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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

2011-12-12

2

75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT33 Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest...lobster fishery is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for Crustacean Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region. The...

2010-01-12

3

Evaluation of Rectangular and Circular Escape Vents in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted in Hawaii during 1984-1 987 to investigate the possibility that escape vents fitted in traps used by the commercial lobster fishery in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands would reduce the catch and mortality of sublegal spiny lobsters Panulim margrnatus (<50 mm tail width) and slipper lobsters Scyllurides spp. (< 56 mm tail width) without significantly reducing legal catch.

ALAN R. EVERSON; ROBERT A. SKILLMAN; JEFFREY J. POLOVINA

1992-01-01

4

78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

2013-02-08

5

76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

2011-01-26

6

Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1996, field studies of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) were conducted at all of its main reproductive sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These studies provide information necessary to evaluate (1) the status and tren...

T. C. Johanos T. J. Ragen

1999-01-01

7

Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1995, field studies of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) were conducted at all of its main reproductive sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These studies provide information necessary to evaluate (1) the status and tren...

T. C. Johanos T. J. Ragen

1997-01-01

8

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

9

Bathymetric Atlas of the Main Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The maps presented in this atlas show where bathymetric data have been collected during various shipboard and aero surveys around the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) as of 2004. Metadata for the bathymetric surveys, including the location information, were co...

H. Wang M. F. Parke

2005-01-01

10

Evaluation of ghost fishing in the Hawaiian lobster fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortality due to re­ tention of lobsters in derelict traps was evaluated over a 2-year period using two approaches. First, a string of eight empty, single-chamber, plas­ tic traps was deployed at 40 m depth off Oahu, Hawaii, and monitored periodically by scuba during a 6­ month period in 1990. The traps were stable and remained intact despite adverse oceanic

Frank A. Parrish; Thomas K. Kazama

11

The Tsunami Response of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A linear, long-wave, finite difference model is applied to the Hawaiian Island chain to determine the spectral response at the islands for tsunamis incident from any one of a broad range of directions. The model employs an improved radiational condition f...

G. T. Hebenstreit R. O. Reid

1980-01-01

12

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

2011-04-22

13

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

14

76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1265-0000-10137-SC] Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness...waters within the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Refuge...Wilderness Coordinator, Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex,...

2011-12-16

15

Hawaiian Monk Seal Population Research, Lisianski Island, 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absolute number of animals in the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, population at Lisianski Island was determined by identifying individuals on the basis of applied bleach symbols and natural marks, and conducting 98 island censuses from 17 ...

H. S. Stone

1984-01-01

16

On the Gravity of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands are part of the most geologically studied intra-plate volcanic island chain. Surprisingly, the only chain wide compilation of marine and terrestrial gravity data is now more than 40 years old. Early terrestrial studies conducted by J. G. Moore, H.L Krivoy, G. P. Woollard, W. E Strange and others in the early 1960's were meant to serve as reconnaissance surveys only. In addition, early marine surveys were limited in both accurate positioning and data density. Detailed analysis of the crustal density structure of the island chain was limited. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation incorporating the original island-specific survey data, recently published data on the island of Kauai and Hawaii, as well as more than 10 years of newly incorporated marine data collected aboard the University of Hawaii's R/V Kilo Moana. This data was supplemented by surveys aboard the R/V Farnella among others. We present free-air (FAA), simple/complete Bouguer, and residual gravity maps on an unprecedented resolution and geographical extent for the area. This data will be hosted as an interactive Google-Earth overlay at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG - www.soest.hawaii.edu/HMRG) and made available to the scientific community. We hope that this dataset will be used for further comparison of the gravity fields of other intra-plate volcanic systems (French Polynesia, etc.) and to constrain seismic studies of crustal structure in the Hawaiian-chain through joint seismic-gravity inversions.

Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Taylor, B.

2011-12-01

17

Northwest Hawaiian Islands: Maps and Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released by the Remote Sensing Team (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), these detailed maps released in February 2003 focus on the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This part of the island chain extends across over 2200 kilometers of open ocean, and the total shallow water area of the ten atolls encompasses over 8000 square kilometers. Most of the information for these maps was obtained through the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, along with field data collected during 2001. For each of the ten atolls covered in this project, visitors can read a brief description and history, along with viewing maps generated from the satellite images and the habitat cover of each particular atoll. Those seeking to learn more about the map development process will be pleased to find a document on this subject, and a description of the classification scheme used in the maps.

2011-06-22

18

Widespread Secondary Volcanism Near Northern Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot spot theory provides a key framework for understanding the motion of the tectonic plates, mantle convection and composition, and magma genesis. The age-progressive volcanism that constructs many chains of islands throughout the world's ocean basins is essential to hot spot theory. In contrast, secondary volcanism, which follows the main edifice-building stage of volcanism in many chains including the Hawaii, Samoa, Canary, Mauritius, and Kerguelen islands, is not predicted by hot spot theory. Hawaiian secondary volcanism occurs hundreds of kilometers away from, and more than 1 million years after, the end of the main shield volcanism, which has generated more than 99% of the volume of the volcano's mass [Macdonald et al., 1983; Ozawa et al., 2005]. Diamond Head, in Honolulu, is the first and classic example of secondary volcanism.

Garcia, Michael; Ito, Garrett; Weis, Dominique; Geist, Dennis; Swinnard, Lisa; Bianco, Todd; Flinders, Ashton; Taylor, Brian; Appelgate, Bruce; Blay, Chuck; Hanano, Diane; Nobre Silva, Inês; Naumann, Terry; Maerschalk, Claude; Harpp, Karen; Christensen, Branden; Sciaroni, Linda; Tagami, Taka; Yamasaki, Seiko

2008-12-01

19

Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ethnic group. ... year millions of adults think about and attempt suicide. Raising awareness within racial and ethnic groups can ...

20

Bibliography of Water Resources of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography is a comprehensive compilation of approximately 1,500 publications of studies on water resources of the Hawaiian Islands up to the Year 1966 collated by the IBM KWIC (keyword in context) program.

R. T. Pfund D. L. Steller

1971-01-01

21

33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule. 80.1410 Section...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule. Except...

2013-07-01

22

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922—Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2012-01-01

23

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922—Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2011-01-01

24

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

...2014-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922—Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2014-01-01

25

76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a [[Page...

2011-12-14

26

77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine...

2012-03-20

27

Bibliography of Water Resources of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bibliography is a compilation of approximately 1,000 references on studies of water resources of the Hawaiian Islands; it complements and supplements an earlier compilation with the same title (see W72-00805). An IBM KWIC (Key Word in Context) program...

R. T. Pfund J. W. Wickes

1975-01-01

28

Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (?6.3)?Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested.

Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

2008-01-01

29

Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

30

Widespread Secondary Volcanism Near Northern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hot spot theory provides a key framework for understanding the motion of the tectonic plates, mantle convection and composition, and magma genesis. The age-progressive volcanism that constructs many chains of islands throughout the world's ocean basins is essential to hot spot theory. In contrast, secondary volcanism, which follows the main edifice-building stage of volcanism in many chains including the Hawaii,

Michael Garcia; Garrett Ito; Dominique Weis; Dennis Geist; Lisa Swinnard; Todd Bianco; Ashton Flinders; Brian Taylor; Bruce Appelgate; Chuck Blay; Diane Hanano; Inês Nobre Silva; Terry Naumann; Claude Maerschalk; Karen Harpp; Branden Christensen; Linda Sciaroni; Taka Tagami; Seiko Yamasaki

2008-01-01

31

Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment…

Happel, Sue

32

Gracilaria dotyi sp. nov. (Rhodophyta, Gigartinales): a New Intertidal Species from Oahu, Hawaiian Islands I  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of Gracilaria (G. doryi sp. nov.) is described from Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. The species resembles G. coronopifolia but differs in several morphological and anatomical features. It has a surprisingly limited distri­ bution on the southwest coast and is the only truly intertidal species of Graci\\/aria thus far reported from the Hawaiian Islands. As THE MARINE ALGAL FLORA

MITCHELL D. HOYLE

33

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary...SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary...A to Subpart Q of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine...

2009-01-01

34

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary...SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary...A to Subpart Q of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine...

2010-01-01

35

Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster  

PubMed Central

The ‘tree lobsters’ are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4?kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the ‘tree lobster’ body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22?Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity.

Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

2008-01-01

36

A new species of Heterorhabditis from the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

A new species of nematode of the genus Heterorhabditis (Nemata: Heterorhabditidae) was found during a survey of the soil entomopathogenic nematode fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Heterorhabditis hawaiiensis sp. n. can be separated from all other species of Heterorhabditis by the length of the infective juvenile and the morphological characters of the spicules, gubernaculum, and bursa. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragment analysis showed that this species also has a distinct genetic pattern in RAPD bands relative to the other 6 species or isolates of Heterorhabditis that were compared. PMID:8308642

Gardner, S L; Stock, S P; Kaya, H K

1994-02-01

37

Surges around the Hawaiian Islands from the 2011 Tohoku Tsunami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 2011 Tohoku tsunami devastated the northeastern Japan coasts and caused localized damage to coastal infrastructure across the Pacific. The tsunami resulted in strong currents around the Hawaiian Islands that led to closure of harbors and marinas for up to 38 h after its arrival. We utilize a nonhydrostatic model to reconstruct the tsunami event from the seismic source for elucidation of the physical processes and inference of the coastal hazards. A number of tide gauges, bottom pressure sensors, and ADCPs provided point measurements for validation and assessment of the model results in Hawaii. Spectral analysis of the computed surface elevation and current reveals complex flow patterns due to multiscale resonance. Standing waves with 33-75 min period develop along the island chains, while oscillations of 27 min or shorter are primarily confined to an island or an island group with interconnected shelves. Standing edge waves with periods 16 min or shorter, which are able to form nodes on the reefs and inside harbors, are the main driving force of the observed coastal currents. Resonance and constructive interference of the oscillation modes provide an explanation of the impacts observed in Hawaii with implications for emergency management in Pacific island communities.

Cheung, Kwok Fai; Bai, Yefei; Yamazaki, Yoshiki

2013-10-01

38

The Origin of Rejuvenated Magmatism on the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rejuvenated volcanism on the Hawaiian islands has long been known for its enigmatic geochemical features, and both the geochemistry and geodynamics of "rejuvenation" are subject of debate. In particular, the consistently depleted nature of its isotopic compositions (unradiogenic Sr and radiogenic Nd-Hf isotopes relative to shield and post-shield lavas) is seemingly at odds with high concentrations of incompatible and volatile elements. Also, the isotopic distinctions between the shield basalts of the two parallel lines of Hawaiian volcanoes are lost during rejuvenated stages. Some earlier attempts to explain these phenomena invoked melting of local oceanic lithosphere heated by the Hawaiian plume, but the isotopic compositions, though depleted, are systematically different from Pacific upper mantle. More recent explanations invoked renewed melting of plume material that had previously produced shield-type tholeiitic magmas from its more fertile components. The renewed melting would involve the more refractory portions of the source rock that had escaped the earlier melting. But such models fail to explain why the volatile budget survived the earlier melting history. Another recent explanation invoked melting of the outer sheath of the plume consisting of mantle material entrained by the plume during its ascent. However, such entrained material lacks the excess temperature needed to undergo any melting at all. Our numerical simulations show that, 200 to 400 km downstream from the locus of shield volcanism, previously unmelted material rises slowly in the deep 'underbelly' of the plume, crosses the solidus at ~ 5GPa, and generates rejuvenated magmas. This material is ultimately derived from the upper portion of the thermal boundary layer from which the plume originates. It consists of 'ordinary', depleted mantle, it has not lost its volatiles, and it is hot enough to undergo low degrees of melting. This model can therefore resolve several unexplained features of rejuvenated volcanism.

Hofmann, A. W.; Farnetani, C. G.

2013-12-01

39

Kahoolawe Island, Hawaii: The role of an ‘inaccessible’ shield volcano in the petrology of the Hawaiian islands and plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kahoolawe volcano (?10×17km) forms one of the eight major Hawaiian islands. Access for geologic sampling has long been restricted due to military and preservation policies. However, limited visits to Kahoolawe in the 1980s yielded >200 samples, many of which have since been used to study the volcano within the framework of Hawaiian shield and mantle source geochemistry, petrology, mineralogy, and

R. V. Fodor; G. R. Bauer

2010-01-01

40

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

1980-06-01

41

Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

2011-01-01

42

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

43

Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

J. Manobianco; C. Alonge; J. Frank; M. Brower

2010-01-01

44

Synopsis of Biological Data on the Green Turtle in the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, is the principal marine turtle species in the Hawaiian Islands. The purpose of this synopsis is to bring together all of the biological information presently known on the population (as of September 1979) and focus attent...

G. H. Balazs

1980-01-01

45

When worlds collide: challenges and opportunities for conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long-term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These challenges are also relevant to other threatened terrestrial taxonomic groups (i.e., plants and invertebrates) in the Hawaiian Islands. Such threats are familiar to conservation biologists the world over, but rarely do they act as synergistically as they do in the Hawaiian Islands. The chapter reviews conservation successes and failures in Hawaii, and provides an example of the possible future course of conservation in other island communities.

Atkinson, Carter T.; Pratt, Thane K.; Banko, Paul C.; Jacobi, James D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

2013-01-01

46

Interaction between an Island and the Ventilated Thermocline: Implications for the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ventilated thermocline theory is adapted to include the interaction between an island and the wind-driven subtropical circulation. The primary goal is an understanding of the effect of this interaction on the Hawaiian Lee Countercurrent (HLCC), an eastward current crossing the Pacific west of Hawaii in the latitude band 188- 218N. A two-and-one-half-layer model is used, with the model island

Bo Qiu; Theodore S. Durland

2002-01-01

47

Habitat utilization by Hawaiian stream fishes with reference to community structure in oceanic island streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Much of the freshwater biota on high Pacific islands is derived from marine ancestors. Traces of this marine origin are seen\\u000a in the amphidromous life history patterns of these species. Investigation of the habitat utilization of an assemblage of freshwater\\u000a gobies in the Hawaiian Islands indicates some resource partitioning within this group. The three major stream species appear\\u000a to exhibit

Robert A. Kinzie

1988-01-01

48

Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries.  

PubMed

The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1alpha gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. PMID:16156815

Jordan, Steve; Simon, Chris; Foote, David; Englund, Ronald A

2005-10-01

49

Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

Powers, H. A.

1955-01-01

50

Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

1993-10-01

51

Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic ocean islands offer numerous advantages as natural experiments in landscape evolution, including homogeneous bedrock, dramatic climate gradients, and an initial surface that can often be reconstructed and dated. Uplift and subsidence set the time-dependent base level and elevations that strongly influence an island's evolution, yet the vertical motion history from an ocean island's construction to its eventual submergence below sea level is not well understood. Volcanic ocean islands may uplift or subside due to flexural isostatic response of the lithosphere to volcanic loading and island migration over bathymetric swells associated with hotspots. With an abundance of dated paleoshoreline markers, the Hawaiian Islands provide a unique opportunity to compare observations of island uplift and subsidence to various models of lithospheric deformation. We calculated 444 rates of island vertical motion, averaged over 50 years to 5 Myr, from drowned and emerged corals, subaerially erupted basalt, and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. To compare these observations to theoretical predictions for migration over hotspot topography, we filtered Hawaiian bathymetry to isolate the regional swell component and tracked its elevation change between the present and paleo locations of the rate observations, assuming constant plate velocity. For volcanic loading, we determined the deflection resulting from individual volcanoes by modeling the lithosphere as a thin elastic plate. We used radiometric basalt ages to calculate vertical motion rates averaged over discrete volcanic loading events. More than 60% of the rate observations averaged over >100 kyr lie within uncertainty of modeled rates of vertical motion for volcanic loading calculated using an effective elastic thicknesses of the lithosphere Te within the range of previously determined Te for Hawai'i. Migration over swell topography has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Accounting for migration over swell topography, we find that the best-fit Te to the rate observations is consistent with Te estimates from seismic refraction and gravity anomaly data. Our comparisons suggest that the Hawaiian Islands follow a relatively predictable trajectory of vertical motion that could be incorporated into landscape evolution models.

Huppert, K.; Royden, L.; Perron, J.

2013-12-01

52

Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2004-10-01

53

Modeling the sea currents in open basins: The case study for the Hawaiian Island region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fields of currents in open basins are studied with the use of a mathematical model of ocean hydrodynamics. The area of\\u000a the Hawaiian Islands is taken as an example. The model, based on three-dimensional equations of thermohydrodynamics, is solved\\u000a for a domain with open boundaries, at which adaptive boundary conditions are set. We analyze the results of numerical experiments

V. G. Bondur; R. A. Ibrayev; Yu. V. Grebenyuk; G. A. Sarkisyan

2008-01-01

54

Habitat and reef-fish assemblages of banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The moderately deep terraces and banks of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) were surveyed to describe their habitat and reef-fish assemblages. These tracts of bottom at 30–40 m comprise more than 4,500 km 2of the region’s reef area. The habitat was found to be dominated by algal meadows (65% cover of exposed bottom), with infrequent relief features. Annual monitoring of select stations

Frank A. Parrish; Raymond C. Boland

2004-01-01

55

Stability analysis of Hawaiian Island flanks using insight gained from strength testing of the HSDP core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian Island flank failures are recognized as the largest landslide events on Earth, reaching volumes of several thousand cubic kilometers and lengths of over 200 km and occurring on an average of once every 100 000 years. The 3.1 km deep Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) enabled an investigation of the rock mass strength variations on the island of Hawaii [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228]. This study builds on that of Schiffman et al. [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228] by considering more in-depth rock mass classification and strength testing methods of the HSDP core. Geotechnical core logging techniques combined with laboratory strength testing methods show that rock strength differences exist within the edifice. Comparing the rock strength parameters obtained from the various volcano lithologies identified weak zones, suggesting the possible location of future slip surfaces for large flank failures. Relatively weak rock layers were recognized within poorly consolidated hyaloclastite zones, with increases in strength based on degree of alteration. Subaerial and submarine basalt flows are found to be significantly stronger. With the aid of digital elevation models, cross-sections have been developed of key flank areas on the island of Hawaii. Limit equilibrium slope stability analyses are performed on each cross-section using various failure criteria for the rock mass strength calculations. Based on the stability analyses the majority of the slopes analyzed are considered stable. In cases where instability (i.e. failure) is predicted, decreased rock mass quality (strength) of the altered and highly poorly consolidated lithologies is found to have a significant influence. These lithologies are present throughout the Hawaiian Islands, representing potential failure surfaces for large flank collapses. Failure criterion input parameters are considered in sensitivity analyses as are the influences of certain external stability factors such as sea level variation and seismic loading.

Thompson, Nick; Watters, Robert J.; Schiffman, Peter

2008-04-01

56

Shallow terraces in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Implications for carbonate accretion and sea level variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data recently collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division permit the first detailed analysis of the submarine geomorphology of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Here we focus on the character, spatial extent, depth, and number of terraces, scarps, and other shallow seafloor features in the NWHI. The islands and atolls at or near sea level and the flat top banks have terraces and scarps at a variety of depths above the major breaks in slope and consistent paleoreef complexes are present at average depths of 30-45 m, 55-65 m, and 110-130 m. Their geomorphology is controlled by vertical coral reef accretion during sea-level highstands and erosion and karstification during lowstands. Wave energy also plays a major role in shaping the NWHI. Our results suggest that although the NWHI features are discontinuous and probably occupied by sea level on more than one occasion they group into general depth ranges that correlate with late-Quaternary sea-level features in the MHI and phases of postglacial reef growth separated by melt-water pulses. Identification and correlation of these features is important for developing sea-level and reef accretion histories in the Hawaiian Islands. Further work is needed to constrain the absolute ages of these reef features and construct an accurate sea-level curve for the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Weiss, J. R.; Edwards, M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Rooney, J. J.; Clague, D. A.

2009-12-01

57

The search for Father Bachelot: first Catholic missionary to the Hawaiian Islands (1827-1837).  

PubMed

The main objective of this study is to determine if the remains of Father Bachelot, leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands, can be identified among the commingled human skeletal remains brought back from Pohnpei, Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, in 1977. An osteological/forensic examination of these remains, a review of the literature, interviews with leaders of the expedition, and ancillary considerations suggest that, in all probability, none of the skeletal remains from Pohnpei are those of Father Bachelot. Father Alexis Bachelot, born in France, in 1796, was leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands. He died in 1837, after being exiled from the Hawaiian Kingdom. His remains were buried on the small islet of Na, off the coast of Pohnpei, the same year. An expedition to Pohnpei in 1977, to recover the remains of Father Bachelot, resulted in the recovery of several sets of commingled remains which are the subject of this study. A detailed osteological/forensic study of these remains indicates the presence of at least ten individuals, including two subadults, two adult females, and six adult males. Stature estimates, the presence of osseous changes suggestive of treponemal disease, and other cranial, dental, and skeletal features are more consistent with Pohnpean than European ancestry. The presence of shell beads and other mortuary features strengthens this assertion. Recommendations for any future attempts to recover the remains of this famous personage are made. PMID:9068178

Pietrusewsky, M; Willacker, L M

1997-03-01

58

The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

Chague-Goff, C.

2013-12-01

59

Polyglutamine variation in a flowering time protein correlates with island age in a Hawaiian plant radiation  

PubMed Central

Background A controversial topic in evolutionary developmental biology is whether morphological diversification in natural populations can be driven by expansions and contractions of amino acid repeats in proteins. To promote adaptation, selection on protein length variation must overcome deleterious effects of multiple correlated traits (pleiotropy). Thus far, systems that demonstrate this capacity include only ancient or artificial morphological diversifications. The Hawaiian Islands, with their linear geological sequence, present a unique environment to study recent, natural radiations. We have focused our research on the Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae), a large and diverse lineage with paradoxically low genetic variation, in order to test whether a direct relationship between coding-sequence repeat diversity and morphological change can be observed in an actively evolving system. Results Here we show that in the Hawaiian mints, extensive polyglutamine (CAG codon repeat) polymorphism within a homolog of the pleiotropic flowering time protein and abscisic acid receptor FCA tracks the natural environmental cline of the island chain, consequent with island age, across a period of 5 million years. CAG expansions, perhaps following their natural tendency to elongate, are more frequent in colonists of recently-formed, nutrient-rich islands than in their forebears on older, nutrient-poor islands. Values for several quantitative morphological variables related to reproductive investment, known from Arabidopsis fca mutant studies, weakly though positively correlate with increasing glutamine tract length. Together with protein modeling of FCA, which indicates that longer polyglutamine tracts could induce suboptimally mobile functional domains, we suggest that CAG expansions may form slightly deleterious alleles (with respect to protein function) that become fixed in founder populations. Conclusion In the Hawaiian mint FCA system, we infer that contraction of slightly deleterious CAG repeats occurred because of competition for resources along the natural environmental cline of the island chain. The observed geographical structure of FCA variation and its correlation with morphologies expected from Arabidopsis mutant studies may indicate that developmental pleiotropy played a role in the diversification of the mints. This discovery is important in that it concurs with other suggestions that repetitive amino acid motifs might provide a mechanism for driving morphological evolution, and that variation at such motifs might permit rapid tuning to environmental change.

Lindqvist, Charlotte; Laakkonen, Liisa; Albert, Victor A

2007-01-01

60

More than Black and White: Differences in Predictors of Obesity among Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and European Americans  

PubMed Central

Although Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders exhibit the highest rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases of any racial/ethnic group, they remain vastly underrepresented in health research. In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 402) we examined body mass index (BMI) and health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural sample of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (25.1%), Asian-Americans (39.8%) and European Americans (35.1%). Measures assessed BMI, health status, health behaviors, frequency of exercise, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance abuse and dependence). Regression analyses revealed that an overall model of five predictors (gender, race, regular exercise, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety) was significantly associated with obesity (p<0.001) and correctly classified 84.2% of cases. 30.7% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were obese as compared to 9.2% of European Americans and 10.6% of Asian Americans. These findings suggest that Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islanders are at high risk for obesity and associated medical comorbidities, but that regular physical activity may ameliorate this risk. Further, these results support the consideration of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial/ethnic subgroup separate from other Asian populations.

Madan, Alok; Archambeau, Olga G.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Goldman, Rachel L.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Tuerk, Peter; Frueh, B. Christopher

2012-01-01

61

Validation of a New Rainbow Model Over the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new realistic model of the rainbow has been developed at the CNRM. It is based on the Airy theory. The main entry parameters are the droplet size distribution, the angle of the sun above the horizon, the temperature of the droplets and the wavelength. The island of Hawaii seems to be a perfect place for the validation of the rainbow model. Not only because of its famous rainbows, but also because of the convenient ring road along the coast. The older lower islands for more frequent viewing opportunities having to do with the proximity of clear sky to heavy rainfall. Both Oahu and Kauai as well as the western part of Maui have coastal roads that offer good access to rainbows. The best time to view rainbows is when the sun angle is lowest, in other words near the winter solstice. Figure 1 = Map of mean annual rainfall for the islands of Kauai and Oahu, developed from the new 2011 Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii. The base period of the statistics is 1978-2007. Figure 2 = Moisture zone map by Gon et al (1998). Blue areas are the wet ones. Green areas are the Mesic ones. Yellow areas are the dry ones.

Ricard, J. L.; Adams, P. L.; Barckike, J.

2012-12-01

62

Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

long-term rheological properties of the lithosphere are fundamental for understanding both surface tectonics and mantle dynamics on Earth. In this study, we have developed 3-D finite element models for computing the load-induced surface deformation and stress for lithosphere and mantle with realistic nonlinear viscoelastic rheology including the frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. We have determined the lithospheric deformation and stress due to volcano loading in the Hawaiian Islands region for the last few million years. By comparing model predictions with seismic observations of the depth to the top of oceanic crust and depth dependence of seismicity in the Hawaiian Islands region, we have sought to constrain lithospheric rheology. Our calculations show that the load-induced surface deformation is controlled by low-temperature plasticity and frictional sliding but is insensitive to high-temperature creep. Lithospheric strength predicted from laboratory-derived low-temperature plasticity needs to be reduced significantly, and a frictional coefficient ?f ranging from 0.1 to 0.7 is required in order to account for the observations. However, ?f = 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity. Our results therefore suggest a value for ?f between 0.25 and 0.7. Finally, the maximum stress that accumulates in the deformed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is about 100-200 MPa for models that match the observations, and this stress may be viewed as the largest lithospheric stress on Earth.

Zhong, Shijie; Watts, A. B.

2013-11-01

63

A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits.

Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

2012-01-01

64

Evidence for a gradual decrease of geoid to topography ratio along the Hawaiian island chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known that the seafloor around the Hawaiian island chain is unusually shallow. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: the thermal lithospheric thinning and the dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the apparent compensation depth; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess the swell support. This is why the topography and geoid anomalies over the Hawaiian swell have been the subject of many investigations. The observed GTR has been reported to lie between 4 and 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to the volcanic edifice and lithospheric flexure, and this biases the resulting GTR. Consequently, we propose a new method based on continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to obtain the GTR in the space and in the frequency domains. We show that the GTR varies along the swell, from 8 m/km on Big Island to 3-4 m/km 2000 km to the northwest, for the scales ranging between 1100 and 1600 km. This reflects a decay of the apparent compensation depth moving along the islands chain. Our results are consistent with the recent seismic study from Li et al. [Nature 427 (2004) 827-829], where the authors evidence that the lithosphere gradually thins along the islands chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. These results together converge to a hybrid model for the origin of the Hawaiian swell: the swell as a whole is supported dynamically, but it is also partly due to heating and thinning of the lithosphere in its central portions.

Diament, M.; Cadio, C.; Panet, I.

2010-12-01

65

Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naturalists in the 1800s described the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ?I?iwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ?I?iwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawai?i, east Maui, and Kaua?i, with a few birds apparently persisting on O?ahu, Moloka?i, and west Maui. ?I?iwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ?I?iwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ?I?iwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ?I?iwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawai?i, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kaua?i. ?I?iwi population trends vary across the islands. ?I?iwi population in Kaua?i has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawai?i, population trends are mixed. On the windward side, populations are largely declining, although the northern section (Hakalau Forest) has stable populations. On the leeward side, results suggest a strongly increasing population, with estimates of as much as a 147 percent increase over a 25 year period from the Pu?u Wa?awa?a region. However, it is unclear how much these results from the leeward side of Hawai?i show a population trend contrary to population trends in all other areas or are an artifact of a sparsely sampled area. Trends by elevation suggest a large decrease in numbers of ?I?iwi at elevations below 1,200 meters on Kaua?i and northeast Maui. Low elevation ?I?iwi populations also appear to have decreased in other regions, although low-elevation areas are not surveyed as often as other areas because of their lack of native forest birds. An exception to this pattern was the lower portions of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Kona Unit in the central leeward part of the island of Hawai?i, where populations appeared stable at the lower elevations. Based on the most recent surveys (up to 2012), approximately 50 percent of ?I?iwi live in a narrow, 500-meter band at elevations of 1,200–1,700 meters, suggesting that ?I?iwi are vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

2013-01-01

66

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

2014-01-01

67

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here.

Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

2014-01-01

68

Atlas of the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By the Remote Sensing Team (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), these detailed maps released in February 2003 focus on the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This part of the island chain extends across over 2200 kilometers of open ocean, and the total shallow water area of the ten atolls encompasses over 8000 square kilometers. Most of the information for these maps was obtained through the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, along with field data collected during 2001. For each of the ten atolls covered in this project, visitors can read a brief description and history, along with viewing maps generated from the satellite images and the habitat cover of each particular atoll. Those seeking to learn more about the map development process will be pleased to find a document on this subject, and a description of the classification scheme used in the maps.

69

Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

2011-12-01

70

Bacterial Communities of Two Parthenogenetic Aphid Species Cocolonizing Two Host Plants across the Hawaiian Islands ?  

PubMed Central

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants.

Jones, Ryan T.; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M.; Fierer, Noah

2011-01-01

71

Genetic population structure of an anchialine shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena (Crustacea: Alpheidae), in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Anchialine habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, characterized as coastal bodies of land-locked salt or brackish water that fluctuate with the tides due to subterranean connections, are the only ecosystems of this type found within the United States. These habitats are currently subject to anthropogenic impacts that threaten their future existence. Previous research has shown strong genetic population structure of an endemic atyid shrimp, Halocaridina rubra, in these habitats. The native alpheid shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena, whose known range entirely overlaps that of H. rubra, has feeding and reproductive behaviors that are biologically distinct from H. rubra. Its historic scarcity and status as a candidate for the US Fish and Wildlife Department's Endangered Species List, make M. lohena an ideal species to compare against the known genetic structure of H. rubra. We investigated the population structure of this native anchialine shrimp to test the hypothesis that genetic population structure differs between the two shrimp species and that M. lohena is genetically unstructured across its range. A survey of 605 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 127 individuals collected at 7 sites spanning the islands of O'ahu, Maui and Hawaii revealed 43 haplotypes. The most common haplotype was represented in similar proportions from all sites sampled, accounting for 44% of the surveyed sequences. Analyses of molecular variation (AMOVA), pairwise PhiST values, Bayesian estimates of migration (M), Mantel tests and Nested Clade Analyses (NCAs) all failed to reveal evidence of major barriers to gene flow among most populations separated by inter-island channels. This lack of genetic structure in M. lohena is found to be in stark contrast with the highly structured population of H. rubra, and may be attributed to oceanic dispersal strategies and/or a recent introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:20411714

Russ, Atlantis; Santos, S R; Muir, C

2010-03-01

72

Generation of mesoscale eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean west of the main Hawaiian Islands is characterized by enhanced eddy kinetic energy arising from the abundance of locally generated mesoscale eddies, most frequently in the area west of the island of Hawaii. Two mechanisms of eddy generation in the wake of an island are examined with numerical model experiments. The first, eddy generation and shedding by an oceanic flow around an oceanic barrier, requires the existence of strong westward flows to the north and south of the island of Hawaii. Model solutions show such westward flows and generation of eddies by these flows although the intensity of the eddies and the generation frequency are much lower than that derived from altimetry. As a result, these eddies contribute an insignificant amount of eddy kinetic energy in the region. The second, eddy generation and shedding by an atmospheric flow around an atmospheric barrier, is based on oceanic upwelling and downwelling induced by surface wind shear, effectively introducing sinks and sources to the ocean interior. Previous idealized modeling studies have shown that oceanic eddies can be generated by sufficiently strong forcing (source or sink), providing an explanation why eddy occurrences in the lee of the island of Hawaii coincide with periods of strong trade winds. Eddy generation characteristics in the model experiments are consistent with this mechanism in terms of time of occurrence, strength and the resulting eddy kinetic energy. Major discrepancies are in eddy propagation and therefore eddy distribution in the regional domain due to the complex nature of eddy-eddy interactions.

Jia, Y.; Calil, P. H. R.; Chassignet, E. P.; Metzger, E. J.; Potemra, J. T.; Richards, K. J.; Wallcraft, A. J.

2011-11-01

73

Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T. M.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S. K. K.; Morris, R.

1997-01-01

74

Integration of Coastal Geomorphology, Mythology, and Archaeological Evidence at Kualoa Beach, Windward O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal geomorphology, mythic traditions, and archaeological evidence are integrated for a case study at Kualoa Beach in windward O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands. The creation of coastal landforms and the effects of high-sea events appear to be encoded in the language of myth and folklore. Archaeological deposits can be understood in relation to several natural and cultural processes of deposition, disturbance, and

Mike T. Carson; J. Stephen Athens

2007-01-01

75

Paleopathological and Paleoepidemiological Investigation of Human Skeletal Remains of Early Hawaiians from Mokapu Site, Oahu Island, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleopathological changes appearing in human bones were investigated on 349 early Hawaiian skeletal remains from the Mokapu site, Oahu Island, Hawaii. At the same time, a gross observation of abnormal changes was carried out on well-preserved adult individuals in order to obtain data for epidemiological analyses. Among various pathological evidence including trauma, infections and tumors, relatively high frequencies of skeletal

Takao Suzuki

1993-01-01

76

Cryptosporidium sp. Infections in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a Potential Source of Marine Waterborne Oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S.; Morris, R.

1997-01-01

77

Impact of the black twig borer, an introduced insect pest, on Acacia koa in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Asian black twig borer (Xylosandrus compactus Eichhoff 1875) became naturalized in the Hawaiian Islands in the 1960s. It attacks economically important plants (e.g. coffee) as well as endan- gered endemic trees. This study examined the impact of the black twig borer on koa (Acacia koa), an economically important native tree that is harvested for its fine wood. The black

CURTIS C. DAEHLER; NICK DUDLEY

78

Long-term fluvial response to Hawaiian Island subsidence through the Pacific Trade-Wind Inversion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the subsiding, subtropical limb of the Hadley circulation and the easterly North Pacific Trade Winds establishes a persistent thermal inversion at about 2000 m above sea level in the subtropical Pacific near the Hawaiian Islands. The inversion restricts convective rainfall to the lower elevations of the windward flank of the Big Island of Hawaii. This results in stream channels that cross a 2-order-of-magnitude rainfall gradient, active ephemerally above the inversion and perennially below it. Over the last ~475 ka, the Big Island of Hawaii has subsided at a nearly steady rate of 2.6 mm/yr. This has lowered fluvial networks through the Trade Wind Inversion while simultaneously raising base level by ~1200 m. Given these long-term transient conditions, we present analytical solutions for the evolution of mean annual discharge for streams draining the conical windward flank of Mauna Kea. We show that, in our study area, stream discharge at any point with a modern elevation below ~2800 m ASL must continue to increase through time until that point is near or at sea level, and therefore that none of the stream channels on the eastern flank of Mauna Kea can be in "steady state". We incorporate our time-discharge equations into simple 1D numerical models of stream profile evolution and compare these against characteristics of Hawaiian streams. We also present results from a 2D landscape evolution model of a Hawaii-like landscape that acknowledges this unique space-time gradient of precipitation.

Ward, D.; Galewsky, J.

2012-12-01

79

Lithospheric flexure at the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the lithosphere to long-term geological loads such as volcanoes, sediments and ice provide important insights to both plate mechanics and mantle dynamics. One of the largest loads on Earth's surface are the shield volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean. We have developed a 3-D finite element model for calculating the flexure and stress associated with the emplacement of an arbitrary-shaped volcano load on a crust and mantle with realistic non-linear viscoelastic rheology, including frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. By comparing model predictions with seismic reflection and refraction observations of the depth to the top of the oceanic crust and the depth dependence of seismicity at the Hawaiian Islands, we have been able to constrain the long-term rheological properties of intraplate, plume influenced, Late Cretaceous (83-96 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Our calculations show that while the load-induced surface flexure is insensitive to high-temperature creep, it is sensitive to both the frictional sliding and low-temperature plasticity laws. Results show that a frictional coefficient ranging from 0.25 to 0.70 and a low-temperature plasticity law that is significantly weaker than ones recently proposed from experimental rock mechanics data are required in order to account for the observations. For example, a frictional coefficient of 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity while the low-temperature plasticity law of Mei et al (2010) strengthens the deep part of the lithosphere so much that it predicts too small an amplitude and long a wavelength flexure compared to the observed. Our best fit model suggest the maximum stress that accumulates in the flexed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is 100-200 MPa, and therefore this stress may be viewed as among the largest that Earth's lithosphere is capable of supporting on long geological time-scales.

Zhong, Shijie; Watts, Anthony

2014-05-01

80

Pliocene and Pleistocene alkalic flood basalts on the seafloor north of the Hawaiian islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The North Arch volcanic field is located north of Oahu on the Hawaiian Arch, a 200-m high flexural arch formed by loading of the Hawaiian Islands. These flood basalt flows cover an area of about 25,000 km2; the nearly flat-lying sheet-like flows extend about 100 km both north and south from the axis of the flexural arch. Samples from 26 locations in the volcanic field range in composition from nephelinite to alkalic basalt. Ages estimated from stratigraphy, thickness of sediment on top of the flows, and thickness of palagonite alteration rinds on the recovered lavas, range from about 0.75-0.9 Ma for the youngest lavas to somewhat older than 2.7 Ma for the oldest lavas. Most of the flow field consists of extensive sheetflows of dense basanite and alkalic basalt. Small hills consisting of pillow basalt and hyaloclastite of mainly nephelinite and alkalic basalt occur within the flow field but were not the source vents for the extensive flows. Many of the vent lavas are highly vesicular, apparently because of degassing of CO2. The lavas are geochemically similar to the rejuvenated-stage lavas of the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics and were generated by partial melting of sources similar to those of the Koloa Volcanics. Prior to eruption, these magmas may have accumulated at or near the base of the lithosphere in a structural trap created by upbowing of the lithosphere. ?? 1990.

Clague, D. A.; Holcomb, R. T.; Sinton, J. M.; Detrick, R. S.; Torresan, M. E.

1990-01-01

81

Maximizing Multi-core Performance of the Weather Research and Forecast Model over the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands consist of dramatic terrain changes over short distances, resulting in a variety of microclimates in close proximity. To handle these challenging conditions, weather models must be run at very fine vertical and horizontal resolutions to produce accurate forecasts. Computational demands require WRF to be executed in parallel on the Maui High Performance Computing Center’s Mana system, a PowerEdge M610 Linux cluster. This machine has 1,152 compute nodes, each with two 2.8 GHz quad-core Intel® Nehalem processors and 24 GB RAM. Realizing maximum performance on Mana relied on the determination of an optimal number of cores to use per socket, the efficiency of an MPI only implementation, an optimal set of parameters for adaptive time stepping, a way to meet the strict stability requirements necessary for Hawaii, effective choices for processor and memory affinity, and parallel automation techniques for producing forecast imagery.

Roe, K.; Stevens, D.

2010-09-01

82

Depth zonation and bathymetric trends of deep-sea megafaunal scavengers of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The deep sea has been shown to exhibit strong depth zonation in species composition and abundance. Examination of these patterns can offer ecological insight into how organisms adapt and respond to changing environmental parameters that co-occur with depth. Here we provide the first tropical study on bathymetric zonation and other depth-related trends (size, abundance, and species richness) spanning shelf to abyssal depths of scavenging megafauna. Baited time-lapse free-vehicle cameras were used to examine the deep-sea benthic and demersal scavenging communities of the Hawaiian Islands, an area for which the biology and ecology have remained poorly studied below 2000 m. Twenty-two deployments ranging in depth from 250 to 4783 m yielded 37 taxa attracted to bait, including the first known occurrence of the family Zoarcidae in the Hawaiian Islands. Cluster analysis of Bray-Curtis similarity of species peak abundance ( nmax) revealed four main faunal zones (250-500, 1000, 1500-3000, and ?4000 m) with significant separation (ANOSIM, global R=0.907, p=0.001) between designated depth groups. A major faunal break was identified at the 500-1000 m transition where species turnover was greatest, coinciding with the location of the local oxygen minimum zone. Dominance in species assemblage shifted from decapod crustaceans to teleosts moving from shallow to deeper faunal zones. Significant size differences in total length with depth were found for two of the four fish species examined. A logarithmic decline was observed in scavenger relative abundance with depth. Evidence of interaction between scavenging species was also noted between Synaphobranchus affinis and Neolithodes sp. (competition) and Histiobranchus sp. and aristeid shrimp (predation), suggesting that interactions between scavengers could influence indices of abundance generated from baited camera data.

Yeh, John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

2009-02-01

83

Changes in the vertical profiles of mean temperature and humidity in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent drought and warmer than normal temperatures affecting the Hawaiian Islands have raised concern among natural resource managers that impacts associated with global warming are becoming manifest in the region. A number of studies published over the past few decades have documented changes in the climate of Hawai'i that are generally consistent with expectations from climate change projections, such as those found in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment report (IPCC, 2007). In this study we examine a suite of climate variables that are important from the point of view of ecosystem impacts, but that also relate to societal concerns such Island water resources. Our results are consistent with previous studies in showing a significant warming trend, especially evident at higher elevations. In particular, we document a decrease in the frequency of occurrence of freezing temperatures in the upper slopes of the higher terrain on Maui and the Big Island and a concomitant rise in the freezing level surface in the region that is in good agreement with analogous studies done for other mountainous areas of the world. Temperatures at standard reference surfaces in the free atmosphere have warmed throughout the troposphere, with a maximum near the 850 mb level. The warming peak at this level could be associated with an increased frequency of occurrence and/or lowering of the trade wind inversion layer.

Diaz, Henry F.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Eischeid, Jon K.

2011-05-01

84

Population Size and Structure of Melon-Headed Whales (Peponocephala Electra) Around the Main Hawaiian Islands: Evidence of Multiple Populations Based on Photographic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the presence of melon-headed whales in tropical and sub- tropical waters worldwide, little is known about this species. Melon-headed whales frequent offshore waters surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands where aerial surveys by Mobley and colleague...

J. M. Aschettino

2010-01-01

85

Global phylogeography of Cassiopea (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae): molecular evidence for cryptic species and multiple invasions of the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea is a globally distributed, semi-sessile, planktonically dispersed scyphomedusa. Cassiopea occurs in shallow, tropical inshore marine waters on sandy mudflats and is generally associated with mangrove-dominated habitats. Controversy over the taxonomy of upside-down jellyfishes precedes their introduction to the Hawaiian Islands during the Second World War, and persists today. Here we address the global phylogeography and molecular

Brenden S. Holland; Michael N. Dawson; Gerald L. Crow; Dietrich K. Hofmann

2004-01-01

86

Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (°C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for spec

Edited by Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

2012-01-01

87

Erosion and landscape development affect plant nutrient status in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

We quantified variation in plant nutrient concentrations and provenance along catenas in landscapes of three different ages (0.15, 1.4, and 4.1 ma) in the Hawaiian Islands. Strontium (Sr) isotopes demonstrate that erosion provides a renewed source of rock-derived nutrients to slopes in landscapes of all ages, in some cases reversing a million years of ecosystem development in a distance of 100 m. However the effects of this input vary with landscape age. Plants on uneroded surfaces in a 0.15-ma landscape derive approximately 20% of their Sr from local bedrock (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7085), while on adjacent slopes this increases to approximately 80% (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7045). Despite this shift in provenance, foliar N and P do not vary systematically with slope position. Conversely, eroded slopes in a 4.1-ma landscape show smaller increases in rock-derived cations relative to stable uplands (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7075 vs 0.7090), but have >50% higher foliar N and P. These results demonstrate both that erosion can greatly increase nutrient availability in older landscapes, and that the ecological effects of erosion vary with landscape age. In addition, there can be as much biogeochemical variation on fine spatial scales in eroding landscapes as there is across millions of years of ecosystem development on stable surfaces. PMID:15538635

Porder, Stephen; Paytan, Adina; Vitousek, Peter M

2005-01-01

88

Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

1977-01-01

89

Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.  

PubMed

Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

2007-04-01

90

Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

2011-01-01

91

Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yokose, H.; Lipman, P. W.; Kanamatsu, T.

2005-01-01

92

50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ...

2013-10-01

93

Culturally-specific Physical Activity Measures for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Introduction Physical activity is an important contributor to the health disparities experienced by Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) populations. A culturally-specific measurement instrument that minimizes interpretation bias is necessary to obtain accurate assessments of this lifestyle behavior. The purpose of this study was to 1) create two versions of the Pacific Islander Physical Activity Questionnaire (PIPAQ-short and PIPAQ-long) for United States NHPI, and 2) pilot test the PIPAQ instruments and two objective physical activity monitors to evaluate cultural-appropriateness and acceptability. Methods Forty NHPI adults (20M, 20F) aged 21–65 years attended focus group discussions addressing cultural perspectives related to physical activity. Feedback from participants, community leaders and physical activity experts guided cultural modifications to existing questionnaires to create PIPAQ-short and PIPAQ-long with accompanying showcards. Pilot testing of both PIPAQs and two objective physical activity monitors, the Actiheart and ActiTrainer, was carried out in another sample of 32 NHPI adults (17M, 15F) aged 18–63 years. Participants were instructed to wear one monitor for ?10 hours/day for 7 consecutive days. At the follow-up visit, participants completed PIPAQ-short and PIPAQ-long, and a written and verbal exit interview to provide feedback on both subjective and objective instruments. Results The majority of participants felt PIPAQ-long provided a more accurate reflection of activity levels, compared to PIPAQ-short. The Actiheart was the preferred monitor due to higher comfort and lower participant burden. Self-reported duration of physical activities was most difficult to recall, compared to activity type, frequency and intensity. Conclusion Both PIPAQ instruments and the Actiheart monitor have demonstrated cultural acceptability and appropriateness for NHPI adults. Future studies will investigate the validity and reliability of both PIPAQ instruments in larger samples of NHPI adults.

Sallis, James F; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

2010-01-01

94

Natural variations of ? 30Si ratios during progressive basalt weathering, Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon stable isotopes can be used to trace the biogeochemical pathways of Si as it moves from its continental sources to its sink in ocean sediments. Along the way, Si is incorporated into clay minerals, taken up by plants where it forms plant opal, and leached into rivers, the major land-to-ocean conduit. Compared to igneous rocks, the waters that drain continents are enriched in heavy Si isotopes, but the mechanisms that control fractionation have not been elucidated. We studied Si isotope fractionation along a 4 million yr basaltic soil chronosequence on the Hawaiian Islands. Using the natural context of these samples in combination with laboratory experiments, we demonstrate that the isotopic composition of dissolved Si in weathering systems is determined by the combined effects of rock disintegration, clay mineral neosynthesis, and Si biocycling. Weathering preferentially releases 28Si into solution, whereas secondary mineral formation preferentially removes 28Si from solution. In humid environments, leached soils have lost large amounts of this soluble Si, thus creating a net loss of 30Si from the entire soil system. As soils develop and greater fractions of Si reside in neoformed clay minerals, ? 30Si bulk soil values change progressively toward more negative values; basalt ? 30Si values are about -0.5‰, but older soils have ? 30Si values up to -2.5‰. The difference between the solid and solution ? 30Si values remains more or less constant with progressive weathering, and therefore, soil water from older soils has a more negative ? 30Si composition. In the upper horizons of the Hawaiian soils, this weathering-driven ? 30Si shift is modified by the addition of unweathered primary minerals via dust, carrying ? 30Si values of about -0.5‰, and by biocycling of Si via plants, producing negative ? 30Si values in phytoliths and positive ? 30Si values in soil solutions derived from upper horizons. Due to the high concentrations of dissolved Si in these near-surface layers, rivers have more positive ? 30Si values than predicted based on the weathering status of the lower horizons. When combined with published ? 30Si values from large rivers worldwide, we find that the results from Hawaii point to weathering control of Si isotopes delivered to the oceans, and thus, to an important continent-ocean linkage that warrants further investigation.

Ziegler, Karen; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Kelly, Eugene F.

2005-10-01

95

Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

Grossman, D.H.

1992-01-01

96

Racial disparities among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with intracerebral hemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To evaluate disparities in stroke risk factors and outcome among the Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) in Hawaii who are hospitalized with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for acute ICH at a single tertiary center on Oahu between 2004 and 2010. Clinical data were obtained from the Get With the Guidelines–Stroke database. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the predictors for young ICH (age <45). Results: A total of 562 patients hospitalized for acute ICH (Asian 63%, NHPI 18%, white 16%, other 3%) were studied. The NHPI were younger (mean ages, NHPI 55 ± 16 vs white 66 ± 16 years, p < 0.0001), and had higher prevalence of diabetes (NHPI 35% vs white 20%, p = 0.01) and history of hypertension (NHPI 77% vs white 64%, p = 0.04) compared to white patients. Independent predictors for young ICH were NHPI race (odds ratio [OR] 3.55; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33–9.45), being transferred from another hospital (OR 2.03; 95% CI 1.05–3.93), hypertension (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.27–0.91), previous stroke or TIA (OR 0.21; 95% CI 0.05–0.91), and dyslipidemia (OR 0.15; 95% CI 0.05–0.50). Conclusions: NHPI with ICH are younger and have higher burden of risk factors compared to white patients. Further studies controlling for socioeconomic modifiers are needed to determine factors contributing to the younger age at presentation in this racial group.

Koenig, Matthew A.; Seto, Todd B.; Asai, Susan M.; Chang, Cherylee W.

2012-01-01

97

Isoseismal Maps, Macroseismic Epicenters, and Estimated Magnitudes of Historical Earthquakes in the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the report the authors document the occurrence of historical earthquakes, estimate magnitude, probable location, and relative focal depth for early Hawaiian earthquakes where data are sufficient, and calculate the probability for major to large earthqu...

M. Wyss R. Koyanagi

1992-01-01

98

77 FR 70915 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...these uncertainties, the available sample size from Hawaiian false killer whales...factors. In addition, although the sample size for the NWHI population is low...assigned ambiguously in STRUCTURE and sample size may be an issue in this...

2012-11-28

99

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

100

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

101

Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

102

Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems.

Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

2011-01-01

103

Eliminating Tobacco Disparities Among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders Through Policy Change: The Role of Community-Based Organizations  

PubMed Central

Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California.

Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P.

2013-01-01

104

Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction, this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii). Polynesian groupers were infected with a highly diversified parasite community whereas Hawaiian groupers exhibited a depauperate ensemble of parasite species, C. argus having lost most of the parasites common in their native range. Interestingly, the grouper has not acquired new parasites present in Hawaiian waters. This study provides the first field evidence of significant parasite release in a wild but previously introduced fish in coral reefs and is discussed in relation to the Enemy-Release Hypothesis which has never been assessed in those ecosystems. PMID:19002714

Vignon, Matthias; Sasal, Pierre; Galzin, René

2009-03-01

105

Ethnoracial Disparities in Sexual Assault among Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Context Ethnoracial differences may exist in exposure to trauma and post-traumatic outcomes. However, Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) are vastly underrepresented in research pertaining to trauma and health status sequelae. Objective To determine whether there are ethnoracial disparities in sexual trauma exposure and its sequelae for health and functioning among Asian-Americans and NHOPI. Design, Setting, Participants We examined data on sexual assault exposure from the 2006–2007 Hawai`i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (H-BRFSS), cross-sectional adult community-based probability sample (n = 12,573). Data were collected via computer-assisted random-digit landline telephone survey. Survey response rate was found to be about 48% in 2006 and 52% in 2007. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information, the Sexual Violence Module regarding unwanted sexual experiences, and questions about health lifestyles, chronic diseases and disability, and health status and quality of life. Results Participants were 42.3% White, 14.4% NHOPI, and 39.3% Asian-American. NHOPI had a higher 12-month period prevalence (2.24 per 100, CI=1.32–3.78) of any unwanted sexual experience, but a lower prevalence estimate and odds ratio for any lifetime unwanted sexual experience (prevalence: 9.38 per 100, CI=7.59–11.55; odds ratio: 0.61, CI=0.47–0.81) relative to Whites, after adjusting for age, gender, income and education level. Asian-Americans had lower prevalence estimates for 12-month period prevalence (0.78 per 100, CI=0.44–1.39), and lower lifetime prevalence estimates and odds ratios (prevalence: 3.91 per 100, CI=3.23–4.72; odds ratio: 0.27, CI=0.21–0.34). 12-month and lifetime prevalence estimate any unwanted sexual experiences for Whites were 0.71 per 100 (CI=0.45–1.12) and 12.01 per 100 (CI=10.96–13.14), respectively. Sexual assault experiences were highly associated with adverse health status sequelae (e.g., disability, poor general health), but there were no significant ethnoracial disparities on self-reported health outcomes among those with a lifetime history of unwanted sexual experiences. Conclusions Data revealed significant ethnoracial differences among Whites, Asian-Americans, and NHOPIs on unwanted sexual experiences, with relative risk differing by time period. This pattern of disparity could represent early stages of a new trend in local assaultive behaviors toward NHOPIs and merits attention. Across all ethnoracial groups, a lifetime history of any unwanted sexual experience is associated with a wide range of adverse health status sequelae.

Crisanti, Annette S.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Gundaya, Debbie; Salvail, Florentina R.; Triffleman, Elisa G.

2010-01-01

106

Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods. PMID:9628004

Fleischer, R C; McIntosh, C E; Tarr, C L

1998-04-01

107

Catalog of Coral Reef Fish Life History Specimens for the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A decrease in nearshore fishery resources in Hawaii has occurred in recent decades; thus, there is a pressing need to better manage Hawaiian coral reef fish stocks. However, available biological and fishery data are limited for most coral reef species. Li...

A. M. Friedlander B. W. Bowen E. C. Franklin I. D. Williams J. P. Beets K. Longnecker M. K. Donovan

2011-01-01

108

Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction,\\u000a this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii).\\u000a Polynesian

Matthias Vignon; Pierre Sasal; René Galzin

2009-01-01

109

Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

2008-12-01

110

Major Element Variations in Hawaiian Shield Lavas: Source Features and Perspectives from global Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) Systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among volcanic hotspots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. As originally discovered by Hauri (1996), olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. However, we find that individual data points exhibit remarkable trends, and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lavas at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). Only FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations (corrected to MgO 16%) do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. When plotted against 206Pb/204Pb, the fractionation-corrected FeOtotal concentrations of the extreme low 143Nd/144Nd Loa-trend lavas—all from Koolau, Kahoolawe and Lanai—appear to be shifted to slightly lower values than Kea-trend volcanoes and Loihi. Fractionation-corrected Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations appear to be offset to somewhat higher values in most of Loa-trend lavas, while Hawaiian lavas with the highest 143Nd/144Nd, including Loihi and Kea-trend volcanoes, tend to have slightly lower Al2O3 and Na2O abundances. The Hawaiian dataset exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian lavas with radiogenic Pb and SiO2-poor lavas are sourced by a SiO2-poor mafic component (pyroxenite) admixed with peridotite, while Hawaiian lavas with unradiogenic Pb and high SiO2 are sourced by a SiO2-rich mafic component (eclogite). The variable SiO2 in the mafic component may result from different degrees of SiO2-extraction from the slab during subduction.

Jackson, M. G.; Weis, D. A.; Huang, S.

2012-12-01

111

Interpersonal Violence and Mental Health Outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander College Students  

PubMed Central

In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 614) we studied interpersonal violence victimization, perpetration, and mental health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural-based sample of Asian Americans (27%), and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (25%), two groups vastly underrepresented in trauma research. High rates of interpersonal violence (34%), violence perpetration (13%), and probable psychiatric diagnoses (77%), including posttraumatic stress disorder, were found. Exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology. Female participants were associated with higher likelihood of sexual violence victimization compared to male participants, and Asian American status (especially among males) was associated with lower likelihood of physical and sexual violence compared with European Americans. These data enhance our understanding of interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among previously understudied minority groups.

Archambeau, Olga G.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Herman, Steve; Kim, Bryan S. K.

2010-01-01

112

The evolution of water and solute fluxes and pathways in post-constructional volcanic landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-eruptive volcanic landscapes evolve rapidly in response to erosion, re-vegetation, and pedogenesis. The Hawaiian islands offer a time series to study the evolution of surface processes on a uniform lithology and under spatially varying but well-characterized climates. Young surfaces retain constructional topography largely controlled by the most recent lava flows and/or ash deposits. Young surfaces such as found on Mauna Loa (O 102 - 103 yrs) are highly permeable and surface runoff is rare or absent, even under conditions of high rainfall. We hypothesize that the development of soil is a key factor in reducing vertical infiltration rates and promoting lateral flow of water. Stream channelization begins with control by constructional topography and in some cases major faults or fracture zone. In areas with positive water balance stream erosion leads to rapid channel formation. On the windward side of Mauna Kea (O 104 - 105 yrs) stream incision into the shield topography is much more pronounced than on adjacent Mauna Loa surfaces. Flank collapse (e.g. windward Kohala, ? 105 yrs) leaves hanging valleys and drives deep canyon formation. On all of the Hawaiian islands direct submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the oceans is important. The ratio of water transported to the oceans as stream discharge (Q) vs SGD increases with surface age and incision, from near zero on Mauna Loa to > 1 on Kohala. Island wide, SGD ? 3.5 - 4x Q. The evolution of water pathways influences weathering fluxes to the oceans. Ground water from Hawaii has significantly larger concentrations of weathering-derived solutes than does stream water. This should result from longer path length and contact time, which increase interaction with reactive mineral surfaces, but the detailed controls on solute chemistry remain uncertain. Island-wide, the flux ratio of weathering solutes in SGD vs Q is near 15. SGDA is the dominant pathway for the delivery of silicate mineral weathering products to the oceans. These general results should apply to other young volcanic island or coastal terranes. Analysis of stream water fluxes may grossly underestimate weathering fluxes from volcanic terranes. Understanding the coupled evolution of land surface morphology, soil development, and hydrologic pathways is critical to evaluating the temporal behavior of surface processes in young volcanic terranes.

Derry, L. A.; Schopka, H. H.

2011-12-01

113

An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

Wagner, W. L.; Weller, S. G.; Sakai, A. K.; Medeiros, A. C.

1999-01-01

114

Socio-demographic, Behavioral, and Biological Variables Related to Weight Loss in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ?3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n=49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n=51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (p?.05) with ?3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR=6.04; CI=1.14–32.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR=1.47; CI=1.22–1.86) and who were in the PLP (OR=4.50; CI=1.50–15.14) were more likely to achieve ?3% weight loss [model; ?2 (7, N=100) = 45.50, p < .0001]. The same lifestyle intervention does not benefit all NHs/PIs equally, possibly due to differences in acculturation status and social support. The findings also point to the importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance.

Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; Townsend, Claire K.M.; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka`imi A.; Mau, Marjorie K.; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

2012-01-01

115

Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for polychaetes, suggest that canyons play important roles in maintaining high levels of regional biodiversity in the extremely oligotrophic system of the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. This information is of key importance to the process of MPA design, suggesting that canyon habitats be explicitly included in marine spatial planning. The low-islands of Nihoa and Maro Reef in the NWHI showed a lack of sustained input of terrestrial and macrolagae detritus, likely having an influence on the observed low macrofaunal abundances (see further discussion of ‘canyon effects’ in Section 4.3), and showing the fundamental role of coastal landscape characteristics in determining the amount and nature of allochthonous organic matter entering the system. Total and highly-mobile invertebrate megafauna abundances were two to three times higher in the submarine canyons and slopes of the MHI contrasted with the NWHI (Vetter et al., 2010), also demonstrating the role of this larger contribution of terrestrial and coastal organic enrichment in the MHI contrasted with the NWHI.

De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

2014-06-01

116

Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

2012-07-01

117

Population structure and comparative phylogeography of jack species (Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus) in the high Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Members of the family Carangidae are top-level predators and highly prized food and sport fishes. Although ecologically and economically important, little is known about the biology of numerous species in the family. This is particularly true of the jacks Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus, which have experienced recent population reductions around the high Hawaiian Islands due to overfishing. Previous studies have documented territorial tendencies as well as cases of long-distance excursions in both species, suggesting populations may exhibit a range of structure at the genetic level. To explore this possibility, mitochondrial DNA ATPase6 and ATPase8 gene sequence variation was assessed from 91 individuals (33 C. ignobilis and 58 C. melampygus) spanning the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Although a total of 20 distinct haplotypes (8 for C. ignobilis; 12 for C. melampygus) were recovered, no evidence of population structure was found for either species across the examined geographic range. However, distinct demographic patterns were identified, implying differing evolutionary histories and/or population dynamics. Additionally, ? 6% of the examined C. ignobilis were C. ignobilis × C. melampygus hybrids because they harbored mitochondrial haplotypes typical of C. melampygus. These hybrids contribute to measurable gene flow between the species and may play a significant role in the evolution of the genus. PMID:20881031

Santos, Scott R; Xiang, Yu; Tagawa, Annette W

2011-01-01

118

Horizontal movements and depth distribution of large adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) near the Hawaiian Islands, recorded using ultrasonic telemetry: implications for the physiological ecology of pelagic fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the horizontal and vertical movements of five adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, estimated body mass 64 to 93?kg) near the main Hawaiian Islands, while simultaneously gathering data on oceanographic conditions\\u000a and currents. Fish movements were recorded by means of ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters. Depth–temperature and depth–oxygen\\u000a profiles were measured with vertical conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, and the current-velocity field was

R. W. Brill; B. A. Block; C. H. Boggs; K. A. Bigelow; E. V. Freund; D. J. Marcinek

1999-01-01

119

Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distributions of cobalt, iron, and manganese in the water column were studied during the E-Flux Program (E-Flux II and III), which focused on the biogeochemistry of cold-core cyclonic eddies that form in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. During E-Flux II (January 2005) and E-Flux III (March 2005), 17 stations were sampled for cobalt (n=147), all of which

Abigail E. Noble; Mak A. Saito; Kanchan Maiti; Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson

2008-01-01

120

Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently.

Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

121

Phylogeny, floral evolution, and inter-island dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) based on ISSR variation and plastid spacer sequences.  

PubMed

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or--perhaps more plausibly--a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

Givnish, Thomas J; Bean, Gregory J; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P; Sytsma, Kenneth J

2013-01-01

122

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

123

Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

Work, T. M.; Balazs, G. H.; Rameyer, R. A.; Morris, R. A.

2004-01-01

124

Evidence for climatic control of bedrock river incision on the Hawaiian island of Kaua';i (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock river incision drives the topographic evolution of Earth's mountain ranges, and thus indirectly controls Earth's long-term climate and rates of hillslope soil erosion and chemical weathering. Longstanding expectations that river incision rates should increase with increasing precipitation rates have been difficult to verify with field measurements, partly due to challenges in measuring river incision rates, and partly due to the confounding influences of non-climatic factors on river incision rates. Here we present measurements showing that precipitation rates influence million-year-scale bedrock channel incision rates across one of Earth's steepest rainfall gradients. We do so by applying the stream power law - an empirical rule for bedrock river incision - to a series of rivers on the Hawaiian island of Kaua';i, where mean annual precipitation ranges from 0.5 meters to 9.5 meters, a span that covers over 70 per cent of the global range. Kaua';i provides an excellent natural laboratory for this study because of its extraordinarily wide range of climates, and also because million-year-scale river incision rates can be inferred from published bedrock ages and Kaua';i's topography. We use the stream power law in two complementary calculations to investigate climatic effects on river incision. First, we apply it to rates averaged over the duration of channel incision, which bedrock ages constrain to be no greater than 4.43 × 0.45 Myr. Second, we apply it to numerical modeling of transient river incision, initialized to estimates of the pre-incision topography. Both of these analyses suggest that the efficiency of bedrock channel incision across Kaua';i is positively correlated with upstream-averaged mean annual precipitation rates. These measurements are consistent with a linear relationship between river incision rates and stream power (i.e., the rate at which the river expends energy on the riverbed), which in turn suggests that river incision rates scale with both upstream-averaged mean annual precipitation rates and drainage area to the one-half power. These observations provide rare empirical support for a climatic influence on river incision, and therefore suggest that previously proposed feedbacks among topography, climate, and tectonics may indeed occur. We conclude by discussing the influence of island subsidence on base level over an island's lifetime, and we explore the role that changes in base level play in driving changes in fluvial sediment cover and the evolution of river long profiles.

Ferrier, K.; Huppert, K.; Perron, J.

2013-12-01

125

Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria.

Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; Lapointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

126

Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.  

PubMed

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria. PMID:24446093

Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

2014-08-01

127

Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will investigate the seismology and geological origins of the Hawaiian Islands to discover how scientists can obtain information on geological processes deep within the Earth. As a result of this activity, students will be able to explain the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that formed the Hawaiian Islands and describe, compare, and contrast S waves and P waves. They will also learn how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, and will infer a probable explanation for the existence of ultra-low velocity zones, and how these zones may be related to the Hawaiian hotspot.

Goodwin, Mel

128

Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples  

PubMed Central

Objective: Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). Design/Setting/Patient population: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Pu’uwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction ?45%, 3) Age of 21 years or older. Data were analyzed by odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and multiple logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Methamphetamine use. Results: Twenty-two percent of HF participants were identified as being current or prior methamphetamine users. Younger age and non-married status (combined never married or divorced/separated) were independently associated with MU after adjustment for sex, education, and other co-morbidities associated with HF (ie, age >50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03–0.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.5–47; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.8–75). Conclusions: Risk factors associated with MU in NH and PIPs with heart failure include: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs.

Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

2009-01-01

129

Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally.

Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

2014-01-01

130

S-wave tomographic imaging of the mantle beneath the Hawaiian Islands from the PLUME deployments of ocean-bottom and land seismometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) project is a multidisciplinary program to study the deep mantle structure of the Hawaiian hotspot and address the debate over whether one end of the island chain is underlain by a classical plume from the deep mantle and how mantle upwelling interacts with the overlying lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Swell. PLUME involved two consecutive ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) deployments and a concurrent deployment of 10 land seismometers along the islands. The first deployment of 35 broadband OBSs in 2005-2006 was centered on the island of Hawaii with stations spaced about 75 km apart. A second deployment of 38 OBSs, in a pattern with a larger aperture and a station spacing of about 250 km, was carried out in 2006-2007, although the number of seafloor stations on the second deployment that yielded useful data was reduced by instrument malfunction or loss. We present S-wave tomographic images of the regional mantle structure beneath the Hawaiian Islands using the combined data from the PLUME experiment. The OBS horizontal components were oriented from particle motions of teleseismic P waves. High-quality relative arrival times of S waves were measured with the multi- channel cross-correlation method of VanDecar and Crosson. In the ~0.05-0.1 Hz frequency band, we obtained 1191 arrivals during the first deployment and 955 arrivals during the second deployment. Because of the high noise levels on the horizontal components of seafloor instruments at Hawaii, most measurements are from Mw ? 6.0 earthquakes, which are moderately well distributed in azimuth. The relative arrival time dataset has been inverted for S-wave velocity models beneath Hawaii using both ray theoretical and finite-frequency methods; results from both approaches display general similarity. The S-wave arrival time data from the second OBS deployment are useful in broadening the region of consideration and extending downward the depth resolution of imaging into the transition zone. Although resolution below the transition zone is limited, the arrival times of SKS phases recorded by the PLUME deployments display azimuthally varying patterns that may be compatible with a broad low velocity volume near ~1,000-1,500 km depth in the lower mantle beneath Hawaii.

Wolfe, C. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Laske, G.; Collins, J. A.; Detrick, R. S.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bercovici, D. A.; Hauri, E. H.

2008-12-01

131

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

1998-01-01

132

Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

2004-01-01

133

Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

Fry, D. M.; Fefer, S. I.; Sileo, L.

1987-01-01

134

HURL's 2003 OE and NURP Deep Submergence Science Program in the NW and Main Hawaiian Islands and Projects Planned for 2004-2006.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will emphasise the advantages of using manned submersibles in conjunction with ROV pre-surveys during UH's NOAA-funded Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 64-day Ocean Exploration research cruise in the NW Hawaiian Islands scheduled for Sept 3-Nov 6, 2003. The up-leg to Kure Atoll will focus on "Submarine Canyon and Scavenger Communities" (PIs Craig Smith & Eric Vetter) and "Characteristics of Deepwater Fish and Precious Corals on the Seamounts Neighboring Hawaii's Most Remote Seal Colonies" (PI: Frank Parrish). Two projects for PIs Amy Baco-Taylor & Timothy Shank are scheduled for the down-leg: "Seamount Surveys of Deep-Water Corals as Related to Geological Setting in the NWHI" and "Reproductive Biology and population genetics of Precious Corals in Hawaii". For 2004 -2006, HURL has 18 peer-reviewed projects approved. These include 45 submersible dives for projects in US Flag Waters SE of Hawaii, during a joint NURP-OE Expedition to American Samoa, scheduled for late 2004 and early 2005. Dives for most projects in the Main and nearer NW Hawaiian Islands will be scheduled for 2006, with a few exceptions. The scope and rationale of this planned program exemplifies the synergy between NOAA's Ocean Exploration and Undersea Research Program objectives.

Crook, K. A.

2003-12-01

135

Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over historic time Hawai‘i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai‘i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A. C.

2012-03-01

136

Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

2012-01-01

137

All About Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine, or American, lobster is a crustacean with two strong claws: a big-toothed crusher claw for pulverizing shells and a finer-edged ripper claw resembling a steak knife, for tearing soft flesh. Website includes biological remarks, fisheries, economics, history of exploitation, and comparison with other lobsters. Also features educational activities and links to external sites.

138

Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

2010-01-01

139

Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a “healthy” reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated.

Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

2010-01-01

140

[Book review] Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna, edited by T. K. Pratt, C. T. Atkinson, P. C. Banko, J. D. Jacobi, B. L. Woodworth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Review of: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds. Yale University Press, New Haven. 2009. 707 pp. ISBN 9780300141085. Hardcover, $69.99.

Engstrom, R. Todd; Van Riper, Charles, III

2010-01-01

141

Plate Tectonics: The Hawaiian Archipelago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the Hawaiian Islands were all created by volcanic activity, it is somewhat surprising that only the island of Hawaii now possesses any active volcanoes. Why did the volcanoes that built the other islands stop erupting and why are those on the big island still active? This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, shows how plumes of hot material rise from the Earth's interior to create 'hot spots' in the crust which are the locations of volcanic activity. Movement of the Pacific Plate causes volcanic islands to continually form, migrate away from the hot spot, and become extinct, forming chains of islands like the Hawaiian Islands. The segment is four minutes thirty-seven seconds in length.

142

Plate Tectonics: The Hawaiian Archipelago  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the Hawaiian Islands were all created by volcanic activity, it is somewhat surprising that only the island of Hawaii now possesses any active volcanoes. Why did the volcanoes that built the other islands stop erupting and why are those on the big island still active? This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, shows how plumes of hot material rise from the Earth's interior to create 'hot spots' in the crust which are the locations of volcanic activity. Movement of the Pacific Plate causes volcanic islands to continually form, migrate away from the hot spot, and become extinct, forming chains of islands like the Hawaiian Islands. The segment is four minutes thirty-seven seconds in length.

2011-07-12

143

Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

2000-01-01

144

Existence and Formation Mechanism of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available surface drifter data are analyzed to determine the characteristics of the North Hawaiian Ridge Current (NHRC) and its relation to the ocean circulation around the Hawaiian waters. The NHRC is found to exist as a mean entity along the coasts of the Hawaiian Islands. It originates as a northern branch of westward moving interior flow and flows coherently along

BO QIU; A. KOH; C LAUDE LUMPKIN; PIERRE FLAMENT

1974-01-01

145

Influence of Precipitation Rates on Bedrock River Incision Rates on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua'i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock river incision mediates the interaction between surface processes and tectonics by conveying base level change across landscapes, driving rock exhumation, and modulating rates of hillslope erosion. Despite longstanding expectations that river incision should depend on precipitation, quantifying the effects of precipitation rates on river incision rates in the field has proven difficult, in part because other factors that influence river incision often co-vary with precipitation. With minimal variation in lithology, a well-constrained history of volcanic construction, and a steep gradient in mean annual precipitation that ranges from 0.5 m/yr to 9.5 m/yr over just 25 km, the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i provides an exceptional natural laboratory for quantifying the influence of precipitation on bedrock river incision. We performed two analyses to relate the efficiency of river incision to mean annual precipitation on Kaua'i. Each analysis is based on the stream power equation (E = KAm}S{n), a physically based rule that relates channel incision rate E to drainage area A and channel slope S through an erodibility coefficient K. In the first analysis, we calculated time-averaged river incision rates from the depths of river canyons and radiometric ages for the initial volcano surface along 32 major river channels on Kaua'i, and then estimated best-fit values for the stream power parameters K, m, and n by regressing the measured values of E against present-day values of A and S. In the second analysis, we modeled the transient evolution of 93 channel segments from their initial topographic profiles to their modern profiles, restricting this analysis to channel segments with minimal internal variation in precipitation rates (upstream precipitation rates with standard deviation < 20% of their mean). We found best-fit values of K and m for each channel by modeling profile evolution with a constant value of n = 2/3 and a range of values for K and m, and selecting the parameter values that minimized the error between the modeled and present-day profiles. Both analyses show positive correlations between the topographically normalized rate of bedrock river incision and upstream mean annual precipitation. In both analyses, the dependence is robust to uncertainties in bedrock age, methods of calculation, channel slope exponent n, and changes in channel slope over time. To account for this observed relationship, we write a modified version of the stream power law with an explicit power-law dependence on mean annual precipitation rates P, and we show that the time-averaged erosion rates on Kaua'i fit this model with a dependence on P to the power 0.67 ± 0.01 (mean ± s.e.). These results provide empirical evidence for climatic control of long-term erosion rates, and they illustrate the advantages of studying natural experiments in landscape evolution.

Huppert, K. L.; Ferrier, K.; Perron, J.

2012-12-01

146

Shark Control and the Hawaiian Monk Seal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sharks are known to feed upon seals and there is some evidence that sharks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands may feed upon Hawaiian monk seals. A shark fishery/control program might prove beneficial to the survivorship of monk seals, however, the magni...

R. S. Nolan

1981-01-01

147

LIGA FOR LOBSTER?  

SciTech Connect

The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H. [and others

2000-09-01

148

Lobsters Inside-Out: A Guide to the Maine Lobster,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Homarus Americanus, the American lobster, is synonymous with the Maine coast. Seventy percent of all lobsters harvested in New England are caught in Maine, and it is the state's most valuable fishery. For the last 20 years, the amount of the lobster catch...

R. Bayer J. Bayer

1987-01-01

149

Gaffkemia in California Spiny Lobsters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaffkemia, a systemic infection of Atlantic lobsters (Homarus sp.) by Pediococcus homari (formerly Gaffkya homari), can be initiated by injection of virulent strains of the bacterium into the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus). At 17C, an LD...

J. F. Steenbergen H. C. Schapiro

1976-01-01

150

Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.  

PubMed

Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800?m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80?kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30?s every 5?min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night. PMID:23654414

Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

2013-05-01

151

Exploring Hawaiian volcanism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

2013-01-01

152

New Hawaiian Bathymetric Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A collaborative effort between Japanese and US scientists sponsored by the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) has studied marine volcanology and sedimentation off shore of the Hawaiian Islands. The focus of the cruises is to build a greater understanding of the Hawaiian Volcanoes through manned and robotic submersible diving programs, collection of piston cores and dredges, and the surveying of the seafloor with single channel seismic and a multibeam sonar mapping system. During the first leg of the 2001 effort, approximately 29,000 km2 was surveyed using the multibeam sonar in addition to the previously collected 115,000 km2. The broad coverage and moderate resolution of these maps provide the base necessary for further research. The new data provide insights into several features that were partially mapped. The western end of the southernmost strand of the Molokai fracture zone were it is down warped beneath the Hawaiian Ridge shows a bifurcating structure. The structure may be due to either splaying of the fracture or involvement with an older seamount. A series of horst and grabens were mapped south east of the Island of Hawaii. These features appear to contradict the previous satellite-based gravity derived bathymetry for the area. The Waianae slide southwest of Oahu was also mapped in its entirety. A little studied volcanic field southwest of Oahu lies at approximately 159° 10' W and 21° 30' N. The volcanic field was first recognized using the GLORIA sidescan sonar surveys of the Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone by the USGS (J. Moore et al.,1989). The GLORIA surveys show that the area is characterized by a high sonar backscatter similar in nature to the South Arch and North Arch volcanic fields. Preliminary interpretation of the new sonar data reveal the shield-like nature of the Southwest volcanic field, numerous cones and a southwest/northeast trending lava flow originating from a cone.

Robinson, J. E.; Harada, Y.; Kunikiyo, T.; Smith, J. R.

2001-12-01

153

Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin  

PubMed Central

Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high-elevation settings in the Hawaiian chain immediately prior to formation of the oldest, modern high-elevation island, Kaua‘i.

Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

2010-01-01

154

Hawaiian Tourism: Costs, Benefits, Alternatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawaiian tourism has greatly increased in the past ten years. With this increase, the island has been economically developed to attract and accommodate tourists. Now, citizen groups are becoming aware of the environmental costs of this business and are asking for a tourist reduction to save their natural resources. (MA)

Marsh, John S.

1975-01-01

155

The Return of Hawaiian: Language Networks of the Revival Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 40 years ago, language transmission in Hawai'i was interrupted among Hawaiians across all islands with the sole exception of language maintenance among a small community on the tiny, isolated Ni'ihau Island. Today, Hawaiian has returned as spoken and written medium with some 5000-7000 new speakers. The present paper provides an…

Brenzinger, Matthias; Heinrich, Patrick

2013-01-01

156

Earthquakes at Loihi Submarine Volcano and the Hawaiian Hot Spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35 km south of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and southernmost island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close

Fred W. Klein

1982-01-01

157

Earthquakes at Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35 km south of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and southernmost island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close

Fred W. Klein

1982-01-01

158

Hawaiian Dictionary: Hawaiian-English, English-Hawaiian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third edition of the "Hawaiian-English Dictionary" and the first edition of the "English-Hawaiian Dictionary" are combined in this publication. The Hawaiian-English section has four supplements: (1) a list of more than 1,000 new entries, including the 500 included as Supplement A in the third edition, bringing the total number of…

Pukui, Mary Kawena, Comp.; Elbert, Samuel H., Comp.

159

76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Islands, and Amendment 3 to the FMP for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...procedures for the spiny lobster and Caribbean corals and reef associated plants and...

2011-11-07

160

The King of Crustaceans: Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the north Atlantic, the American Lobster is the undisputed king of crustaceans. Itâs also a tremendously important commercial catch. While all the other fisheries are collapsing, why are lobsters resisting the trend? In this video, Jonathan goes out with a Maine lobsterman to learn why, and he dives down below to find the biggest lobsters he has ever seen. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

Productions, Jonathan B.

2011-01-18

161

Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at least 8 weeks among Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander race subgroups in Hawaii, 2004-2008.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004-2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and socio-demographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3%. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.53-0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.52-0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.58-0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.61-0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates. PMID:24096640

Hayes, Donald K; Mitchell, Kristen M; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J

2014-07-01

162

Age at recruitment of Hawaiian freshwater gobies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  Very little is known about the dynamics of native Hawaiian stream fishes. Five species are restricted, as adults, to freshwater\\u000a streams and estuaries on the major islands of the Hawaiian archipelago. This paucity of information is partly due to difficulties\\u000a inherent in determination of age and subsequent determinations of life history characteristics. In the present study, we determined\\u000a the age

Richard L. Radtkel; Robert A. Kinzie; Scott D. Folsoml

1988-01-01

163

Congener-specific profile and toxicity assessment of PCBs in green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical pollution may play a role in the etiology fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (Chelonia mydas). In this preliminary study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the livers and adipose fats of green turtles collected after they were stranded on Oahu Island, Hawaii in 1992–1993. Average concentrations of total PCBs were 45–58 ng\\/g dry weight and 73–665 ng\\/g in the liver

Xiu-Sheng Miao; George H. Balazs; Shawn K. K. Murakawa; Qing X. Li

2001-01-01

164

Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

1987-01-01

165

Attraction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects to methyl eugenol bucket traps with different preservative fluids on Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Attraction of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and nontarget insects to preservative fluids ethylene glycol antifreeze, propylene glycol antifreeze, or mineral oil in bucket traps that contained captured decaying male oriental fruit flies, a male lure (methyl eugenol), and a toxicant (DDVP vapor insecticidal strip) were compared with dry control traps. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater numbers of B. dorsalis were captured in propylene glycol antifreeze traps than in other attractant trap types. Among attractant trap types with lowest negative impacts on nontarget insects, control traps captured significantly lower numbers of three species and one morphospecies of scavenger flies, one species of plant-feeding fly, and one species each of sweet-and lipid-feeding ants. Mineral oil traps captured significantly lower numbers of two species of scavengers flies and one morphospecies of plant-feeding fly, and one species of sweet-feeding ant. Because of the fragile nature of endemic Hawaiian insect fauna, the propylene glycol antifreeze bucket trap is best suited for use in environments (e.g., non-native habitats) where endemic species are known to be absent and mineral oil traps are more suited for minimizing insect captures in environmentally sensitive habitats. PMID:17598531

Uchida, Grant K; Mackey, Bruce E; McInnis, Donald O; Vargas, Roger I

2007-06-01

166

Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.  

PubMed

Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ? 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

2013-12-01

167

A comparison of static versus dynamic models of sea-level rise impacts to atolls: Insights from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and impact terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islets on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an islet at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using US Army Corps of Engineers hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled Delft3D wave, current, and water level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the islet shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and islet configuration. Islet inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested by passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models.

Storlazzi, C. D.; Berkowitz, P.; Reynolds, M.; Logan, J. B.

2012-12-01

168

ISS-Lobster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

2014-01-01

169

Will Current Management Practice Ensure Sustainability of the Fortune Bay Lobster Fishery?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fortune Bay on the south coast is an exception to the general decline in lobster landings that prevailed around Newfoundland during the 1990s. High landings not only continued beyond the early 1990s peak for the island as a whole but have actually continued increasing to unprecedented levels. The influence of egg production around St. Pierre-Miquelon (French islands at the mouth

Jerry Ennis

2006-01-01

170

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

171

Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the endmember sites where OM accumulated at the surfaces of larger mineral grains, topsoil MOAs of the 20-400-kyr sites are composed of a homogeneous admixture of small-sized PC minerals and OM, which originated from both adsorption and precipitation processes. The chemical composition of OM in surface-horizon MOAs, however, was largely controlled by the uniform source vegetation irrespective of the substrate age whereas in subsoil horizons, aromatic and carboxylic C correlated positively with oxalate-extractable Al and Si and CuCl 2-extractable Al concentrations representing PC aluminosilicates and Al-organic complexes ( r2 > 0.85). Additionally, XPS depth profiles suggest a zonal structure of sorbed OM with aromatic carbons being enriched in the proximity of mineral surfaces and amide carbons (peptides/proteins) being located in outer regions of MOAs. Albeit the mineralogical and compositional changes of OM, the rigidity of mineral-associated OM as analyzed by DSC changed little over time. A significantly reduced side chain mobility of sorbed OM was, however, observed in subsoil MOAs, which likely arose from stronger mineral-organic bindings. In conclusion, our study shows that the properties of soil MOAs change substantially over time with different mineral assemblages favoring the association of different types of OM, which is further accentuated by a vertical gradient of OM composition on mineral surfaces. Factors supporting the stabilization of sorbed OM were (i) the surface area and reactivity of minerals (primary or secondary crystalline minerals versus PC secondary minerals), (ii) the association of OM with micropores of PC minerals (via 'sterically' enhanced adsorption), (iii) the effective embedding of OM in 'well mixed' arrays with PC minerals and monomeric/polymeric metal species, (iv) the inherent stability of acidic aromatic OM components, and (iv) an impaired segmental mobility of sorbed OM, which might increase its stability against desorption and microbial utilization.

Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

2009-04-01

172

Substance Use and Dependence among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders and Asian Ethnic Groups in the United States: Contrasting Multiple- and Single-Race Prevalence Rates from a National Survey  

PubMed Central

The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiian(NH), Other Pacific Islander(OPI) and Asians on a national level. Utilizing the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we compared multiple-race NH/OPI/Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with single-race individuals within respective Asian ethnic subgroups and Caucasians for prevalence of alcohol/drug use and dependence. For multiple-race NH/OPI/Asians high rates of alcohol dependence were observed compared with both single-race NH/OPI/Asian subgroups and single-race Caucasians; for some multiple-race NH/OPI/Asians high rates of drug dependence were also observed.

Sakai, Joseph T.; Wang, Cynthia; Price, Rumi Kato

2010-01-01

173

Experimental Lobster Ranching in Massachusetts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Artificial shelters were deployed in the shallow waters of Massachusetts Bay in an attempt to stabilize and increase lobster catches. Shelters constructed with concrete-filled tires proved to be well suited for small-scale ranching operations. Only two pe...

T. Hruby

1979-01-01

174

RESEARCH TO SUPPORT ALLOCATION OF INDIGENOUS AND COMMERCIAL CATCH IN THE TORRES STRAIT TROPICAL ROCK LOBSTER PANULIRUS ORNATUS FISHERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Torres Strait tropical rock lobster fishery is shared between Australia and PNG, and the Australian sector is managed by the Protected Zone Joint Authority (PZJA). In Australian waters the fishery is further sub-divided into the indigenous (Islander) and non-islander sectors and managed to maximize the opportunities for the traditional inhabitants. To this end expansion in participation is limited to

Darren Dennis; Jim Prescott

175

Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Hawaiian Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fern genus Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae) is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by 18 endemic taxa and one non-endemic, native species. The goals of this study were to determine whether Dryopteris in Hawai’i is monophyletic and to infer the biogeographical origins of Hawaiian Dryopteris by determining the geographical distributions of their closest living relatives. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA fragments, rbcL

J. M. O. Geiger; T. A. Ranker

2005-01-01

176

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Goodwin, Mel

177

Inferring Properties of the Hawaiian Plume from the Hawaiian Swell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most prominent geophysical signature associated with the Hawaiian island chain is a broad topographic anomaly ('swell') some 1000 km wide and 2500 km long. Isostasy requires the swell to be compensated by a layer of low-density material at depth whose shape in mapview is similar to that of the swell itself. That shape can be predicted using a simple 2-D thin-layer flow model in which buoyant fluid with constant viscosity is supplied at a volumetric rate Q by a fixed mantle plume and spreads laterally over the base of a plate moving at speed U. A more realistic 3-D version of the model involves a hot thermal plume in a fluid with temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity that interacts with the shear flow generated by the plate motion. Comparison of the predictions of these models with observations of the Hawaiian swell yields several important inferences about the Hawaiian plume: (1) Plume buoyancy flux B. The observed height and width of the swell imply B ? 3000 kg s-1, much less than earlier estimates B = 6300-8700 kg s-1 based solely on the horizontal flux of (negative) swell buoyancy carried by the moving plate. The reason for the discrepancy is that the horizontal flux calculation neglects (a) the contribution of the buoyant residue of partial melting to the swell topography, and (b) the fact that the mean speed of downstream transport of the buoyant material by the shear flow is less than the plate speed. (2) Depth of compensation. The 3-D model predicts a geoid/topography ratio (GTR) ? 7-8 m/km for the Hawaiian swell, in apparent contradiction with earlier estimates ? 4-5 m/km based on the observed geoid and bathymetry alone. However, an extended version of the 3-D model including volcanic loading and lithospheric flexure reveals that the low values GTR? 4-5 m/km are artifacts of incomplete removal of the shallowly compensated volcanic islands and the surrounding flexural moat. The GTR of the swell itself is therefore ? 7-8 m/km, implying a compensation depth ? 70-80 km. (3) Rheology of the plume material. The young (? 5 Ma) and old (? 20 Ma) parts of the Hawaiian swell have very nearly the same amplitude and width, implying that the swell decays very slowly downstream from the hotspot. An extended version of the thin-layer model with a power-law rheology (strain rate proportional to the power n of the stress) predicts that the swell should decay as the power -1/(3n + 2) of the downstream distance. The slow decay of the Hawaiian swell requires the plume material to have a dislocation-creep rheology with n ? 3.5.

Ribe, N. M.

2012-04-01

178

Native Hawaiian Education Act: Greater Oversight Would Increase Accountability and Enable Targeting of Funds to Areas with Greatest Need. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-08-422  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Native Hawaiian Education Act (NHEA) seeks to develop innovative educational programs to assist Native Hawaiians. The Department of Education (Education) administers NHEA and has provided grants for a wide range of activities. Education is authorized to establish a Native Hawaiian Education Council and seven island councils to help implement…

Government Accountability Office, 2008

2008-01-01

179

Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh seaweeds, both wild and cultivated,are commonly eaten as food in the HawaiianIslands. Before Western contact, limu (seaweed) was a regular part of thediet, and is thought to have contributedvitamins and essential mineral nutrientsnot found in other staple food items. Twenty-two species of edible Hawaiianmacroalgae (6 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta, 12Rhodophyta) were analyzed for protein,lipid, carbohydrate, ash, caloric, mineraland vitamin content.

Karla J. McDermid; Brooke Stuercke

2003-01-01

180

Role of the deep mantle in generating the compositional asymmetry of the Hawaiian mantle plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Linear chains of volcanic ocean islands are one of the most distinctive features on our planet. The longest, the Hawaiian–Emperor Chain, has been active for more than 80 million years, and is thought to have formed as the Pacific Plate moved across the Hawaiian mantle plume, the hottest and most productive of Earth's plumes. Volcanoes fed by the plume today

Michael O. Garcia; J. Michael Rhodes; Mark Jellinek; James S. Scoates; Dominique Weis

2011-01-01

181

Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

Aeby, G. S.; Bourne, D. G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

2011-01-01

182

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is part of the Volcano Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. HVO's origins are rooted in a desire to use scientific methodology to understand the nature of volcanic processes and to reduce their risks to society. The website provides eruption histories and updates of Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Lo' ihi and other Hawaiian volcanoes as well as earthquake hazards, zoning, and seismicity.

183

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim

2008-01-01

184

Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

2006-12-01

185

Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." Current and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

186

Recovery Plan for Big Island Plant Cluster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian Islands are classified as a distinct floristic region by phytogeographers because oftheir unique flora (Takhtajan 1986). Plants ancestral to Hawaii arrived by long distance dispersal, colonizing the islands at a rate of about one species per ...

1996-01-01

187

Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

Tilling, Robert; Wright, Thomas

188

Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks…

Akana, Kalani

2013-01-01

189

Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis), or 'Alala, once an inhabitant of large forested areas of the island of Hawaii, is now found only in the wild in a relatively small area of the central Kona coast, specifically on the privately-owned McCandless Ranch...

1992-01-01

190

Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

191

The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain is usually attributed to a hot mantle plume, located beneath the Pacific lithosphere, that delivers material sourced from deep in the mantle to the surface. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear, parallel trends (termed 'Kea' and 'Loa'), whose rocks are characterized by general geochemical differences. This has led to the proposition that Hawaiian volcanoes sample compositionally distinct, concentrically zoned, regions of the underlying mantle plume. Melt inclusions, or samples of local magma 'frozen' in olivine phenocrysts during crystallization, may record complexities of mantle sources, thereby providing better insight into the chemical structure of plumes. Here we report the discovery of both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes--even within single rock samples. We infer from these data that one mantle source component may dominate a single lava flow, but that the two mantle source components are consistently represented to some extent in all lavas, regardless of the specific geographic location of the volcano. We therefore suggest that the Hawaiian mantle plume is unlikely to be compositionally concentrically zoned. Instead, the observed chemical variation is probably controlled by the thermal structure of the plume. PMID:16100780

Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Ingle, Stephanie; Takahashi, Eiichi; Hirano, Naoto; Hirata, Takafumi

2005-08-11

192

Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids  

SciTech Connect

Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

1984-01-01

193

Discrimination and Obesity Among Native Hawaiians  

PubMed Central

Among ethnic populations in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiians continue to be over-represented with the highest rates in: morbidity and mortality, chronic health conditions, and the health risks of being overweight and obese. Focused on these two health risks, the investigation reported in this article has a specific aim of empirically determining whether social stigma as manifested in the form of perceived overt or covert discrimination is a contributing factor. Current studies focused on select ethnic populations, particularly African Americans point to discrimination as an important but understudied predictor of adverse health outcomes. Acknowledging the paucity of research on discrimination and its role in the health of Native Hawaiians, this investigation utilizes data from the 2007 Hawaiian Health Survey which was coordinated by the Department of Health, and the Office of Health Status Monitoring and implemented by SMS Hawai‘i. The weighted sample of Hawai‘i adults included measures of race/ethnicity and of everyday discrimination and the BMI (Body Mass Index). Logistic regression analyses were applied to determine if: (a) discrimination was significantly related to being overweight and/or obesity; and (b) whether this relationship remained a salient predictor after key demographic factors of gender, age, education, income, and length of time in the Islands were taken into account. This study confirmed the negative influence of overt discrimination as well as the protective nature of covert discrimination in explaining the variability in obesity/overweight in Native Hawaiians. The implications of this study for strategic interventions and research are discussed.

Antonio, Mapuana

2012-01-01

194

Hawaii Cyclonic Eddies and Blue Marlin Catches: The Case Study of the 1995 Hawaiian International Billfish Tournament  

Microsoft Academic Search

sults in the formation of vigorous, westward propagating cyclonic eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands on time scales of 50-70 days. These mesoscale (~10 2 km) fea- tures are nowhere more conspicuous or spin up more frequently than in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Island of Maui and the Big Island of Hawaii. Cyclonic eddies in subtropical waters

MICHAEL P. S EKI; RICK LUMPKIN; PIERRE FLAMENT

2002-01-01

195

Prosodic Features of Hawaiian English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes a "neglected" aspect of Hawaiian ("Pidgin") English--the suprasegmental or prosodic features. Illustrated by contrastive samples of Hawaiian American English (HAE) and General American English (GAE), the salient prosodic features are presented as follows--(1) syllable-timed rhythm, modified by emphatic drawl, (2) wide…

Vanderslice, Ralph; Pierson, Laura Shun

1967-01-01

196

Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.

2006-01-01

197

The Case of Lobster Shell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

2011-01-01

198

Tobacco Use among Native Hawaiian Middle School Students: Its Prevalence, Correlates and Implications  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study sought to explore whether Native Hawaiian primary ethnic identity is associated with cigarette use among Native Hawaiian middle school students. This study also explored whether social influence, psychosocial and cultural factors are associated with cigarette use in this sample. Design The data are from a cross-sectional survey of 1,695 Native Hawaiian middle school students at 22 public and private schools on five islands in Hawaii. A subset of these students from Native Hawaiian serving schools (N = 136) completed additional measures of Hawaiian cultural variables. Results Based on univariate analyses, students whose primary ethnic identification was Hawaiian were more likely to have tried smoking (p<0.001) and to be current smokers (p<0.05) as compared to those classified as part Hawaiian. However, these findings were no longer significant in multivariate analyses. Social influence variables (i.e. peer and parental smoking) were most influential in explaining both prior and current smoking. Attendance at public school was also an important factor in explaining previous (OR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.74, 3.38) and current (OR = 7.20; 95% CI = 4.58, 11.32) smoking behavior. Finally, cultural variables such as valuing Hawaiian folklore, customs, activities and lifestyle were largely unassociated with smoking behavior among Native Hawaiian middle school youth. Conclusions Additional research is needed to understand what aspects of ethnic identity are associated with smoking behavior among Native Hawaiian youth. The strong influence of peer and parental smoking suggests the need for interventions that support the creation of social environments that discourage tobacco use.

Glanz, Karen; Mau, Marjorie; Steffen, Alana; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Arriola, Kimberly Jacob

2013-01-01

199

First results from the Hawaiian SWELL Pilot Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a year-long pilot experiment to the southwest of the Hawaiian Islands, we recorded teleseismic intermediate-period Rayleigh waves on ocean-bottom “L-CHEAPO” instruments using differential pressure gauges as sensors. We analyzed over 70 events and obtained accurate phase velocity estimates at periods between 15 and 70s. The average seismic structure beneath the pilot array does not deviate significantly from a standard seismic model of 100 Myr old oceanic lithosphere. However, we find strong lateral velocity variations across the array with large negative anomalies appearing within roughly 300km of the island chain. We are able to image the edge of the Hawaiian Swell and hence demonstrate the importance of making phase velocity measurements on the ocean floor.

Laske, G.; Morgan, J. Phipps; Orcutt, J. A.

200

Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, and ‘Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds\\u000a representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide\\u000a revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster.

Susan I. Jarvi; Dennis Triglia; Alexis Giannoulis; Margaret Farias; Kiara Bianchi; Carter T. Atkinson

2008-01-01

201

Catalog of Tsunamis in The Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the catalog, all the available information has been compiled from historical accounts, newspaper archives, other reports, and recent mareographic data. Most of the events listed are associated with earthquakes, but some are associated with volcanic act...

G. Pararas-Carayannis

1969-01-01

202

Natural Landmarks Survey of the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study is one of a series of 61 which cover the natural regions of the United States. Each study describes the ecological and geological features characteristics of that region, then evaluates sites representative of the various features. Sites which ...

A. T. Abbott C. Lamboureux E. A. Kay W. L. Theobald

1981-01-01

203

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... Email me when this section changes OMH Content Content Index > Data/Statistics > Data by Health Topic > Obesity Obesity and ... this is for illustration only. CHILDREN No national data available at this ... are more likely to suffer from high blood pressure, high levels of blood fats, and ...

204

Microsatellite Repeat Instability Fuels Evolution of Embryonic Enhancers in Hawaiian Drosophila  

PubMed Central

For ?30 million years, the eggs of Hawaiian Drosophila were laid in ever-changing environments caused by high rates of island formation. The associated diversification of the size and developmental rate of the syncytial fly embryo would have altered morphogenic gradients, thus necessitating frequent evolutionary compensation of transcriptional responses. We investigate the consequences these radiations had on transcriptional enhancers patterning the embryo to see whether their pattern of molecular evolution is different from non-Hawaiian species. We identify and functionally assay in transgenic D. melanogaster the Neurogenic Ectoderm Enhancers from two different Hawaiian Drosophila groups: (i) the picture wing group, and (ii) the modified mouthparts group. We find that the binding sites in this set of well-characterized enhancers are footprinted by diverse microsatellite repeat (MSR) sequences. We further show that Hawaiian embryonic enhancers in general are enriched in MSR relative to both Hawaiian non-embryonic enhancers and non-Hawaiian embryonic enhancers. We propose embryonic enhancers are sensitive to Activator spacing because they often serve as assembly scaffolds for the aggregation of transcription factor activator complexes. Furthermore, as most indels are produced by microsatellite repeat slippage, enhancers from Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, which experience dynamic evolutionary pressures, would become grossly enriched in MSR content.

Brittain, Andrew; Stroebele, Elizabeth; Erives, Albert

2014-01-01

205

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages.

Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O'Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

206

Convergent evolution of morphology and habitat use in the explosive Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar radiation.  

PubMed

Species occurring in unconnected, but similar habitats and under similar selection pressures often display strikingly comparable morphology, behaviour and life history. On island archipelagos where colonizations and extinctions are common, it is often difficult to separate whether similar traits are a result of in situ diversification or independent colonization without a phylogeny. Here, we use one of Hawaii's most ecologically diverse and explosive endemic species radiations, the Hawaiian fancy case caterpillar genus Hyposmocoma, to test whether in situ diversification resulted in convergence. Specifically, we examine whether similar species utilizing similar microhabitats independently developed largely congruent larval case phenotypes in lineages that are in comparable, but isolated environments. Larvae of these moths are found on all Hawaiian Islands and are characterized by an extraordinary array of ecomorphs and larval case morphology. We focus on the 'purse cases', a group that is largely specialized for living within rotting wood. Purse cases were considered a monophyletic group, because morphological, behavioural and ecological traits appeared to be shared among all members. We constructed a phylogeny based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from 38 Hyposmocoma species, including all 14 purse case species and 24 of non-purse case congeners. Divergence time estimation suggests that purse case lineages evolved independently within dead wood and developed nearly identical case morphology twice: once on the distant Northwest Hawaiian Islands between 15.5 and 9 Ma and once on the younger main Hawaiian Islands around 3.0 Ma. Multiple ecomorphs are usually found on each island, and the ancestral ecomorph of Hyposmocoma appears to have lived on tree bark. Unlike most endemic Hawaiian radiations that follow a clear stepwise progression of colonization, purse case Hyposmocoma do not follow a pattern of colonization from older to younger island. We postulate that the diversity of microhabitats and selection from parasitism/predation from endemic predators may have shaped case architecture in this extraordinary endemic radiation of Hawaiian insects. PMID:23866031

Kawahara, A Y; Rubinoff, D

2013-08-01

207

Reconsideration of evolutionary model of the Hawaiian-type volcano: 40Ar\\/39Ar ages for lavas from deep interior of Oahu Island and alkali basalts from the North Arch volcanic field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth history of Hawaiian-type volcanoes is typified into four stages: pre-shield, shield-forming, post-shield and rejuvinated. Duration of volcanism from pre-shield to post-shield stage is considered to be at most two million years, and is followed by the rejuvinated-stage after the dormance of one to two million years. There are, however, considerable amount of volcanic products hidden beneath the surface, and

K. Uto; O. Ishizuka; M. O. Garcia; D. A. Clague; J. Naka

2002-01-01

208

Geophysics with Hawaiian Anti-neutrino Observatory (Hanohano)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design studies are under way for the deep ocean anti-neutrino observatory located in the vicinity of the Big Island (Hawaii) with the main goal of measuring geo-neutrino flux from the mantle and core which can exclusively be done in a location far from the continental plates such is Hawaiian Islands chain. Hanohano will also accomplish the definitive measurement of the electron anti-neutrino signal from the core to observe or eliminate a hypothetical natural reactor in the Earth's core.

Maricic, J.; Hanohano Collaboration

2011-12-01

209

Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

2013-11-01

210

Cuticular Proteins from the Lobster, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The urea-extractable proteins from calcified regions of intermoult cuticle of the lobster, Homarus americanus, have been separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, showing that the extracts contain a large number of proteins. The major proteins have isoelectric points between 4 and 9, and their apparent molecular weights are between 5 and 30 kDa.Two of the proteins have been purified by a combination

Michael Kragh; Lars Mølbak; Svend Olav Andersen

1997-01-01

211

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

SciTech Connect

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Czech Technical Universiry in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic); Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-07-15

212

Seismic imaging of melt in a displaced Hawaiian plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands are the classic example of hotspot volcanism: the island chain formed progressively as the Pacific plate moved across a fixed mantle plume. However, some observations are inconsistent with simple, vertical upwelling beneath a thermally defined plate and the nature of plume-plate interaction is debated. Here we use S-to-P seismic receiver functions, measured using a network of land and seafloor seismometers, to image the base of a melt-rich zone located 110 to 155 km beneath Hawaii. We find that this melt-rich zone is deepest 100 km west of Hawaii, implying that the plume impinges on the plate here and causes melting at greater depths in the mantle, rather than directly beneath the island. We infer that the plume either naturally upwells vertically beneath western Hawaii, or that it is instead deflected westwards by a compositionally depleted root that was generated beneath the island as it formed. The offset of the Hawaiian plume adds complexity to the classical model of a fixed plume that ascends vertically to the surface, and suggests that mantle melts beneath intraplate volcanoes may be guided by pre-existing structures beneath the islands.

Rychert, Catherine A.; Laske, Gabi; Harmon, Nicholas; Shearer, Peter M.

2013-08-01

213

Hawaii Cyclonic Eddies and Blue Marlin Catches: The Case Study of the 1995 Hawaiian International Billfish Tournament  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combination of prevailing northeasterly tradewinds and island topography results in the formation of vigorous, westward\\u000a propagating cyclonic eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands on time scales of 50–70 days. These mesoscale (?102 km) features are nowhere more conspicuous or spin up more frequently than in the Alenuihaha Channel between the Island of\\u000a Maui and the Big Island

Michael P. Seki; Rick Lumpkin; Pierre Flament

2002-01-01

214

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

215

Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.  

PubMed Central

Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies.

Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

1985-01-01

216

Paraliparis hawaiiensis, a new species of snailfish (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) and the first described from the Hawaiian Archipelago.  

PubMed

Paraliparis hawaiiensis n.sp. is described from the north-western Hawaiian Islands from two specimens collected at 2196 and 3055?m. It differs from other North Pacific Ocean species in its chin pore arrangement, tooth pattern and body proportions. Although liparid specimens have previously been collected from Hawaii, they were undescribed and are now lost. Therefore, this is the first liparid species described from the archipelago. In situ photographs of Hawaiian snailfishes are also shown and discussed here. PMID:24697612

Stein, D L; Drazen, J C

2014-05-01

217

Fungal Diversity Associated with Hawaiian Drosophila Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ?97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

Ort, Brian S.; Bantay, Roxanne M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O'Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

218

Fungal diversity associated with Hawaiian Drosophila host plants.  

PubMed

Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ?97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation. PMID:22911703

Ort, Brian S; Bantay, Roxanne M; Pantoja, Norma A; O'Grady, Patrick M

2012-01-01

219

Native Hawaiian Community College Students: What Happens?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a weighted database of approximately 3,000 students, this study involves the tracing of the postsecondary history of 2,516 students who identified as Native Hawaiian, graduated from high school between 1993 and 1995, and attended college. Virtually none of the students are 100% Hawaiian. Due to a long history of intermarriage, the Hawaiian race is almost entirely a mixture of

Linda Serra Hagedorn; Jaime Lester; Hye Sun Moon; Katherine Tibbetts

2006-01-01

220

Crustal structure of Ascension Island from wide-angle seismic data: implications for the formation of near-ridge volcanic islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the internal structure of volcanic islands is important for understanding how such islands form and how the lithosphere deforms beneath them. Studies to date have focused on very large volcanic edifices (e.g., Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas), but less attention has been paid to smaller islands, which are more common. Ascension Island, a 4-km high volcanic edifice with a

F. Klingelhöfer; T. A. Minshull; D. K. Blackman; P. Harben; V. Childers

2001-01-01

221

Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape.  

PubMed

Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host-parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens, also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure. PMID:14615222

Vandergast, Amy G; Roderick, George K

2003-10-01

222

Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume.  

PubMed

The volcanism responsible for creating the chain of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts is believed to mark the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle plume. In this picture hot material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow conduit to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere. Although a number of models describe possible plume-lithosphere interactions, seismic imaging techniques have not had sufficient resolution to distinguish between them. Here we apply the S-wave 'receiver function' technique to data of three permanent seismic broadband stations on the Hawaiian islands, to map the thickness of the underlying lithosphere. We find that under Big Island the lithosphere is 100-110 km thick, as expected for an oceanic plate 90-100 million years old that is not modified by a plume. But the lithosphere thins gradually along the island chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. The width of the thinning is about 300 km. In this zone, well within the larger-scale topographic swell, we infer that the rejuvenation model (where the plume thins the lithosphere) is operative; however, the larger-scale topographic swell is probably supported dynamically. PMID:14985758

Li, Xueqing; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Wölbern, Ingo; Hanka, Winfried

2004-02-26

223

Mantle P-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hotspot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three-dimensional images of P-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of seafloor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a high-velocity anomaly in the shallow upper mantle that is parabolic in map view. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 km depth and extend into the topmost lower mantle, although the resolution of lower mantle structure from this data set is limited. Comparisons of inversions with separate data sets at different frequencies suggest that contamination by water reverberations is not markedly biasing the P-wave imaging of mantle structure. Many aspects of the P-wave images are consistent with independent tomographic images of S-wave velocity in the region, but there are some differences in upper mantle structure between P-wave and S-wave velocities. Inversions without station terms show a southwestward shift in the location of lowest P-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle relative to the pattern for shear waves, and inversions with station terms show differences between P-wave and S-wave velocity heterogeneity in the shallow upper mantle beneath and immediately east of the island of Hawaii. Nonetheless, the combined data sets are in general agreement with the hypothesis that the Hawaiian hotspot is the result of an upwelling, high-temperature plume. The broad upper-mantle low-velocity region beneath the Hawaiian Islands may reflect the diverging "pancake" at the top of the upwelling zone; the surrounding region of high velocities could represent a downwelling curtain; and the low-velocity anomalies southeast of Hawaii in the transition zone and topmost lower mantle are consistent with predictions of plume tilt.

Wolfe, Cecily J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Laske, Gabi; Collins, John A.; Detrick, Robert S.; Orcutt, John A.; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H.

2011-03-01

224

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

225

Fractal dimension of debris-avalanche deposits in the Hawaiian submarine landslide deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

17 landslide deposits on the flanks of the southern Hawaiian Ridge have been classified into two major types: SLUMPS, which moved slowly as a coherent mass, and DEBRIS AVALANCHES, which moved quickly.The debris-avalanche deposits are predominant on submarine flanks of volcanic ocean islands elsewhere in the world. Such huge landslides are considered to produce giant tsunamis and megaturbidites covering large

H. Yokose; S. Yamato

2005-01-01

226

Barriers to Increasing Native Hawaiian, Samoan, and Filipino Nursing Students: Perceptions of Students and Their Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of parents, high school students, and community members (n=92) and focus groups with 34 current and potential nursing students indicate that Asian Pacific Islanders are composed of distinct groups that have diverse concerns. Results suggest ways to increase the recruitment and retention of native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Samoan nursing…

Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Gollin, Lisa X.; Casken, John

2003-01-01

227

Origin of the Hawaiian endemic mints within North American Stachys (Lamiaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian endemic mints constitute a major island radiation, displaying a remarkable diversity of floral, fruit, and vegetative features. Haplostachys and Phyllostegia have flowers associated with insect pollination, whereas Stenogyne has flowers typical of bird pollination. The three genera had been thought to be closely related to East Asian members of Lamioideae tribe Prasieae because of the fleshy nutlets borne

CHARLOTTE LINDQVIST; VICTOR A. ALBERT

2002-01-01

228

Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The University of Hawaii's Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database is a centralized database that includes monitoring data for Hawaii's natural resources. Designed to help meet the information needs of land managers in Hawaii, the database includes "standardized and fully-documented data collection efforts by federal, state, and private agencies." A license (free, with permission) is required to access the database. Recently, the site added an updated master species list for Hawaii and an update (from US Fish and Wildlife Service) on the Endangered/Threatened status of Hawaiian species (.zip format).

229

Cuticular proteins from the lobster, Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

The urea-extractable proteins from calcified regions of intermoult cuticle of the lobster, Homarus americanus, have been separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis, showing that the extracts contain a large number of proteins. The major proteins have isoelectric points between 4 and 9, and their apparent molecular weights are between 5 and 30 kDa. Two of the proteins have been purified by a combination of ion-exchange chromatography, gel-filtration and RP-HPLC, and their complete amino acid sequences were determined by a combination of mass spectrometry and automated Edman degradation. Although they were purified from a single animal, both proteins were obtained as two isoforms. The isoforms of the smaller protein (HaCP4.6) differed only in a single position (phenylalanine/isoleucine), and the isoforms of the larger protein (HaCP11.6) differed in two positions (valine/isoleucine and glutamine/lysine). HaCP11.6 is N-terminally blocked by a pyroglutamate residue. Variants of an 18-residue motif are a characteristic feature of both sequences: it occurs twice in HaCP4.6 and four times in HaCP11.6. Comparison of the sequence to sequences published for cuticular proteins from other arthropods shows that the repeated motif is also present in proteins from the exoskeleton of the Bermuda land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, but not in the single shrimp protein (Pandalus borealis) sequenced so far. The amino acid compositions of the lobster proteins are similar to that of flexible cuticles in locusts, but no convincing sequence similarities were found between the lobster proteins and cuticular proteins from locusts or other insects. PMID:9418004

Kragh, M; Mølbak, L; Andersen, S O

1997-09-01

230

Age, geochemistry and melt flux variations for the Hawaiian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Ridge portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, the classic example of a mantle plume produced linear island chain, is 6000 km in length, active for 80+ Myr, and tectonically simple. Despite its importance to our understanding of mantle plumes and Cenozoic plate motion, there are large data gaps for the age and geochemistry of lavas from volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge (HR) portion of the Chain. Ages: Only volcanoes near the Hawaiian-Emperor bend and in the Hawaiian Islands have modern Ar-Ar ages, leaving a gap of 2000 km where existing K-Ar ages suggest synchronous volcanism over a 1000 km section. Geochemistry: There is a 2900 km gap in high precision geochemical data for the HR. The Emperor Seamounts (>45 Ma) have better regional coverage of recent isotopic data and show a correlation of Sr isotope composition with age of the underlying oceanic lithosphere (Regelous et al. 2003). The HR has an unexplained, exponential increase in magma flux over the last 30 Myr (Vidal & Bonneville 2004). Potential explanations for the increase in magma flux include: changes in melting conditions (temperature and/or pressure), change in source fertility related to rock type (pyroxenite vs. peridotite) or previous melting history, and/or changes in plate stresses resulting from reconfigurations of plate motion. Our new multi-disciplinary project will: 1) Determine 40Ar/39Ar ages, and whole-rock major, trace element, and Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic geochemistry for lavas from 20 volcanoes spanning ~2150 km of the HR (NW of the Hawaiian Islands). 2) Use the geochemical data to determine the long-term evolution of the Hawaiian mantle plume source components and to evaluate whether there have been systematic variations in mantle potential temperature, melting pressure, and/or source lithology during the creation of the HR. If so, are they responsible for the 300% variation in melt production along the Ridge? Also, we will assess when the more fertile Loa source component appeared. 3) Reassess models for the origin of the HR using the new 40Ar/39Ar ages. 4) Recompute and compare the magma flux rate for the Hawaiian and Louisville Ridges using our new HR ages and IODP results for Louisville Ridge, and updated bathymetric data for both chains. 5) Utilize the new ages to revise Cenozoic Pacific plate motions and to compute differential motions as proxies for stress changes along the HR with time to evaluate the effects of plate motion on magma flux rate. These studies will have fundamental implications for mantle plume sources, plume dynamics, and plate kinematics. Vidal V, Bonneville A, 2004. J. Geophys. Res., 109, B03104, doi:10.1029/2003JB002559 Regelous M, Hofmann AW, Abouchami W, Galer SJG, 2003. Jour. Petrol. 44, 113-140

Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Greene, A. R.; Wessel, P.; Harrison, L.; Tree, J.

2012-12-01

231

Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

232

Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

233

Estimating the sustainable lobster ( Panulirus ornatus) catch in Torres Strait, Australia, using an age-structured stock assessment model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ornate rock lobster ( Panulirus ornatus) is distributed across Torres Strait between Australia and Papua New Guinea and supports the most important commercial fishery to Islanders in the region. The long-term sustainability of the fishery is of importance not only to local island communities but also to the bilateral relationship between the two countries. In this paper, we developed an age-structured fishery model to assess the current stock status and estimate the long-term sustainable catch. The model was fitted to catch statistics and survey-based population estimates through a weighted maximum likelihood approach. Natural mortality was estimated at 0.732 yr -1, and fishing mortality ranged from 0.19 to 0.65 yr -1 from 1989 to 2005. The maximum sustainable yield was estimated at about 640 tonnes whole weight with a corresponding fishing mortality of 0.5 yr -1. A stock-recruitment model was established based on outputs of the stock assessment model. To obtain the maximum sustainable yield, spawning stock should be maintained at 120×10 4 lobsters. The lobster spawning stock has been fished down below this level twice since 1989, in 1999 and 2002, and was higher than this level in 2004 and 2005. These results suggest that the Torres Strait lobster stock is not over-fished and that the current harvest strategy is likely to maintain the stock at or above the level that would support the maximum sustainable yield if the current cap on fishing effort remains in place.

Ye, Yimin; Dennis, Darren; Skewes, Tim

2008-09-01

234

Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.

2000-01-01

235

Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

2007-12-01

236

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

237

The Island Institute  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

238

76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Resources, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch, and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...framework procedures for spiny lobster and coral and reef associated plants and...

2011-09-26

239

The Impacts of Introduced Poeciliid Fish and Odonata on the Endemic Megalagrion (Odonata) Damselflies of Oahu Island, Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the beginning of this century there have been substantial declines in the distribution and abundance of native Megalagrion damselflies on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. Native damselflies have also vanished from most low elevation areas on other Hawaiian Islands, although historically, lotic and wetland dwelling damselfly species were once common throughout the archipelago. It is hypothesized that poeciliid fish

Ronald E. Englund

1999-01-01

240

Geology of the island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The account of the geology of the individual Hawaiian islands is only a progress report based very largely on the uppermost, visible parts of the Hawaiian volcanic range. The island of Hawaii today consists of five volcanic mountains. All of them are very young, and three of the volcanoes have been active in historic times. At least two other volcanoes which helped to build the island have been buried by more recent ones. Rocks exposed in the cliffs on the northeastern side of Kohala Mountain have been shown by the potassium-argon method to be about 700,000 years old.

Macdonald, G. A.

1974-01-01

241

Pacific Islander Youth Offenders in Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, the number of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders living in Utah grew 97%, with the fastest growing group within that category being Samoans, increasing at a rate of 188%. Pacific Islander youth are much more likely to be arrested for illegal acts than their Caucasian counterparts. This study presents preliminary data on issues relating to

Robin Davis

242

Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A report entitled Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone was recently released from the US Geological Survey. The stated purpose of the report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii and to provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. The nearly 300 page atlas can be downloaded in seven different sections or as one large document. Included in the atlas are notes on specific hazards, a ranking of hazard intensity, an overall hazard assessment, and specific technical hazard maps for each island.

243

Two male Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), one of which has been temporarily marked for a mark-recapture study.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two male Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at French Frigate Shoals in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Monk seals are the only true seals found year-round in tropical waters. They are found on coral atolls and rocky islands. The seal on the right bears a temporary bleach mark that was placed to help determine abundance through a mark-recapture technique. Mark-recapture methods are used to estimate population size and other parameters by marking a known number of individuals and then counting the number that are recaptured. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:4) in August of 2004.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-12

244

Development of Artificial Diets for the Lobster (Homarus americanus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A series of artificial diets was evaluated in terms of growth, survival, and normalized biomass during three-month growth studies utilizing juvenile lobsters. The effects of both texture and the addition of specific nutrients were examined. An increase in...

D. E. Conklin K. Devers C. Bordner

1977-01-01

245

Polymorphisms of Esterase Isozymes in the American Lobster ('Homarus Americanus').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Five groups of esterase active bands were found after electrophoretic separation of extracts of heart tissue of lobsters (Homarus americanus) on starch gels. Each group consisted of one or more bands that were distinguishable from other groups by their el...

J. Barlow G. J. Ridgway

1970-01-01

246

An Indexed Bibliography of the Spiny Lobsters, Family Palinuridae.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication is a bibliography of research studies done on lobsters. The book is divided into the following sections: Master Reference List; Author List; Key Word in Context List; and Subject Index.

P. Kanciruk W. F. Herrnkind

1976-01-01

247

Crude Oil Effects to Developmental Stages of the American Lobster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physiological effects of South Louisiana crude oil on larvae and juveniles of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, have been investigated in continuous flow bioassay systems. Disruption in the energetics of larval development has been observed an...

J. M. Capuzzo

1981-01-01

248

Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.  

PubMed

Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are consistent with those found in the native Hawaiian Drosophila. PMID:11298985

Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

2001-03-01

249

Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.  

PubMed

Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session. PMID:23186696

Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

2012-08-27

250

33 CFR 100.110 - World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false World's Fastest Lobster...OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.110 World's Fastest Lobster...regulated area includes all waters of Moosabec Reach...

2009-07-01

251

33 CFR 100.110 - World's Fastest Lobster Boat Race, Jonesport, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false World's Fastest Lobster...OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.110 World's Fastest Lobster...regulated area includes all waters of Moosabec Reach...

2010-07-01

252

Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New Distributional Records for Endemic Asteia (Asteiidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract New island records are reported for five species of Asteia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Asteia hawaiiensis, Asteia mauiensis, Asteia molokaiensis, Asteia palikuensis, Asteia sabroskyi). These new records expand our understanding of distributions in Asteia, change the percentage of single island endemics from 78% to 33%, and have significance in how we view the process of diversification acting in this lineage. We also present a list of the known rearing records for two species in this group. Asteia montgomeryi has been recorded from Erythrina and Asteia sabroskyi has been reared from Pisonia, Urera, Charpentiera and Hibiscadelphus.

2014-01-01

253

Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ?Nd-?Hf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes existed at ~2.2 Ma when the Molokai Island volcanoes formed and has persisted until the present. References: Abouchami et al., 2005 Nature, 434:851-856 Xu et al., 2005 G3, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000830 Xu et al., 2007 G3, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001554

Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

2007-12-01

254

Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation  

PubMed Central

Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1? and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else.

Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

2010-01-01

255

Earthquakes of Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35km S of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and S most island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close to Loihi's bathymetric summit, except for earthquakes during the second stage of the 1971-1972 swarm, which occurred well onto Loihi's SW flank. The flank earthquakes appear to have been triggered by the preceding activity and possible rifting along Loihi's long axis, similar to the rift-flank relationship at Kilauea volcano. Other changes accompanied the shift in locations from Loihi's summit to its flank, including a shift from burst to continuous seismicity, a rise in maximum magnitude, a change from small earthquake clusters to a larger elongated zone, a drop in b value, and a presumed shift from concentrated volcanic stresses to a more diffuse tectonic stress on Loihi's flank. - Author

Klein, F. W.

1982-01-01

256

Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

Klompmaker, Adiel A.; Fraaije, Rene H. B.

2012-01-01

257

50 CFR 622.406 - Areas closed to lobster trap gear.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Areas closed to lobster trap gear. 622.406 Section 622.406 Wildlife... § 622.406 Areas closed to lobster trap gear. (a) Fishing with spiny lobster trap gear is prohibited year-round in the...

2013-10-01

258

Posterosional volcanism in the Cretaceous part of the Hawaiian hotspot trail  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection profiling shows the Cretaceous products of the Hawaiian hotspot to be a ridge of coalesced guyots that prolong the N-NW trend of the more isolated Paleocene Emperor Seamounts, a 10,000 sq km plateau (Detroit Plateau), where the trail changes strike to NW, and the Obruchev Rise hotspot ridge, which extends to the Kamchatka Trench. The northernmost guyots were submerged and tilted southeast by the load of new shield volcanoes added to the end of the chain, then secondary volcanism built small cones on their summit platforms and in a gap between two guyots. On one guyot these submarine eruptions were in the alkalic postshield stage of Hawaiian volcanism and at another were probably in the alkalic rejuvenated stage. Seamount-building eruptions at Detroit Plateau produced lavas that belong geochemically to the alkalic rejuvenated stage and are very similar to Pleistocene lavas in the Hawaiian Islands. However, these eruptions postdated passage off the hotspot plume by a much longer time than the 0.5-2.5 m.y. observed in the Hawaiian Islands and were probably initiated by different tectonic processes.

Lonsdale, Peter; Dieu, Julie; Natland, James

1993-03-01

259

A young source for the Hawaiian plume.  

PubMed

Recycling of oceanic crust through subduction, mantle upwelling, and remelting in mantle plumes is a widely accepted mechanism to explain ocean island volcanism. The timescale of this recycling is important to our understanding of mantle circulation rates. Correlations of uranogenic lead isotopes in lavas from ocean islands such as Hawaii or Iceland, when interpreted as model isochrons, have yielded source differentiation ages between 1 and 2.5?billion years (Gyr). However, if such correlations are produced by mixing of unrelated mantle components they will have no direct age significance. Re-Os decay model ages take into account the mixing of sources with different histories, but they depend on the assumed initial Re/Os ratio of the subducted crust, which is poorly constrained because of the high mobility of rhenium during subduction. Here we report the first data on (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios for 138 melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from lavas of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii, indicating enormous mantle source heterogeneity. We show that highly radiogenic strontium in severely rubidium-depleted melt inclusions matches the isotopic composition of 200-650-Myr-old sea water. We infer that such sea water must have contaminated the Mauna Loa source rock, before subduction, imparting a unique 'time stamp' on this source. Small amounts of seawater-derived strontium in plume sources may be common but can be identified clearly only in ultra-depleted melts originating from generally highly (incompatible-element) depleted source components. The presence of 200-650-Myr-old oceanic crust in the source of Hawaiian lavas implies a timescale of general mantle circulation with an average rate of about 2 (±1)?cm?yr(-1), much faster than previously thought. PMID:21832996

Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Stoll, Brigitte

2011-08-25

260

Hawaiian Thatched House. Use - Construction - Adaptation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author treats Hawaiian thatched houses and temples as structures. He traces the manner in which they evolved for use by Hawaiians, presents their structural details, and shows the impact of an invading alien culture upon their design. The report prese...

R. A. Apple

1971-01-01

261

Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide to Hawaiian Studies for fourth graders is designed to be used in conjunction with a social studies guide called "Early Hawaiian Life." The curriculum guide is divided into ten units dealing with the following topics: geography; migration-canoe building; land division; society and government--family; society and…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

262

Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not…

Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe

2009-01-01

263

Hawaiian propolis: comparative analysis and botanical origin.  

PubMed

Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected and processed from various botanical sources by honeybees (Apis mellifera). We recently obtained Hawaiian propolis, the study of which, to our knowledge, has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Hawaiian propolis and to identify its botanical origin. A comparative analysis of Hawaiian and Okinawan propolis and of the glandular trichomes on Macaranga tanarius fruit (the botanical origin of Okinawan propolis) was performed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution-electrospray mass spectrometry. Hawaiian propolis contained nine prenylflavonoids that were also isolated from Okinawan propolis. In conclusion, we suggest that the botanical origin of Hawaiian propolis is M. tanarius, the same as that of Okinawan propolis. PMID:24689281

Inui, Saori; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazaw, Shigenori

2014-02-01

264

The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings  

PubMed Central

Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal biodiversity surveys. Molecular data for the survey provide the most extensive assessment of Hawaiian red algal diversity and, in combination with the morphological/anatomical and distributional data collected as part of the project, provide a solid baseline data set for future studies of the flora. The data are freely available via the Hawaiian Algal Database (HADB), which was designed and constructed to accommodate the results of the project. We present the first DNA sequence reference collection for a tropical Pacific seaweed flora, whose value extends beyond Hawaii since many Hawaiian taxa are shared with other tropical areas.

2010-01-01

265

A geographic mosaic of passive dispersal: population structure in the endemic Hawaiian amber snail Succinea caduca (Mighels, 1845)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used 276 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, 645 bp) and a subset of 84 16S large ribosomal subunit (16S, 451 bp) sequences to evaluate geographic patterns of genetic vari- ation in 24 populations of the endemic Hawaiian land snail Succinea caduca spanning its range on six islands. Haplotype networks, gene tree topologies, pairwise molecular divergence and F ST

BRENDEN S. H OLLAND; ROBERT H. C OWIE

266

Tables of the Velocity of Sound and of Depth Corrections for Echo-Sounding in Hawaiian Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report concerns the area around the Hawaiian Islands which lies within the boundaries of 150 - 170 degrees W and 10 - 30 degrees N. It constitutes Marsden squares 088, 089, 052, and 053 (10 degrees squares of latitude and longitude), as shown on the i...

J. C. Belshe

1967-01-01

267

The internal structure of lava flows—insights from AMS measurements II: Hawaiian pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 22 basaltic flow units, including S-type pahoehoe, P-type pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'? emplaced over different slopes in two Hawaiian islands. Systematic differences occur in several aspects of AMS (mean susceptibility, degree of anisotropy, magnetic fabric and orientation of the principal susceptibilities) among the morphological types that can be related to

Edgardo Cañón-Tapia; George P. L. Walker; Emilio Herrero-Bervera

1997-01-01

268

Seafloor Video Footage and Still-Frame Grabs from U.S. Geological Survey Cruises in Hawaiian Nearshore Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Underwater video footage was collected in nearshore waters (<60-meter depth) off the Hawaiian Islands from 2002 to 2011 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Programs Pacific Coral Reef Project, to improve seafloor charac...

A. E. Gibbs P. W. Tierney S. A. Cochran

2013-01-01

269

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

270

Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

Cuillandre, J. C.

271

Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

Atkinson, Carter T.

2005-01-01

272

Short- and long-term dietary effects on disease and mortality in American lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

The American lobster Homarus americanus fishery is heavily dependent on the use of fish as bait to entice lobsters into traps. There is concern that this food supplementation is nutritionally insufficient for lobsters, but previous experiments reported conflicting results. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in which 1 yr old American lobsters were fed one of 7 diets for a period of 352 d, a time that allowed the lobsters to molt thrice. The diets consisted of fresh frozen herring, a 'wild' diet (rock crab, mussel, and Spirulina algae), a formulated artificial diet for shrimp, paired combinations of these 3 diets or a diet formulated at the New England Aquarium (Artemia, fish and krill meal, Spirulina algae, soy lecithin, vitamins and minerals). The lobsters fed the diet of 100% fish had higher initial molting rates, but within the period of this experiment all either contracted shell disease or died. Mixed diets resulted in higher survival and a lower probability of mortality. This research demonstrated a critical time component to diet studies in lobsters. Short- and long-term impacts of diet differ. In the long term, continual high consumption rates of fish by the lobsters promote poor health in all lobsters, not just those of market size. The use of fish as bait may make lobsters more susceptible to the stress associated with environmental fluctuation, thereby leading to increased disease and mortality. This nutritional stress can be used to develop a laboratory model of shell disease in American lobsters. PMID:18380224

Tlusty, Michael F; Myers, Anna; Metzler, Anita

2008-01-24

273

Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary Motion of the Hawaiian Hotspot and its Geodynamic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of our ideas of where mantle plumes originate, how they interact with the convecting mantle and how plates have moved in the past rely on interpretations of the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track. One reason this volcanic lineament has attained this conceptual stature lies in its prominent bend at 43 Ma. The bend, which separates the westward trending Hawaiian islands from the northward-trending Emperor seamounts has no equal among the Earth's hotspot tracks; it is the clearest physical manifestation of a change in plate motion in a fixed hotspot reference frame. However, paleomagnetic data available from Suiko Seamount and Detroit Seamount of the Emperor trend (Tarduno and Cottrell, EPSL, 1997) suggest that the Emperor seamounts might primarily record drift of the Hawaiian hotspot in the mantle. ODP Leg 197 was designed to test this idea through drilling on Emperor trend seamounts. Record-setting basement penetration at five holes drilled during the leg has allowed us to both test this idea and learn more about the source and melting history of the Hawaiian hotspot. The paleolatitudes suggested from our preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of basement cores clearly differ from the latitude of Hawaii. The values are consistent with the hypothesis that the Hawaiian hotspot moved southward from 81 to 43 Ma at rates of 30 to 50 mm yr-1. These values, which are within the range of velocities typical of lithospheric plates, force us to reconsider the cause of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, rates of mantle convection and Pacific plate reconstructions based on the fixed hotspot assumption. This motion also precludes use of hotspots as a reference frame to calculate true polar wander, estimates of which may be too large by a factor of 5 when compared with global paleomagnetic data sets (Tarduno and Smirnov, EPSL, 2001).

Tarduno, J. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Scholl, D. W.

2002-05-01

274

Motion of Hawaiian Hotspot During Formation of the Emperor Seamounts: Initial Results of ODP Leg 197  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many of our ideas of where mantle plumes originate, how they interact with the convecting mantle and how plates have moved in the past rely on interpretations of the Hawaiian-Emperor hotspot track. One reason this volcanic lineament has attained this conceptual stature lies in its prominent bent at 43 Ma. The bend, which separates the westward trending Hawaiian islands from the northward-trending Emperor seamounts has no equal among the Earth's hotspot tracks; it is the clearest physical manifestation of a change in plate motion in a fixed hotspot reference frame. However, attempts to model past plate motions have failed to predict the bend and there is no obvious change in spreading rate at 43 Ma in the well-studied marine magnetic anomaly record of the North Pacific. These observations, together with paleomagnetic data available from Suiko Seamount (Kono, 1980) and Detroit Seamount (Tarduno and Cottrell, 1997) suggest that the Emperor seamounts might primarily record drift of the Hawaiian hotspot in the mantle. ODP Leg 197 was designed to test this idea through basement drilling on Emperor trend seamounts. Record-setting basement penetration at five holes drilled during the leg has allowed us to both test this idea and learn more about the source and melting history of the Hawaiian hotspot. The paleolatitudes suggested from our preliminary paleomagnetic analysis of basement cores clearly differ from the latitude of Hawaii. The values are consistent with the hypothesis that the Hawaiian hotspot moved southward from 81 to 43 Ma at rates of 30 to 50 mm yr-1. These values, which are within the range of velocities typical of lithospheric plates, force us to reconsider the cause of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, rates of mantle convection and Pacific plate reconstructions based on the fixed hotspot assumption.

Tarduno, J. A.; Duncan, R. A.; Cottrell, R. D.; Scholl, D. W.

2001-12-01

275

Surface Wave Tomography for the Hawaiian PLUME Project and the Seismic Structure of the Hawaiian Swell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the two-stage seismic component of the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) project from January 2005 through June 2007, we collected continuous seismic data at ten land stations and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites which were occupied with broad-band seismometers. This provides an ideal basis to analyze surface waves across a broad frequency band to image the crust and mantle of the Hawaiian swell. In the first OBS deployment phase from January 2005 through January 2006, 35 sites were occupied in an elongated array centered on the island of Hawaii, with a station spacing of roughly 75~km and an aperture of 500~km. In the second phase from May 2006 through June 2007, 37 sites were occupied in a larger array with a station spacing of roughly 200~km. Our current analysis concentrates on long-period teleseismic Rayleigh waves. During the first phase we collected records from upward of 95 suitable large, shallow earthquakes with scalar seismic moment M0? 0.015 × 1020~Nm (MS? 5.6) or larger and source depths of 200~km or less. We also identified 70 smaller events with signal levels suitable for analysis. For the second phase, our initial analysis includes 163 larger earthquakes. We currently have over 5000 unique single-station phase measurements for the first deployment stage and 2500 for the second. We use this primary phase database to obtain two-station path-averaged phase velocity curves. These path-averaged dispersion curves are each well constrained by many earthquakes and are internally consistent between 15 and 50~s, allowing us to image the lithosphere and upper asthenosphere. Some larger events provide constraints beyond 100~s, thereby illuminating the lower asthenosphere. Using these dispersion curves we determine path-averaged depth profiles for nearly 300 two-station legs for the first deployment. The analysis of the second stage has provided over 100 legs and is still ongoing. We combine these profiles in an inversion for 3-D structure. We have also begun to determine group velocities, which provide additional constraints and improve depth resolution of the crust and mantle. Our analysis reveals a roughly 30~km thick low-velocity anomaly in the lower lithosphere beneath the islands of Hawaii and Maui that indicates that the lithosphere has undergone some degree of rejuvenation. Deeper imaged features include anomalously low velocities in the asthenosphere to the west of Hawaii. These results are consistent with those from the 1997/98 SWELL pilot experiment that covered an area in the southwestern corner of the PLUME array.

Markee, A.; Laske, G.; Orcutt, J. A.; Collins, J. A.; Wolfe, C. J.; Solomon, S. C.; Detrick, R. S.; Bercovici, D. A.; Hauri, E. H.

2008-12-01

276

Detection and quantitative analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in tilapia from Hawaiian waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from the Manoa stream and Ala Wai Canal of O’ahu, an island of the geographically isolated Hawaiian archipelago. Our results show that the average concentrations of PCBs varied from 51.90 to 89.42ngg?1 lipid weight for the sampling sites. Relative toxic potencies (RTPs) and

Fangxing Yang; Bruce Wilcox; Shiwei Jin; A. Alonso Aguirre; Luc Rougée; Ying Xu; Yuanan Lu

2008-01-01

277

Hawaiian Shield Stage Submarine Volcaniclastics: Insights From HSDP Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean island volcanoes are traditionally associated with the non-explosive eruption of fluid lavas, but volcaniclastic rocks comprise a significant portion of many submarine shield volcanoes. Deep drilling (3,098 m) by the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) into the flank of Mauna Kea volcano has exposed the volcaniclastics within the pedestals of a Hawaiian volcano that were previously poorly known. The HSDP continuously cored 2,019 m of submarine Mauna Kea deposits with ˜95% recovery and revealed that volcaniclastics comprise ˜55% of this section. The shallow submarine section consists of ˜80% volcaniclastics interbedded with thin ( ˜3 m) massive lava flows and the deep section is ˜35% volcaniclastics interbedded with packages of pillow lavas up to 180 m thick. Throughout the submarine section, the volcaniclastics can occur in thick packages up to ˜100 m. The emplacement of submarine volcaniclastics is not well understood. Possible origins include primary fragmentation of lava via magmatic explosivity and magma-water interactions, and secondary fragmentation via erosion. Secondary transport of material down the steep submarine flanks by gravity flows is expected to be common, as is reworking by currents. Emplacement processes are predicted to evolve as the volcano shoals. In this study major element analyses of glassy clasts in the volcaniclastics are used to distinguish monomict and polymict assemblages, which can indicate primary versus secondary fragmentation. Clast shapes reflect fragmentation mechanisms and secondary processes and this study attempts to improve on this approach with quantitative analysis of clast shapes for the HSDP volcaniclastics and for samples of known origin. The first documentation of the textures of the Mauna Kea volcaniclastics, integrated with geochemistry, petrography, and quantitative clast shape analysis and inferences about their origins and modes of transport and deposition will be presented to better understand the shoaling of Hawaiian volcanoes.

Bridges, K. P.; Garcia, M.; Houghton, B.; Thordarson, T.

2003-12-01

278

Unfortunate encounters? Novel interactions of native Mecyclothorax , alien Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile , Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across a Hawaiian landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian Islands support a speciose radiation of native Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). This lineage has undergone a classical island radiation resulting in extensive ecological\\u000a specialization, flight-wing loss, and 100% single-island endemism. We report on the sympatric occurrence of several Mecyclothorax species endemic to Haleakala volcano, East Maui with the newly arrived, adventive Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a tramp species

James K. Liebherr; Paul D. Krushelnycky

2007-01-01

279

Unfortunate encounters? Novel interactions of native Mecyclothorax , alien Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile , Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across a Hawaiian landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian Islands support a speciose radiation of native Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). This lineage has undergone a classical island radiation resulting in extensive ecological\\u000a specialization, flight-wing loss, and 100% single-island endemism. We report on the sympatric occurrence of several Mecyclothorax species endemic to Haleakala volcano, East Maui with the newly arrived, adventive Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a tramp species

James K. Liebherr; Paul D. Krushelnycky

280

Impacts of Human Disturbances on Biotic Communities in Hawaiian Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the effects of humans on Hawaiian streams. Streams throughout the tropics have been altered by water diversion, channel modification, introduced species, and water quality degradation. The Hawaiian Islands, with watersheds ranging from the relatively pristine to the highly degraded, offer an opportunity to examine the impacts of human disturbance on native stream communities. For example, urbanization is often accompanied by stream-channel modification and reduced canopy cover, resulting in higher water temperatures and greater fluctuations in daily temperature. Even in relatively pristine watersheds, stream diversions can result in decreased flow velocity and water depth, reducing habitat availability. Dewatering of stream reaches can also inhibit downstream dispersal of larvae and upstream migration of juveniles and adults of native species. Many nonnative aquatic species are better adapted than native species to degraded habitats; once established in these habitats, they can cause further reduction in native populations through competition, predation, and the introduction of parasites or diseases. Understanding the relationship between habitat alteration and aquatic community structure is critical for developing sound management strategies.

ANNE M. D. BRASHER (;)

2003-11-01

281

Evolution of Hawaiian shield volcano revealed by antecryst-hosted melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean island basalts, exemplified by the Hawaiian Volcanics, are often considered to be the best targets for understanding the chemical and thermal structure of upwelling mantle plumes. The important feature with regards to the petrogenesis of the recent Hawaiian shield building lavas is the existence of a double volcanic loci (Loa and Kea), which has resulted in large-scale heterogeneity between the north-western and south-eastern sides of the plume. The temporal Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic trends displayed by the Loa-type lavas may have been caused by systematic vertical heterogeneity of the SW part of the Hawaiian plume. The majority of the available OIB samples are limited to the youngest lava flows covering the shield, with the exception of samples obtained from drilled cores and land slide deposits. Thus, sampling is biased to the latest stages of the shield building process, and consequently, so are geochemical studies. We found that the majority of olivine crystals coarser than ˜1 mm in the Hawaiian lavas are antecryst, which originally crystallized from previous stages of Hawaiian magmatism. These anatecrysts were then plastically deformed prior to entrainment in the erupted host magmas. The Pb isotopic compositions of antecryst-hosted melt inclusions reveal that the mantle source components that formed Hawaiian shields successively changed during shield formation. The temporal geochemical trend in the Kilauea melt inclusion could be caused by increasing the degree of partial melting by moving the melting source of the volcano from the periphery to the centre of the plume. The Pb isotopic trend of Koolau melt inclusions are consistent with the previously identified temporal isotopic trend, which shows that the 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb of the Koolau magma systematically increased with time. Thus, antecryst-hosted melt inclusions preserve geochemical information regarding the petrogenesis of the Hawaiian shield lavas, which is unobtainable via whole rock geochemical studies. These observations also demonstrate that a significant fraction of olivine antecrysts are derived from dunite or harzburgite channels/cumulates that were formed by dissolution and/or crystallization processes during previous magmatic events. Thus, the entrainment of inherited mantle-derived crystallization products by younger batches of magma is a common phenomenon in the Hawaiian magma plumbing system.

Tanaka, R.; Sakyi, P. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, E.

2009-12-01

282

Origin of Hawaiian Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) in the context of a world phylogeny.  

PubMed

A genus-wide molecular phylogeny for Polystichum and allied genera (Dryopteridaceae) was reconstructed to address the biogeographic origin and evolution of the three Hawaiian Polystichum species, all endemic there. The analysis was based on the cpDNA sequences rbcL and the trnL-F spacer from a taxonomically and geographically diverse sample. Parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of the combined data support a monophyletic Polystichum and corroborate recent hypotheses as to membership and sequence of origin of the major groups within the genus. The Hawaiian Polystichum species are polyphyletic; two separate lineages appear to have arrived independently from the Old World. The provenance of the diploid Polystichum hillebrandii is continental eastern Asia, while the source of the polyploid lineage comprising tetraploid P. haleakalense and octoploid P. bonseyi is likely continental Asia. From our results, the origin of the Hawaiian species of Polystichum, like many Hawaiian fern genera with several species, is the result of multiple migrations to the islands, rather than single migrations yielding nearly all the local diversity as in the angiosperms. This emerging pattern provides a modern test of the premise that propagule vagility has a central role in determining pattern of evolution. PMID:21636509

Driscoll, Heather E; Barrington, David S

2007-08-01

283

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a GPCR-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3K? and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3K?. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein ? and ? subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3K? and ? isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction.

Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W.

2010-01-01

284

Neuronal control of locomotion in the lobster, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Lobsters that are tethered in place on a treadmill (Fig. 3) walk against the direction of belt movement (Table 2). Forward and backward locomotion over the full range of step frequencies can be controlled by this method, even in the absence of visual input. The passive traction provided by a moving substrate is therefore an effective stimulus for walking and

Joseph L. Ayers; William J. Davis

1977-01-01

285

Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).  

PubMed

An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 ?mol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented. PMID:22566215

Battison, A L

2013-05-01

286

Contrast-enhanced photoacoustic imaging of live lobster nerve cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoacoustic imaging provides optical contrast with good penetration and high spatial resolution, making it an attractive tool for noninvasive neural applications. We chose a commercial dye (NK2761) commonly used for optical imaging of membrane potential to enhance photoacoustic images of the live lobster nerve cord. The abdominal segment of the nerve cord was excised, stained and positioned in a custom

Russell S. Witte; S. Huang; S. Ashkenazi; K. Kim; M. O'Donnell

2007-01-01

287

Evolutionary diversification and geographical isolation in Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is one the best examples of a plant adaptive radiation, exhibiting extensive morphological and ecological diversity. No research within this group has addressed the role of geographical isolation, independent of ecological adaptation, in contributing to taxonomic diversity. The aims of this study were to examine genetic differentiation among subspecies of Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae) to determine if allopatric or sympatric populations and subspecies form distinct genetic clusters to understand better the role of geography in diversification within the alliance. Methods Dubautia laxa is a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance, occurring on four of the five major islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, with four subspecies recognized on the basis of morphological, ecological and geographical variation. Nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequence data were examined. Data were analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methodologies to identify unique evolutionary lineages. Key Results Plastid DNA sequence data resolved two highly divergent lineages, recognized as the Laxa and Hirsuta groups, that are more similar to other members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance than they are to each other. The Laxa group is basal to the young island species of Dubautia, whereas the Hirsuta group forms a clade with the old island lineages of Dubautia and with Argyroxiphium. The divergence between the plastid groups is supported by Bayesian microsatellite clustering analyses, but the degree of nuclear differentiation is not as great. Clear genetic differentiation is only observed between allopatric populations, both within and among islands. Conclusions These results indicate that geographical separation has aided diversification in D. laxa, whereas ecologically associated morphological differences are not associated with neutral genetic differentiation. This suggests that, despite the stunning ecological adaptation observed, geography has also played an important role in the Hawaiian silversword alliance plant adaptive radiation.

McGlaughlin, Mitchell E.; Friar, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

288

Paleomagnetism of Hawaiian Lava Fows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palcomagnetic studies of lavas from the island of Hawaii have established the following: (1) All lavas now exposed on the island are less than 1 million years old (Pleisto- cene). (2) The present absence of nondipole field components in the central Pacific area is a relatively permanent feature, having lasted at least several hundred thousand years. (3) Dur- ing the

Richard R. Doell; Allan Cox

1965-01-01

289

Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

2012-12-01

290

Wind-generated eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weekly satellite sea surface height (SSH) anomaly data are used to clarify the mesoscale eddy characteristics in the lee of the island of Hawaii, the largest island in the Hawaiian Island chain. The lee eddy variability can be separated into two geographical regions. In the immediate lee southwest of Hawaii (Region E), eddy signals have a predominant 60 day period

Sachiko Yoshida; Bo Qiu; Peter Hacker

2010-01-01

291

Guide to the Lobsters and Lobster-Like Animals of Florida, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manual is intended to provide the non-specialist with the means of identifying in the field, both the shallow-water and deep-water lobsters which either are already fished commercially or might be fished if sufficient stocks could be discovered throug...

L. Opresko D. Opresko R. Thomas G. Voss F. M. Bayer

1973-01-01

292

Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

2010-02-01

293

Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

Work, T. M.; Aeby, G. S.

2014-01-01

294

Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai`i, Kaua`i, and Ni`ihau, and >122,000 km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka`ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the H?na and Ka`ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85 g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

2013-07-01

295

Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states  

PubMed Central

Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and L?na‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.

Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

2012-01-01

296

A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.  

PubMed

Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

2013-01-01

297

A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods  

PubMed Central

Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O?ahu and Kaua?i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka?i, Lana?i, and Hawai?i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai?i, O?ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua?i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances.

Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

2013-01-01

298

Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jarvi, S. I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C. T.

2008-01-01

299

URINE RELEASE IN FREELY MOVING CATHETERISED LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) WITH REFERENCE TO FEEDING AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggest that urine-borne pheromones play an important role in lobster agonistic and sexual behaviour. This paper investigates the pattern of urine release in catheterised, but otherwise freely moving, adult lobsters with respect to feeding, social and non-social activities. Lobsters on average released 4.1 ml (1 % of body mass) of urine over a 12 h period; this more

THOMAS BREITHAUPT; DANIEL P. LINDSTROM; JELLE ATEMA

1999-01-01

300

The Lithium Isotopic Signature of Hawaiian Basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling of oceanic crust and sediment is a common mechanism to account for the presence of chemical heterogeneities observed in oceanic island basalts (OIBs). On Hawai';i, a mantle plume-sourced OIB with a high mass flux, sampling of deep mantle heterogeneities accounts for the presence of two unique geochemical and geographical trends called the Loa and Kea trends. The Loa trend overlaps the Pacific large low shear velocity province and is distinctly more enriched [1] than the Kea trend with average Pacific mantle compositions [2]. Because of the sizeable fractionation of lithium isotopes in low temperature environments, lithium serves as a tracer for the presence of recycled material in OIB sources, including Hawai'i. In this study, we analyzed 87 samples of Hawaiian basalt from the pre-shield, shield, post-shield, and rejuvenated volcanic stages and 10 samples of altered oceanic crust from ODP Site 843 for lithium isotopes using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Correlations of lithium isotopes with the radiogenic isotopes Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr indicate lithium isotopes may be used to trace components in mantle plumes such as Hawai';i. The measured range of lithium isotopes for shield stage lavas is ?7Li = 1.8 - 5.7‰ and for post-shield lavas is ?7Li = 0.8 - 4.7‰. Pre-shield stage lavas (Lo'ihi volcano only) and rejuvenated lavas are the least and most homogeneous volcanic stages, respectively, in lithium isotopes. The Loa and Kea geochemical trends have different lithium isotopic signatures, with Loa trend shield volcanoes exhibiting lighter lithium isotopic signatures (?7Li = 3.5‰ [N=43]) than Kea trend shield volcanoes (?7Li = 4.0‰ [N=31]) [3]. Similarly, post-shield lavas have systematically lighter ?7Li than shield lavas. The presence of systematic differences in lithium isotopic signatures may indicate: 1) the sampling of distinct components in the deep source, to account for variations between Kea and Loa trend shield stage volcanoes or amongst individual volcanoes; 2) differences in degree of mantle melt and spatial structure of the mantle heterogeneity melting in the case of pre-shield, shield, and post-shield differences. In Hawaiian basalts, lithium isotopes help distinguish between 'enriched' Loa source components: Ko';olau Makapu';u shield stage lavas may have between 4-10% of a carbonate input and Hualalai post-shield and shield lavas may reflect incorporation of subduction eroded lower continental crust. Comparison of this dataset with worldwide OIB published lithium isotopic data indicates that the lithium isotopic system behaves systematically on a mantle-wide scale. Hawai'i is generally characterized as EM-I like, with Hualalai post-shield lavas exhibiting both the lightest lithium isotopic signature and the most extreme EM-I characteristics. Lithium isotopes thus provide an additional insight into the nature of EM-I type mantle. [1] Weis, D. et al. (2011) Nature Geoscience 4, doi:10.1038/NGEO1328. [2] Nobre Silva, I.G. et al. (2013) Geochem. Geophy. Geosys. 14(3), doi: doi:10.1002/ggge.20047. [3] Chan, L.H., and Frey, F.A. (2003) Geochem. Geophy. Geosys. 4(3), doi: 10.1029/2002GC000365.

Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.

2013-12-01

301

Bait and the susceptibility of American lobsters Homarus americanus to epizootic shell disease.  

PubMed

Shell disease (SD) has been observed in lobster populations for almost a hundred years, but recently, rates of an epizootic form of shell disease (ESD) have increased in the southern New England (USA) area. A large proportion of fish in the diet of American lobsters Homarus americanus has been linked to increased rates of SD. Therefore, the use of fish as lobster bait may be linked to increased ESD rates in lobsters. Lobsters from the western portion of Martha's Vineyard, MA (41 degrees N, 71 degrees W), were randomly divided into 3 groups of 16 and exposed to dietary treatments (100% herring; 48% crab, 48% blue mussel and 4% plant matter; or 50% herring, 24% crab, 24% mussel, 2% plant matter) to determine if lobster tissue delta15N levels reflected diet. The results of the feeding experiment confirmed that differences in diet are observed in the delta15N levels of lobster muscle tissue. The delta15N levels of tissue samples from 175 wild lobsters with varying degrees of ESD were unrelated to ESD severity but did indicate lobsters were eating large amounts of fish (bait). This result does not support the speculation that fish used as bait is contributing to ESD outbreaks in portions of the southern New England area. PMID:21797030

Bethoney, N David; Stokesbury, Kevin D E; Stevens, Bradley G; Altabet, Mark A

2011-05-24

302

Leg 197 synthesis: Southward motion and geochemical variability of the Hawaiian hotspot  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is an often-cited example of a change in plate motion with respect to a stationary hotspot. Growing evidence, however, suggests that the bend might instead record variable drift of the Hawaiian hotspot within a convecting mantle. Paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating that the Emperor Seamounts volcanic trend was formed principally by rapid (4-5 cm/yr) southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot during Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time (81-47 Ma). Paleointensity data derived from Leg 197 suggest an inverse relationship between field strength and reversal frequency, consistent with an active lower mantle that controls the efficiency of the geodynamo. Petrochemical data and observations of volcanic products (lava flows and volcaniclastic sediments) from Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko Seamounts provide records of the evolution of these volcanic systems for comparison with recent activity in the Hawaiian Islands. We find that the Emperor Seamounts formed from similar mantle sources for melting (plume components and lithosphere) and in much the same stages of volcanic activity and time span as the Hawaiian volcanoes. Changes in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of shield lavas along the lineament can be related to variations in thickness of the lithosphere overlying the hotspot that control the depth and extent of partial melting. Other geochemical tracers, such as He, Pb, and Hf isotopic compositions, indicate persistent contributions to melting from the plume throughout the volcanic chain.

Duncan, R. A.; Tarduno, J. A.; Scholl, D. W.

2006-01-01

303

Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kama?ina i Na Makani a Me N? Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, N? 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian language teacher would use newspaper articles for terms, expressions, and ways native speakers expressed what they saw. She wrote "My students could then create their own observations, in Hawaiian, on today's climate and current conditions." Teachers recognize systems-oriented Hawaiian knowledge contributes to science instruction, but express constraints of schedules and policies. This feedback underscores the importance of 1) teacher teams collaborating across content areas and grade levels and 2) developing lessons that teachers adopt for their potential to engage culturally diverse and underrepresented students. Teachers recognize the need to develop their own local expertise and ability to integrate culture and science to create instructional spaces where Hawaiian and western science complement each other. Stories and science of local winds inspire teachers to learn and teach more about their places. Broader Impacts: Equity Science Education As over 95% of 1.5 million pages of text are in Hawaiian, the project 1) increases resources for science teachers, scientists, and informal science educators and 2) conveys the science underlying Hawaiian cultural practices.

Chinn, P. W.

2012-12-01

304

Adversity and Resiliency in the Lives of Native Hawaiian Elders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiians constitute 401,000 or 0.1 percent of the total U.S. population, with approximately 60 percent residing in the state of Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian elders ("na kupuna") face a number of social and health disparities when compared with their non-Native Hawaiian counterparts: higher rates of poverty, greater disability…

Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.

2009-01-01

305

CNP Project: 'Imi Hale - Native Hawaiian Cancer Network  

Cancer.gov

Papa Ola Lokahi (POL), a consortium of public agencies and Native Hawaiian not-for-profit organizations, focuses primarily on research and advocacy in Native Hawaiian health. POL's unique organizational structure provides the most extensive Native Hawaiian health network in the state of Hawaii.

306

Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

Kinoshita, C.M.

1990-01-01

307

76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment...the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP),...

2011-09-23

308

76 FR 75488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AY72 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment...the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP),...

2011-12-02

309

Implications for the origin of Hawaiian volcanism from a converted wave analysis of the mantle transition zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The debate over the origin of intraplate volcanism has been ongoing since the discovery of age-progression at oceanic "hotspots." The causes of such anomalous volcanic activity have been attributed to either deep-seated thermal plumes in the convecting mantle or shallower causes such as lithospheric structure and deformation or localized mantle flow. Data from the Hawaiian Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment (PLUME) have made it possible to provide detailed images of upper mantle heterogeneity beneath the Hawaiian Islands with much greater resolution than previous experiments. Using receiver function analysis, we determine the depth to and topography along the mantle transition zone discontinuities. Our results indicate that the 410-km discontinuity deepens from northwest to southeast beneath the Hawaiian Islands, corresponding to an average thermal anomaly of ˜325 K located beneath and southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii. In general, temperatures remain elevated by at least ˜150 K directly beneath the Big Island, as far as 200 km away from the hottest measurement inferred from the discontinuity structure. Heterogeneity at these length scales raises questions about rheology, convective circulation, and melt transport in the mantle. Our results also robustly indicate the presence of a low-velocity converter in the deep upper mantle, which carries additional implications for melt transport, volatile budget, and chemical composition of the hotspot source.

Huckfeldt, Matthew; Courtier, Anna M.; Leahy, Garrett M.

2013-07-01

310

The GABA dose/conductance relationship on lobster muscle.  

PubMed

A quantitative study was made of the action of GABA, some structurally-related agonists and antagonists on the dactyl opener muscle fibres of the lobster. It was concluded that the GABA dose/conductance relationship was better described by a two independent binding-site receptor model (with KII = 30 microM) than by a single-site or a two-site high co-operativity model. The dose/conductance curves for gamma-amino-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (GABOB), delta-aminovaleric acid (DAV) and piperazine indicated 'full' agonist behaviour, whereas those for guanidoacetic acid (GuAc) indicated a partial agonist action. beta-guanidinopropionic acid (beta-GP) and gamma-guanidinobutyric acid (gamma-GB) behaved as weak competitive GABA antagonists. Bicuculline was found to antagonize GABA non-competitively on the lobster as in the crayfish, whereas picrotoxin appeared to act in a 'mixed' antagonistic fashion. PMID:547064

Constanti, A

1979-01-01

311

The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lobster-ISS is an X-ray all-sky monitor experiment selected by ESA two years ago for a Phase A study (now almost completed) for a future flight (2009) aboard the Columbus Exposed Payload Facility of the International Space Station. The main instrument, based on MCP optics with Lobster-eye geometry, has an energy passband from 0.1 to 3.5 keV, an unprecedented daily sensitivity of 2 × 10-12 erg cm-2 s-1, and it is capable to scan, during each orbit, the entire sky with an angular resolution of 4 6?. This X-ray telescope is flanked by a Gamma Ray Burst Monitor, with the minimum requirement of recognizing true GRBs from other transient events. In this paper we describe the GRBM. In addition to the minimum requirement, the instrument proposed is capable to roughly localize GRBs which occur in the Lobster FOV (162 × 22.5°) and to significantly extend the scientific capabilities of the main instrument for the study of GRBs and X-ray transients. The combination of the two instruments will allow an unprecedented spectral coverage (from 0.1 up to 300/700 keV) for a sensitive study of the GRB prompt emission in the passband where GRBs and X-Ray Flashes emit most of their energy. The low-energy spectral band (0.1 10 keV) is of key importance for the study of the GRB environment and the search of transient absorption and emission features from GRBs, both goals being crucial for unveiling the GRB phenomenon. The entire energy band of Lobster-ISS is not covered by either the Swift satellite or other GRB missions foreseen in the next decade.

Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.; Bogliolo, A.; di Domenico, G.; Franceschini, T.; Guidorzi, C.; Landini, G.; Masetti, N.; Montanari, E.; Orlandini, M.; Palazzi, E.; Silvestri, S.; Stephen, J. B.; Ventura, G.

2006-01-01

312

THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF LOBSTER NEUROMUSCULAR SYNAPSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of drugs on resting potential, membrane resistance, and excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.'s and i.p.s.p.'s) of lobster muscle fibers were studied using intracellular microelectrodes Acetylcholine, d-tubocurarine, strychnine, and other drugs of respectively related actions on vertebrate synapses were without effects even in 1 per cent solutions (10 -2 w\\/v). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acted powerfully and nearly maximally at

H. Grundfest; J. P. REUBEN; W. H. RICKLES

1959-01-01

313

Reflex antennal movements in the spiny lobster, Palinurus elephas  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Reflex antennal movements in the frontal plane, brought about by movement at the J1 joint, occur in the spiny lobster,Palinurus elephas, in response to tilting movements of a platform held under the animal's legs. Imposed movements of the J1 joint give rise to resistance reflexes. Experiments in which the two stimuli are delivered with different timing relations demonstrate that the

D. M. Neil; W. J. P. Barnes; M. D. Burns

1982-01-01

314

Evolution of Drosophila on the newer Hawaiian volcanoes.  

PubMed

The 20-year odyssey taken by the Hawaiian Drosophila project has recently become focussed on a selected microcosm: this consists of the Island of Hawaii ("the Big Island") and one of its endemic species. Drosophila silvestris. Both the island and the species are considerably less than one million years old. Along with a morphologically distinct, but partially sympatric, close relative, D. heteroneura, silvestris inhabits moderate-altitude rainforests. They are the only members of the planitibia subgroup that occur on this island. The distribution of these species discontinuous due to the dissection of the forests by recent lava flows and to the irregular distribution of their main host plants. Although allozyme heterozygosity within both species is considerable, local populations of both species show high similarity coefficients. The two species are, furthermore, virtually indistinguishable electrophoretically; nevertheless, significant differences in single-copy DNA have been demonstrated. Within silvestris, five inversion polymorphisms are widespread; six others have more restricted distributions. Populations in some of the geologically newer areas are the most polymorphic, both chromosomally and morphologically. Altitudinal clines of gene arrangement frequency are clear in areas on both sides of the island. The same inversions are involved in these clines on the two sides of the island. Males of silvestris from populations from the north and east side of the island ("Hilo-side") display a novel morphological secondary sexual character. This is absent not only from south and west ("Kona-side") silvestris but also from heteroneura and from the three closely related species endemic to older adjacent islands. In view of the phylogenetic novelty of this evolutionary development, Hilo-side silvestris is judged to be derived from Kona-side rather than vice versa. The character in question involves the addition of about 25 large cilia to the dorsal surface of the tibia of the male. This portio of the leg is used in a very specific fashion to stimulate the female's abdomen during the courtship ritual. Studies of sexual behaviour of individuals drawn from various natural and laboratory populations of silvestris and its relatives have been carried out. Hybrid sterility and/or inviability is lacking in crosses both within and between populations of heterneura and silvestra. An interesting regularity has been widely observed; there is a positive correlation between the phylogenetic age of the population and the degree of discrimination by the female sex in mating. When this principle is applied to silvestris populations, the Kona-side populations of Hualalai volcano are judged to be the oldest in the species. As expected, Hilo-side populations with the novel bristle character appear to be newly-derived... PMID:7042651

Carson, H L

1982-02-01

315

Influence of volcanic activity on the population genetic structure of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders: fragmentation, rapid population growth and the potential for accelerated evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic activity on the island of Hawaii results in a cyclical pattern of habitat destruction and fragmentation by lava, followed by habitat regeneration on newly formed substrates. While this pattern has been hypothesized to promote the diversification of Hawaiian line- ages, there have been few attempts to link geological processes to measurable changes in population structure. We investigated the genetic

AMY G. V ANDERGAST; ROSEMARY G. G ILLESPIE; GEORGE K. R ODERICK

316

Biomimetic robot lobster performs chemo-orientation in turbulence using a pair of spatially separated sensors: Progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobsters are capable of tracking turbulent plumes to their sources faster than can be accomplished by estimating a spatial gradient from time-averaging the concentration signal. We have used RoboLobster, a biomimetic robot lobster to investigate biologically scaled chemotaxis algorithms using two point concentration sampling to track a statistically characterized turbulent plume. Our results identify the range of effectiveness of these

Frank W. Grasso; Thomas R. Consi; Jelle Atema

2000-01-01

317

Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.  

PubMed Central

Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used.

Yap, A. S.

1977-01-01

318

Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.  

PubMed

Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used. PMID:336790

Yap, A S

1977-12-01

319

Phylogeny and biogeography of New World Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) with emphasis on the origin and diversification of Hawaiian and South American taxa.  

PubMed

Due to its unique geological history and isolated location, the Hawaiian Archipelago provides an ideal setting for studies on biogeography, phylogeny and population biology. Species richness in these islands has been attributed to unique colonization events. The Hawaiian mints comprising of three endemic genera represent one of the largest radiations in the island. Previous studies have shown the Hawaiian mints to be nested within the dry-fruited Stachys, probably resulting from one or more hybridization events. Stachydeae, the largest tribe in the subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae), is a taxonomically complex and widespread lineage exhibiting remarkable chromosomal diversity. In this paper we attempted at untangling the relationships between the New World and Hawaiian mint taxa, as well as investigate the origin and diversification of the mints in the New World. There seem to have been at least two independent migration events of Stachys to the New World during the Middle to Late Miocene and towards the beginning of the Pliocene, respectively. Results indicate incongruence between the rDNA and cpDNA phylogenies suggesting a reticulate, New World origin for the Hawaiian mints, although dispersal to Hawaii appears to have happened only once during the Pliocene. South American Stachys diversified from their Mesoamerican relatives around Late Pliocene and may also have arisen from similar reticulate events indicated by their intercalating position among the Mesoamerican Stachys species. Further insights into the phylogenetic relationships between the New World mints may be gathered through the study of low copy nuclear loci. PMID:23769956

Roy, Tilottama; Chang, Tien-Hao; Lan, Tianying; Lindqvist, Charlotte

2013-10-01

320

78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered and Designating Critical...1 of these 15 species on the Hawaiian island of Hawaii, and to designate critical...FWS-R1-ES-2012-0070, from the Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office's Web...

2013-04-30

321

A laboratory energy balance for the larvae and juveniles of the American lobster Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory energy budget was constructed for the larvae and juveniles of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards fed brine shrimp, Artemia saline L. Measured energy flows included ingestion, egestion, excretion of ammonia, routine and fed metabolism, growth, and production of exuvia. Digestion and assimilation were calculated and minimum ration of protein necessary to sustain larval lobsters was estimated. No

D. T. Logan; C. E. Epifanio

1978-01-01

322

MECHANORECEPTORS AND MINIMAL REFLEX ACTIVITY DETERMINING CLAW LATERALITY IN DEVELOPING LOBSTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bilateral asymmetry of the paired claws of the lobster Homarus americanus is determined during the fourth and fifth juvenile stages by differential reflex activity; the side with the greater activity becomes the crusher while the contralateral side becomes the cutter. Juvenile lobsters reared during this critical period with a substratum that could not be grasped or with reduced input

C. K. GOVIND; JOANNE PEARCE

323

33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section... § 100.111 Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. (a) Regulated area...the right to delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2009-07-01

324

33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section... § 100.111 Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. (a) Regulated area...the right to delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2010-07-01

325

Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The

B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

2003-01-01

326

33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor,...

2010-07-01

327

33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109...SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor,...

2009-07-01

328

78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AT31 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster...to the SNE crisis in 2010 suggested a 5-year moratorium on lobster fishing--an option...entry into a fishery in the midst of a 5-year moratorium?). As such, NMFS felt...

2013-06-12

329

Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility.  

PubMed

Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. 'homaria' (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

2014-06-01

330

Decadal variability in growth of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Paniluridae) in Cuban waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Annual von Bertalanffy growth parameters of the Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) in Cuban waters were estimated from a long term study (40 years) by length-based methods ELEFAN and the new version of SLCA. Data of around 800 000 lobsters (with carapace length ranging 14 to 199mm) were randomly sampled in artificial shelters (a non selective fishing gear very common

Maria Estela de León; Juana López Martínez; Daniel Lluch Cota; Sergio Hernández Vázquez; Rafael Puga

2005-01-01

331

Intestinal bacterial diversity in live rock lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus) (Decapoda, Pleocyemata, Palinuridae) during transportation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the bacterial diversity in the intestine of rock lobster Panulirus homarus during live transportation process lasting for 14h. The total viable count (TVC) in the intestine of P. homarus (Linnaeus, 1758) prior to packing (control) was 130.33 x 106 cfu ml-1. In the intestine of packed lobsters (experimental), the TVC showed an increasing trend and the recorded

GRASIAN IMMANUEL; PALANISAMY IYAPPA RAJ; PALANICHAMY ESAKKI RAJ; ARUNACHALAM PALAVESAM

332

Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. ‘homaria’ (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation.

Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

2014-01-01

333

Effects of Feral Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Exclusion on Enterococci in Runoff from the Forested Headwaters of a Hawaiian Watershed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role feral pigs (Sus scrofa) as a source of fecal contamination in Pacific Island ecosystems is not well understood. This study investigated the effects\\u000a of feral pigs on enterococci (ENT) in runoff and soils of a Hawaiian forest. Seven sites were established with paired fenced\\/unfenced\\u000a runoff plots in the Manoa watershed. Runoff was collected monthly from these plots after

Dashiell O. Dunkell; Gregory L. Bruland; Carl I. Evensen; Mark J. Walker

334

Short-lived radium isotopes in the Hawaiian margin: Evidence for large fluid fluxes through the Puna Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured significant activities of short-lived radium isotopes, 223Ra (half-life=11 days) and 224Ra (half-life=3.7 days), around the margins of the Hawaiian Islands to water depths of 3500 m. These measurements suggest fluid inputs from the basalt to the surrounding ocean. In general 223Ra activities were considerably greater than 224Ra in spite of the expected higher production rate of 224Ra activity in basalt. The

Willard S. Moore; William Ussler III; Charles K. Paull

2008-01-01

335

Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1994-01-01

336

Asian dust: seasonal transport to the Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

Analyses of atmospheric particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii from February 1979 through September 1982 reveal strong influxes of Asian dust in the spring of each year. Concentrations of a typical crustal element, aluminum, are more than an order of magnitude greater between February and June than during the remainder of the year (71 +/- 51 versus 6.7 +/- 2.3 nanograms per cubic meter). The mass of crustal material transported during the relatively short dust episodes accounts for an average of 80 percent of the total yearly mass of atmospheric particles at 3400 meters on Mauna Loa.

Parrington, J.R.; Zoller, W.H.; Aras, N.K.

1983-04-08

337

Volcanism and archipelagic aprons in the Marquesas and Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical observations demonstrate that the archipelagic apron surrounding the Marquesan hot-spot volcanoes is derived almost entirely from mass wasting processes. Seismic reflection and refraction data constrain the volume of the apron sediments to approximately 200,000 km3, with thicknesses reaching over 2 km in the deep portions of the moat near the edge of the volcanic edifice. Seismic velocities average 4

P. E. Filmer; M. K. McNutt; H. F. Webb; D. J. Dixon

1994-01-01

338

Asian dust: seasonal transport to the hawaiian islands.  

PubMed

Analyses of atmospheric particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii from February 1979 through September 1982 reveal strong influxes of Asian dust in the spring of each year. Concentrations of a typical crustal element, aluminum, are more than an order of magnitude greater between February and June than during the remainder of the year (71 +/- 51 versus 6.7 +/- 2.3 nanograms per cubic meter). The mass of crustal material transported during the relatively short dust episodes accounts for an average of 80 percent of the total yearly mass of atmospheric particles at 3400 meters on Mauna Loa. PMID:17795828

Parrington, J R; Zoller, W H; Aras, N K

1983-04-01

339

Worldwide Paradrop Climatology - North America, Hawaiian Islands, and Latin America.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study gives probability of occurrence of simultaneous ceiling (cig), visibility (vsby), surface and/wind classes for the following paradrop types at selected worldwide locations: (1) High altitude Low Opening/Military Freefall: Cig 2500 ft or higher,...

R. S. Noonan

1981-01-01

340

Using molecular prey detection to quantify rock lobster predation on barrens-forming sea urchins.  

PubMed

We apply qPCR molecular techniques to detect in situ rates of consumption of sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). A non-lethal method was used to source faecal samples from trap-caught lobsters over 2 years within two no-take research reserves. There was high variability in the proportion of lobsters with faeces positive for sea urchin DNA across years and seasons dependent on lobster size. Independent estimates of lobster predation rate on sea urchins (determined from observed declines in urchin abundances in the reserves relative to control sites) suggest that rates of molecular prey detection generally overestimated predation rates. Also, small lobsters known to be incapable of directly predating emergent sea urchins showed relatively high rates of positive tests. These results indicate that some lobsters ingest non-predatory sources of sea urchin DNA, which may include (i) ingestion of C. rodgersii DNA from the benthos (urchin DNA is detectable in sediments and some lobsters yield urchin DNA in faeces when fed urchin faeces or sediment); (ii) scavenging; and/or predation by rock lobsters on small pre-emergent urchins that live cryptically within the reef matrix (although this possibility could not be assessed). While the DNA-based approach and direct monitoring of urchin populations both indicate high predation rates of large lobsters on emergent urchins, the study shows that in some cases absolute predation rates and inferences of predator-prey interactions cannot be reliably estimated from molecular signals obtained from the faeces of benthic predators. At a broad semi-quantitative level, the approach is useful to identify relative magnitudes of predation and temporal and spatial variability in predation. PMID:24844936

Redd, K S; Ling, S D; Frusher, S D; Jarman, S; Johnson, C R

2014-08-01

341

Identification and characterization of cuticular hydrocarbons from a rapid species radiation of Hawaiian swordtailed crickets (Gryllidae: Trigonidiinae: Laupala).  

PubMed

A previous investigation of cuticular hydrocarbon variation among Hawaiian swordtail crickets (genus Laupala) revealed that these species differ dramatically in composition of cuticular lipids. Cuticular lipid extracts of Laupala species sampled from the Big Island of Hawaii also possess a greatly reduced number of chemicals (as evidenced by number of gas chromatography peaks) relative to ancestral taxa sampled from the geologically older island of Maui. One possible explanation for this biogeographic pattern is that reduction in chemical diversity observed among the Big Island taxa represents the loss of ancestral hydrocarbons found on Maui. To test this hypothesis, we characterized and identified the structures of cuticular hydrocarbons for seven species of Hawaiian Laupala, two from Maui (ancestral) and five from the Big Island of Hawaii (derived) by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Big Island Laupala possessed a reduced number of alkenes as well as a reduction in the diversity of methyl-branch positions relative to species sampled from Maui (ancestral), thus supporting our hypothesis of a founder-induced loss of chemical diversity. The reduction in diversity of ancestral hydrocarbons was more severe within one of the two sister lineages on the Big Island, suggesting that post-colonizing processes, such as drift or selection, also have influenced hydrocarbon evolution in this group. PMID:18204988

Mullen, Sean P; Millar, Jocelyn G; Schal, Coby; Shaw, Kerry L

2008-02-01

342

Transience beyond the catchment: large-scale evolution of the Hawaiian landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic progression of ages of the Hawaiian Islands, established subsidence patterns of inactive Hawaiian volcanoes, and strong spatial variability in precipitation rates provide an opportunity to test models of landscape evolution in response to tectonic and climatic forcing. In contrast to studies focusing on channel-scale dynamics, we focus our attention on larger-scale patterns by analyzing elevation and slope versus bedrock age and precipitation rates for the islands as a whole. Elevations and slopes extracted by geologic formation age show that while elevations decrease, slopes systematically increase with the age of the geologic formation, from an average slope of ~8% for bedrock <750 years old to nearly 60% for bedrock 4-6 Ma, despite ongoing subsidence of older islands. This long-lived transience in the landscape evolution provides an important target for numerical models of landscape evolution, such as CHILD. Comparisons of elevations with PRISM precipitation data reveal a complex relationship between surface processes and orographic precipitation. High precipitation rates are correlated with high elevations and steep slopes, likely reflecting the dominance of topography in setting precipitation rates. Low precipitation rates are correlated with high elevations and low slopes, likely indicating lower erosion rates caused by minimal rainfall. An intermediate precipitation rate of 3-4 m/yr is correlated with the lowest elevations and steep slopes, perhaps reflecting ideal conditions for mass movement processes that lower elevation while steepening slopes. We hypothesize that large, steep landslide scarps, known locally as palis, and steep-walled river canyons are significant topographic features that become dominant as the Hawaiian landscape ages.

Riihimaki, C. A.; Gasparini, N. M.

2010-12-01

343

Can tephra be recognized in Hawaiian drill core, and if so, what can be learned about the explosivity of Hawaiian volcanoes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 6000 feet of drill core was recently recovered from the Pohakula Training Area (PTA) near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. Drilling was funded by the US Army with an objective to find a potable water source; the rock core was logged and archived thanks to funding from the National Science Foundation. Within the first few hundred meters, alluvial outwash from the slopes of Mauna Kea is underlain by post-shield Mauna Kea lavas. Below this depth the core is predominantly pahoehoe and to a lesser extent a'a lavas expected to be from Mauna Kea's shield stage volcanism. During the logging effort, and throughout the core, a number of suspect-pyroclastic deposits were identified (largely based on particle texture). These deposits will be examined in more detail, with results presented here. An effort will be made to determine whether explosive deposits can, in fact, be unequivocally identified in drill core. Two anticipated challenges are differentiating between: scoria and 'clinker' (the latter associated with a'a lava flows), and primary volcanic ash, loess, and glacial sediments. Recognition of explosive deposits in the PTA drill core would lend insight into Mauna Kea's explosive history, and potentially that of other Big Island volcanoes as well. If the characteristics of tephra in Hawaiian drill core can be identified, core from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) and Scientific Observation Holes (SOH-1,2,4) may also be examined.

Lautze, N. C.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

2013-12-01

344

An Invasive Fish and the Time-Lagged Spread of Its Parasite across the Hawaiian Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument.

Gaither, Michelle R.; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J.; Wood, Chelsea L.; Bowen, Brian W.

2013-01-01

345

Amphitheater-Headed Valleys: Unique or Non-Unique Origin? The Hawaiian Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the formation and migration of amphitheaters (knickpoints) in unconsolidated sediment is fairly well understood the same cannot be said for amphitheaters formed in a variety of bedrock types, climate settings, and even planetary location. The question remains, is there a single knickpoint forming process at work or do multiple landscape forming processes have a convergence tendency because of cybernetic feedback? A simple example would be a waterfall creating a micro-environment that enhances and focuses specific landscape forming processes like weathering, microbial action, and vegetation growth aiding in the continuation of the knickpoint form. It should be noted that weathering, microbial growth and vegetation growth would have cybernetic feedback among them. In fact it may be difficult to determine the controlling process, if any. If one considers that knickpoints likely intercept the regional groundwater flow system there is an additional focused source of water supply which further contributes to the micro-environment of the knickpoint. Groundwater discharge has significant cybernetic feedbacks with landscape forming processes. The nature and composition of the bedrock and climatic factors may determine rates of knickpoint migration but the resulting morphologic features in different settings would likely be similar with cybernetic feedback. It should be noted that cybernetic feedback can either be damping or amplifying. Amphitheater-headed valleys have developed in many locations on the Hawaiian Islands. The islands have formed in a time sequence as the supporting oceanic plate moves over a focused mantle source for the basalts. The amphitheaters of Hawaii occur in "fresh" and "older" basaltic rock depending on island location. Weathering processes have acted longer on some islands. Because of the topography and its affect on trade winds the main islands have focused rainfall, significant recharge, and active groundwater flow systems. While climate is uniform overall, the wet and dry sides of the islands coupled with topography represent multiple climatic zones. This affords the opportunity to use the Hawaiian Islands as a laboratory to study the cybernetic feedbacks among knickpoint forming processes. Feedback examples will be presented for several Hawaiian knickpoints.

Pederson, D. T.; Blay, C.

2007-12-01

346

CRCHD SPN Pilot: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Pilot: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network  Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer

347

Tropical Islands as Paleoecological Laboratories: Gauging the Consequences of Human Arrival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-island paleoecological comparisons have provided useful information concerning the role of humans vs. background-level disturbance in tropical ecosystems. Major ecological changes have occurred since human arrival in Madagascar, the West Indies, the Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere. Prehuman vegetation changes and disturbances have also been documented for many islands. Instructive inter-island similarities and differences have been detected in the chronology, distribution,

David A. Burney

1997-01-01

348

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed. PMID:20711491

Okamoto, Scott K; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-08-01

349

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed.

Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-01-01

350

Molecular phylogenetics of the moth genus Omiodes Guenée (Crambidae: Spilomelinae), and the origins of the Hawaiian lineage.  

PubMed

The moth genus Omiodes (Crambidae) comprises about 80 species and has a circumtropical distribution, with the type species, O. humeralis, occurring in Central America. In Hawaii, there are 23 native species currently placed in Omiodes, but this classification has been disputed, and they were previously placed in various other genera. We used molecular phylogenetic analyses to assess the monophyly of Omiodes as a whole, and specifically of the Hawaiian species, as well as their geographic origins and possible ancestral host plants. Mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (wingless, EF1?, CAD, and RPS5) DNA was sequenced for Omiodes from Hawaii, South America, and Australasia, along with many other putative outgroup spilomeline genera. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference, and various taxon and character datasets. With the exception of two paleotropical species (O. basalticalis and O. odontosticta, whose placement was unresolved) all Hawaiian, paleotropical and neotropical Omiodes, including the type species, fell within a well-supported, monophyletic clade. Although the center of diversity for Omiodes is in the Neotropics, its center of origin was ambiguous, due to poor resolution of the basal splits between paleotropical and neotropical Omiodes. Very low genetic divergence within the Hawaiian Omiodes suggests a relatively recent colonization of the Hawaiian Islands. Phylogenies constructed using all codon positions were poorly resolved at intergeneric levels, and did not reveal a sister taxon for Omiodes, but phylogenies constructed using only first and second codon positions suggested a close relationship with Cnaphalocrocis. The monophyly of several other spilomeline genera is also discussed. PMID:22772027

Haines, William P; Rubinoff, Daniel

2012-10-01

351

CRATER LAKE DEPOSITS AND FOSSIL BIRDS AT ULUPAU HEAD ,O AHU ,H AWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Pleistocene lake deposits in Ulupau Crater on Oahu contain the oldest fossil bird remains known from the Hawaiian Islands. These fossils are important for documenting evolutionary rates in a variety of lineages of land and water birds from the islands. Detailed stratigraphic analysis reveals distinct cycles of deposition involving interbedded lacustrine deposits, colluvium, and paleosols. The volcanic basin was

Paul J. HEARTY; Helen F. JAMES; Storrs L. OLSON

352

Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Conclusions/Significance Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions.

Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Clesceri, Erika J.; Baukus, Adam J.; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O.

2010-01-01

353

Experimental infection and detection of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium in the American lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

Avila-Villa, Luz A; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

2012-01-01

354

Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus  

PubMed Central

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo.

Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galvan, Teresa; Martinez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernandez-Lopez, Jorge

2012-01-01

355

Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.  

PubMed

Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. PMID:22624702

Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

2012-08-01

356

Genetic divergence among extant and extirpated colonies of an endangered pelagic seabird, the Hawaiian petrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important to consider both the temporal and spatial dimensions of variability in ecology and evolution. Given the potentially great dispersal capabilities and long generation times of pelagic seabirds, genetic diversity in these species seems likely to be homogeneously distributed and relatively static over time. Investigating temporal and spatial processes involved in the ecology and evolution of seabird populations is important to island ecosystem sustainability, as they play a significant role in transferring marine derived nutrients to terrestrial oceanic ecosystems. Additionally, many seabird species are threatened by extinction due to increasing mortality both at land and at sea. Here we investigate population divergence of the endemic and endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). We examined four extant colonies on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and Kauai, and employed ancient DNA techniques to study a prehistorically extirpated colony on Oahu, and a historically large, but likely extirpated, colony on the island of Molokai. Analyses of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene as well as nuclear microsatellite markers indicate substantial differentiation (global ?st of 0.38, p < 0.0001). Significant divergence was found among each pair of the six islands except between Oahu and Molokai (?st = 0.10, p = 0.07). However, this could result from low power due to the limited availability of amplifiable samples, especially for the hot, low elevation colony formerly present on Oahu. The largest differentiation occurred between the islands of Lanai and Kauai (?st = 0.58, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that despite their great dispersal capabilities, spatially proximate colonies of the Hawaiian petrel are not genetically homogenous. Additionally, the extirpation of large colonies, such as those on Oahu and Molokai, could result in loss of a substantial amount of genetic diversity. Future work should further investigate temporal population dynamics of this endangered species.

Welch, A. J.; Fleischer, R. C.; James, H. F.

2010-12-01

357

Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

2012-01-01

358

Voluminous submarine lava flows from Hawaiian volcanoes  

SciTech Connect

The GLORIA long-range sonar imaging system has revealed fields of large lava flows in the Hawaiian Trough east and south of Hawaii in water as deep as 5.5 km. Flows in the most extensive field (110 km long) have erupted from the deep submarine segment of Kilauea's east rift zone. Other flows have been erupted from Loihi and Mauna Loa. This discovery confirms a suspicion, long held from subaerial studies, that voluminous submarine flows are erupted from Hawaiian volcanoes, and it supports an inference that summit calderas repeatedly collapse and fill at intervals of centuries to millenia owing to voluminous eruptions. These extensive flows differ greatly in form from pillow lavas found previously along shallower segments of the rift zones; therefore, revision of concepts of volcano stratigraphy and structure may be required.

Holcomb, R.T.; Moore, J.G.; Lipman, P.W.; Belderson, R.H.

1988-05-01

359

Primary culture of lobster (Homarus americanus) olfactory sensory neurons.  

PubMed

Lobster olfactory sensory neurons have contributed to a number of advances in our understanding of olfactory physiology. To facilitate further study of their function, we have developed conditions allowing primary culture of the olfactory sensory neurons in a defined medium. The most common cells in the culture were round cell bodies with diameters of 10-15 micro m that often extended fine processes, features resembling olfactory sensory neurons. We discovered that acetylcholinesterase acted as a growth factor for these cells, improving their survival in culture. We also confirmed previous evidence from spiny lobsters that poly-D-lysine was a superior substrate for olfactory cells of this size and morphology. We then identified olfactory sensory neurons in the culture in two ways. Almost half the cells tested responded to application of a complex odorant with an inward current. An even more rigorous test was made possible by the development of an antiserum to OET-07, an ionotropic glutamate receptor homolog specifically expressed by Homarus americanus olfactory sensory neurons. It labeled a majority of the round cells in the culture, unequivocally identifying them as olfactory sensory neurons. PMID:15047592

Stepanyan, Ruben; Hollins, Bettye; Brock, S Erin; McClintock, Timothy S

2004-03-01

360

Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

361

Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.  

PubMed

In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

2011-01-01

362

Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge???, Anvil??? and Altosid??? application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003-Scourge, Anvil and Altosid-contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26-0.95 ??g L-1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16??C, respectively. Increased temperature (24??C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 ??g L-1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 ??g L-1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 ??g L -1) or malathion (1 ??g L-1) for 7 d at 16 or 22??C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ??? 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass detection limits of 0.1-0.3 ng L-1. Pesticide levels were often detected in the ng L-1 range in Long Island surface waters and western LIS (except in open waters), but rarely at concentrations found to be toxic in flow-through laboratory exposures, even immediately after spray events.

Zulkosky, A. M.; Ruggieri, J. P.; Terracciano, S. A.; Brownawell, B. J.; McElroy, A. E.

2005-01-01

363

The Kea- and Loa- trends and magma genesis in the Hawaiian mantle plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain has been created by a hot mantle plume located beneath the Pacific lithosphere. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear parallel trends, termed _eKea_Eand _eLoa_E(Jackson et al., 1972). Lavas from these two trends are commonly believed to have different geochemical characteristics (Tatsumoto, 1978; Frey et al., 1994; Hauri, 1996; Lassiter et al., 1996; Abouchami et al., 2005). The Kea- and Loa- geochemical trends within the Hawaiian shield volcanoes have been interpreted to reflect melting above a compositionally concentrically zoned (Hauri, 1996; Lassiter et al., 1996; Kurz et al., 1996; DePaolo et al., 2001) or compositionally left-right asymmetrically zoned mantle plume (Abouchami et al., 2005). In order to evaluate the homogeneity of the mantle plume source sampled by the Kea- and Loa- trends, we analyzed major and trace element compositions of olivine-hosted melt inclusions from Hawaiian shield lavas, using EPMA and Laser ICP-MS. We selected lava samples form submarine Hana Ridge, Haleakala volcano (Kea trend) and submarine exposures of the Makapuu stage, Koolau volcano (Loa trend), respectively. We found both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions from olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes, even within single rock samples. We infer from these data that although one mantle source component may dominate a single lava flow, the two (or more) mantle source components are consistently represented to some extent in all lavas, regardless of the specific geographic location of the volcano. On the basis of whole rock geochemical characteristics (Ren et al., J. pet., 2004; 2005) combined with the melt inclusion data (Ren et al., 2005, Nature), we propose a Hawaiian mantle plume characterized by more random heterogeneity than would be present in a simple compositionally zoned mantle plume. The geochemical differences in the shield volcanoes likely reflect different mixing proportions of subducted recycled gabbroic oceanic crust and peridotite from the lower mantle. The dominant component sampled at a given shield volcano is likely controlled by the thermal structure. As the volcano grows, it migrates away from the hot plume axis with plate motion. In the plume core, higher temperatures are able to generate melts with Kea-like composition from the more refractory component (i.e. peridotite from lower mantle) during the early shield stages. In contrast, lavas from some of the late-stages of the Hawaiian shields are Loa-like with isotopically enriched characteristics, implying that the proportion of the subducted oceanic crust (eclogite) component contributing to the melt may be higher relative to the peridotitic matrix. This is because during the generation of the later-stage lavas, their mantle source is located significantly away from the mantle plume axis where the temperature is lower than in the center of plume, and therefore the lower melting point component (eclogite) is preferentially sampled by the melt.

Ren, Z.; Ingle, S.; Takahashi, E.; Hirano, N.; Hirata, T.; Tatsumi, Y.

2005-12-01

364

As Leaching into Fresh Water from Highly Contaminated Hawaiian Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination of current and former agricultural soils in Hawaii is an unfortunate legacy of plantation era agricultural practices. Here, we report an investigation of As mobility in fresh water from highly contaminated (0.8 % As) A-zone Hawaiian andisols from the Hamakua Coast of the Island of Hawai’i. Aliquots of the same acidic soil (pH= 5.0) were exposed to fresh water for varying lengths of time and analyzed to quantify the fraction of As and other elements leached from the soil relative to concentrations determined by total digestion. A maximum of 0.04% of As and 0.05% of Fe were removed from the soils in initial rinses and multi-day leaches using 18 megaohm Millipore water, in experiments lasting up to 35 days. Arsenic concentrations were highest in initial soil rinses, indicating that a small fraction of the total As in the soil is either loosely bound or present as a fine-grained, soluble As-bearing phase. During subsequent leaching experiments, arsenic and most other inorganic ions that we analyzed for reached equilibrium after 3 days; Fe reached equilibrium concentrations after 10 days. All soil solutions contained As levels that exceeded the EPA acceptable drinking water limit of 0.01 ppm. However, contaminant transport modeling suggests that As contaminated leachates would not migrate substantially from this site, so that local isolation and storage of contaminated soils would likely be an acceptable containment method.

Niklis, N. J.; Rubin, K. H.; El-Kadi, A. I.

2009-12-01

365

Techniques to Monitor Recruitment of Postlarval Spiny Lobsters,'Panulirus argus', to the Florida Keys.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Monitoring of postlarval spiny lobster recruitment using floating artificial habitat collectors requires that collectors be pervious to fouling organisms for at least two months prior to deployment. Sampling is necessary during new moon and first quarter ...

E. J. Little G. R. Milano

1980-01-01

366

Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic) - American Lobster.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The American lobster (Homarus ame...

C. MacKenzie J. R. Moring

1985-01-01

367

Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (North Atlantic). AMERICAN LOBSTER.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Species profiles are literature summaries of taxonomy, morphology, distribution, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. These are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The American lobster is a valuable c...

C. MacKenzie J. R. Moring

1985-01-01

368

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DURING AGONISITC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

During fighting, American lobsters urinate on each other with antennule flicking highest during this period. Blocking excretion of urine obliterates previously established dominance relationships, suggesting that individual recognition requires a urine signal (Breithaupt et al.,...

369

Mortalities of Cultured Lobsters, 'Homarus', Associated with a Molt Death Syndrome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mortalities were observed in juvenile American lobsters, Homarus americanus, and hybrid H. americanus X H. gammarus, during several studies in which purified rations were used. Many animals died in the process of molting. Other animals which completed the...

1981-01-01

370

LOBSTER and FMS: Devices for Monitoring Long-Term Seafloor Foundation Behavior.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes the development and evaluation of two devices for monitoring long-term seafloor foundation settlement and tilting. The LOBSTER(Long-Term Ocean Bottom Settlement Test for Engineering Research) is an instrumented foundation used as a te...

H. G. Herrmann K. Rocker P. H. Babineau

1972-01-01

371

Diversification and dispersal of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae: the evolution of Scaptomyza.  

PubMed

The genus Scaptomyza is emerging as a model lineage in which to study biogeography and ecological adaptation. To place future research on these species into an evolutionary framework we present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Scaptomyza to date, based on 5042 bp of DNA sequence data and representatives from 13 of 21 subgenera. We infer strong support for the monophyly of almost all subgenera with exceptions corroborating hypotheses of conflict inferred from previous taxonomic studies. We find evidence that the lineage originated in the Hawaiian Islands and subsequently dispersed to the mainland and other remote oceanic islands. We also identify that many of the unique ecological niches exploited by this lineage (e.g., herbivory, spider predation) arose singly and independently. PMID:23669011

Lapoint, Richard T; O'Grady, Patrick M; Whiteman, Noah K

2013-10-01

372

The Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

2002-01-01

373

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

PubMed Central

This exploratory study examined the use of explanations for refusal as a drug resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youth. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai‘i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug resistance strategies in response to 15 hypothetical culturally specific drug-related problem scenarios developed from earlier research. The findings indicate that variations in the types of explanations used for refusal were based on the type of drug offerer in the associated scenario (i.e., peer/friend, cousin, or parent). Participants also described the rationales for the use of different explanations with different drug offerers. The findings suggest that culturally grounded drug prevention programs for Hawaiian youth should incorporate the use of specific types of explanations for refusal, depending on the youths’ relationship to the drug offerer.

OKAMOTO, SCOTT K.; HELM, SUSANA; GIROUX, DANIELLE; KALIADES, ALEXIS

2011-01-01

374

Temporal changes in kelp forest benthic communities following an invasion by the rock lobster Jasus lalandii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rock lobster Jasus lalandii expanded its centre of distribution south-eastwards into an area known as ‘East of Cape Hangklip’ on the south-west coast of South Africa in the early 1990s. Using historical and present data, we analysed differences in the abundance of key species and functional groups between the pre- and post-rock lobster invasion periods at two sites along

L K Blamey; G M Branch; K E Reaugh-Flower

2010-01-01

375

Response properties of lobster chemoreceptors: tuning of olfactory neurons sensitive to hydroxy-proline  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.A prominent population of olfactory receptor cells from the lobsterHomarus americanus is narrowly tuned to trans-4-hydroxyl-L-proline (Hyp, Fig. 1) suggesting that Hyp may be an important chemical signal for this animal (Johnson and Atema 1983). However, Hyp is usually bound in connective tissue proteins of lobster prey and thus may be unavailable in sufficient quantities as a free amino acid

Bruce R. Johnson; Carl L. Merrill; Roy C. Ogle; Jelle Atema

1988-01-01

376

Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.  

PubMed

Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required. PMID:23548364

Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

2013-03-26

377

N? Liko Noelo: a program to develop Native Hawaiian researchers  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians are underrepresented in health research. They also have expressed dissatisfaction with the way in which many non-native researchers have formulated research questions, conducted research, and disseminated findings about Native Hawaiians. ‘Imi Hale - Native Hawaiian Cancer Network was funded by the National Cancer Institute to increase research training and mentorship opportunities for Native Hawaiians. To this end, ‘Imi Hale has followed principles of community-based participatory research to engage community members in identifying research priorities and assuring that research is beneficial, and not harmful, to Native Hawaiians. Developing indigenous researchers is a cornerstone of the program and, in its first 4 years ‘Imi Hale enrolled 78 Native Hawaiian “budding researchers (called N? Liko Noelo in Hawaiian), of which 40 (68%) have participated in at least one training and 28 (36%) have served as investigators, 40 (51%) as research assistants, and 10 (13%) as mentors on cancer prevention and control studies. The major challenge for N? Liko Noelo is finding the time needed to devote to research and writing scientific papers, as most have competing professional and personal obligations. Program evaluation efforts suggest, however, that ‘Imi Hale and its N? Liko Noelo program are well accepted and are helping develop a cadré of community-sensitive indigenous Hawaiian researchers.

Tsark, JoAnn 'Umilani; Braun, Kathryn L.

2010-01-01

378

The Hawaiian PLUME Project: A Seismic Imaging Dataset Provides Glimpses into Ocean and Atmosphere Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment) project operated a two-stage network of broadband ocean-bottom and land seismometers from early 2005 through May 2007. With an aperture exceeding 1000 km, the network included 10 land sites and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites (Laske et al., 2009). Most of the land and ocean bottom stations were equipped with 3-component broadband seismometers. In addition, the ocean bottom sites were also equipped with a Cox-Webb differential pressure gauge. The deployment of broadband instruments allowed us to apply a wide range of seismic analysis tools to determine seismic properties of the crust and mantle beneath the Hawaiian islands and its surrounding bathymetric swell. Body wave tomography conclusively imaged a complex low velocity anomaly that penetrates deep into the lower mantle (Wolfe et al., 2009), supporting the idea that Hawaii's extensive volcanism is fed by a deep-rooted mantle plume. The analysis of surface waves reveals a profoundly altered lithosphere beneath the island of Hawaii. The low shear velocity anomaly found at the base of the lithosphere continues into the asthenosphere but shifts westward, documenting an asymmetry in shallow mantle structure that mirrors some of the asymmetry of the bathymetric swell. Owing to the fact that PLUME made use of broadband instruments, the rich dataset from this experiment allowed us to also study patterns in seismicity around Hawaii. Using high-pass filtered records from the PLUME OBS networks we detected numerous off-shore events that were not detected by the monitoring networks on the Hawaiian islands (mainly the island of Hawaii). This gives new insight into seismic activity in some source regions and helps to refine seismic risk estimation for some high-population areas. Our network also produced excellent pressure recording of the somewhat enigmatic tsunami caused by the magnitude 8.3 15 November 2006 Kuril islands earthquake. This tsunami was relatively small when it reached Japan, and it caused no significant damage. After crossing the North Pacific ocean, it reached a height of over 1.5 m in Crescent City, CA and caused damage to the docks there estimated at nearly $2 million. This tsunami was recorded best on our DPGs but some horizontal seismometer components also show a signal. Finally, the PLUME instruments also recorded the journey of 2006 Hurricane Ioke. This long-lived category 5 hurricane was the largest recorded hurricane to form in the Central Pacific ocean. Unlike 2005 Hurricane Katrina, which released the most seismic energy when it made landfall as a weakened hurricane, the seismic energy release of Hurricane Ioke peaked when it reached the strongest state in the atmosphere. References: Laske, G., Collins, J.A., Wolfe, C.J., Solomon, S.C., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D. and Hauri, E.H., 2009. Probing The Hawaiian Hot Spot With New Ocean Bottom Instruments, EOS Trans. AGU, 90, 362-363. Wolfe, C.J., Solomon, S.C., Laske, G., Collins, J.A., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D. and Hauri, E.H., 2009. Mantle Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Hawaiian Hot Spot. Science, 326, 1388-1390.

Laske, G.; Wolfe, C. J.; Collins, J. A.

2010-12-01

379

Pu'a i ka 'Olelo, Ola ka 'Ohana: Three Generations of Hawaiian Language Revitalization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early 1980s, the Hawaiian language had reached its low point with fewer than 50 native speakers of Hawaiian under the age of 18. Outside of the Ni'ihau community, a small group of families in Honolulu and Hilo were raising their children through Hawaiian. This article shares the perspectives of three pioneering families of the Hawaiian

Kawai'ae'a, Keiki K. C.; Housman, Alohalani Kaluhiokalani; Alencastre, Makalapua

2007-01-01

380

Island Information  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Island Information web site provides numerous facts and figures about the earth's islands. Island data is organized into the following categories: island superlatives, principal world islands and groups, 100 largest islands of the world, largest islands by continent, largest islands of selected countries, 35 largest islands of the United States, largest islands of selected U.S. states, 38 largest islands of Canada, largest islands of Canadian provinces, largest lake islands of the world, most populous islands of the world, most populous island countries, islands divided by international borders, tallest islands of the world, former and alternative names of islands, and island misinformation. All of the information within the web site is displayed in easy-to-read charts.

2001-10-07

381

Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this preliminary case, we use Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression with cross validation to develop a prediction model for soils of unknown carbon content given only their spectral signature. We find R2 values of greater than 0.93 for the MIR spectra and 0.87 for the VNIR spectra, indicating a strong ability to correlate a soil’s spectrum with its Ct content. We build on these encouraging results by continuing chemometric analyses using the full data set, different data subsets, separate model calibration and validation groups, combined VNIR and MIR spectra, and exploring different data pretreatment options and variations to the PLS parameters.

McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.

2010-12-01

382

The precursors of governance in the Maine lobster fishery  

PubMed Central

Collective action is more likely to occur and to be effective when it is consistent with the self-interest of the affected individuals. The Maine lobster fishery is an instructive example of biological and technological circumstances combining with individual self-interest to create conditions favorable to collective action. The model describes the way social structure emerges from the adaptive behavior of competing fishers. Fishers compete in two ways: in a scramble to find the lobsters first and by directly interfering in other fishers' ability to compete, i.e., by cutting their traps. Both forms of competition lead fishers to interact frequently and to self-organize into relatively small groups. They learn to restrain their competitive behavior toward their neighbors but do not extend that same restraint to nonneighbors. Groups work within well defined boundaries, contact one another frequently, actively exchange information about the resource, and, most importantly, depend on continuing mutual restraint for their economic well-being. These self-organizing, competitive processes lay the foundation for successful collective action, i.e., mutual agreements that create the additional restraint required for conservation. The modeling approach we use is a combined multiagent and classifier systems simulation. The model allows us to simulate the dynamic adaptation (learning) of multiple individuals interacting in a complex, changing environment and, consequently, provides a way to analyze the fine-scale processes that emerge as the broad social–ecological patterns of the fishery. Patterns generated by the model are compared with patterns observed in a large dataset collected by 44 Maine fishers.

Wilson, James; Yan, Liying; Wilson, Carl

2007-01-01

383

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

Compiled by Nakata, Jennifer S.

2007-01-01

384

50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny...other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may...

2013-10-01

385

A noninvasive method for in situ determination of mating success in female American lobsters (Homarus americanus).  

PubMed

Despite being one of the most productive fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic, much remains unknown about the natural reproductive dynamics of American lobsters. Recent work in exploited crustacean populations (crabs and lobsters) suggests that there are circumstances where mature females are unable to achieve their full reproductive potential due to sperm limitation. To examine this possibility in different regions of the American lobster fishery, a reliable and noninvasive method was developed for sampling large numbers of female lobsters at sea. This method involves inserting a blunt-tipped needle into the female's seminal receptacle to determine the presence or absence of a sperm plug and to withdraw a sample that can be examined for the presence of sperm. A series of control studies were conducted at the dock and in the laboratory to test the reliability of this technique. These efforts entailed sampling 294 female lobsters to confirm that the presence of a sperm plug was a reliable indicator of sperm within the receptacle and thus, mating. This paper details the methodology and the results obtained from a subset of the total females sampled. Of the 230 female lobsters sampled from George's Bank and Cape Ann, MA (size range = 71-145 mm in carapace length), 90.3% were positive for sperm. Potential explanations for the absence of sperm in some females include: immaturity (lack of physiological maturity), breakdown of the sperm plug after being used to fertilize a clutch of eggs, and lack of mating activity. The surveys indicate that this technique for examining the mating success of female lobsters is a reliable proxy that can be used in the field to document reproductive activity in natural populations. PMID:24561702

Goldstein, Jason S; Pugh, Tracy L; Dubofsky, Elizabeth A; Lavalli, Kari L; Clancy, Michael; Watson, Winsor H

2014-01-01

386

Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, the determinants of that status, and the requirements of the human right to health. Needed particularly are longitudinal studies which provide data that may link multigenerational trauma and discrimination to poverty and other factors, ultimately producing healthy inequity for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents.

Alameda, Christian K

2011-01-01

387

Sharing the catch of migratory rock lobster (Panulirus ornatus) between sequential fisheries of Australia and Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rock lobster (Panulirus ornatus) fishery in Torres Strait is an important commercial and traditional fishery in both Australia and Papua New Guinea. The lobster stock is first fished in Torres Strait by divers from two countries and then vulnerable to Australian trawlers in the great northeast channel, followed by PNG trawlers in the Gulf of Papua during its breeding

Yimin Ye; Jim Prescott; Dennis Darren

388

77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...contains a correction to the final rule to implement Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery...

2012-08-22

389

Lobsters and crabs as potential vectors for tunicate dispersal in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following anecdotal reports of tunicates on the carapaces of rock crab (Cancer irroratus) and American lobster (Homarus americanus), we evaluated the role of these species and northern lady crab Ovalipes ocellatus as natural vectors for the spread of invasive tunicates in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Several hundred adult specimens of crabs and lobster from two tunicate- infested estuaries

Renée Y. Bernier; Andrea Locke; John Mark Hanson

2009-01-01

390

76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...control (ABC) rule, an annual catch limit (ACL), and an annual catch target (ACT) for...thresholds; establish an ABC control rule, an ACL, and an ACT for Caribbean spiny lobster...date. Spiny Lobster ABC Control Rule, ACL, and ACT In 2006, the...

2011-09-02

391

77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...determine spiny lobster growth and movement patterns, and an attempt will be made to estimate...particularly growth rates and abundance patterns. Additional life history information...to collect data on growth and movement patterns and to estimate the spiny lobster...

2012-12-28

392

76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...FMP), and Amendment 3 to the FMP for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and...

2011-12-30

393

Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

Morden, C. W.; Gardner, D. E.; Weniger, D. A.

2003-01-01

394

Seismic Velocity Structure of the Mantle beneath the Hawaiian Hotspot and Geodynamic Perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data from the PLUME deployments of land and ocean bottom seismometers have provided unprecedented new constraints on regional seismic structure of the mantle beneath the Hawaiian Islands and motivated a new generation of geodynamic models for understanding hotspot origins. Three-dimensional finite-frequency body-wave tomographic images of S- and P-wave velocity structure reveal an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly beneath Hawaii that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a high-velocity anomaly in the shallow upper mantle that is parabolic in map view. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 km depth and extend into the topmost lower mantle southeast of Hawaii. Upper mantle structure from both S and P waves is asymmetric about the island chain, with lower velocities just southwest of the island of Hawaii and higher velocities to the east. Independent Rayleigh-wave tomography displays a similarly asymmetric structure in the lower lithosphere and asthenosphere, and also reveals a low-velocity anomaly (with horizontal dimensions of 100 by 300 km across and along the chain, respectively) beneath the hotspot swell that reaches to depths of at least 140 km. Shear-wave splitting observations dominantly reflect fossil lithospheric anisotropy, although a signature of asthenospheric flow also may be resolvable. S-to-P receiver function imaging of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary suggests shoaling from 100 km west of Hawaii to 80 km beneath the island, a pattern consistent with results from Rayleigh wave imaging. In terms of mantle plume geodynamic models, the broad upper-mantle low-velocity region beneath the Hawaiian Islands may reflect the "diverging pancake" at the top of the upwelling zone; the surrounding region of high velocities could represent a downwelling curtain of relatively cool sublithospheric material; and the low-velocity anomalies southeast of Hawaii in the transition zone and topmost lower mantle are consistent with predictions of a plume conduit tilted by mantle flow. Dynamic models of a thermochemical plume containing eclogite predict a double layering of plume material in the upper mantle and may explain the large apparent thickness of the low velocity anomaly in the upper mantle. Shear wave splitting predicted from lattice preferred orientation that develops in response to modeled plume deformation shows promise for understanding the rheology and layered seismic anisotropy at Hawaii.

Wolfe, C. J.; Laske, G.; Ballmer, M. D.; Ito, G.; Collins, J. A.; Solomon, S. C.; Rychert, C. A.

2012-12-01

395

Tailflick escape behavior in larval and juvenile lobsters (Homarus americanus) and crayfish (Cherax destructor).  

PubMed

We examined the escape behavior of larvae and postlarvae of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) and of adult immature (stage ADI) crayfish (Cherax destructor). Responses to standardized water jet stimuli delivered through a pipette were observed and analyzed. Lobster larvae did not respond to stimuli within 60 ms, indicating that they do not have functional giant fibers. The first movement by lobster larvae in response to water jet stimuli was a hyperextension of the abdomen. Larval escape responses also showed very little habituation. Postlarval lobsters and ADI crayfish showed the same range of responses as adult animals. Displacement efficiency of tailflicks exhibited by the different animals and stages was examined and related to the morphology of the animals. A separate behavior from tailflicking by larval lobsters in response to water jet stimuli was also observed. Here, the abdomen was hyperextended and the thoracic appendages were promoted. We termed this behavior a "starburst" response. The features of the tailflicking behavior suggest that it evolved to make the larvae difficult prey to handle for small, slower moving predators, and possibly to allow them to ride the bow waves of faster moving predators. PMID:10897445

Jackson, D J; MacMillan, D L

2000-06-01

396

Munidopsis kareenae, a new species of seamount squat lobster from New Zealand with a key to the New Zealand species of Munidopsis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Munidopsidae).  

PubMed

A new species of the squat lobster genus Munidopsis is described from Nukuhou Seamount, North Island, New Zealand. The new species is allied to members of the "Galathodes group" within Munidopsis that share a flattened, distally trifid rostrum, an unarmed carapace surface (apart from paired epigastric spines in some species), unarmed abdominal tergites and absence of pereopodal epipods. The new species is readily separated from these species by the combination of unarmed lateral carapace margins posterior to the anterolateral spine, absence of epigastric spines, and prominently spinose extensor margins of the pereopod 2-4 meri. Fourteen species of Munidopsis are now recorded from New Zealand; a key to the New Zealand species is provided. PMID:24614002

Ahyong, Shane T

2013-01-01

397

Multi-scale habitat selection of the endangered Hawaiian Goose  

USGS Publications Warehouse

After a severe population reduction during the mid-20th century, the endangered Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandvicensis), or N?n?, has only recently re-established its seasonal movement patterns on Hawai‘i Island. Little is currently understood about its movements and habitat use during the nonbreeding season. The objectives of this research were to identify habitats preferred by two subpopulations of the N?n? and how preferences shift seasonally at both meso-and fine scales. From 2009 to 2011, ten N?n? ganders were outfitted with 40-to 45-g satellite transmitters with GPS capability. We used binary logistic regression to compare habitat use versus availability and an information-theoretic approach for model selection. Meso-scale habitat modeling revealed that N?n? preferred exotic grass and human-modified landscapes during the breeding and molting seasons and native subalpine shrubland during the nonbreeding season. Fine-scale habitat modeling further indicated preference for exotic grass, bunch grass, and absence of trees. Proximity to water was important during molt, suggesting that the presence of water may provide escape from introduced mammalian predators while N?n? are flightless. Finescale species-composition data added relatively little to understanding of N?n? habitat preferences modeled at the meso scale, suggesting that the meso-scale is appropriate for management planning. Habitat selection during our study was consistent with historical records, although dissimilar from more recent studies of other subpopulations. N?n? make pronounced seasonal movements between existing reserves and use distinct habitat types; understanding annual patterns has implications for the protection and restoration of important seasonal habitats.

Leopold, Christina R; Hess, Steve

2013-01-01

398

Hawaiian residents' preferences for Miconia control program attributes using conjoint choice experiment and latent class analysis.  

PubMed

Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens (Miconia). Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents' willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more ($2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii. PMID:20033159

Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

2010-02-01

399

The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2003-01-01

400

Integration of wireless sensor networks into cyberinfrastructure for monitoring Hawaiian "mountain-to-sea" environments.  

PubMed

Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding. PMID:18618172

Kido, Michael H; Mundt, Carsten W; Montgomery, Kevin N; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y

2008-10-01

401

The Changing Nature of the Hawaiian Hotspot in the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary: Evidence From Helium Isotopes and Melt Inclusion Compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Program Leg 197 recovered basaltic basement from three of the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene Emperor seamounts: Detroit (Sites 1203 and 1204), Nintoku (Site 1205), and Koko (Site 1206) seamounts. The depths of penetration into basement achieved by this drilling (140-450 m), the range of rock types recovered (hawaiites, alkalic basalts, and tholeiitic basalts), and the age range (48-76 Ma) makes this one of the most comprehensive collections of the volcanic products of the Hawaiian hotspot available, and opens up new opportunities to study the temporal evolution of the Hawaiian hotspot during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. Previous studies of the chemical evolution of the Hawaiian hotspot (Lanphere et al., 1980; Keller et al., 2000) found significant temporal variations. For example, Sr isotopic ratios of the tholeiitic basalts remain fairly constant along the Hawaiian Islands/Ridge between Kilauea volcano on Hawaii and the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, but then decrease steadily northward along the Emperor seamounts. Trace element compositions (especially the rare earth element patterns) also show limited variations along the Hawaiian Islands/Ridge, but change toward more depleted values northward along the Emperor seamounts. The trend to more MORB-like compositions back in time was attributed to a decrease in distance between the hotspot and the nearest spreading center, although a more comprehensive study suggests that variations in lithospheric thickness also caused changes in the composition of the plume melts (Regelous et al., 2002). We will complement these previous studies and the ongoing work of the other Leg 197 scientists by studying two aspects of the Emperor seamount basalts: helium isotopes and melt inclusion compositions. We will measure the helium isotopic ratios of selected olivine separates from three of the Leg 197 drill sites and from DSDP Site 433 on Suiko seamount (65 Ma) to determine if the composition of the Hawaiian "plume signal" has changed over time. We will also analyze the major and trace element compositions of melt inclusions that were isolated from shallow-level magma mixing and crystal fractionation processes to determine how much of the geochemical variations observed in the Emperor basalts are due to changes in melting processes. All of the drill sites recovered olivine and plagioclase phenocrysts suitable for melt inclusion studies.

Keller, R.; Graham, D.; Duncan, R.; Regelous, M.

2002-12-01

402

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Seismic Data, January to March 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) summary presents seismic data gathered during January-March 2009. The seismic summary offers earthquake hypocenters without interpretation as a source of preliminary data and is comple...

J. S. Nakata P. G. Okubo

2010-01-01

403

Effects of formalin, chloramine-T, and low salinity dip on the behavior and hemolymph biochemistry of the American lobster.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this research was to investigate the salinity and formalin sensitivity of a ciliate parasite (Anophryoides haemophila) of the American lobster (Homarus americanus), and to examine the target-animal (lobster) safety of chemical-bath treatments involving low salinity, formalin, or chloramine-T that could be used to control this parasite in lobster pounds. "Bumper car" disease, caused by An. haemophila, is an important concern to lobster pound operators in eastern North America, because of the implicated lobster mortality rate and the general lack of preventive and therapeutic intervention regimes. We determined, using an in vitro method, that formalin at 50 mg/L, or low salinity at 8.0 parts per thousand (ppt) for 1 hour killed 100% of the parasites. When healthy lobsters were exposed to formalin at 200 mg/L, there were no negative behavioral responses and no significant differences in a panel of hemolymph biochemical indices. Similar results occurred when lobsters were exposed to chloramine-T, a common finfish therapeutic agent for topical bacteria and protozoa, at 10 mg/L for 1 hour. The low salinity treatment (8.0 ppt) resulted in significant adverse changes in lobster behavior and biochemical indices; however, these changes did not persist for more than 1 week after treatment ended. Although these treatments are unlikely to kill parasites that have already invaded the lobster carapace, they should be effective in reducing parasite loads on the gill and carapace surface of the lobster and in the environment of the impoundment housing.

Speare, D J; Cawthorn, R J; Horney, B S; MacMillan, R; MacKenzie, A L

1996-01-01

404

Maturation of large scale mass-wasting along the Hawaiian Ridge  

SciTech Connect

Extensive GLORIA side-scan sonar mapping of the Hawaiian Ridge from Hawaii to St. Rogatien Bank shows that massive slumps and blocky debris avalanches are the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas. About 30 failures have been imaged in the region surveyed; they range in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and in volume from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Four are rotational slumps, and the rest are blocky debris avalanches. Such deposits cover 125,000 km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian Ridge and adjacent seafloor. The slumps are wide (up to 110 km), short (30-35 km), thick (about 10 km), and slow moving. They are broken into comparatively few major rotational blocks that have not moved far and are characterized by steep toes and transverse ridges. Back rotation of the blocks has elevated their seaward edges, producing transverse ridges and perched basins filled with 5 to > 35 m of sediment. Compared to the slumps, the debris avalanches are lobate, long (up to 230 km), thin (0.5-2 km), and fast-moving. These deposits cross the Hawaiian Trough and run upslope onto the Hawaiian Arch (up to 550 m in elevation over a distance of 140 km). These failures commonly have amphitheaters and subaerial canyons at their heads. Their distal ends are hummocky, and blocky debris litters the seafloor adjacent to the ridge. As one proceeds west from Hawaii to St. Rogatien Bank, the GLORIA sonographs and seismic reflection profiles show a progression from youthful to mature failures and from active to about 12 Ma volcanoes. The Alika and Hilina slide complexes are examples of youthful failures on active volcanoes. Slumping in the Hilina slide is ongoing (7.2 magnitude earthquake in 1975). Little to no sediment covers the blocks and hummocky terrane of the Alika (about 100 ka), whereas the older deposits along the western part of the ridge are covered by up to 30 m of transparent sediment.

Torresan, M.E.; Clague, D.A.; Moore, J.G. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jacobs, C.L. (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley (England))

1990-06-01

405

Molt cycle-dependent molecular chaperone and polyubiquitin gene expression in lobster  

PubMed Central

Lobster claw muscle undergoes atrophy in correlation with increasing ecdysteroid (steroid molting hormone) titers during premolt. In vivo molecular chaperone (constitutive heat shock protein 70 [Hsc70], heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70], and Hsp90) and polyubiquitin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were examined in claw and abdominal muscles from individual premolt or intermolt lobsters. Polyubiquitin gene expression was assayed as a marker for muscle atrophy. Both Hsc70 and Hsp90 mRNA levels were significantly induced in premolt relative to intermolt lobster claw muscle, whereas Hsp70 mRNA levels were not. Hsp90 gene expression was significantly higher in premolt claw muscle when compared with abdominal muscle. Polyubiquitin mRNA levels were elevated in premolt when compared with intermolt claw muscle and significantly elevated relative to premolt abdominal muscle.

Spees, Jeffrey L.; Chang, Sharon A.; Mykles, Donald L.; Snyder, Mark J.; Chang, Ernest S.

2003-01-01

406

Two views of Hawaiian plume structure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamentally contradictory interpretations of the isotopic compositions of Hawaiian basalts persist, even among authors who agree that the Hawaiian hotspot is caused by a deep-mantle plume. One view holds that the regional isotopic pattern of the volcanoes reflects large-scale heterogeneities in the basal thermal boundary layer of the mantle. These are drawn into the rising plume conduit, where they are vertically stretched and ultimately sampled by volcanoes. The alternative view is that the plume resembles a "uniformly heterogeneous plum pudding," with fertile plums of pyroxenite and/or enriched peridotite scattered in a matrix of more refractory peridotite. In a rising plume, the plums melt before the matrix, and the final melt composition is controlled significantly by the bulk melt fraction. Here we show that the uniformly heterogeneous plum pudding model is inconsistent with several geochemical observations: (1) the relative melt fractions inferred from La/Yb ratios in shield-stage basalts of the two parallel (Kea- and Loa-) volcanic chains, (2) the systematic Pb-isotopic differences between the chains, and the absence of such differences between shield and postshield phases, (3) the systematic shift to uniformly depleted Nd-isotopic compositions during rejuvenated volcanism. We extend our previous numerical simulation to the low melt production rates calculated far downstream (200-400 km) from shield volcanism. Part of these melts, feeding rejuvenated volcanism, are formed at pressures of ˜5 GPa in the previously unmelted underside of the plume, from material that originally constituted the uppermost part of the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle.

Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Farnetani, Cinzia G.

2013-12-01

407

Hawaiian Analog for Martian Amphitheatre-headed Valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stubby, amphitheatre-headed valleys are common on the surface of Mars. The abrupt terminations of these valleys at their headwalls have been used extensively to argue for valley erosion from springs (i.e., seepage erosion and groundwater sapping) rather than precipitation runoff. This interpretation has significant implications for Martian hydrology and the associated prospects for life. However, such a connection between channel form and the erosion processes induced by groundwater has only been demonstrated on Earth for sediment with little to no cohesion. Martian valleys have most likely been carved into basalt, and the extension of previous work to bedrock erosion is unclear. Perhaps the most widely cited terrestrial analogs for Martian amphitheatre-headed valleys in basalt are the spectacular canyons of Kohala, on the big island of Hawaii. Based on their amphitheatre heads and U-shaped cross sections, previous workers have suggested that these valleys were formed by enhanced chemical weathering and erosion induced by dike-impounded groundwater. Neighboring smaller streams that do not have amphitheatre heads and have more V-shaped cross sections were thought to represent streams where seepage erosion did not occur. These smaller streams run along side of and often drain into the larger canyons, or they end in waterfalls spilling over the ~350 m vertical sea cliffs into the ocean. We propose that the Hawaiian amphitheatre-headed valleys formed by upstream propagation of huge headwalls induced by a large deep-seated landslide. Recent bathymetric surveys have revealed that the large sea cliff at the mouth of the Kohala valleys is likely the headscarp of a huge rotational slump, the Pololu slump. Dominant streams cascaded over the cliffs forming waterfalls which, through plunge pool erosion and mass wasting, induced upstream propagation of headwalls eventually forming deep amphitheatre-headed valleys. We propose headwall retreat by waterfall erosion rather than seepage erosion because, at least under current conditions, this region receives over 4 m of annual precipitation, waterfalls are eroding plunge pools into the rock at most valley heads, and the streams are able to move the large boulders on the bed during storms. While springs do occur in some valley heads, we have not observed weathering, erosion, or transport of rock by seepage water, nor has it been documented by others to our knowledge. Following valley formation, island subsidence has resulted in alluviation of the valley floors creating the observed U-shaped valley cross sections. Our interpretation implies that deep amphitheatre-headed valleys can result from precipitation runoff with very little landscape dissection upstream of the valley head. If Martian valleys formed by similar processes, the Martian climate must once have been capable of supporting precipitation.

Lamb, M. P.; Howard, A. D.; Dietrich, W. E.; Perron, J. T.

2005-12-01

408