These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Evaluation of ghost fishing in the Hawaiian lobster fishery  

E-print Network

, the pattern of exits in lab- oratory and field tests differed sig- nificantly (x223.889, P 0.03). All lobsters to exit traps was tested in a series of field and laboratory trials of trap strings stocked with Hawaiian their degradable traps with designs made from more persistent synthetic materials has heightened the seriousness

2

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

3

Evaluations of Tag Retention and a Device for Releasing Discarded Hawaiian Spiny Lobsters Panulirus marginatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tag loss and mortality that results directly from the tagging process are a concern to all tagging programs because they reduce sample sizes and can bias population and survival estimates. The purposes of this study were to estimate streamer tag loss in Hawaiian spiny lobsters Panulirus marginatus, evaluate the use of passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags in these lobsters, and

Joseph M. OMalley

2008-01-01

4

Geographic Patterns for Foraging Dispersion of Hawaiian Monk Seals ('Monachus schauinslandi') in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) are endemic to the Hawaiian Island Archipelago with most of the metapopulation living at six relatively remote atolls and islands in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, though increasing numbers of seals and bir...

B. S. Stewart

2004-01-01

5

Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations  

MedlinePLUS

... Other Pacific Islander individuals in the United States. States with the largest Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander populations in 2011 were Hawaii (359,000) and California (329,000) . The Native ...

6

Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

1983-01-01

7

GENETIC VARIATION AND POPULATION STRUCTURE IN A SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUS MARGINATUS, IN THE HAWAIIAN ARCHIPELAGOl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of the commercially important spiny lobster, Panulirus marginatus, were collected from localities throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago and subjected to starch gel electrophoretic analysis of protein variation. The amount and pattern of genetic variation exhibited by specific enzymes was determined and analyzed to see whether or not there was evidence that the species was composed of multiple stocks or subpopulations

JAMES B. SHAKLEE

8

78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones:...

2013-05-17

9

78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial harbors are...

2013-10-24

10

Mannosephosphate isomerase in the Hawaiian spiny lobster Panulirus marginatus: a polymorphic, sex-linked locus useful in investigating embryonic and larval sex ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation at the mannosephosphate isomerase (MPI) locus was investigated in the Hawaiian spiny lobster Panulirus marginatus. Lobsters were collected over a 21\\/2 yr period (October, 1978 to March, 1981) from numerous sites throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Electrophoretic analysis revealed that this species exhibits a 3-allele polymorphism for MPI and that the proportions of the two most common alleles are

J. B. Shaklee

1983-01-01

11

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

2011-04-22

12

33 CFR 165.14-1414 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI.  

...2014-07-01 false Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. 165.14-1414...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location...warning has been issued for the Hawaiian Islands. The COTP will notify...

2014-07-01

13

Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands Table of Contents Summary p2 OTEC Generalities p3 Licensing and Permitting p4 Challenges Islands from HYCOM + NCODA (1/12°) data for the period July 1, 2007 through June 30, 2009 p8 Figure 3

14

Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ethnic group. ... year millions of adults think about and attempt suicide. Raising awareness within racial and ethnic groups can ...

15

PCB and metal concentrations in American lobsters from the Acushnet River estuary and Long Island Sound  

SciTech Connect

The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is commonly found in coastal waters adjacent to heavily industrialized areas where pollutant input generally occurs. Environmental contamination is known to affect many aspects of lobster biology. Heavy metals, pesticides, pulp mill effluent, petroleum hydrocarbons and other pollutants can adversely affect lobster physiology and behavior. Sublethal concentrations of contaminants can stress lobsters, making them more susceptible to disease or other conditions that would normally be tolerated. Lobster embryos and larvae, particularly the first-stage, are sensitive to a variety of organic and metal pollutants. Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); edible tissues of lobsters collected there have been found to contain PCB concentrations exceeding the FDA action level of 2 [mu]g/g wet wt. PCBs are strongly lipophilic and accumulate in fatty tissues including egg masses. Metals and PCBs are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. This study examines whether field exposure of ovigerous female lobsters to PCBs results in subsequent contamination of embryos, first-stage larvae, postlarvae, and juvenile offspring of [open quotes]berried[close quotes] lobsters from New Bedford Harbor and selected locations in Long Island Sound. Metal contamination in the embryos and offspring of Long Island Sound lobsters was also measured. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.A.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G. (Northeast Fisheries Science Center, Milford, CT (United States))

1994-12-01

16

FALSE KILLER WHALES AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF INTER-ISLAND MOVEMENTS AND  

E-print Network

FALSE KILLER WHALES AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: AN ASSESSMENT OF INTER-ISLAND MOVEMENTS, 2570 Dole Street, Honolulu, HI 96822 #12;Baird et al. Hawai`i false killer whales Summary The current best estimate of population size for false killer whales within Hawaiian waters is only 268 individuals

Baird, Robin W.

17

76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a [[Page...

2011-12-14

18

77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine...

2012-03-20

19

76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Class E airspace for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response...above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. This action enhances the safety and...

2011-09-02

20

he volcanic Hawaiian Islands are the most  

E-print Network

killer whales and pantropical spotted dolphins off Maui, then in 2002 began working with Dan Mc-cutter shark © Robin W. Baird Main picture left, false killer whale leaping with mahi mahi in mouth © Dan J. Mc focused on whales and dolphins in Hawaiian waters, but despite being home to more than 15 species

Baird, Robin W.

21

Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF | 1.6MB] A recent report from the state of Hawaii, a state with a high percentage of Native ... 5 Native Hawaiian 57.1 1.8 Source: State of Hawaii, 2007. The Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Hawaii ...

22

Dental Caries Prevalence in Early Polynesians from the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the skeletal remains of 1338 early Hawaiians (preserved in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu) to determine total caries and root surface caries prevalence. Specimens from seven islands were represented in the collection. Estimation of age at death was made by a combination of dental developmental staging for younger individuals and occlusal attrition and\\/or alveolar bone loss in adults. Museum

H. J. Keene

1986-01-01

23

Wave Energy Resources Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Wave Power Resources: Update p9 Shallow Water Wave Power Resources: Update p11 References p20 Figure 1. Vega Ph.D October 11, 2010 #12;Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands October 11, 2010 1 of Contents Summary p2 Background: Wave Power Conversion p3 Licensing and Permitting p3 Challenges

24

Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands Shuiming Chen1 and Bo Qiu height (SSH) field northeast of the Hawaiian Islands. The annual harmonic amplitudes for the SSH and the along-island geostrophic flow are 2­4 cm and 2­4 cm s?1 , respectively. Although these values

Qiu, Bo

25

Seismicity around the Hawaiian Islands Recorded by the PLUME Seismometer Networks: Insight into Faulting near  

E-print Network

limitations have long prevented the detailed characteriza- tion of offshore earthquakes around the Hawaiian) to better determine seismicity pat- terns along the Hawaiian Islands and their offshore regions. We find States Geological Survey (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). The spatial patterns of earthquakes

Wolfe, Cecily J.

26

Organochlorine contaminants in endangered Hawaiian monk seals from four subpopulations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

We analyzed blubber and blood samples for organochlorines (OCs) from 158 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at four of their six primary breeding colonies in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Levels of OCs in blubber were lower in adult females compared to juveniles or adult males, evidently owing to the transfer of these lipophilic compounds to pups by pregnant and lactating females. Concentrations of SigmaPCBs and p,p'-DDE in blubber generally increased with age until seals were sexually mature and then continued to increase with age in males after puberty. Average levels of PCBs and PCB toxic equivalents (TEQs) in blubber were significantly higher in adult male and juvenile seals at Midway Atoll than the same age class of seals at the other colonies. Unlike concentrations of OCs in blubber, circulating levels of OCs in blood did not vary consistently among age classes of seals or among breeding colonies. Though the concentrations of OCs measured in Hawaiian monk seals were generally equal to or lower than those reported for other pinniped species in the North Pacific Ocean, they were high enough in a few seals to potentially affect their health. PMID:18031765

Ylitalo, Gina M; Myers, Matthew; Stewart, Brent S; Yochem, Pamela K; Braun, Robert; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Boyd, Daryle; Antonelis, George A; Atkinson, Shannon; Aguirre, A Alonso; Krahn, Margaret M

2008-02-01

27

Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment

Happel, Sue

28

Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; OGrady, Patrick M.

2014-01-01

29

Volcanism and archipelagic aprons in the Marquesas and Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geophysical observations demonstrate that the archipelagic apron surrounding the Marquesan hot-spot volcanoes is derived almost entirely from mass wasting processes. Seismic reflection and refraction data constrain the volume of the apron sediments to approximately 200,000 km3, with thicknesses reaching over 2 km in the deep portions of the moat near the edge of the volcanic edifice. Seismic velocities average 4 to 5 km s-1 in the sediments, and 6 km s-1 at the top of the underlying basement. Single channel seismic profiles show acoustically chaotic cores in the sediments of the apron, which are interpreted as debris flows from mass wasting events. We deduce that the apron is formed by catastrophic collapses that may involve volumes over 100 km3 tens to hundreds of times during the lifetime of a volcano. Comparison with similar data from the Hawaiian Islands yields the result that the total volume of volcanics and their derived sediments along the strike of the chains is only slightly smaller for the Marquesas, implying comparable eruption rates. However, the ratio of sediment to surface volcanic load is much larger for the latter, leading to an overfilled moat in the Marquesas and an underfilled moat at Hawaii. The much larger size of the Hawaiian islands can be explained as the combined effects of a higher thermal swell, loading a stiffer elastic plate, and proportionately less mass wasting.

Filmer, P. E.; McNutt, M. K.; Webb, H. F.; Dixon, D. J.

1994-10-01

30

Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

Draxler, A.F.J.; Sherrell, R.M.; Wieczorek, D.; Lavigne, M.G.; Paulson, A.J.

2005-01-01

31

Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian\\/part-Hawaiian and Pacific Islander juvenile offenders, this article addresses this dearth of research by showing

Lisa Pasko; David T. Mayeda

2011-01-01

32

Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from

STEVE JORDAN; CHRIS SIMON; DAVID FOOTE; RONALD A. ENGLUND

2005-01-01

33

Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

Frisch, A. J.

2007-06-01

34

Pulling back the curtain : revealing the production of performance in the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Harbors throughout the Hawaiian Islands serve as the dating a growing commercial cruise ship industry, foreign activity. They are also increasingly sites of controversy structures restrict local access and use of harbor ...

Hsu, Stephanie (Stephine I.)

2008-01-01

35

HIV among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in the United States and Dependent Areas  

MedlinePLUS

... HIV/AIDS HIV A-Z Topics Share Compartir HIV Among Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders in ... and blacks/African Americans (31%). The Numbers New HIV Infections d In 2010, NHOPI accounted for less ...

36

Reevaluation of the DPS Designation for Hawaiian (now Main Hawaiian Islands)  

E-print Network

Killer Whales1 Erin M. Oleson1 , Christofer H. Boggs1 , Karin A. Forney2 , M. Bradley Hanson3 , Donald R Resources Defense Council (NRDC) requesting that the insular population of Hawaiian false killer whales of the insular population of Hawaiian false killer whales to determine if listing under the ESA was warranted

37

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

1980-06-01

38

Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and

Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

2011-01-01

39

A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy

Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

2005-01-01

40

MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1  

E-print Network

, Wickford, R.I.; present address: New England Regional Fisheries Management Council, Pea- body, MA 01960 for ovigerous and sublegal- sized lobsters in the southern Gulfof Maine. Lund et al.6 reported that lobsters

41

Giant Landslides, Mega-Tsunamis, and Paleo-Sea Level in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show considerable agreement between the ages of the two giant Alika landslides and dating of debris found tens to hundreds of meters above sea level in Hawaii. Despite the size of the landslides, controversy persists as to the ability to generate landslide tsunamis big enough to deposit the debris. We affirm that tsunami deposits are a sufficient explanation of the observed pattern of debris height. We also show that our tsunami simulations can be used to reduce the considerable uncertainty in subsidence history of the different Hawaiian islands, a current obstacle to interpreting the supposed deposits. Finally, we show that the onset of interglacials provides a probable explanation for the timing of these giant landslides over the last five million years. We predict that the greatest tsunami hazard facing the Hawaiian islands are giant landslides and that the current interglacial promotes the generation of mega-tsunamis from catastrophic volcano collapse. Hawaiian giant submarine landslide events have been recognized from detached submarine landslide blocks and fields of smaller debris by offshore surveys. Mega-tsunamis produced by giant landslides were first proposed for Hawaii and have since been implicated globally at other oceanic islands and along the continental margins. While not discounting the possibility of locally-generated tsunamis, some researchers have cast doubt upon the original hypothesis of giant waves impacting Lanai and other Hawaiian islands from flank failures of the nearby Mauna Loa Volcano on Hawaii island. Landslide tsunami simulations have advanced to the point where the tsunamigenic potential of the giant submarine landslides can be affirmed, while the subsidence history of different Hawaiian islands is still subject to debate.

Watts, P.; McMurtry, G. M.; Fryer, G. J.; Smith, J. R.; Imamura, F.

2001-12-01

42

AGE AND GROWTH OF THE NEHU, STOLEPHORUS PURPUREUS (PISCES: ENGRAULIDAE), FROM THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AS  

E-print Network

standard length. Preliminary evidence is presented that the nehu population ofPearl Harbor may grow more with three types of gear in Pearl Harbor and the southeastern end of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands (square mesh measuring 3.2 mm to a bar) in Pearl Harbor. Postlarvae (about ~ 20 mm SL

43

Extreme Rainfall Events in the Hawaiian Islands PAO-SHIN CHU  

E-print Network

, with many homes damaged. Damage estimates reached about U.S. $88 million. In late October 2004, the upper of damage for this flood are over US $80 million for UH alone. Heavy rainfall and flooding have also been Heavy rainfall and the associated floods occur frequently in the Hawaiian Islands and have caused huge

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

44

Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology  

E-print Network

Lithospheric deformation induced by loading of the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle 2013; published 22 November 2013. [1] The long-term rheological properties of the lithosphere for lithosphere and mantle with realistic nonlinear viscoelastic rheology including the frictional sliding, low

Zhong, Shijie

45

IDEOLOGY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AFTER AD 1778  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretations of European and American contact with Oceania often highlight the rapid changes that took place in the technologies and practices of its traditional socie- ties. In the Hawaiian Islands, for example, many scholars have assumed that stone adzes were quickly replaced with metal adzes, and that such change was an inevitable con- sequence of a more efficient western technology.

James M. Bayman

46

Molecular biogeography and diversification of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Oceanic islands have played a central role in biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we review molecular studies of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian archipelago. For some groups, monophyly and presumed single origin of the Hawaiian radiations have been confirmed (achatinelline tree snails, drepanidine honeycreepers, drosophilid flies, Havaika spiders, Hylaeus bees, Laupala crickets). Other radiations are derived from multiple colonizations (Tetragnatha and Theridion spiders, succineid snails, possibly Dicranomyia crane flies, Porzana rails). The geographic origins of many invertebrate groups remain obscure, largely because of inadequate sampling of possible source regions. Those of vertebrates are better known, probably because few lineages have radiated, diversity is far lower and morphological taxonomy permits identification of probable source regions. Most birds, and the bat, have New World origins. Within the archipelago, most radiations follow, to some degree, a progression rule pattern, speciating as they colonize newer from older islands sequentially, although speciation often also occurs within islands. Most invertebrates are single-island endemics. However, among multi-island species studied, complex patterns of diversification are exhibited, reflecting heightened dispersal potential (succineids, Dicranomyia). Instances of Hawaiian taxa colonizing other regions are being discovered (Scaptomyza flies, succineids). Taxonomy has also been elucidated by molecular studies (Achatinella snails, drosophilids). While molecular studies on Hawaiian fauna have burgeoned since the mid-1990s, much remains unknown. Yet the Hawaiian fauna is in peril: more than 70 per cent of the birds and possibly 90 per cent of the snails are extinct. Conservation is imperative if this unique fauna is to continue shedding light on profound evolutionary and biogeographic questions. PMID:18765363

Cowie, Robert H; Holland, Brenden S

2008-10-27

47

Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jordan, S.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

2005-01-01

48

Translating the Diabetes Prevention Program in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities: the PILI 'Ohana Project.  

PubMed

Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders experience a high prevalence of overweight/obesity. The Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention (DPP-LI) was translated into a 3-month community-based intervention to benefit these populations. The weight loss and other clinical and behavioral outcomes of the translated DPP-LI and the socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors associated with the weight loss were examined. A total of 239 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults completed the translated DPP-LI through four community-based organizations (CBOs). Changes from pre- to post-intervention assessments in weight, blood pressure, physical functioning, exercise frequency, and fat in diet were measured. Significant improvements on all variables were found, with differences observed across the four CBOs. CBOs with predominately Native Hawaiian and ethnically homogenous intervention groups had greater weight loss. General linear modeling indicated that larger baseline weight and CBO predicted weight loss. The translated DPP-LI can be effective for Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, especially when socio-cultural, socio-economic, and CBO-related contextual factors are taken into account. PMID:24904698

Kaholokula, J K; Wilson, R E; Townsend, C K M; Zhang, G X; Chen, J; Yoshimura, S R; Dillard, A; Yokota, J W; Palakiko, D M; Gamiao, S; Hughes, C K; Kekauoha, B K; Mau, M K

2014-06-01

49

Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

Powers, H.A.

1955-01-01

50

Distribution and Abundance of the Endangered Hawaiian Hoary Bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus, on the Island of Hawai'i 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (H. Allen), has an island-wide distribution on the island of Hawai'i. However, abundance estimates suggest that its endangered status is appropriate. Although distributed across wide ranges in elevation, temperature, and rainfall, this bat is most often associated with native vegetation. Its diurnal and seasonal activity patterns argue against migration within the island

DAVID S. JACOBS

51

Sex differences in site fidelity and migration of humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae ) to the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) perform extensive seasonal migrations between high-latitude summer feeding grounds and low-latitude winter reproductive grounds. To investigate gender-related site fidelity to the Hawaiian Islands, an important wintering area for North Pacific humpback whales, photographically based resight histories of 224 females and 416 males observed in Hawai'i from 1976 through 1991 were coinpiled. Results indicated that the mean

Alison S. Craig; Louis M. Herman

1997-01-01

52

Erosion and landscape development affect plant nutrient status in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We quantified variation in plant nutrient concentrations and provenance along catenas in landscapes of three different ages (0.15, 1.4, and 4.1ma) in the Hawaiian Islands. Strontium (Sr) isotopes demonstrate that erosion provides a renewed source of rock-derived nutrients to slopes in landscapes of all ages, in some cases reversing a million years of ecosystem development in a distance of 100m.

Stephen Porder; Adina Paytan; Peter M. Vitousek

2005-01-01

53

Stability analysis of Hawaiian Island flanks using insight gained from strength testing of the HSDP core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian Island flank failures are recognized as the largest landslide events on Earth, reaching volumes of several thousand cubic kilometers and lengths of over 200 km and occurring on an average of once every 100 000 years. The 3.1 km deep Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) enabled an investigation of the rock mass strength variations on the island of Hawaii [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228]. This study builds on that of Schiffman et al. [Schiffman, P., Watters, R.J., Thompson, N., Walton, A.W., 2006. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 151 (1-3): 217-228] by considering more in-depth rock mass classification and strength testing methods of the HSDP core. Geotechnical core logging techniques combined with laboratory strength testing methods show that rock strength differences exist within the edifice. Comparing the rock strength parameters obtained from the various volcano lithologies identified weak zones, suggesting the possible location of future slip surfaces for large flank failures. Relatively weak rock layers were recognized within poorly consolidated hyaloclastite zones, with increases in strength based on degree of alteration. Subaerial and submarine basalt flows are found to be significantly stronger. With the aid of digital elevation models, cross-sections have been developed of key flank areas on the island of Hawaii. Limit equilibrium slope stability analyses are performed on each cross-section using various failure criteria for the rock mass strength calculations. Based on the stability analyses the majority of the slopes analyzed are considered stable. In cases where instability (i.e. failure) is predicted, decreased rock mass quality (strength) of the altered and highly poorly consolidated lithologies is found to have a significant influence. These lithologies are present throughout the Hawaiian Islands, representing potential failure surfaces for large flank collapses. Failure criterion input parameters are considered in sensitivity analyses as are the influences of certain external stability factors such as sea level variation and seismic loading.

Thompson, Nick; Watters, Robert J.; Schiffman, Peter

2008-04-01

54

Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1  

SciTech Connect

Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

York, R. H.

1986-01-01

55

A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 56.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

2014-01-01

56

Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Naturalists in the 1800s described the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ?I?iwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ?I?iwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawai?i, east Maui, and Kaua?i, with a few birds apparently persisting on O?ahu, Moloka?i, and west Maui. ?I?iwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ?I?iwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ?I?iwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ?I?iwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of Iiwi at 550,972659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawai?i, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kaua?i. ?I?iwi population trends vary across the islands. ?I?iwi population in Kaua?i has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 20002012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawai?i, population trends are mixed. On the windward side, populations are largely declining, although the northern section (Hakalau Forest) has stable populations. On the leeward side, results suggest a strongly increasing population, with estimates of as much as a 147 percent increase over a 25 year period from the Pu?u Wa?awa?a region. However, it is unclear how much these results from the leeward side of Hawai?i show a population trend contrary to population trends in all other areas or are an artifact of a sparsely sampled area. Trends by elevation suggest a large decrease in numbers of ?I?iwi at elevations below 1,200 meters on Kaua?i and northeast Maui. Low elevation ?I?iwi populations also appear to have decreased in other regions, although low-elevation areas are not surveyed as often as other areas because of their lack of native forest birds. An exception to this pattern was the lower portions of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Kona Unit in the central leeward part of the island of Hawai?i, where populations appeared stable at the lower elevations. Based on the most recent surveys (up to 2012), approximately 50 percent of ?I?iwi live in a narrow, 500-meter band at elevations of 1,2001,700 meters, suggesting that ?I?iwi are vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

2013-01-01

57

Predictive modeling of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

Thorne, Lesley H; Johnston, David W; Urban, Dean L; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H; Deakos, Mark H; Mobley, Joseph R; Pack, Adam A; Chapla Hill, Marie

2012-01-01

58

Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

2012-01-01

59

Genetic population structure of an anchialine shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena (Crustacea: Alpheidae), in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Anchialine habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, characterized as coastal bodies of land-locked salt or brackish water that fluctuate with the tides due to subterranean connections, are the only ecosystems of this type found within the United States. These habitats are currently subject to anthropogenic impacts that threaten their future existence. Previous research has shown strong genetic population structure of an endemic atyid shrimp, Halocaridina rubra, in these habitats. The native alpheid shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena, whose known range entirely overlaps that of H. rubra, has feeding and reproductive behaviors that are biologically distinct from H. rubra. Its historic scarcity and status as a candidate for the US Fish and Wildlife Department's Endangered Species List, make M. lohena an ideal species to compare against the known genetic structure of H. rubra. We investigated the population structure of this native anchialine shrimp to test the hypothesis that genetic population structure differs between the two shrimp species and that M. lohena is genetically unstructured across its range. A survey of 605 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 127 individuals collected at 7 sites spanning the islands of O'ahu, Maui and Hawaii revealed 43 haplotypes. The most common haplotype was represented in similar proportions from all sites sampled, accounting for 44% of the surveyed sequences. Analyses of molecular variation (AMOVA), pairwise PhiST values, Bayesian estimates of migration (M), Mantel tests and Nested Clade Analyses (NCAs) all failed to reveal evidence of major barriers to gene flow among most populations separated by inter-island channels. This lack of genetic structure in M. lohena is found to be in stark contrast with the highly structured population of H. rubra, and may be attributed to oceanic dispersal strategies and/or a recent introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:20411714

Russ, Atlantis; Santos, S R; Muir, C

2010-03-01

60

Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing invasive species, and planning of conservation efforts.

Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M., III; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

2012-01-01

61

Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

1997-01-01

62

Evidence of a Possible Decline since 1989 in False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around the Main Hawaiian Islands1  

E-print Network

253 Evidence of a Possible Decline since 1989 in False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) around the main Hawaiian Islands. Although it is known that false killer whales in Hawai`i are sometimes killed or seriously injured in the Hawai`i-based long- line

Baird, Robin W.

63

A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

64

Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

2012-01-01

65

Lithospheric flexure at the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of the lithosphere to long-term geological loads such as volcanoes, sediments and ice provide important insights to both plate mechanics and mantle dynamics. One of the largest loads on Earth's surface are the shield volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean. We have developed a 3-D finite element model for calculating the flexure and stress associated with the emplacement of an arbitrary-shaped volcano load on a crust and mantle with realistic non-linear viscoelastic rheology, including frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. By comparing model predictions with seismic reflection and refraction observations of the depth to the top of the oceanic crust and the depth dependence of seismicity at the Hawaiian Islands, we have been able to constrain the long-term rheological properties of intraplate, plume influenced, Late Cretaceous (83-96 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Our calculations show that while the load-induced surface flexure is insensitive to high-temperature creep, it is sensitive to both the frictional sliding and low-temperature plasticity laws. Results show that a frictional coefficient ranging from 0.25 to 0.70 and a low-temperature plasticity law that is significantly weaker than ones recently proposed from experimental rock mechanics data are required in order to account for the observations. For example, a frictional coefficient of 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity while the low-temperature plasticity law of Mei et al (2010) strengthens the deep part of the lithosphere so much that it predicts too small an amplitude and long a wavelength flexure compared to the observed. Our best fit model suggest the maximum stress that accumulates in the flexed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is 100-200 MPa, and therefore this stress may be viewed as among the largest that Earth's lithosphere is capable of supporting on long geological time-scales.

Zhong, Shijie; Watts, Anthony

2014-05-01

66

Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives  

PubMed Central

Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

2012-01-01

67

Drowned reefs and antecedent karst topography, Au'au channel, S.E. Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the last glacial maximum (LGM), about 21,000 years ago, the Hawaiian Islands of Maui, Lanai, and Molokai were interconnected by limestone bridges, creating a super-island known as Maui-Nui. Approximately 120 m of sea-level rise during the Holocene Transgression flooded, and then drowned, these bridges separating the islands by inter-island channels. A new multibeam high-resolution bathymetric survey of the channels between the islands, coupled with observations and video-transects utilizing DeepWorker-2000 submersibles, has revealed the existence of numerous drowned reef features including concentric solution basins, solution ridges (rims), sand and sediment plains, and conical-shaped reef pinnacles. The concentric basins contain flat lagoon-like bottoms that are rimmed by steep-sided limestone walls. Undercut notches rim the basins at several depths, marking either sea-level still stands or paleo-lake levels. All of the solution basins shallower than 120 m were subaerial at the LGM, and at one stage or another may have been shallow shoreline lakes. Today, about 70 drowned reef pinnacles are scattered across the Maui-Lanai underwater bridge and all are situated in wave-sheltered positions. Most drowned during the interval between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago when sea-level rise averaged 15 mm/year. Virtually all of the surficial topography in the Au'au Channel today is a product of karst processes accentuated by marginal reef growth during the Holocene. Both the submerged basins and the drowned reefs represent an archive of sea-level and climate history in Hawaii during the late Quaternary.

Grigg, R.W.; Grossman, E.E.; Earle, S.A.; Gittings, S.R.; Lott, D.; McDonough, J.

2002-01-01

68

Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for spec

Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

2012-01-01

69

HISTOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) IN THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT  

E-print Network

stressors to decimate the commercially important lobster population in western Long Island Sound (LIS (Maniscalco & Shields 2006). Another emergent pathogen, Vibrio fluvialis, caused focal mortalities off Maine

70

Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Yokose, H.; Lipman, P. W.; Kanamatsu, T.

2005-01-01

71

Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

1977-01-01

72

Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined to a more narrow coastal strip, although there is still much infrastructure at risk. Even for very strong storms in Oahu and Kauai, maximum still water surge is relatively small, and does not exceed 3 m in any storm modeled. In contrast, hurricane waves several kilometers from shore regularly exceed 10 m due to the lack of a continental shelf.

Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

2012-08-01

73

Paleohydrology of arid southeastern maui, hawaiian islands, and its implications for prehistoric human settlement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid slopes on the southeastern side of Maui are densely covered with archaeological remains of Hawaiian settlement from the late prehistoric to early postcontact period (ca. A.D. 1500-1860). Permanent habitation sites, agricultural features, and religious structures indicate perennial occupation and farming in a subregion called Kahikinui, yet there is presently no year-round water source. We explore the possibility that postcontact deforestation led to the loss of either (1) perennial channel flow or (2) perennial springs or seeps. To investigate the first possibility, we estimated ancient peak flows on 11 ephemeral channels in Kahikinui using field measurements and paleohydrology. Peak-flow estimates (3-230 m 3/s) for a given drainage area are smaller than those for current perennial Maui streams, but are equivalent to gauged peak flows from ephemeral and intermittent streams in the driest regions of Hawai'i and Maui islands. This is consistent with the long-term absence of perennial channel flow in Kahikinui. On the other hand, others have shown that canopy fog-drip in Hawai'i can be greater than rainfall and thus a large part of groundwater recharge. Using isolated live remnants and snags, we estimate the former extent of the forest upstream from archaeological sites. We use rough estimates of the loss of fog-drip recharge caused by deforestation and apply a simple, steady-state hydrologic model to calculate potential groundwater table fall. These order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that groundwater could have fallen by a minimum of several meters, abandoning perennial seeps. This is consistent with archaeological evidence for former perennial seeps, such as stonewalls enclosing potential seeps to protect them. Although longer-term reductions in rainfall cannot be ruled out as a factor, deforestation and loss of fog-drip recharge are obvious and more immediate reasons for a recent loss of perennial water in Kahikinui, Maui.

Stock, Jonathan; Coil, James; Kirch, Patrick V.

2003-01-01

74

Favorable outcomes for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) disproportionately impacts minority racial groups. However, limited information exists on TBI outcomes among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI). All patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) <9) who were hospitalized at the state-designated trauma center in Hawai'i from March 2006 to February 2011 were studied. The primary outcome measure was discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale ([GOS]: 1, death; 2, vegetative state; 3, severe disability; 4, moderate disability; 5, good recovery), which was dichotomized to unfavorable (GOS 1-2) and favorable (GOS 3-5). Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess factors predictive of discharge functional outcome. A total of 181 patients with severe TBI (NHPI 27%, Asians 25%, Whites 30%, and others 17%) were studied. NHPI had a higher prevalence of assault-related TBI (25% vs 6.5%, P = .046), higher prevalence of chronic drug abuse (20% vs 4%, P = .02) and chronic alcohol abuse (22% vs 2%, P = .003), and longer intensive care unit length of stay (1510 days vs 119 days, P < .05) compared to Asians. NHPI had lower prevalence of unfavorable functional outcomes compared to Asians (33% vs 61%, P = .006) and Whites (33% vs 56%, P = .02). Logistic regression analyses showed that Asian race (OR, 6.41; 95% CI, 1.68-24.50) and White race (OR, 4.32; 95% CI, 1.27-14.62) are independently associated with unfavorable outcome compared to NHPI. Contrary to the hypothesis, NHPI with severe TBI have better discharge functional outcomes compared to other major racial groups. PMID:23795313

Nakagawa, Kazuma; Hoshide, Reid R; Asai, Susan M; Johnson, Katherine G; Beniga, Juliet G; Albano, Melanie C; del Castillo, Johnna L; Donovan, Daniel J; Chang, Cherylee W; Koenig, Matthew A

2013-04-01

75

Efficacy of Federal Data: Revised Office of Management and Budget Standard for Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders Examined  

PubMed Central

Summary This policy brief examines the status of federal data since the implementation of the 1997 Revised OMB 15 standards for the collection of race and ethnic data, identifies ongoing data limitations, and present recommendations to improve policy and interventions for Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI). While most federal agencies are taking appropriate steps to comply with the revised OMB standards, many are having less success reporting disaggregated information on NHPIs. This suggests that increased efforts to obtain robust samples of NHPIs warrants immediate attention in order for federal agencies to fully comply with the revised OMB standards.

Panapasa, Sela V.; Crabbe, Kamana'opono M.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku

2014-01-01

76

Evolution, insular restriction, and extinction of oceanic land crabs, exemplified by the loss of an endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

2011-01-01

77

Ethnoracial Disparities in Sexual Assault among Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Context Ethnoracial differences may exist in exposure to trauma and post-traumatic outcomes. However, Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) are vastly underrepresented in research pertaining to trauma and health status sequelae. Objective To determine whether there are ethnoracial disparities in sexual trauma exposure and its sequelae for health and functioning among Asian-Americans and NHOPI. Design, Setting, Participants We examined data on sexual assault exposure from the 20062007 Hawai`i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (H-BRFSS), cross-sectional adult community-based probability sample (n = 12,573). Data were collected via computer-assisted random-digit landline telephone survey. Survey response rate was found to be about 48% in 2006 and 52% in 2007. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information, the Sexual Violence Module regarding unwanted sexual experiences, and questions about health lifestyles, chronic diseases and disability, and health status and quality of life. Results Participants were 42.3% White, 14.4% NHOPI, and 39.3% Asian-American. NHOPI had a higher 12-month period prevalence (2.24 per 100, CI=1.323.78) of any unwanted sexual experience, but a lower prevalence estimate and odds ratio for any lifetime unwanted sexual experience (prevalence: 9.38 per 100, CI=7.5911.55; odds ratio: 0.61, CI=0.470.81) relative to Whites, after adjusting for age, gender, income and education level. Asian-Americans had lower prevalence estimates for 12-month period prevalence (0.78 per 100, CI=0.441.39), and lower lifetime prevalence estimates and odds ratios (prevalence: 3.91 per 100, CI=3.234.72; odds ratio: 0.27, CI=0.210.34). 12-month and lifetime prevalence estimate any unwanted sexual experiences for Whites were 0.71 per 100 (CI=0.451.12) and 12.01 per 100 (CI=10.9613.14), respectively. Sexual assault experiences were highly associated with adverse health status sequelae (e.g., disability, poor general health), but there were no significant ethnoracial disparities on self-reported health outcomes among those with a lifetime history of unwanted sexual experiences. Conclusions Data revealed significant ethnoracial differences among Whites, Asian-Americans, and NHOPIs on unwanted sexual experiences, with relative risk differing by time period. This pattern of disparity could represent early stages of a new trend in local assaultive behaviors toward NHOPIs and merits attention. Across all ethnoracial groups, a lifetime history of any unwanted sexual experience is associated with a wide range of adverse health status sequelae. PMID:21208575

Crisanti, Annette S.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Gundaya, Debbie; Salvail, Florentina R.; Triffleman, Elisa G.

2010-01-01

78

Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and

Peter S. Vroom; Cristi L. Braun; Sharyn Jane Goldstien

2010-01-01

79

Major Element Variations in Hawaiian Shield Lavas: Source Features and Perspectives from global Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) Systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among volcanic hotspots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. As originally discovered by Hauri (1996), olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. However, we find that individual data points exhibit remarkable trends, and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lavas at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). Only FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations (corrected to MgO 16%) do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. When plotted against 206Pb/204Pb, the fractionation-corrected FeOtotal concentrations of the extreme low 143Nd/144Nd Loa-trend lavasall from Koolau, Kahoolawe and Lanaiappear to be shifted to slightly lower values than Kea-trend volcanoes and Loihi. Fractionation-corrected Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations appear to be offset to somewhat higher values in most of Loa-trend lavas, while Hawaiian lavas with the highest 143Nd/144Nd, including Loihi and Kea-trend volcanoes, tend to have slightly lower Al2O3 and Na2O abundances. The Hawaiian dataset exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian lavas with radiogenic Pb and SiO2-poor lavas are sourced by a SiO2-poor mafic component (pyroxenite) admixed with peridotite, while Hawaiian lavas with unradiogenic Pb and high SiO2 are sourced by a SiO2-rich mafic component (eclogite). The variable SiO2 in the mafic component may result from different degrees of SiO2-extraction from the slab during subduction.

Jackson, M. G.; Weis, D. A.; Huang, S.

2012-12-01

80

Interpersonal Violence and Mental Health Outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander College Students  

PubMed Central

In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 614) we studied interpersonal violence victimization, perpetration, and mental health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural-based sample of Asian Americans (27%), and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (25%), two groups vastly underrepresented in trauma research. High rates of interpersonal violence (34%), violence perpetration (13%), and probable psychiatric diagnoses (77%), including posttraumatic stress disorder, were found. Exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology. Female participants were associated with higher likelihood of sexual violence victimization compared to male participants, and Asian American status (especially among males) was associated with lower likelihood of physical and sexual violence compared with European Americans. These data enhance our understanding of interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among previously understudied minority groups. PMID:21297936

Archambeau, Olga G.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Herman, Steve; Kim, Bryan S. K.

2010-01-01

81

Socio-demographic, Behavioral, and Biological Variables Related to Weight Loss in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ?3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n=49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n=51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (p?.05) with ?3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR=6.04; CI=1.1432.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR=1.47; CI=1.221.86) and who were in the PLP (OR=4.50; CI=1.5015.14) were more likely to achieve ?3% weight loss [model; ?2 (7, N=100) = 45.50, p < .0001]. The same lifestyle intervention does not benefit all NHs/PIs equally, possibly due to differences in acculturation status and social support. The findings also point to the importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance. PMID:23404724

Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; Townsend, Claire K.M.; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka`imi A.; Mau, Marjorie K.; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

2012-01-01

82

Submarine Tholeiitic Volcanism (ca. 3.6 to 4.9 Ma) West of Kaena Ridge, Hawaiian Islands: Implications of Low Magma Productivity in the Evolution of the Hawaiian Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine tholeiitic and transitional basaltic lavas from volcanic cones west of Kaena Ridge between the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai were generated by the Hawaiian plume during a time of low magma productivity. Geochemical and Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb isotopic compositions of West Kaena lavas compared to basalts from Hawaiian shield volcanoes and volume calculations along axis of the Hawaiian Islands provide insights on the relationship between magmatic flux and source composition in the Hawaiian plume in the last 5 Myr. Kaena Ridge is an elongate, relatively flat-topped submerged terrace 35-55 km wide that extends ~80 km from the western edge of Oahu The volcanic cones west of Kaena Ridge were sampled by Jason II from R/V Kilo Moana in 2007. The flat-topped and conical cones are <400 m high and <2 km in diameter at water depths ranging between ~2700 to 4300 m, and consist predominantly of pillowed flows and mounds. Ar-Ar ages of eight lavas are between 4.9 and 3.6 Ma; three additional K-Ar ages range from 4.7 to 4.3 Ma. These ages overlap with shield volcanism on Kauai (5.1-4.1 Ma) and Waianae volcano shield basalts (3.9-3.1 Ma) on Oahu. Half of the volcanic cones contain high-SiO2 basalts (51.0 to 53.5 wt% SiO_{2}). Isotopic compositions of West Kaena lavas diverge from the main Koolau-Kea mixing trend in binary isotope diagrams and extend to lower 206Pb/^{204}Pb and 208Pb/^{204}Pb ratios than any Hawaiian tholeiitic lava. Several West Kaena samples are similar to SiO2-enriched, Loa-trend lavas of Koolau Makapuu stage, Lanai, and Kahoolawe. However, compared to basalts from these volcanoes the lavas from West Kaena have higher Hf and Nd and lower Sr isotope ratios and do not trend to high ^{208}Pb/$^{204}Pb. A correlation is apparent between magma productivity and isotopic compositions. Thus, west of Kaena Ridge samples may have been generated from a source with a relatively high proportion of eclogite due to decreased plume flux, having formed further from the plume axis, and/or a different distribution of compositional heterogeneities.

Greene, A. R.; Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Kuga, M.; Ito, G.; Robinson, J. E.

2009-12-01

83

Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

2012-07-01

84

Conservation of the Endemic Fern Lineage Diellia (Aspleniaceae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Can Population Structure Indicate Regional Dynamics and Endangering Factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aimed to understand the regional population dynamics of the endemic fern lineage Diellia (D. erecta, D. erecta f. alexandri, D. falcata, D. mannii, D. pallida, and D. unisora) in mesic forests on the Hawaiian Islands. In particular, we were interested in whether studying life-stage structure would\\u000a contribute to setting conservation management priorities and understanding regional dynamics. A repeated field

Ruth Aguraiuja; Martin Zobel; Kristjan Zobel; Mari Moora

2008-01-01

85

Horizontal movements and depth distribution of large adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) near the Hawaiian Islands, recorded using ultrasonic telemetry: implications for the physiological ecology of pelagic fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the horizontal and vertical movements of five adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, estimated body mass 64 to 93?kg) near the main Hawaiian Islands, while simultaneously gathering data on oceanographic conditions\\u000a and currents. Fish movements were recorded by means of ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters. Depthtemperature and depthoxygen\\u000a profiles were measured with vertical conductivitytemperaturedepth (CTD) casts, and the current-velocity field was

R. W. Brill; B. A. Block; C. H. Boggs; K. A. Bigelow; E. V. Freund; D. J. Marcinek

1999-01-01

86

Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR  

E-print Network

-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kaua`i or some older island~o Pinto, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Portugal Received January 10, 2013; Accepted March 22

Sytsma, Kenneth J.

87

Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kaui, then ahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, orperhaps more plausiblya single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kaui or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

88

On the Dynamics of Hawaiian Cloud Bands: Comparison of Model Results with Observations and Island Climatology.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a detailed comparison study of three-dimensional model results with an aircraft wind field mapping for the island of Hawaii. Model runs were initialized using an aircraft sounding from 1 August 1985, and detailed predictions from the model are compared with observations from that day.The strength and location of the upwind convergence zone were well simulated, as well as the strong deflection and deceleration of the flow around the island and the geometry and location of the upstream cloud bands. The good agreement between the model results and observations supports the results of our previous study in which we show that the flow pattern and associated cloud processes around the island of Hawaii can be understood by considering the flow of a stably stratified fluid around a large three-dimensional obstacle.Model runs with different wind directions showed that increasing northerly tradewind flow resulted in the band clouds moving closer to the shore line, and the large scale flow pattern rotating counterclockwise. Model results were also compared with various aspects of the island climatology, and good agreement was found in both the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation on the island.

Rasmussen, Roy M.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr; Warner, John

1989-06-01

89

Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

Work, T. M.; Balazs, G. H.; Rameyer, R. A.; Morris, R. A.

2004-01-01

90

Competing use of marine space in a modernizing fishery: salmon farming meets lobster fishing  

E-print Network

Competing use of marine space in a modernizing fishery: salmon farming meets lobster fishing Brunswick. New farm sites are large, often located within or close to traditional lobster fishing areas research on interactions between salmon farming and lobster fishing around Deer Island and Grand Manan, New

Walters, Bradley B.

91

Potential gene flow from agricultural crops to native plant relatives in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Island populations have a much higher risk of extinction than their mainland counterparts for a number of reasons. Particular concern has been voiced that gene flow and hybridization between agricultural crops and native plant species may exacerbate their precarious position, especially if the gene flow occurs from crops developed through recombinant DNA technologies. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and vertical gene

Peter Mnster; Ania M. Wieczorek

2007-01-01

92

Evidence for climatic control of bedrock river incision on the Hawaiian island of Kaua';i (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock river incision drives the topographic evolution of Earth's mountain ranges, and thus indirectly controls Earth's long-term climate and rates of hillslope soil erosion and chemical weathering. Longstanding expectations that river incision rates should increase with increasing precipitation rates have been difficult to verify with field measurements, partly due to challenges in measuring river incision rates, and partly due to the confounding influences of non-climatic factors on river incision rates. Here we present measurements showing that precipitation rates influence million-year-scale bedrock channel incision rates across one of Earth's steepest rainfall gradients. We do so by applying the stream power law - an empirical rule for bedrock river incision - to a series of rivers on the Hawaiian island of Kaua';i, where mean annual precipitation ranges from 0.5 meters to 9.5 meters, a span that covers over 70 per cent of the global range. Kaua';i provides an excellent natural laboratory for this study because of its extraordinarily wide range of climates, and also because million-year-scale river incision rates can be inferred from published bedrock ages and Kaua';i's topography. We use the stream power law in two complementary calculations to investigate climatic effects on river incision. First, we apply it to rates averaged over the duration of channel incision, which bedrock ages constrain to be no greater than 4.43 0.45 Myr. Second, we apply it to numerical modeling of transient river incision, initialized to estimates of the pre-incision topography. Both of these analyses suggest that the efficiency of bedrock channel incision across Kaua';i is positively correlated with upstream-averaged mean annual precipitation rates. These measurements are consistent with a linear relationship between river incision rates and stream power (i.e., the rate at which the river expends energy on the riverbed), which in turn suggests that river incision rates scale with both upstream-averaged mean annual precipitation rates and drainage area to the one-half power. These observations provide rare empirical support for a climatic influence on river incision, and therefore suggest that previously proposed feedbacks among topography, climate, and tectonics may indeed occur. We conclude by discussing the influence of island subsidence on base level over an island's lifetime, and we explore the role that changes in base level play in driving changes in fluvial sediment cover and the evolution of river long profiles.

Ferrier, K.; Huppert, K.; Perron, J.

2013-12-01

93

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Long-term population trends of endangered Hawaiian waterbirds  

E-print Network

), and Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Time series were analyzed by species­island combinations), Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai), and Hawaiian stilt (Himan- topus mexicanus knudseni), which were listed

Reed, Michael

94

Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 19941997 and again during 20072013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria.

Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; Lapointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

95

Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will investigate the seismology and geological origins of the Hawaiian Islands to discover how scientists can obtain information on geological processes deep within the Earth. As a result of this activity, students will be able to explain the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that formed the Hawaiian Islands and describe, compare, and contrast S waves and P waves. They will also learn how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, and will infer a probable explanation for the existence of ultra-low velocity zones, and how these zones may be related to the Hawaiian hotspot.

Goodwin, Mel

96

Tobacco use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals: 2002-2010  

PubMed Central

Background Non-Hispanic Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals are the fastest growing segments of the US population. We examined prevalences and correlates of tobacco use among these understudied groups. Prevalences among whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were drawn from the 20022010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Respondents aged ?12 years were assessed for current (past-month) use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff), and pipe tobacco. Respondents race/ethnicity, age, sex, household income, government assistance, urbanicity of residence, residential stability, self-rated health, alcohol use, and drug use were examined as correlates. Results Between 2002 and 2010, there was a decline in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among whites (26.9% in 2002; 24.3% in 2010) and Asian Americans (18.0% in 2002; 11.1% in 2010). Prevalence of pipe tobacco use among mixed-race individuals increased from 0.2% in 2002 to 1.6% in 2010; there was little change in the prevalence of cigar and smokeless tobacco use in these racial/ethnic groups. Adjusted analyses showed that, compared with Asian Americans, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of using four tobacco products, and NHs/PIs had greater odds of using cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. Regardless of race/ethnicity, male sex was a correlate of use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco; alcohol and drug use increased the odds of cigarette and cigar smoking. Conclusions These new findings show prevalent tobacco use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals, and highlight the importance of including these populations in future research and reporting. PMID:23394689

Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Blazer, Dan G.

2013-01-01

97

Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

2014-01-01

98

Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

1987-01-01

99

Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

2004-01-01

100

Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

2012-01-01

101

Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over historic time Hawaii's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawaii, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A. C.

2012-03-01

102

HURL's 2003 OE and NURP Deep Submergence Science Program in the NW and Main Hawaiian Islands and Projects Planned for 2004-2006.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will emphasise the advantages of using manned submersibles in conjunction with ROV pre-surveys during UH's NOAA-funded Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 64-day Ocean Exploration research cruise in the NW Hawaiian Islands scheduled for Sept 3-Nov 6, 2003. The up-leg to Kure Atoll will focus on "Submarine Canyon and Scavenger Communities" (PIs Craig Smith & Eric Vetter) and "Characteristics of Deepwater Fish and Precious Corals on the Seamounts Neighboring Hawaii's Most Remote Seal Colonies" (PI: Frank Parrish). Two projects for PIs Amy Baco-Taylor & Timothy Shank are scheduled for the down-leg: "Seamount Surveys of Deep-Water Corals as Related to Geological Setting in the NWHI" and "Reproductive Biology and population genetics of Precious Corals in Hawaii". For 2004 -2006, HURL has 18 peer-reviewed projects approved. These include 45 submersible dives for projects in US Flag Waters SE of Hawaii, during a joint NURP-OE Expedition to American Samoa, scheduled for late 2004 and early 2005. Dives for most projects in the Main and nearer NW Hawaiian Islands will be scheduled for 2006, with a few exceptions. The scope and rationale of this planned program exemplifies the synergy between NOAA's Ocean Exploration and Undersea Research Program objectives.

Crook, K. A.

2003-12-01

103

Long-term population trends of endangered Hawaiian waterbirds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed long-term winter survey data (19562007) for three endangered waterbirds endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, the\\u000a Hawaiian moorhen (Gallinula chloropus sandvicensis), Hawaiian coot (Fulica alai), and Hawaiian stilt (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni). Time series were analyzed by speciesisland combinations using generalized additive models, with alternative models compared\\u000a using Akaike information criterion (AIC). The best model included three smoothers, one for

J. Michael ReedChris; Chris S. Elphick; Elena N. Ieno; Alain F. Zuur

2011-01-01

104

Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

2010-01-01

105

Things Hawaiian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this short guide, activities are described in five areas: musical instruments, games, canoe building, clothing instruction, and cooking with Hawaiian recipes. All of these activities are designed to help young Hawaiians find out about Hawaii's past. This guide is part of an artifacts kit which contains a few of the many different kinds of

Choo, Lehua

106

Hawaiian health practitioners in contemporary society.  

PubMed

Hawaiian medical practices in Hawai'i became fragmented and deteriorated following the arrival of Western civilization. With the resurgence of Hawaiian pride, interest has risen to preserve what remains of Hawaiian healing methods. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which Hawaiian healing modalities are still in existence and practiced in the 1990s by Hawaiian health practitioners. Twenty-five Hawaiian health practitioners on the island of O'ahu agreed to in-depth interviews on their specific training and current practices of Hawaiian healing. Data collection included demographic characteristics, cultural attributes, training patterns, healing modalities, motivation to practice, spirituality and health, use of Hawaiian medicines, and training of haumana (students). Common practices as well as differences between practitioners and specialties were explored. This study found that a small, but substantive, component of Hawaiian healing is practiced by a growing number of Hawaiian practitioners. Content analyses identified two major components of Hawaiian healing: (1) attributes of Hawaiian culture, and (2) elements of spirituality in health and healing. Three significant modalities remain: ho'olomilomi, massage; la'au lapa'au, herbal medicine; and ho'oponopono, conflict resolution. Seventeen or 68% reported being skilled in more than one healing modality and 56% were training haumana. All practitioners reported apprenticeships under one or more master healers or a recognized elder healer--often a family member. Prior to, and after, the administration of any healing modality, spiritual blessings were administered by all practitioners to initiate the healing process and end the healing session. Hawaiian values--such as lokahi, harmony between man, nature, and the gods--are essential for holistic health. Without lokahi, there is illness. In summary, this study provides data that previously did not exist on contemporary Hawaiian health practitioners. Public health planners and health care professionals may find this information useful in developing culturally competent health programs for Hawaiian clients or patients. PMID:12180505

Chang, H K

2001-09-01

107

Influence of Precipitation Rates on Bedrock River Incision Rates on the Hawaiian Island of Kaua'i  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bedrock river incision mediates the interaction between surface processes and tectonics by conveying base level change across landscapes, driving rock exhumation, and modulating rates of hillslope erosion. Despite longstanding expectations that river incision should depend on precipitation, quantifying the effects of precipitation rates on river incision rates in the field has proven difficult, in part because other factors that influence river incision often co-vary with precipitation. With minimal variation in lithology, a well-constrained history of volcanic construction, and a steep gradient in mean annual precipitation that ranges from 0.5 m/yr to 9.5 m/yr over just 25 km, the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i provides an exceptional natural laboratory for quantifying the influence of precipitation on bedrock river incision. We performed two analyses to relate the efficiency of river incision to mean annual precipitation on Kaua'i. Each analysis is based on the stream power equation (E = KAm}S{n), a physically based rule that relates channel incision rate E to drainage area A and channel slope S through an erodibility coefficient K. In the first analysis, we calculated time-averaged river incision rates from the depths of river canyons and radiometric ages for the initial volcano surface along 32 major river channels on Kaua'i, and then estimated best-fit values for the stream power parameters K, m, and n by regressing the measured values of E against present-day values of A and S. In the second analysis, we modeled the transient evolution of 93 channel segments from their initial topographic profiles to their modern profiles, restricting this analysis to channel segments with minimal internal variation in precipitation rates (upstream precipitation rates with standard deviation < 20% of their mean). We found best-fit values of K and m for each channel by modeling profile evolution with a constant value of n = 2/3 and a range of values for K and m, and selecting the parameter values that minimized the error between the modeled and present-day profiles. Both analyses show positive correlations between the topographically normalized rate of bedrock river incision and upstream mean annual precipitation. In both analyses, the dependence is robust to uncertainties in bedrock age, methods of calculation, channel slope exponent n, and changes in channel slope over time. To account for this observed relationship, we write a modified version of the stream power law with an explicit power-law dependence on mean annual precipitation rates P, and we show that the time-averaged erosion rates on Kaua'i fit this model with a dependence on P to the power 0.67 0.01 (mean s.e.). These results provide empirical evidence for climatic control of long-term erosion rates, and they illustrate the advantages of studying natural experiments in landscape evolution.

Huppert, K. L.; Ferrier, K.; Perron, J.

2012-12-01

108

Patterns of genetic connectivity among anchialine habitats: a case study of the endemic Hawaiian shrimp Halocaridina rubra on the island of Hawaii.  

PubMed

Anchialine habitats, landlocked bodies of mixohaline water that fluctuate with the tides but have no surface connection to the sea, are known from around the world. Many anchialine organisms have widespread distributions and it has been hypothesized that high levels of gene flow and low levels of genetic differentiation are characteristic of populations from these habitats. However, the generality of this hypothesis requires further assessment, particularly in light of the significant negative impact these habitats and their biota have experienced from anthropogenic causes. This study investigated the population structure and demography of an endemic Hawaiian anchialine species, the atyid shrimp Halocaridina rubra, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. A survey of 305 individuals from 16 populations collected on the island of Hawaii revealed 135 haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (2.7-4.9%) lineages; notably, no haplotypes were shared between the two coasts of the island. Along each coast, strong subdivision and little to no gene flow occurs between populations separated by > 30 km. The population structure and demography of H. rubra on Hawaii are influenced by regional hydrology, geology, volcanism and two distinct colonization events of the island. Thus, H. rubra on Hawaii demonstrates that populations of endemic anchialine organisms may exhibit significant levels of genetic structure and restricted levels of gene flow over limited geographic scales. This report brings novel insight into the biology of anchialine organisms and has important implications for the future management of these habitats and their biota. PMID:16911195

Santos, Scott R

2006-09-01

109

Copyright 1998 by the Genetics Society of America Genetics of Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian and Cook Islands Species of  

E-print Network

and Cook Islands Species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae). II. Genetic Linkage Map and Its Implications segregation suggests the buildup of internal crossing barriers, even though island plant species are typically of previous crossing studies in island plants show that internal (postmating) crossing barriers do exist

Whitkus, Richard

110

GRB Astrophysics with LOBSTER  

SciTech Connect

We refer on the recent developments of LOBSTER project suggesting novel wide-field Lobster-Eye type of X-ray All Sky Monitor to detect and to analyze GRBs including XRF and X-ray rich GRBs. The triggers can be detected and localized by their X-ray emission in the 0.1 - 8 keV energy range. The system exhibits fine detecting sensitivities of order of 10-12 ergcm-2s-1 and the localization accuracy is of order of a few arcmin. The LOBSTER is expected to contribute significantly to analyses of GRBs and especially the XRFs.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, CZ-251 65 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Center of Advanced X-Ray Technologies, Reflex s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic); Sveda, L. [Faculty of Nuclear Science, Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Inneman, A. [Center of Advanced X-Ray Technologies, Reflex s.r.o., Prague (Czech Republic)

2006-05-19

111

New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Sherrod, D. R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, T.

2007-01-01

112

Understanding the Scale of Marine Protection in Hawai'i: From Community-Based Management to the Remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

2014-01-01

113

Genetics of adaptive radiation in Hawaiian and Cook Islands species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae). II. Genetic linkage map and its implications for interspecific breeding barriers.  

PubMed Central

In a study of the genetic mechanisms associated with adaptive radiation in Hawaiian Tetramolopium, a genetic linkage map was constructed in an interspecific cross. A total of 125 RFLP and RAPD markers were mapped into 117 different loci on nine linkage groups for a map length of 665.7 cM. Segregation distortion occurred in 49% of the mapped probes, located primarily in four linkage groups. High percentages of one parental species genotype (Tetramolopium rockii) were recovered in three of these blocks and the second parental species (T. humile) in the remaining block. The high degree of distorted segregation suggests the buildup of internal crossing barriers, even though island plant species are typically characterized as highly cross compatible with few to no internal crossing barriers. This work and a review of previous crossing studies in island plants show that internal (postmating) crossing barriers do exist. The weak crossing barriers have likely been overlooked because the main focus has been on diversification and speciation through adaptation to extremely diverse environments. PMID:9799272

Whitkus, R

1998-01-01

114

Exploring Hawaiian volcanism  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pele in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawaii provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVOs founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

2013-01-01

115

Chemical Communication in Lobsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Lobsters are fascinating animals that use chemicals as messages regarding their sexual status, their standing in a social\\u000a hierarchy, and whether they affiliate with or avoid conspecifics. This, plus their economic importance, makes them important\\u000a models for the study of intraspecific chemical communication. Our chapter is an overview of these processes, including the\\u000a types of interactions between lobsters influenced by

Juan Aggio; Charles D. Derby

116

LIGA FOR LOBSTER?  

SciTech Connect

The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H. [and others

2000-09-01

117

Science Nation: Dying Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lobster is important to many local economies. But this crustacean is threatened by a new virus. The level of infection is believed to be between five and eight percent of the population. Researchers are using a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to try to understand the dynamics of the disease, and specifically how it's spreading. A better understanding of how the virus spreads could lead to more effective management strategies for protecting uninfected lobsters from getting the disease.

118

Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin  

PubMed Central

Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with sky islands of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high-elevation settings in the Hawaiian chain immediately prior to formation of the oldest, modern high-elevation island, Kauai. PMID:20382966

Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

2010-01-01

119

The Return of Hawaiian: Language Networks of the Revival Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some 40 years ago, language transmission in Hawai'i was interrupted among Hawaiians across all islands with the sole exception of language maintenance among a small community on the tiny, isolated Ni'ihau Island. Today, Hawaiian has returned as spoken and written medium with some 5000-7000 new speakers. The present paper provides an

Brenzinger, Matthias; Heinrich, Patrick

2013-01-01

120

Predictors of exclusive breastfeeding at least 8 weeks among Asian and Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander race subgroups in Hawaii, 2004-2008.  

PubMed

Breastfeeding is nurturing, cost-effective, and beneficial for the health of mother and child. Babies receiving formula are sick more often and are at higher risk for childhood obesity, diabetes, asthma, and other conditions compared with breastfed children. National and international organizations recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Exclusive breastfeeding in Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) subgroups is not well characterized. Data from the 2004-2008 Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, a population-based surveillance system on maternal behaviors and experiences before, during, and after pregnancy, were analyzed for 8,508 mothers with a recent live birth. We examined exclusive breastfeeding status for at least 8 weeks. We calculated prevalence risk ratios across maternal race groups accounting for maternal and socio-demographic characteristics. The overall estimate of exclusive breastfeeding for at least 8 weeks was 36.3%. After adjusting for maternal age, pre-pregnancy weight, cesarean delivery, return to work/school, and self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms, the racial differences in prevalence ratios for exclusive breastfeeding for each ethnic group compared to Whites were: Samoan (aPR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.43-0.69), Filipino (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.53-0.63), Japanese (aPR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.52-0.65), Chinese (aPR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.58-0.70), Native Hawaiian (aPR = 0.67; 95% CI 0.61-0.72), Korean (aPR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.64-0.82), and Black (aPR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96) compared to white mothers. Providers and community groups should be aware that just over one-third of mothers breastfeed exclusively at least 8 weeks with lower rates among Asian, NHOPI, and Black mothers. Culturally appropriate efforts to promote exclusive breastfeeding are recommended particularly among Asian subgroups that have high breastfeeding initiation rates that do not translate into high exclusivity rates. PMID:24096640

Hayes, Donald K; Mitchell, Kristen M; Donohoe-Mather, Carolyn; Zaha, Rebecca L; Melcher, Carol; Fuddy, Loretta J

2014-07-01

121

Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano  

SciTech Connect

New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

122

Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave "exposed" sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes) at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore water flow and transport by surface currents. The densities of recruits (juveniles ???5 cm total length) were higher overall on windward versus leeward sectors of carbonate rock-rubble back reefs at both atolls, and the pattern was stronger for smaller (likely younger, more recently settled) recruits of four of the five most abundant species and the remainder pooled as an "Other" taxon. The windward-leeward disparity was four-fold greater at Pearl Hermes (the atoll with a three-fold longer perimeter) than at Kure. Resident predator biomass also was correlated with recruit densities, but habitat (benthic substratum) effects were generally weak. The distribution and abundance of recruits and juveniles of the primarily endemic reef fishes on shallow back reefs at these atolls appear partly influenced by relative rates of water flow over windward vs. leeward sectors of barrier reef and by the size, shape, and orientation of habitat parcels that filter out postlarval fishes with relatively weak swimming capabilities like labroids. Whole-reef geomorphology as well as fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and rugosity should be considered among the suite of many factors used to interpret observed spatial patterns of post-settlement juvenile fish distribution at atolls and perhaps some other tropical reefs. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

DeMartini, E.E.; Zgliczynski, B.J.; Boland, R.C.; Friedlander, A.M.

2009-01-01

123

Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.  

PubMed

Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ? 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

2013-12-01

124

Sexual reproduction in Hawaiian Acropora  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sexual reproductive maturity was evaluated in Acropora valida, Acropora cytherea and Acropora humilis at French Frigate Shoals, Northwest Hawaiian Islands during two consecutive summers. Acropora valida gonads matured at different rates in different habitats in both years. Spawning was inferred by the sudden disappearance of gonads of mature size. Histological sections of fertile polyps confirmed the maturity of gonads prior to spawning. An isolated colony of A. humilis spawned in early summer. Strong indications of sexually mature colonics of A. cytherea exist, but clear temporal patterns were not apparent. Lunar period of spawning in reef flat A. valida and A. humilis differed from that reported for these species from other regions. The three species did not overlap in time of spawning. Previous ideas concerning the allochthonous origin of larval recruits, as well as the absence of Acropora from high islands of the Hawaiian chain, are re-evaluated in light of new evidence for sexual reproductive capacity by native populations.

Kenyon, Jean C.

1992-04-01

125

Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine

Joel E. Robinson; Barry W. Eakins

2006-01-01

126

Coherence of internal tide modulations along the Hawaiian Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long time series of sea level from tide gauges along the north side of the Hawaiian Ridge and shorter series of dynamic heights inferred from inverted echo sounders moored just north of the main Hawaiian Islands are examined for evidence of internal tides at the M2 frequency. We find that the amplitudes and phases of the M2 tidal components have

Gary T. Mitchum; Stephen M. Chiswell

2000-01-01

127

Psychosocial Risk and Protective Influences in Hawaiian Adolescent Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian\\/Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support

Linda B. Nahulu; Naleen N. Andrade; George K. Makini; Noelle Y. C. Yuen; John F. McDermott; George P. Danko; Ronald C. Johnson; Jane A. Waldron

1996-01-01

128

Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the endmember sites where OM accumulated at the surfaces of larger mineral grains, topsoil MOAs of the 20-400-kyr sites are composed of a homogeneous admixture of small-sized PC minerals and OM, which originated from both adsorption and precipitation processes. The chemical composition of OM in surface-horizon MOAs, however, was largely controlled by the uniform source vegetation irrespective of the substrate age whereas in subsoil horizons, aromatic and carboxylic C correlated positively with oxalate-extractable Al and Si and CuCl 2-extractable Al concentrations representing PC aluminosilicates and Al-organic complexes ( r2 > 0.85). Additionally, XPS depth profiles suggest a zonal structure of sorbed OM with aromatic carbons being enriched in the proximity of mineral surfaces and amide carbons (peptides/proteins) being located in outer regions of MOAs. Albeit the mineralogical and compositional changes of OM, the rigidity of mineral-associated OM as analyzed by DSC changed little over time. A significantly reduced side chain mobility of sorbed OM was, however, observed in subsoil MOAs, which likely arose from stronger mineral-organic bindings. In conclusion, our study shows that the properties of soil MOAs change substantially over time with different mineral assemblages favoring the association of different types of OM, which is further accentuated by a vertical gradient of OM composition on mineral surfaces. Factors supporting the stabilization of sorbed OM were (i) the surface area and reactivity of minerals (primary or secondary crystalline minerals versus PC secondary minerals), (ii) the association of OM with micropores of PC minerals (via 'sterically' enhanced adsorption), (iii) the effective embedding of OM in 'well mixed' arrays with PC minerals and monomeric/polymeric metal species, (iv) the inherent stability of acidic aromatic OM components, and (iv) an impaired segmental mobility of sorbed OM, which might increase its stability against desorption and microbial utilization.

Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

2009-04-01

129

Invasive aphids attack native Hawaiian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species have had devastating impacts on the fauna and flora of the Hawaiian Islands. While the negative effects of\\u000a some invasive species are obvious, other species are less visible, though no less important. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae)\\u000a are not native to Hawaii but have thoroughly invaded the Island chain, largely as a result of anthropogenic influences. As\\u000a aphids cause both

Russell H. Messing; Michelle N. Tremblay; Edward B. Mondor; Robert G. Foottit; Keith S. Pike

2007-01-01

130

THE CAVERNICOLOUS FAUNA OF HAWAIIAN LAVA TUBES, 2. TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF BLIND ISOPOD CRUSTACEANS (Oniscoidea: Philosciidae)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of blind, pigmentless isopods are described from three different locations on the Hawaiian Island chain. They are inhabitants of lava tubes which are the caves of the Hawaiian Islands. Each species is described in a separate genus because they are widely different morphologically. The species, perhaps imported with soil, are most likely not endemic to the islands. Notes

George A. Schultz

131

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

132

Covariation of climate and long-term erosion rates across a steep rainfall gradient on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i  

E-print Network

Erosion of volcanic ocean islands creates dramatic landscapes, modulates Earths carbon cycle, and delivers sediment to coasts and reefs. Because many volcanic islands have large climate gradients and minimal variations ...

Ferrier, Ken L.

133

Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality  

SciTech Connect

The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F. [LASST, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

2011-06-10

134

Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP  

E-print Network

Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP YANG island-scale circulations over the island of Hawaii during the Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP, 11 July

Chen, Yi-Leng

135

Covariation of climate and long-term erosion rates across a steep rainfall gradient on the Hawaiian island of Kaua`i  

E-print Network

islands over time (e.g., Dana, 1890). The recently erupted lava flows on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Massachusetts 02138, USA 3 U.S. Geological Survey, Hanalei, Kaua`i, Hawaii 96714, USA 4 U.S. Geological Survey on the island of Hawai`i form smooth hillslopes that are undissected by rivers, and they stand in stark contrast

Perron, Taylor

136

Population Genetic Structure and Origins of Native Hawaiians in the Multiethnic Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

The population genetic structure of Native Hawaiians has yet to be comprehensively studied, and the ancestral origins of Polynesians remain in question. In this study, we utilized high-resolution genome-wide SNP data and mitochondrial genomes of 148 and 160 Native Hawaiians, respectively, to characterize their population structure of the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, ancestral origins, and population expansion. Native Hawaiians, who self-reported full Native Hawaiian heritage, demonstrated 78% Native Hawaiian, 11.5% European, and 7.8% Asian ancestry with 99% belonging to the B4 mitochondrial haplogroup. The estimated proportions of Native Hawaiian ancestry for those who reported mixed ancestry (i.e. 75% and 50% Native Hawaiian heritage) were found to be consistent with their self-reported heritage. A significant proportion of Melanesian ancestry (mean?=?32%) was estimated in 100% self-reported Native Hawaiians in an ADMIXTURE analysis of Asian, Melanesian, and Native Hawaiian populations of K?=?2, where K denotes the number of ancestral populations. This notable proportion of Melanesian admixture supports the Slow-Boat model of migration of ancestral Polynesian populations from East Asia to the Pacific Islands. In addition, approximately 1,300 years ago a single, strong expansion of the Native Hawaiian population was estimated. By providing important insight into the underlying population structure of Native Hawaiians, this study lays the foundation for future genetic association studies of this U.S. minority population. PMID:23144833

Kim, Sung K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Wall, Jeffrey D.; Lum-Jones, Annette; Wang, Hansong; Haiman, Christopher A.; Chen, Gary K.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Stram, Daniel O.; Saxena, Richa; Cheng, Iona

2012-01-01

137

Nutritional composition of edible Hawaiian seaweeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh seaweeds, both wild and cultivated,are commonly eaten as food in the HawaiianIslands. Before Western contact, limu (seaweed) was a regular part of thediet, and is thought to have contributedvitamins and essential mineral nutrientsnot found in other staple food items. Twenty-two species of edible Hawaiianmacroalgae (6 Chlorophyta, 4 Phaeophyta, 12Rhodophyta) were analyzed for protein,lipid, carbohydrate, ash, caloric, mineraland vitamin content.

Karla J. McDermid; Brooke Stuercke

2003-01-01

138

Islands, Reefs, and a Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students investigate the formation of the Hawaiian archipelago to see what geological processes produced the different physical forms seen among the Hawaiian Islands. Students will be able to describe eight stages in the formation of islands in the Hawaiian archipelago and will describe the movement of tectonic plates in the region including submarine volcanic eruptions, caldera formation, erosion, coral reef building, and atoll stages. They will also learn how a combination of hotspot activity and tectonic plate movement could produce the arrangement of seamounts observed in the Hawaiian archipelago.

Goodwin, Mel

139

Disparities in Self-Reported Postpartum Depression among Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Women in Hawaii: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 20042007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum depression affects 1020% of women and causes significant morbidity and mortality among mothers, children, families,\\u000a and society, but little is known about postpartum depression among the individual Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. This study sought to indentify the prevalence of postpartum depression among common Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. Data from the Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment and

Donald K. Hayes; Van M. Ta; Eric L. Hurwitz; Kristen M. Mitchell-Box; Loretta J. Fuddy

2010-01-01

140

Olivine-hosted melt inclusions in Hawaiian picrites: equilibration, melting, and plume source characteristics  

E-print Network

that distinguish Hawaiian shield volcanoes, but with considerably greater diversity than whole rock compositions Hawaiian volcanoes (Koolau, Mauna Loa, Kilauea, Loihi, and Hualalai) have major and trace element compositions that illustrate the magmatic characteristics of ocean island volcanoes and the nature of mantle

Kurapov, Alexander

141

Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

Aeby, G. S.; Bourne, D. G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

2011-01-01

142

Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." Current and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

143

Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

2006-12-01

144

Is Detroit Seamount a "Hawaiian" Volcano?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detroit Seamount, near the northern terminus of the Emperor seamounts may be an early manifestation of the Hawaiian hotspot. Surprisingly, lavas recovered from Detroit seamount by ODP Leg 145 have incompatible element abundances and isotopic ratios (Sr and Nd) more similar to MORB than shield lavas forming Hawaiian islands. The age of oceanic lithosphere at the time of Emperor seamount formation decreases northwards; hence the depleted nature of these ~81 Ma Detroit seamount lavas has been proposed to reflect: (a) an extreme case of plume-spreading ridge interaction whereby seamount lavas are dominated by components derived from MORB-related asthenoshere and lithosphere (Keller et al., 2000) or (b) enhanced melting of refractory parts of the Hawaiian plume as a result of plume ascent to lower pressures beneath thin lithosphere (Regelous et al., in press). Other possible explanations are that Detroit seamount is unrelated to the Hawaiian hotspot or that the geochemical characteristics of the Hawaiian plume have varied. Drilling at Site 1203 Leg 197 penetrated 457 m of 18 basalt flow units and 12 volcaniclastic interbeds. The upper flows are tholeiitic basalt, but lower flows are vesicular and thick flows of alkalic basalt. Tholeiitic basalt overlying alkalic basalt is unlike the Hawaiian sequence where alkalic postshield-stage lavas erupt after tholeiitic shield-stage lavas, but it is characteristic of the initial submarine volcanism forming Hawaiian shields. We have not completed acquisition of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data, but our compositional data show that neither tholeiitic nor alkalic lavas at Site 1203 are similar to Hawaiian shield and postshield lavas. Although not as depleted in incompatible elements as MORB-like lavas from Leg 145 Site 884 on the eastern flank, Site 1203 tholeiitic lavas have incompatible element abundance intermediate between MORB and Hawaiian tholeiites. The alkalic lavas at Site 1203 have especially surprising geochemical characteristics. At given MgO content the abundance of relatively immobile incompatible elements are similar to those of Mauna Kea postshield alkalic basalt, but abundance of Sr and Ba are buffered at 220-260 ppm and 50-70 ppm, respectively. Some alkalic units also have anomalously low Ti/Zr (<80). Relatively compatible behavior of Sr, Ba and Ti is a characteristic of melts in equilibrium with phlogopite. Although phlogopite may be a residual phase during generation of highly alkalic rejuvenated-stage lavas, it is not a residual phase for late-shield or post-shield lavas. However, residual phlogopite has been inferred for submarine alkalic lavas erupted during the initial growth of Kilauea Volcano (Sisson et al., 2002). The broad northern summit region of Detroit Seamount has been sampled by 4 closely spaced holes (883E and F, 1204A and B). Relative to tholeiitic basalt from the flanks (Sites 884 and 1203), summit lavas have lower SiO2 and higher abundance of incompatible elements; higher pressure of melt segregation and lower extent of melting are inferred. In summary, Detroit Seamount lavas are less enriched in highly incompatible elements than lavas forming Hawaiian shields. For (La/Yb)PM the island extremes are ~2.8 for Mauna Loa and 4.6 for Kilauea whereas Detroit Seamount lavas range from a MORB-like <1 at Site 884 to 1.2-2.1 in summit lavas (Sites 883 and 1204) to 2.2-2.5 in alkalic basalt (Site 1203). Although it is premature to endorse any of the proposed hypotheses for explaining these differences, an important result is that the evidence for residual phlogopite during segregation of alkalic lavas at Site 1203 is consistent with shallow melt segregation, and inconsistent with a relatively large extent of plume melting promoted by a longer melting column.

Huang, S.; Frey, F. A.

2002-12-01

145

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1 PMID:4343316

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

146

The Kea and Loa trends and magma genesis in the Hawaiian mantle plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain has been created by a hot mantle plume located beneath the Pacific lithosphere. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear parallel trends, termed _eKea_Eand _eLoa_E(Jackson et al., 1972). Lavas from these two trends are commonly believed to have different geochemical characteristics (Tatsumoto, 1978; Frey et al., 1994; Hauri,

Z. Ren; S. Ingle; E. Takahashi; N. Hirano; T. Hirata; Y. Tatsumi

2005-01-01

147

Low-productivity Hawaiian volcanism between Kauai and Oahu  

Microsoft Academic Search

The longest distance between subaerial shield volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands is between the islands of Kauai and Oahu, where a field of submarine volcanic cones formed astride the axis of the Hawaiian chain during a period of low magma productivity. The submarine volcanoes lie ?2530 km west of Kaena Ridge that extends ?80 km from western Oahu. These volcanoes

Andrew R. Greene; Michael O. Garcia; Dominique Weis; Garrett Ito; Maia Kuga; Joel Robinson; Seiko Yamasaki

2010-01-01

148

Mass Wasting in the Western Galapagos Islands  

E-print Network

Oceanic island volcanoes such as those in the Hawaiian, Canary and Galapagos Islands are known to become unstable, causing failures of the subaerial and submarine slopes of the volcanic edifices. These mass wasting events appear to be the primary...

Hall, Hillary

2012-10-19

149

Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to

Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

150

MARINE ENVIRONMENT: Clinton Creates Huge Hawaiian Coral Haven.  

PubMed

President Bill Clinton last week signed an executive order creating the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve. Marine scientists say that the megareserve, which holds nearly 70% of the nation's reefs, will help protect some of the globe's most pristine ocean habitats. PMID:17742048

Malakoff, D

2000-12-01

151

Community Assembly Through Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian Spiders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities arising through adaptive radiation are generally regarded as unique, with speciation and adaptation being quite different from immigration and ecological assortment. Here, I use the chronological arrangement of the Hawaiian Islands to visualize snapshots of evolutionary history and stages of community assembly. Analysis of an adaptive radiation of habitat-associated, polychromatic spiders shows that (i) species assembly is not random;

Rosemary Gillespie

2004-01-01

152

Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

Tilling, Robert; Wright, Thomas

153

HAWAIIAN VASCULAR PLANT UPDATES: A SUPPLEMENT TO THE MANUAL OF  

E-print Network

Page 1 HAWAIIAN VASCULAR PLANT UPDATES: A SUPPLEMENT TO THE MANUAL OF THE FLOWERING PLANTS OF HAWAI studies since the early 1980s, we have updated the family delimitation to reflect relationships based Islands web site. We have made updates to family level classification for the ferns based on Smith et al

Mathis, Wayne N.

154

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The islands of Hawaii oer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving

James H. Fullard

2001-01-01

155

Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.  

PubMed

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galpagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.80.5% for COI and 1.00.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

156

Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus  

PubMed Central

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,1421,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galpagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.80.5% for COI and 1.00.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

157

Isolation by distance across the Hawaiian Archipelago in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing debate on the scale of pelagic larval dispersal in promoting connectivity among populations of shallow, benthic marine organisms. The linearly arranged Hawaiian Islands are uniquely suited to study scales of population connectivity and have been used extensively as a natural laboratory in terrestrial systems. Here, we focus on Hawaiian populations of the lobe coral Porites lobata, an ecosystem engineer of shallow reefs throughout the Pacific. Patterns of recent gene flow and population structure in P. lobata samples (n = 318) from two regions, the Hawaiian Islands (n = 10 sites) and from their nearest neighbour Johnston Atoll, were analysed with nine microsatellite loci. Despite its massive growth form, ? 6% of the samples from both regions were the product of asexual reproduction via fragmentation. Cluster analysis and measures of genetic differentiation indicated that P. lobata from the Hawaiian Islands are strongly isolated from those on Johnston Atoll (F(ST) ?= 0.311; P < 0.001), with the descendants of recent migrants (n = 6) being clearly identifiable. Within the Hawaiian Islands, P. lobata conforms to a pattern of isolation by distance. Here, over 37% (P = 0.001) of the variation in genetic distance was explained by geographical distance. This pattern indicates that while the majority of ongoing gene flow in Hawaiian P. lobata occurs among geographically proximate reefs, inter-island distances are insufficient to generate strong population structure across the archipelago. PMID:20887361

Polato, Nicholas R; Concepcion, Gregory T; Toonen, Robert J; Baums, Iliana B

2010-11-01

158

Lobster's Violin: Why They do it  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This two-minute radio show focuses on why spiny lobsters make sounds using soft body parts. While the sounds of a lobster play in the background, the show's guest scientist explains that the spiny lobster, being an arthropod, goes through a molting process in order to grow. It produces these sounds to ward off predators when its new outer skeleton is not yet hard. The show, which is from the Pulse of the Planet radio program, is available here in audio and text. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Planet, Pulse O.

2007-09-21

159

The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

SciTech Connect

I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

Dvorak, John [University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy (United States)

2011-05-15

160

Perinatal Outcomes for Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Other Pacific Islander Mothers of Single and Multiple Race/Ethnicity: California and Hawaii, 2003-2005  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined characteristics and birth outcomes of Asian/Pacific Islander (API) mothers to determine whether differences in outcomes existed between mothers of single race/ethnicity and multiple race/ethnicity. Methods. We used data from California and Hawaii birth certificates from 2003 through 2005 to describe variation in birth outcomes for API subgroups by self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (single versus multiple race or API subgroup), and we also compared these outcomes to those of non-Hispanic White women. Results. Low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) varied more among API subgroups than between mothers of single versus multiple race/ethnicity. After adjustment for sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors, API mothers of multiple race/ethnicity had outcomes similar to mothers of single race/ethnicity, with exceptions for multiple-race/ethnicity Chinese (higher PTB), Filipino (lower LBW and PTB), and Thai (higher LBW) subgroups. Compared with single-race non-Hispanic Whites, adverse outcomes were elevated for most API subgroups: only single-race/ethnicity Korean mothers had lower rates of both LBW (3.4%) and PTB (5.6%); single-race/ethnicity Cambodian, Laotian, and Marshallese mothers had the highest rates of both LBW (8.8%, 9.2%, and 8.4%, respectively) and PTB (14.0%, 13.7%, and 18.8%, respectively). Conclusions. Strategies to improve birth outcomes for API mothers should consider variations in risk by API subgroup and multiple race/ethnicity. PMID:20299645

Mendola, Pauline; Hamilton, Brady E.; Hayes, Donald K.; Makuc, Diane M.

2010-01-01

161

Discrimination and Obesity Among Native Hawaiians  

PubMed Central

Among ethnic populations in Hawaii, Native Hawaiians continue to be over-represented with the highest rates in: morbidity and mortality, chronic health conditions, and the health risks of being overweight and obese. Focused on these two health risks, the investigation reported in this article has a specific aim of empirically determining whether social stigma as manifested in the form of perceived overt or covert discrimination is a contributing factor. Current studies focused on select ethnic populations, particularly African Americans point to discrimination as an important but understudied predictor of adverse health outcomes. Acknowledging the paucity of research on discrimination and its role in the health of Native Hawaiians, this investigation utilizes data from the 2007 Hawaiian Health Survey which was coordinated by the Department of Health, and the Office of Health Status Monitoring and implemented by SMS Hawaii. The weighted sample of Hawaii adults included measures of race/ethnicity and of everyday discrimination and the BMI (Body Mass Index). Logistic regression analyses were applied to determine if: (a) discrimination was significantly related to being overweight and/or obesity; and (b) whether this relationship remained a salient predictor after key demographic factors of gender, age, education, income, and length of time in the Islands were taken into account. This study confirmed the negative influence of overt discrimination as well as the protective nature of covert discrimination in explaining the variability in obesity/overweight in Native Hawaiians. The implications of this study for strategic interventions and research are discussed. PMID:23251872

Antonio, Mapuana

2012-01-01

162

Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands. PMID:9860987

Kim, Hyi-Gyung; Keeley, Sterling C.; Vroom, Peter S.; Jansen, Robert K.

1998-01-01

163

Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the endemic Hawaiian Succineidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).  

PubMed

The endemic Hawaiian Succineidae represent an important component of the exceptionally diverse land snail fauna of the Hawaiian Islands, yet they remain largely unstudied. We employed 663-bp fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene to investigate the evolution and biogeography of 13 Hawaiian succineid land snail species, six succineid species from other Pacific islands and Japan, and various outgroup taxa. Results suggest that: (1) species from the island of Hawaii are paraphyletic with species from Tahiti, and this clade may have had a Japanese (or eastern Asian) origin; (2) species from five of the remaining main Hawaiian islands form a monophyletic group, and the progression rule, which states that species from older islands are basal to those from younger islands, is partially supported; no geographic origin could be inferred for this clade; (3) succineids from Samoa are basal to all other succineids sampled (maximum likelihood) or unresolved with respect to the other succineid clades (maximum parsimony); (4) the genera Succinea and Catinella are polyphyletic. These results, while preliminary, represent the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic pattern for this important component of the endemic Hawaiian fauna. PMID:15019623

Rundell, Rebecca J; Holland, Brenden S; Cowie, Robert H

2004-04-01

164

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size...

2010-10-01

165

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size...

2011-10-01

166

Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

2014-01-01

167

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the US Geological Survey, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) is charged with monitoring and researching volcanoes in Hawaii. The site provides current activity reports, hazard information, and a history of the two main volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. In addition, the site provides information on three other volcanoes that are either active or potentially active. Visitors can also learn about earthquakes in Hawaii and the particular hazards posed by volcanos. Captivating photos help bring the volcanoes to life. Visitors can patronize the Photo Gallery for additional volcano photos. Cross links to additional information and sites are provided on every page.

168

76 FR 22675 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Permit Family of Forms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Comment Request; Pacific Islands Region Permit Family of Forms...Fisheries Service (NMFS) Pacific Islands Region (PIR) manages the...45 min.; Main Hawaiian Islands longline prohibited area exemptions...April 19, 2011. Gwellnar Banks, Management Analyst,...

2011-04-22

169

Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders  

MedlinePLUS

... of non-Hispanic Whites were living at the poverty level. Insurance Coverage In 2012, 62.2 percent ... 2004 [PDF | 3.5MB] Census Bureau, 2013. Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: ...

170

Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

Robinson, J. E.; Eakins, B. W.

2006-01-01

171

Organizational complexity in lobster olfactory receptor cells.  

PubMed

The current working model of transduction in lobster olfactory receptor cells suggests that: (1) inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) is the excitatory olfactory second messenger in these cells; (2) activation of the cell also involves a secondary, current-carrying channel; and (3) the phosphoinositol pathway works in parallel to a second, cyclic nucleotide-mediated signaling pathway that provides input of opposite polarity into the cell. The complexity of intracellular signaling in lobster olfactory receptor cells renders the cells capable of fine tuning, and even integrating, the signal they send to the brain. PMID:9929604

Ache, B W; Munger, S; Zhainazarov, A

1998-11-30

172

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran familiesDolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O'Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

173

SHIPBOARD PROCEDURES TO DECREASE LOBSTER MORTALITY  

E-print Network

supply of oxygen to live. Their oxygen de- mand increases at higher water temperatures and during feeding method of replenishing the supply of oxygen to lobsters in holding tanks is to pump new sea water -effect relation- ships will introduce possible engineering solutions to the problem. Suffocation Major

174

Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds.  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of the entire passerine radiation, this dramatic morphological radiation represents an extreme manifestation of a general clade-specific ability to evolve novel morphologies. PMID:11788034

Lovette, Irby J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

2002-01-01

175

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

176

Identification of endangered Hawaiian ducks ( Anas wyvilliana ), introduced North American mallards ( A. platyrhynchos ) and their hybrids using multilocus genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawaiian ducks (Anas wyvilliana), or koloa, are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and are listed as a federal and state endangered species. Hybridization between\\u000a koloa and introduced mallards (A. platyrhynchos) is believed to be a primary threat to the recovery of koloa. We evaluated the utility of two sets of nuclear markers (microsatellite\\u000a loci and amplified fragment length polymorphisms) and

Ada C. Fowler; John M. Eadie; Andrew Engilis Jr

2009-01-01

177

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

SciTech Connect

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Czech Technical Universiry in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic); Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-07-15

178

Two sniffing strategies in palinurid lobsters.  

PubMed

Most studies of lobster chemoreception have focused on the model systems of Panulirus argus (Palinuridae) and Homarus americanus (Nephropidae). We compare antennule morphology across lobsters and conduct the first kinematic study of antennule flicking in a palinurid species other than P. argus. High-speed video analysis shows that Palinurus elephas flicks at a rate more than an order of magnitude higher than in P. argus. However, both species flick their antennular flagella at a Reynolds number (Re) of approximately one, such that an asymmetry in the speed of the flick phases causes both species to have a leaky closing flick phase and a non-leaky opening phase. The antennular flagella of P. argus are nearly seven times longer than those of P. elephas, and, when compared across palinurid genera, Panulirus species sample far greater areas of water over greater spatial and time scales than do any other palinurid genera. Palinurid lobsters appear to have two sniffing strategies: low flick rates over a large area of water (e.g. P. argus) or high flick rates over a small area of water (e.g. P. elephas). P. argus is a highly informative model system in which to study aquatic chemoreception; however, its antennule anatomy and kinematics suggest a separate strategy, unique to Panulirus species, for sensing chemical plumes in fluid environments. PMID:12432011

Goldman, J A; Patek, S N

2002-12-01

179

Hybrid Origin and Genomic Mosaicism of Dubautia scabra (Hawaiian Silversword Alliance; Asteraceae, Madiinae)  

E-print Network

on Maui Nui and Hawai`i (the Big Island). Keywords--Dubautia, genome mosaic, Hawaiian silversword alliance. 2004). In most plants, the plastid genomes are maternally inher- ited, while the nuclear genome that a plant genome resulting from a hy- bridization event would have maternal chloroplast and mi- tochondrial

180

Acoustic relationships between tympanate moths and the Hawaiian hoary bat ( Lasiurus cinereus semotus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Certain moths possess tympanic organs (ears) that detect the echolocation signals of hunting, insectivorous bats. The auditory characteristics of these ears are matched to the acoustic features of the echolocation calls emitted by the moths' sympatric bat fauna. The two-celled ears of noctuoid moths from the Hawaiian island of Kauai, a site with only one species of bat (Lasiurus cinereus

James H. Fullard

1984-01-01

181

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders  

E-print Network

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders Todd A independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb- weaving-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web

Blackledge, Todd

182

A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

2010-01-01

183

Diel variation of zooplankton distributions in Hawaiian waters favors horizontal diel migration by midwater micronekton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micronekton in deep-scattering layers around the Hawaiian Islands undergo diel migrations with both vertical and horizontal components. We sought to determine whether resource availability provides an adaptive explanation for this migration. We simultaneously measured the spatio-temporal patterns of micronekton, using acoustics and imaging optics, and of their potential zooplankton prey, using net tows, acoustics, and optics. Zooplankton biomass, density, and

Kelly J. Benoit-Bird; Marnie Jo Zirbel; Margaret A. McManus

2008-01-01

184

THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT: A COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR HEALTH ASSESSMENTS OF LOBSTERS FROM RHODE ISLAND  

E-print Network

, Powell et al. 2005), and Buzzards Bay (Glenn & Pugh 2005). It has spread into Cape Cod Bay and the Gulf (Glenn & Pugh 2005, Glenn & Pugh 2006, Wilson 2005). The syndrome remains prevalent in eastern LIS

185

Estimates of lobster-handling mortality associated with the Northwestern Hawaiian  

E-print Network

-mail address (for Gerard T. DiNardo): gdinardo@honlab.nmfs.hawaii.edu Wayne R. Haight Joint Institute of Marine implemented in 1983 and developed and Borden, 1980; Harris, 1980; Ever by the Western Pacific Regional Fish

186

Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways

Gibson, Andrea

2002-01-01

187

Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

Gibbs, A. E.; Richmond, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.

2000-01-01

188

Sociocultural and community factors influencing the use of Native Hawaiian healers and healing practices among adolescents in Hawai'i.  

PubMed

Recently, there has been much emphasis placed on both alternative approaches to health care and the provision of culturally competent care. Despite these trends, few studies have examined the use of alternative therapies on the part of adolescents. Even fewer studies have been done focusing on traditional Hawaiian approaches to health care. This is essential, especially in Hawai'i, where Hawaiians have not attained health parity with other majority ethnic populations, despite significant efforts and funding to achieve this end. This study examines the sociocultural and community factors influencing the use of traditional Native Hawaiian healers and healing practices by adolescents in Hawai'i. The Hawaiian High Schools Health Survey was administered at five high schools on three islands in Hawai'i during the 1993-1994 school year. The sample included 1,321 high school students who preferred either an allopathic or alternative practitioner. Ethnicity, gender, community access, healer preference, health status, level of education, and health insurance status were used to predict healer use and participation in healing practices. Community access and healer preference predicted both healer use and participation in native healing practices. Mental health predicted healer use (i.e., seeing a Native Hawaiian healer in the past six months), but did not predict taking part in native healing practices, such as ho'oponopono and lomilomi. Hawaiian ethnicity, female gender, and a measure of health insurance predicted participation in native healing practices, but not healer use. These results suggest that native healing practices and traditional healers are being used in Native Hawaiian communities and this is perhaps not due to a lack of health insurance. Given the general separation between Western and Native Hawaiian health services, traditional healing practices should be made available in Native Hawaiian communities to see whether a collaboration between Western practitioners and traditional healers can have a greater positive impact on the health of Native Hawaiians, particularly for adolescents. PMID:12180504

Bell, C K; Goebert, D A; Miyamoto, R H; Hishinuma, E S; Andrade, N N; Johnson, R C; McDermott, J F

2001-09-01

189

Lease quota fishing in a changing rock lobster industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Tasmanian rock lobster industry has been managed by Individually Transferable Quotas (ITQs) and several input control measures since 1998. In this study, nine years of rock lobster fishing business data were used to categorise the catch and quota ownership traits and examine the response to the introduction of ITQ management. More specifically the study investigates how profit drivers moderated

Ingrid van Putten; Caleb Gardner

2010-01-01

190

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...returned immediately to the water unharmed. A berried lobster...of lobster in or from treaty waters is 5.5 inches (13.97...position, from the anterior upper edge of the first abdominal (tail...returned immediately to the water...

2010-10-01

191

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...returned immediately to the water unharmed. A berried lobster...of lobster in or from treaty waters is 5.5 inches (13.97...position, from the anterior upper edge of the first abdominal (tail...returned immediately to the water...

2012-10-01

192

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...returned immediately to the water unharmed. A berried lobster...of lobster in or from treaty waters is 5.5 inches (13.97...position, from the anterior upper edge of the first abdominal (tail...returned immediately to the water...

2011-10-01

193

Sustainable How does NMFS manage the American Lobster Fishery?  

E-print Network

Sustainable Fisheries How does NMFS manage the American Lobster Fishery? Federal management to manage the American lobster fishery in a team-like fashion. The Commission prepares fishery management; the regulations summarized here may be found at 50 CFR part 697.1 through § 697.26. Please contact the Sustainable

194

DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

195

Host Susceptibility Hypothesis for Shell Disease in American Lobsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in American lobsters Homarus americanus is the bacterial degradation of the carapace resulting in extensive irregular, deep erosions. The disease is having a major impact on the health and mortality of some American lobster populations, and its effects are being transferred to the economics of the fishery. While the onset and progression of ESD in American

Michael F. Tlusty; Roxanna M. Smolowitz; Harlyn O. Halvorson; Simone E. DeVito

2007-01-01

196

HAWAIIAN OCEAN MIXING EXPERIMENT (HOME): FARFIELD PROGRAM HAWAIIAN TIDAL ENERGY BUDGET  

E-print Network

precision to quantify the tidal power dissipated in the nearfield of the Ridge. The data are vitalHAWAIIAN OCEAN MIXING EXPERIMENT (HOME): FARFIELD PROGRAM HAWAIIAN TIDAL ENERGY BUDGET Principal). This tidal energy budget will determine limits on the energy dissipated in the nearfield of the Hawaiian

Dushaw, Brian

197

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian  

E-print Network

by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus) James H. Fullard Department of Zoology, Erindale this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts of Hawai`i are home to only one, the Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Whitaker & Tomich 1983

Fullard, James H.

198

Two male Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), one of which has been temporarily marked for a mark-recapture study.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two male Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) at French Frigate Shoals in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Monk seals are the only true seals found year-round in tropical waters. They are found on coral atolls and rocky islands. The seal on the right bears a temporary bleach mark that was placed to help determine abundance through a mark-recapture technique. Mark-recapture methods are used to estimate population size and other parameters by marking a known number of individuals and then counting the number that are recaptured. This photograph originally appeared on the cover of Ecological Applications (14:4) in August of 2004.

Klemow, Kenneth

2010-02-12

199

SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS  

E-print Network

· · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·· 14 S}:>ears · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·· 14 Approximate Costs of Spiny of a can · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Drums modified for spiny lobster fishing ····· ·· ·· A bully

200

Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

2002-01-01

201

Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

202

Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA.  

PubMed Central

The extinct moa-nalos were very large, flightless waterfowl from the Hawaiian islands. We extracted, amplified and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from fossil moa-nalo bones to determine their systematic relationships and lend insight into their biogeographical history. The closest living relatives of these massive, goose-like birds are the familiar dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini). Moa-nalos, however, are not closely related to any one extant species, but represent an ancient lineage that colonized the Hawaiian islands and evolved flightlessness long before the emergence of the youngest island, Hawaii, from which they are absent. Ancient DNA yields a novel hypothesis for the relationships of these bizarre birds, whereas the evidence of phylogeny in morphological characters was obscured by the evolutionary transformation of a small, volant duck into a giant, terrestrial herbivore. PMID:10649633

Sorenson, M D; Cooper, A; Paxinos, E E; Quinn, T W; James, H F; Olson, S L; Fleischer, R C

1999-01-01

203

Pacific Islander Youth Offenders in Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last decade, the number of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders living in Utah grew 97%, with the fastest growing group within that category being Samoans, increasing at a rate of 188%. Pacific Islander youth are much more likely to be arrested for illegal acts than their Caucasian counterparts. This study presents preliminary data on issues relating to

Robin Davis

204

Magma Sources Of Rejuvenescent Volcanism On Oceanic Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rejuvenescent volcanism occurs on many oceanic islands, including the Society Islands, the Australs, Samoa, and Mauritius as well as the Hawaiian Islands. Rejuvenescent lavas have a number of features in common, including highly alkalic composition, small volumes, and strong incompatible element enrichment, all of which suggest they are quite small degree melts. However, despite the incompatible element enrichment, rejuvenescent magmas

W. M. White

2005-01-01

205

We Are Hawaiians. (He Hawaii Makou.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is a statistical analysis of the socioeconomic status of native Hawaiians in Hawaii. Data presented for native Hawaiians are compared to data for the overall state population. A section on population contains information on geographic distribution, age group distribution, ethnic distribution, residency status, and population growth. An

Alu Like, Inc., Honolulu, HI.

206

Phylogeny and age of diversification of the planitibia species group of the Hawaiian Drosophila.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian Drosophila offer a unique opportunity to examine evolutionary questions because of the known ages of the Hawaiian Islands and the large number of species endemic to this archipelago. One of the more well studied groups of Hawaiian Drosophila is the planitibia species group, a long-standing population genetic model system. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all 17 taxa in the planitibia group based on nucleotide sequences from two mitochondrial (16S and COII) and four nuclear (Adh, Gpdh, Yp1, and Yp2) loci, accounting for over 4kb of sequence per taxon. We use these data to estimate major divergence times within this group. Our results suggest that the basal diversification within this group, calculated at 6.1 +/- 0.47 MY, predates the oldest high island of Kauai. The older diversifications in this group took place on Kauai, with subsequent colonization and speciation events occurring as new islands became available to Drosophila. Understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of this important group will place the existing population genetic work in a macroevolutionary context and stimulate additional work, particularly on those taxa endemic to the Maui Nui complex of islands. PMID:16182150

Bonacum, James; O'Grady, Patrick M; Kambysellis, Michael; Desalle, Rob

2005-10-01

207

Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

Cuillandre, J. C.

208

Source Mineralogy for Hawaiian Tholeiites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian tholeiites commonly have been thought to be the melting product of garnet lherzolite. However, Sobolev, et al. (2005, Nature, 434, 590) proposed a pyroxenite source. This idea is based on their claim that melting of garnet lherzolite at P > 3 GPa would yield magmas with low SiO2 (< 47%), a feature that is not characteristic of Hawaiian tholeiites. Phase relations for the CaO-MgO-Al2O3- SiO2 (CMAS) system show that melt at the lherzolite solidus with the lowest SiO2 at any pressure occurs just at the solidus transition from spinel lherzolite to garnet lherzolite (3 GPa), and that solidus melts become progressively richer in SiO2 as pressure either decreases (spinel lherzolite field) or increases (garnet lherzolite field) from 3 GPa. Absolute values of melt compositions in CMAS do not precisely reproduce natural compositions, but the trends hold. As pressure increases from 3 to 6 GPa (the high-pressure limit of the experimental data), model basalt liquid compositions at the garnet lherzolite solidus increase significantly in both MgO (22.1 to 30.8 wt. %) and SiO2 (47.3 to 51.6 wt. %). This is consistent with the characteristically high SiO2 of Hawaiian tholeiites and strongly supports a source with a garnet lherzolite mineralogy, olivine + orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. This result holds for a wide range of lherzolitic to pyroxenitic bulk source compositions, as long as the bulk compositional variations are not so extreme that one or more of these minerals is lost. Phase relations in the CMAS tetrahedron at 3 GPa (Milholland and Presnall, 1998, J. Petrol., 39, 3-27) show that an eclogitic mineralogy produces melts that are enriched in SiO2 and low in MgO - very different from the least-fractionated Kilauea glasses. Glass compositions at the least- fractionated end of the olivine-controlled trend for the Puna Ridge at Kilauea (Clague, D. A., et al., 1995, J. Petrol., 36, 299-346) plot very close to the experimental determination of the initial melt composition for a CMAS model garnet lherzolite mineralogy at 4-5 GPa. This shows that some Hawaiian melts are extracted from a depth of 150 km with almost no crystallization during passage to the surface.

Presnall, D. C.

2009-05-01

209

Surface Charge of Giant Axons of Squid and Lobster  

PubMed Central

A method is described for the determination of the electrophoretic mobility of single, isolated, intact, giant axons of squid and lobster. In normal physiological solutions, the surface of hydrodynamic shear of these axons is negatively charged. The lower limit of the estimated surface charge density is -1.9 10-8 coul cm-2 for squid axons, -4.2 10-8 coul cm-2 for lobster axons. The electrophoretic mobility of squid axons decreases greatly when the applied transaxial electric field is made sufficiently intense; action potential propagation is blocked irreversibly by transaxial electric fields of the same intensity. The squid axon recovers its mobility hours later and is then less affected by transaxial fields. Eventually, a state is reached in which the transaxial field irreversibly reverses the sign of the surface charge. In contrast, there is no obvious effect of electric field on the mobility of lobster axons. The mobility of lobster axons becomes undetectable in the presence of Th4+ at a concentration which blocks the action potential, and in the presence of La3+ at a concentration which does not affect propagation. Quinine does not alter lobster axon mobility at a concentration which blocks action potential conduction. Replacement of extracellular Na+ by K+ is without effect upon lobster axon mobility. The electrophysiological implications of the results are discussed. PMID:5643276

Segal, John R.

1968-01-01

210

How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.  

PubMed Central

This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

2002-01-01

211

The influence of stream flow reduction on the energetics of endemic Hawaiian torrenticolous aquatic insects, Telmatogeton Schiner and Procanace Hendel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical island stream ecosystems continue to be threatened by increasing anthropogenic demands for freshwater, with many streams dammed or diverted. Stream flow amendments can have substantial effects on aquatic insect populations of tropical archipelagoes. In Hawaiian streams, an endemic Diptera community of the following genera dominates cascades and other torrential habitats: Telmatogeton Schiner (Chironomidae), Procanace Hendel (Canacidae), Scatella Robineau-Desvoidy (Ephydridae).

M. E. Benbow; M. D. McIntosh; A. J. Burky

2005-01-01

212

Low-productivity Hawaiian volcanism between Kauai and Oahu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The longest distance between subaerial shield volcanoes in the Hawaiian Islands is between the islands of Kaua`i and O`ahu, where a field of submarine volcanic cones formed astride the axis of the Hawaiian chain during a period of low magma productivity. The submarine volcanoes lie 25-30 km west of Ka`ena Ridge that extends 80 km from western O`ahu. These volcanoes were sampled by three Jason2 dives. The cones are flat topped, <400 m high and 0.4-2 km in diameter at water depths between 2700 and 4300 m, and consist predominantly of pillowed flows. Ar-Ar and K-Ar ages of 11 tholeiitic lavas are between 4.9 and 3.6 Ma. These ages overlap with shield volcanism on Kaua`i (5.1-4.0 Ma) and Wai`anae shield basalts (3.9-3.1 Ma) on O`ahu. Young alkalic lavas (circa 0.37 Ma) sampled southwest of Ka`ena Ridge are a form of offshore secondary volcanism. Half of the volcanic cones contain high-SiO2 basalts (51.0-53.5 wt % SiO2). The trends of isotopic compositions of West Ka`ena tholeiitic lavas diverge from the main Ko`olau-Kea shield binary mixing trend in isotope diagrams and extend to lower 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb than any Hawaiian tholeiitic lava. West Ka`ena tholeiitic lavas have geochemical and isotopic characteristics similar to volcanoes of the Loa trend. Hence, our results show that the Loa-type volcanism has persisted for at least 4.9 Myr, beginning prior to the development of the dual, subparallel chain of volcanoes. Several West Ka`ena samples are similar to higher SiO2, Loa trend lavas of Ko`olau Makapu`u stage, L?na`i, and Kaho`olawe; these lavas may have been derived from a pyroxenite source in the mantle. The high Ni contents of olivines in West Ka`ena lavas also indicate contribution from pyroxenite-derived melting. Average compositions of Hawaiian shield volcanoes show a clear relation between 206Pb/204Pb and SiO2 within Loa trend volcanoes, which supports a prominent but variable influence of pyroxenite in the Hawaiian plume source. In addition, both Pb isotopes and volcano volume show a steady increase with time starting from a minimum west of Ka`ena Ridge. The entrained mafic component in the Hawaiian plume is probably not controlling the increasing magma productivity in the Hawaiian Islands.

Greene, Andrew R.; Garcia, Michael O.; Weis, Dominique; Ito, Garrett; Kuga, Maia; Robinson, Joel; Yamasaki, Seiko

2010-11-01

213

Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.  

PubMed

Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session. PMID:23186696

Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

2012-08-27

214

Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot.  

PubMed

Defining the mantle structure that lies beneath hot spots is important for revealing their depth of origin. Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a parabola-shaped high-velocity anomaly. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 kilometers depth, a result that is in agreement with prior observations of transition-zone thinning. The inclusion of SKS observations extends the resolution downward to a depth of 1500 kilometers and reveals a several-hundred-kilometer-wide region of low velocities beneath and southeast of Hawaii. These images suggest that the Hawaiian hot spot is the result of an upwelling high-temperature plume from the lower mantle. PMID:19965755

Wolfe, Cecily J; Solomon, Sean C; Laske, Gabi; Collins, John A; Detrick, Robert S; Orcutt, John A; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H

2009-12-01

215

Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island  

E-print Network

BRISBANE Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island Lady Musgrave Island Wilson Island Heron Island Great Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands

Wang, Yan

216

EFFECTIVENESS OF ESCAPE VENT SHAPE IN TRAPS FOR CATCHING LEGAL-SIZED LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS,  

E-print Network

EFFECTIVENESS OF ESCAPE VENT SHAPE IN TRAPS FOR CATCHING LEGAL-SIZED LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS was conducted to find an escape vent that would select similar sized lobsters as the rectangular vent, yet of marketable-sized crabs exiting through an opening 58 mm in diameter. Escapement studies for lobsters confirm

217

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

218

Improvement of rearing conditions for juvenile lobsters ( Homarus gammarus) by co-culturing with juvenile isopods ( Idotea emarginata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth conditions of the juvenile lobsters, Homarus gammarus, were optimized in view of a restocking project of the lobster population at Helgoland (German Bight, North Sea) aimed to produce more than ten thousand juvenile lobsters per year. Growth and survival rates of juvenile lobsters depend on diet, temperature and water quality. In the present study, diet at optimum temperature was

Isabel Schmalenbach; Friedrich Buchholz; Heinz-Dieter Franke; Reinhard Saborowski

2009-01-01

219

Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host-parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens. also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Vandergast, A. G.; Roderick, G. K.

2003-01-01

220

Impacts of Human Disturbances on Biotic Communities in Hawaiian Streams  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the effects of humans on Hawaiian streams. Streams throughout the tropics have been altered by water diversion, channel modification, introduced species, and water quality degradation. The Hawaiian Islands, with watersheds ranging from the relatively pristine to the highly degraded, offer an opportunity to examine the impacts of human disturbance on native stream communities. For example, urbanization is often accompanied by stream-channel modification and reduced canopy cover, resulting in higher water temperatures and greater fluctuations in daily temperature. Even in relatively pristine watersheds, stream diversions can result in decreased flow velocity and water depth, reducing habitat availability. Dewatering of stream reaches can also inhibit downstream dispersal of larvae and upstream migration of juveniles and adults of native species. Many nonnative aquatic species are better adapted than native species to degraded habitats; once established in these habitats, they can cause further reduction in native populations through competition, predation, and the introduction of parasites or diseases. Understanding the relationship between habitat alteration and aquatic community structure is critical for developing sound management strategies.

ANNE M. D. BRASHER (;)

2003-11-01

221

Evolution of Hawaiian shield volcano revealed by antecryst-hosted melt inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean island basalts, exemplified by the Hawaiian Volcanics, are often considered to be the best targets for understanding the chemical and thermal structure of upwelling mantle plumes. The important feature with regards to the petrogenesis of the recent Hawaiian shield building lavas is the existence of a double volcanic loci (Loa and Kea), which has resulted in large-scale heterogeneity between the north-western and south-eastern sides of the plume. The temporal Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic trends displayed by the Loa-type lavas may have been caused by systematic vertical heterogeneity of the SW part of the Hawaiian plume. The majority of the available OIB samples are limited to the youngest lava flows covering the shield, with the exception of samples obtained from drilled cores and land slide deposits. Thus, sampling is biased to the latest stages of the shield building process, and consequently, so are geochemical studies. We found that the majority of olivine crystals coarser than 1 mm in the Hawaiian lavas are antecryst, which originally crystallized from previous stages of Hawaiian magmatism. These anatecrysts were then plastically deformed prior to entrainment in the erupted host magmas. The Pb isotopic compositions of antecryst-hosted melt inclusions reveal that the mantle source components that formed Hawaiian shields successively changed during shield formation. The temporal geochemical trend in the Kilauea melt inclusion could be caused by increasing the degree of partial melting by moving the melting source of the volcano from the periphery to the centre of the plume. The Pb isotopic trend of Koolau melt inclusions are consistent with the previously identified temporal isotopic trend, which shows that the 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb of the Koolau magma systematically increased with time. Thus, antecryst-hosted melt inclusions preserve geochemical information regarding the petrogenesis of the Hawaiian shield lavas, which is unobtainable via whole rock geochemical studies. These observations also demonstrate that a significant fraction of olivine antecrysts are derived from dunite or harzburgite channels/cumulates that were formed by dissolution and/or crystallization processes during previous magmatic events. Thus, the entrainment of inherited mantle-derived crystallization products by younger batches of magma is a common phenomenon in the Hawaiian magma plumbing system.

Tanaka, R.; Sakyi, P. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, E.

2009-12-01

222

Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha.  

PubMed

Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10?430?km(2) island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500?000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

2014-10-01

223

Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 266% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

Work, T. M.; Aeby, G. S.

2014-01-01

224

Short- and long-term dietary effects on disease and mortality in American lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

The American lobster Homarus americanus fishery is heavily dependent on the use of fish as bait to entice lobsters into traps. There is concern that this food supplementation is nutritionally insufficient for lobsters, but previous experiments reported conflicting results. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in which 1 yr old American lobsters were fed one of 7 diets for a period of 352 d, a time that allowed the lobsters to molt thrice. The diets consisted of fresh frozen herring, a 'wild' diet (rock crab, mussel, and Spirulina algae), a formulated artificial diet for shrimp, paired combinations of these 3 diets or a diet formulated at the New England Aquarium (Artemia, fish and krill meal, Spirulina algae, soy lecithin, vitamins and minerals). The lobsters fed the diet of 100% fish had higher initial molting rates, but within the period of this experiment all either contracted shell disease or died. Mixed diets resulted in higher survival and a lower probability of mortality. This research demonstrated a critical time component to diet studies in lobsters. Short- and long-term impacts of diet differ. In the long term, continual high consumption rates of fish by the lobsters promote poor health in all lobsters, not just those of market size. The use of fish as bait may make lobsters more susceptible to the stress associated with environmental fluctuation, thereby leading to increased disease and mortality. This nutritional stress can be used to develop a laboratory model of shell disease in American lobsters. PMID:18380224

Tlusty, Michael F; Myers, Anna; Metzler, Anita

2008-01-24

225

Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

2008-01-01

226

The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (20092014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae  

PubMed Central

Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 20092014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as cosmopolitan, 11.4% endemic, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:25343968

2014-01-01

227

Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

2012-12-01

228

Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.  

PubMed

Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and L?na'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

2012-01-24

229

A complex evolutionary history in a remote archipelago: phylogeography and morphometrics of the Hawaiian endemic Ligia isopods.  

PubMed

Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O'ahu and Kaua'i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka'i, Lana'i, and Hawai'i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai'i, O'ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua'i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

2013-01-01

230

A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods  

PubMed Central

Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O?ahu and Kaua?i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka?i, Lana?i, and Hawai?i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai?i, O?ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua?i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

2013-01-01

231

Hawaiian Language Immersion Adoption of an Innovation: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a story about some Native Hawaiian people written by Native Hawaiian people of the Papahana Kaiapuni, or the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP) of the Hawai`i public schools. Together they "talk story" and become the voice for the HLIP by painting a picture of their past, present, and future experiences with technology.

Yong, D. Lilinoe

2012-01-01

232

Adversity and Resiliency in the Lives of Native Hawaiian Elders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiians constitute 401,000 or 0.1 percent of the total U.S. population, with approximately 60 percent residing in the state of Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian elders ("na kupuna") face a number of social and health disparities when compared with their non-Native Hawaiian counterparts: higher rates of poverty, greater disability

Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.

2009-01-01

233

Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid  

E-print Network

Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes the growing interest in Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) as a contemporary cephalopod developmental, and potential uses of E. scolopes as model organisms, see The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes

McFall-Ngai, Margaret

234

CNP Project: 'Imi Hale - Native Hawaiian Cancer Network  

Cancer.gov

Papa Ola Lokahi (POL), a consortium of public agencies and Native Hawaiian not-for-profit organizations, focuses primarily on research and advocacy in Native Hawaiian health. POL's unique organizational structure provides the most extensive Native Hawaiian health network in the state of Hawaii.

235

Detection and quantitative analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls in tilapia from Hawaiian waters.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from the Manoa stream and Ala Wai Canal of O'ahu, an island of the geographically isolated Hawaiian archipelago. Our results show that the average concentrations of PCBs varied from 51.90 to 89.42 ng g(-1) lipid weight for the sampling sites. Relative toxic potencies (RTPs) and toxic equivalencies (TEQs) were determined to be 20.38-40.60 ng TCDDg(-1) lipid weight and 2.89-4.17 ng TEQ g(-1) lipid weight by 7-ethoxy-resorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity analysis and calculation of PCB concentrations based on toxic equivalency factors (TEFs), respectively. Penta-chlorinated congeners were found to be predominant, which revealed that Aroclor 1254 was a possible major source of PCBs in our fish samples. PCB 118, an indicator PCBs, constituted more than 55% and 30% of the total PCBs and TEQs, respectively. In addition, PCB 118 was found to have a linear correlation to the total PCBs (R=0.975) and TEQs (R=0.782). Detection of concentrated PCBs in Hawaiian waters suggests a potentially adverse impact of this pollutant on human health, as well as ecological systems, and suggests the necessity of environmental monitoring and hazard assessment of PCBs within the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:18561981

Yang, Fangxing; Wilcox, Bruce; Jin, Shiwei; Alonso Aguirre, A; Rouge, Luc; Xu, Ying; Lu, Yuanan

2008-08-01

236

Kahua A'oA Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kama?ina i Na Makani a Me N? Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, N? 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian language teacher would use newspaper articles for terms, expressions, and ways native speakers expressed what they saw. She wrote "My students could then create their own observations, in Hawaiian, on today's climate and current conditions." Teachers recognize systems-oriented Hawaiian knowledge contributes to science instruction, but express constraints of schedules and policies. This feedback underscores the importance of 1) teacher teams collaborating across content areas and grade levels and 2) developing lessons that teachers adopt for their potential to engage culturally diverse and underrepresented students. Teachers recognize the need to develop their own local expertise and ability to integrate culture and science to create instructional spaces where Hawaiian and western science complement each other. Stories and science of local winds inspire teachers to learn and teach more about their places. Broader Impacts: Equity Science Education As over 95% of 1.5 million pages of text are in Hawaiian, the project 1) increases resources for science teachers, scientists, and informal science educators and 2) conveys the science underlying Hawaiian cultural practices.

Chinn, P. W.

2012-12-01

237

The Ionic Mechanisms of Hyperpolarizing Responses in Lobster Muscle Fibers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobster muscle fibers develop hyperpolarizing responses when subjected to sufficiendy strong hyperpolarizing currents. In contrast to axons of frog, toad, and squid, the muscle fibers produce their responses without the need for prior depolarization in high external K +. Responses begin at a thresh- old polarization (50 to 70 my), the potential reaching 150 to 200 mv hyper- polarization while

J. P. REUBEN; R. WERMAN; H. GRUNDFEST

2009-01-01

238

32.-WHAT WE KNOW OF THE LOBSTER." BY FRED MATHER,  

E-print Network

. It has been my fortune to witness this oper- ation several times while connected with the New York, as the tortoises, frogs, and some of our land mammals do. At this time our young lobster will measure from one of armor is a complicated and difficult process, not unattended with danger. The new shell is often

239

Lobster-eye x-ray telescopes: recent progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and discuss the LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescope project including recent results of the development and tests of advanced telescope prototypes. They include both very small (3 3 mm) as well as large (300 300 mm) Schmidt lenses. Considerations for a space experiment on a small scientific satellite of a Nadezhda type are also discussed.

Hudec, Rene; Inneman, Adolf V.; Pina, Ladislav; Hudcova, V.; Sveda, L.; Ticha, Hana

2003-03-01

240

Lobster-eye x-ray telescopes: recent progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe and discuss the LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescope project including recent results of the development and tests of advanced telescope prototypes. They include both very small (3 3 mm) as well as large (300 300 mm) Schmidt lenses. Considerations for a space experiment on a small scientific satellite of a Nadezhda type are also discussed.

Rene Hudec; Adolf V. Inneman; Ladislav Pina; V. Hudcova; L. Sveda; Hana Ticha

2003-01-01

241

mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Brantacanadensis).  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000-500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

Paxinos, Ellen E; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Sorenson, Michael D; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C

2002-02-01

242

mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

2002-01-01

243

Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.

Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

2013-01-01

244

Osmium-isotope variations in Hawaiian lavas: evidence for recycled oceanic lithosphere in the Hawaiian plume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isotopic heterogeneity in Hawaiian shield lavas reflects the presence of two distinct recycled components in the Hawaiian plume, both from the same packet of recycled oceanic lithosphere. Radiogenic Os-isotopes and anomalously heavy oxygen-isotopes in Koolau lavas reflect melt generation from recycled oceanic crust plus pelagic sediment. In contrast, Kea lavas have unradiogenic Os-isotopes but anomalously light oxygen-isotopes. Oxygenosmiumlead isotope correlations

J. C. Lassiter; E. H. Hauri

1998-01-01

245

Influence of volcanic activity on the population genetic structure of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders: fragmentation, rapid population growth and the potential for accelerated evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanic activity on the island of Hawaii results in a cyclical pattern of habitat destruction and fragmentation by lava, followed by habitat regeneration on newly formed substrates. While this pattern has been hypothesized to promote the diversification of Hawaiian line- ages, there have been few attempts to link geological processes to measurable changes in population structure. We investigated the genetic

AMY G. V ANDERGAST; ROSEMARY G. G ILLESPIE; GEORGE K. R ODERICK

246

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

2011-01-01

247

Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

Klompmaker, Adil A.; Fraaije, Ren H. B.

2012-01-01

248

Geoflicks Reviewed--Films about Hawaiian Volcanoes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 films on volcanic eruptions in the United States. Films are given a one- to five-star rating and the film's year, length, source and price are listed. Top films include "Inside Hawaiian Volcanoes" and "Kilauea: Close up of an Active Volcano." (AIM)

Bykerk-Kauffman, Ann

1994-01-01

249

Native Hawaiian Profile: State Of Hawaii 1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This work summarizes statistics from previous reports on native Hawaiians done for the four counties in Hawaii. The data provided were extracted from the Office of Economic Opportunity's 1975 Census Update Surveys of Oahu, Hawaii, and Maui and from the 1974 Kauai Socio-Economic Profile done by the Center for Non-Metropolitan Studies of the

Alu Like, Inc., Honolulu, HI.

250

Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

1976-01-01

251

Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

2006-01-01

252

NATURAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER By Francis Hobart Herrick, Ph. D., Sc. D.  

E-print Network

, and use as food. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Food and preying habits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Review of the instincts and intelligence of the adult lobster. .. .. .. .. . . 188 Color

253

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J H

2001-07-01

254

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed Central

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J. H.

2001-01-01

255

50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

2011-10-01

256

50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

2010-10-01

257

50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

2012-10-01

258

Wave Power Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Wave Resources for Representative Sites Around the Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Farms: Siting, Ocean Area Requirements p7 Offshore Wave Power Resources: Update p9 Shallow Water Wave identified in the George Hagerman 1992 Report p8 Figure 2 - Hawaii Wave Power Climate Patterns p10 Figure 3 operating devices transmitting electricity to distribution lines (i.e., utility interconnected): the 500 k

259

Can tephra be recognized in Hawaiian drill core, and if so, what can be learned about the explosivity of Hawaiian volcanoes?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 6000 feet of drill core was recently recovered from the Pohakula Training Area (PTA) near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. Drilling was funded by the US Army with an objective to find a potable water source; the rock core was logged and archived thanks to funding from the National Science Foundation. Within the first few hundred meters, alluvial outwash from the slopes of Mauna Kea is underlain by post-shield Mauna Kea lavas. Below this depth the core is predominantly pahoehoe and to a lesser extent a'a lavas expected to be from Mauna Kea's shield stage volcanism. During the logging effort, and throughout the core, a number of suspect-pyroclastic deposits were identified (largely based on particle texture). These deposits will be examined in more detail, with results presented here. An effort will be made to determine whether explosive deposits can, in fact, be unequivocally identified in drill core. Two anticipated challenges are differentiating between: scoria and 'clinker' (the latter associated with a'a lava flows), and primary volcanic ash, loess, and glacial sediments. Recognition of explosive deposits in the PTA drill core would lend insight into Mauna Kea's explosive history, and potentially that of other Big Island volcanoes as well. If the characteristics of tephra in Hawaiian drill core can be identified, core from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) and Scientific Observation Holes (SOH-1,2,4) may also be examined.

Lautze, N. C.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

2013-12-01

260

The gamma-ray burst monitor for Lobster-ISS  

E-print Network

Lobster-ISS is an X-ray all-sky monitor experiment selected by ESA two years ago for a Phase A study (now almost completed) for a future flight (2009) aboard the Columbus Exposed Payload Facility of the International Space Station. The main instrument, based on MCP optics with Lobster-eye geometry, has an energy passband from 0.1 to 3.5 keV, an unprecedented daily sensitivity of 2x10^{-12} erg cm^{-2}s$^{-1}, and it is capable to scan, during each orbit, the entire sky with an angular resolution of 4--6 arcmin. This X-ray telescope is flanked by a Gamma Ray Burst Monitor, with the minimum requirement of recognizing true GRBs from other transient events. In this paper we describe the GRBM. In addition to the minimum requirement, the instrument proposed is capable to roughly localize GRBs which occur in the Lobster FOV (162x22.5 degrees) and to significantly extend the scientific capabilities of the main instrument for the study of GRBs and X-ray transients. The combination of the two instruments will allow an unprecedented spectral coverage (from 0.1 up to 300/700 keV) for a sensitive study of the GRB prompt emission in the passband where GRBs and X-Ray Flashes emit most of their energy. The low-energy spectral band (0.1-10 keV) is of key importance for the study of the GRB environment and the search of transient absorption and emission features from GRBs, both goals being crucial for unveiling the GRB phenomenon. The entire energy band of Lobster-ISS is not covered by either the Swift satellite or other GRB missions foreseen in the next decade.

L. Amati; F. Frontera; N. Auricchio; E. Caroli; A. Basili; A. Bogliolo; G. Di Domenico; T. Franceschini; C. Guidorzi; G. Landini; N. Masetti; E. Montanari; M. Orlandini; E. Palazzi; S. Silvestri; J. B. Stephen; G. Ventura

2006-05-11

261

78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...analysis identifies all Federal, State, and local costs and benefits...plant species on the island of Hawaii will take into consideration...plant species on the island of Hawaii, and the associated draft...species on the Hawaiian island of Hawaii in this document. For...

2013-04-30

262

CRCHD SPN Pilot: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Pilot: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Project Listing 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer

263

CRCHD SPN Publications: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network  

Cancer.gov

CRCHD SPN Publications: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network Back to CRCHD Completed Research SPN Publications 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer

264

Gender Differences in Drug Offers of Rural Hawaiian Youths: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examined the gender differences in drug-offer situations of Native Hawaiian youths in rural communities. Youths from seven middle or intermediate schools (N 194) on the Big Island of Hawai'i completed a survey that focused on the drug offers they had received. Multivariate and bivariate analyses indicated that the girls received significantly more drug offers than did the boys in the sample and found it more difficult to refuse drugs in such situations. Qualitative data gathered from communities in the survey's sampling frame elucidated the quantitative findings. Limitations of the study and implications for prevention practice are discussed. PMID:20711491

Okamoto, Scott K.; Kulis, Stephen; Helm, Susana; Edwards, Christopher; Giroux, Danielle

2010-01-01

265

Predicting The Timing And Location of the Next Hawaiian Volcano  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also included in which students use their own calculations to predict when the next volcano on the Kea trend should appear.

Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kidau, Nicole

2010-01-01

266

A preliminary survey of yeasts isolated from marine habitats at Abaco Island, The Bahamas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Littoral zone marine sediment and sand, spiny lobster and conch were examined for yeasts. Nineteen yeast species were found to exist in varying abundance. Previous studies in the series examined the marine fungi (17), fresh water fungi (16), and keratinophilic fungi (15) of Abaco Island, The Bahamas.

P. A. Volz; D. E. Jerger; A. J. Wurzburger; J. L. Hiser

1974-01-01

267

Surveys on the distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct wildlife surveys relative to identifying potential impacts of geothermal resource development on the native biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Hawaiian bat), or opeapea (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), within the proposed Hawaii geothermal subzones. Potential effects of geothermal development on Hawaiian bat populations are also discussed. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of bats throughout the District of Puna. Baseline information was collected to evaluate the status of bats within the study area and to identify important foraging habitats. Little specific data exists in the published literature on the population status and potential limiting factors affecting the Hawaiian bat. A USFWS recovery plan does not exist for this endangered species.

Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Dwyer, J.; Viggiano, A.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

1994-08-01

268

Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20C; none could grow at temperatures above 23C. The

B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

2003-01-01

269

Application of the Leslie Model to Commercial Catch and Effort of the Slipper Lobster,  

E-print Network

Application of the Leslie Model to Commercial Catch and Effort of the Slipper Lobster to the Leslie model to estimate preexploitationabundance andthe catchabil ity coefficient ofslipper lobsterCPUE on cumula tive catch (Leslie and Davis, 1939) or LOG (CPUE) on LOG cumulativeeffort (Delury, 1947

270

Tailflick Escape Behavior in Larval and Juvenile Lobsters (Homarus americanus) and Crayfish (Cherax destructor)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the escape behavior of larvae and postlarvae of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) and of adult immature (stage ADI) crayfish (Cherax de- structor). Responses to standardized water jet stimuli deliv- ered through a pipette were observed and analyzed. Lobster larvae did not respond to stimuli within 60 ms, indicating that they do not have functional giant fibers. The

D. J. JACKSON; D. L. MACMILLAN

2000-01-01

271

Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.  

PubMed

Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

2014-08-01

272

DETECTION OF EGG REMOVAL FROM THE OVIGEROUS LOBSTER FOLLOWING CHLORINE BLEACH EXPOSURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lobster (Homarus americanus) fishery in the Gulf of Maine is being threatened by the taking of ovigerous lobsters with the subsequent removal of their eggs by dipping their tails in a sea water and bleach solution. Solutions equal to or greater than 20 percent (v\\/v) commercial bleach will cause the complete removal of the eggs in less than 2

Edward A. Cogger; Robert C. Bayer

273

Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEcologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent

Jonathan H. Grabowski; Erika J. Clesceri; Adam J. Baukus; Julien Gaudette; Matthew Weber; Philip O. Yund; John F. Bruno

2010-01-01

274

Offshore distributional patterns of Hawaiian fish larvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of ichthyoplankton samples based on relative abundance reveals pronounced inshore\\/offshore distributional gradients for most Hawaiian fish larvae. Larvae of pelagic bay species are found almost exclusively in semi-enclosed bays and estuaries. Larvae of pelagic neritic species are more or less uniformly distributed with distance from shore. The larvae of reef species with non-pelagic eggs are most abundant close

J. M. Leis; J. M. Miller

1976-01-01

275

Antioxidant activity of Hawaiian marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J; Tabandera, Nicole K; Wright, Patrick R; Wright, Anthony D

2012-02-01

276

Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

277

Tropical Islands as Paleoecological Laboratories: Gauging the Consequences of Human Arrival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-island paleoecological comparisons have provided useful information concerning the role of humans vs. background-level disturbance in tropical ecosystems. Major ecological changes have occurred since human arrival in Madagascar, the West Indies, the Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere. Prehuman vegetation changes and disturbances have also been documented for many islands. Instructive inter-island similarities and differences have been detected in the chronology, distribution,

David A. Burney

1997-01-01

278

A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 26 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 612 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; Garcia-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

2014-01-01

279

Using molecular prey detection to quantify rock lobster predation on barrens-forming sea urchins.  

PubMed

We apply qPCR molecular techniques to detect in situ rates of consumption of sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) by rock lobsters (Jasus edwardsii). A non-lethal method was used to source faecal samples from trap-caught lobsters over 2years within two no-take research reserves. There was high variability in the proportion of lobsters with faeces positive for sea urchin DNA across years and seasons dependent on lobster size. Independent estimates of lobster predation rate on sea urchins (determined from observed declines in urchin abundances in the reserves relative to control sites) suggest that rates of molecular prey detection generally overestimated predation rates. Also, small lobsters known to be incapable of directly predating emergent sea urchins showed relatively high rates of positive tests. These results indicate that some lobsters ingest non-predatory sources of sea urchin DNA, which may include (i) ingestion of C.rodgersii DNA from the benthos (urchin DNA is detectable in sediments and some lobsters yield urchin DNA in faeces when fed urchin faeces or sediment); (ii) scavenging; and/or predation by rock lobsters on small pre-emergent urchins that live cryptically within the reef matrix (although this possibility could not be assessed). While the DNA-based approach and direct monitoring of urchin populations both indicate high predation rates of large lobsters on emergent urchins, the study shows that in some cases absolute predation rates and inferences of predator-prey interactions cannot be reliably estimated from molecular signals obtained from the faeces of benthic predators. At a broad semi-quantitative level, the approach is useful to identify relative magnitudes of predation and temporal and spatial variability in predation. PMID:24844936

Redd, K S; Ling, S D; Frusher, S D; Jarman, S; Johnson, C R

2014-08-01

280

Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. ?? 2011 Aeby et al.

Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

2011-01-01

281

Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian archipelago: relating disease to environment.  

PubMed

In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS. PMID:21655248

Aeby, Greta S; Williams, Gareth J; Franklin, Erik C; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M

2011-01-01

282

Mystery of Easter Island For centuries, scientists have tried to solve the mystery of  

E-print Network

the colossal, multi-ton stone statues of Easter Island traveled up to 11 miles from the quarry where most were documented in a NOVA-National Geo- graphic television special titled Mystery of Easter Island on the banner, have long been closely associated with learning and enlightenment in the Hawaiian culture

Olsen, Stephen L.

283

OCCURRENCEAND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OFLESSER FRIGATEBIRDS (FREGATA-L) ONTERNISLAM),NOR-HAW= ISLANDS  

E-print Network

in a breeding colony of Great Frigatebirds (F. minor) on Tern Island, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands courtship displays and extra-pair copula- tions. The presence of a potential hybrid in this colony suggests range. Lesser Frigatebirds breed in the tropical Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans. In the Pacific

Dearborn, Don

284

Characteristics of deep (?13 km) Hawaiian earthquakes and Hawaiian earthquakes west of 155.55W  

Microsoft Academic Search

High precision relocation of earthquakes recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) seismic network provides new information on the characteristics of seismic faulting at this oceanic hot spot. Using waveform cross correlation, we have measured correlation coefficients and travel time differences for a set of 14,605 deep (?13 km) earthquakes recorded from 1988 to 1998. We find that about half

Cecily J. Wolfe; Paul G. Okubo; Gran Ekstrm; Meredith Nettles; Peter M. Shearer

2004-01-01

285

Diversification and Dispersal of the Hawaiian Drosophilidae: the evolution of Scaptomyza  

PubMed Central

The genus Scaptomyza is emerging as a model lineage in which to study biogeography and ecological adaptation. To place future research on these species into an evolutionary framework we present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Scaptomyza to date, based on 5042 bp of DNA sequence data and representatives from 13 of 21 subgenera. We find evidence that the lineage originated in the Hawaiian Islands and subsequently dispersed to the mainland and other remote oceanic islands. We also identify that many of the unique ecological niches exploited by this lineage (e.g., herbivory, spider predation) arose singly and independently. We find strong support for the monophyly of almost all subgenera with exceptions corroborating hypotheses of conflict inferred from previous taxonomic studies. PMID:23669011

Lapoint, Richard T.; O'Grady, Patrick M.; Whiteman, Noah K.

2013-01-01

286

The Hawaiian PLUME Project: A Seismic Imaging Dataset Provides Glimpses into Ocean and Atmosphere Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment) project operated a two-stage network of broadband ocean-bottom and land seismometers from early 2005 through May 2007. With an aperture exceeding 1000 km, the network included 10 land sites and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites (Laske et al., 2009). Most of the land and ocean bottom stations were equipped with 3-component broadband seismometers. In addition, the ocean bottom sites were also equipped with a Cox-Webb differential pressure gauge. The deployment of broadband instruments allowed us to apply a wide range of seismic analysis tools to determine seismic properties of the crust and mantle beneath the Hawaiian islands and its surrounding bathymetric swell. Body wave tomography conclusively imaged a complex low velocity anomaly that penetrates deep into the lower mantle (Wolfe et al., 2009), supporting the idea that Hawaii's extensive volcanism is fed by a deep-rooted mantle plume. The analysis of surface waves reveals a profoundly altered lithosphere beneath the island of Hawaii. The low shear velocity anomaly found at the base of the lithosphere continues into the asthenosphere but shifts westward, documenting an asymmetry in shallow mantle structure that mirrors some of the asymmetry of the bathymetric swell. Owing to the fact that PLUME made use of broadband instruments, the rich dataset from this experiment allowed us to also study patterns in seismicity around Hawaii. Using high-pass filtered records from the PLUME OBS networks we detected numerous off-shore events that were not detected by the monitoring networks on the Hawaiian islands (mainly the island of Hawaii). This gives new insight into seismic activity in some source regions and helps to refine seismic risk estimation for some high-population areas. Our network also produced excellent pressure recording of the somewhat enigmatic tsunami caused by the magnitude 8.3 15 November 2006 Kuril islands earthquake. This tsunami was relatively small when it reached Japan, and it caused no significant damage. After crossing the North Pacific ocean, it reached a height of over 1.5 m in Crescent City, CA and caused damage to the docks there estimated at nearly $2 million. This tsunami was recorded best on our DPGs but some horizontal seismometer components also show a signal. Finally, the PLUME instruments also recorded the journey of 2006 Hurricane Ioke. This long-lived category 5 hurricane was the largest recorded hurricane to form in the Central Pacific ocean. Unlike 2005 Hurricane Katrina, which released the most seismic energy when it made landfall as a weakened hurricane, the seismic energy release of Hurricane Ioke peaked when it reached the strongest state in the atmosphere. References: Laske, G., Collins, J.A., Wolfe, C.J., Solomon, S.C., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D. and Hauri, E.H., 2009. Probing The Hawaiian Hot Spot With New Ocean Bottom Instruments, EOS Trans. AGU, 90, 362-363. Wolfe, C.J., Solomon, S.C., Laske, G., Collins, J.A., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D. and Hauri, E.H., 2009. Mantle Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Hawaiian Hot Spot. Science, 326, 1388-1390.

Laske, G.; Wolfe, C. J.; Collins, J. A.

2010-12-01

287

Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine  

PubMed Central

Background Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Conclusions/Significance Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions. PMID:20419167

Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Clesceri, Erika J.; Baukus, Adam J.; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O.

2010-01-01

288

Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea  

SciTech Connect

Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

1982-01-01

289

Trophic Cascades Induced by Lobster Fishing Are Not Ubiquitous in Southern California Kelp Forests  

PubMed Central

Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and that lobster fishing does not always catalyze a top-down trophic cascade. PMID:23209573

Guenther, Carla M.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Grant, Laura E.; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

290

A molecular approach to identify prey of the southern rock lobster.  

PubMed

We demonstrate the use of molecular techniques to detect specific prey consumed by the southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii). A quick and non-lethal method was used to collect rock lobster faecal material and a molecular protocol was employed to isolate prey DNA from faecal samples. The isolated DNA was amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with PCR primers designed to target specific prey items. Feeding experiments determined that DNA from black-lipped abalone (Haliotis rubra) and sea urchins (Centrostephanus rodgersii and Heliocidaris erythrogramma) can be detected in rock lobster faecal samples within seven hours and remains present for up to 60 h after ingestion. PMID:18439347

Redd, K S; Jarman, S N; Frusher, S D; Johnson, C R

2008-06-01

291

The Big Island of Hawaii  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

2002-01-01

292

Linking Hawaiian and Strombolian explosive styles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrary to some contemporary classification schemes, high Hawaiian fountaining eruptions represent mass eruption rates 100 to 1000 times largely than classical Strombolian explosions. They are also sustained on time scales of hours to days, compared to durations for explosions of seconds to tens of seconds at Stromboli. However the advent of high-speed, high-resolution imagery at Stromboli and Kilauea shows both eruption styles are typically unsteady and pulsatory in terms of ejecta height and mass discharge rate. Plotting basaltic activity in viscosity-mass eruption rate space reveals some of the issues. Individual Strombolian explosions occupy the short duration, low eruption rate corner of such a plot, very clearly distinguished from high Hawaiian fountains that have durations that are 3 to 5 orders of magnitude longer and mass discharge rates that are 10 to 100 times larger. However the spectrum of activity called names such as ';low fountains', ';gas pistoning' and ';violent Strombolian' defines a grey scale between these extremes. Recent observations suggest that notions of open versus closed system behavior and mechanically coupled versus decoupled gas bubbles are oversimplified for these persistently active volcanoes with long established yet complex conduit/storage systems for magma.

Houghton, B. F.; Taddeucci, J.; Orr, T. R.; Gonnermann, H. M.; Swanson, D. A.; Parcheta, C. E.

2013-12-01

293

Accounting for Subgroup Structure in Line-Transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian Waters  

PubMed Central

For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n?=?5) and NWHI (n?=?1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n?=?5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawaii pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?4795,030) and 552 (CV?=?1.09; 95% CI?=?973,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns. PMID:24587372

Bradford, Amanda L.; Forney, Karin A.; Oleson, Erin M.; Barlow, Jay

2014-01-01

294

Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge???, Anvil??? and Altosid??? application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003-Scourge, Anvil and Altosid-contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26-0.95 ??g L-1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16??C, respectively. Increased temperature (24??C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 ??g L-1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 ??g L-1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 ??g L -1) or malathion (1 ??g L-1) for 7 d at 16 or 22??C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ??? 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass detection limits of 0.1-0.3 ng L-1. Pesticide levels were often detected in the ng L-1 range in Long Island surface waters and western LIS (except in open waters), but rarely at concentrations found to be toxic in flow-through laboratory exposures, even immediately after spray events.

Zulkosky, A.M.; Ruggieri, J.P.; Terracciano, S.A.; Brownawell, B.J.; McElroy, A.E.

2005-01-01

295

A METHOD OF LOBSTER CULTURE By A. D. Mead, Ph. D.  

E-print Network

_- -- -- - -- -- -- - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - 233 Results u u u __________________________________ _ - - - _- h _ _ _ 234 Criteria of efficiency _u -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -. - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - -- - - - 237 Capacity and efficiency of planL - - n - - -- -- -- - - - - -- - - -- -- - - -- - U - h - - 237 Self-protective ability of fourth-stage lobsters

296

Disease avoidance influences shelter use and predation in Caribbean spiny lobster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shelter competition is uncommon among social animals, as is the case among normally gregarious Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus). However, healthy lobsters avoid sheltering with conspecifics infected by a lethal pathogenic virus, PaV1. These contradictory\\u000a behaviors have implications for shelter use and survival, especially in areas where shelter is limited. In laboratory experiments,\\u000a we tested shelter competition between paired healthy

Donald C. Behringer; Mark J. Butler

2010-01-01

297

Sublethal Effect of Copper Toxicity Against Histopathological Changes in the Spiny Lobster, Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tissue damage induced by various organic pollutants in aquatic animals is well documented, but there is a dearth of information\\u000a relating to the histological alterations induced by copper in the spiny lobster. In the present study, intermoult juveniles\\u000a of the spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (average weight 150200g) were exposed to two sublethal concentrations of the copper (9.55 and 19.1?g\\/l)

A. Maharajan; S. Rajalakshmi; M. Vijayakumaran; P. Kumarasamy

298

Movement patterns of individual migrating western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, in Western Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migrating and pre?migrating western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus were tagged with datastorage tags that recorded temperature and pressure, which was converted to depth (Pressure (kPa) surface pressure (kPa)\\/10)) at Dongara and Jurien Bay in Western Australia between December 2005 and December 2007. All lobsters were fitted with tag flotation devices, and returns were made by either commercial fishers or

N. E. Beale

2009-01-01

299

Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.  

PubMed

Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required. PMID:23548364

Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

2013-03-26

300

Lobster haemocyanin. Influence of acclimatization on subunit composition and functional properties.  

PubMed Central

Haemocyanin from the lobster Palinurus elephas has been shown to change in its subunit composition according to the time of year. In contrast, in Palinurus mauritanicus, a lobster living at greater depth, no seasonal changes in subunit composition have been observed. The results obtained from a set of experiments performed on some Palinurus mauritanicus acclimatized in an aquarium have clearly indicated that modifications of haemocyanin subunit composition may be involved in the adaptation of arthropods to environmental change. PMID:1859369

Condo, S G; Pellegrini, M G; Corda, M; Sanna, M T; Cau, A; Giardina, B

1991-01-01

301

Lobster haemocyanin. Influence of acclimatization on subunit composition and functional properties.  

PubMed

Haemocyanin from the lobster Palinurus elephas has been shown to change in its subunit composition according to the time of year. In contrast, in Palinurus mauritanicus, a lobster living at greater depth, no seasonal changes in subunit composition have been observed. The results obtained from a set of experiments performed on some Palinurus mauritanicus acclimatized in an aquarium have clearly indicated that modifications of haemocyanin subunit composition may be involved in the adaptation of arthropods to environmental change. PMID:1859369

Cond, S G; Pellegrini, M G; Corda, M; Sanna, M T; Cau, A; Giardina, B

1991-07-15

302

SEROTONIN-INDUCED PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION IN A LOBSTER NEUROMUSCULAR PREPARATION1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three substances believed to be neurohormones in the lobster-serotonin, octopamine, and proctolin-can modulate the physiology of the dactyl opener muscle of the lobster walking leg. All three act directly on muscle fibers to cause long-lasting contractures. In addition, serotonin enhances the release of transmitter from the excitatory and inhibitory axons that innervate the muscle. We now report that serotonin, applied

MICHAEL F. GOY; THOMAS L. SCHWARZ; EDWARD A. KRAVITZ

303

Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem and its evolution in long-term primary succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millenia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp.) and the '?hi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp.), which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e. islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life-forms is similar as during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris lineraris) becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant '?hi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After that disturbance the forest becomes reestablished in about 30-40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1-25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader '?hi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands looses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum tolerant uluhe fern. The '?hi'a trees still thrive on soils rejuvenated from landslides and from Asian dust on the oldest (5 million year old) island Kaua'i but their stature and living biomass is greatly diminished.

Mueller-Dombois, D.; Boehmer, H. J.

2013-02-01

304

NAME: Molokai Fish Pond & Fringing Reef Restoration LOCATION: Kaunakakai, Island of Molokai (Maui County), Hawai'i  

E-print Network

NAME: Molokai Fish Pond & Fringing Reef Restoration LOCATION: Kaunakakai, Island of Molokai (Maui fish ponds on the fringing reef of the Hawaiian island of Molokai. Mangroves were planted in 1902 conditions and threaten to take over the reef flats and fish ponds. EXPECTED BENEFITS: Fine sediment flushed

US Army Corps of Engineers

305

33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range...334.1390 Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range...Range Facility, Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575,...

2011-07-01

306

14 CFR 91.877 - Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND...Annual reporting of Hawaiian operations. (a) Each air carrier or foreign air carrier subject to 91.865 or ...

2010-01-01

307

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Monitors Klauea's Summit Eruption  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (foreground) is located on the caldera rim of Kilauea Volcano, Hawai'i?the most active volcano in the world. The observatory's location provides an excellent view of summit eruptive activity, which began in 2008....

2010-08-18

308

Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.

Volkovskii, A.; Brugioni, S.; Levi, R.; Rabinovich, M.; Selverston, A.; Abarbane, H. D. I.

2005-01-01

309

Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest and its transition states in long-term primary succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the question of transition states in the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem with emphasis on their initial developments. Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millennia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp.) and the '?hi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp.), which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e., islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life forms is similar to the assemblage during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris linearis), becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant '?hi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After the disturbance, the forest becomes reestablished in about 30-40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1-25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader '?hi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands loses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum tolerant uluhe fern. The '?hi'a trees still thrive on soils rejuvenated from landslides and from Asian dust on the oldest (5 million years old) island Kaua'i but their stature and living biomass is greatly diminished.

Mueller-Dombois, D.; Boehmer, H. J.

2013-07-01

310

Control of shell colour changes in the lobster, Panulirus cygnus.  

PubMed

The transition from juvenile to adult in the Australian western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus (George), is preceded by a mass migration from inshore nursery reefs to offshore breeding grounds. Associated with this migration is a moult which results in the animals that are due to migrate undergoing characteristic colour change from deep red to pale pink, known as the ;white' phase, which is believed to be triggered by environmental factors. To investigate this phenomenon, the colour change of wild-caught animals was measured over two separate years in response to two important modifiers of crustacean shell colour, dietary carotenoid and background substrate colour. Changes in shell colour during this colour transition period were influenced more greatly by other factors independent of diet or background substrate and no mass colour change was induced during this time. Shell colour measurement and carotenoid quantification confirmed the presence of animals similar to wild-caught ;whites', regardless of the treatment. From these experimental observations we infer that the ;white' phase of the western rock lobster is not triggered by dietary modification or in response to background substrate. We propose that this transition is under the regulation of an ontogenetic program activated at a specific moult, which induces presently unidentified molecular changes linked to shell colour production. This unique colour transition may have evolved to provide protective camouflage during migration, and serves as an excellent model to study the genetic mechanisms underlying crustacean shell colouration. These data also provide insight into the changes in carotenoid levels induced by environmental factors, and the ability to modify crustacean shell colour in aquaculture. PMID:18424686

Wade, Nicholas M; Melville-Smith, Roy; Degnan, Bernard M; Hall, Michael R

2008-05-01

311

Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

2003-01-01

312

The dynamics, transmission, and population impacts of avian malaria in native hawaiian birds: A modeling approach  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We developed an epidemiological model of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) across an altitudinal gradient on the island of Hawaii that includes the dynamics of the host, vector, and parasite. This introduced mosquito-borne disease is hypothesized to have contributed to extinctions and major shifts in the altitudinal distribution of highly susceptible native forest birds. Our goal was to better understand how biotic and abiotic factors influence the intensity of malaria transmission and impact on susceptible populations of native Hawaiian forest birds. Our model illustrates key patterns in the malaria-forest bird system: high malaria transmission in low-elevation forests with minor seasonal or annual variation in infection;episodic transmission in mid-elevation forests with site-to-site, seasonal, and annual variation depending on mosquito dynamics;and disease refugia in high-elevation forests with only slight risk of infection during summer. These infection patterns are driven by temperature and rainfall effects on parasite incubation period and mosquito dynamics across an elevational gradient and the availability of larval habitat, especially in mid-elevation forests. The results from our model suggest that disease is likely a key factor in causing population decline or restricting the distribution of many susceptible Hawaiian species and preventing the recovery of other vulnerable species. The model also provides a framework for the evaluation of factors influencing disease transmission and alternative disease control programs, and to evaluate the impact of climate change on disease cycles and bird populations. ??2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Samuel, M. D.; Hobbelen, P. H. F.; Decastro, F.; Ahumada, J. A.; Lapointe, D. A.; Atkinson, C. T.; Woodworth, B. L.; Hart, P. J.; Duffy, D. C.

2011-01-01

313

The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

2003-01-01

314

Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds  

PubMed Central

Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 16501900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 19891999 and 20002006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 19891999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 20002004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

315

Revised age for Midway volcano, Hawaiian volcanic chain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New conventional K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and petrochemical data on alkalic basalt pebbles from the basalt conglomerate overlying tholeiitic flows in the Midway drill hole show that Midway evolved past the tholeiitic shield-building stage and erupted lavas of the alkalic suite 27.0 ?? 0.6 m.y. ago. The data also show that previously published conventional K-Ar ages on altered samples of tholeiite are too young by about 9 m.y. These results remove a significant anomaly in the age-distance relationships of the Hawaiian chain and obviate the need for large changes in either the rate of rotation of the Pacific plate about the Hawaiian pole or the motion of the plate relative to the Hawaiian hot spot since the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. All of the age data along the Hawaiian chain are now reasonably consistent with an average rate of volcanic propagation of 8.0 cm/yr and with 0.83??/m.y. of angular rotation about the Hawaiian pole. ?? 1977.

Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.; Lanphere, M.A.

1977-01-01

316

Coping With Breast Cancer at the Nexus of Religiosity and Hawaiian Culture: Perspectives of Native Hawaiian Survivors and Family Members  

PubMed Central

This article describes research to develop a breast health intervention for women in Hawaiian churches. Native Hawaiian women are disproportionately burdened by breast disease and tend to be diagnosed at advanced stages when treatment options are more limited. Research suggests that cultural conflict may be a factor in Hawaiian women's underutilization of conventional health services. Phenomenological approaches guided data collection and analysis to explore the influence of religiosity and ethnocultural tradition in coping with breast cancer. The overarching theme was kakou (we or us), which emphasized ways of coping oriented to the family collective and focused on family well-being. Findings offer a portal for understanding the lived experience of survivors and families in Hawaiian churches. Considerations are suggested for those practitioners assisting clients from collectivist-oriented cultures. PMID:20835303

Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Mitschke, Diane B.; Kloezeman, Karen C.

2010-01-01

317

Crustose coralline algal diseases in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite the critical role of crustose coralline algae (CCA) in coral reef formation, maintenance, and ecology, little is known about coralline algal disease abundance, distribution, etiology, or the potential implications of declining CCA flora. This paper presents the first quantitative study of CCA disease on U.S. Pacific coral reefs, based on Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 337 discrete sites, at 42 different U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and Atolls, within 5 major geographical regions: main Hawaiian Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, the Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA), and Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Five major disease categories were enumerated, and a disease occurrence index was estimated, based on case counts relative to percent CCA cover. CCA disease occurrence exhibited considerable spatial variability both between and within islands/atolls, with some regions being disproportionately affected by disease. No diseases were observed at remote Johnston and Wake Atolls, or the main Hawaiian Islands. Diseases were rare in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands; occasional to common around the PRIA, and common to abundant in American Samoa, Guam, and the Southern Mariana Islands. Pacific-wide, disease occurrence was statistically associated with CCA percent cover and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) but not with human population density; nonetheless, disease occurrence and population density were statistically correlated for those islands containing disease. Although Pacific-wide, the occurrence of disease was low, with no active outbreaks detected in any region, hot spots of disease were detected around Guam, the southern CNMI, American Samoa, and the PRIA. The high levels of spatial and temporal variability in disease occurrence herein underscore the patchy nature and fluctuating distribution dynamics of these afflictions. Also, the widespread dispersal capabilities and extraordinary infective properties of some of these pathogens highlight the importance of better understanding CCA disease dynamics and discerning the relative threat levels on coral reef ecosystems.

Vargas-ngel, Bernardo

2010-12-01

318

Pacific Islanders' Perspectives on Heart Failure Management  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the health beliefs, attitudes, practices and social and family relations important in heart failure treatment among Pacific Islanders. Methods Four focus groups were convened with 36 Native Hawaiians and Samoans with heart failure and their family caregivers. Thematic data analysis was used to categorize data into four domains: health beliefs and attitudes, preferred health practices, social support systems, and barriers to heart failure care. Results Common coping styles and emotional experiences of heart failure in this population included avoidance or denial of illness, hopelessness and despair, and reliance on spiritual/religious beliefs as a means of support. Among study participants, more Samoans preferred to be treated by physicians whereas more Native Hawaiians preferred traditional Hawaiian methods of healing. Two types of social support (informational and tangible-instrumental) were identified as important in heart failure care. Barriers to heart failure care included poor knowledge of heart failure, lack of trust in physicians care, poor physician-patient relations, finances, dietary changes, and competing demands on time. Conclusion The recruitment, retention, and adherence of Pacific Islanders to heart failure interventions are affected by an array of psychosocial and socio-cultural factors. Practice Implications Interventions might be improved by offering participants accurate and detailed information about heart failure and its treatment, engaging the extended family in providing necessary supports, and providing tools to facilitate physician-patient relationships, among others, within the context of a larger socio-cultural system. PMID:18068939

Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Saito, Erin; Mau, Marjorie K.; Latimer, Renee; Seto, Todd B.

2008-01-01

319

Dietary change of the rock lobster Jasus lalandii after an invasive geographic shift: Effects of size, density and food availability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1990s the rock lobster Jasus lalandii shifted its focus of distribution south-eastwards along the coast of South Africa, to establish a dense population in an area where it was previously rare. This coincided with a marked decrease in the sea urchin Parechinus angulosus, a preferred prey item of J. lalandii and a vital source of shelter for juveniles of the abalone Haliotis midae. The range expansion of lobsters has thus economic and ecological ripple effects. We determined the diets of small (50-65 mm carapace length) and large (>69 mm CL) rock lobsters from gut content analyses, and compared them between three 'lobster invaded' sites and three adjacent 'non-invaded' sites where densities are still low. At the non-invaded sites, diets were collectively heterogeneous but the dietary breadth of individual lobsters was narrow (in contradiction to generally accepted ecological theory), and the lobsters fed mainly on large, individual, mobile, high-energy prey such as sea urchins and large winkles. Conversely, at invaded sites where lobster densities were high, they consumed predominantly small, colonial or sessile low-energy prey such as sponges, barnacles and foliar algae, and the diet was significantly more uniform among individuals, but broader within individuals. This was a direct result of the contrasting benthic community structure of the two areas, and consequent prey availability - itself caused by differences in intensity of rock-lobster predation. Cannibalism was unexpectedly greater at non-invaded sites, possibly as a result of lobsters being larger there. The diet of small and large lobsters also differed significantly. Large rock lobsters predominantly consumed large individual prey such as lobsters, urchins and crabs, while small rock lobsters ate mainly colonial, sessile prey such as sponges and barnacles, and small prey such as tiny winkles and crustaceans. Dietary selectivity indices revealed that algae and sponges were negatively selected (avoided) in non-invaded areas but positively or neutrally selected in invaded areas. These dietary differences have important ramifications not only for the lobster populations but also for the structure and functioning of the radically different communities that have developed in invaded areas, reflecting a regime shift induced by lobster predation.

Haley, C. N.; Blamey, L. K.; Atkinson, L. J.; Branch, G. M.

2011-06-01

320

Pacific Islanders--Migration and Health  

PubMed Central

Native Hawaiians and peoples from American Samoa, Guam and the Trust Territories of the Pacific Islands are all recipients of US subsidized health care. Categorized as Pacific Islanders they are a heterogeneous group with differences in biology, cultural adaptation to varied ecological settings, historical influences resulting from colonialism and present-day political factionalism. Yet, westernization on home islands and migration to Hawaii and the western United States have created similarities in disease patterns among these culturally diverse peoples. They have high rates of the chronic diseases of civilization: cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Obesity, associated with these ailments, has become a major health problem among Pacific Islanders and may be attributed to changes in local food production and consumption in conjunction with sedentarization. Culturally and linguistically distinct from the American mainstream, these people as migrants or residents are marginal within the US social structure and find if difficult to obtain adequate medical treatment. PMID:6364574

Fitzpatrick-Nietschmann, Judith

1983-01-01

321

A noninvasive method for in situ determination of mating success in female American lobsters (Homarus americanus).  

PubMed

Despite being one of the most productive fisheries in the Northwest Atlantic, much remains unknown about the natural reproductive dynamics of American lobsters. Recent work in exploited crustacean populations (crabs and lobsters) suggests that there are circumstances where mature females are unable to achieve their full reproductive potential due to sperm limitation. To examine this possibility in different regions of the American lobster fishery, a reliable and noninvasive method was developed for sampling large numbers of female lobsters at sea. This method involves inserting a blunt-tipped needle into the female's seminal receptacle to determine the presence or absence of a sperm plug and to withdraw a sample that can be examined for the presence of sperm. A series of control studies were conducted at the dock and in the laboratory to test the reliability of this technique. These efforts entailed sampling 294 female lobsters to confirm that the presence of a sperm plug was a reliable indicator of sperm within the receptacle and thus, mating. This paper details the methodology and the results obtained from a subset of the total females sampled. Of the 230 female lobsters sampled from George's Bank and Cape Ann, MA (size range = 71-145 mm in carapace length), 90.3% were positive for sperm. Potential explanations for the absence of sperm in some females include: immaturity (lack of physiological maturity), breakdown of the sperm plug after being used to fertilize a clutch of eggs, and lack of mating activity. The surveys indicate that this technique for examining the mating success of female lobsters is a reliable proxy that can be used in the field to document reproductive activity in natural populations. PMID:24561702

Goldstein, Jason S; Pugh, Tracy L; Dubofsky, Elizabeth A; Lavalli, Kari L; Clancy, Michael; Watson, Winsor H

2014-01-01

322

75 FR 37456 - Alaska Native/Native Hawaiian Institutions Assisting Communities (AN/NHAIC)  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Hawaiian Institutions (AN/NH) of Higher Education to expand their role and effectiveness in addressing community development...Hawaiian Institutions (AN/NH) of Higher Education to expand their role and effectiveness in addressing community...

2010-06-29

323

34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?  

...402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program? The Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program provides financial assistance to projects that provide vocational training and related activities for the...

2014-07-01

324

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory 409.70...

2010-07-01

325

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory 409.70...

2013-07-01

326

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory 409.70...

2012-07-01

327

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory 409.70...

2011-07-01

328

Propagation of Big Island eddies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using satellite altimetry data, we have observed a series of anticyclonic eddies as they form at the Big Island of Hawaii and have tracked them as they move away from the island. While similar eddies have been observed near the Hawaiian Islands in previous studies, the fate of the anticyclonic eddies has previously been unclear. The eddies that we observed initially propagated to the southwest but consistently changed propagation direction to the northwest later in their lifetimes. This was intriguing to us, as theoretically, the decay of isolated anticyclonic eddies on a ? plane should cause them to continually move toward the southwest. Such isolated eddy dynamics are unable to account for the observed change to northwestward eddy propagation, and the presence of the westward flowing North Equatorial Current turns out to be important to the Big Island eddy dynamics. The eddies are not passively advected by the North Equatorial Current; rather, the mean flow changes the propagation characteristics of the eddies. An existing theory that includes meridionally varying, purely zonal mean flow is shown to account for the observed propagation of the Big Island eddies if the zonal variation of the mean flow is considered.

Holland, Christina L.; Mitchum, Gary T.

2001-01-01

329

77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...contains a correction to the final rule to implement Amendment 11 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery...

2012-08-22

330

Lobsters and crabs as potential vectors for tunicate dispersal in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following anecdotal reports of tunicates on the carapaces of rock crab (Cancer irroratus) and American lobster (Homarus americanus), we evaluated the role of these species and northern lady crab Ovalipes ocellatus as natural vectors for the spread of invasive tunicates in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Several hundred adult specimens of crabs and lobster from two tunicate- infested estuaries

Rene Y. Bernier; Andrea Locke; John Mark Hanson

2009-01-01

331

The claw and leg opener muscles in the crayfish and lobster provide preparations in which regional differences in synaptic  

E-print Network

The claw and leg opener muscles in the crayfish and lobster provide preparations in which regional in summation and facilitation of the postsynaptic graded responses to elicit muscle contraction, which can and lobster opener neuromuscular preparations of the walking legs and claws, there are regional differences

Cooper, Robin L.

332

76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...50 CFR Part 622 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral...RIN 0648-BA62 Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral...Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Reef Fish Fishery of Puerto Rico and the...

2011-12-30

333

Tailflick escape behavior in larval and juvenile lobsters (Homarus americanus) and crayfish (Cherax destructor).  

PubMed

We examined the escape behavior of larvae and postlarvae of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) and of adult immature (stage ADI) crayfish (Cherax destructor). Responses to standardized water jet stimuli delivered through a pipette were observed and analyzed. Lobster larvae did not respond to stimuli within 60 ms, indicating that they do not have functional giant fibers. The first movement by lobster larvae in response to water jet stimuli was a hyperextension of the abdomen. Larval escape responses also showed very little habituation. Postlarval lobsters and ADI crayfish showed the same range of responses as adult animals. Displacement efficiency of tailflicks exhibited by the different animals and stages was examined and related to the morphology of the animals. A separate behavior from tailflicking by larval lobsters in response to water jet stimuli was also observed. Here, the abdomen was hyperextended and the thoracic appendages were promoted. We termed this behavior a "starburst" response. The features of the tailflicking behavior suggest that it evolved to make the larvae difficult prey to handle for small, slower moving predators, and possibly to allow them to ride the bow waves of faster moving predators. PMID:10897445

Jackson, D J; MacMillan, D L

2000-06-01

334

Function of chemoreceptor organs in spatial orientation of the lobster, Homarus americanus: differences and overlap  

SciTech Connect

Three of the lobster's main chemoreceptor organs, the lateral and medial antennules (representing smell) and the dactylus-propodus segments of the walking legs (representing taste), are physiologically quite similar. The authors examined their role in spatial orientation in a food-odor stimulus field. Control animals almost always oriented correctly and immediately to an odor plume. Lobsters with unilateral ablations of lateral antennules lost this ability, but did not show preferential turning toward the intact side. Unilateral medial antennule ablation did not affect orientation. Removal of all aesthetasc hairs from one lateral antennule caused loss of orientation ability less severe than unilateral ablation of the entire lateral antennule. Lobsters with unilaterally ablated lateral antennules and blocked walking leg receptors turned preferentially toward the side of the intact antennule. Thus, it appears that intact lobsters orient in odor space by tropotaxis principally using aesthetasc receptor input. Since loss of appendages is relatively common in lobsters, this partial overlap of organ function may serve the animal well in nature.

Devine, D.V.; Atema, J.

1982-08-01

335

Munidopsis lauensis Baba & de Saint Laurent, 1992 (Decapoda, Anomura, Munidopsidae), a newly recorded squat lobster from a cold seep in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The squat lobster, Munidopsis lauensis Baba & de Saint Laurent, 1992, is recorded from Taiwan for the first time. This species was previously known only from deep-sea hydrothermal vents in the South-West Pacific but it was now found at a deep-sea cold seep site off southwestern Taiwan. The identity of the Taiwanese material is confirmed by comparison of sequences from the barcoding gene COI. Munidopsis lauensis can be easily separated from other congeners in Taiwanese waters by the eyes bearing a strong mesiodorsal spine and a small mesioventral spine, smooth carapace, fingers of the cheliped distally spooned and fixed finger without a denticulate carina on the distolateral margin. The discovery of this species in Taiwan increases the Munidopsis fauna of the island to 38 species. A color photograph and line drawings illustrating distinctive characters are provided for the Taiwanese material. PMID:25112740

Lin, Chia-Wei; Tsuchida, Shinji; Lin, Saulwood; Berndt, Christian; Chan, Tin-Yam

2013-01-01

336

Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798).  

PubMed

The effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) (Bio-Mos, Alltech, USA) on the growth, survival, physiology, bacteria and morphology of the gut and immune response to bacterial infection of tropical rock lobsters (Panulirus ornatus) juvenile were investigated. Dietary inclusion level of MOS at 0.4% was tested against the control diet (trash fish) without MOS inclusion. At the end of 56 days of rearing period, a challenged test was also conducted to evaluate the bacterial infection resistant ability of the lobsters fed the two diets. Lobster juvenile fed MOS diet attained 2.86 +/- 0.07 g of total weigh and 66.67 +/- 4.76% survival rate which were higher (P < 0.05) than the lobsters fed control diet (2.35 +/- 0.14 g total weight and 54.76 +/- 2.38% survival rate, respectively) thus providing the higher (P < 0.05) specific growth rate (SGR) and average weekly gain (AWG) of lobsters fed MOS diet. Physiological condition indicators such as wet tail muscle index (Tw/B), wet hepatosomatic index (Hiw) and dry tail muscle index (Td/B) of the lobsters fed MOS supplemented diet were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the lobsters fed the control diet. Bacteria in the gut (both total aerobic and Vibrio spp.) and gut's absorption surface indicated by the internal perimeter/external perimeter ratio were also higher (P < 0.05) when the lobsters were fed MOS diet. Lobsters fed MOS diet were in better immune condition showed by higher THC and GC, and lower bacteraemia. Survival, THC, GC were not different among the lobsters fed either MOS or control diet after 3 days of bacterial infection while bacteraemia was lower in the lobsters fed MOS diet. After 7 days of bacterial infection the lobsters fed MOS diet showed higher survival, THC, GC and lower bacteraemia than the lobsters fed the control diet. The experimental trial demonstrated the ability of MOS to improve the growth performance, survival, physiological condition, gut health and immune responses of tropical spiny lobsters juveniles. PMID:20034574

Sang, Huynh Minh; Fotedar, Ravi

2010-03-01

337

The origin of chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inter-shield differences in the composition of lavas from Hawaiian volcanoes are generally thought to result from the melting of a heterogeneous mantle source containing variable amounts or types of oceanic crust (sediment, basalt, and/or gabbro) that was recycled into the mantle at ancient subduction zones (e.g., [1-3]). Here we investigate the origin of chemical heterogeneity in the Hawaiian mantle plume by comparing the incompatible trace element abundances of tholeiitic basalts from (1) Kilauea, Mauna Loa, and Loihi Seamount (the three active Hawaiian volcanoes) and (2) the extinct Koolau shield (a compositional end member for Hawaiian volcanoes). Model calculations (based on these incompatible trace element abundances) suggest that the mantle sources of Hawaiian volcanoes contain variable amounts of recycled oceanic crust (ROC), consisting of basalt and gabbro (but little or no marine sediment) that was altered by interaction with seawater or hydrothermal fluids prior to being variably dehydrated in an ancient subduction zone. The estimated fraction of ROC in the Hawaiian plume varies from ~8-16% at Kilauea and Loihi to ~15-21% at Mauna Loa and Koolau (the remainder is assumed to be ambient depleted Hawaiian mantle). The ROC in the mantle source of Kilauea and Loihi lavas is dominated by the uppermost portion of the residual slab (gabbro-free, strongly dehydrated basalt), whereas the ROC in the mantle source of Mauna Loa and Koolau lavas is dominated by the lowermost portion of the residual slab (weakly dehydrated basalt and gabbro). The model results suggest that the large-scale distribution of compositional heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume at the present time cannot be described by either a radial zonation [1] or a bilateral asymmetry [4,5]. Instead, the Hawaiian plume is heterogeneous on a small scale with a NW-SE oriented spatial gradient in the amount, type (i.e., basalt vs. gabbro) and extent of dehydration of the ancient ROC. [1] Hauri (1996) Nature 382, 415-419. [2] Hofmann & Jochum (1996) J. Geophys. Res. 101, 11831-11839. [3] Huang & Frey (2005) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 149, 556-575. [4] Abouchami et al. (2005) Nature 434, 851-856. [5] Weis et al. (2011) Nature Geoscience 4, 831-838.

Pietruszka, A. J.; Norman, M. D.; Garcia, M. O.; Marske, J. P.; Burns, D. H.

2012-12-01

338

The traditional Hawaiian diet: a review of the literature.  

PubMed

The prevalence of obesity is increasing among all Americans, including Native Hawaiians. Because obesity is a risk factor for major chronic diseases and shortens lifespan, it is important to develop and test interventions to prevent and reduce it. Traditional Hawaiian Diet (THD) programs, conducted over the last two decades, were examined in the context of national information on weight loss and obesity prevention programs. This review reveals that THD programs appeal to Native Hawaiians, especially the education about the health and cultural values of native foods and the support of peers. The majority of participants realize short-term weight loss and improvements in health, but few individuals sustain a significant weight loss. Most participants have difficulty adhering to the THD, citing barriers to accessing fresh, affordable produce and the lack of support systems and environments that embrace healthy eating. Any THD program offered in the future should address these barriers and engage participants for at least a year. This review includes a logic model that can be used to help program providers improve THD programs and increase the rigor of evaluation efforts. Additionally, public health professionals and Native Hawaiians should advocate for environmental changes that will support healthy lifestyles, for example: increase access by Native Hawaiians to the land and ocean; provide land for home, neighborhood and community gardening; support local farmers; remove junk-food vending machines from public buildings (including schools); improve school lunches; and mandate daily, enjoyable physical education classes in schools and after-school programs. PMID:16281710

Fujita, Ruth; Braun, Kathryn L; Hughes, Claire K

2004-09-01

339

Ancient carbonate sedimentary signature in the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from Mahukona volcano, Hawaii  

E-print Network

Ancient carbonate sedimentary signature in the Hawaiian plume: Evidence from Mahukona volcano Mahukona, a small Hawaiian volcano on the Loa trend, exhibit major and trace element abundance variations source component is important in the Hawaiian plume. Although most lavas from Loa and Kea trend volcanoes

Weston, Ken

340

Population Genetic Structure of the Deep-Sea Precious Coral Corallium secundum from the Hawaiian Archipelago Based on Microsatellites.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep-sea precious corals (Gerardia sp., Corallium lauuense, and Corallium secundum) on the Islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago have supported an extremely profitable fishery, yet little is known about the life history and dispersal of the exploited species. Recent studies indicate significant genetic structure between shallow-water coral populations, including several species capable of long distance dispersal. If significant genetic structure exists in seamount and Island populations of precious corals, this could suggest that the elimination (through overharvesting) of a bed of precious corals would result in loss of overall genetic diversity in the species. Here I discuss results based on microsatellite studies of the precious coral, Corallium secundum, from 11 sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago collected between 1998 and 2004, and compare the population genetic structure and dispersal capabilities of Corallium secundum to the results for Corallium lauuense. Microsatellite studies of Corallium lauuense indicated significant heterozygote deficiency in most populations, suggesting recruitment in most populations is from local sources with only occasional long-distance dispersal events. Also, two populations appear to be significantly isolated from other populations of Corallium lauuense and may be separate stocks. In contrast, Corallium secundum populations have little heterozygote deficiency and separate into 3 distinct regions. In addition to having fisheries management implications for these corals, the results of these studies also have implications for the management and protection of seamount fauna.

Baco-Taylor, A.

2006-12-01

341

Comparison of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations Related to Diabetes Among Native Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese Elderly Compared with Whites, Hawai'i, December 2006-December 2010  

PubMed Central

Introduction Approximately 25% of individuals aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes rates in this age group are higher for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AA/PI) than for whites. We examined racial/ethnic differences in diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (DRPH) among people aged 65 years or older for Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, and whites. Methods Discharge data for hospitalizations in Hawaii for people aged 65 years or older from December 2006 through December 2010 were compared. Annual rates of DRPH by patient were calculated for each racial/ethnic group by sex. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated relative to whites. Multivariable models controlling for insurer, comorbidity, diabetes prevalence, age, and residence location provided final adjusted rates and RRs. Results A total of 1,815 DRPH were seen from 1,515 unique individuals. Unadjusted RRs for DRPH by patient were less than1 in all AA/PI study groups compared with whites, but were highest among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. In fully adjusted models accounting for higher diabetes prevalence in AA/PI groups, Native Hawaiian (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.59), Filipino (aRR = 2.26), and Japanese (aRR = 1.86) men retained significantly higher rates of diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations than whites, as did Filipino women (aRR = 1.61). Conclusion Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older have a higher risk than whites for DRPH. Health care providers and public health programs for elderly patients should consider effective programs to reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older. PMID:23886042

Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Juarez, Deborah T.; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Chen, John J.; Salvail, Florentina R.; Miyamura, Jill; Mau, Marjorie L.M.

2013-01-01

342

Influence of local habitat features on disease avoidance by Caribbean spiny lobsters in a casita-enhanced bay.  

PubMed

In Baha de la Ascensin, Mexico, 'casitas' (large artificial shelters) are extensively used to harvest Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus. After the discovery of a pathogenic virus, Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1), in these lobsters, laboratory experiments revealed that PaV1 could be transmitted by contact and through water, and that lobsters avoided shelters harboring diseased conspecifics. To examine these issues in the context of casitas, which typically harbor multiple lobsters of all sizes, we examined the distribution and aggregation patterns of lobsters in the absence/presence of diseased conspecifics (i.e. visibly infected with PaV1) in 531 casitas distributed over 3 bay zones, 1 poorly vegetated ('Viga Chico', average depth: 1.5 m) and 2 more extensively vegetated ('Punta Allen': 2.5 m; 'Los Cayos': 2.4 m). All zones had relatively high indices of predation risk. Using several statistical approaches, we found that distribution parameters of lobsters were generally not affected by the presence of diseased conspecifics in casitas. Interestingly, however, in the shallower and less vegetated zone (Viga Chico), individual casitas harbored more lobsters and lobsters were actually more crowded in casitas containing diseased conspecifics, yet disease prevalence was the lowest in lobsters of all sizes. These results suggest that (1) investment in disease avoidance by lobsters is partially modulated by local habitat features, (2) contact transmission rates of PaV1 may be lower in nature than in the laboratory, and (3) water-borne transmission rates may be lower in shallow, poorly vegetated habitats more exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation, which can damage viral particles. PMID:23186701

Briones-Fourzn, Patricia; Candia-Zulbarn, Rebeca I; Negrete-Soto, Fernando; Barradas-Ortiz, Cecilia; Huchin-Mian, Juan P; Lozano-lvarez, Enrique

2012-08-27

343

Sulfate/oxalate exchange by lobster hepatopancreatic basolateral membrane vesicles.  

PubMed

Purified basolateral membrane vesicles (BLMV) were prepared from lobster hepatopancreas by osmotic disruption and discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation. Radiolabeled sulfate uptake was stimulated by 10 mM intravesicular oxalate compared with gluconate-loaded vesicles. Sulfate/oxalate exchange was not affected by transmembrane valinomycin-induced potassium diffusion potentials (inside negative or inside positive), suggesting electroneutral anion transport. Sulfate uptake was not stimulated by the similar carboxylic anions formate, succinate, oxaloacetate, or ketoglutarate. Sulfate influx occurred by at least one saturable Michaelis-Menten carrier system [apparent Km = 6.0 +/- 1.7 mM; maximum flux (Jmax) = 382.3 +/- 37.0 pmol.mg protein-1 x 7 s-1]. Sulfate/oxalate exchange was significantly reduced by the anion antiport inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid and 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid but was not affected by bumetanide or furosemide. The possible physiological role of this exchange mechanism in anion/sulfate transport across the crustacean hepatopancreas is discussed. PMID:7573558

Gerencser, G A; Cattey, M A; Ahearn, G A

1995-09-01

344

Paired windward and leeward biogeochemical time series reveal consistent surface ocean CO2 trends across the Hawaiian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

time series have provided compelling evidence for progressive acidification of the surface oceans through exchange with the growing atmospheric reservoir of carbon dioxide. However, few long-term programs exist, and extrapolation of results from one site to larger oceanic expanses is hampered by the lack of spatial coverage inherent to Eulerian sampling. Since 1988, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series program has sampled CO2 system variables nearly monthly at Station ALOHA, a deep ocean site windward and 115 km north of the island of Oahu. Surface measurements have also been made at Station Kahe, a leeward site 12 km from the island and on the opposite side of the Hawaiian Ridge. Despite having different physical settings, the sites exhibit identical rates of surface pCO2 increase and hydrogen ion accumulation, suggesting that atmospheric forcing dominates over local dynamics in determining the CO2 trend in the surface waters of the North Pacific subtropical gyre.

Dore, John E.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Sadler, Daniel W.; Letelier, Ricardo M.

2014-09-01

345

Molt cycle-dependent molecular chaperone and polyubiquitin gene expression in lobster  

PubMed Central

Lobster claw muscle undergoes atrophy in correlation with increasing ecdysteroid (steroid molting hormone) titers during premolt. In vivo molecular chaperone (constitutive heat shock protein 70 [Hsc70], heat shock protein 70 [Hsp70], and Hsp90) and polyubiquitin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were examined in claw and abdominal muscles from individual premolt or intermolt lobsters. Polyubiquitin gene expression was assayed as a marker for muscle atrophy. Both Hsc70 and Hsp90 mRNA levels were significantly induced in premolt relative to intermolt lobster claw muscle, whereas Hsp70 mRNA levels were not. Hsp90 gene expression was significantly higher in premolt claw muscle when compared with abdominal muscle. Polyubiquitin mRNA levels were elevated in premolt when compared with intermolt claw muscle and significantly elevated relative to premolt abdominal muscle. PMID:14984059

Spees, Jeffrey L.; Chang, Sharon A.; Mykles, Donald L.; Snyder, Mark J.; Chang, Ernest S.

2003-01-01

346

WINCART: Weaving an Islander Network for Cancer Awareness, Research and Training  

Cancer.gov

The California State University, Fullerton, proposes to spearhead a university-community consortium to undertake community-based participatory research processes for development of a sustainable network to reduce preventable cancer incidence and mortality among five Pacific Islander (PI) communities (Chamorros, Marshallese, Native Hawaiians, Samoans, and Tongans) in Southern California.

347

Cancer Assessment Methodology in a Native Hawaiian Community  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data have been collected on cancer in Native Hawaiian communities, although Native Hawaiians tend to have higher cancer mortality rates than other ethnic groups in Hawai`i. Objectives We sought to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR) process used to deliver a culturally tailored protocol, combining traditional Native Hawaiian practices and random sampling methods, to determine cancer screening practices and program preferences of residents of a Hawaiian Homes (HH) community. Methods Following a culturally tailored protocol, we at tempt ed to survey half of the 644 households in the Waim?nalo Hawaiian Homes Community (WHHC). Pairs of Native Hawaiian college students performed the majority of data collection; a community member joined them if avail able. Visits to the selected homes were tracked and participation rates estimated. Additional information on this method ology emerged from discussions between researchers and community members. Results Of the 449 households accessed, 187 (42%) completed the survey, with an average of two visits per household. Individuals at 63 (14%) households refused outright. The remaining 199 (44%) homes were visited up to five times, but produced no response. Although some homes were vacant, often it appeared that residents were home but unresponsive. Our sampling procedure (targeting every other house and requiring accrual of 75 individuals in each of four agegender groups) reduced participation. Conclusions The use of CBPR built capacity for all partners by engaging them in all levels of research. The results, however, suggest the need for a more inclusive sampling strategy and the continued use of CBPR. PMID:20208309

Siu, Andrea; Palakiko, Donna-Marie

2010-01-01

348

Effect of holding duration on the immune system of western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus.  

PubMed

Live holding of lobsters is a major part of the post-harvest process in lobster fisheries. Following capture, animals are placed in factory tanks and held for varying lengths of time for recovery from stress due to handling, air exposure, disturbance and environmental variations. The aim of the present study was to determine the pattern of response of a range of immune and physiological parameters over varying holding periods and assess their possible application as a measure of recovery from stress of post-harvest procedures and in the determination of an appropriate duration of acclimation prior to live transport. The effect of holding duration on the following immune parameters: total haemocyte counts (THC), haemolymph clotting times, haemolymph pH, haemolymph protein concentration and the differential proportion of haemocytes, was assessed. Lobsters brought to the factory were placed in holding tanks and sampled over a period of up to 10 days. Two studies were conducted, the first on lobsters from different catch groups and the second on lobsters from the same day's catch from the same area. Experiments were conducted on adult animals (10-12 animals/treatment group) with a different group of lobsters being sampled at each time point. Various immune parameters showed alterations with time during holding. A consistent observation was significantly prolonged clotting times following four days of holding. The haemolymph pH showed a strong positive correlation to clotting time and the hyaline cell proportion showed a strong negative correlation with semi-granular cells. Although the levels of THC, clotting time and differential cell counts after one day of holding were similar to those observed in other studies on rested post-harvest lobsters, suggesting that the lobsters had recovered from the acute stress of capture and transport, subsequent alterations in pH, clotting time and differential cell counts indicated other physiological adjustments were still occurring for up to 4 days post capture. Overall the results suggest that though the effects of post-harvest procedures on the immune parameters appear to be resolved after a short duration of holding at low temperatures, no single immune parameter can provide predictable indication of the acclimation process. PMID:16473031

Fotedar, Seema; Evans, Louis; Jones, Brian

2006-04-01

349

Closing The Gap "Disparity In Native Hawaiian Cardiac Care"  

PubMed Central

Purpose Queen's Heart, the cardiac service line at the Queens Medical Center (QMC), Honolulu, Hawaii, recognizes the importance of closing the health disparity gap that affects the Native Hawaiian population. The purpose of this study was to examine the process and outcomes of health care among Native Hawaiians with heart disease, and to evaluate the impact of a multidisciplinary, culturally sensitive effort to improve quality of care. An inpatient program was created by assembling a team of practitioners who have an affinity for Native Hawaiian culture to address the health care of the Native Hawaiian people. Methods All Native Hawaiian patients who were admitted to The Queen's Medical Center from January 2007 to December 2008 became participants of the program. Baseline outcomes data for cardiac core measures, length of stay, 30 day readmission rates, and adverse events were reviewed by the team before the study was initiated. Educational materials were developed to provide culturally specific disease management information to patients and family members. The patient educators and discharge counselors provided patients with the education and tools they needed to engage in self care management. Heart failure disease management ensured that all Native Hawaiian patients receive appropriate quality care, individualized heart failure education, and a definitive plan for out patient follow up. The Integrative Care Program provided a holistic perspective of healing. Results All quality indicators for Native Hawaiian patients with cardiac disease have improved. Patient satisfaction rates have remained at the 99th percentile. There has been a marked improvement in adverse events following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) for Native Hawaiian patients. Readmissions that occurred in less than 30 days for patients admitted with myocardial infarctions and heart failure have improved and are now essentially the same as all other patient populations. Conclusions Culturally sensitive and patient centered care, delivered by the team of specialists from Queen's Heart, has allowed patients to incorporate cultural preferences into their care and recovery. Readmission rates have decreased, mortality rates have improved, and patient and family satisfaction is enhanced. PMID:20544602

Grothaus, Coraleen T; Gutierrez, Carol E; Kehoe, Kimberly A; Valentin, Mona R

2010-01-01

350

Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.

Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

351

Glucose transport by lobster hepatopancreatic brush-border membrane vesicles.  

PubMed

Epithelial brush-border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were made from lobster hepatopancreas by using Mg2+ precipitation. Alkaline phosphatase, Na+-K+-ATPase, and cytochrome c oxidase activities in these vesicles were enriched 15.0-, 1.0-, and 0.19-fold, respectively, compared with activities of a washed original homogenate pellet, indicating a relatively pure apical membrane preparation reduced in basolateral or organelle contamination. Complete vesicular closure was confirmed with electron microscopy and equilibrium [3H]D-glucose uptake experiments using various transmembrane osmotic gradients. Glucose uptake was stimulated by a transmembrane Na+ gradient but not by an identical K+ gradient or by a Na+ gradient in the presence of phloridzin. Electrogenicity of Na+-dependent glucose transport was confirmed in two ways. First, an anion permeability sequence indicated glucose uptake was stimulated in the following order: SCN- greater than Cl- greater than gluconate- greater than SO4(2-). Second, an outwardly directed valinomycin-induced K+ diffusion potential, rendering the vesicle interior electrically negative, enhanced glucose uptake compared with K+-loaded vesicles lacking the ionophore. Glucose influx occurred by a combination of carrier-mediated transfer, illustrating Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and nonsaturable "apparent diffusion." pH (same on both sides) strongly influenced Na+-dependent glucose uptake according to the sequence: pH 6.0 greater than pH 7.4 greater than pH 8.0. Increased proton concentration lowered the Michaelis constant for glucose transport and increased the apparent diffusional permeability of the membrane to the sugar. Maximal carrier-mediated glucose transport rate was largely unaffected by pH.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3970230

Ahearn, G A; Grover, M L; Dunn, R E

1985-02-01

352

Dispersal of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in a Hawaiian rain forest.  

PubMed

Introduced mosquito-borne pathogens avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum Grassi and Feletti) and avian pox virus (Avipoxvirus) have been implicated in the past extinctions and declines of Hawaiian avifauna and remain significant obstacles to the recovery and restoration of endemic Hawaiian birds. Effective management of avian disease will require extensive mosquito control efforts that are guided by the local ecology of the vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). During October and November 1997 and September through November 1998 five mark-release-recapture experiments with laboratory-reared Cx. quinquefasciatus were conducted in a native rain forest on Hawaii Island. Of the overall 66,047 fluorescent dye-marked and released females, 1,192 (1.8%) were recaptured in 43-52 CO2-baited traps operated for 10-12-d trapping periods. Recaptured mosquitoes were trapped in all directions and at distances up to 3 km from the release site. The cumulative mean distance traveled (MDTs) over the trapping period ranged from a high of 1.89 km after 11 d (September 1998) to a low of 0.81 km after 11 d (November 1998). Released mosquitoes moved predominately in a downwind direction and they seemed to use forestry roads as dispersal corridors. Applying an estimated MDT of 1.6 km to a geographical information system-generated map of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge clearly demonstrated that the effective refuge area could be reduced 60% by mosquitoes infiltrating into managed refuge lands. These findings should have significant implications for the design of future refuges and development of effective mosquito-borne avian disease control strategies. PMID:18714858

Lapointe, D A

2008-07-01

353

Investigating the potential role of persistent organic pollutants in Hawaiian green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

It has been hypothesized for decades that environmental pollutants may contribute to green sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), possibly through immunosuppression leading to greater susceptibility to the herpesvirus, the putative causative agent of this tumor-forming disease. To address this question, we measured concentrations of 164 persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and halogenated phenols in 53 Hawaiian green turtle (Chelonia mydas) plasma samples archived by the Biological and Environmental Monitoring and Archival of Sea Turtle Tissues (BEMAST) project at the National Institute of Standards and Technology Marine Environmental Specimen Bank. Four groups of turtles were examined: free-ranging turtles from Kiholo Bay (0% FP, Hawaii), Kailua Bay (low FP, 8%, Oahu), and Kapoho Bay (moderate FP, 38%, Hawaii) and severely tumored stranded turtles that required euthanasia (high FP, 100%, Main Hawaiian Islands). Four classes of POPs and seven halogenated phenols were detected in at least one of the turtles, and concentrations were low (often <200 pg/g wet mass). The presence of halogenated phenols in sea turtles is a novel discovery; their concentrations were higher than most man-made POPs, suggesting that the source of most of these compounds was likely natural (produced by the algal turtle diet) rather than metabolites of man-made POPs. None of the compounds measured increased in concentration with increasing prevalence of FP across the four groups of turtles, suggesting that these 164 compounds are not likely primary triggers for the onset of FP. However, the stranded, severely tumored, emaciated turtle group (n = 14) had the highest concentrations of POPs, which might suggest that mobilization of contaminants with lipids into the blood during late-stage weight loss could contribute to the progression of the disease. Taken together, these data suggest that POPs are not a major cofactor in causing the onset of FP.

Keller, Jennifer M.; Balazs, George H.; Nilsen, Frances; Rice, Marc; Work, Thierry M.; Jensen, Brenda A.

2014-01-01

354

Stable Isotopes Confirm Community Patterns in Foraging Among Hawaiian Procellariiformes  

E-print Network

, Ontario, K7L 3N6, Canada *Corresponding author; E-mail: mgreg@sun.ac.za Abstract.--Stable-isotope analysis was to compare community foraging patterns as determined by stable-isotope analysis with tradi- tional studies50 Stable Isotopes Confirm Community Patterns in Foraging Among Hawaiian Procellariiformes

Jones, Ian L.

355

Women of Hope: Native American/Hawaiian. Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study guide accompanies a poster series and documentary video about 12 American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian "women of hope." The women vary by age, education, profession, and geographic locale, but they share an unwavering commitment and dedication to their people's struggle to survive and flourish as distinct cultures. The

Hirschfelder, Arlene; Molin, Paulette Fairbanks; Oneita, Kathryn; Wakim, Yvonne B.

356

Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

357

Middle Ear Disorders and Hearing Loss in Native Hawaiian Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiian preschoolers (n=172) received a battery of tests that included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy. Approximately 15% of children failed a majority of the tests. Results are discussed in comparison to other indigenous groups at risk for middle ear disorders and hearing loss.

Pang-Ching, Glenn; And Others

1995-01-01

358

Modeling Future Conservation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers by Mosquito Management and  

E-print Network

of Disease-Tolerant Amakihi Peter H. F. Hobbelen1¤ , Michael D. Samuel2 *, Dennis A. LaPointe3 , Carter T. Atkinson3 1 Department of Forest and Wildlife Ecology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United, Samuel MD, LaPointe DA, Atkinson CT (2012) Modeling Future Conservation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers

359

Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony  

E-print Network

Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony Andrew E. Dizon to copulate and nest. In order to investigate these behaviors, we developed radio telemetry techniques to avoid potentially damaging interactions. The purpose of our study was to develop radio telemetry

360

Author's personal copy Tungsten in Hawaiian picrites: A compositional model  

E-print Network

content of the mantle sources for each shield volcano. The mantle sources of Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kohala in a suite of Hawaiian picrites and primitive tholeiites from nine main-stage shield vol- canoes. Tungsten-trend volcanoes. Alternatively, the mod- eled W enrichments may also reflect a primary source component

Mcdonough, William F.

361

Acultural Assumptions of Empiricism: A Native Hawaiian Critique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Native Hawaiian critiques the notion that philosophy is acultural, focusing on the spiritual and cultural context of knowledge, cultural influences on perception, relationships as the basis of epistemology, practical knowledge, the power of words in an oral culture, the mind-body question, and the politics of education. (SV)

Meyer, Manu Aluli

2001-01-01

362

Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family

Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

2012-01-01

363

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Canopy Biodiversity in Hawaiian  

E-print Network

Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Canopy Biodiversity in Hawaiian Lowland Rainforests Kimberly M ranging from 1 to 17 species per 0.1­0.3 ha. Spatial variation (range) in the shape of the AVIRIS spectra (derivative reflectance) in wavelength regions associated with upper-canopy pigments, water, and nitrogen

Ostertag, Rebecca

364

CNP Project: 'Imi Hale - Native Hawaiian Cancer Network  

Cancer.gov

Despite the fact that the state of Hawaii has the lowest overall cancer mortality rates in the nation, when compared with other ethnic groups, Native Hawaiians have the highest cancer mortality rates in their own homeland. Nationally, only black males and Alaska Native females have higher cancer mortality rates.

365

Family Involvement in a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the ways in which family members of students in a Hawaiian language immersion program were involved in their children's education and identified the effects of and barriers to involvement. A sociocultural theoretical approach and Epstein's framework of different types of involvement were applied. Participants included 35

Yamauchi, Lois A.; Lau-Smith, Jo-Anne; Luning, Rebecca J. I.

2008-01-01

366

The western Atlantic spiny lobster Panulirus argus undergoes an annual mass migration in which thousands of  

E-print Network

The western Atlantic spiny lobster Panulirus argus undergoes an annual mass migration in which functionally defines `poleward' as the direction along the earth's surface in which the angle formed between migration and is also capable of homing to specific dens in its coral reef environment. Relatively little

Stetten, George

367

Food quality affects secondary consumers even at low quantities: an experimental test with larval European lobster.  

PubMed

The issues of food quality and food quantity are crucial for trophic interactions. Although most research has focussed on the primary producer-herbivore link, recent studies have shown that quality effects at the bottom of the food web propagate to higher trophic levels. Negative effects of poor food quality have almost exclusively been demonstrated at higher food quantities. Whether these negative effects have the same impact at low food availability in situations where the majority if not all of the resources are channelled into routine metabolism, is under debate. In this study a tri-trophic food chain was designed, consisting of the algae Rhodomonas salina, the copepod Acartia tonsa and freshly hatched larvae of the European lobster Homarus gammarus. The lobster larvae were presented with food of two different qualities (C:P ratios) and four different quantities to investigate the combined effects of food quality and quantity. Our results show that the quality of food has an impact on the condition of lobster larvae even at very low food quantities. Food with a lower C:P content resulted in higher condition of the lobster larvae regardless of the quantity of food. These interacting effects of food quality and food quantity can have far reaching consequences for ecosystem productivity. PMID:22442696

Schoo, Katherina L; Aberle, Nicole; Malzahn, Arne M; Boersma, Maarten

2012-01-01

368

Communicating climate change: Climate change risk perceptions and rock lobster fishers, Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

World fisheries, already vulnerable, are under increasing pressure from the impacts of climate change. Using the Tasmanian rock lobster industry as a case study, we considered the efficacy of risk perception as a tool to inform how to communicate the science of climate change and suggestions for management in relation to development of adaptation strategies for fisheries. Fishers surveyed in

Melissa Nursey-Bray; G. Pecl; S. Frusher; C. Gardner; M. Haward; A. J. Hobday; S. Jennings; A. Punt; H. Revill; I. van Putten

369

ECOLOGICALSTUDIES OF THE PUERULUS LARVAL STAGE OF THE CALIFORNIA SPINY LOBSTER, PANULIRUSINTERRUPTUSI  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ecological and related behaviorai studies of the puerulus larval stage of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, involved the development and use of artificial and natural seaweed habitat traps, special paired neuston nets, and underwater night-lights for collecting and observing pucruli in nature. The results obtained indicate that pueruli first enter the coastal waters off San Diego, Calif., during May,

STEVEN A. SERFLING; RICHARD F. FORD

1975-01-01

370

Dynamic Construction of a Neural Network from Multiple Pattern Generators in the Lobster Stomatogastric Nervous System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) of the lobster Homarus gammarus, the rhythmic discharge of a pair of iden- tified modulatory neurons (PS cells) is able to construct de no~oa functional network from neurons otherwise belonging to other functional networks. The PS interneurons are elec- trically coupled and possess endogenous oscillatory prop- erties that can be activated synaptically by stimulation

Pierre Meyrand; John Simmers; Maurice Moulins

1994-01-01

371

DYSBIOSIS IN EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS)  

E-print Network

, VA, 22030; 3 Aquaculture, Freshwater and Marine Ecology Research Lab, Applied FisheriesDYSBIOSIS IN EPIZOOTIC SHELL DISEASE OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) NORMAN J. MERES,1, PO Box 1346, Gloucester Point, VA, 23062 ABSTRACT Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in the American

372

A Description of a New ``Amoebozoan'' Isolated from the American Lobster, Homarus americanus  

E-print Network

of an amoeboid disease afflicting lobsters on the East Coast, samples were examined for the presence of amoebae, there is an increasing awareness of the ecological importance and the possi- ble role of many diverse amoebae found in soils and freshwaters (Booton et al. 2004). In an effort to characterize the amoebae associated

Katz, Laura

373

A quantitative analysis of agonistic behavior in juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L.).  

PubMed

In these studies a quantitative analysis of agonistic (fighting) behavior in lobsters in presented as a first step in our attempt to relate patterns of behavior to underlying neurobiological mechanisms. The agonistic behavior of juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus L.) was studied in laboratory tanks at the New England Aquarium. Using video analyses and statistical techniques: (1) an ethogram of agonistic behavior was constructed; and (2) the temporal structure of the behavior was identified. We demonstrated that fighting in juvenile lobsters proceeds according to strict rules of conduct. All animals exhibit six common behavioral patterns in a stereotypical manner. A temporal sequence of these patterns was evident, representing an increase in intensity during confrontations. The typical scenario of an encounter begins with extensive threat displays upon first contact, continues with periods of ritualized aggression and restrained use of the claws, and terminates in a brief session of unrestrained combat. Predictions of game theory (i.e. assessment strategies) provide a useful framework for the understanding of fighting in lobsters. The presence of a highly structured behavioral system may reduce the potential for damage in fights among conspecifics, and may prove useful in attempts to study the neurobiological causes of complex behavioral patterns such as aggression. PMID:7552224

Huber, R; Kravitz, E A

1995-01-01

374

THE MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DUING AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER: PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The morphological basis for olfactory perception of steroids during agonistic behavior in lobsters: preliminary experiments. Borsay Horowitz, DJ1, Kass-Simon, G2, Coglianese, D2, Martin, L2, Boseman, M2, Cromarty, S3, Randall, K3, Fini, A.3 1US EPA, NHEERL, ORD, Atlantic Ecology...

375

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network  

E-print Network

Relating Network Synaptic Connectivity and Network Activity in the Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Pyloric Network Adam L. Weaver and Scott L. Hooper Neuroscience Program, Department of Biological Sciences 2003 Weaver, Adam L. and Scott L. Hooper. Relating network synaptic connectivity and network activity

Hooper, Scott

376

LOBSTER BEHAVIOR AND CHEMORECEPTION: SUBLETHAL EFFECTS OF NUMBER 2 FUEL OIL  

EPA Science Inventory

This research has demonstrated behavioral abnormalities and inappropriate responses in lobsters exposed to levels of 0.1-1.0 parts per million (ppm) of oil in water. Such abnormalities can lead to lack of feeding and population decline; they occur at exposure levels below those t...

377

Human and natural predators combine to alter behavior and reduce survival of Caribbean spiny lobster  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishing disturbance can have indirect negative effects on animal behavior and survival, but receives little attention compared to measures of direct fisheries extraction. We quantified changes in the density of Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus when exposed to experimental human disturbance and injury typical of sport-diver harvest attempts in the field. A complementary study in a large seawater arena quantified

Darren M. Parsons; David B. Eggleston

2006-01-01

378

CELLULAR MECHANISMS FOR MODULATION OF POSTURE BY OCTOPAMINE AND SEROTONIN IN THE LOBSTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of the monoamines octopamine and serotonin into the hemolymph of lobsters causes them to assume opposing static postures: octopamine causes a tonic extension of all extremities, while serotonin induces a tonic flexion. These amines have been shown previously to act as circulating neurohormones and to cause contraction of isolated exoskeletal muscles. The opposing postures elicited by amine injection do

RONALD M. HARRIS-WARRICK; EDWARD A. KRAVITZS

379

EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL IONS ON MEMBRANE POTENTIALS OF A LOBSTER GIANT AXON  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of varying external concentrations of normally occurring cations on membrane potentials in the lobster giant axon have been studied and compared with data presently available from the squid giant axon. A decrease in the external con- centration of sodium ions causes a reversible reduction in the amplitude of the action potential and its rate of rise. No effect

JOHN C. DALTON

1958-01-01

380

Connectivity of lobster (Homarus americanus) populations in the coastal Gulf of Maine: part II. Coupled biophysical  

E-print Network

Connectivity of lobster (Homarus americanus) populations in the coastal Gulf of Maine: part II Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, West Boothbay Harbor, ME 04538, USA 5 St Andrews Biological Station, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St Andrews, NB E5B 2L9, Canada ABSTRACT We used a coupled biophysical

Maine, University of

381

The Mermaid and the Lobster Diver: Gender and Ethnic Identities among the Ro Pltano Miskito Peoples  

E-print Network

-water lobster divers. Texts of other buzo songs show that men perceive women as treacherous and potentially harmful. Men fear everyday women who seduce them and take advantage of them for their money. Men also fear supernatural women like the Miskito goddess...

Herlihy, Laura Hobson

2002-05-01

382

HEART AND GILL VENTILATORY ACTMlY IN THE LOBSTER. HOMARUS AMERICANUS. AT  

E-print Network

NOTES HEART AND GILL VENTILATORY ACTMlY IN THE LOBSTER. HOMARUS AMERICANUS. AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES Heart rate and gill ventilatory activity have been suggested as useful measures ofthe physiological have described altered ventilatory and heart rates in response to such variables as temperature

383

This is not an official publication of lobster season rules and regulations.  

E-print Network

-1844 John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park (305) 451-1202 Everglades and Dry Tortugas National Parks (305 to harvest in John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park Lobster Exclusion Zones and from or within coral and Wildlife Conservation Commission For questions on regulations or to report a violation Division of Law

Florida, University of

384

The National Center on Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health Study of Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Native Hawaiian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The prevalence rates of disorders among a community-based sample of Hawaiian youths were determined and compared to previously published epidemiological studies. Method: Using a two-phase design, 7,317 adolescents were surveyed (60% participation rate), from which 619 were selected in a modified random sample during the 1992-1993 to

Andrade, Naleen N.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; McDermott, John F., Jr.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; McArdle, John J.; Bell, Cathy K.; Carlton, Barry S.; Miyamoto, Robin H.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Else, Iwalani R. N.; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Darmal, Arsalan; Yates, Alayne; Waldron, Jane A.

2006-01-01

385

A gelsolin-related protein from lobster muscle: cloning, sequence analysis and expression.  

PubMed Central

The tail muscle of the lobster Homarus americanus contains an actin-binding protein with an apparent molecular mass of 105 kDa determined by SDS/PAGE and gelsolin-like properties. We isolated this protein and peptide sequences were obtained after limited proteolysis with chymotrypsin. A tail-muscle-specific cDNA library was constructed in a lambda expression vector and a full-length clone was obtained by screening with a polyclonal anti-(crustacean gelsolin) antibody. The cDNA insert of approx. 3.2 kb length was sequenced. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 2.265 kb, and the deduced amino acid sequence of 754 residues (83,469 Da) identified the protein as a cytoplasmic member of the gelsolin/villin protein family. Comparison of the lobster gelsolin amino acid sequence with other members of this protein family revealed the characteristic 6-fold repeated segmental structure as well as the three conserved sequence motifs typical of each segment [Way and Weeds (1988) J. Mol. Biol. 203, 1127-1133]. Strong homologies were found with Drosophila gelsolin, human gelsolin, villin core, Dictyostelium severin and Physarum fragmin. In addition, the gelsolin-like protein from lobster muscle revealed motifs that were clearly similar to the actin-bundling region of human villin headpiece although it did not itself contain a distinct headpiece domain. The recombinant lobster gelsolin-like protein, expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein, was purified from inclusion bodies and renatured as a functional protein. There were no significant differences in the biological activity tested between the recombinant and the native protein isolated from lobster muscle. Images Figure 2 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848275

Lck, A; D'Haese, J; Hinssen, H

1995-01-01

386

Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-dependent regulation of the output in lobster olfactory receptor neurons  

PubMed Central

Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels often play a role in sensory transduction, including chemosensory transduction. TRP channels, a common downstream target of phosphoinositide (PI) signaling, can be modulated by exogenous phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2], phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] and/or diacylglycerol (DAG). Lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) express a TRP-related, non-selective, calcium/magnesium-permeable, sodium/calcium-gated cation (SGC) channel. Here we report that PIs regulate the function of the calcium-activated form of the lobster channel. Sequestering of endogenous PI(4,5)P2, either with an anti-PI(4,5)P2 antibody or by electrostatic screening with polyvalent cations, blocks the channel. Exogenous PI(3,4,5)P3 activates the channel independently of intracellular sodium and/or calcium. Exogenous non-hydrolysable DAG analogs fail to change the gating parameters of the channel, suggesting the channel is insensitive to DAG. Electrophysiological recording from lobster ORNs in situ using a panel of pharmacological tools targeting the key components of both PI and DAG metabolism (phospholipase C, phosphoinositide 4-kinase and DAG kinase) extend these findings to the intact ORN. PI(4,5)P2 depletion suppresses both the odorant-evoked discharge and whole-cell current of the cells, and does so possibly independently of DAG production. Collectively, our results argue that PIs can regulate output in lobster ORNs, at least in part through their action on the lobster SGC channel. PMID:20400625

Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Pezier, Adeline; Corey, Elizabeth A.; Ache, Barry W.

2010-01-01

387

Diversity of developmental patterns in achelate lobsters-today and in the Mesozoic.  

PubMed

Modern achelate lobsters, slipper and spiny lobsters, have a specific post-embryonic developmental pattern with the following phases: phyllosoma, nisto (slipper lobsters) or puerulus (spiny lobsters), juvenile and adult. The phyllosoma is a peculiar larva, which transforms through a metamorphic moult into another larval form, the nisto or puerulus which largely resembles the juvenile. Unlike the nisto and puerulus, the phyllosoma is characterised by numerous morphological differences to the adult, e.g. a thin head shield, elongate appendages, exopods on these appendages and a special claw. Our reinvestigation of the 85 million years old fossil "Eryoneicus sahelalmae" demonstrates that it represents an unusual type of achelatan lobster larva, characterised by a mixture of phyllosoma and post-phyllosoma characters. We ascribe it to its own genus: Polzicaris nov. gen. We study its significance by comparisons with other cases of Mesozoic fossil larvae also characterised by a mixture of characters. Accordingly, all these larvae are interpreted as ontogenetic intermediates between phyllosoma and post-phyllosoma morphology. Remarkably, most of the larvae show a unique mixture of retained larval and already developed post-larval features. Considering the different-and incompatible-mixture of characters of each of these larvae and their wide geographical and temporal distribution, we interpret all these larvae as belonging to distinct species. The particular character combinations in the different larvae make it currently difficult to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario with a stepwise character acquisition. Yet, it can be concluded that a larger diversity of larval forms and developmental patterns occurred in Mesozoic than in modern faunas. PMID:24002583

Haug, Joachim T; Audo, Denis; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Haug, Carolin

2013-11-01

388

Surveys of distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hawk within the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct specific biological surveys to identify potential impacts of proposed geothermal development on the biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the distribution, habitat use, and density of the Hawaiian hawk or `Io (Buteo solitarius). Data were collected by the USFWS to assess the potential impacts of geothermal development on `Io populations on the island of Hawaii. These impacts include degradation of potential nesting habitat and increased disturbance due to construction and operation activities. Data from these surveys were analyzed as part of an island wide population assessment conducted by the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology at the request of the USFWS.

Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

1994-08-01

389

Structural Equation Modeling of Group Differences in CES-D Ratings of Native Hawaiian and Non-Hawaiian High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes differences in self-reported Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression inventory results among ethnic Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian high school students, using different forms of latent variable structural equation models. Finds a high degree of invariance between students on depression. Discusses issues about common features and

McArdle, John J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Miyamoto, Robin H.; Andrade, Naleen N.

2001-01-01

390

A disynaptic sensorimotor pathway in the lobster stomatogastric system.  

PubMed

1. In the lobster Homarus, muscle gm 1 that causes protraction of the medial tooth of the gastric mill system is innervated via a dorsal branch of the anterior gastric nerve by motoneurons (GM) arising in the stomatogastric ganglion (STG) (Fig. 1). 2. A ventral branch of the anterior gastric nerve (VAGN) contains a single unit that is mechanosensitive, responds to gentle pressure on the stomach wall in the vicinity of gm 1, and evokes reflex activation of GM motoneurons (Fig. 2). 3. This mechanoreceptor neuron (called anterior gastric receptor, AGR) has been identified morphologically (Fig. 3) and electrophysiologically (Figs. 4 and 5). The bipolar cell body is located in the dorsal ventricular nerve immediately posterior to the STG. It sends out long peripheral processes in the left and right VAGNs to ramify bilaterally in the epidermis of the stomach wall underlying muscle gm 1. The axon of the AGR runs anteriorly through the STG and projects to the left and right commissural ganglia (CoGs) via the stomatogastric (STN) and inferior esophageal nerves. 4. AGR activation of GM motoneurons disappears after cutting the STN, indicating that the reflex is mediated by an axonal pathway involving rostral ganglia (Fig. 6). 5. Electrophysiological (Fig. 7) and morphological (Fig. 8) methods were used to identify an interneuron (commissural gastric neuron, CG) located in each CoG and intercalated between AGR and GM. Axons of the two CGs project to the STG via the superior esophageal nerves and the STN. 6. Simultaneous intracellular recordings from the three cell types demonstrate that AGR excites CG, which in turn excites GM; in each case excitatory postsynaptic potentials follow presynaptic impulses one for one and at constant latency (Fig. 9). Raising the threshold for spiking with saline containing high divalent cation concentrations further indicates that both excitatory connections are monosynaptic and confirms that AGR does not directly excite GM motoneurons (Fig. 10). 7. The input/output properties of AGR in this disynaptic excitatory pathway (Fig. 11) are discussed as also are the functional implications of such a long-loop pathway for sensorimotor integration. PMID:3367197

Simmers, J; Moulins, M

1988-03-01

391

Claw asymmetry in lobsters: case study in developmental neuroethology.  

PubMed

An enduring debate in the study of development is the relative contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the genesis of an organism, that is, the nature vs. nurture debate. The behavior of the paired claws in the lobster offers promising material for pursuing this debate because of the way they develop. The paired claws and their closer muscles are initially symmetrical; both are slender in appearance and have a mixture of fast and slow fibers in their closer muscles. During a critical period of development, they become determined into a major (crusher) and minor (cutter) claw and during subsequent development acquire their final form and behavior: The crusher becomes a stout, molar-toothed claw capable of closing only slowly because its closer muscle has 100% slow fibers while the cutter becomes a slender, incisor-toothed claw capable of closing rapidly because its closer muscle has 90% fast fibers. Our initial hypothesis was that the more active claw became the crusher and its less active counterpart the cutter. Presumably, nerve activity would influence muscle transformation, which in turn would influence the exoskeleton to which they attach and hence claw morphology. Curtailing nerve activity to the claw prevented crusher development, while reflex activation of a claw promoted its development; both results support the notion that nerve activity directly regulates claw form and function. This is not, however, the case, for when both claws were reflexly exercised neither formed a crusher, signifying rather that bilateral differences in predominantly mechanoreceptive input to the paired claws somehow lateralized the claw ganglion [central nervous system (CNS)] into a crusher and cutter side. The side experiencing the greater activity becomes the crusher side while the contralateral side becomes the cutter and is also inhibited from ever becoming a crusher. This initial lateralization in the CNS is expressed, via as yet unknown pathways, at the periphery in claw morphology, muscle composition, and behavior. The critical period defines a time when the CNS is susceptible to being lateralized into a crusher and cutter side. Such lateralization is dependent upon experience of the environment in the form of mechanoreceptive input. In the absence of such experience, the CNS is not lateralized and paired cutter claws develop. Thus, while the critical period for crusher determination is genetically determined the actual trigger is influenced by experience. PMID:1487743

Govind, C K

1992-12-01

392

77 FR 25116 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BB44 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment...SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Fishery...

2012-04-27

393

Diet and nutrition of western rock lobsters, Panulirus cygnus, in shallow coastal waters: the role of habitat  

EPA Science Inventory

Generalist consumers often have diets that vary considerably over time and space, which reflects changes in resource availability. Predicting diets of consumers can therefore be difficult. The western rock lobster, Panulirus cygnus, is an omnivorous generalist consumer that uses ...

394

Organic contaminant distributions in sediments, polychaetes (Nereis virens) and American lobster (Homarus americanus) from a laboratory food chain experiment.  

PubMed

A laboratory experiment was conducted to investigate the transfer of organic contaminants from an environmentally contaminated marine sediment through a simple marine food chain. The infaunal polychaete, Nereis virens, was exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River, NJ, USA, for 70 days. These polychaetes were then fed to the American lobster, Homarus americanus, for up to 112 days. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorodibenzothiophene (TCDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several chlorinated pesticides were accumulated by polychaetes following exposure to the contaminated sediment. Some of these contaminants were also accumulated by lobsters which were exposed to the contaminated sediment and/or fed contaminated polychaetes. Only the lesser chlorinated PCDDs and PCDFs (mostly tetra- and pentachlorinated congeners) and 2,4,6,8-TCDT were detected in the polychaetes and lobster. Significant alterations were noted in the PCB patterns found in both species, particularly the lobster. The non-ortho-substituted PCBs (such as congeners 77 and 126) became enriched in the PCB mixtures of the polychaetes and especially the lobsters relative to the sediment, probably because these congeners were not metabolized. These congeners and the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity equivalents of the PCB mixtures were enriched by a factor of about six in the lobsters relative to the sediment. Elimination of PCB congeners containing vicinal hydrogens in the meta-para region is consistent with cytochrome P450IIB-type metabolism. Based on the concentration trends for some PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticide ratios measured in the lobsters during this experiment, it appears that this metabolic system is inducible in the American lobster. PMID:11444012

Pruell, R J; Taplin, B K; McGovern, D G; McKinney, R; Norton, S B

2000-02-01

395

Interaction Between Downslope Flow and Trade-Wind Showers Over The Island of Hawaii During 7-8 August, 1990.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from the Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) are used to study the interaction between downslope flow and trade-wind showers over windward sections of the island of Hawaii on 7-8 August 1990. Large-scale conditions produce strong upstream trade-winds of...

J. L. Frye

1996-01-01

396

Characteristics of the turbidite units derived from the Alika debris avalanches on the submarine flanks of the island of Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many giantic submarine landslides have been recognized around the Hawaiian Islands, and most of them are considered to be accompanied with giant tsunami. Core samples obtained from deep-sea floor are a useful record for estimating the frequency of giant submarine landslide. Hawever, correlation between turbidite deposits in the core sample and the giant submarine landslides are uncertain. In order to

Y. Fujimoto; H. Yokose; T. Kanamatsu; M. Murayama; K. Akimoto; T. Ishii

2007-01-01

397

Remarkable new evidence for island radiation in birds.  

PubMed

If island biogeography has a sweet spot, it's where islands generate their own species diversity rather than merely taking on mainland immigrants. In birds and other highly dispersive taxa, however, this 'zone of radiation', may be vanishingly small. Darwin's finches and Hawaiian Honeycreepers are among only a handful of examples of island radiation in birds (Price 2008), suggesting that winged powers of dispersal make sufficient isolation from mainland colonists unlikely, while also hindering speciation within and among isolated islands. Nevertheless, two studies in this issue of Molecular Ecology join a string of other recent analyses suggesting that island radiation in birds remains under-appreciated (see also Moyle et al. 2009; Kisel & Barraclough 2010; Rosindell & Phillimore 2011). Melo et al. (2011) use a phylogenetic analysis of white-eyes on islands in the Gulf of Guinea to identify two previously overlooked island radiations, and reveal replicated adaptive divergence on islands where species occur in pairs. Sly et al. (2011), meanwhile, consider possible explanations for speciation and geographic differentiation within a large island, and find the same type of oceanic barriers that are critical to bird speciation across archipelagos may also contribute to divergence that appears to have occurred within a single island. PMID:22103633

Glor, Richard E

2011-12-01

398

CRCHD SPN Project: 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Research and Training Network  

Cancer.gov

The specific goals of 'Imi Hale, the Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research and Training Network, were to reduce cancer incidence and mortality among Native Hawaiians residing in the state of Hawaii through the establishment of a sustainable infrastructure to promote cancer awareness within Native Hawaiian communities and initiate cancer research, training, and control activities. The project worked collaboratively with key partners at the community, state, and national levels to provide the support systems and expertise needed to address cancer disparities in Hawaii.

399

Five new species of Isospora from Hawaiian birds.  

PubMed

The following species are described from Hawaiian birds: Isospora brayi sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 26 micron and sporocysts 19 X 12 micron, from the Japanese white-eye, Zosterops japonicus Temminck & Schlegel; Isospora cardinalis sp. n., with oocysts 24 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 10 micron, from the cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis (Linnaeus); Isospora ivensae sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 25 micron, and sporocysts 18 X 12 micron, from the spotted or white-throated munia, Lonchura punctulata (Linnaeus); Isospora loxopis sp. n., with oocysts 26 X 23 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 13 micron, from the amakihi or honeycreeper, Loxops virens (Gmelin); and Isospora phaeornis sp. n., with oocysts 27 X 19 micron, and sporocysts 16 X 11 micron, from the omao or Hawaiian thrush, Phaeornis obscurus (Gmelin). All the host birds belong to the order Passerorida. PMID:7452523

Levine, N D; Van Riper, S; Van Riper, C

1980-08-01

400

An olivine-free mantle source of Hawaiian shield basalts.  

PubMed

More than 50 per cent of the Earth's upper mantle consists of olivine and it is generally thought that mantle-derived melts are generated in equilibrium with this mineral. Here, however, we show that the unusually high nickel and silicon contents of most parental Hawaiian magmas are inconsistent with a deep olivine-bearing source, because this mineral together with pyroxene buffers both nickel and silicon at lower levels. This can be resolved if the olivine of the mantle peridotite is consumed by reaction with melts derived from recycled oceanic crust, to form a secondary pyroxenitic source. Our modelling shows that more than half of Hawaiian magmas formed during the past 1 Myr came from this source. In addition, we estimate that the proportion of recycled (oceanic) crust varies from 30 per cent near the plume centre to insignificant levels at the plume edge. These results are also consistent with volcano volumes, magma volume flux and seismological observations. PMID:15800614

Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Sobolev, Stephan V; Nikogosian, Igor K

2005-03-31

401

Eruption dynamics of Hawaiian-style lava fountains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hawaiian-style lava fountains are episodic, not continuous. Existing models view a typical Hawaiian fountain as driven by a sustained, steady-state process. However, eyewitness observations show that, within a single fountain, the height pulsates implicating fluctuations in the fluxes of gas and magma The short-lived but powerful 1959 eruption at K?lauea Iki contained 17 fountaining episodes and produced a cone and tephra blanket as well as a lava lake which interacted with the vent during all but the first episode of the eruption. We have conducted a detailed investigation of tephra from the episode 1 deposit in order to examine ascent and eruption conditions of Hawaiian lava fountaining. Density measurements (300 to 1600 kg/m3) and vesicularity calculations (42% - 88%) of closely spaced lapilli-sized samples from the episode 1 tephra indicate a wide textural diversity reflecting variability in vesiculation processes. Micro-textures in the least vesicular clasts have polymodal size distributions of bubbles with thick walls, whereas clasts with higher vesicularity offer bimodal distributions of bubbles with thin walls. Modal vesicularity clasts have bi- to poly-modal vesicle size distributions which lie between these two end members as well as exterior macro-textures of frequent occurrences of centimeter-sized bubbles. Early quenched rims of the highest vesicularity clasts have vesicle-number densities approaching 107 cm- 3 which offers a valid approximation to magma conditions immediately at fragmentation. However, modal vesicularity clasts with vesicle-number densities of 106 cm-3 strongly indicate that this number density, represented by the majority of magma driving the eruption, has dropped away from the maximum. Partial bubble loss occurred through the process of coalescence and outgassing during two-phase flow in the conduit. Combining the macro- and micro-textural observations we therefore propose a more complex story for Hawaiian lava fountaining from conduit ascent through to eruption than currently exists within the literature.

Stovall, W. K.; Houghton, B. F.; Swanson, D. A.; Fagents, S. A.

2008-12-01

402

Thermal infrared spectral character of Hawaiian basaltic glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal IR reflectance spectra of exposed surfaces of Hawaiian basalt samples from Mauna Loa and Kilauea show systematic changes with age. Spectra of fresh glass collected from active lava flows showed evidence of a strong degree of disorder. After a few weeks of exposure to the laboratory environment, spectra of the top surfaces of these samples began to exhibit spectral features suggestive of ordering into silicate chainlike ansd sheetlike units. With progressive aging, features of apparent sheetlike structures became the preferred mode.

Crisp, Joy; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.

1990-01-01

403

The internal structure of lava flowsinsights from AMS measurements II: Hawaiian pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We studied the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 22 basaltic flow units, including S-type pahoehoe, P-type pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'? emplaced over different slopes in two Hawaiian islands. Systematic differences occur in several aspects of AMS (mean susceptibility, degree of anisotropy, magnetic fabric and orientation of the principal susceptibilities) among the morphological types that can be related to different modes of lava emplacement. AMS also detects systematic changes in the rate of shear with position in a unit, allowing us to infer local flow direction and some other aspects of the velocity field of each unit. 'A'? flows are subject to stronger deformation than pahoehoe, and also their internal parts behave more like a unit. According to AMS, the central part of pahoehoe commonly reveals a different deformation history than the upper and lower extremes, probably resulting from endogenous growth.

Can-Tapia, Edgardo; Walker, George P. L.; Herrero-Bervera, Emilio

1997-03-01

404

Octopamine release at two points along lobster nerve trunks.  

PubMed Central

Nerve cells in the proximal regions of second thoracic roots in lobsters have been injected with the fluorescent dye Procion Yellow. Examination of the roots reveals an elaborate array of cell branches in a superficial layer of the root in the vicinity of the cell bodies. Large varicosities, up to 10 mum in diameter, are seen lined up along fine nerve branches. 2. In these same regions, electron microscopic examination shows the presence of large profiles filled with 0-1-0-2 mum dense cored granules, and having the appearance of nerve endings. These profiles probably correspond to the varicosities seen in the Procion Yellow injections. The dense cored granules within the endings have a crystalline substructure. All the endings are found within 7 mum of the surface of the root and no obvious physiological target tissue exists in their surroundings. Endings have not been traced directly to root cell bodies.However, granules of similar dimensions to those seen in endings are found in cell bodies, axon-hillock regions and numerous axonal profiles in the superficial root regions near cell bodies. The morphological studies suggest that the root neurones have the typical appearance of neurosecretory cells. 3. Octopamine pools in cell body regions of second thoracic roots can be isotopically labelled by incubation with either [3H]tyramine or [3H]-tyrosine. After labelling, pulsing with 100 mM potassium causes an increase in the rate of release of radioactive material. Upon return to normal media background rates of release are re-established. The enhanced efflux has the following properties: (a) repeated pulses of potassium release less radio-active material each time; (b) a prolonged potassium pulse produces first a peak of release, then a decline to a plateau, and the plateau level of release is maintained for the duration of the potassium pulse; (c) release is dependent on the presence of calcium ions in the bathing fluid and 40 mM cobalt prevents release; (d) release is selective for octopamine. With tyrosine as a precursor compound, as much radioactive tyrosine as octopamine is found in tissues after incubation, yet pulsing with potassium causes an enhanced efflux only of octopamine from preparations. 4. Release of octopamine also can be demonstrated from pericardial organs near the ends of lateral branches of the roots and the properties of the release are identical to those seen with cell body regions. 5. Physiological studies, in which root cells are antidromically activated while recording from cell bodies, suggest that the distal endings of at least some of the root cells are at the pericardial organs. 6. The results suggest that root cell neurones are neurosecretory cells capable of releasing octopamine at two points: one near cell bodies, the other at the pericardial organs near the distal ends of the roots... Images Plate 1 A B C PMID:792418

Evans, P D; Kravitz, E A; Talamo, B R

1976-01-01

405

Northerly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND  

E-print Network

of the Chicago Loop, is a peninsula sur- rounded by Lake Michigan and Burnham Harbor. The four teams were groupedNortherly Island Studio NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs CUPPA FALL 2005 NORTHERLY ISLAND URBAN DESIGN STUDIO College of Urban Planning and Public Affairs

Illinois at Chicago, University of

406

Stratigraphy of the Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project core (HSDP2): Anatomy of a Hawaiian shield volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawai`i Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) successfully drilled 3.1 km into the island of Hawai`i. Drilling started on Mauna Loa volcano, drilling 247 m of subaerial lavas before encountering 832 m of subaerial Mauna Kea lavas, followed by 2019 m of submarine Mauna Kea volcanic and sedimentary units. The 2.85 km stratigraphic record of Mauna Kea volcano spans back to 650 ka. Mauna Kea subaerial lavas have high average olivine contents (13 vol.%) and low average vesicle abundances (10 vol.%). Most subaerial Mauna Kea flows are `a`? (63%), whereas the Mauna Loa section contains nearly equal amounts of p?hoehoe and `a`? (like its current surface). The submarine Mauna Kea section contains an upper, 900 m thick, hyaloclastite-rich section and a lower, 1100 m thick, pillow-lava-dominated section. These results support a model that Hawaiian volcanoes are built on a pedestal of pillow lavas capped by rapidly quenched, fragmented lava debris. The HSDP2 section is compared here to a 1.7 km deep hole (SOH1) on Kilauea's lower east rift zone. Differences in the sections reflect the proximity to source vents and the lower magma supply to Kilauea's rift zone. Both drill core sections are cut by intrusions, but the higher abundance of intrusions in SOH1 reflects its location within a rift zone, causing more extensive alteration in the SOH1 core. The HSDP2 site recovered a relatively unaltered core well suited for geochemical analyses of the single deepest and most complete borehole ever drilled through a Hawaiian or any other oceanic island volcano.

Garcia, Michael O.; Haskins, Eric H.; Stolper, Edward M.; Baker, Michael

2007-02-01

407

Structural characterization of recombinant crustacyanin subunits from the lobster Homarus americanus  

PubMed Central

Crustacean crustacyanin proteins are linked to the production and modification of carapace colour, with direct implications for fitness and survival. Here, the structural and functional properties of the two recombinant crustacyanin subunits H1 and H2 from the American lobster Homarus americanus are reported. The two subunits are structurally highly similar to the corresponding natural apo crustacyanin CRTC and CRTA subunits from the European lobster H. gammarus. Reconstitution studies of the recombinant crustacyanin proteins H1 and H2 with astaxanthin reproduced the bathochromic shift of 8595?nm typical of the natural crustacyanin subunits from H. gammarus in complex with astaxanthin. Moreover, correlations between the presence of crustacyanin genes in crustacean species and the resulting carapace colours with the spectral properties of the subunits in complex with astaxanthin confirmed this genotypephenotype linkage. PMID:22869108

Ferrari, Michele; Folli, Claudia; Pincolini, Elisa; McClintock, Timothy S.; Rssle, Manfred; Berni, Rodolfo; Cianci, Michele

2012-01-01

408

Cloning of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) from Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus  

PubMed Central

We have previously reported on calcium transport mechanisms in American lobster, Homarus americanus, using 45Ca2+ coupled with vesicle preparations of hepatopancreatic endoplasmic reticulum. The active transport of calcium across membranes bordering calcium-sequestering stores such as sarcoplasmic or endoplasmic reticulum is catalyzed by membrane-spanning proteins, the sarco-endoplasmic Ca2+-ATPases (SERCAs). In the study described here we used advanced bioinformatics and molecular techniques to clone SERCA from the economically important Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus. We report the complete cloning of a full-length SERCA from P. argus antenna cDNA (GenBank accession number AY702617). This cDNA has a 1020-amino acid residue open reading frame which is 90% identical to published sequences of other crustacean SERCA proteins. Our data support the hypothesis that one crustacean and three vertebrate genes controlling calcium transport were derived from a common ancestral gene. PMID:18825387

Arunachalam, S. C.; Meleshkevitch, E. A.; Mandal, P. K.; Boudko, D. Y.; Ahearn, G. A.

2012-01-01

409

Are the Hawaiian Opae-ula Shrimps Halocaridina rubra and H. palahemo Simply Different Morphotypes of the Same Species?  

E-print Network

Are the Hawaiian Opae-ula Shrimps Halocaridina rubra and H. palahemo Simply Different Morphotypes Approximately 300 H. rubra shrimp ("opae-ula" in Hawaiian) (Figure 1) were evenly split between two experimental

Cowles, David L.

410

Alternative ligands as probes for the carotenoid-binding site of lobster carapace crustacyanin.  

PubMed Central

The apoproteins of the lobster carotenoprotein, crustacyanin, show single high-affinity binding sites for the hydrophobic fluorescence probes 8-anilo-1-naphthalenesulphonic acid and cis-parinaric acid, and exhibit fluorescence transfer from tryptophan to the ligands. These results, together with information from the amino acid sequences, infer that the native carotenoid, astaxanthin, is bound to each apoprotein within an internal hydrophobic pocket, or calyx. PMID:2306227

Clarke, J B; Eliopoulos, E E; Findlay, J B; Zagalsky, P F

1990-01-01

411

A Bibliography of the Lobsters, Genus Homarus R. D. LEWIS, Fishery Biologist  

E-print Network

-346. 1953. Nervous organs in the pericardial cavityofthedecapodCrustacea. J. Mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 31: 563. Mar. BioI. Ass. U.K. 36: 603-628. #12;Allen, Edgar J. 1894. Nerve elements of the embryonic lobster. J. Mar. BioI. Ass. U.K., New Sere 3: 208-209. 1894. Studies on the nervous Crustacea. Parts 1-3. Microsc

412

A CUB-serine protease in the olfactory organ of the spiny lobsterPanulirus argus  

Microsoft Academic Search

csp, a gene encoding a protein with high sequence identity to trypsinlike serine protease and CUB domains, was identified from a cDNA library from the olfactory organ (antennular lateral flagellum) of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. The full-length cDNA sequence of csp is 1801 bp, encoding a protein of 50.25 kD, with three domains: signal peptide, trypsinlike serine protease, and

Min Z. Levine; Paul J. H. Harrison; W. William Walthall; Phang C. Tai; Charles D. Derby

2001-01-01

413

Ion permeation through hyperpolarization-activated membrane channels ( Q -channels) in the lobster stretch receptor neurone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the lobster stretch receptor neurone it is possible to demonstrate a hyperpolarization-activated membrane current,IQ, which appears to be carried by Na+ and K+ in combination. The ion permeability of the membrane channel conducting this current (Q-channel) was investigated using conventional electrophysiological techniques including intracellular ion concentration measurements. It was found that none of the ions choline, protonated Tris, Rb+,

. Edman; W. Grampp

1989-01-01

414

Proton-stimulated Cl-HCO antiport by basolateral membrane vesicles of lobster hepatopancreas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purified epithelial basolateral membrane vesicles were prepared from lobster hepatopancreas by sorbitol gradient centrifugation. Na+-K+-adenosinetriphosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and cytochrome-c oxidase enzyme activities in the final membrane preparation were enriched 9.6-, 1.4-, and 0.4-fold, respectively, compared with their activities in the original tissue homogenate. Vesicle osmotic reactivity was demonstrated using 60-min equilibrium ³⁶Cl uptake experiments at a variety of transmembrane osmotic

G. A. Ahearn; M. L. Grover; R. T. Tsuji; L. P. Clay

1987-01-01

415

Venereal diseases in the islands of the North Pacific.  

PubMed Central

Apart from the Japanese islands, and those of Karabati (lately Gilbert Islands), which lie just north of the equator, the islands of the northern Pacific Ocean are either American owned or otherwise administered. Even the Japanese islands were controlled by the USA for varying numbers of years after the second world war. Venereal disease statistics from Guam, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, and the Gilbert Islands have been collated by the South Pacific Commission and will be presented in a second paper. Those from the Hawaiian Islands (the fiftieth state of the USA) are published by the United States Public Health Service and include those from Honolulu, the capital. While the rates per 100 000 for both syphilis and gonorrhoea are lower than those for the USA as a whole, the trends since 1970 have been less satisfactory in the state of Hawaii than for the whole of the United States. While the disturbing increasing incidence of primary and secondary syphilis was checked in 1977, that of gonorrhoea has continued to rise. The number of cases of gonorrhoea also increased in Guam and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands but there has been a recent fall from earlier peak figures. The pattern of venereal disease in the most developed Pacific islands is thus gradually approaching what may be expected elsewhere in modern western society and it would seem logical to expect that this trend will continue. PMID:6893564

Willcox, R R

1980-01-01

416

The trypsin inhibitor panulirin regulates the prophenoloxidase-activating system in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus.  

PubMed

The melanization reaction promoted by the prophenoloxidase-activating system is an essential defense response in invertebrates subjected to regulatory mechanisms that are still not fully understood. We report here the finding and characterization of a novel trypsin inhibitor, named panulirin, isolated from the hemocytes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus with regulatory functions on the melanization cascade. Panulirin is a cationic peptide (pI 9.5) composed of 48 amino acid residues (5.3 kDa), with six cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges. Its primary sequence was determined by combining Edman degradation/N-terminal sequencing and electrospray ionization-MS/MS spectrometry. The low amino acid sequence similarity with known proteins indicates that it represents a new family of peptidase inhibitors. Panulirin is a competitive and reversible tight-binding inhibitor of trypsin (Ki = 8.6 nm) with a notable specificity because it does not inhibit serine peptidases such as subtilisin, elastase, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and plasmin. The removal of panulirin from the lobster hemocyte lysate leads to an increase in phenoloxidase response to LPS. Likewise, the addition of increasing concentrations of panulirin to a lobster hemocyte lysate, previously depleted of trypsin-inhibitory activity, decreased the phenoloxidase response to LPS in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results indicate that panulirin is implicated in the regulation of the melanization cascade in P. argus by inhibiting peptidase(s) in the pathway toward the activation of the prophenoloxidase enzyme. PMID:24047891

Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Corzo, Gerardo; Besada, Vladimir; Vega-Hurtado, Yamile; Gonzlez-Gonzlez, Yamile; Perera, Erick; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene

2013-11-01

417

The Trypsin Inhibitor Panulirin Regulates the Prophenoloxidase-activating System in the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus  

PubMed Central

The melanization reaction promoted by the prophenoloxidase-activating system is an essential defense response in invertebrates subjected to regulatory mechanisms that are still not fully understood. We report here the finding and characterization of a novel trypsin inhibitor, named panulirin, isolated from the hemocytes of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus with regulatory functions on the melanization cascade. Panulirin is a cationic peptide (pI 9.5) composed of 48 amino acid residues (5.3 kDa), with six cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges. Its primary sequence was determined by combining Edman degradation/N-terminal sequencing and electrospray ionization-MS/MS spectrometry. The low amino acid sequence similarity with known proteins indicates that it represents a new family of peptidase inhibitors. Panulirin is a competitive and reversible tight-binding inhibitor of trypsin (Ki = 8.6 nm) with a notable specificity because it does not inhibit serine peptidases such as subtilisin, elastase, chymotrypsin, thrombin, and plasmin. The removal of panulirin from the lobster hemocyte lysate leads to an increase in phenoloxidase response to LPS. Likewise, the addition of increasing concentrations of panulirin to a lobster hemocyte lysate, previously depleted of trypsin-inhibitory activity, decreased the phenoloxidase response to LPS in a concentration-dependent fashion. These results indicate that panulirin is implicated in the regulation of the melanization cascade in P. argus by inhibiting peptidase(s) in the pathway toward the activation of the prophenoloxidase enzyme. PMID:24047891

Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; Corzo, Gerardo; Besada, Vladimir; Vega-Hurtado, Yamile; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Yamile; Perera, Erick; Porto-Verdecia, Marlene

2013-01-01

418

Probing the Hawaiian Hot Spot With New Broadband Ocean Bottom Instruments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian hot spot is regarded as the textbook example of the product of a deep-rooted mantle plume [Wilson, 1963; Morgan, 1971]. Its isolated location, far from any plate boundary, should provide an opportunity to test most basic hypotheses on the nature of plume-plate interaction and related magmatism [e.g., Ribe and Christensen, 1999]. Yet the lack of crucial geophysical data has sustained a debate about whether Hawaii's volcanism is plume-related or is instead the consequence of more shallow processes, such as the progressive fracturing of the plate in response to extensional stresses [Turcotte and Oxburgh, 1973]. In the plume model for Hawaii's volcanism, hot material is expected to ascend near vertically within the more viscous surrounding mantle before ponding and spreading laterally beneath the rigid lithosphere. Mantle convection in general, and the fast moving Pacific plate in particular, shear and tilt the rising plume. The plume top is dragged downstream by the plate, and this dragged material may give rise to an elongated bathymetric swell [Davies, 1988; Olson, 1990; Sleep, 1990; Phipps Morgan et al., 1995]. However, identifying the dominant cause of the swell remains elusive, and proposed mechanisms include thermal rejuvenation, dynamic support, compositional buoyancy, and mechanical erosion (see Li et al. [2004] for a summary). There is also considerable debate about the continuity of the plume within the mantle, how discrete islands are formed, and how a deep-rooted plume interacts with the mantle transition zone [e.g., van Keken and Gable, 1995].

Laske, Gabi; Collins, John A.; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Detrick, Robert S.; Orcutt, John A.; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H.

2009-10-01

419

An Improved Hawaiian Secular Variation Curve for the Last 25 ka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Big Island of Hawaii has been the subject of numerous palaeomagnetic studies. The surface lava flows from the Kilauea, Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes are abundant and accessible, resulting in 77 published absolute palaeointensity determinations for the time period 0--25 kyrs. These palaeointensity estimates are well constrained in time due to an extensive 14C dating program carried out by the US Geological Survey. 15 of the surface flows have been re-dated using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and the implications of the revised 14C ages will be presented. In addition to the outcrop data, borehole data from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) core, Scientific Observation Hole 1 (SOH1) drill core and Scientific Observation Hole 4 (SOH4) drill core add a further 252 palaeointensity values to the database. Lake sediment data is also available for this period from Lake Waiau, located near the summit of Mauna Kea. Combining all the Hawaiian data and using the cubic-B spline method of curve fitting, a smooth, weighted curve has been obtained for each of the palaeomagnetic components. The trends seen in the improved secular variation curve for Hawaii will be discussed and compared to the trends seen in the global datasets PINT2003, SINT-800 and NAPIS-75, as well as global 10Be isotope data and archaeomagnetic data. The fit of the CALS7K.2 global model to the data will also be discussed.

Pressling, N. J.

2007-05-01

420

Molecular Analysis of Carbon Monoxide-Oxidizing Bacteria Associated with Recent Hawaiian Volcanic Deposits  

PubMed Central

Genomic DNA extracts from four sites at Kilauea Volcano were used as templates for PCR amplification of the large subunit (coxL) of aerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. The sites included a 42-year-old tephra deposit, a 108-year-old lava flow, a 212-year-old partially vegetated ash-and-tephra deposit, and an approximately 300-year-old forest. PCR primers amplified coxL sequences from the OMP clade of CO oxidizers, which includes isolates such as Oligotropha carboxidovorans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pseudomonas thermocarboxydovorans. PCR products were used to create clone libraries that provide the first insights into the diversity and phylogenetic affiliations of CO oxidizers in situ. On the basis of phylogenetic and statistical analyses, clone libraries for each site were distinct. Although some clone sequences were similar to coxL sequences from known organisms, many sequences appeared to represent phylogenetic lineages not previously known to harbor CO oxidizers. On the basis of average nucleotide diversity and average pairwise difference, a forested site supported the most diverse CO-oxidizing populations, while an 1894 lava flow supported the least diverse populations. Neither parameter correlated with previous estimates of atmospheric CO uptake rates, but both parameters correlated positively with estimates of microbial biomass and respiration. Collectively, the results indicate that the CO oxidizer functional group associated with recent volcanic deposits of the remote Hawaiian Islands contains substantial and previously unsuspected diversity. PMID:15240307

Dunfield, Kari E.; King, Gary M.

2004-01-01

421

Molecular analysis of carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacteria associated with recent Hawaiian volcanic deposits.  

PubMed

Genomic DNA extracts from four sites at Kilauea Volcano were used as templates for PCR amplification of the large subunit (coxL) of aerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase. The sites included a 42-year-old tephra deposit, a 108-year-old lava flow, a 212-year-old partially vegetated ash-and-tephra deposit, and an approximately 300-year-old forest. PCR primers amplified coxL sequences from the OMP clade of CO oxidizers, which includes isolates such as Oligotropha carboxidovorans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Pseudomonas thermocarboxydovorans. PCR products were used to create clone libraries that provide the first insights into the diversity and phylogenetic affiliations of CO oxidizers in situ. On the basis of phylogenetic and statistical analyses, clone libraries for each site were distinct. Although some clone sequences were similar to coxL sequences from known organisms, many sequences appeared to represent phylogenetic lineages not previously known to harbor CO oxidizers. On the basis of average nucleotide diversity and average pairwise difference, a forested site supported the most diverse CO-oxidizing populations, while an 1894 lava flow supported the least diverse populations. Neither parameter correlated with previous estimates of atmospheric CO uptake rates, but both parameters correlated positively with estimates of microbial biomass and respiration. Collectively, the results indicate that the CO oxidizer functional group associated with recent volcanic deposits of the remote Hawaiian Islands contains substantial and previously unsuspected diversity. PMID:15240307

Dunfield, Kari E; King, Gary M

2004-07-01

422

Home range and territoriality of two Hawaiian honeycreepers, the 'A??kohekohe and Maui Parrotbill  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hawaiian honeycreepers have radiated into a diversity of trophic niches and patterns of space-use. We investigated space-use in two honeycreeper species, the 'A??kohekohe (Palmeria dolei), an endangered nectarivore, and Maui Parrotbill (Pseudonestor xanthophrys), an endangered wood excavator, by mapping the home ranges and dispersion of color-banded individuals at a study site in relatively undisturbed montane cloud forest on Maui Island, Hawai'i. With 20% of outlying points excluded, home-range size averaged much smaller for adult male 'A??kohekohe (0.56 ha) than for male Maul Parrotbill (2.26 ha). In both species, a female's home range mostly overlapped that of her mate. Adult male Maui Parrotbill defended year-round home ranges from which they excluded conspecifics except for their mates and dependent offspring. Although our data suggest that 'A??kohekohe also maintained all-purpose territories, the evidence is less convincing because these birds were seen feeding in the home ranges of other individuals. By defending all-purpose territories, these two species depart from the more common honeycreeper pattern of sharing large, undefended home ranges.

Pratt, T.K.; Simon, J.C.; Farm, B.P.; Berlin, K.E.; Kowalsky, J.R.

2001-01-01

423

Vertical Mass Flux Calculations in Hawaiian Trade Cumulus Clouds from Dual-Doppler Radar.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two ground-based Doppler radars and an instrumented aircraft provided a means for computing the vertical mass flux in trade wind cumulus clouds that formed east of the island of Hawaii dining the Hawaiian Rainband Project of 1990. This study compares the mass fluxes of small isolated cells with larger groups of clouds and rainbands. Because of excellent sensitivity, the 5.5-cm wavelength radars were capable of detecting Bragg backscatter, which extended the measurements to include some precipitation-free air within and surrounding the clouds.The shape of the vertical profile of vertical mass flux within shallow cumulus clouds and cloud groups varied considerably over the cloud's life cycle but was comparatively independent of cloud size. The early stages of convection displayed a mass flux profile that resembled those produced by buoyancy sorting and entraining plume models, but the mature and later stages were considerably more affected by precipitation-driven down-drafts and included mean downward mass fluxes. The vertical mass flux profiles predicted by a three-dimensional LES model of an isolated cumulus cloud showed the same evolutionary phases as the observations.

Grinnell, Scott A.; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Fraser, Alistair M.; Stevens, David E.

1996-07-01

424

"Bloodline Is All I Need": Defiant Indigeneity and Hawaiian Hip-Hop  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

During the late twentieth century, Kanaka Maoli have struggled to push back against these representations, offering a rewriting of Hawaiian history, quite literally. Infused by Hawaiian nationalism and a growing library of works that investigate the naturalization of American colonialism in Hawai'i, innovative Kanaka Maoli representations in the

Teves, Stephanie Nohelani

2011-01-01

425

Contradictions and Celebrations: A Hawaiian Reflection on the Opening of the NMAI  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This personal narrative relates the author's conflict regarding whether or not to attend the celebration of the grand opening of the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI). Being a pro-independence Native Hawaiian in Washington DC, where usually only state-sponsored Hawaiians speak about the political struggle for decolonization, the author

Kauanui, J. Kehaulani

2005-01-01

426

Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes  

E-print Network

Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes R. W fishes climb waterfalls as part of an amphidromous life cycle, allowing them to re-penetrate adult. To evaluate changes in waterfall-climbing ability with body size in Hawaiian stream gobies, we compared

Blob, Richard W.

427

Zoology 111 (2008) 114122 Muscle fiber type distribution in climbing Hawaiian gobioid fishes  

E-print Network

ZOOLOGY Zoology 111 (2008) 114­122 Muscle fiber type distribution in climbing Hawaiian gobioid to evaluate muscle fiber type distribution in Hawaiian climbing gobies for three anatomical regions (midbody. guamensis would be dominated by white muscle fibers, whereas S. stimpsoni would exhibit a greater proportion

Blob, Richard W.

428

Political and Cultural Determinants of Educational Policymaking: The Case of Native Hawaiians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A political-cultural model explores the educational process and its impact on Native Hawaiians over a 140-year period. The theoretical model suggests that core political values are transmitted to educational policy and school-related activities, and thereby impact the social, economic, and academic status of Native Hawaiians. Three historical case

Benham, Maenette K. P.; Heck, Ronald H.

429

Developing a Culturally Responsive Breast Cancer Screening Promotion with Native Hawaiian Women in Churches  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents findings from research to develop the promotional component of a breast cancer screening program for Native Hawaiian women associated with historically Hawaiian churches in medically underserved communities. The literature on adherence to health recommendations and health promotions marketing guided inquiry on screening

Kaopua, Lana Sue

2008-01-01

430

E Kama'ilio Hawai'i Kakou [Let's Speak Hawaiian].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive Hawaiian language course intended for use at the secondary and college levels, this text is designed to answer the need for new methods and materials in language instruction and represents extensive research on the Hawaiian language. Composed almost entirely of mate