 2012-2013 #12;Sponsored by ·Native Hawaiian Education Association i #12;Program ·College Fair ·College and Scholarship Overview ·Scholarship Program Presentations #12;Applying for Financial aid is Hard But... " There are lots of people who want to help. üScholarship

  14. Native Hawaiian Education Act: Greater Oversight Would Increase Accountability and Enable Targeting of Funds to Areas with Greatest Need. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-422

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Native Hawaiian Education Act (NHEA) seeks to develop innovative educational programs to assist Native Hawaiians. The Department of Education (Education) administers NHEA and has provided grants for a wide range of activities. Education is authorized to establish a Native Hawaiian Education Council and seven island councils to help implement…

  15. 36 Time series analysis of Hawaiian waterbirds Reed, J.M., Elphick, C.S., Zuur, A.F., Ieno, E.N. and Smith, G.M.

    E-print Network

    Reed, Michael

    36 Time series analysis of Hawaiian waterbirds Reed, J.M., Elphick, C.S., Zuur, A.F., Ieno, E-term survey data f or three endangered waterbirds that are f ound only in the Hawaiian Islands: Hawai- ian stilt ( Himantopus m exicanus knudeseni), Haw aiian co ot ( Fulica al ai), an d Hawaiian m oorhen

  16. Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands

    E-print Network

    Hall, Hillary

    2012-10-19

    Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

  17. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  18. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, P. R. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous geologic features can be discerned on ERTS-1 imagery of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A thick homoclinal sequence of north-dipping Tertiary marine strata along the northwestern Olympic Peninsula is readily discernible because of the banded nature of its outcrop. The submarine basalt on which the sequence rests shows as a high, rugged ridge. Within the sedimentary sequence, alternating sandstone and siltstone members 100 m or more thick show in the southeast corner of the image. Broad folds in this banded sequence and faults that cut it can be detected. One large fault, the Pysht River fault, and a large syncline in sandstone and siltstone east of it show prominently on the image. Numerous lineations on the image of southern Vancouver Island correlate with faults shown on Muller's map. Particularly prominent are the Leech River and San Juan faults along the southernmost part of the island.

  19. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

  20. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

  1. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

  2. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

  3. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132 Section...in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster...

  4. Vertical and horizontal movements of striped marlin ( Tetrapturus audax ) near the Hawaiian Islands, determined by ultrasonic telemetry, with simultaneous measurement of oceanic currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Wo Brill; D. B. Holts; R. K. C. Chang; S. Sullivan; H. Dewar; F. G. Carey

    1993-01-01

    We measured the vertical and horizontal movements of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) off the leeward coast of the Island of Hawaii between 20 November and 18 December 1992 while simultaneously gathering data on water temperature and oceanic currents. Fish movements were monitored by ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters, depth-temperature profiles by an expendable bathythermograph system, and oceanic current patterns by an acoustic

  5. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ?3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. PMID:25463753

  6. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1?) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ?5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. PMID:25219449

  7. ISS-Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  8. A Submarine Perspective on Hawaiian Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Postwar improvements in navigation, sonar-based mapping, and submarine photography enabled the development of bathymetric maps, which revealed submarine morphologic features that could be dredged or explored and sampled with a new generation of manned and unmanned submersibles. The maps revealed debris fields from giant landslides, the great extent of rift zones radiating from volcanic centers, and two previously unknown submarine volcanoes named Mahukona and Loihi, the youngest Hawaiian volcano. About 70 major landslides cover half the flanks of the Hawaiian Ridge out to Midway Island. Some of the landslides attain lengths of 200 km and have volumes exceeding 5,000 km3. More recent higher resolution bathymetry and sidescan data reveal that many submarine eruptions construct circular, flat-topped, monogenetic cones; that large fields of young strongly alkalic lava flows, such as the North Arch and South Arch lava fields, erupt on the seafloor within several hundred km of the islands; and that alkalic lavas erupt during the shield stage on Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The North Arch flow field covers about 24,000 km2, has an estimated volume between about 1000 and 1250 km3, has flows as long as 108 km, and erupted from over 100 vents. The source and melting mechanisms for their production is still debated. The maps also displayed stair-step terraces, mostly constructed of drowned coral reefs, which form during early rapid subsidence of the volcanoes during periods of oscillating sea level. The combination of scuba and underwater photography facilitated the first motion pictures of the mechanism of formation of pillow lava in shallow water offshore Kilauea. The age progression known from the main islands was extended westward along the Hawaiian Ridge past Midway Island, around a bend in the chain and northward along the Emperor Seamounts. Radiometric dating of dredged samples from these submarine volcanoes show that the magma source that built the chain has been active for over 80 Ma and established the remarkable linearity of the age-progression along the chain. Glass rinds on submarine lava quenched at depth contain initial magmatic volatiles and yield data on the juvenile water, sulfur, CO2, and rare gas contents of basaltic magmas, and continue to reveal nuances of the volatile contents of lava. Rock sampling at Loihi Seamount led to the discovery of the pre-shield alkalic phase of Hawaiian volcanism, which mirrors the well-known post-shield alkalic phase. Lava compositions from the Hawaiian Ridge and Emperor Seamounts have clear affinities to present-day Hawaiian lavas, but subtle source differences as well. The progression from small to large and back to small degrees of melting at individual volcanoes and the compositional changes along the chain constrain the melting processes and source compositions of Hawaiian volcanism. Coupling the age of lavas with that of submerged coral reefs has provided data on the growth and subsidence of volcanic centers. This information has meshed nicely with the age, composition, and morphology of lavas from the 3.2-km-deep Hawaiian Scientific Drill Hole. Submarine studies have taught us much about the workings of Hawaiian Volcanoes, and in the process have stimulated new work and concepts on marine volcanism worldwide.

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  11. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." Current and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

  12. SPINY LOBSTERS SNIFF BY FLICKING When spiny lobsters sniff out the lay of the

    E-print Network

    Koehl, Mimi

    Inside JEB iii SPINY LOBSTERS SNIFF BY FLICKING When spiny lobsters sniff out the lay of the land from the University of California, Berkeley, spiny lobsters `sniff' by rapidly flicking to diffuse through to the aesthetascs' scent receptors, allowing the lobsters to take a good sniff at any

  13. So They Built A Better Trap--for Lobsters The lobster fishery has experienced radi-

    E-print Network

    So They Built A Better Trap--for Lobsters The lobster fishery has experienced radi- cal changes" better than any other. A trap fishes well when it attracts and holds as many lobsters as it possibly can. First, the lobster samples the b a i t in trapls kitchen. Then it moves leisurely into the "parlor

  14. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy G. Vandergast; George K. Roderick

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host–parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit

  15. Community Assembly Through Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian Spiders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Gillespie

    2004-01-01

    Communities arising through adaptive radiation are generally regarded as unique, with speciation and adaptation being quite different from immigration and ecological assortment. Here, I use the chronological arrangement of the Hawaiian Islands to visualize snapshots of evolutionary history and stages of community assembly. Analysis of an adaptive radiation of habitat-associated, polychromatic spiders shows that (i) species assembly is not random;

  16. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks…

  17. Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Tilling

    The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

  18. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  19. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor R. Baker; Virginia C. Gulick

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In

  20. Individual recognition and memory in lobster dominance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTA KARAVANICH; JELLE ATEMA

    1998-01-01

    American lobsters,Homarus americanus, form stable dominance relationships in captivity. Size, sex and stage in the moult cycle are important determinants for dominance. Other factors, such as recent agonistic experience play a role. This paper investigates how lobsters maintain their stable dominance relationships: they may recognize individuals or alternatively, recognize overall dominance status. We paired lobsters in two consecutive ‘boxing matches’.

  1. PROGRAM PLANNED TO PREVENT DEPLETION OF LOBSTERS

    E-print Network

    PROGRAM PLANNED TO PREVENT DEPLETION OF LOBSTERS On August 21, Secretary of Comm rc Peter G-range pro- gram to prevent depletion of th Amencan lobster. H said: "Th need is pressing for th States S rvice, to establish a uniform management system for both in- shor and offshor stocks of lobsters. Th

  2. AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN,

    E-print Network

    AMERICAN LOBSTERS TAGGED BY MAINE COMMERCIAL FISHERMEN, 1957-59 In 1957 at the suggestion of C. Owen Smith, then editor of the "Maine Coast Fisherman," several commercial lobster fishermen volunteered to tag illegal American lobster, Homarus ameri- canus, with tags furnished by the Maine Depart

  3. Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster

    E-print Network

    Foreign Fishery Developments New Brazilian Lobster Grounds Harvested Brazilian fishermen have begun to fish new lobster grounds along the coast of the state of Bahia. The grounds are reportedly located that they can catch as much lobster during I day on the new grounds as they previously caught during an entire

  4. SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS

    E-print Network

    Q/ III / f SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS ::::;:::::::::::;::. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS C. E. Cope Drawings by Boris O. Knake Fishery Methods am Equipment Lobster Gear (1959) · · · · · · · ··· 15 Selected References

  5. Hawaiian electric utilities' progress in renewable energy development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Seki

    1997-01-01

    The progress of Hawaiian Electric Company activities related to renewable energy development in its service areas-the islands of Oahu, Maul and the Big Island of Hawaii is reported. A status update of the installed renewable generating resources in place (i.e., geothermal, biomass, wind, photovoltaic, hydroelectric), demand-side management programs (i.e., solar water heating, heat pumps, etc.), research, development and demonstration projects,

  6. Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Fullard

    2001-01-01

    The islands of Hawaii o¡er a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving

  7. S-wave tomographic imaging of the mantle beneath the Hawaiian Isl... http://www.agu.org/cgi-bin/SFgate/SFgate?language=English&verb... 1 of 2 5/18/09 5:27 PM

    E-print Network

    Laske, Gabi

    S-wave tomographic imaging of the mantle beneath the Hawaiian Isl... http://www21A-1725 TI: S-wave tomographic imaging of the mantle beneath the Hawaiian Islands from the PLUME States AB: The Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) project is a multidisciplinary

  8. Bioaccumulation and Metabolic Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor Methoprene in the Lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anna N; Bush, Parshall; Puritz, Jonathan; Wilson, Thomas; Chang, Ernest S; Miller, Tim; Holloway, Kenneth; Horst, Michael N

    2005-01-01

    Methoprene is a pesticide that acts as a juvenile hormone agonist. Although developed initially against insects, it has since been shown to have toxic effects on larval and adult crustaceans. Methoprene was one of several pesticides applied to the Western Long Island Sound (WLIS) watershed area during the summer of 1999; the other pesticides were malathion, resmethrin, and sumethrin. These pesticides were applied as part of a county-by-county effort to control the mosquito vector of West Nile Virus. Subsequently, the seasonal lobster catches from the WLIS have decreased dramatically. The lethality of the pesticides to lobsters had been unknown. We studied the effects of methoprene while other investigators studied effects of the other pesticides. We questioned whether methoprene, through its effects on larvae, adults or both, could have contributed to this decline. We found that low levels of methoprene had adverse effects on lobster larvae. It was toxic to stage II larvae at 1 ppb. Stage IV larvae were more resistant, but did exhibit significant increases in molt frequency beginning at exposures of 5 ppb. Juvenile lobsters exhibited variations in tissue susceptibility to methoprene: hepatopancreas appeared to be the most vulnerable, reflected by environmental concentrations of methoprene inhibiting almost all protein synthesis in this organ.Our results indicated that methoprene concentrates in the hepatopancreas, nervous tissue and epidermal cells of the adult lobster. Methoprene altered the synthesis and incorporation of chitoproteins (cuticle proteins) into adult postmolt lobster explant shells. SDS PAGE analyses of adult post-molt shell extracts revealed changes in the synthesis of chitoproteins in the methoprene-treated specimens, suggesting that methoprene affects the normal pathway of lobster cuticle synthesis and the quality of the post-molt shell. Although it is likely that a combination of factors led to the reduced lobster population in WLIS, methoprene may have contributed both by direct toxic effects and by disrupting homeostatic events under endocrine control. PMID:21676752

  9. Diseases of spiny lobsters: a review.

    PubMed

    Shields, J D

    2011-01-01

    Spiny lobsters have few reported pathogens, parasites and symbionts. However, they do have a diverse fauna comprised of a pathogenic virus, several bacteria, protozoans, helminths and even symbiotic crustaceans. A few idiopathic syndromes have also been reported, but these appear correlated with lobsters held in poor conditions. Fungal and bacterial pathogens present significant threats for rearing spiny lobsters in aquaculture settings, but only one pathogen, Panulirus argus virus 1, is thought to have damaged a fishery for a spiny lobster. No doubt others will emerge as lobsters are brought into aquaculture setting and as fishing pressure intensifies with stocks become more susceptible to anthropogenic stressors. PMID:21215357

  10. Patterns of sexual cohabitation and female ejaculate storage in the American lobster ( Homarus americanus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Gosselin; Bernard Sainte-Marie; Louis Bernatchez

    2003-01-01

    Little is known of the time and ejaculate allocation strategies during mating of American lobster, Homarus americanus. This study investigated sexual cohabitation and female ejaculate accumulation patterns in a laboratory mating experiment, as well as female seminal receptacle load in exploited populations in the waters of the Magdalen and Anticosti Islands, in eastern Canada. In the laboratory experiment, the length

  11. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  12. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F. [LASST, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2011-06-10

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  13. FEDERAL LOBSTER MANAGEMENT AREA LATITUDE/LONGITUDE COORDINATES The following lobster management areas are established for purposes of

    E-print Network

    FEDERAL LOBSTER MANAGEMENT AREA LATITUDE/LONGITUDE COORDINATES March 2006 The following lobster Federal lobster management measures can be found at the following NOAA Fisheries Northeast Region website: http://www.nero.noaa.gov. # Nearshore Lobster Management Area 1. Nearshore Lobster Management Area 1

  14. Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    An endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, a species that is sometimes killed by wind turbines. USGS scientists from Hawaii and Colorado are devising a way to directly observe bat occurrence and behavior at wind turbines using a video system composed of high-powered illuminators and near-infrared cameras.&nb...

  15. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....

  16. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy (United States)

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  17. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyi-Gyung; Keeley, Sterling C.; Vroom, Peter S.; Jansen, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands. PMID:9860987

  19. WESTERN PACIFIC INVERTEBR ATE FISHERIES western pacific

    E-print Network

    agencies in the region. The now-closed Northwestern Hawaiian Is- lands (NWHI; Figure 16-1) lobster trap-scale, primarily rec- reational, fishery for different species of lobster ex- ists in the Main Hawaiian Islands of Com- merce, and implemented by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The NWHI lobster fishery

  20. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section 697...MANAGEMENT Management Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for...

  1. EFFECTS OF INJURIES ON SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUS ARGUS, AND IMPLICATIONS

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF INJURIES ON SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUS ARGUS, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FISHERY MANAGEMENT The spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, supports im- portant commercial and recreational fisheries throughout rates of wild juvenile spiny lobsters, P. argus, in Florida and discusses the implications

  2. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section 697...MANAGEMENT Management Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for...

  3. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section 697...MANAGEMENT Management Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for...

  4. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section 697...MANAGEMENT Management Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for...

  5. ECOLOGY OF HAWAIIAN SERGESTID SHRIMPS (PEDAEIDEA: SERGESTIDAE)

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ECOLOGY OF HAWAIIAN SERGESTID SHRIMPS (PEDAEIDEA: SERGESTIDAE) A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED and migration, population size, seasonal size-frequency distribution and diet. Hawaiian sergestids occur, which lives two years. One species, ~. fulgens, apparently does not reproduce in Hawaiian waters

  6. Stratigraphic constraints on the timing and emplacement of the Alika 2 giant Hawaiian submarine landslide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary M McMurtry; Emilio Herrero-Bervera; Maximilian D Cremer; John R Smith; Johanna Resig; Clark Sherman; Michael E Torresan

    1999-01-01

    Previous work has found evidence for giant tsunami waves that impacted the coasts of Lanai, Molokai and other southern Hawaiian Islands, tentatively dated at 100+ and 200+ ka by U-series methods on uplifted coral clasts. Seafloor imaging and related work off Hawaii Island has suggested the Alika phase 2 debris avalanche as the source of the ?100 ka “giant wave

  7. Impact of Climate Change on Hawaiian Monk Seals Activity 2: The Odd Couple

    E-print Network

    Impact of Climate Change on Hawaiian Monk Seals Activity 2: The Odd Couple Region: Pacific Islands deeper ocean habitats below the range of SCUBA divers. Only a few explorations have been made with deep-diving of the Northwestern Islands. On September 20, 2002, scientists aboard the deep-diving submersible Pisces IV observed

  8. THE MOVEMENT OF STERILE MALE BACTROCERA CUCURBITAE (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) IN A HAWAIIAN AGROECOSYSTEM.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillett, was discovered to have invaded the Hawaiian Island chain in 1895. In 1999 a program sponsored by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) to control melon fly and other tephritid pests in Hawaii over a wide area was initiated on the islands of Haw...

  9. HISTOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) IN THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT

    E-print Network

    HISTOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) IN THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT JEFFREY disease. A histological study of the 100 lobsters was undertaken as part of that assessment. Tissues from to epizootic shell disease, the histological findings revealed 3 other idiopathic syndromes

  10. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  11. The origin and number of introductions of the Hawaiian endemic Silene species (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Eggens, Frida; Popp, Magnus; Nepokroeff, Molly; Wagner, Warren L; Oxelman, Bengt

    2007-02-01

    The Hawaiian endemic Silene are a small group of woody or semiwoody representatives from a large, predominantly herbaceous, species-rich genus. We here investigated the origin and number of introductions of the endemic Hawaiian Silene based on phylogenetic relationships inferred from DNA sequences from both the plastid (the rps16 intron) and the nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed sequences, ITS, and intron 23 of the RPB2 gene) genomes. Silene antirrhina, a widespread weedy American annual, is strongly supported as sister to a monophyletic group consisting of the Hawaiian Silene, indicating a single colonization event. There are no obvious morphological similarities between S. antirrhina and any of the species of Hawaiian Silene. Our results suggest an American origin for the Hawaiian endemics because that would require only a single trans-ocean dispersal. Two of the Hawaiian endemics (S. struthioloides and S. hawaiiensis) that form a subclade in the analyses have evolved woodiness after introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. Our results contribute to other recent results based on molecular phylogenetics that emphasize the American continent as a source area for the Hawaiian flora and support a striking morphological radiation and evolution of woodiness from a single introduction to the archipelago. PMID:21642223

  12. Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Exploring Hawaiian Views of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1998-01-01

    Empiricism is culturally defined in that culture shapes sensory knowledge. Hawaiians recognize senses beyond the five that Western culture recognizes. Hawaiians are not unempirical; they draw conclusions of their own from their empirical experiences. It is time to validate other ways of knowing, long suppressed in the U.S. educational system. (TD)

  13. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

    2004-03-10

    A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts. PMID:15109145

  14. Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Minority Health & Health Equity (OMHHE). PPT Version CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report, 2011 (CHDIR) CHDIR, 2011 CHDIR Slides Top ... Month Observance Asian American & NHOPI NEWS Page CDC Health Disparities & Inequalities Report (CHDIR) National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention ...

  15. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 6MB] A recent report from the state of Hawaii, a state with a high percentage of Native ... reveals some relevant facts: Minority Rate for Stroke, Hawaii 2005 Population Population / White Ratio White 32.1 -- ...

  16. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

  17. W E S T E R N PAC I F I C I N V E R T E B R AT E F I S H E R I E S Western Pacific

    E-print Network

    Invertebrate Fisheries INTRODUCTION The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) lobster fishery is the major. Management Situation The NWHI lobster fishery, which began in 1977, harvests spiny and slipper lobsters. The MHI lobster fishery is managed by the state of Hawaii, although a few offshore banks are included

  18. Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

  19. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  20. Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  1. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  2. Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness

    E-print Network

    Childress, Michael J.

    Abstract Proximate and Ultimate Mechanisms of Spiny Lobster Gregariousness Ken Sercy and Michael show clear differences in spiny lobster gregariousness. Panulirus argus is usually found sharing variation in lobster distribution and fitness. Spiny lobsters are a convenient model system for studying

  3. Octopuses influence den selection by juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne K. Berger; Mark J. Butler

    Octopuses are notorious predators of crustaceans, yet knowledge of their interactions with lobsters is largely anecdotal. Whether by preying on juvenile lobsters or by competing with them for dens or bivalve prey, octopuses should influence the den selection and therefore spatial distribution of lobsters. Lobsters are chemosensitive, so if the interaction is strong, they may respond to chemical cues produced

  4. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan I. Jarvi; Dennis Triglia; Alexis Giannoulis; Margaret Farias; Kiara Bianchi; Carter T. Atkinson

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, and ‘Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds\\u000a representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide\\u000a revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of the US Geological Survey, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is charged with monitoring and researching volcanoes in Hawaii. The site provides current activity reports, hazard information, and a history of the two main volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. In addition, the site provides information on three other volcanoes that are either active or potentially active. Visitors can also learn about earthquakes in Hawaii and the particular hazards posed by volcanos. Captivating photos help bring the volcanoes to life. Visitors can patronize the Photo Gallery for additional volcano photos. Cross links to additional information and sites are provided on every page.

  6. Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, A Y; Rubinoff, D

    2013-08-01

    Species occurring in unconnected, but similar habitats and under similar selection pressures often display strikingly comparable morphology, behaviour and life history. On island archipelagos where colonizations and extinctions are common, it is often difficult to separate whether similar traits are a result of in situ diversification or independent colonization without a phylogeny. Here, we use one of Hawaii's most ecologically diverse and explosive endemic species radiations, the Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar genus Hyposmocoma, to test whether in situ diversification resulted in convergence. Specifically, we examine whether similar species utilizing similar microhabitats independently developed largely congruent larval case phenotypes in lineages that are in comparable, but isolated environments. Larvae of these moths are found on all Hawaiian Islands and are characterized by an extraordinary array of ecomorphs and larval case morphology. We focus on the 'purse cases', a group that is largely specialized for living within rotting wood. Purse cases were considered a monophyletic group, because morphological, behavioural and ecological traits appeared to be shared among all members. We constructed a phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 38 Hyposmocoma species, including all 14 purse case species and 24 of non-purse case congeners. Divergence time estimation suggests that purse case lineages evolved independently within dead wood and developed nearly identical case morphology twice: once on the distant Northwest Hawaiian Islands between 15.5 and 9 Ma and once on the younger main Hawaiian Islands around 3.0 Ma. Multiple ecomorphs are usually found on each island, and the ancestral ecomorph of Hyposmocoma appears to have lived on tree bark. Unlike most endemic Hawaiian radiations that follow a clear stepwise progression of colonization, purse case Hyposmocoma do not follow a pattern of colonization from older to younger island. We postulate that the diversity of microhabitats and selection from parasitism/predation from endemic predators may have shaped case architecture in this extraordinary endemic radiation of Hawaiian insects. PMID:23866031

  7. 76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...reference points for managed fish stocks, including maximum...application of AMs in response to harvesting activities on a single island...complexes in the Caribbean Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, and Coral...limit for the described reef fish species would be five fish...

  8. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...from both the Coral and Reef Fish FMPs with the result that they...aquarium trade species in the Reef Fish and the Coral FMPs to the jurisdiction...application of AMs in response to harvesting activities on a more island...ACLs and AMs for Caribbean reef fish, spiny lobster, and...

  9. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

  10. Native Hawaiian views on biobanking.

    PubMed

    Tauali i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-09-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N?=?92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: (1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, (2) research transparency, (3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, (4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, (5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and (6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise "G.R.E.A.T. Research" (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai'i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  11. Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds.

    PubMed Central

    Lovette, Irby J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2002-01-01

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of the entire passerine radiation, this dramatic morphological radiation represents an extreme manifestation of a general clade-specific ability to evolve novel morphologies. PMID:11788034

  12. Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

    1985-01-01

    Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies. PMID:3860822

  13. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  14. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  15. Identification of endangered Hawaiian ducks ( Anas wyvilliana ), introduced North American mallards ( A. platyrhynchos ) and their hybrids using multilocus genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ada C. Fowler; John M. Eadie; Andrew Engilis Jr

    2009-01-01

    Hawaiian ducks (Anas wyvilliana), or koloa, are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and are listed as a federal and state endangered species. Hybridization between\\u000a koloa and introduced mallards (A. platyrhynchos) is believed to be a primary threat to the recovery of koloa. We evaluated the utility of two sets of nuclear markers (microsatellite\\u000a loci and amplified fragment length polymorphisms) and

  16. False Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as a Possible Indicator of Long-Line Fishery Interactions in Hawaiian Waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin W. Baird; Antoinette M. Gorgone

    2005-01-01

    Scarring resulting from entanglement in fishing gear can be used to examine cetacean fishery interactions. False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are known to interact with the Hawai'i-based tuna and swordfish long-line fish- ery in offshore Hawaiian waters. We examined the rate of major dorsal fin dis- figurements of false killer whales from nearshore waters around the main Hawaiian Islands to

  17. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  18. On Hawaiian Groups of Some Topological Spaces

    E-print Network

    Babaee, Ameneh; Mirebrahimi, Hanieh

    2011-01-01

    The paper is devoted to study the structure of Hawaiian groups of some topological spaces. We present some behaviors of Hawaiian groups with respect to product spaces, weak join spaces, cone spaces, covering spaces and locally trivial bundles. In particular, we determine the structure of the $n$-dimensional Hawaiian group of the $m$-dimensional Hawaiian earring space, for all $1\\leq m\\leq n$.

  19. A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior…

  20. Age and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRUCE G. BALDWIN; MICHAEL J. SANDERSON

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons between insular and continen- tal radiations have been hindered by a lack of reliable estimates of absolute diversification rates in island lineages. We took advantage of rate-constant rDNA sequence evolution and an ''external'' calibration using paleoclimatic and fossil data to determine the maximum age and minimum diversifi- cation rate of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae), a textbook example of

  1. A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai'i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and…

  2. Origin of the Hawaiian endemic mints within North American Stachys (Lamiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHARLOTTE LINDQVIST; VICTOR A. ALBERT

    2002-01-01

    The Hawaiian endemic mints constitute a major island radiation, displaying a remarkable diversity of floral, fruit, and vegetative features. Haplostachys and Phyllostegia have flowers associated with insect pollination, whereas Stenogyne has flowers typical of bird pollination. The three genera had been thought to be closely related to East Asian members of Lamioideae tribe Prasieae because of the fleshy nutlets borne

  3. Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James H. Fullard

    1984-01-01

    Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

  4. Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Blob; K. M. Wright; M. Becker; T. Maie; T. J. Iverson; M. L. Julius; H. L. Schoenfuss

    2007-01-01

    Juveniles from three species of Hawaiian gobiid fishes climb waterfalls as part of an amphidromous life cycle, allowing them to re-penetrate adult upstream habitats after being swept out to the ocean upon hatching. The importance of climbing for juvenile stream gobies is well established, but adult fish in upstream island habitats also face potential downstream displacement by periodic disturbances. Thus,

  5. Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders

    E-print Network

    Blackledge, Todd

    Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

  6. 3 CFR 8369 - Proclamation 8369 of May 1, 2009. Asian American and Pacific Islander Heritage Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...to the Hawaiian Islands and to our Pacific Island territories, all possess the common purpose of the fulfilling the American dream and leading a life bound by the American ideals of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. During Asian...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  10. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  11. AIDS in the Native Hawaiian Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Kau, Alyson

    1992-01-01

    AIDS infection rates among native Hawaiians are increasing. Discusses the ramifications of AIDS in the native Hawaiian community by examining the knowledge and lifestyle practices of 26 native Hawaiians in Hawaii. Identifies recommendations for the development of culturally responsive social services. (KS)

  12. SPAWNING OF YELLOWFIN TUNA. . IN HAWAIIAN WATERS

    E-print Network

    SPAWNING OF YELLOWFIN TUNA. . IN HAWAIIAN WATERS By FRED C. JUNE FISHERY BULLETIN 77 UNITED STATESO/J'ropterus), captured by longline gear in Hawaiian waters during 1950, demonstrate that several developmental groups size and ranged from 2,370,000 to 8;590,000. Spawning of the yellowfin tuna in Hawaiian waters during

  13. Native Hawaiian Community College Students: What Happens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Lester, Jaime; Moon, Hye Sun; Tibbetts, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Using a weighted database of approximately 3,000 students, this study involves the tracing of the postsecondary history of 2,516 students who identified as Native Hawaiian, graduated from high school between 1993 and 1995, and attended college. Virtually none of the students are 100% Hawaiian. Due to a long history of intermarriage, the Hawaiian

  14. THE HAWAIIAN EARRING GROUP IS TOPOLOGICALLY INCOMPLETE

    E-print Network

    Fabel, Paul

    THE HAWAIIAN EARRING GROUP IS TOPOLOGICALLY INCOMPLETE PAUL FABEL Abstract. If an inverse limit space X is constructed in sim- ilar fashion to the Hawaiian earring, then the fundamental group 1(X, p being uncountable, we show 1(X, p) is not a Baire space. The Hawaiian earring in particular provides

  15. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

  16. The Island Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

  17. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

  18. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

  19. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Hawaiian Culture Scale—Adolescent Version

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Earl S. Hishinuma; Naleen N. Andrade; Ronald C. Johnson; John J. McArdle; Robin H. Miyamoto; Linda B. Nahulu; George K. Makini; Noelle Y. C. Yuen; Stephanie T. Nishimura; John F. McDermott; Jane A. Waldron; Kenneth N. Luke; Alayne Yates

    2000-01-01

    This article reports on the psychometric properties of a newly constructed Hawaiian Culture Scale—Adolescent Version. A total of 2,272 Native Hawaiian and 1,170 non-Hawaiian adolescents were administered this 50-item inventory that measures the source of learning the Hawaiian way of life, how much Hawaiian beliefs are valued and important to maintain, how much non-Hawaiian beliefs are valued, Hawaiian blood quantum,

  1. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  2. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    PubMed Central

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  3. Malathion immunotoxicity in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) upon experimental exposure.

    PubMed

    De Guise, Sylvain; Maratea, Jennifer; Perkins, Christopher

    2004-03-10

    A lobster die-off reduced the 1999 fall landings in western Long Island Sound by up to more then 99%. The die-off corresponded in time with the application of pesticides for the control of mosquitoes that carried West Nile virus, a new emerging disease in North America at the time. In order to determine the possible implication of pesticide application as a direct cause or contributing factor in the die-off, we studied the effects of experimental exposure to malathion on the health of lobsters. Lobsters were exposed in 20 gallon tanks, and the direct toxicity as well as sub-lethal effects on the immune system were determined. The 96 h LC50 for malathion upon single exposure was 38 microg/l. Malathion degraded rapidly in sea water, with 65-77% lost after 1 day and 83-96% lost after 3 days. Phagocytosis was significantly decreased 3 days after a single exposure to initial water concentrations as low as 5 ppb, when measured water concentrations were as low as 0.55 ppb. Similarly, effects on phagocytosis were observed at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after the initiation of weekly exposures. Cell counts did not differ significantly upon exposure to malathion. Malathion was not detected in muscle and hepatopancreas of exposed lobsters. Evaluation of phagocytosis is a sensitive indicator of subtle sub-lethal effects of malathion, and relatively small concentrations of malathion (6-7 times lower than the LC50) can affect lobster defense mechanisms. PMID:15168949

  4. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  5. Firing Between Two Spike Thresholds: Implications for Oscillating Lobster Interneurons

    E-print Network

    Robertson, Meldrum

    Firing Between Two Spike Thresholds: Implications for Oscillating Lobster Interneurons Abstract. An identified interneuron in the lobster commissural gangliafires spikes only between membrane potential values of the lobster can exhibit spike inactivation as a result of spontaneous depolarization. This phenomenon cannot

  6. S pin y Lobsters UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-print Network

    ?SI S pin y Lobsters UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE BUREAU spiny lobster of Florida (Panulirus argus) is ahandsome crustacean mottled with blue, rich yellow, and brown and clotted with numerous spines. INT .DUP. ,D.C. 61-1 05 0 11 #12;SPINY LOBSTERS By Lola T. Dees

  7. Diseases of spiny lobsters: A review J.D. Shields

    E-print Network

    Minireview Diseases of spiny lobsters: A review J.D. Shields Department of Environmental Symbiont Pathogen Fishing a b s t r a c t Spiny lobsters have few reported pathogens, parasites, but these appear correlated with lobsters held in poor conditions. Fungal and bacterial pathogens present

  8. Sustainable How does NMFS manage the American Lobster Fishery?

    E-print Network

    Sustainable Fisheries How does NMFS manage the American Lobster Fishery? Federal management of the American lobster fishery is influenced by management recommendations made by the Atlantic States Marine, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. The current management of American lobster

  9. Disentangling defense: the function of spiny lobster sounds

    E-print Network

    Claverie, Thomas

    Disentangling defense: the function of spiny lobster sounds E.R. Staaterman, T. Claverie & S spiny lobsters (Palinuridae: Panulirus interruptus) to a model predator, model conspecific and blank elicited no discernable changes in defensive behaviour, but the responses by the lobsters to aggressors

  10. LOBSTER: A European Platform for Passive Network Traffic Monitoring

    E-print Network

    Markatos, Evangelos P.

    LOBSTER: A European Platform for Passive Network Traffic Monitoring Demetris Antoniadis, Michalis present a concerted European Effort to im- prove our understanding of the Internet through the LOBSTER hardware, LOBSTER empowers a large number of researchers and system administrators into reaching a better

  11. Lobsters-Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade

    E-print Network

    Lobsters-Identification, World Distribution, and U.S. Trade AUSTIN B. WILLIAMS Introduction Lobsters are valued throughout the world as prime seafood items wherever they are caught, sold, or consumed. Basically, three kinds are marketed for food, the clawed lobsters (superfamily Nephropoidea), the squat

  12. Observations on the biology of the American lobster Homarus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN T. HUGHES; GEORGE C. MATTHIESSEN

    1962-01-01

    ABSTBACT American lobsters (IIomarus ame~icanzcs) have been hatched and reared at the Mas- sachusctts State Lobster Hatchery, Oak Bluffs, Mass., since 1951. Individual lobsters have been held for as long as 10 years. Records have been maintained on seasonal occurrence of hatching, duration of the larval period, occurrence of molting with age and season, and rates of growth. The peak

  13. Introduction The marine environment inhabited by the American lobster

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    1245 Introduction The marine environment inhabited by the American lobster Homarus americanus for the lobster because as poikilotherms they are unable to regulate their own body temperature. The body temperature of the lobster closely matches the external temperature of the seawater (Worden et al., 2006

  14. Factors Affecting Post-Capture Survivability of Lobster Homarus Americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Basti; Ian Bricknell; K. Hoyt; E. S. Chang; W. Halteman; D. Bouchard

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design

  15. Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Hawaii's Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database is a centralized database that includes monitoring data for Hawaii's natural resources. Designed to help meet the information needs of land managers in Hawaii, the database includes "standardized and fully-documented data collection efforts by federal, state, and private agencies." A license (free, with permission) is required to access the database. Recently, the site added an updated master species list for Hawaii and an update (from US Fish and Wildlife Service) on the Endangered/Threatened status of Hawaiian species (.zip format).

  16. The role of agricultural innovation on Pacific Islands: a case study from Hawai'i Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D. McCoy; Michael W. Graves

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture was essential in providing for food security, population growth and surplus social production on Pacific Islands. This paper discusses innovations first seen between ad 1400 and 1650 that opened up roughly 60 per cent of the available farm land in the Hawaiian Islands. These innovations include terraced fields in narrow gulches, some using simple flooding to take irrigation water

  17. Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric lava tubes as well as the historic tubes located in the bombing range near Mauna Loa. These natural structures should be considered for use in planning for the expansion and advanced stages of the future manned lunar base.

  18. Kula Kaiapuni: Hawaiian Immersion Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kame'eleihiwa, Lilikala

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaii State Department of Education offers a growing number of Hawaiian language immersion schools for its students. The article presents the history of immersion schools in Hawaii, examining criticisms of immersion schools, discussing their benefits, and explaining necessary components for success. (SM)

  19. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

  20. Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A report entitled Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone was recently released from the US Geological Survey. The stated purpose of the report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii and to provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. The nearly 300 page atlas can be downloaded in seven different sections or as one large document. Included in the atlas are notes on specific hazards, a ranking of hazard intensity, an overall hazard assessment, and specific technical hazard maps for each island.

  1. Infectious disease monitoring of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A Alonso; Keefe, Thomas J; Reif, John S; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Yochem, Pamela K; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Stott, Jeffrey L; Goldstein, Tracey; Dubey, J P; Braun, Robert; Antonelis, George

    2007-04-01

    As part of conservation efforts between 1997 and 2001, more than 25% (332 animals) of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) population was sampled in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Serum samples were tested for antibodies to viruses, bacteria, and parasites known to cause morbidity and mortality in other marine mammal species. Antibodies were found to phocine herpesvirus-1 by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but seropositive results were not confirmed by virus neutralization test. Antibodies to Leptospira bratislava, L. hardjo, L. icterohaemorrhagiae, and L. pomona were detected in seals from several sites with the microagglutination test. Antibodies to Brucella spp. were detected using 10 conventional serologic tests, but because of inconsistencies in test results and laboratories used, and the lack of validation by culture, the Brucella serology should be interpreted with caution. Antibodies to B. canis were not detected by card test. Chlamydophila abortus antibodies were detected by complement fixation (CF) test, and prevalence increased significantly as a function of age; the low sensitivity and specificity associated with the CF make interpretation of results difficult. Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Dirofilaria immitis were rarely found. There was no serologic evidence of exposure to four morbilliviruses, influenza A virus, canine adenovirus, caliciviruses, or other selected viruses. Continuous surveillance provides a means to detect the introduction or emergence of these or other infectious diseases, but it is dependent on the development or improvement of diagnostic tools. Continued and improved surveillance are both needed as part of future conservation efforts of Hawaiian monk seals. PMID:17495307

  2. Page 330 Courses: Geology (GEOL) Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog geoL 301 nAturAL HiStory of tHe HAWAiiAn iSLAndS (3)

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Page 330 Courses: Geology (GEOL) Sonoma State University 2013-2014 Catalog geoL 301 nAturAL Hi isolated archipelago in the world; geologic history and context of volcanic oceanic islands; conservation in Natural Sciences). Prerequisite: BIOL 115 or 121/122. geoL 302 geoLogy of CLiMAte CHAnge (3) Lecture, 3

  3. Ecology: avoidance of disease by social lobsters.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2006-05-25

    Transmissible pathogens are the bane of social animals, so they have evolved behaviours to decrease the probability of infection. There is no record, however, of social animals avoiding diseased individuals of their own species in the wild. Here we show how healthy, normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) avoid conspecifics that are infected with a lethal virus. Early detection and avoidance of infected, though not yet infectious, individuals by healthy lobsters confers a selective advantage and highlights the importance of host behaviour in disease transmission among natural populations. PMID:16724051

  4. Deep Water Multibeam Sonar Surveys on the Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.; Smith, J. R.; Satake, K.; Takahashi, E.; Naka, J.; Kanamatsu, T.

    2002-12-01

    The Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) sponsored four collaborative cruises by Japanese and US scientists, in 1998, 1999, 2001, and 2002, to build a greater understanding of deep marine geology around the Hawaiian Islands. These cruises have surveyed over 600,000 km2 of the seafloor with a multibeam seafloor mapping sonar system (Seabeam 2112), made robotic and manned submersible dives, collected dredge and piston core samples, and performed single channel seismic, gravity, and magnetic surveys. The JAMSTEC sonar surveys are the most comprehensive synoptic dataset for the Hawaiian Islands since the lower-resolution GLORIA surveys by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1980's. The Seabeam system produces wide-swath contiguous contour maps and acoustic backscatter images. The surveys generated detailed maps of previously known features and imaged some features for the first time. The new surveys determined block distribution, orientation, and structure of the enormous Nuuanu and Wailau landslides, which lie just north of the islands of Oahu and Molokai. Many of the volcanic rift zones were surveyed; the Puna, Hilo and Hana ridges in their entirety. Slumped flanks of several islands and rift zones were mapped, including Hilina, South Kona, Laupahoehoe, and Pololu (Hawaii Island), Hana (Maui), and Clarke's landslide (SW of Lanai). The detailed bathymetry confirms involvement of a compressional component at the toes of some slumps. Most of the large North Arch volcanic field, first located by GLORIA, was mapped, and many low-relief lava flows and vents were imaged. The SW Oahu volcanic field was surveyed in detail for the first time; it consists of both flat-topped and steep-sided cones and low-relief lava flows. The transitional-stage chemistry of the field makes it distinct from alkalic lava fields on the North and South Arch.

  5. Atlas of natural hazards in the Hawaiian coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fletcher, Charles H., III; Grossman, Eric E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii. This information is the key to the wise use and management of coastal resources. The information contained in this document,we hope,will improve the ability of Hawaiian citizens and visitors to safely enjoy the coast and provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. This work is largely based on previous investigations by scientific and engineering researchers and county, state, and federal offices and agencies. The unique aspect of this report is that, to the extent possible, it assimilates prior efforts in documenting Hawaiian coastal hazards and combines existing knowledge into a single comprehensive coastal hazard data set. This is by no means the final word on coastal hazards in Hawaii. Every hazardous phenomenon described here, and others such as slope failure and rocky shoreline collapse, need to be more carefully quantified, forecast, and mitigated. Our ultimate goal, of course, is to make the Hawaiian coast a safer place by educating the people of the state, and their leaders, about the hazardous nature of the environment. In so doing, we will also be taking steps toward improved preservation of coastal environments, because the best way to avoid coastal hazards is to avoid inappropriate development in the coastal zone. We have chosen maps as the medium for both recording and communicating the hazard history and its intensity along the Hawaiian coast.Two types of maps are used: 1) smallscale maps showing a general history of hazards on each island and summarizing coastal hazards in a readily understandable format for general use, and 2) a large-scale series of technical maps (1:50,000) depicting coastal sections approximately 5 to 7 miles in length with color bands along the coast ranking the relative intensity of each hazard at the adjacent shoreline.

  6. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91...Limits § 91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. (a) Each air...and Energy, on its compliance with the Hawaiian operations provisions of 49...

  7. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91...Limits § 91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. (a) Each air...and Energy, on its compliance with the Hawaiian operations provisions of 49...

  8. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91...Limits § 91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. (a) Each air...and Energy, on its compliance with the Hawaiian operations provisions of 49...

  9. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91...Limits § 91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. (a) Each air...and Energy, on its compliance with the Hawaiian operations provisions of 49...

  10. 14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. 91.877 Section 91...Limits § 91.877 Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. (a) Each air...and Energy, on its compliance with the Hawaiian operations provisions of 49...

  11. Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

  12. Hawaii Forest Bird Interagency Database Project: Collecting, Understanding, and Sharing Population Data on Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thane K.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are distinguished by the diversity of endemic forms derived from a small number of ancestral colonists. However, the avifauna has been decimated by human activities both before and after Western contact. At least 71 species or subspecies disappeared before the arrival of Capt. James Cook in 1778, and an additional 24 went extinct after 1778, of which 11 were lost since the 1960s alone. Many of the remaining Hawaiian bird populations are declining or are in danger of extinction. Vigorous efforts to survey and monitor bird populations over the past 3 decades have generated considerable information from which to assess the current status of the Hawaiian forest birds.

  13. Teaching in a Hawaiian Context: Educator Perspectives on the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamauchi, Lois A.; Ceppi, Andrea K.; Lau-Smith, Jo-Anne

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups and interviews with 37 teachers and 4 principals examined their roles and experiences in Papahana Kaiapuni, a K-12 program taught entirely in Hawaiian. Teachers integrated Hawaiian culture into the curriculum and viewed the program as a model of school reform for Native Hawaiians. The program transformed many teachers' views of…

  14. HAWAIIAN OCEAN MIXING EXPERIMENT (HOME): FARFIELD PROGRAM HAWAIIAN TIDAL ENERGY BUDGET

    E-print Network

    Dushaw, Brian

    precision to quantify the tidal power dissipated in the nearfield of the Ridge. The data are vitalHAWAIIAN OCEAN MIXING EXPERIMENT (HOME): FARFIELD PROGRAM HAWAIIAN TIDAL ENERGY BUDGET Principal). This tidal energy budget will determine limits on the energy dissipated in the nearfield of the Hawaiian

  15. Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian

    E-print Network

    Fullard, James H.

    by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus) James H. Fullard Department of Zoology, Erindale this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts of Hawai`i are home to only one, the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Whitaker & Tomich 1983

  16. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New Distributional Records for Endemic Asteia (Asteiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New island records are reported for five species of Asteia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Asteia hawaiiensis, Asteia mauiensis, Asteia molokaiensis, Asteia palikuensis, Asteia sabroskyi). These new records expand our understanding of distributions in Asteia, change the percentage of single island endemics from 78% to 33%, and have significance in how we view the process of diversification acting in this lineage. We also present a list of the known rearing records for two species in this group. Asteia montgomeryi has been recorded from Erythrina and Asteia sabroskyi has been reared from Pisonia, Urera, Charpentiera and Hibiscadelphus. PMID:24855434

  17. Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomatogastric System: Spike Number-

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Scott

    Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomatogastric dependence in two slow muscles in the lobster stomatogastric system. Our analysis shows that, func- tionally words: Panulirus interruptus; lobster; crustacea; stoma- togastric; pylorus; gastric mill; pyloric

  18. Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea

    E-print Network

    Huang, Zachary

    Antenna contact and agonism in the male lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea Szu-Ying Chou-old socially naïve male (SNM) lobster cockroaches (Nauphoeta cinerea) spontaneously adopted an aggressive; Spontaneous aggressive posture Introduction The lobster cockroach, Nauphoeta cinerea (Dictyoptera: Bla

  19. Face Validity of the Core Food Security Module with Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joda Derrickson; Jennifer Anderson

    2000-01-01

    The 18-question Core Food Security Module (CFSM) measures the extent and severity of food insecurity among households. Our objectives were to (1) provide face validation of the CFSM among Asian and Pacific Islanders in Hawaii and (2) explore predictors of food security status. Participants included 61 food gatekeepers of Caucasian, Hawaiian or part-Hawaiian, Filipino, or Samoan ethnicity reached through nine

  20. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

  1. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ?Nd-?Hf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes existed at ~2.2 Ma when the Molokai Island volcanoes formed and has persisted until the present. References: Abouchami et al., 2005 Nature, 434:851-856 Xu et al., 2005 G3, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000830 Xu et al., 2007 G3, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001554

  2. Seasonal, diel, and tidal movements of green jobfish ( Aprion virescens , Lutjanidae) at remote Hawaiian atolls: implications for marine protected area design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl G. Meyer; Yannis P. Papastamatiou; Kim N. Holland

    2007-01-01

    Empirical data quantifying the long-term movement patterns of coral reef top predators are needed in order to design marine\\u000a protected areas (MPAs) that will provide these fishes with effective, long-term protection. Acoustic telemetry was used to\\u000a quantify the movements of a large coral reef top predator (Aprion virescens, Lutjanidae; Hawaiian name ‘uku’) at five atolls in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

  3. Earthquakes of Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35km S of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and S most island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close to Loihi's bathymetric summit, except for earthquakes during the second stage of the 1971-1972 swarm, which occurred well onto Loihi's SW flank. The flank earthquakes appear to have been triggered by the preceding activity and possible rifting along Loihi's long axis, similar to the rift-flank relationship at Kilauea volcano. Other changes accompanied the shift in locations from Loihi's summit to its flank, including a shift from burst to continuous seismicity, a rise in maximum magnitude, a change from small earthquake clusters to a larger elongated zone, a drop in b value, and a presumed shift from concentrated volcanic stresses to a more diffuse tectonic stress on Loihi's flank. - Author

  4. Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1? and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else. PMID:20308549

  5. LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 1. (Fig. 1) The Belfast Lobster; dorsal view of Male Lobster; living weight a little over 23 pounds. 252

    E-print Network

    LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. Plate No. Page. 1. (Fig. 1) The Belfast Lobster; dorsal view of Male Lobster; living weight a little over 23 pounds. 252 2. (Fig. 2) Ventral view of large Lobster shown In Plate 1. (Flg.3) Ventral view of small Lobster for comparison with Fig. 1. Egg·bearlng Female

  6. Phylogeography and ecology of an endemic radiation of Hawaiian aquatic case-bearing moths (Hyposmocoma: Cosmopterigidae).

    PubMed

    Rubinoff, Daniel

    2008-10-27

    The endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) may be one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse genera in Hawaii. Among this diversity is the Hyposmocoma saccophora clade with previously unrecorded aquatic larvae. I present a molecular phylogeny based on 773 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 762 bp of the nuclear gene elongation factor 1-alpha. Topologies were constructed from data using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian search criteria. Results strongly support the monophyly of the H. saccophora clade and the monophyly of the genus Hyposmocoma. The H. saccophora clade has single-island endemic species on Oahu, Molokai and West Maui. By contrast, there are three species endemic to Kauai, two being sympatric. The H. saccophora clade appears to follow the progression rule, with more basal species on older islands, including the most basal species on 11 Myr-old Necker Island, one of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Aquatic behaviour either evolved recently in the species on the main Hawaiian Islands or was secondarily lost on the arid northwestern Necker Island. The phylogeny suggests that Hyposmocoma is older than any of the current main islands, which may, in part, explain Hyposmocoma's remarkable diversity. PMID:18765359

  7. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

  8. Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus Interruptus) Stomatogastric System: Slow Muscle

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Scott

    Muscle Response to Changing Neuronal Input in the Lobster (Panulirus Interruptus) Stomatogastric: Panulirus interruptus; lobster; crustacea; stoma- togastric; pylorus; pyloric network; slow muscle; tonic

  9. Spatio-temporal variation in serum chemistry of the lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards.

    PubMed

    Dove, A D M; Sokolowski, M S; Bartlett, S L; Bowser, P R

    2005-11-01

    Monthly variations in serum chemistry of the American lobster, Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards, were investigated at one location in Long Island Sound (LIS). Comparisons between three locations within and outside LIS were also made for a single time point. Most serum analytes displayed significant fluctuation over the study period and between locations. Temporal patterns could be classified as: low in cool months/high in warm months, i.e. Na, Cl, Na:K ratio, Ca, albumin:globulin ratio, percentage Fe saturation; high in cool months/low in warm months, i.e. pH, K, urea, total protein, albumin, globulin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lipaemia; June spike, i.e. glucose, cholesterol, creatine kinase, iron, transferrin iron-binding capacity; other less obvious fluctuations, i.e. Mg, PO4; and no apparent fluctuation, i.e. HCO3, alkaline phosphatase. The proportion of samples correctly classified into month of collection by a subset of 13 analytes using discriminant analysis improved as the months progressed from May (0.75) to October (>0.95). Discriminant analysis also resolved 96.5% of samples by location. The significant depression of serum calcium at the eastern LIS site correlates with excretory calcinosis, a calcium storage disease described from lobsters at this site, but contrasts with a seasonal elevation in serum calcium recorded in the temporal component of the study. Serum proteins, the electrolytes Ca and K and the enzymes ALT and AST proved to have the strongest spatio-temporal patterns of variation. Serum chemistry is a useful research tool for lobster populations, but the dearth of information on the homology of analyte functions in this species with those in vertebrate species makes interpretation of the results challenging. Late summer/autumn water conditions appear to cause stress for lobsters in LIS. PMID:16303028

  10. Assessing the importance of fishing impacts on Hawaiian coral reef fish assemblages along regional-scale human population gradients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. WILLIAMS; W. J. WALSH; R. E. SCHROEDER; A. M. FRIEDLANDER; B. L. RICHARDS; K. A. STAMOULIS

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Humanscanimpactcoralreeffishesdirectlybyfishing, or indirectly through anthropogenic degradation of habitat. Uncertainty about the relative importance of those can make it difficult to develop and build consensus for appropriate remedial management. Relationships between fish assemblages and human population density were assessed using data from 18 locationswidelyspreadthroughouttheMainHawaiian Islands (MHI) to evaluate the significance of fishing as a factor potentially driving fish trends on

  11. Tenure Experiences of Native Hawaiian Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka opua, Heipua

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the status of women of color in academe with a particular focus on Native Hawaiian women faculty. Using a qualitative narrative design, this research examined the experiences of tenured instructional Native Hawaiian women faculty (Na Wahine) at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Two research questions guided this inquiry:…

  12. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal biodiversity surveys. Molecular data for the survey provide the most extensive assessment of Hawaiian red algal diversity and, in combination with the morphological/anatomical and distributional data collected as part of the project, provide a solid baseline data set for future studies of the flora. The data are freely available via the Hawaiian Algal Database (HADB), which was designed and constructed to accommodate the results of the project. We present the first DNA sequence reference collection for a tropical Pacific seaweed flora, whose value extends beyond Hawaii since many Hawaiian taxa are shared with other tropical areas. PMID:21092229

  13. Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe

    2009-01-01

    Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not…

  14. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  15. Waves and Currents in Hawaiian Waters Induced by the Dispersive 2011 Tohoku Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongqiang; Wei, Yong; Wright, Lindsey; Titov, Vasily V.

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on the effects of frequency dispersion on tsunami-induced coastal water waves and currents, exemplified by the 2011 Tohoku tsunami event. The investigation relies on numerical simulations. We start from a tsunami source constrained through the inversion algorithm of NOAA's tsunami inundation forecast system. The trans-Pacific propagation and the hydrodynamic processes in the Hawaiian Islands region are simulated with a weakly dispersive Boussinesq model and a shallow-water model that neglects dispersion effects. From these modeling results, boundary conditions are derived to force the high-resolution simulations in the coastal waters in the Hawaiian Islands region through MOST, a tsunami simulating code based on the shallow-water theory. We note that the dispersion effects generally lower the amplitudes of leading waves. Trailing waves of short wavelengths and high amplitudes can develop in coastal waters. A model neglecting dispersion effects could under-predict the wave heights and current speeds at the trailing waves.

  16. 1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane disposition in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Little, P.J.; James, M.O.; Foureman, G.L.; Weatherby, R.P.; Bend, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane, a model compound for the non-volatile aliphatic hydrocarbon components of crude oil, was administered by intrapericardial injection to the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, and the clawed or American lobster, Homarus americanus. Experiments were conducted in Florida (spiny lobster) and Maine (American lobster). The animals were sacrificed at various times from 0.5 hr to 8 wks after administration of the dose. The tissues and fluids were analyzed for /sup 14/C content by digestion or catalytic oxidation and liquid scintillation counting. Selected tissues (hepatopancreas, tail muscle and hemolymph) were extracted with ethyl acetate to allow quantitation of the unmetabolized n-hexadecane by thin layer chromatography. n-Hexadecane-derived radioactivity was very persistent in both the spiny lobster (t1/2 = 4.6 wk) and the American lobster (t1/2 = 11.2 wk). In both lobsters, the hepatopancreas (HP) acquired the highest specific activity and the tail muscle had the longest half life for elimination from an individual tissue. Although hexadecane was metabolized more rapidly in the HP of the spiny lobster than in the HP of the American lobster, unmetabolized hexadecane persisted in the HPs of both species for at least 8 weeks after the dose (the longest time studied).

  17. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael D. Sorenson; Alan Cooper; E. E. Paxinos; T. W. Quinn; H. F. James; S. L. Olson; R. C. Fleischer

    1999-01-01

    The extinct moa-nalo.s wei'e very large, flightless waterfowl I'rom the Hawaiian islands. We extracted, amplified and seqnenced mitochondria! DNA from fossil moa-iialo bones to determine their systematic relationships and lend insight into their biogeographical history. The closest living relatives of these massive, goose-like birds are the familiar dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini), Moa-nalos, however, are not closely related to any one

  18. Tree growth and age in an ancient Hawaiian wet forest: vegetation dynamics at two spatial scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Hart

    2010-01-01

    In this study I document the growth rate and age of trees in an old-growth montane Hawaiian wet forest and use these results to evaluate the cyclic succession model for forest dynamics. I used two methods to estimate the age of trees - the crown-class model and radiocarbon dating. Over 6000 trees belonging to eight species were tagged andmeasuredover7yonHawaiiIsland.Growthratesforthedominanttree(Metrosiderospolymorpha)wererelatively low

  19. Lessons Learned for Recruiting and Retaining Native Hawaiians in the Geosciences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. A. Gibson; L. Brock; R. Levine; L. Spencer; B. Wai; N. Puniwai

    2008-01-01

    Many Native Hawaiian and Pacific Island (NHPI) college students are unaware of the majors or career possibilities within geoscience disciplines. This notably can be seen by the low number of NHPI students who graduate with a bachelor's degree in an ocean or Earth science-related field within the University of Hawaii (UH) System. To help address this disparity, the Ka'Imi'Ike Program,

  20. Lobster eye: technology and imaging properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sveda, L.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Semencova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2009-05-01

    Lobster eye optics, as a wide field of view imaging system, is perfectly suited for x-ray astronomy but can be useful also in the lab. This paper presents a brief overview of the technologies developed in our group, where the glass and silicon mirrors are used to built up the Schmidt lobster eye design and mainly discuss the mirror design consequences on the resulting imaging properties of the system. Corrections of various image distortions and imperfections, either geometric, spectral or temporal in case of scanning observations have to be applied in order to get a valuable instrument. Several image processing methods are discussed and its strengths and weaknesses are shown for both astronomy and laboratory experiments.

  1. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  2. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-01

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  3. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  4. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Czech Technical Universiry in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic); Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  5. Two sniffing strategies in palinurid lobsters.

    PubMed

    Goldman, J A; Patek, S N

    2002-12-01

    Most studies of lobster chemoreception have focused on the model systems of Panulirus argus (Palinuridae) and Homarus americanus (Nephropidae). We compare antennule morphology across lobsters and conduct the first kinematic study of antennule flicking in a palinurid species other than P. argus. High-speed video analysis shows that Palinurus elephas flicks at a rate more than an order of magnitude higher than in P. argus. However, both species flick their antennular flagella at a Reynolds number (Re) of approximately one, such that an asymmetry in the speed of the flick phases causes both species to have a leaky closing flick phase and a non-leaky opening phase. The antennular flagella of P. argus are nearly seven times longer than those of P. elephas, and, when compared across palinurid genera, Panulirus species sample far greater areas of water over greater spatial and time scales than do any other palinurid genera. Palinurid lobsters appear to have two sniffing strategies: low flick rates over a large area of water (e.g. P. argus) or high flick rates over a small area of water (e.g. P. elephas). P. argus is a highly informative model system in which to study aquatic chemoreception; however, its antennule anatomy and kinematics suggest a separate strategy, unique to Panulirus species, for sensing chemical plumes in fluid environments. PMID:12432011

  6. DYSBIOSIS IN EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS)

    E-print Network

    DYSBIOSIS IN EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) NORMAN J. MERES,1 lobster (Homarus americanus) is continuing to affect the southern New England lobster population of the surface microflora of apparently healthy and diseased lobsters using multitag pyrosequencing to correlate

  7. 61(2), 1999 1 Homarid Lobster Hatcheries:Their History and Role

    E-print Network

    61(2), 1999 1 Homarid Lobster Hatcheries:Their History and Role in Research, Management, and Aquaculture FRANK NICOSIA and KARI LAVALLI Frank W. Nicosia is with Tri-Aqua Gold Lobster Farms, P.O. Box 2--This paper provides an his- torical review of homarid lobster fisheries, the development and usage of lobster

  8. Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery

    E-print Network

    Matthews, Adrian

    Essay Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery R. S (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture lobsters. Inflation- corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since

  9. The eastern rock lobster, Jasus ver-reauxi, reportedly is the largest

    E-print Network

    25 The eastern rock lobster, Jasus ver- reauxi, reportedly is the largest spiny rock lobster, comparisons of mitochondrial DNA from juvenile rock lobsters from NSW and New Zealand waters have suggested that the populations are genetically distinct (Brasher et al., 1992). The distribution of rock lobsters across habitat

  10. 'THE SPINY LOBSTER, Panulirus argus, OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA: ITS NATURAL HISTORY AND UTILIZATION.

    E-print Network

    'THE SPINY LOBSTER, Panulirus argus, OF SOUTHERN FLORIDA: ITS NATURAL HISTORY AND UTILIZATION lobster fishery of south- ern Florida . The spiny lobster fishery at Key West, Fla . Importance . Abuses in the fishery . Part 2.-Life history of the spiny lobster . Description

  11. This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations.

    E-print Network

    This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations. Florida Fish Lobster (Crawfish) Panulirus argus 7/2014 Regulations for Recreational Harvest and Lobster Information for Monroe County, Florida Facts For All Seasons: What To Know Before You Go. . . Possession: Lobster must

  12. New species, corallivory, in situ video observations and overview of the Goniasteridae (Valvatida, Asteroidea) in the Hawaiian Region.

    PubMed

    Mah, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Goniasteridae, Astroceramus eldredgei n. sp. and Apollonaster kelleyi n. sp. are described from the Hawaiian Islands region. Prior to this occurrence, Apollonaster was known only from the North Atlantic. The Goniasteridae is the most diverse family of asteroids in the Hawaiian region. Additional in situ observations of several goniasterid species, including A. eldredgei n. sp. are reported. These observations extend documentation of deep-sea corallivory among goniasterid asteroids. New species occurrences presented herein suggested further biogeographic affinities between tropical Pacific and Atlantic goniasterid faunas. PMID:25781779

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Reproductive biology of the spiny lobster, Panulirus

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yong

    , in the southeastern coastal waters off Taiwan Yi-Jay Chang Æ Chi-Lu Sun Æ Yong Chen Æ Su-Zan Yeh Æ Wei-Chuan Chiang it is caught by skin-diving or trammels net throughout the year. The spiny lobster fishery is man- aged damage reproductive potential of the lobster population, resulting in recruitment failure

  14. 15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE ... JUNE 5, 1899.' Winslow Webber, City Engineer. Photocopied from the original plan in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  15. 16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ... SCHEDULE FOR REPAIRS.' Plan) elevation, and typical section. Photocopied from the original drawing in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  16. DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

  17. Chemical orientation of lobsters, homarus americanus, in turbulent odor plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Moore; Nat Scholz; Jelle Atema

    1991-01-01

    The lobster,Homarus americanus, relies upon its lateral antennules to make initial directional choices in a turbulent odor plume. To determine whether chemical signals provide cues for source direction and distance during orientation, we studied the search patterns of the lobster orienting within a turbulent odor plume. In an odor plume, animals walked significantly more slowly and most often up the

  18. Quantifying Shell Hardness in the Southern Rock Lobster (Jasus edwardsii)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caleb Gardnerm; Richard Musgrove

    2006-01-01

    Southern rock lobsters Jasus edwardsii that are about to moult or have recently moulted have reduced market value due to higher mortality in live transport, higher cannibalism and lower meat recovery. Limiting the landing of softer shelled lobsters is desirable to maintain product quality; however, attempts to set closed seasons or to introduce industry self-regulation have been hampered by subjectivity

  19. Temperature acclimation alters cardiac performance in the lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Joseph; Qadri, Syed Aman; Wang, Hongkun; Worden, Mary Kate

    2006-12-01

    The American lobster is a poikilotherm that inhabits a marine environment where temperature varies over a 25 degrees C range and depends on the winds, the tides and the seasons. To determine how cardiac performance depends on the water temperature to which the lobsters are acclimated we measured lobster heart rates in vivo. The upper limit for cardiac function in lobsters acclimated to 20 degrees C is approximately 29 degrees C, 5 degrees C warmer than that measured in lobsters acclimated to 4 degrees C. Warm acclimation also slows the lobster heart rate within the temperature range from 4 to 12 degrees C. Both effects are apparent after relatively short periods of warm acclimation (3-14 days). However, warm acclimation impairs cardiac function at cold temperatures: following several hours exposure to frigid (<5 degrees C) temperatures heart rates become slow and arrhythmic in warm acclimated, but not cold acclimated, lobsters. Thus, acclimation temperature determines the thermal limits for cardiac function at both extremes of the 25 degrees C temperature range lobsters inhabit in the wild. These observations suggest that regulation of cardiac thermal tolerance by the prevailing environmental temperature protects against the possibility of cardiac failure due to thermal stress. PMID:16957943

  20. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place subject...

  1. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place...

  2. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place subject...

  3. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place subject...

  4. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place...

  5. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place subject...

  6. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place...

  7. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  8. Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

    2014-10-01

    Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10?430?km(2) island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500?000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

  9. Impacts of Human Disturbances on Biotic Communities in Hawaiian Streams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ANNE M. D. BRASHER (; )

    2003-11-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the effects of humans on Hawaiian streams. Streams throughout the tropics have been altered by water diversion, channel modification, introduced species, and water quality degradation. The Hawaiian Islands, with watersheds ranging from the relatively pristine to the highly degraded, offer an opportunity to examine the impacts of human disturbance on native stream communities. For example, urbanization is often accompanied by stream-channel modification and reduced canopy cover, resulting in higher water temperatures and greater fluctuations in daily temperature. Even in relatively pristine watersheds, stream diversions can result in decreased flow velocity and water depth, reducing habitat availability. Dewatering of stream reaches can also inhibit downstream dispersal of larvae and upstream migration of juveniles and adults of native species. Many nonnative aquatic species are better adapted than native species to degraded habitats; once established in these habitats, they can cause further reduction in native populations through competition, predation, and the introduction of parasites or diseases. Understanding the relationship between habitat alteration and aquatic community structure is critical for developing sound management strategies.

  10. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Roderick, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host-parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens. also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Paleomagnetism of Hawaiian Lava Fows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard R. Doell; Allan Cox

    1965-01-01

    Palcomagnetic studies of lavas from the island of Hawaii have established the following: (1) All lavas now exposed on the island are less than 1 million years old (Pleisto- cene). (2) The present absence of nondipole field components in the central Pacific area is a relatively permanent feature, having lasted at least several hundred thousand years. (3) Dur- ing the

  12. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities. PMID:20662372

  13. Evolutionary diversification and geographical isolation in Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance

    PubMed Central

    McGlaughlin, Mitchell E.; Friar, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is one the best examples of a plant adaptive radiation, exhibiting extensive morphological and ecological diversity. No research within this group has addressed the role of geographical isolation, independent of ecological adaptation, in contributing to taxonomic diversity. The aims of this study were to examine genetic differentiation among subspecies of Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae) to determine if allopatric or sympatric populations and subspecies form distinct genetic clusters to understand better the role of geography in diversification within the alliance. Methods Dubautia laxa is a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance, occurring on four of the five major islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, with four subspecies recognized on the basis of morphological, ecological and geographical variation. Nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequence data were examined. Data were analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methodologies to identify unique evolutionary lineages. Key Results Plastid DNA sequence data resolved two highly divergent lineages, recognized as the Laxa and Hirsuta groups, that are more similar to other members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance than they are to each other. The Laxa group is basal to the young island species of Dubautia, whereas the Hirsuta group forms a clade with the old island lineages of Dubautia and with Argyroxiphium. The divergence between the plastid groups is supported by Bayesian microsatellite clustering analyses, but the degree of nuclear differentiation is not as great. Clear genetic differentiation is only observed between allopatric populations, both within and among islands. Conclusions These results indicate that geographical separation has aided diversification in D. laxa, whereas ecologically associated morphological differences are not associated with neutral genetic differentiation. This suggests that, despite the stunning ecological adaptation observed, geography has also played an important role in the Hawaiian silversword alliance plant adaptive radiation. PMID:21193480

  14. The lobster fiefs: Economic and ecological effects of territoriality in the maine lobster industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Acheson

    1975-01-01

    Lobstermen from each community along the coast of central Maine claim inshore fishing rights in particular areas. Although their claims are unrecognized by the state, they are well established and backed by surreptitious violence. Two kinds of lobstering territories exist, here termed nucleated and perimeterdefended, which differ essentially in the extent to which exclusive fishing rights are maintained. These differences

  15. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and L?na‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  16. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and L?na'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  17. Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45?years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000?km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the H?na and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85?g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

  18. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:25343968

  19. Social Complex Adaptive Systems: Some Hawaiian Examples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Hommon

    1995-01-01

    The theory of Complex Adaptive Systems, developed within the last decade, is applied to the evolution of the ancient Hawaiian polities. A Complex Adaptive System (CAS) consists of numerous independent parts or \\

  20. Three-dimensional Electromagnetic Modeling of the Hawaiian Swell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdeev, D.; Utada, H.; Kuvshinov, A.; Koyama, T.

    2004-12-01

    An anomalous behavior of the geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses at the Honolulu geomagnetic observatory has been reported by many researchers. Kuvshinov et al (2004) found that the predicted GDS Dst C-response does not match the experimental data -- 10-20% disagreement occurs for all periods of 2 to 30 days, qualitatively implying a more resistive, rather than conductive, structure beneath the Hawaiian Islands. Simpson et al. (2000) found that the GDS Sq C-response at the Honolulu observatory is about 4 times larger than that at a Hawaii island site, again suggesting a more resistive (than elsewhere around) structure beneath the observatory. Constable and Heinson (2004, http://mahi.ucsd.edu/Steve/swell.pdf), presenting a 2-D interpretation of the magnetotelluric (MT) and GDS responses recently obtained at 7 seafloor sites to the south of the Hawaii Islands, concluded that the dataset require the presence of a narrow conducting plume just beneath the islands. The main motivation of our work is to reveal the reason of the anomalous behavior of the Honolulu response. Obviously, the cause may be due to heterogeneity of either the conductivity or the source field. We examine this problem in some detail with reference to the Constable and Heinson's seafloor dataset, as well as the available dataset from the Honolulu observatory. To address the problem we apply numerical modeling using the three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling code of Avdeev et al. (1997, 2002). With this code we simulate various regional 3-D conductivity models that may produce EM responses that better fit the experimental datasets, at least qualitatively. Also, to explain some features of the experimental long-period GDS responses we numerically studied a possible effect in the responses caused by the equatorial electrojet. Our 3-D modeling results show that, in particular: (1) The GDS responses are better explained by models with a resistive lithosphere whereas the MT data are better fit by models without one; (2) A conductive plume under the Hawaiian Islands may not be required by the MT and GDS datasets considered; (3) An equatorial electrojet might affect the imaginary part of the GDS responses at periods of 2 h and more; (4) The anomalous large value of 0.4 observed in the real part of the seafloor GDS responses still cannot be explained by the 3-D models considered. It seems to require more complicated models.

  1. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O?ahu and Kaua?i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka?i, Lana?i, and Hawai?i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai?i, O?ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua?i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

  2. Displaced helium and carbon in the Hawaiian plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Farnetani, Cinzia G.; Spiegelman, Marc; Class, Cornelia

    2011-12-01

    High relative abundances of primordial 3He are commonly found in ocean island basalts (OIB) thought to be derived from mantle plumes, and high 3He/ 4He ratios have been used to distinguish plume-type from non-plume OIBs. In simple plume models, one expects to find the highest 3He/ 4He ratios in the axial part of the plume conduit, which is sampled during the shield building stage of the volcanoes. However, the actual locus of the highest 3He/ 4He ratios is sometimes significantly displaced. This is best documented for the Hawaiian plume, where the highest- 3He/ 4He basalts are found on Loihi, a volcano tens of kilometers ahead of the inferred plume center, and 3He/ 4He ratios decrease systematically toward MORB-type values during the main and late phases of eruption. We propose that this effect is caused by small amounts of carbonatite melt formed in plumes as they rise through the transition zone. If the plume conduit is tilted by plate-driven upper mantle flow, the carbonatite melt infiltrates more vertically due to its low density and viscosity and is thus displaced from the plume center. Helium, if partitioned into the carbonatite melt, will also be displaced from the plume center. To test this model we use a numerical simulation of the Hawaiian plume interacting with the fast-moving Pacific lithosphere. We obtain vertical separation velocities of the carbonatite melt on the order of a meter/year. Consequently, helium and carbon, initially located in the plume center at > 450 km depth, are laterally displaced by 50 to 80 km in the shallow mantle, depending on grain size, porosity and melt production rate. This can explain why the highest 3He/ 4HE ratios (R/Ra up to 39; R/Ra ? ( 3He/ 4He) sample/( 3He/ 4He) atmosphere) occur on pre-shield Loihi, why they decline during the shield phases of Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and Haleakala, and why post-shield and rejuvenated Hawaiian volcanism delivers only low 3He/ 4He ratios (R/Ra = 8-10). Our results quantify the potential role of carbonatite liquids in transporting helium in the Hawaiian conduit, and they appear to apply also to other plumes tilted by upper-mantle 'wind'.

  3. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...proposing to list 15 species on the Hawaiian island of Hawaii as endangered: specifically, 2 animals (picture-wing fly (Drosophila digressa) and anchialine pool shrimp (Vetericaris chaceorum)) and 13 plants (Bidens hillebrandiana ssp....

  4. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  5. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  6. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  7. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  8. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  10. Organochlorines in the free-ranging Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) from French Frigate Shoals, North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Maia K; Woodward, Lee Ann; Ylitalo, Gina M; Buzitis, Jon; Atkinson, Shannon; Li, Qing X

    2004-04-25

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is an endangered species found only in the Hawaiian Island chain. The largest subpopulation, at French Frigate Shoals, has been in decline since 1989. In order to assess organochlorine (OC) levels in the Hawaiian monk seals, whole blood and blubber samples were collected in 1999 from 46 free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals at French Frigate Shoals, and were analyzed for eight dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as six other PCB congeners, DDT and DDT metabolites. Average levels of the total PCBs in blood samples from adult male, juvenile and reproductive female groups were 4800, 4000 and 3000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively, whereas 3200, 1300 and 1200 ng/g, respectively, in blubber from the three corresponding groups. p,p'-DDE was the only DDT detected in blubber samples, and no DDTs were detected in blood samples. Concentrations of the total PCBs in adult males were significantly higher than the levels measured in either reproductive females or juveniles. There were significant correlations between age and blubber p,p'-DDE, estimated mass and total blood PCBs or blubber p,p'-DDE, and body condition and total blood PCBs. Although it is clear that the Hawaiian monk seal has been exposed to OCs, it is unclear what biological effects, if any, these xenobiotics may have on the animals. PMID:15081740

  11. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  12. Detection and quantitative analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in tilapia from Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fangxing; Wilcox, Bruce; Jin, Shiwei; Alonso Aguirre, A; Rougée, Luc; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from the Manoa stream and Ala Wai Canal of O'ahu, an island of the geographically isolated Hawaiian archipelago. Our results show that the average concentrations of PCBs varied from 51.90 to 89.42 ng g(-1) lipid weight for the sampling sites. Relative toxic potencies (RTPs) and toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were determined to be 20.38-40.60 ng TCDDg(-1) lipid weight and 2.89-4.17 ng TEQ g(-1) lipid weight by 7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity analysis and calculation of PCB concentrations based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs), respectively. Penta-chlorinated congeners were found to be predominant, which revealed that Aroclor 1254 was a possible major source of PCBs in our fish samples. PCB 118, an indicator PCBs, constituted more than 55% and 30% of the total PCBs and TEQs, respectively. In addition, PCB 118 was found to have a linear correlation to the total PCBs (R=0.975) and TEQs (R=0.782). Detection of concentrated PCBs in Hawaiian waters suggests a potentially adverse impact of this pollutant on human health, as well as ecological systems, and suggests the necessity of environmental monitoring and hazard assessment of PCBs within the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:18561981

  13. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderón, José L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community. PMID:16312944

  14. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities. PMID:21166713

  15. The Lithium Isotopic Signature of Hawaiian Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recycling of oceanic crust and sediment is a common mechanism to account for the presence of chemical heterogeneities observed in oceanic island basalts (OIBs). On Hawai';i, a mantle plume-sourced OIB with a high mass flux, sampling of deep mantle heterogeneities accounts for the presence of two unique geochemical and geographical trends called the Loa and Kea trends. The Loa trend overlaps the Pacific large low shear velocity province and is distinctly more enriched [1] than the Kea trend with average Pacific mantle compositions [2]. Because of the sizeable fractionation of lithium isotopes in low temperature environments, lithium serves as a tracer for the presence of recycled material in OIB sources, including Hawai'i. In this study, we analyzed 87 samples of Hawaiian basalt from the pre-shield, shield, post-shield, and rejuvenated volcanic stages and 10 samples of altered oceanic crust from ODP Site 843 for lithium isotopes using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Correlations of lithium isotopes with the radiogenic isotopes Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr indicate lithium isotopes may be used to trace components in mantle plumes such as Hawai';i. The measured range of lithium isotopes for shield stage lavas is ?7Li = 1.8 - 5.7‰ and for post-shield lavas is ?7Li = 0.8 - 4.7‰. Pre-shield stage lavas (Lo'ihi volcano only) and rejuvenated lavas are the least and most homogeneous volcanic stages, respectively, in lithium isotopes. The Loa and Kea geochemical trends have different lithium isotopic signatures, with Loa trend shield volcanoes exhibiting lighter lithium isotopic signatures (?7Li = 3.5‰ [N=43]) than Kea trend shield volcanoes (?7Li = 4.0‰ [N=31]) [3]. Similarly, post-shield lavas have systematically lighter ?7Li than shield lavas. The presence of systematic differences in lithium isotopic signatures may indicate: 1) the sampling of distinct components in the deep source, to account for variations between Kea and Loa trend shield stage volcanoes or amongst individual volcanoes; 2) differences in degree of mantle melt and spatial structure of the mantle heterogeneity melting in the case of pre-shield, shield, and post-shield differences. In Hawaiian basalts, lithium isotopes help distinguish between 'enriched' Loa source components: Ko';olau Makapu';u shield stage lavas may have between 4-10% of a carbonate input and Hualalai post-shield and shield lavas may reflect incorporation of subduction eroded lower continental crust. Comparison of this dataset with worldwide OIB published lithium isotopic data indicates that the lithium isotopic system behaves systematically on a mantle-wide scale. Hawai'i is generally characterized as EM-I like, with Hualalai post-shield lavas exhibiting both the lightest lithium isotopic signature and the most extreme EM-I characteristics. Lithium isotopes thus provide an additional insight into the nature of EM-I type mantle. [1] Weis, D. et al. (2011) Nature Geoscience 4, doi:10.1038/NGEO1328. [2] Nobre Silva, I.G. et al. (2013) Geochem. Geophy. Geosys. 14(3), doi: doi:10.1002/ggge.20047. [3] Chan, L.H., and Frey, F.A. (2003) Geochem. Geophy. Geosys. 4(3), doi: 10.1029/2002GC000365.

  16. Diseases of American lobsters (Homarus americanus): a review.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    The American lobster fishery is a significant economic driver in coastal communities of North America. Increasingly, the impacts of infectious disease are recognized as important components and factors in the population ecology and subsequent management of the lobster fishery. Both environmental and anthropogenic factors impact marine diseases. The review herein highlights aspects of several important bacterial, fungal and protistan diseases, including gaffkemia, shell disease, vibriosis, disease caused by species of Lagenidium, Haliphthoros and Fusarium, paramoebiasis and Bumper Car disease. As the global environment continues to change, these diseases could more severely affect both wild caught and impounded lobsters. PMID:21215356

  17. Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization. PMID:22844071

  18. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000–500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

  19. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Brantacanadensis).

    PubMed

    Paxinos, Ellen E; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Sorenson, Michael D; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C

    2002-02-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000-500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

  20. Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

    2013-01-01

    This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.