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1

Evaluation of Rectangular and Circular Escape Vents in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted in Hawaii during 1984-1 987 to investigate the possibility that escape vents fitted in traps used by the commercial lobster fishery in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands would reduce the catch and mortality of sublegal spiny lobsters Panulim margrnatus (<50 mm tail width) and slipper lobsters Scyllurides spp. (< 56 mm tail width) without significantly reducing legal catch.

ALAN R. EVERSON; ROBERT A. SKILLMAN; JEFFREY J. POLOVINA

1992-01-01

2

Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1993, field studies of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) were conducted at all of its main reproductive sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These studies provide information necessary to partially evaluate the statu...

T. C. Johanos T. J. Ragen

1996-01-01

3

Hawaiian Monk Seal in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1994, field studies of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) were conducted at most of its main reproductive sites in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. These studies provide information necessary to evaluate the status and tre...

T. C. Johanos T. J. Ragen

1996-01-01

4

Hawaiian Monk Seal on Laysan Island, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data on population size, reproduction, and factors affecting survival were collected on the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, on Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 23 April to 21 July 1983. Beach counts excluding weaned and...

D. J. Alcorn E. K. Buelna

1989-01-01

5

78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial harbors are...

2013-10-24

6

78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones:...

2013-05-17

7

Vegetation History of Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paleoenvironmental investigations were undertaken on Laysan Island in the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands to investigate its flora before his- torical observations. Substantial impacts occurred to the island as a result of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century guano mining, commercial feather col- lecting, and denudation of vegetation by feral rabbits. An account of Laysan's historically known vegetation is presented, followed by

John Stephen. Athens; James V. Ward; Dean W. Blinn

2007-01-01

8

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

9

Soil Sequences in the Hawaiian Islands1  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE WIDE RANGE of conditions under which soils have developed in the Hawaiian Islands has produced a pattern of soil geography which reflects the differential influence of the intensity and capacity factors of soil weathering. Soil formation is the product of two actions, weathering (W) and leaching (L), on the sur­ face and near the surface of the earth's crust.

G. DONALD SHERMAN; HARUYOSHI IKAWA

10

Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale State of the Sanctuary Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This marvelous wonder is the focus of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary, which Congress created in 1997 to protect the whales and ensure the health and safety of critical humpback breeding habitat in Hawaiian waters. Although h...

2002-01-01

11

Biology of Coral Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI ) represent the northern three-quarters of the Hawaiian Archipelago. This part of\\u000a the Hawaiian chain stretches across 2,000 km of the North Pacific between 23 and 29 degrees north latitude and consists of\\u000a nine major islets, coral islands and\\/or atolls. Numerous reefs, submerged banks and seamounts also exist between and around\\u000a the main islands. Together

Richard W. Grigg; Jeffrey Polovina; Alan M. Friedlander; Steven O. Rohmann

12

THE VOLCANIC ORIGIN OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian Islands are the hest-known Dart of a 1.500-mi (2.400-krill chain of volcanoes that has hccn active fix ov& 70 nlillion years. 'The origi;i of this chain can be expl:~inetl by rhe theorv of plute tectonics, which holds that the earth's crust is dwided lnro a nomher of rigid ylatcs that move ;~bot~t on the semi-liauid laver (mantle) beneath.

Christina Heliker

13

Recommended Recovery Actions for the Hawaiian Monk Seal Population at Midway Island.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recovery of the endangered Hawaiian Monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) in the western island populations of the Hawaiian Archipelago has been a primary concern of the Hawaiian Monk Seal Recovery Team (HMSRT, Gilmartin, 1983). Midway Islands (Fig. 1) is th...

W. G. Gilmartin G. A. Antonelis

1998-01-01

14

On the Gravity of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands are part of the most geologically studied intra-plate volcanic island chain. Surprisingly, the only chain wide compilation of marine and terrestrial gravity data is now more than 40 years old. Early terrestrial studies conducted by J. G. Moore, H.L Krivoy, G. P. Woollard, W. E Strange and others in the early 1960's were meant to serve as reconnaissance surveys only. In addition, early marine surveys were limited in both accurate positioning and data density. Detailed analysis of the crustal density structure of the island chain was limited. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation incorporating the original island-specific survey data, recently published data on the island of Kauai and Hawaii, as well as more than 10 years of newly incorporated marine data collected aboard the University of Hawaii's R/V Kilo Moana. This data was supplemented by surveys aboard the R/V Farnella among others. We present free-air (FAA), simple/complete Bouguer, and residual gravity maps on an unprecedented resolution and geographical extent for the area. This data will be hosted as an interactive Google-Earth overlay at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG - www.soest.hawaii.edu/HMRG) and made available to the scientific community. We hope that this dataset will be used for further comparison of the gravity fields of other intra-plate volcanic systems (French Polynesia, etc.) and to constrain seismic studies of crustal structure in the Hawaiian-chain through joint seismic-gravity inversions.

Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Taylor, B.

2011-12-01

15

Northwest Hawaiian Islands: Maps and Imagery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Released by the Remote Sensing Team (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), these detailed maps released in February 2003 focus on the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This part of the island chain extends across over 2200 kilometers of open ocean, and the total shallow water area of the ten atolls encompasses over 8000 square kilometers. Most of the information for these maps was obtained through the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, along with field data collected during 2001. For each of the ten atolls covered in this project, visitors can read a brief description and history, along with viewing maps generated from the satellite images and the habitat cover of each particular atoll. Those seeking to learn more about the map development process will be pleased to find a document on this subject, and a description of the classification scheme used in the maps.

2011-06-22

16

Hawaiian Monk Seal and Green Turtle on Necker Island, 1983.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Between 24 July and 6 August 1983, a two-person National Marine Fisheries Service field camp examined the Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, and green turtle, Chelonia mydas, populations of Necker Island. Forty-three seals were identified, photog...

R. J. Morrow E. K. Buelna

1985-01-01

17

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2011-01-01

18

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2003-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2003-01-01

19

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2008-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2008-01-01

20

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2004-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2004-01-01

21

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2006-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2006-01-01

22

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2009-01-01

23

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2002-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2002-01-01

24

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2005-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2005-01-01

25

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2001-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...REGULATIONS Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...of Part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2001-01-01

26

15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2000-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...Coordinates Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922...part 922âHawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary...

2000-01-01

27

76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Class E airspace for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response...above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. This action enhances the safety and...

2011-09-02

28

Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are erosional in the long-term with an average rate of all transects of -0.083 ± 0.012 m/yr and 65% of transects are either significantly erosional or more likely erosional than accretional. Short-term summary results for Kauai are inconclusive, with the average rate of all transects, 0.033 ± 0.023, suggesting short-term accretion, but with more transects (51%) indicating short-term erosion than accretion (36%). Eight percent of the beach on both Kauai and Oahu was lost to erosion in the time-span of available data. Oahu beaches are slightly erosional in the long and short-term with average rates of -0.006 ± 0.005 m/yr and -0.007 ± 0.006 m/yr, respectively, and more transects are erosional than accretional. Maui beaches are the most erosive of the three islands with 11% of beach lost to erosion and over 75% of transects erosional in the long and short-term. The average rates of all transects on Maui beaches are -0.131 ± 0.009 for long-term data and -0.119 ± 0.011 m/yr in the short-term.

Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

2010-12-01

29

SPIRORCHIDIASIS AND FIBROPAPILLOMATOSIS IN GREEN TURTLES FROM THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologic examination of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands (USA) was performed to determine the primary cause of mortality. Lesions were associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP) and\\/or spirorchidiasis (SP) in 16 of 17 green turtles examined. Gross lesions included moderate to severe emaciation, lobulated fibropapillomas of different size classes, serous atrophy of fat, and edema of subcutaneous tissue and

A. A. Aguirre; T. R. Spraker; G. H. Balazs; B. Zimmerman

1998-01-01

30

Dental Caries Prevalence in Early Polynesians from the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the skeletal remains of 1338 early Hawaiians (preserved in the Bishop Museum, Honolulu) to determine total caries and root surface caries prevalence. Specimens from seven islands were represented in the collection. Estimation of age at death was made by a combination of dental developmental staging for younger individuals and occlusal attrition and\\/or alveolar bone loss in adults. Museum

H. J. Keene

1986-01-01

31

Survey for Selected Pathogens and Evaluation of Disease Risk Factors for Endangered Hawaiian Monk Seals in the Main Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recently reestablished and increasing population of Hawaiian monk seals in the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) is encouraging\\u000a for this endangered species. However, seals in the MHI may be exposed to a broad range of human, pet, livestock, and feral\\u000a animal pathogens. Our objective was to determine the movement and foraging habitats of Hawaiian monk seals in the MHI relative

Charles L. Littnan; Brent S. Stewart; Pamela K. Yochem; Robert Braun

2006-01-01

32

Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

33

Month-Year Rainfall Maps of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaiian Islands have one of the most spatially-diverse rainfall patterns on earth. Island topography, persistent trade winds, thermal effects of the islands, and the presence of the trade-wind inversion interact to cause air to be lifted in distinct spatial patterns anchored to the topography. The resulting clouds and rainfall produced by this uplift lead to extreme gradients in monthly and annual rainfall in the islands. Knowledge of the rainfall patterns is critically important for a variety of resource management issues, including ground water and surface water development and protection, controlling and eradicating invasive species, protecting and restoring native ecosystems, and planning for the effects of global warming. In this study, development of month-year rainfall maps from 1920-2007 for the six major Hawaiian islands using geostatistical methods is undertaken. While mean monthly and annual rainfall maps for Hawaii are available, spatially continuous maps of precipitation for individual months do not exist. Simple methods, such as linear interpolation or ordinary kriging, are not appropriate for interpolating month-year rainfall due to the extreme spatial diversity. A method comparison is performed here to choose the best interpolation method for each island. The comparison focuses on different kriging algorithms including kriging with an external drift and simple kriging with varying local means. Parameter sensitivity tests are used for each method, and several covariates are considered to reduce interpolation error. The different combinations of methods, covariates and parameters are evaluated using cross validation statistics. To produce the final maps, the anomaly method is used to relate station data from every individual month with the 1978-2007 mean monthly maps. The anomalies are interpolated using the best method determined from the comparison, and then recombined with the mean maps to produce the final maps for the six major Hawaiian Islands.

Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Diaz, H. F.

2010-12-01

34

Ecological impacts of feral pigs in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foraging habits of exotic ungulate species can directly and indirectly affect native plant and animal distribution and\\u000a abundance patterns. Most of the studies on feral pig interactions with other biota in the Hawaiian Islands have been published\\u000a as difficult to access reports to governmental and nongovernmental organizations, graduate student theses, and a few in peer\\u000a reviewed journals. In this

Sérgio L. G. Nogueira-Filho; Selene S. C. Nogueira; José M. V. Fragoso

2009-01-01

35

Idiopathic lesions and visual deficits in the american lobster (Homarus americanus) from Long Island Sound, NY.  

PubMed

In 1999, a mass mortality of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) occurred in western Long Island Sound (WLIS). Although the etiology of this event remains unknown, bottom water temperature, hypoxia, heavy metal poisoning, and pesticides are potential causal factors. Lobsters from WLIS continue to display signs of morbidity, including lethargy and cloudy grey eyes that contain idiopathic lesions. As the effect of these lesions on lobster vision is unknown, we used electroretinography (ERG) to document changes in visual function in lobsters from WLIS, while using histology to quantify the extent of physical damage. Seventy-three percent of lobsters from WLIS showed damage to photoreceptors and optic nerve fibers, including necrosis, cellular breakdown, and hemocyte infiltration in the optic nerves, rhabdoms, and ommatidia. Animals with more than 15% of their photoreceptors exhibiting damage also displayed markedly reduced responses to 10-ms flashes of a broad-spectrum white light. Specifically, maximum voltage (Vmax) responses were significantly lower and occurred at a lower light intensity compared to responses from lobsters lacking idiopathic lesions. Nearly a decade after the 1999 mortality event, lobsters from WLIS still appear to be subjected to a stressor of unknown etiology that causes significant functional damage to the eyes. PMID:19679726

Magel, Christopher R; Shields, Jeffrey D; Brill, Richard W

2009-08-01

36

Key to Gonatocerus from the Hawaiian Islands, with Notes on the Species (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 11 species of Gonatocerus (Mymaridae) in the Hawaiian Islands are reviewed and an identification key is given. The Hawaiian fauna consists so far en- tirely of introduced species, apparently all from the Nearctic region, though further intensive collecting may yield additional species. All of the species occur on one of the islands, Oahu, and at least seven occur on

John T. Huber; John W. Beardsley

37

Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian\\/part-Hawaiian and Pacific Islander juvenile offenders, this article addresses this dearth of research by showing

Lisa Pasko; David T. Mayeda

2011-01-01

38

Factors Influencing the Development of Lateritic and Laterite Soils in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE PARENT MATERIALS of the soil of the Hawaiian Islands have weathered under climatic conditions which are favorable for the develop­ ment of lateritic and laterite soils. Cline (i n press ) , in his classification of Hawaiian soils, has recognized the following four groups of lateritic and la terite soils: ( a ) low humic latosols-a group of soils

G. DONALD SHERMAN

39

Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from

STEVE JORDAN; CHRIS SIMON; DAVID FOOTE; RONALD A. ENGLUND

2005-01-01

40

Hawaiian Monk Seal and Green Turtle Research on Lisianski Island, 1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi, and the threatened green turtle, Chelonia mydas, were studied intermittently on Lisianski Island throughout the summer in 1986. Field personnel were present on three occasions: 3 May, 30 May-2 Jun...

R. L. Westlake P. J. Siepmann

1988-01-01

41

Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Victims of Crime. Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report focuses on the victimization experiences of Asians, Native Hawaiians, and other Pacific Islanders in the United States. It examines nonfatal and fatal violent victimization and property victimization. It also includes comparisons between the v...

E. Harrell

2009-01-01

42

Geospatial modeling of pre-contact Hawaiian production systems on Moloka?i Island, Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The geographic distribution and relative importance of traditional agricultural systems in Hawai?i, based on ethnohistoric and archeological data, is only partially understood. Knowledge of the size and distribution of these systems is critical in estimating island populations, production, and surplus, as well as for assessing societal dynamics and the sustainability of indigenous agricultural systems. We employ geospatial modeling using rainfall,

Natalie Kurashima; Patrick V. Kirch

2011-01-01

43

Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

2011-01-01

44

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands  

SciTech Connect

The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

1980-06-01

45

Human Impacts on Fluxes of Nutrients and Sediment in Waimanalo Stream, O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waimanalo Stream, on the windward side of the island of O'ahu in the Hawaiian Islands, has been greatly altered by human activities. Native riparian vegetation has been removed along much of the course of the stream, and significant sections of the stream have been hardened to control flooding. Absence of shade from riparian vegetation has allowed California grass (Brachia mutica),

Edward A. Laws; Lisa Ferentinos

2003-01-01

46

Hawaiian Islands Marine Ecosystem Case Study: Ecosystem and Community-Based Management in Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian Islands comprise a large and isolated archipelago that includes the largest reef area in the United States. Managing nearshore fisheries in this archipelago is a major challenge compounded by the difficulty of coordinating multiple agencies to provide governance across a broad series of islands with substantial social and political differences. There has been interest in, and progress toward,

Brian N. Tissot; William J. Walsh; Mark A. Hixon

2009-01-01

47

A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy…

Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

2005-01-01

48

Estimation of postmortem interval by arthropod succession. Three case studies from the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Three instances of estimation of postmortem interval using computer-assisted entomological techniques on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands are presented. While postmortem intervals were similar for all cases (4-5 1/2 days), recovery of the remains in differing habitats (xerophytic, mesophytic, and swamp) on the island resulted in significant differences in gross appearance of the remains, which could have resulted in the determination of different postmortem intervals in the absence of entomological techniques. PMID:3177351

Goff, M L; Omori, A I; Gunatilake, K

1988-09-01

49

Chemical weathering fluxes from volcanic islands and the importance of groundwater: The Hawaiian example  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the products and rates of chemical weathering on the Hawaiian Islands, sampling streams on Kaua'i and both streams and groundwater wells on the island of Hawai'i. Dissolved silica was used to investigate the flowpaths of water drained into streams. We found that flowpaths exert a major control on the observed chemical weathering rates. A strong link exists between the degree of landscape dissection and flowpaths of water through the landscape, with streams in undissected landscapes receiving water mainly from surface runoff and streams in highly dissected landscapes receiving a considerable fraction of their water from groundwater (springs and/or seepage). Total alkalinity in Hawaiian streams and groundwater is produced exclusively by silicate chemical weathering. We find that fluxes of total alkalinity (often called "CO2 consumption rate" in the geochemical literature), from the islands are lower than those observed in basaltic regions elsewhere. Groundwater is, overall, the major transport vector for products of chemical weathering from the Hawaiian Islands. On the youngest and largest island, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) transports more than an order of magnitude more solutes to the ocean than surface water and on the youngest part of the youngest island, SGD is the only link between the terrestrial weathering system and the ocean. These results suggest that groundwater, and particularly SGD, needs to be included in geochemical weathering budgets of volcanic islands.

Schopka, Herdis Helga; Derry, Louis A.

2012-07-01

50

Synopsis of Biological Data on the Green Turtle in the Hawaiian Islands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The green turtle, Chelonia mydas, is the principal marine turtle species in the Hawaiian Islands. The purpose of this synopsis is to bring together all of the biological information presently known on the population (as of September 1979) and focus attent...

G. H. Balazs

1980-01-01

51

VOCALIZATIONS OF THE SEI WHALE BALAENOPTERA BOREALIS OFF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the sounds produced by the Sei Whale Balaenoptera borealis and no recordings have been made in their presence in the Pacific Ocean. This research presents sounds recorded in the presence of Sei whales near the Hawaiian Islands in November, 2002. A total of 107 vocalizations, including two variations of low-frequency downswept calls, were measured. Two of

SHANNON RANKIN; JAY BARLOW

2007-01-01

52

Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien

Grossman

1992-01-01

53

Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Management Plan. Draft, February 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is the revised management plan for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS), resulting from a recent five-year review of the Sanctuary since the implementation of its final regulations in 1997. This plan has be...

2002-01-01

54

A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

55

A New Genus of Fairyfly, Kikiki, from the Hawaiian Islands (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new genus of Mymaridae, Kikiki Huber and Beardsley, is described from the Hawaiian Islands and characterized by the following diagnostic combination: body length at most about 300 ?m; female antenna with four funicle and two claval seg- ments; forewing venation about 0.7 times wing length; and tarsi apparently three- segmented, with a long pretarsus. The type species, Kikiki huna

John T. Huber; John W. Beardsley

56

Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents  

SciTech Connect

This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

1993-10-01

57

A pulse of ooid formation in Maui Nui (Hawaiian Islands) during Termination I  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the first recorded occurrence of oolite in the main Hawaiian Islands. Well-cemented oolite was recovered at several locations at ?140 to ?150m depth south of Lana'i. The ooids contain foraminiferal, skeletal, and peloidal nuclei, coated by thin to moderately thick (20–50% of ooid radius) tangential cortices, and are cemented by fibrous aragonite needles. The extent of amino acid

Paul J. Hearty; Jody M. Webster; David A. Clague; Darrell S. Kaufman; Jordon Bright; John Southon; Willem Renema

2010-01-01

58

Far-reaching effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Pacific Ocean-atmosphere system.  

PubMed

Using satellite data, we detected a wind wake trailing westward behind the Hawaiian Islands for 3000 kilometers, a length many times greater than observed anywhere else on Earth. This wind wake drives an eastward ocean current that draws warm water from the Asian coast 8000 kilometers away, leaving marked changes in surface and subsurface ocean temperature. Standing in the path of the steady trade winds, Hawaii triggers an air-sea interaction that provides the feedback to sustain the influence of these small islands over a long stretch of the Pacific Ocean. PMID:11408652

Xie, S P; Liu, W T; Liu, Q; Nonaka, M

2001-06-15

59

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990–2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items

Carey Morishige; Mary J. Donohue; Elizabeth Flint; Christopher Swenson; Christine Woolaway

2007-01-01

60

Polyglutamine variation in a flowering time protein correlates with island age in a Hawaiian plant radiation  

PubMed Central

Background A controversial topic in evolutionary developmental biology is whether morphological diversification in natural populations can be driven by expansions and contractions of amino acid repeats in proteins. To promote adaptation, selection on protein length variation must overcome deleterious effects of multiple correlated traits (pleiotropy). Thus far, systems that demonstrate this capacity include only ancient or artificial morphological diversifications. The Hawaiian Islands, with their linear geological sequence, present a unique environment to study recent, natural radiations. We have focused our research on the Hawaiian endemic mints (Lamiaceae), a large and diverse lineage with paradoxically low genetic variation, in order to test whether a direct relationship between coding-sequence repeat diversity and morphological change can be observed in an actively evolving system. Results Here we show that in the Hawaiian mints, extensive polyglutamine (CAG codon repeat) polymorphism within a homolog of the pleiotropic flowering time protein and abscisic acid receptor FCA tracks the natural environmental cline of the island chain, consequent with island age, across a period of 5 million years. CAG expansions, perhaps following their natural tendency to elongate, are more frequent in colonists of recently-formed, nutrient-rich islands than in their forebears on older, nutrient-poor islands. Values for several quantitative morphological variables related to reproductive investment, known from Arabidopsis fca mutant studies, weakly though positively correlate with increasing glutamine tract length. Together with protein modeling of FCA, which indicates that longer polyglutamine tracts could induce suboptimally mobile functional domains, we suggest that CAG expansions may form slightly deleterious alleles (with respect to protein function) that become fixed in founder populations. Conclusion In the Hawaiian mint FCA system, we infer that contraction of slightly deleterious CAG repeats occurred because of competition for resources along the natural environmental cline of the island chain. The observed geographical structure of FCA variation and its correlation with morphologies expected from Arabidopsis mutant studies may indicate that developmental pleiotropy played a role in the diversification of the mints. This discovery is important in that it concurs with other suggestions that repetitive amino acid motifs might provide a mechanism for driving morphological evolution, and that variation at such motifs might permit rapid tuning to environmental change.

Lindqvist, Charlotte; Laakkonen, Liisa; Albert, Victor A

2007-01-01

61

Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Final Environmental Impact Statement/Management Plan. A Federal/State Partnership for the Protection of Humpback Whales and Their Habitat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary was designated by the Hawaiian Islands National Marine Sanctuary Act (HINMSA or Act), Title II, subtitle C of the Oceans Act of 1992, Public Law 102-587. The Act requires the Secretary of Comme...

1997-01-01

62

A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits.

Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

2012-01-01

63

Bacterial Communities of Two Parthenogenetic Aphid Species Cocolonizing Two Host Plants across the Hawaiian Islands ?  

PubMed Central

Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants.

Jones, Ryan T.; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M.; Fierer, Noah

2011-01-01

64

Atlas of the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

By the Remote Sensing Team (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), these detailed maps released in February 2003 focus on the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This part of the island chain extends across over 2200 kilometers of open ocean, and the total shallow water area of the ten atolls encompasses over 8000 square kilometers. Most of the information for these maps was obtained through the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, along with field data collected during 2001. For each of the ten atolls covered in this project, visitors can read a brief description and history, along with viewing maps generated from the satellite images and the habitat cover of each particular atoll. Those seeking to learn more about the map development process will be pleased to find a document on this subject, and a description of the classification scheme used in the maps.

65

Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua'i, the other between the islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. These gravitational highs are similar in size and magnitude to those of other Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating local zones of high-density crust, attributed to olivine cumulates in solidified magma reservoirs. The residual gravity high over Kaua'i is located in the L?hu'e Basin, offset 8-12 km east of Kaua'i's geologically mapped caldera. This offset suggests that the mapped caldera is a collapsed feature later filled in with lava and not the long-term center of Kaua'i shield volcanism. A second residual gravity high, in the submarine channel between Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, marks the volcanic center of the Ni'ihau shield volcano. This second residual gravity anomaly implies that Ni'ihau's eastern boundary extended ˜20 km east of its present location. Through inversion, the residual gravity anomalies were modeled as being produced by two solidified magma reservoirs with average densities of 3100 kg/m3 and volumes between 2470 and 2540 km3. Considering the locations and sizes of the residual gravity anomalies/magma reservoirs, the extent of the two islands' paleoshorelines and potassium-argon dating of shield-stage lavas, we conclude that the two islands were not connected subaerially during their respective shield stages and that Ni'ihau's topographic summit was removed by an eastern flank collapse between 4.3 and 5.6 Ma. Continued constructional volcanism on western Kaua'i likely covered much of the submerged remains of eastern Ni'ihau.

Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.

2010-08-01

66

Genetic population structure of an anchialine shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena (Crustacea: Alpheidae), in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

Anchialine habitats in the Hawaiian Islands, characterized as coastal bodies of land-locked salt or brackish water that fluctuate with the tides due to subterranean connections, are the only ecosystems of this type found within the United States. These habitats are currently subject to anthropogenic impacts that threaten their future existence. Previous research has shown strong genetic population structure of an endemic atyid shrimp, Halocaridina rubra, in these habitats. The native alpheid shrimp, Metabetaeus lohena, whose known range entirely overlaps that of H. rubra, has feeding and reproductive behaviors that are biologically distinct from H. rubra. Its historic scarcity and status as a candidate for the US Fish and Wildlife Department's Endangered Species List, make M. lohena an ideal species to compare against the known genetic structure of H. rubra. We investigated the population structure of this native anchialine shrimp to test the hypothesis that genetic population structure differs between the two shrimp species and that M. lohena is genetically unstructured across its range. A survey of 605 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from 127 individuals collected at 7 sites spanning the islands of O'ahu, Maui and Hawaii revealed 43 haplotypes. The most common haplotype was represented in similar proportions from all sites sampled, accounting for 44% of the surveyed sequences. Analyses of molecular variation (AMOVA), pairwise PhiST values, Bayesian estimates of migration (M), Mantel tests and Nested Clade Analyses (NCAs) all failed to reveal evidence of major barriers to gene flow among most populations separated by inter-island channels. This lack of genetic structure in M. lohena is found to be in stark contrast with the highly structured population of H. rubra, and may be attributed to oceanic dispersal strategies and/or a recent introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:20411714

Russ, Atlantis; Santos, S R; Muir, C

2010-03-01

67

Generation of mesoscale eddies in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ocean west of the main Hawaiian Islands is characterized by enhanced eddy kinetic energy arising from the abundance of locally generated mesoscale eddies, most frequently in the area west of the island of Hawaii. Two mechanisms of eddy generation in the wake of an island are examined with numerical model experiments. The first, eddy generation and shedding by an oceanic flow around an oceanic barrier, requires the existence of strong westward flows to the north and south of the island of Hawaii. Model solutions show such westward flows and generation of eddies by these flows although the intensity of the eddies and the generation frequency are much lower than that derived from altimetry. As a result, these eddies contribute an insignificant amount of eddy kinetic energy in the region. The second, eddy generation and shedding by an atmospheric flow around an atmospheric barrier, is based on oceanic upwelling and downwelling induced by surface wind shear, effectively introducing sinks and sources to the ocean interior. Previous idealized modeling studies have shown that oceanic eddies can be generated by sufficiently strong forcing (source or sink), providing an explanation why eddy occurrences in the lee of the island of Hawaii coincide with periods of strong trade winds. Eddy generation characteristics in the model experiments are consistent with this mechanism in terms of time of occurrence, strength and the resulting eddy kinetic energy. Major discrepancies are in eddy propagation and therefore eddy distribution in the regional domain due to the complex nature of eddy-eddy interactions.

Jia, Y.; Calil, P. H. R.; Chassignet, E. P.; Metzger, E. J.; Potemra, J. T.; Richards, K. J.; Wallcraft, A. J.

2011-11-01

68

Integration of Coastal Geomorphology, Mythology, and Archaeological Evidence at Kualoa Beach, Windward O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coastal geomorphology, mythic traditions, and archaeological evidence are integrated for a case study at Kualoa Beach in windward O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands. The creation of coastal landforms and the effects of high-sea events appear to be encoded in the language of myth and folklore. Archaeological deposits can be understood in relation to several natural and cultural processes of deposition, disturbance, and

Mike T. Carson; J. Stephen Athens

2007-01-01

69

Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T. M.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S. K. K.; Morris, R.

1997-01-01

70

Tide Tables. High and Low Water Predictions-1972: West Coast of North and South America (Including the Hawaiian Islands).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report contains full daily predictions for 38 reference ports and differences and other constants for about 1,100 stations in North America, South America, and the Hawaiian Islands. It contains a table for obtainiig the approximate height at any time,...

1971-01-01

71

Key to Genera of Mymaridae in the Hawaiian Islands, with Notes on Some of the Species (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key to 17 genera of Mymaridae that have been found in the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Notes on material examined and, where needed, keys to species are provided, except for the three largest genera: Anagrus Haliday, Gonatocerus Nees and Polynema Haliday, which will be treated in other papers. The remaining genera, which include 28 known species in Hawaii, are

John W. Beardsley; John T. Huber

72

Stock Distribution and Rate of Exploitation of the American Lobster in Eastern Long Island Sound.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A total of 990 lobsters were collected during 17 monthly samplings over a three-year period. Females outnumbered males and represented 58.6 and 41.4% of the catch, respectively. Pre-recruits greatly outnumbered recruits at percentages of 88.5 and 11.5, re...

R. J. Valenti S. J. Peters

1977-01-01

73

Derelict Fishing Gear in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Diving Surveys and Debris Removal in 1999 Confirm Threat to Coral Reef Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine debris threatens Northwestern Hawaiian Islands' (NWHI) coral reef ecosystems. Debris, a contaminant, entangles and kills endangered Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi), coral, and other wildlife. We describe a novel multi-agency effort using divers to systematically survey and remove derelict fishing gear from two NWHI in 1999. 14 t of derelict fishing gear were removed and debris distribution, density, type

Mary J Donohue; Raymond C Boland; Carolyn M Sramek; George A Antonelis

2001-01-01

74

Health Behaviors of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Adults in California  

PubMed Central

Smoking, diet and physical activity are associated with chronic diseases, but representative prevalence data on these behaviors for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (NHPI) adults are scarce. Data from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey were analyzed for self-identified NHPI and non-Hispanic white (NHW) adults. Ethnic and NHPI gender differences were examined for socio-demographic variables, obesity and health behaviors. Compared to NHW, NHPI displayed higher prevalence of obesity (p<0.001), smoking (p<0.05) and consumption of unhealthy foods and beverages (p<0.05). NHPI males were more likely than females to smoke (p<0.001). NHPI adults appear to be at higher risk for chronic disease than NHW due to obesity, smoking and intake of unhealthy foods and beverages. Culturally-specific health promotion interventions are needed to reduce risks among the underrepresented NHPI population.

Moy, Karen L.; Sallis, James F.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Ice, Christa L.; McEligot, Archana J.

2013-01-01

75

Population Size and Structure of Melon-Headed Whales (Peponocephala Electra) Around the Main Hawaiian Islands: Evidence of Multiple Populations Based on Photographic Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the presence of melon-headed whales in tropical and sub- tropical waters worldwide, little is known about this species. Melon-headed whales frequent offshore waters surrounding the Main Hawaiian Islands where aerial surveys by Mobley and colleague...

J. M. Aschettino

2010-01-01

76

Lobster Conservancy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Organization brings Gulf of Maine fishermen, scientists, volunteers together to sustain the lobster fishery. Lobster Life Studies Center and programs educate the public about the biology and importance of American lobster (Homaris americanus), conduct research, monitoring populations, recruitment and survival. Detailed profile with diagrams covers lobster classification, anatomy, growth, physiology, life cycle, distribution, behavior, and fisheries. Table lists life history stage, environmental threats, regulations providing protection. Question/answer feature posts scientists' responses to questions.

77

Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach  

SciTech Connect

Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

1994-12-31

78

Global phylogeography of Cassiopea (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae): molecular evidence for cryptic species and multiple invasions of the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The upside-down jellyfish Cassiopea is a globally distributed, semi-sessile, planktonically dispersed scyphomedusa. Cassiopea occurs in shallow, tropical inshore marine waters on sandy mudflats and is generally associated with mangrove-dominated habitats. Controversy over the taxonomy of upside-down jellyfishes precedes their introduction to the Hawaiian Islands during the Second World War, and persists today. Here we address the global phylogeography and molecular

Brenden S. Holland; Michael N. Dawson; Gerald L. Crow; Dietrich K. Hofmann

2004-01-01

79

Disparities in Use of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services by Asian and Native Hawaiian\\/Other Pacific Islander Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if disparities exist in lifetime utilization of mental health\\/substance abuse services\\u000a among Asian, Native Hawaiian\\/Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) and white mothers. The study sample was comprised of mothers assessed\\u000a to be at-risk (n?=?491) and not at-risk (n?=?218) for child maltreatment in the Hawaii Healthy Start Program study. Multiple logistic regression models were

Van M. Ta; Hee-soon Juon; Andrea C. Gielen; Donald Steinwachs; Anne Duggan

2008-01-01

80

Use of fish behavior in assessing the effects of Hurricane Iniki on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declared the most compact and powerful storm known to have reached the Hawaiian Archipelago, Hurricane Iniki destroyed terrestrial and freshwater habitats island-wide when it struck Kaua'i late on the afternoon of Friday, 11 September 1992. Five weeks after the storm, a research group began underwater studies on the north shore of Kaua'i to assess the physical and biological effects of

J. Michael Fitzsimons; Robert T. Nishimoto

1995-01-01

81

Erosion and landscape development affect plant nutrient status in the Hawaiian Islands.  

PubMed

We quantified variation in plant nutrient concentrations and provenance along catenas in landscapes of three different ages (0.15, 1.4, and 4.1 ma) in the Hawaiian Islands. Strontium (Sr) isotopes demonstrate that erosion provides a renewed source of rock-derived nutrients to slopes in landscapes of all ages, in some cases reversing a million years of ecosystem development in a distance of 100 m. However the effects of this input vary with landscape age. Plants on uneroded surfaces in a 0.15-ma landscape derive approximately 20% of their Sr from local bedrock (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7085), while on adjacent slopes this increases to approximately 80% (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7045). Despite this shift in provenance, foliar N and P do not vary systematically with slope position. Conversely, eroded slopes in a 4.1-ma landscape show smaller increases in rock-derived cations relative to stable uplands (foliar 87Sr/86Sr approximately 0.7075 vs 0.7090), but have >50% higher foliar N and P. These results demonstrate both that erosion can greatly increase nutrient availability in older landscapes, and that the ecological effects of erosion vary with landscape age. In addition, there can be as much biogeochemical variation on fine spatial scales in eroding landscapes as there is across millions of years of ecosystem development on stable surfaces. PMID:15538635

Porder, Stephen; Paytan, Adina; Vitousek, Peter M

2004-11-09

82

Public Awareness of a Long-Established Siren-Based Warning System for Tsunami in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami represent one of the greatest threats in the Hawaiian Islands because much of the built environment is located in the coastal areas and has been constructed after the last statewide damaging tsunami (1960). Moreover, the threat posed by short warning times of locally generated tsunami suggests an urgent need for a well briefed and prepared society. The Federal Emergency Alert System (EAS) is employed to communicate emergency information to the Hawaiian population (1.2 million residents; 6.4 million annual visitors). A network of sirens located throughout the islands supplements the EAS. These sirens have been used since the mid 20th Century to provide emergency information to islanders. The siren is currently defined as an "Attention Alert Signal" i.e. is intended to prompt people to listen to the radio or television for specific information. The sirens are tested monthly. Since the inception of the sirens there have been a range of tones and number of soundings used to indicate various threats and prompt specific public responses. However, the impact of these changes on interpretation of the sirens has received little attention (Lachman et al. 1961). The long time during which the warning system has been in place and the routine tests of the sirens would suggest that the population in Hawaii is largely aware of the siren. We present data from four Hawaiian Islands showing the relationship between awareness of the routine tests and interpretations of the sirens. We link this to findings from a tsunami preparedness study in Hilo, Hawaii.

Gregg, C.; Houghton, B.; Paton, D.; Johnston, D.

2003-12-01

83

Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small.For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation.Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined to a more narrow coastal strip, although there is still much infrastructure at risk.Even for very strong storms in Oahu and Kauai, maximum still water surge is relatively small, and does not exceed 3 m in any storm modeled. In contrast, hurricane waves several kilometers from shore regularly exceed 10 m due to the lack of a continental shelf.

Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

2012-08-01

84

Substance Use and Dependence Among Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asian Ethnic Groups in the United States: Contrasting Multiple-Race and Single-Race Prevalence Rates From a National Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percentage of multiracial youth appears to be increasing in the United States. However, little has been disseminated about problem behaviors among multiracial Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians on a national level. Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the authors compared multiple-race Native Hawaiians, Other Pacific Islanders, and Asians, while disaggregating by ethnic subgroups, with

Joseph T. Sakai; Cynthia Wang; Rumi Kato Price

2010-01-01

85

Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii  

SciTech Connect

The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

Grossman, D.H.

1992-01-01

86

Geographic variations in the whistles of spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) of the Main Hawai?ian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geographic variations in the whistles of Hawai?ian spinner dolphins are discussed by comparing 27 spinner dolphin pods recorded in waters off the Islands of Kaua?i, O?ahu, Lana?i, and Hawai?i. Three different behavioral states, the number of dolphins observed in each pod, and ten parameters extracted from each whistle contour were considered by using clustering and discriminant function analyses. The results suggest that spinner dolphin pods in the Main Hawai?ian Islands share characteristics in approximately 48% of their whistles. Spinner dolphin pods had similar whistle parameters regardless of the island, location, and date when they were sampled and the dolphins' behavioral state and pod size. The term ??whistle-specific subgroup'' (WSS) was used to designate whistle groups with similar whistles parameters (which could have been produced in part by the same dolphins). The emission rate of whistles was higher when spinner dolphins were socializing than when they were traveling or resting, suggesting that whistles are mainly used during close-range interactions. Spinner dolphins also seem to vary whistle duration according to their general behavioral state. Whistle duration and the number of turns and steps of a whistle may be more important in delivering information at the individual level than whistle frequency parameters. .

Bazúa-Durán, Carmen; Au, Whitlow W. L.

2004-12-01

87

Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems.

Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

2011-01-01

88

Marine debris from the Oregon Dungeness crab fishery recovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: identification and oceanic drift paths.  

PubMed

Two Dungeness crab trap tags and floats lost off the State of Oregon, USA during the 2006-2007 fishing season were recovered 4years later in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI): on Lisianski Island on July 15, 2010; and on Kure Atoll on December 10, 2010. This is the first documented recovery of marine debris from Oregon fisheries in the NWHI. We simulate the oceanic drift tracks of the derelict fishing gear with the Ocean Surface Current Simulator (OSCURS) model using estimated loss dates in Oregon based on interviews with the crab trap owners and known recovery sites and dates in the NWHI. These data confirm the US Pacific Northwest as a source of marine debris deposited in the NWHI and provide enhanced understanding of the oceanic drift pathways of marine debris in the North Pacific Ocean. PMID:22014917

Ebbesmeyer, Curtis C; Ingraham, W J; Jones, Jason A; Donohue, Mary J

2011-10-19

89

Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.  

PubMed

Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

2007-06-18

90

Major element variations in Hawaiian shield lavas: Source features and perspectives from global ocean island basalt (OIB) systematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among volcanic hot spots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. Olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. Individual data points exhibit remarkable trends and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lava at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. The Hawaiian data set exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt (OIB) database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian lavas with radiogenic Pb and SiO2-poor lavas are sourced by a SiO2-poor mafic component (pyroxenite) admixed with peridotite, while Hawaiian lavas with unradiogenic Pb and high SiO2 are sourced by a SiO2-rich mafic component (eclogite). The variable SiO2 in the mafic component may result from different degrees of SiO2-extraction from the slab during subduction.

Jackson, Matthew G.; Weis, Dominique; Huang, Shichun

2012-09-01

91

Metabolic rates of midwater crustaceans as a function of depth of occurrence off the Hawaiian Islands: Food availability as a selective factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

During July of 1983, 1986, and 1987, we measured rates of oxygen consumption of 234 individuals of 17 species of midwater crustaceans (orders Decapoda, Mysidacea, and Euphausiacea) off the Hawaiian islands at depths from the surface to greater than 1200 m. The routine metabolic rates declined with increasing depths of the species' occurrence to an extent greater than could be

D. L. Cowles; J. J. Childress; M. E. Wells

1991-01-01

92

MOVEMENTS OF MONK SEALS RELATIVE TO ECOLOGICAL DEPTH ZONES IN THE LOWER NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1990s, adult male and female monk seals (n = 24) at French Frigate Shoals were fitted with satellite tags and their activity monitored (median 87 days). The distribution of their movements was compared with the area and distribution of four ecological zones that were used to classify the summits of the Hawaiian ridge. The zones were defined by

FRANK A. PARRISH; KYLER ABERNATHY

93

Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction,\\u000a this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii).\\u000a Polynesian

Matthias Vignon; Pierre Sasal; René Galzin

2009-01-01

94

Hf-Nd-Pb Isotopes in Lavas and Pyroxenites From Kaula Island Reveal a Depleted Component in the Hawaiian Plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of depleted material within the otherwise isotopically enriched Hawaiian plume has fundamental implications on the source composition and the scales of heterogeneities and mixing in mantle plumes. A depleted plume component has been recognized in the Pb isotope systematics of Oahu rejuvenated stage lavas (the Honolulu Volcanics, or HV) and in the Hf-Nd isotope compositions of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC). Also, peridotite xenoliths from SLC with extreme Hf and Os isotope compositions and up to 2 Ga old Re-depletion ages have been interpreted as fragments of an ancient depleted recycled lithosphere that is part of the plume. Here we present the first combined Hf-Nd-Sr-Pd isotope investigation of phonolite and nephelinite lavas and pyroxenite xenoliths from Kaula Island, Hawaii. The location of Kaula some 300km from Oahu and on a cross-trend relation with the main Hawaiian ridge allows to investigate whether this depleted component has been continuously present in the Hawaiian plume the last ~2-3 Ma, or it is only recognized in Oahu. In terms of major and trace element contents, the Kaula nephelinites and pyroxenites generally overlap the compositions of the HV and SLC pyroxenites on Oahu, respectively. The garnet pyroxenites are interpreted as high pressure cumulates near the base of the lithosphere (70-100km), while the spinel pyroxenites possibly come from shallower depths. In Hf-Nd isotope space both Kaula lavas and pyroxenites (data on cpx separates) plot above the Hawaiian tholeiite trend, with relatively radiogenic Hf isotopes (?Hf = 13.5-21) for a given Nd (?Nd=7.3-8.3). These compositions do not intersect the Pacific MORB field. The Pb isotopic compositions of the Kaula lavas and pyroxenites, and new Pb data on the SLC pyroxenites (all data collected by high precision MC-ICPMS using the Tl addition technique) extend to lower 206Pb/204Pb (18.09-17.80) and 208Pb/204Pb (37.42-37.76) than previously reported in Hawaiian lavas. Both the SLC and Kaula pyroxenites are more variable and extend to lower Pb isotope ratios than their host lavas. Both lavas and Kaula- SLC pyroxenites show a well-defined negative correlation in 208Pb/204Pb vs. Nd isotope space and form a trend parallel to the Pacific MORB. The combined Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of the Kaula lavas and pyroxenites argue against the involvement of a MORB-type mantle in their source. Instead they are best explained by a long-term depleted component with 208Pb/204Pb <37.4 and ?Nd >9. This component is now recognized in both Kaula and Oahu alkali lavas and pyroxenites, suggesting it is a long-lived feature (at least for the last 2 -3 Ma) of the Hawaiian plume and not a short-lived `anomaly` seen in only in Oahu. The continuous presence of this depleted component in the plume is further supported by the observation that both Kea-trend (Mauna Kea, Kilauea and West Maui) and Loa-trend (new data from Makapuu section, Koolau) lava isotopic compositions extend towards this component in Pb vs. Nd-Sr-Hf isotope spaces.

Bizimis, M.; Garcia, M. O.; Norman, M. D.; Salters, V. J.

2008-05-01

95

Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands.  

PubMed

A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai'i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management. PMID:22538320

Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Kido, Michael H; Jokiel, Paul L; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K

2012-04-27

96

Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

2012-07-01

97

Horizontal movements and depth distribution of large adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) near the Hawaiian Islands, recorded using ultrasonic telemetry: implications for the physiological ecology of pelagic fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the horizontal and vertical movements of five adult yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares, estimated body mass 64 to 93?kg) near the main Hawaiian Islands, while simultaneously gathering data on oceanographic conditions\\u000a and currents. Fish movements were recorded by means of ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters. Depth–temperature and depth–oxygen\\u000a profiles were measured with vertical conductivity–temperature–depth (CTD) casts, and the current-velocity field was

R. W. Brill; B. A. Block; C. H. Boggs; K. A. Bigelow; E. V. Freund; D. J. Marcinek

1999-01-01

98

Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distributions of cobalt, iron, and manganese in the water column were studied during the E-Flux Program (E-Flux II and III), which focused on the biogeochemistry of cold-core cyclonic eddies that form in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. During E-Flux II (January 2005) and E-Flux III (March 2005), 17 stations were sampled for cobalt (n=147), all of which

Abigail E. Noble; Mak A. Saito; Kanchan Maiti; Claudia R. Benitez-Nelson

2008-01-01

99

Phylogeny, floral evolution, and inter-island dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) based on ISSR variation and plastid spacer sequences.  

PubMed

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or--perhaps more plausibly--a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

Givnish, Thomas J; Bean, Gregory J; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P; Sytsma, Kenneth J

2013-05-02

100

Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences  

PubMed Central

Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently.

Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

2013-01-01

101

Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

102

Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project  

SciTech Connect

This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

Woodford, D.

2011-02-01

103

The Role of Native Hawaiian Mothers and Fathers in Conveying Traditional Hawaiian Beliefs and Practices to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how Hawaiian adolescents' knowledge of and beliefs in traditional Hawaiian cultural practices were associ- ated with the ethnic background of their mother and father. Data from a community sample of 2,607 Hawaiian adolescents from five high schools on three islands in the state of Hawaiÿi were used. The outcome of Hawaiian beliefs and cultural practices were measured

Naleen N. Andrade; Earl S. Hishinuma

2007-01-01

104

Community Preservation and Empowerment on an Hawaiian Island: The Case of Lana'i  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discuss as critical themes and issues in the practice of community organisation. Using the case of the island of Lana 'i in the State of Hawaii the author illustrates how community assessment can be done to maximise relevance, enhance utility and empower communities. The development project in this case involves the creation of a resort industry with two

Wes Shera

1992-01-01

105

Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson students will investigate the seismology and geological origins of the Hawaiian Islands to discover how scientists can obtain information on geological processes deep within the Earth. As a result of this activity, students will be able to explain the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that formed the Hawaiian Islands and describe, compare, and contrast S waves and P waves. They will also learn how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, and will infer a probable explanation for the existence of ultra-low velocity zones, and how these zones may be related to the Hawaiian hotspot.

Goodwin, Mel

106

Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples  

PubMed Central

Objective: Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). Design/Setting/Patient population: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Pu’uwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction ?45%, 3) Age of 21 years or older. Data were analyzed by odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and multiple logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Methamphetamine use. Results: Twenty-two percent of HF participants were identified as being current or prior methamphetamine users. Younger age and non-married status (combined never married or divorced/separated) were independently associated with MU after adjustment for sex, education, and other co-morbidities associated with HF (ie, age >50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03–0.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.5–47; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.8–75). Conclusions: Risk factors associated with MU in NH and PIPs with heart failure include: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs.

Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

2009-01-01

107

78 FR 59626 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2013-14  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishing year. The MHI Management Subarea is the portion of U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone around the Hawaiian Archipelago lying to the east of 161[deg] 20'' W. longitude. The Deep 7 bottomfish are onaga (Etelis coruscans), ehu (E....

2013-09-27

108

Recovery Plan for the Hawaiian Hoary Bat ('Lasiurus cinereus semotus').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) is federally listed as endangered. It is known from the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, and Molokai. Population numbers are not known, but Hawaiian hoary bats are observed regularly only on Hawaii, ...

1998-01-01

109

Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over historic time Hawai‘i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai‘i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

Perkins, K. S.; Nimmo, J. R.; Medeiros, A. C.

2012-03-01

110

Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands  

PubMed Central

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a “healthy” reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated.

Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

2010-01-01

111

[Book review] Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna, edited by T. K. Pratt, C. T. Atkinson, P. C. Banko, J. D. Jacobi, B. L. Woodworth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Review of: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds. Yale University Press, New Haven. 2009. 707 pp. ISBN 9780300141085. Hardcover, $69.99.

Engstrom, R. Todd; Van Riper, Charles, III

2010-01-01

112

Intensive dryland farming on the leeward slopes of Haleakala, Maui, Hawaiian Islands: archaeological, archaeobotanical, and geochemical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polynesians settled and farmed the leeward, relatively arid slopes of Haleakala Volcano beginning about ad 1400. Archaeological investigations at two sites revealed dense concentrations of conical impressions in a subsurface 20cm cinder layer that was previously undisturbed, interpreted as resulting from cultivation practices involving digging sticks. Ethnographic accounts of Hawaiian sweet potato and dryland taro cultivation techniques provide details on

PV Kirch; J Coil; AS Hartshorn; M Jeraj; PM Vitousek; OA Chadwick

2005-01-01

113

Shark Control and the Hawaiian Monk Seal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sharks are known to feed upon seals and there is some evidence that sharks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands may feed upon Hawaiian monk seals. A shark fishery/control program might prove beneficial to the survivorship of monk seals, however, the magni...

R. S. Nolan

1981-01-01

114

Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae) represent a superb illustration of evolutionary radiation, with a single colonization event giving rise to 19 extant and at least 10 extinct species [Curnutt, J. & Pimm, S. (2001) Stud. Avian Biol. 22, 15–30]. They also represent a dramatic example of anthropogenic extinction. Crop and pasture land has replaced their forest habitat, and human introductions of predators and diseases, particularly of mosquitoes and avian malaria, has eliminated them from the remaining low- and mid-elevation forests. Landscape analyses of three high-elevation forest refuges show that anthropogenic climate change is likely to combine with past land-use changes and biological invasions to drive several of the remaining species to extinction, especially on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii.

Benning, Tracy L.; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Vitousek, Peter M.

2002-01-01

115

The Gilsá excursion and the Matuyama/Brunhes transition recorded in 40Ar/39Ar dated lavas from Lanai and Maui, Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Directional results, Thellier-type palaeointensity determinations and Ar/Ar ages are presented from volcanic units of Pleistocene age from the Hawaiian islands of Maui and Lanai. Twenty-nine non-contiguous lava flows were sampled on Lanai. The lava flows formed during the late Matuyama polarity chron about 1.6 Ma and recorded the Gilsá geomagnetic polarity excursion. The obtained ages of 1.6 Ma for the Lanai lavas are significantly older than ages previously obtained for this island. These new ages are, however, in agreement with the age progression of the Hawaiian hotspot. The palaeomagnetic record over the sampled succession is characterized by reversed and intermediate directions. palaeointensities are generally very low, about half the present-day field intensity, dropping to values of ~5 ?T during transitional field states. Transitional virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) from Lanai are situated first near the west coast of South America and then switch to offshore western Australia. Normal polarity is never reached in the sampled succession. Transitional VGPs located close to Australia accompanied by relatively low palaeointensities are found in most records of short geomagnetic excursions during the Matuyama polarity chron (e.g. the Cobb Mountain subchron, the Punaru event and the Matuyama/Brunhes precursor) suggesting very similar physical processes likely related to dipolar dominance during the onset of these excursions and influences of lower mantle heterogeneities. Approximately 800 kyr after the Gilsá excursion, lava flows on Maui recorded the last reversal, the Matuyama/Brunhes transition. Fourteen lava flows were sampled which recorded the pre- and post-transitional behaviour of the Earth's magnetic field. The geomagnetic field intensity is low prior to the reversal, approximately 8?T, and increases strongly afterwards up to ~63 ?T. These values of about twice the present field intensity of Hawaii after the transition emphasize a strong asymmetry between pre- and post-transitional fields, which is particularly strong in the region of Hawaii.

Leonhardt, R.; McWilliams, M.; Heider, F.; Soffel, H. C.

2009-10-01

116

Patterns of genetic connectivity among anchialine habitats: a case study of the endemic Hawaiian shrimp Halocaridina rubra on the island of Hawaii.  

PubMed

Anchialine habitats, landlocked bodies of mixohaline water that fluctuate with the tides but have no surface connection to the sea, are known from around the world. Many anchialine organisms have widespread distributions and it has been hypothesized that high levels of gene flow and low levels of genetic differentiation are characteristic of populations from these habitats. However, the generality of this hypothesis requires further assessment, particularly in light of the significant negative impact these habitats and their biota have experienced from anthropogenic causes. This study investigated the population structure and demography of an endemic Hawaiian anchialine species, the atyid shrimp Halocaridina rubra, using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences. A survey of 305 individuals from 16 populations collected on the island of Hawaii revealed 135 haplotypes. These haplotypes belonged to one of two divergent (2.7-4.9%) lineages; notably, no haplotypes were shared between the two coasts of the island. Along each coast, strong subdivision and little to no gene flow occurs between populations separated by > 30 km. The population structure and demography of H. rubra on Hawaii are influenced by regional hydrology, geology, volcanism and two distinct colonization events of the island. Thus, H. rubra on Hawaii demonstrates that populations of endemic anchialine organisms may exhibit significant levels of genetic structure and restricted levels of gene flow over limited geographic scales. This report brings novel insight into the biology of anchialine organisms and has important implications for the future management of these habitats and their biota. PMID:16911195

Santos, Scott R

2006-09-01

117

All About Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Maine, or American, lobster is a crustacean with two strong claws: a big-toothed crusher claw for pulverizing shells and a finer-edged ripper claw resembling a steak knife, for tearing soft flesh. Website includes biological remarks, fisheries, economics, history of exploitation, and comparison with other lobsters. Also features educational activities and links to external sites.

118

Astronomical lobster eye telescopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and discuss astronomical LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescopes based on Multi Foil Optics including recent results of the development and tests of advanced laboratory samples. An alternative proposal for a space experiment based on this optics - Lobster All Sky Monitor - is also briefly presented and discussed.

Hudec, Rene; Sveda, Libor; Inneman, Adolf; Pina, Ladislav

2004-10-01

119

New K Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty-seven new K Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai‘i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9 2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai‘anae volcano (O‘ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai‘i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3 0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative.

Sherrod, David R.; Murai, Takashi; Tagami, Takahiro

2007-04-01

120

New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

Sherrod, D. R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, T.

2007-01-01

121

Genetics of adaptive radiation in Hawaiian and Cook Islands species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae). II. Genetic linkage map and its implications for interspecific breeding barriers.  

PubMed Central

In a study of the genetic mechanisms associated with adaptive radiation in Hawaiian Tetramolopium, a genetic linkage map was constructed in an interspecific cross. A total of 125 RFLP and RAPD markers were mapped into 117 different loci on nine linkage groups for a map length of 665.7 cM. Segregation distortion occurred in 49% of the mapped probes, located primarily in four linkage groups. High percentages of one parental species genotype (Tetramolopium rockii) were recovered in three of these blocks and the second parental species (T. humile) in the remaining block. The high degree of distorted segregation suggests the buildup of internal crossing barriers, even though island plant species are typically characterized as highly cross compatible with few to no internal crossing barriers. This work and a review of previous crossing studies in island plants show that internal (postmating) crossing barriers do exist. The weak crossing barriers have likely been overlooked because the main focus has been on diversification and speciation through adaptation to extremely diverse environments.

Whitkus, R

1998-01-01

122

A review of encyrtid wasps of the genus Anicetus Howard, 1896 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) of the new world, Hawaiian Islands, and Australia with description of new species from Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review contains a characteristic (with diagnosis) of the genus Anicetus Howard, 1896, a key to the females of the 12 species known from the New World, the Hawaiian Islands, and Australia, and a\\u000a synopsis of the species with data on their distribution, hosts, biology, ecesis, and use in biological control of injurious\\u000a coccids. Two new species are described from

V. A. Trjapitzin

2010-01-01

123

Science Nation: Dying Lobsters  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lobster is important to many local economies. But this crustacean is threatened by a new virus. The level of infection is believed to be between five and eight percent of the population. Researchers are using a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to try to understand the dynamics of the disease, and specifically how it's spreading. A better understanding of how the virus spreads could lead to more effective management strategies for protecting uninfected lobsters from getting the disease.

124

LIGA FOR LOBSTER?  

SciTech Connect

The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H. [and others

2000-09-01

125

Hyperspectral remote sensing of coral reefs: Deriving bathymetry, aquatic optical properties and a benthic spectral unmixing classification using AVIRIS data in the Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My research focuses on the development and application of hyperspectral remote sensing as a valuable component in the assessment and management of coral ecosystems. Remote sensing provides an important quantitative ability to investigate the spatial dynamics of coral health and evaluate the impacts of local, regional and global change on this important natural resource. Furthermore, advances in detector capabilities and analysis methods, particularly with respect to hyperspectral remote sensing, are also increasing the accuracy and level of effectiveness of the resulting data products. Using imagery of Kaneohe Bay and French Frigate Shoals in the Hawaiian Islands, acquired in 2000 by NASA's Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), I developed, applied and evaluated algorithms for analyzing coral reefs using hyperspectral remote sensing data. Research included developing methods for acquiring in situ underwater reflectance, collecting spectral measurements of the dominant bottom components in Kaneohe Bay, applying atmospheric correction and sunglint removal algorithms, employing a semianalytical optimization model to derive bathymetry and aquatic optical properties, and developing a linear unmixing approach for deriving bottom composition. Additionally, algorithm development focused on using fundamental scientific principles to facilitate the portability of methods to diverse geographic locations and across variable environmental conditions. Assessments of this methodology compared favorably with available field measurements and habitat information, and the overall analysis demonstrated the capacity to derive information on water properties, bathymetry and habitat composition. Thus, results illustrated a successful approach for extracting environmental information and habitat composition from a coral reef environment using hyperspectral remote sensing.

Goodman, James Ansell

126

Lobsters Inside-Out: A Guide to the Maine Lobster,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Homarus Americanus, the American lobster, is synonymous with the Maine coast. Seventy percent of all lobsters harvested in New England are caught in Maine, and it is the state's most valuable fishery. For the last 20 years, the amount of the lobster catch...

R. Bayer J. Bayer

1987-01-01

127

Gaffkemia in California Spiny Lobsters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaffkemia, a systemic infection of Atlantic lobsters (Homarus sp.) by Pediococcus homari (formerly Gaffkya homari), can be initiated by injection of virulent strains of the bacterium into the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus). At 17C, an LD...

J. F. Steenbergen H. C. Schapiro

1976-01-01

128

Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano  

SciTech Connect

New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Kurz, M.D. (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

129

Natural history, biogeography, and endangerment of Hawaiian dry forest trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the floristic composition of Hawaiian dry forest trees and identify natural history characteristics and biogeographic\\u000a variables that are associated with risk of endangerment. Hawaiian dry forests are comprised of 109 tree species in 29 families,\\u000a with 90% of all species endemic, 10% indigenous, and 37% single-island endemics. Forty-five percent of Hawaiian dry forest\\u000a taxa are at risk of

Stephanie Pau; Thomas W. Gillespie; Jonathan P. Price

2009-01-01

130

On the relation between large-scale circulation pattern and heavy rain events over the Hawaiian Islands: Recent trends and future changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

aim of this paper is to present a statistical downscaling method in which the relationships between present-day daily weather patterns and local rainfall data are derived and used to project future shifts in the frequency of heavy rainfall events under changing global climate conditions. National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data from wet season months (November to April) 1958-2010 are composited for heavy rain days at 12 rainfall stations in the Hawaiian Islands. The occurrence of heavy rain events (days with amounts above the 90th percentile estimated from all wet season rain days 1958-2010) was found to be strongly correlated with upper level cyclonic circulation anomalies centered northwest of Hawai`i and south-to-north transport of water vapor in the middle troposphere. The statistical downscaling model (SD) developed in this study was able to reproduce the observed interannual variations in the number of heavy rain events based on cross-validation resampling during the more recent interval 1978-2010. However, multidecadal changes associated with the mid-1970s' climate shift were not well reproduced by the SD using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, likely due to inhomogenities in the presatellite period of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Application of the SD to two model scenarios from the CMIP3 database indicates a reduction of heavy rain events in the mid- to late 21st century. Based on these models, the likelihood of a widespread increase in synoptic heavy rain events in Hawai`i as a result of anthropogenic climate change is low over the remainder of the century.

Elison Timm, Oliver; Takahashi, Mami; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Diaz, Henry F.

2013-05-01

131

Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.  

PubMed

Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ?2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

2013-09-09

132

Life History of the Hawaiian Fish Kuhlia sandvicensis as Inferred from Daily Growth Rings of Otoliths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kuhlia sandvicensis, the aholehole, is a native Hawaiian fish found in both marine and freshwater habitats. In the lower reaches of streams, they are predators on stream fishes, invertebrates, and insects. Aholehole are an important food fish in the Hawaiian Islands and were often used by ancient Hawaiians in traditional ceremonies. Although aholehole are an important part of stream ecosystems

Lori K. Benson; J. Michael Fitzsimons

2002-01-01

133

Psychosocial Risk and Protective Influences in Hawaiian Adolescent Psychopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian\\/Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support

Linda B. Nahulu; Naleen N. Andrade; George K. Makini; Noelle Y. C. Yuen; John F. McDermott; George P. Danko; Ronald C. Johnson; Jane A. Waldron

1996-01-01

134

77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...permit (EFP) from Dr. David Olsen (St. Thomas Fisherman's Association). If granted...Federal waters of St. Croix and St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. Spiny lobsters...000 spiny lobsters (3,000 from St. Thomas Federal waters and 2,000 from St....

2012-12-28

135

The Impact of Menthol on Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Americans, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, and the Need for Social Justice TPSAC, July 16, 2010 Rod Lew, MPH ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

136

Paralytic shellfish toxins in zooplankton, mussels, lobsters and caged Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, during a bloom of Alexandrium fundyense off Grand Manan Island, in the Bay of Fundy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substantial mortalities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at two aquaculture sites in Long Island Sound, off Grand Manan Island, Bay of Fundy (BoF) (New Brunswick, Canada) in September 2003, were associated with a bloom of Alexandrium fundyense (>3×105cellsL?1), a dinoflagellate alga that produces toxins which cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). Cells of A. fundyense collected from surface waters while fish

D. H. Sephton; K. Haya; J. L. Martin; M. M. LeGresley; F. H. Page

2007-01-01

137

Astrophysics with LOBSTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on astrophysical aspects of fully innovative very wide-field X-ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide-field Lobster-eye X-ray optics to be considered. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They are expected to contribute essentially to

R. Hudec; V. Simon; L. Svéda; L. Pina; A. Inneman

2006-01-01

138

Hawaiian Freshwater Polychaeta: a Potentially Substantial Trophic Component of Stream Depositional Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report the widespread occurrence of large annelids (Polychaeta: Nereididae) in Hawaiian stream depositional habi- tats, drawing attention to the lack of knowledge of Hawaiian stream energetics. Specimens of Namalycastis sp. were collected from five Hawaiian Islands from May-July 1995 and from the island of Maui from July-December 1999 and April-July 2000. Most specimens collected were N.

M. ERIC BENBOW; ALBERT J. BURKY

139

Genetics of Adaptive Radiation in Hawaiian and Cook Islands Species of Tetramolopium (Asteraceae). II. Genetic Linkage Map and Its Implications for Interspecific Breeding Barriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the genetic mechanisms associated with adaptive radiation in Hawaiian Tetramolopium, a genetic linkage map was constructed in an interspecific cross. A total of 125 RFLP and RAPD markers were mapped into 117 different loci on nine linkage groups for a map length of 665.7 cM. Segregation distortion occurred in 49% of the mapped probes, located primarily

Richard Whitkus

140

Speciation and phylogeography of Hawaiian terrestrial arthropods.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian archipelago is arguably the world's finest natural laboratory for the study of evolution and patterns of speciation. Arthropods comprise over 75% of the endemic biota of the Hawaiian Islands and a large proportion belongs to species radiations. We classify patterns of speciation within Hawaiian arthropod lineages into three categories: (i) single representatives of a lineage throughout the islands; (ii) species radiations with either (a) single endemic species on different volcanoes or islands, or (b) multiple species on each volcano or island; and (iii) single widespread species within a radiation of species that exhibits local endemism. A common pattern of phylogeography is that of repeated colonization of new island groups, such that lineages progress down the island chain, with the most ancestral groups (populations or species) on the oldest islands. While great dispersal ability and its subsequent loss are features of many of these taxa, there are a number of mechanisms that underlie diversification. These mechanisms may be genetic, including repeated founder events, hybridization, and sexual selection, or ecological, including shifts in habitat and/or host affiliation. The majority of studies reviewed suggest that natural selection is a primary force of change during the initial diversification of taxa. PMID:9628003

Roderick, G K; Gillespie, R G

1998-04-01

141

Effects of in vivo cadmium exposure on ATPases in gill of the lobster, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study lobsters were exposed in a flowing seawater system to a 6 ppb cadmium (=5.3 x 10⁻⁸M CdClâ.2 1\\/2 HâO) for 30 days at the National Marine Fisheries Service Laboratory, Milford, Connecticut. Salinity of the sand-filtered Long Island Sound water ranged from 24 to 26% and temperature from 18 to 20°C. Lobster gill segments were received frozen from

Robert K. Tucker

1979-01-01

142

THE CAVERNICOLOUS FAUNA OF HAWAIIAN LAVA TUBES, 2. TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF BLIND ISOPOD CRUSTACEANS (Oniscoidea: Philosciidae)1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species of blind, pigmentless isopods are described from three different locations on the Hawaiian Island chain. They are inhabitants of lava tubes which are the caves of the Hawaiian Islands. Each species is described in a separate genus because they are widely different morphologically. The species, perhaps imported with soil, are most likely not endemic to the islands. Notes

George A. Schultz

143

Invasive aphids attack native Hawaiian plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invasive species have had devastating impacts on the fauna and flora of the Hawaiian Islands. While the negative effects of\\u000a some invasive species are obvious, other species are less visible, though no less important. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae)\\u000a are not native to Hawai’i but have thoroughly invaded the Island chain, largely as a result of anthropogenic influences. As\\u000a aphids cause both

Russell H. Messing; Michelle N. Tremblay; Edward B. Mondor; Robert G. Foottit; Keith S. Pike

2007-01-01

144

Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the endmember sites where OM accumulated at the surfaces of larger mineral grains, topsoil MOAs of the 20-400-kyr sites are composed of a homogeneous admixture of small-sized PC minerals and OM, which originated from both adsorption and precipitation processes. The chemical composition of OM in surface-horizon MOAs, however, was largely controlled by the uniform source vegetation irrespective of the substrate age whereas in subsoil horizons, aromatic and carboxylic C correlated positively with oxalate-extractable Al and Si and CuCl 2-extractable Al concentrations representing PC aluminosilicates and Al-organic complexes ( r2 > 0.85). Additionally, XPS depth profiles suggest a zonal structure of sorbed OM with aromatic carbons being enriched in the proximity of mineral surfaces and amide carbons (peptides/proteins) being located in outer regions of MOAs. Albeit the mineralogical and compositional changes of OM, the rigidity of mineral-associated OM as analyzed by DSC changed little over time. A significantly reduced side chain mobility of sorbed OM was, however, observed in subsoil MOAs, which likely arose from stronger mineral-organic bindings. In conclusion, our study shows that the properties of soil MOAs change substantially over time with different mineral assemblages favoring the association of different types of OM, which is further accentuated by a vertical gradient of OM composition on mineral surfaces. Factors supporting the stabilization of sorbed OM were (i) the surface area and reactivity of minerals (primary or secondary crystalline minerals versus PC secondary minerals), (ii) the association of OM with micropores of PC minerals (via 'sterically' enhanced adsorption), (iii) the effective embedding of OM in 'well mixed' arrays with PC minerals and monomeric/polymeric metal species, (iv) the inherent stability of acidic aromatic OM components, and (iv) an impaired segmental mobility of sorbed OM, which might increase its stability against desorption and microbial utilization.

Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

2009-04-01

145

Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves  

PubMed

The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume. PMID:10879532

Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

2000-06-22

146

THE CAVERNICOLOUS FAUNA OF HAWAIIAN LAVA TUBES 12. A new species of blind troglobitic earwig (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), with a revision ofthe related surface-living earwigs of the Hawaiian Islands1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first known species of blind troglobitic earwig, Anisolabis howarthi, is described from a pair found in caves on the island of Hawaii. The species is related to a complex of surface- living species hitherto knowrn under the name of Anisolabis perkinsi. This complex has been found to include, in addition to A. perkinsi, 4 new species, A. hawaiiensis, A.

A. Brindle

147

Hawaiian Hot-Spot Swell Structure from Seafloor MT Sounding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected at seven sites across the Hawaiian hot spot swell, spread approximately evenly between 120 and 800~km southwest of the Hawaiian-Emperor Island chain. All data are consistent with a strike direction of 300o, aligned along the seamount chain, and are well fit using two dimensional (2D) inversion. The major features of the 2D electrical model

S. Constable; G. Heinson; A. White

2001-01-01

148

75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management actions are based on recommendations...lobster trap fishery in the Federal waters of Area 2 (the management area that includes the state and Federal waters adjacent to southern MA and...

2010-05-03

149

Inferring Properties of the Hawaiian Plume from the Hawaiian Swell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most prominent geophysical signature associated with the Hawaiian island chain is a broad topographic anomaly ('swell') some 1000 km wide and 2500 km long. Isostasy requires the swell to be compensated by a layer of low-density material at depth whose shape in mapview is similar to that of the swell itself. That shape can be predicted using a simple 2-D thin-layer flow model in which buoyant fluid with constant viscosity is supplied at a volumetric rate Q by a fixed mantle plume and spreads laterally over the base of a plate moving at speed U. A more realistic 3-D version of the model involves a hot thermal plume in a fluid with temperature- and pressure-dependent viscosity that interacts with the shear flow generated by the plate motion. Comparison of the predictions of these models with observations of the Hawaiian swell yields several important inferences about the Hawaiian plume: (1) Plume buoyancy flux B. The observed height and width of the swell imply B ? 3000 kg s-1, much less than earlier estimates B = 6300-8700 kg s-1 based solely on the horizontal flux of (negative) swell buoyancy carried by the moving plate. The reason for the discrepancy is that the horizontal flux calculation neglects (a) the contribution of the buoyant residue of partial melting to the swell topography, and (b) the fact that the mean speed of downstream transport of the buoyant material by the shear flow is less than the plate speed. (2) Depth of compensation. The 3-D model predicts a geoid/topography ratio (GTR) ? 7-8 m/km for the Hawaiian swell, in apparent contradiction with earlier estimates ? 4-5 m/km based on the observed geoid and bathymetry alone. However, an extended version of the 3-D model including volcanic loading and lithospheric flexure reveals that the low values GTR? 4-5 m/km are artifacts of incomplete removal of the shallowly compensated volcanic islands and the surrounding flexural moat. The GTR of the swell itself is therefore ? 7-8 m/km, implying a compensation depth ? 70-80 km. (3) Rheology of the plume material. The young (? 5 Ma) and old (? 20 Ma) parts of the Hawaiian swell have very nearly the same amplitude and width, implying that the swell decays very slowly downstream from the hotspot. An extended version of the thin-layer model with a power-law rheology (strain rate proportional to the power n of the stress) predicts that the swell should decay as the power -1/(3n + 2) of the downstream distance. The slow decay of the Hawaiian swell requires the plume material to have a dislocation-creep rheology with n ? 3.5.

Ribe, N. M.

2012-04-01

150

78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian Islands Insular...ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a recovery plan; request for information...is announcing its intent to prepare a recovery plan for the Main Hawaiian Islands...

2013-10-02

151

NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

152

74 FR 27948 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Central and Western Long Island Sound is available at: http...dragging, lobster, and shellfish fishing. This proposed...overlap with leased shellfish beds. The NOAA Navigation...location of wrecks within Long Island Sound. No historical...

2009-06-12

153

Disparities in Self-Reported Postpartum Depression among Asian, Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Women in Hawaii: Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004–2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postpartum depression affects 10–20% of women and causes significant morbidity and mortality among mothers, children, families,\\u000a and society, but little is known about postpartum depression among the individual Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. This study sought to indentify the prevalence of postpartum depression among common Asian and Pacific Islander racial\\/ethnic\\u000a groups. Data from the Hawaii Pregnancy Risk Assessment and

Donald K. Hayes; Van M. Ta; Eric L. Hurwitz; Kristen M. Mitchell-Box; Loretta J. Fuddy

2010-01-01

154

A Submarine Perspective on Hawaiian Volcanoes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Postwar improvements in navigation, sonar-based mapping, and submarine photography enabled the development of bathymetric maps, which revealed submarine morphologic features that could be dredged or explored and sampled with a new generation of manned and unmanned submersibles. The maps revealed debris fields from giant landslides, the great extent of rift zones radiating from volcanic centers, and two previously unknown submarine volcanoes named Mahukona and Loihi, the youngest Hawaiian volcano. About 70 major landslides cover half the flanks of the Hawaiian Ridge out to Midway Island. Some of the landslides attain lengths of 200 km and have volumes exceeding 5,000 km3. More recent higher resolution bathymetry and sidescan data reveal that many submarine eruptions construct circular, flat-topped, monogenetic cones; that large fields of young strongly alkalic lava flows, such as the North Arch and South Arch lava fields, erupt on the seafloor within several hundred km of the islands; and that alkalic lavas erupt during the shield stage on Kilauea and Mauna Loa. The North Arch flow field covers about 24,000 km2, has an estimated volume between about 1000 and 1250 km3, has flows as long as 108 km, and erupted from over 100 vents. The source and melting mechanisms for their production is still debated. The maps also displayed stair-step terraces, mostly constructed of drowned coral reefs, which form during early rapid subsidence of the volcanoes during periods of oscillating sea level. The combination of scuba and underwater photography facilitated the first motion pictures of the mechanism of formation of pillow lava in shallow water offshore Kilauea. The age progression known from the main islands was extended westward along the Hawaiian Ridge past Midway Island, around a bend in the chain and northward along the Emperor Seamounts. Radiometric dating of dredged samples from these submarine volcanoes show that the magma source that built the chain has been active for over 80 Ma and established the remarkable linearity of the age-progression along the chain. Glass rinds on submarine lava quenched at depth contain initial magmatic volatiles and yield data on the juvenile water, sulfur, CO2, and rare gas contents of basaltic magmas, and continue to reveal nuances of the volatile contents of lava. Rock sampling at Loihi Seamount led to the discovery of the pre-shield alkalic phase of Hawaiian volcanism, which mirrors the well-known post-shield alkalic phase. Lava compositions from the Hawaiian Ridge and Emperor Seamounts have clear affinities to present-day Hawaiian lavas, but subtle source differences as well. The progression from small to large and back to small degrees of melting at individual volcanoes and the compositional changes along the chain constrain the melting processes and source compositions of Hawaiian volcanism. Coupling the age of lavas with that of submerged coral reefs has provided data on the growth and subsidence of volcanic centers. This information has meshed nicely with the age, composition, and morphology of lavas from the 3.2-km-deep Hawaiian Scientific Drill Hole. Submarine studies have taught us much about the workings of Hawaiian Volcanoes, and in the process have stimulated new work and concepts on marine volcanism worldwide.

Clague, D. A.; Moore, J. G.

2011-12-01

155

Molecular phylogenetics and historical biogeography of Hawaiian Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae).  

PubMed

The fern genus Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae) is represented in the Hawaiian Islands by 18 endemic taxa and one non-endemic, native species. The goals of this study were to determine whether Dryopteris in Hawai'i is monophyletic and to infer the biogeographical origins of Hawaiian Dryopteris by determining the geographical distributions of their closest living relatives. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA fragments, rbcL and the trnL-F intergenic spacer (IGS), for 18 Hawaiian taxa, 45 non-Hawaiian taxa, and two outgroup species. For individual fragments, we estimated phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian inference and maximum parsimony. We performed a combined analysis of both cpDNA fragments employing Bayesian inference, maximum parsimony, and maximum likelihood. These analyses indicate that Hawaiian Dryopteris is not monophyletic, and that there were at least five separate colonizations of the Hawaiian Islands by different species of dryopteroid ferns, with most of the five groups having closest relatives in SE Asia. The results suggest that one colonizing ancestor, perhaps from SE Asia, gave rise to eight endemic taxa (the glabra group). Another colonizing ancestor, also possibly from SE Asia, gave rise to a group of five endemic taxa (the exindusiate group). Dryopteris fusco-atra and its two varieties, which are endemic to Hawai'i, most likely diversified from a SE Asian ancestor. The Hawaiian endemic Nothoperanema rubiginosum has its closest relatives in SE Asia, and while the remaining two species, D. wallichiana and D. subbipinnata, are sister species, their biogeographical origins could not be determined from these analyses due to the widespread distributions of D. wallichiana and its closest non-Hawaiian relative. PMID:15619450

Geiger, J M O; Ranker, T A

2004-12-15

156

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import...United States Caribbean spiny lobster with eggs attached or Caribbean spiny lobster from which eggs or pleopods (swimmerets) have been...

2011-10-01

157

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...or in any other manner molested to remove the eggs. (b) Size limit. The minimum size limit for possession of lobster in or...

2012-10-01

158

Lobster Culture: Past, Present and Potential. The Potential of Lobster Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subject report summarizes the history and present state of lobster culture in North America and Europe. The suitability and shortcomings of the lobster as a subject for commercial culture are discussed, with emphasis on the importance of temperature i...

C. B. Kensler

1970-01-01

159

Patterns of sexual cohabitation and female ejaculate storage in the American lobster ( Homarus americanus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of the time and ejaculate allocation strategies during mating of American lobster, Homarus americanus. This study investigated sexual cohabitation and female ejaculate accumulation patterns in a laboratory mating experiment, as well as female seminal receptacle load in exploited populations in the waters of the Magdalen and Anticosti Islands, in eastern Canada. In the laboratory experiment, the length

Thierry Gosselin; Bernard Sainte-Marie; Louis Bernatchez

2003-01-01

160

Identification Manual for Dietary Vegetation of the Hawaiian Green Turtle 'Chelonia mydas'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A manual has been developed to assist sea turtle biologists and other non-phycologists in the identification of food items contained in the gastrointestinal tract of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) sampled from the Hawaiian Islands. The manual contains man...

D. J. Russell G. H. Balazs

2000-01-01

161

75 FR 35990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flying Earwig Hawaiian Damselfly and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including chemical, physical, spatial, and temporal factors) as all the rest of the world's...increased substrate homogeneity, increased temporal water velocity (increased water flow...Disease or Predation The geographic isolation of the Hawaiian Islands restricted...

2010-06-24

162

Vertical and horizontal movements of striped marlin ( Tetrapturus audax ) near the Hawaiian Islands, determined by ultrasonic telemetry, with simultaneous measurement of oceanic currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured the vertical and horizontal movements of striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax) off the leeward coast of the Island of Hawaii between 20 November and 18 December 1992 while simultaneously gathering data on water temperature and oceanic currents. Fish movements were monitored by ultrasonic depth-sensitive transmitters, depth-temperature profiles by an expendable bathythermograph system, and oceanic current patterns by an acoustic

R. Wo Brill; D. B. Holts; R. K. C. Chang; S. Sullivan; H. Dewar; F. G. Carey

1993-01-01

163

Molecular Evidence for an African Origin of the Hawaiian Endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe

Hyi-Gyung Kim; Sterling C. Keeley; Peter S. Vroom; Robert K. Jansen

1998-01-01

164

Scientific Bases for the Preservation of the Hawaiian Crow.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Hawaiian Crow (Corvus hawaiiensis), or 'Alala, once an inhabitant of large forested areas of the island of Hawaii, is now found only in the wild in a relatively small area of the central Kona coast, specifically on the privately-owned McCandless Ranch...

1992-01-01

165

HAWAIIAN SUGAR CANE RAT CONTROL METHODS AND PROBLEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of rats in our Hawaiian sugar cane fields has been with us for a long time. Early records tell of heavy damage at various times on all the islands where sugar cane is grown. Many methods were tried to control these rats. Trapping was once used as a control measure, a bounty was used for a time, gangs

William R. Smythe

1964-01-01

166

Invasion Patterns along Elevation and Urbanization Gradients in Hawaiian Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawaii's extreme isolation has resulted in a native stream fauna characterized by high endemism and unusual life history characteristics. With the rapid increase in the human population, the viability of Hawaiian stream ecosystems is threatened by development and the associated habitat alteration. Thirty-eight sites on three islands (Oahu, Kauai, and Hawaii) were sampled to determine how habitat alteration resulting from

Anne M. D. Brasher; Corene D. Luton; Steven L. Goodbred; Reuben H. Wolff

2006-01-01

167

Evolution and biogeography of native Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The only bees native to the Hawaiian Islands form a single clade of 60 species in the genus Hylaeus. The group is understudied and relatively poorly known. A data set consisting of 1201 base pairs of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I and II and tRNA- Leucine, and 14 morphological characters was used to construct a phylogenetic tree for 48

Karl N. Magnacca; Bryan N. Danforth

2006-01-01

168

A Review of the Hawaiian Species of Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief historical account of the use of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in biological control in the Hawaiian Islands is given. Twelve species of Anagrus, ten of them named, are keyed and descriptive notes are provided. One new species, A. oahuensis S. Triapitsyn and Beardsley, is described and illustrated. A. osborni (Fullaway) and A. panicicolae Sahad are synonymized under A.

Serguei V. Triapitsyn; John W. Beardsley

169

The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain is usually attributed to a hot mantle plume, located beneath the Pacific lithosphere, that delivers material sourced from deep in the mantle to the surface. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear, parallel trends (termed 'Kea' and 'Loa'), whose rocks are characterized by general geochemical differences. This has led to the proposition that Hawaiian volcanoes sample compositionally distinct, concentrically zoned, regions of the underlying mantle plume. Melt inclusions, or samples of local magma 'frozen' in olivine phenocrysts during crystallization, may record complexities of mantle sources, thereby providing better insight into the chemical structure of plumes. Here we report the discovery of both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes--even within single rock samples. We infer from these data that one mantle source component may dominate a single lava flow, but that the two mantle source components are consistently represented to some extent in all lavas, regardless of the specific geographic location of the volcano. We therefore suggest that the Hawaiian mantle plume is unlikely to be compositionally concentrically zoned. Instead, the observed chemical variation is probably controlled by the thermal structure of the plume. PMID:16100780

Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Ingle, Stephanie; Takahashi, Eiichi; Hirano, Naoto; Hirata, Takafumi

2005-08-11

170

Acetylcholine and lobster sensory neurones  

PubMed Central

Experiments are presented in support of the hypothesis that acetylcholine functions as a sensory transmitter in the lobster nervous system. 1. Several different peripheral sensory structures incorporate radioactive choline into acetylcholine. The preparation most enriched in sensory as opposed to other nervous elements (the antennular sense organs of the distal outer flagellum) does not incorporate significant amounts of glutamate, tyrosine or tryptophan into any of the other major transmitter candidates. 2. There is a parallel between the distribution of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and the proportion of sensory fibres in nervous tissue from many parts of the lobster nervous system. 3. Isolated sensory axons contain at least 500 times as much choline acetyltransferase per cm of axon as do efferent excitatory and inhibitory fibres. 4. Abdominal ganglia and root stumps show a decline in the rate of incorporation of choline into acetylcholine 2 to 8 weeks after severing the first and second roots bilaterally (leaving the connectives and third roots intact). Extracts of the root stumps exhibit a significantly lower level of choline acetyltransferase 2 weeks after this operation. 5. Curare and atropine partially block an identified sensory synapse in the lobster abdominal ganglion. ImagesText-fig. 4Text-fig. 5Plate 1

Barker, David L.; Herbert, Edward; Hildebrand, John G.; Kravitz, Edward A.

1972-01-01

171

Isolation by distance across the Hawaiian Archipelago in the reef-building coral Porites lobata.  

PubMed

There is an ongoing debate on the scale of pelagic larval dispersal in promoting connectivity among populations of shallow, benthic marine organisms. The linearly arranged Hawaiian Islands are uniquely suited to study scales of population connectivity and have been used extensively as a natural laboratory in terrestrial systems. Here, we focus on Hawaiian populations of the lobe coral Porites lobata, an ecosystem engineer of shallow reefs throughout the Pacific. Patterns of recent gene flow and population structure in P. lobata samples (n = 318) from two regions, the Hawaiian Islands (n = 10 sites) and from their nearest neighbour Johnston Atoll, were analysed with nine microsatellite loci. Despite its massive growth form, ? 6% of the samples from both regions were the product of asexual reproduction via fragmentation. Cluster analysis and measures of genetic differentiation indicated that P. lobata from the Hawaiian Islands are strongly isolated from those on Johnston Atoll (F(ST) ?= 0.311; P < 0.001), with the descendants of recent migrants (n = 6) being clearly identifiable. Within the Hawaiian Islands, P. lobata conforms to a pattern of isolation by distance. Here, over 37% (P = 0.001) of the variation in genetic distance was explained by geographical distance. This pattern indicates that while the majority of ongoing gene flow in Hawaiian P. lobata occurs among geographically proximate reefs, inter-island distances are insufficient to generate strong population structure across the archipelago. PMID:20887361

Polato, Nicholas R; Concepcion, Gregory T; Toonen, Robert J; Baums, Iliana B

2010-09-30

172

LOBSTER – New Space X–Ray telescopes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the technological and scientific aspects of fully innovative very wide field X ray telescopes with high sensitivity. The prototypes of Lobster telescopes designed, developed and tested are very promising, allowing the proposals for space projects with very wide field Lobster Eye X ray optics to be considered for the first time. The novel telescopes will monitor the sky

R. Hudec; L. Pina; V. Šimon; L. Švéda; A. Inneman; V. Semencová; M. Skulinová

2007-01-01

173

An Aquaculture Pilot Plant for Lobsters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A major component of the proposed lobster-culture facility is heated waste water from a power plant. The warm water makes production feasible by speeding lobster maturation. This facility also cultures seaweeds that supply valuable products for food and p...

L. S. Turner J. W. Zahradnik O. W. Terry

1979-01-01

174

Genetic diversity and biogeography of the Hawaiian cordage plant, olon? ( Toucharida latifolia; Urticaceae), based on RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Touchardia latifolia (Urticaceae) is an endemic species to the Hawaiian Islands. Although widespread and extensively cultivated by early Hawaiians for cordage, populations are now greatly diminished and increasingly rare. Reproductively dioecious, T. latifolia is expected to have high genetic diversity. However, it is thought that diversity may be reduced because of the reduction in the number of populations and their

Wisteria F Loeffler; Clifford W Morden

2003-01-01

175

Circling the Wagons: Agriculturalists and Conservation Biologists Must Cooperate to Protect Endemic Hawaiian Invertebrate Diversity and Control Invasive Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation of native Hawaiian insects and suppression of invasive spe- cies are intrinsically connected propositions. The isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has produced a large endemic insect fauna that is ill equipped to compete with the onslaught of species that have been intentionally or inadvertently unleashed. However, most of the data needed to effectively preserve natives and control invasive species

Daniel Rubinoff

2007-01-01

176

Cardiovascular risk factor levels in ethnic Hawaiians.  

PubMed

We report a cardiovascular risk factor survey of "native" Hawaiians 20-59 years old (70 percent, or 257), living on the Hawaiian Homestead lands on the island of Molokai, Hawaii. More than 60 percent of both sexes were overweight. Among males, 42 percent were smokers. The percent of the population with systolic blood pressure greater than 140 mm Hg or a diastolic pressure greater than 90 mm Hg or taking hypertensive medications was 14 percent of those ages 20-39 and 36 percent of those ages 40-59. The percent with serum cholesterol greater than or equal to 6.2 mmol/L ranged from 8 percent of those 20-29 years old to 46 percent in those 50-59 years old. Two percent of those ages 20-29 had a history of diabetes, or 2 + or greater glycosuria by dipstick, as did 23 percent of those ages 50-59. The majority of the known diabetics exhibited glycosuria and elevated glycohemoglobin levels, indicating poor control. Hypertension, although usually known to the participant, was frequently uncontrolled. From these data, it appears that among this group of Hawaiians major risk factors for cardiovascular disease were frequent, while at the same time the levels of awareness and/or control for most of these factors were low. PMID:1990852

Curb, J D; Aluli, N E; Kautz, J A; Petrovitch, H; Knutsen, S F; Knutsen, R; O'Conner, H K; O'Conner, W E

1991-02-01

177

Characterization of eight polymorphic microsatellite loci for the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus and cross-amplification in other achelate lobsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microsatellite sequences were isolated from both non-enriched and enriched genomic libraries of California spiny lobster,\\u000a Panulirus interruptus. Eight consistently amplifying, scorable and polymorphic loci were characterized for 79 individuals collected at Santa Cruz\\u000a and San Clemente Islands, California, and tested for cross-species amplification in four closely related Panulirus spp., as well as four other species of the order Achelata. The

Tal Ben-Horin; Matthew Iacchei; Kim A. Selkoe; Thien T. Mai; Rob J. Toonen

2009-01-01

178

36 CFR 7.46 - Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument. 7.46... § 7.46 Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument. (a...lobsters, conch, whelk, corals, sponges and all associated reef invertebrates, and...

2009-07-01

179

36 CFR 7.46 - Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument. 7.46... § 7.46 Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument. (a...lobsters, conch, whelk, corals, sponges and all associated reef invertebrates, and...

2010-07-01

180

Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.  

PubMed

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

2011-12-15

181

Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus  

PubMed Central

The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY).

Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

2011-01-01

182

Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae).  

PubMed

Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands. PMID:9860987

Kim, H G; Keeley, S C; Vroom, P S; Jansen, R K

1998-12-22

183

Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands.

Kim, Hyi-Gyung; Keeley, Sterling C.; Vroom, Peter S.; Jansen, Robert K.

1998-01-01

184

Current Economic Status of Lobster Culture Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of lobster culture research is presented in an economic context by describing culture cost projections and their sensitivity to parameter variation. The current state of the mathematical model is described and related to recent research...

L. W. Botsford

1977-01-01

185

Active Immunity to Gaffkemia in Lobsters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) may be immunized by injection with an avirulent strain of Pediococcus homari (formerly Gaffkya homari). This immunization protects the animals against a later challenge with 100 x LD50 virulent bacteria...

H. C. Schapiro J. G. Steenbergen

1976-01-01

186

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

2009-10-01

187

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

2010-10-01

188

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size...

2011-10-01

189

50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not be retained...shaved, clipped, or in any other manner molested to remove the eggs. (b) Size limit. The minimum size limit for...

2011-10-01

190

Marron Lobster Aquaculture in the United States. Phase 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Marron lobster, Cherax tenuimanus, is a freshwater lobster or crayfish indigenous to southwest Australia. Researchers conducted experiments to examine the (1) survival, growth rates, density effects, and (2) reproductive potential of marron under environm...

N. C. Alon M. C. Rubino C. A. Wilson D. B. Rouse I. Kartamulia

1988-01-01

191

Evaluation of Techniques to Quantitatively Monitor Spiny Lobster Postlarval Recruitment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Postlarval spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, attracted to floating artificial habitats were counted to evaluate quantitative sampling techniques for lobster recruitment to the lower Florida Keys. Sampling was conducted from 27 March 1976 to 13 September 19...

E. J. Little G. R. Milano

1978-01-01

192

50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lobster import prohibitions â(1) Prohibition related to tail meat . No person may import into any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton...

2012-10-01

193

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...lobster import prohibitions â(1) Prohibition related to tail meat . No person may import into any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached....

2012-10-01

194

Temperature acclimation alters cardiac performance in the lobster Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American lobster is a poikilotherm that inhabits a marine environment where temperature varies over a 25C range and depends\\u000a on the winds, the tides and the seasons. To determine how cardiac performance depends on the water temperature to which the\\u000a lobsters are acclimated we measured lobster heart rates in vivo. The upper limit for cardiac function in lobsters acclimated

Joseph Camacho; Syed Aman Qadri; Hongkun Wang; Mary Kate Worden

2006-01-01

195

Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, and ‘Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds\\u000a representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide\\u000a revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster.

Susan I. Jarvi; Dennis Triglia; Alexis Giannoulis; Margaret Farias; Kiara Bianchi; Carter T. Atkinson

2008-01-01

196

Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects  

PubMed Central

Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages.

Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O'Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

197

Clade-specific morphological diversification and adaptive radiation in Hawaiian songbirds.  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian honeycreepers are a dramatic example of adaptive radiation but contrast with the four other songbird lineages that successfully colonized the Hawaiian archipelago and failed to undergo similar diversification. To explore the processes that produced the diversity dichotomy in this insular fauna, we compared clade age and morphological diversity between the speciose honeycreepers and the comparatively depauperate Hawaiian thrushes. Mitochondrial-DNA-based genetic distances between these Hawaiian clades and their continental sister taxa indicate that the ancestral thrush colonized the Hawaiian Islands as early as the common ancestor of the honeycreepers. This similar timing of colonization indicates that the marked difference in diversity between the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush clades is unlikely to result from differences in these clades' tenures within the archipelago. If time cannot explain the contrasting diversities of these taxa, then an intrinsic, clade-specific trait may have fostered the honeycreeper radiation. As the honeycreepers have diversified most dramatically in morphological characters related to resource utilization, we used principal components analyses of bill characters to compare the magnitudes of morphological variation in the ancestral clades from which the Hawaiian honeycreeper and thrush lineages are derived, the Carduelini and Turdinae respectively. Although the Carduelini share a more recent common ancestor and have a lower species diversity than the Turdinae, these finch-like relatives of the honeycreepers exhibit significantly greater variation in bill morphology than do the continental relatives of the Hawaiian thrushes. The higher magnitude of morphological variation in the non-Hawaiian Carduelini suggests that the honeycreepers fall within a clade exhibiting a generally high evolutionary flexibility in bill morphology. Accordingly, although the magnitude of bill variation among the honeycreepers is similar to that of the entire passerine radiation, this dramatic morphological radiation represents an extreme manifestation of a general clade-specific ability to evolve novel morphologies.

Lovette, Irby J; Bermingham, Eldredge; Ricklefs, Robert E

2002-01-01

198

Large X-ray Optics: Lobster alternative  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Wolter 1 geometry suggested for the XEUS X-ray telescope is the widely used one. The Wolter X-ray optics provides fine angular resolution, but on the other side, the field of view is rather limited, mostly by less than 1 degree. We discuss alternative arrangements which could provide much larger field of view. They focus on various modifications of the Lobster Eye X-ray optics. We discuss this alternative approach and show some examples and results obtained by Lobster Eye test prototypes. The astrophysical preferences of such solution are also addressed.

Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.

199

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian Ecosystem and Its Environmental Determinants with Particular Emphasis on Promising Areas for Geothermal Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed...

S. M. Siegel

1980-01-01

200

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

201

Hawaii's Sugar Islands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

202

Prodigious submarine landslides on the Hawaiian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extensive area covered by major submarine mass wasting deposits on or near the Hawaiian Ridge has been delimited by systematic mapping of the Hawaiian exclusive economic zone using the side-looking sonar system GLORIA. These surveys show that slumps and debris avalanche deposits are exposed over about 100,000 km2 of the ridge and adjacent seafloor from Kauai to Hawaii, covering an area more than 5 times the land area of the islands. Some of the individual debris avalanches are more than 200 km long and about 5000 km3 in volume, ranking them among the largest on Earth. The slope failures that produce these deposits begin early in the history of individual volcanoes when they are small submarine seamounts, culminate near the end of subaerial shield building, and apparently continue long after dormancy. Consequently, landslide debris is an important element in the internal structure of the volcanoes. The dynamic behavior of the volcanoes can be modulated by slope failure, and the structural features of the landslides are related to elements of the volcanoes including rift zones and fault systems. The landslides are of two general types, slumps and debris avalanches. The slumps are slow moving, wide (up to 110 km), and thick (about 10 km) with transverse blocky ridges and steep toes. The debris avalanches are fast moving, long (up to 230 km) compared to width, and thinner (0.05-2 km); they commonly have a well-defined amphitheater at their head and hummocky terrain in the lower part. Oceanic disturbance caused by rapid emplacement of debris avalanches may have produced high-level wave deposits (such as the 365-m elevation Hulopoe Gravel on Lanai) that are found on several islands. Most present-day submarine canyons were originally carved subaerially in the upper parts of debris avalanches. Subaerial canyon cutting was apparently promoted by the recently steepened and stripped slopes of the landslide amphitheaters.

Moore, J. G.; Clague, D. A.; Holcomb, R. T.; Lipman, P. W.; Normark, W. R.; Torresan, M. E.

1989-12-01

203

Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.  

PubMed Central

Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies.

Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

1985-01-01

204

Fungal Diversity Associated with Hawaiian Drosophila Host Plants  

PubMed Central

Hawaiian Drosophila depend primarily, sometimes exclusively, on specific host plants for oviposition and larval development, and most specialize further on a particular decomposing part of that plant. Differences in fungal community between host plants and substrate types may establish the basis for host specificity in Hawaiian Drosophila. Fungi mediate decomposition, releasing plant micronutrients and volatiles that can indicate high quality substrates and serve as cues to stimulate oviposition. This study addresses major gaps in our knowledge by providing the first culture-free, DNA-based survey of fungal diversity associated with four ecologically important tree genera in the Hawaiian Islands. Three genera, Cheirodendron, Clermontia, and Pisonia, are important host plants for Drosophila. The fourth, Acacia, is not an important drosophilid host but is a dominant forest tree. We sampled fresh and rotting leaves from all four taxa, plus rotting stems from Clermontia and Pisonia. Based on sequences from the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rDNA gene, we identified by BLAST search representatives from 113 genera in 13 fungal classes. A total of 160 operational taxonomic units, defined on the basis of ?97% genetic similarity, were identified in these samples, but sampling curves show this is an underestimate of the total fungal diversity present on these substrates. Shannon diversity indices ranged from 2.0 to 3.5 among the Hawaiian samples, a slight reduction compared to continental surveys. We detected very little sharing of fungal taxa among the substrates, and tests of community composition confirmed that the structure of the fungal community differed significantly among the substrates and host plants. Based on these results, we hypothesize that fungal community structure plays a central role in the establishment of host preference in the Hawaiian Drosophila radiation.

Ort, Brian S.; Bantay, Roxanne M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O'Grady, Patrick M.

2012-01-01

205

Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

206

Identification of endangered Hawaiian ducks ( Anas wyvilliana ), introduced North American mallards ( A. platyrhynchos ) and their hybrids using multilocus genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hawaiian ducks (Anas wyvilliana), or koloa, are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands and are listed as a federal and state endangered species. Hybridization between\\u000a koloa and introduced mallards (A. platyrhynchos) is believed to be a primary threat to the recovery of koloa. We evaluated the utility of two sets of nuclear markers (microsatellite\\u000a loci and amplified fragment length polymorphisms) and

Ada C. Fowler; John M. Eadie; Andrew Engilis Jr

2009-01-01

207

False Killer Whale Dorsal Fin Disfigurements as a Possible Indicator of Long-Line Fishery Interactions in Hawaiian Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scarring resulting from entanglement in fishing gear can be used to examine cetacean fishery interactions. False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are known to interact with the Hawai'i-based tuna and swordfish long-line fish- ery in offshore Hawaiian waters. We examined the rate of major dorsal fin dis- figurements of false killer whales from nearshore waters around the main Hawaiian Islands to

Robin W. Baird; Antoinette M. Gorgone

2005-01-01

208

Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae)  

PubMed Central

The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification.

Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

2013-01-01

209

Genetic variation of introduced Hawaiian and native Costa Rican populations of an invasive tropical shrub, Clidemia hirta (Melastomataceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clidemia hirta is one of the most common woody invasive plants in mesic to wet forests in Hawaii, where it was introduced around 1940. The species is relatively uncommon by comparison in its native range of Central and South America and some Caribbean Islands. We examined genetic variation in allozymes of 20 C. hirta populations on four Hawaiian Islands to

SAARA J. DEWALT; J. L. Hamrick

2004-01-01

210

Cellular organization of the embryonic lobster heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cellular organization of the embryonic heart of the lobster Homarus americanus was examined in 6-week and 6-month-old animals. The heart wall consists of an outer adventitial layer of fibroblast cells and an inner layer of transversely striated myocardial cells. Present in close association with the myocardium are cardiac neurons, hemocytes and so-called storage cells.

T. G. Burrage; Robert G. Sherman

1978-01-01

211

A non-LTR retrotransposon from the Hawaiian Drosophila: the LOA element  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interspersed sequence has been isolated from the genome of D. silvestris, a species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The LOA element is 7.7 kb long and its 3' end consists of (TAA)n tandem repeats. Five different LOA elements were isolated, of which three were truncated at their 5' ends. Large deletions within the elements were frequent. A consensus sequence

I. Felger; J. A. Hunt

1992-01-01

212

Hybridization as a source of evolutionary novelty: leaf shape in a Hawaiian composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a significant creative force in evolution. Interbreeding among species can lead to the creation of novel genotypes and morphologies that lead to adaptation. On the Hawaiian island of O‘ahu, populations of two species of plants in the endemic genus Lipochaeta grow at similar elevations in the northern Wai’anae Mountains. These two species represent extremes of

Stacy Jørgensen; Rodney Mauricio

2005-01-01

213

Hybridization as a source of evolutionary novelty: leaf shape in a Hawaiian composite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hybridization is increasingly recognized as a significant creative force in evolution. Interbreeding among species can lead to the creation of novel genotypes and morphologies that lead to adaptation. On the Hawaiian island of O’ahu, populations of two species of plants in the endemic genus Lipochaeta grow at similar elevations in the northern Wai’anae Mountains. These two species represent extremes of

Stacy Jørgensen; Rodney Mauricio

214

A Community Stakeholder Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines and validates the drug resistance strategies identified by rural Hawaiian youth from prior research with a sample of community stakeholders on the Island of Hawai'i. One hundred thirty-eight stakeholders with a vested interest in reducing youth substance use (i.e., teachers, principals, social service agency providers, and…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Delp, Justin A.; Stone, Kristina; Dinson, Ay-Laina; Stetkiewicz, Jennifer

2011-01-01

215

A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

2010-01-01

216

A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

2010-01-01

217

Hawaiian update - 1988  

SciTech Connect

Progress with geothermal development on the Island of Hawaii has been slow since the July 1987 report. Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV), which plans to have 25 megawatts on line by 1993, is in the midst of changing owners. Although PGV hasn't drilled additional wells since the successful Kapoho State-1A in late 1985, the venture has been moving ahead with planning and design for the 25 megawatt project. The other developer in Hawaii is True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture. Principals of both True Geothermal and Mid-Pacific Geothermal are from Wyoming. This group has run into local opposition since late 1981. Originally, they planned to construct a 250 megawatt project in the upper end of the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) on the Island of Hawaii, near the Volcanoes National Park. Then, they changed to a 100 megawatt project in the middle of the KERZ. The EIS has been accepted and the group has received the necessary, state land-use permit. However, the permit action was appealed by a few Pele practitioners. In July 1987, the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled unanimously in favor of the development project. In August 1987, Governor John Waihee established a blue-ribbon panel to study the feasibility of developing an inter-island cable system to transmit 500 megawatts of geothermally-produced electricity from the KERZ on the Island of Hawaii to the Islands of Maui and Oahu, where 80% of the state's population live. This system has a price tag of $475 million (1986). It will span a greater length of ocean and lie in deeper ocean depths than any other high-voltage submarine cable. There is no known US manufacturer with the capability to build such a cable.

Lesperance, G.

1987-06-01

218

Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

Gibson, Andrea

2002-01-01

219

Lobster eye x-ray optics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imaging x-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited field of view. The alternative x-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but have been not constructed and used so far. We review the design and basic properties of the wide-field x-ray optical system based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry

Adolf Inneman; Rene Hudec; Ladislav Pina; Paul Gorenstein

1999-01-01

220

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

SciTech Connect

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

Hudec, R. [Astronomical Institute, AS CR, 25165 Ondrejov (Czech Republic); Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Electrical Engineering (Czech Republic); Pina, L. [Czech Technical Universiry in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Science, Prague (Czech Republic); Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic); Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A. [Rigaku Innovative Technologies Europe, Prague (Czech Republic)

2010-07-15

221

Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

R. Hudec; L. Pina; V. Marsikova; A. Inneman

2010-01-01

222

Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A report entitled Atlas of Natural Hazards in the Hawaiian Coastal Zone was recently released from the US Geological Survey. The stated purpose of the report is to communicate to citizens and regulatory authorities the history and relative intensity of coastal hazards in Hawaii and to provide a strong data set for planners and managers to guide the future of coastal resources. The nearly 300 page atlas can be downloaded in seven different sections or as one large document. Included in the atlas are notes on specific hazards, a ranking of hazard intensity, an overall hazard assessment, and specific technical hazard maps for each island.

223

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

224

EGG LOSS DURING INCUBATION FROM OFFSHORE NORTHERN LOBSTERS (DECAPODA: HOMARIDAE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg loss during incubation from offshore northern lobsters, Homaru8 americanus Milne Edwards, was estimated by counting the eggs of 196 females. The lobsters were captured along the continental shelf off southern New England during October (eggs recently extruded), April, and June (eggs nearly ready to hatch). Egg loss during the period October to June averaged 36% for females of all

HERBERT C. PERKINS

225

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place...

2010-10-01

226

50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster. No person may import into any place...

2009-10-01

227

Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA.  

PubMed Central

The extinct moa-nalos were very large, flightless waterfowl from the Hawaiian islands. We extracted, amplified and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from fossil moa-nalo bones to determine their systematic relationships and lend insight into their biogeographical history. The closest living relatives of these massive, goose-like birds are the familiar dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini). Moa-nalos, however, are not closely related to any one extant species, but represent an ancient lineage that colonized the Hawaiian islands and evolved flightlessness long before the emergence of the youngest island, Hawaii, from which they are absent. Ancient DNA yields a novel hypothesis for the relationships of these bizarre birds, whereas the evidence of phylogeny in morphological characters was obscured by the evolutionary transformation of a small, volant duck into a giant, terrestrial herbivore.

Sorenson, M D; Cooper, A; Paxinos, E E; Quinn, T W; James, H F; Olson, S L; Fleischer, R C

1999-01-01

228

Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities. PMID:20662372

Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

2010-06-11

229

The degassing of Hawaiian tholeiite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accepting the Gerlach and Graeber (1985) estimates of the initial CO2 and H2O concentrations, we have calculated the variation of the concentrations of these gases, dissolved and\\/or exsolved, in Hawaiian tholeiite from the moment it is generated until it solidifies at the Earth's surface. These computations are extensions of our previous work (Bottinga and Javoy 1989, 1990a, 1990b) on the

Y. Bottinga; M. Javoy

1991-01-01

230

Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.  

PubMed

Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are consistent with those found in the native Hawaiian Drosophila. PMID:11298985

Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

2001-03-01

231

The pH of Hawaiian precipitation a preliminary report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily or biweekly precipitation samples have been collected at various sites on the island of Hawaii since 1974. The elevations of the sites ranged from sea level to 3400 m. Samples were analyzed on the day of collection for pH and conductivity. Detection of major anions, such as sulfate and nitrate, were made on selected samples during the period. The pH data show a progressive increase of acidity with elevation. The sea level site averaged pH 5.2, in contrast to the sites above 2500 m, which averaged pH 4.3. It is postulated that the increase in acidity at higher levels might be explained by acidic materials, either natural or man-made, being transported over long distances in the mid-troposphere and being scavenged in the rain of the Hawaiian islands.

Miller, John M.; Yoshinaga, Alan M.

1981-07-01

232

A young source for the Hawaiian plume.  

PubMed

Recycling of oceanic crust through subduction, mantle upwelling, and remelting in mantle plumes is a widely accepted mechanism to explain ocean island volcanism. The timescale of this recycling is important to our understanding of mantle circulation rates. Correlations of uranogenic lead isotopes in lavas from ocean islands such as Hawaii or Iceland, when interpreted as model isochrons, have yielded source differentiation ages between 1 and 2.5?billion years (Gyr). However, if such correlations are produced by mixing of unrelated mantle components they will have no direct age significance. Re-Os decay model ages take into account the mixing of sources with different histories, but they depend on the assumed initial Re/Os ratio of the subducted crust, which is poorly constrained because of the high mobility of rhenium during subduction. Here we report the first data on (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios for 138 melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from lavas of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii, indicating enormous mantle source heterogeneity. We show that highly radiogenic strontium in severely rubidium-depleted melt inclusions matches the isotopic composition of 200-650-Myr-old sea water. We infer that such sea water must have contaminated the Mauna Loa source rock, before subduction, imparting a unique 'time stamp' on this source. Small amounts of seawater-derived strontium in plume sources may be common but can be identified clearly only in ultra-depleted melts originating from generally highly (incompatible-element) depleted source components. The presence of 200-650-Myr-old oceanic crust in the source of Hawaiian lavas implies a timescale of general mantle circulation with an average rate of about 2 (±1)?cm?yr(-1), much faster than previously thought. PMID:21832996

Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Stoll, Brigitte

2011-08-10

233

Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not…

Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe

2009-01-01

234

Hygienic Responses to Varroa Destructor by Commercial and Feral Honey Bees from the Big Island of Hawaii Before Exposure to Mites.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The important honey bee queen production industry on the Big Island of Hawaii is threatened by the recent discovery of Varroa destructor on the island. We tested the pre-exposure level of resistance to mites of three sources of commercial Hawaiian bees and feral Hawaiian bees based on their expressi...

235

Assessing the importance of fishing impacts on Hawaiian coral reef fish assemblages along regional-scale human population gradients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Humanscanimpactcoralreeffishesdirectlybyfishing, or indirectly through anthropogenic degradation of habitat. Uncertainty about the relative importance of those can make it difficult to develop and build consensus for appropriate remedial management. Relationships between fish assemblages and human population density were assessed using data from 18 locationswidelyspreadthroughouttheMainHawaiian Islands (MHI) to evaluate the significance of fishing as a factor potentially driving fish trends on

I. D. WILLIAMS; W. J. WALSH; R. E. SCHROEDER; A. M. FRIEDLANDER; B. L. RICHARDS; K. A. STAMOULIS

2008-01-01

236

Adaptive radiation of photosynthetic physiology in the Hawaiian lobeliads: light regimes, static light responses, and whole-plant compensation points  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six endemic genera\\/sections of lobeliads (Campanulaceae) occupy nearly the full range of light regimes on moist sites in the Hawaiian Islands, from open alpine bogs and seacliffs to densely shaded rainforest interiors. To determine whether this clade has undergone a corresponding adaptive radiation in photosynthetic adaptations, we studied the natural light habitats and physiological characteristics of 11 species representing each

THOMAS J. GIVNISH; REBECCA A. MONTGOMERY; GUILLERMO GOLDSTEIN

2004-01-01

237

The internal structure of lava flows—insights from AMS measurements II: Hawaiian pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of 22 basaltic flow units, including S-type pahoehoe, P-type pahoehoe, toothpaste lava and 'a'? emplaced over different slopes in two Hawaiian islands. Systematic differences occur in several aspects of AMS (mean susceptibility, degree of anisotropy, magnetic fabric and orientation of the principal susceptibilities) among the morphological types that can be related to

Edgardo Cañón-Tapia; George P. L. Walker; Emilio Herrero-Bervera

1997-01-01

238

Ecology of Hawaiian Marine Mammals Emphasizing the Impact of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) On Endangered Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twenty-two marine mammal species including 2 baleen whales, 20 toothed whales, and one pinniped occur in Hawaiian waters. Among these are two endangered species, the migratory humpback whale (Megaptera novaengliae) around the main islands, and the non-mig...

S. F. Payne E. O. Hartwig

1982-01-01

239

How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.  

PubMed

This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

2002-12-01

240

Convergent evolution of behavior in an adaptive radiation of Hawaiian web-building spiders  

PubMed Central

Species in ecologically similar habitats often display patterns of divergence that are strikingly comparable, suggesting that natural selection can lead to predictable evolutionary change in communities. However, the relative importance of selection as an agent mediating in situ diversification, versus dispersal between habitats, cannot be addressed without knowledge of phylogenetic history. We used an adaptive radiation of spiders within the Hawaiian Islands to test the prediction that species of spiders on different islands would independently evolve webs with similar architectures. Tetragnatha spiders are the only nocturnal orb-weaving spiders endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago, and multiple species of orb-weaving Tetragnatha co-occur within mesic and wet forest habitats on each of the main islands. Therefore, comparison of web architectures spun by spiders on different islands allowed study of replicated evolutionary events of past behavioral diversification. We found that species within each island construct webs with architectures that differ from one another. However, pairs of species on different islands, “ethotypes,” share remarkable similarities in web architectures. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the species comprising these ethotypes evolved independent of one another. Our study illustrates the high degree of predictability that can be exhibited by the evolutionary diversification of complex behaviors. However, not all web architectures were shared between islands, demonstrating that unique effects also have played an important role in the historical diversification of behavior.

Blackledge, Todd A.; Gillespie, Rosemary G.

2004-01-01

241

Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust). In contrast, younger soils are mainly supplied by calcium from weathering of volcanic bedrock. Based on the results of previous studies using strontium isotopic signatures and Sr/Ca ratios (e.g. Kennedy et al. 1998, Chadwick et al. 1999, Whipkey et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2001) we have conducted research focusing on the isotope composition of calcium as a new tool for the investigation of sources of calcium and biogeochemical processes effecting Ca isotope fractionation in the plant-soil system. The study combines ? 44Ca with 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca data of soils (bulk compositions and extractable Ca and Sr from soil exchange sites) and different plant species including native Ohia trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) from a soil chronosequence along the Hawaiian Island chain. The study sites differ in age of the underlying substrate from 0.3 ka to 4,100 ka, but show similar recent climate (mean annual temperature of 16 ° C) and amount of precipitation (about 2,500 mm/y). 44Ca/40Ca ratios were measured on a MAT262 at Stanford University, using a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and are reported as ? 44Ca values relative to seawater (? 44Ca = 0 ‰ ). Results of the extractable, plant available calcium from six soil sites show ? 44Ca values in the range of +1.2 ‰ to -1.3 ‰ with generally more negative values related to younger soil sites where calcium is mainly derived from weathering of volcanic rocks. Bulk soil samples, however, show ? 44Ca values between -0.1 ‰ and -2.5 ‰ , indicating differences in composition as a result of contributions from volcanic minerals, continental dust, and marine aerosols in different proportions. Leaves and wood material of different plant species have ? 44Ca values in the range of -0.1 ‰ and -2.1 ‰ , suggesting biological fractionation of Ca isotopes during calcium uptake in plants. From our results we conclude that the pattern of Ca isotope fractionation in the Hawaiian ecosystem depend on several factors (1) the source of calcium, (2) physiological processes, and (3) soil biogeochemical processes. References Chadwick et al. (1999) Nature 397: 491-497. Kennedy et al. (1998) Geology 26: 1015-1018. Stewart et al. (2001) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65: 1087-1099. Whipkey et al. (2000) Chem. Geol. 168: 37-48.

Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

2003-12-01

242

Behavioral Responses of Male Lobsters to Ecdysone Metabolites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A molting hormone metabolite of crustecdysone 4,4-dimethylbutyrolactone, 4, and six structurally related compounds were tested for their capacity to elicit behavioral responses, especially sexual responses, in the male lobster (Homarus americanus). Of the...

R. B. Gagosian J. Atema

1973-01-01

243

Beneficial Use of Thermal Effluent in Lobster Culture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Comparative water quality analyses and rearing experiments were conducted to assess benefits and problems in using thermal effluent to culture the American lobster (Homarus americanus) from the egg to market size. Salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conce...

R. F. Ford J. C. Van Olst J. M. Carlberg W. R. Dorband R. L. Johnson

1976-01-01

244

Estimates of Bottom Temperature form Fish Captured in Lobster Traps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Preliminary field experiments have shown that the internal body temperature of fish captured in lobster traps is a reasonable indicator of actual bottom temperature if the internal temperature is measured by insertion of a thermistor through the anal vent...

S. K. Cook R. W. Crist

1979-01-01

245

Initial Development of Artificial Diets for the Lobster, 'Homarus americanus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Growth trials are described for a series of artificial diets designed for the lobster, Homarus americanus. Methods of preparation and ingredients used for each of the manufactured feeds are presented. Details of experimental conditions are provided and re...

D. E. Conklin K. Devers R. A. Shleser

1975-01-01

246

Essentiality of Dietary Phosphatidylcholine for the Survival of Juvenile Lobsters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The inclusion of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a purified diet is essential for the survival of juvenile lobsters. Attempts to substitute this substance with its alkaline hydrolysis products, fatty acids, an emulsifier or other phospholipids (cephalin, phos...

L. R. D'Abramo C. E. Bordner D. E. Conklin N. A. Baum

1981-01-01

247

Relationship between plasma glucose concentrations and Native Hawaiian Ancestry: The Native Hawaiian Health Research Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the relationship between fasting glucose and 2 h glucose with percentage of Hawaiian ancestry and ethnic admixture.Design: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of type 2 diabetes and heart disease risk factor prevalence among Native Hawaiians.Subjects: A total of 578 Native Hawaiians residing in two rural communities were examined between 1993 and 1996. Sample sizes in statistical analyses varied due

A Grandinetti; J Keawe'aimoku Kaholokula; HK Chang; R Chen; BL Rodriguez; JS Melish; JD Curb

2002-01-01

248

Watershed-Scale Comparisons of Algal Biodiversity in High-Quality Proximate Hawaiian Stream Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stream macroalgal floras of two proximate, high-quality stream valleys (Hanakapl'ai and Limahuli) located on the northern quadrant of the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i were inventoried and compared on a watershed scale, providing interesting insight into Hawai'i's potential taxonomic diversity and the influential role played by physical factors in shaping community character­ istics. A total of 26 species of macroalgae

Alison R. Sherwood; Michael H. Kido

2002-01-01

249

Participatory Drug Prevention Research in Rural Hawai`i With Native Hawaiian Middle School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: This paper describes a prevention study focused on the drug use scenarios encountered by Native Hawaiian youth. Priorities from communities on the Big Island of Hawai`i helped to shape the qualitative data collection and analysis of middle school students participating in the study. Methods: Forty-seven youth from five different schools were interviewed in small, gender-specific focus groups during lunch

Susana Helm; Scott K. Okamoto; Howard Medeiros; BA Coralee I. H. Chin; K. Nahe Kawano; MSW LaRisa H. Nebre; BA F. Petelo Sele

2008-01-01

250

A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four\\u000a youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai‘i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups.\\u000a Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior research. A total of 509 responses\\u000a reflecting primary or secondary drug

Scott K. Okamoto; Susana Helm; Danielle Giroux; Alexis Kaliades; Kaycee Nahe Kawano; Stephen Kulis

2010-01-01

251

Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

252

Hawaiian Shield Stage Submarine Volcaniclastics: Insights From HSDP Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean island volcanoes are traditionally associated with the non-explosive eruption of fluid lavas, but volcaniclastic rocks comprise a significant portion of many submarine shield volcanoes. Deep drilling (3,098 m) by the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) into the flank of Mauna Kea volcano has exposed the volcaniclastics within the pedestals of a Hawaiian volcano that were previously poorly known. The HSDP continuously cored 2,019 m of submarine Mauna Kea deposits with ˜95% recovery and revealed that volcaniclastics comprise ˜55% of this section. The shallow submarine section consists of ˜80% volcaniclastics interbedded with thin ( ˜3 m) massive lava flows and the deep section is ˜35% volcaniclastics interbedded with packages of pillow lavas up to 180 m thick. Throughout the submarine section, the volcaniclastics can occur in thick packages up to ˜100 m. The emplacement of submarine volcaniclastics is not well understood. Possible origins include primary fragmentation of lava via magmatic explosivity and magma-water interactions, and secondary fragmentation via erosion. Secondary transport of material down the steep submarine flanks by gravity flows is expected to be common, as is reworking by currents. Emplacement processes are predicted to evolve as the volcano shoals. In this study major element analyses of glassy clasts in the volcaniclastics are used to distinguish monomict and polymict assemblages, which can indicate primary versus secondary fragmentation. Clast shapes reflect fragmentation mechanisms and secondary processes and this study attempts to improve on this approach with quantitative analysis of clast shapes for the HSDP volcaniclastics and for samples of known origin. The first documentation of the textures of the Mauna Kea volcaniclastics, integrated with geochemistry, petrography, and quantitative clast shape analysis and inferences about their origins and modes of transport and deposition will be presented to better understand the shoaling of Hawaiian volcanoes.

Bridges, K. P.; Garcia, M.; Houghton, B.; Thordarson, T.

2003-12-01

253

Hawaiian Hot-Spot Swell Structure from Seafloor MT Sounding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seafloor magnetotelluric (MT) data were collected at seven sites across the Hawaiian hot spot swell, spread approximately evenly between 120 and 800~km southwest of the Hawaiian-Emperor Island chain. All data are consistent with a strike direction of 300o, aligned along the seamount chain, and are well fit using two dimensional (2D) inversion. The major features of the 2D electrical model are a resistive lithosphere underlain by a conductive lower mantle, and a narrow, conductive, `plume' connecting the surface of the islands to the lower mantle. This plume is required; without it the swell bathymetry produces a large divergence of the along-strike and across-strike components of the MT fields not seen in the data. The plume radius appears to be less than 100~km, and its resistivity of around 10~? m, extending to a depth of 150~km, is consistent with a bulk melt fraction of 5-10%. A seismic low velocity region (LVR) observed at depths centered around 60~km and extending 300~km from the islands is not reflected in the resistivity inverse model, which extends the lithospheric resistivities of greater than 100~? m to the edge of the conductive plume. Forward modeling shows that resistivities in the seismic LVR can be lowered at most to 30~? m, suggesting 1% melting or less. A model of subsolidus lithosphere with an off-swell resistivity of >1000~? m (<1300oC) dropping to 100~? m (1450--1500oC) within the seismic LVR fits the MT data adequately and also explains the 5% drop in seismic velocities within the LVR. A possible explanation for the relatively high sub-swell resistivities is that lithospheric underplating from a relatively narrow mantle plume source (?100~km radius) produces a hot asthenosphere depleted in volatiles (in the form of hydrated minerals) due to melt extraction. >http://mahi.ucsd.edu/Steve/projects.html/Swell

Constable, S.; Heinson, G.; White, A.

2001-12-01

254

Unfortunate encounters? Novel interactions of native Mecyclothorax , alien Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile , Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across a Hawaiian landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian Islands support a speciose radiation of native Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). This lineage has undergone a classical island radiation resulting in extensive ecological\\u000a specialization, flight-wing loss, and 100% single-island endemism. We report on the sympatric occurrence of several Mecyclothorax species endemic to Haleakala volcano, East Maui with the newly arrived, adventive Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a tramp species

James K. Liebherr; Paul D. Krushelnycky

2007-01-01

255

Unfortunate encounters? Novel interactions of native Mecyclothorax , alien Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile , Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across a Hawaiian landscape  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian Islands support a speciose radiation of native Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). This lineage has undergone a classical island radiation resulting in extensive ecological\\u000a specialization, flight-wing loss, and 100% single-island endemism. We report on the sympatric occurrence of several Mecyclothorax species endemic to Haleakala volcano, East Maui with the newly arrived, adventive Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a tramp species

James K. Liebherr; Paul D. Krushelnycky

256

Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host-parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens. also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Vandergast, A. G.; Roderick, G. K.

2003-01-01

257

50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION... FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pt. 665, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 665âCarapace Length of Lobsters...

2011-10-01

258

Gaffkemia in the California Spiny Lobster, 'Panulirus interruptus': Infection and Immunization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Infection (gaffkemia) can be induced in the California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) with injections of Pediococcus homari (formerly Gaffkya homari). An LD50 of 1000 microbes per ml hemolymph is observed at 17C. Prior immunization of lobsters (P. ...

H. C. Schapiro J. H. Mathewson J. F. Steenbergen S. Kellog C. Ingram

1973-01-01

259

Displaced helium and carbon in the Hawaiian plume  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High relative abundances of primordial 3He are commonly found in ocean island basalts (OIB) thought to be derived from mantle plumes, and high 3He/4He ratios have been used to distinguish plume-type from non-plume OIBs. In simple plume models, one expects to find the highest 3He/4He ratios in the axial part of the plume conduit, which is sampled during the shield building stage of the volcanoes. However, the actual locus of the highest 3He/4He ratios is sometimes significantly displaced. This is best documented for the Hawaiian plume, where the highest-3He/4He basalts are found on Loihi, a volcano tens of kilometers ahead of the inferred plume center, and 3He/4He ratios decrease systematically toward MORB-type values during the main and late phases of eruption. We propose that this effect is caused by small amounts of carbonatite melt formed in plumes as they rise through the transition zone. If the plume conduit is tilted by plate-driven upper mantle flow, the carbonatite melt infiltrates more vertically due to its low density and viscosity and is thus displaced from the plume center. Helium, if partitioned into the carbonatite melt, will also be displaced from the plume center. To test this model we use a numerical simulation of the Hawaiian plume interacting with the fast-moving Pacific lithosphere. We obtain vertical separation velocities of the carbonatite melt on the order of a meter/year. Consequently, helium and carbon, initially located in the plume center at > 450 km depth, are laterally displaced by 50 to 80 km in the shallow mantle, depending on grain size, porosity and melt production rate. This can explain why the highest 3He/4HE ratios (R/Ra up to 39; R/Ra ? (3He/4He)sample/(3He/4He)atmosphere) occur on pre-shield Loihi, why they decline during the shield phases of Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea and Haleakala, and why post-shield and rejuvenated Hawaiian volcanism delivers only low 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra = 8-10). Our results quantify the potential role of carbonatite liquids in transporting helium in the Hawaiian conduit, and they appear to apply also to other plumes tilted by upper-mantle 'wind'.

Hofmann, Albrecht W.; Farnetani, Cinzia G.; Spiegelman, Marc; Class, Cornelia

2011-12-01

260

Evolutionary diversification and geographical isolation in Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae), a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The Hawaiian silversword alliance (Asteraceae) is one the best examples of a plant adaptive radiation, exhibiting extensive morphological and ecological diversity. No research within this group has addressed the role of geographical isolation, independent of ecological adaptation, in contributing to taxonomic diversity. The aims of this study were to examine genetic differentiation among subspecies of Dubautia laxa (Asteraceae) to determine if allopatric or sympatric populations and subspecies form distinct genetic clusters to understand better the role of geography in diversification within the alliance. Methods Dubautia laxa is a widespread member of the Hawaiian silversword alliance, occurring on four of the five major islands of the Hawaiian archipelago, with four subspecies recognized on the basis of morphological, ecological and geographical variation. Nuclear microsatellites and plastid DNA sequence data were examined. Data were analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic methodologies to identify unique evolutionary lineages. Key Results Plastid DNA sequence data resolved two highly divergent lineages, recognized as the Laxa and Hirsuta groups, that are more similar to other members of the Hawaiian silversword alliance than they are to each other. The Laxa group is basal to the young island species of Dubautia, whereas the Hirsuta group forms a clade with the old island lineages of Dubautia and with Argyroxiphium. The divergence between the plastid groups is supported by Bayesian microsatellite clustering analyses, but the degree of nuclear differentiation is not as great. Clear genetic differentiation is only observed between allopatric populations, both within and among islands. Conclusions These results indicate that geographical separation has aided diversification in D. laxa, whereas ecologically associated morphological differences are not associated with neutral genetic differentiation. This suggests that, despite the stunning ecological adaptation observed, geography has also played an important role in the Hawaiian silversword alliance plant adaptive radiation.

McGlaughlin, Mitchell E.; Friar, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

261

Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber  

PubMed Central

Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

Klompmaker, Adiel A.; Fraaije, Rene H. B.

2012-01-01

262

Pichia lachancei sp. nov., associated with several Hawaiian plant species.  

PubMed

A description is given of Pichia lachancei sp. nov., a new species of yeast that occurs in association with several Hawaiian plant species of the genera Tetraplasandra, Cheirodendron and Clermontia. The new species is heterothallic and occurs in nature in the haploid as well as the diploid state. Upon conjugation of complementary mating types, zygotes are formed that reproduce by budding as diploid cells. When placed on sporulation medium, four hat-shaped spores are produced which are rapidly released from the ascus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that P. lachancei is most closely related to Pichia rhodanensis and Pichia jadinii. The diploid type strain of P. lachancei, isolated from rotting bark of Tetraplasandra hawaiiensis on the island of Hawaii, is strain UCD-FST 79-9T (= ATCC 201914T = CBS 8557T = NRRL Y-27008T). PMID:10425793

Phaff, H J; Starmer, W T; Kurtzman, C P

1999-07-01

263

Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

Work, T. M.; Aeby, G. S.

2013-01-01

264

Three-dimensional Electromagnetic Modeling of the Hawaiian Swell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An anomalous behavior of the geomagnetic deep sounding (GDS) responses at the Honolulu geomagnetic observatory has been reported by many researchers. Kuvshinov et al (2004) found that the predicted GDS Dst C-response does not match the experimental data -- 10-20% disagreement occurs for all periods of 2 to 30 days, qualitatively implying a more resistive, rather than conductive, structure beneath the Hawaiian Islands. Simpson et al. (2000) found that the GDS Sq C-response at the Honolulu observatory is about 4 times larger than that at a Hawaii island site, again suggesting a more resistive (than elsewhere around) structure beneath the observatory. Constable and Heinson (2004, http://mahi.ucsd.edu/Steve/swell.pdf), presenting a 2-D interpretation of the magnetotelluric (MT) and GDS responses recently obtained at 7 seafloor sites to the south of the Hawaii Islands, concluded that the dataset require the presence of a narrow conducting plume just beneath the islands. The main motivation of our work is to reveal the reason of the anomalous behavior of the Honolulu response. Obviously, the cause may be due to heterogeneity of either the conductivity or the source field. We examine this problem in some detail with reference to the Constable and Heinson's seafloor dataset, as well as the available dataset from the Honolulu observatory. To address the problem we apply numerical modeling using the three-dimensional (3-D) forward modeling code of Avdeev et al. (1997, 2002). With this code we simulate various regional 3-D conductivity models that may produce EM responses that better fit the experimental datasets, at least qualitatively. Also, to explain some features of the experimental long-period GDS responses we numerically studied a possible effect in the responses caused by the equatorial electrojet. Our 3-D modeling results show that, in particular: (1) The GDS responses are better explained by models with a resistive lithosphere whereas the MT data are better fit by models without one; (2) A conductive plume under the Hawaiian Islands may not be required by the MT and GDS datasets considered; (3) An equatorial electrojet might affect the imaginary part of the GDS responses at periods of 2 h and more; (4) The anomalous large value of 0.4 observed in the real part of the seafloor GDS responses still cannot be explained by the 3-D models considered. It seems to require more complicated models.

Avdeev, D.; Utada, H.; Kuvshinov, A.; Koyama, T.

2004-12-01

265

Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states  

PubMed Central

Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and L?na‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states.

Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

2012-01-01

266

Long?term trends in the recreational lobster fishery of Florida, United States: Landings, effort, and implications for management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Florida, United States, the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, supports an important commercial fishery and also perhaps the most intensive recreational fishery of any lobster species, with sales of recreational lobster fishing permits exceeding 100 000 annually. For the past decade, we have used mail surveys of recreational lobster license holders to estimate spatially explicit landings and fishing effort

William C. Sharp; Rodney D. Bertelsen; Vernon R. Leeworthy

2005-01-01

267

Volcanic Action in the Sandwich Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN your notice of my book, ``The Hawaiian Archipelago,'' (vol. xi. p. 322), you allude to the statement that volcanic action on the Sandwich Islands ``has died out from west to east.'' It has also died out in a southerly direction, through nearly four degrees of latitude. In the pit of Hale-mau-mau within the crater of Kilauea, on January 30,

Isabella L. Bird

1875-01-01

268

Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities. PMID:21166713

Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

2010-12-16

269

Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i  

PubMed Central

Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.

Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderon, Jose L.

2006-01-01

270

Adversity and Resiliency in the Lives of Native Hawaiian Elders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Native Hawaiians constitute 401,000 or 0.1 percent of the total U.S. population, with approximately 60 percent residing in the state of Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian elders ("na kupuna") face a number of social and health disparities when compared with their non-Native Hawaiian counterparts: higher rates of poverty, greater disability…

Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.

2009-01-01

271

Native Hawaiian Women and the Experience of Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a qualitative inquiry into the experiences of Native Hawaiian women living through and beyond a diagnosis of breast cancer. Native Hawaiian women have increased incidence and mortality breast cancer rates compared with other ethnic groups in Hawaii. Health promotion programs targeted at Native Hawaiians have often failed because of cultural inappropriateness. A lack of knowledge about the

Phyllis Eide

2007-01-01

272

Na Mele o Hawai'i Nei; 101 Hawaiian Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The songs in this collection of Hawaiian traditional and Christmas songs are postmissionary and owe their musical origin to missionary hymns dating from the mid-1850's to 1968. Nearly all are sung often today and are well known to Hawaiian singers. Many have not been translated before. Each song appears in Hawaiian and English, prefaced by brief…

Elbert, Samuel H., Comp.; Mahoe, Noelani, Comp.

273

Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

2010-01-01

274

Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

2010-01-01

275

Fostering Earth Science Inquiry From Within a Native Hawaiian Cultural Framework In O`ahu (Hawai`i) Through A Multidisciplinary Place-Based High School Summer Enrichment Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the summer of 2010, twenty-five public high school students from underrepresented communities and ethnicities (Hawaiian, part-Hawaiian, Samoan, Filipino, Pacific Islander) in O`ahu (Hawai`i) participated in the Malama Ke Ahupua`a (protecting our watershed) program. This rigorous three-week hands-on, place-based multidisciplinary program provided students with the opportunity of visiting the Manoa Valley watershed (O`ahu, Hawaii) for learning and experiencing the Earth

L. Moxey; R. Dias; E. Legaspi

2010-01-01

276

Short- and long-term dietary effects on disease and mortality in American lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

The American lobster Homarus americanus fishery is heavily dependent on the use of fish as bait to entice lobsters into traps. There is concern that this food supplementation is nutritionally insufficient for lobsters, but previous experiments reported conflicting results. We conducted a long-term feeding experiment in which 1 yr old American lobsters were fed one of 7 diets for a period of 352 d, a time that allowed the lobsters to molt thrice. The diets consisted of fresh frozen herring, a 'wild' diet (rock crab, mussel, and Spirulina algae), a formulated artificial diet for shrimp, paired combinations of these 3 diets or a diet formulated at the New England Aquarium (Artemia, fish and krill meal, Spirulina algae, soy lecithin, vitamins and minerals). The lobsters fed the diet of 100% fish had higher initial molting rates, but within the period of this experiment all either contracted shell disease or died. Mixed diets resulted in higher survival and a lower probability of mortality. This research demonstrated a critical time component to diet studies in lobsters. Short- and long-term impacts of diet differ. In the long term, continual high consumption rates of fish by the lobsters promote poor health in all lobsters, not just those of market size. The use of fish as bait may make lobsters more susceptible to the stress associated with environmental fluctuation, thereby leading to increased disease and mortality. This nutritional stress can be used to develop a laboratory model of shell disease in American lobsters. PMID:18380224

Tlusty, Michael F; Myers, Anna; Metzler, Anita

2008-01-24

277

Systematics and position of Nephrops among the lobsters.  

PubMed

This chapter presents and explains the position of Nephrops norvegicus in the classification of lobsters. Covered, in order, are systematic classification of Nephrops, taxonomic history of Nephrops, and analysis of Nephrops in nephropid phylogeny. The genus Nephrops was erected by Leach in 1814 and has a long and interesting taxonomic history. Prior to 1972, Nephrops was known by 14 Recent species. All but one of these, N. norvegicus, were removed to a new genus, Metanephrops, by Jenkins (1972). Today, N. norvegicus is still the only known living representative of the genus. Similarly, Nephrops is known by only one fossil species, the Miocene Nephrops kvistgaardae, although several other fossil species have been previously referred to this genus. Nephrops, along with the other familiar and commercially important marine clawed lobsters, is referred to Family Nephropidae, one of 17 marine clawed lobster families arrayed in 3 infraorders, 6 families each in the Astacidea and Glypheidea and 5 in the Polychelida. Infraorder Astacidea includes the Superfamily Nephropoidea, as well as the lesser known 'reef lobsters' of the Superfamily Enoplometopoidea, and the freshwater crayfish, Superfamily Astacoidea. In phylogenetic analyses, the freshwater crayfish form a sister group to the Nephropoidea. It is interpreted that freshwater crayfish evolved from nephropoid lobsters, but from which lobster group is uncertain. The taxonomic placement of N. norvegicus is stable at all levels, from species on up. Despite that, the phylogenetic relationships of Nephrops to other nephropid genera are unsettled due to conflicting results in morphological and molecular analyses. Currently, new morphological characters and new genes are being analysed in the hope of elucidating nephropid phylogeny. PMID:23668586

Tshudy, Dale

2013-01-01

278

New constraints on the Hawaiian swell origin using wavelet analysis of the geoid to topography ratio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyzing the formation of hotspot swells, including the shallowness around the Hawaiian Islands, is critical for understanding the origin of intraplate volcanism and the underlying geodynamical processes. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: thermal lithospheric thinning, and dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain the two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the depth of the compensating mass; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess swell support mechanisms. According to previous work, the observed GTR has been reported to range from 4 to 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to loading of the volcanic edifices and related lithospheric flexure. In order to resolve these issues, we apply a continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to retrieve lateral variations of the GTR at each spatial scale. A series of synthetic tests based on different geodynamic models clearly indicates that by efficiently filtering the unwanted contributions, our approach is able to estimate the proper GTR of the Hawaiian swell. A high GTR of 8 m/km is recovered on the current hotspot location. Therefore, for the first time, the recovered GTR agrees with realistic geodynamic models of the Hawaiian plume. Accordingly, the thermal rejuvenation model can be ruled out by our analysis. Instead, the swell as a whole is shown to be mainly supported dynamically by the uprising Hawaiian plume. Furthermore, we find that the depth of the compensating mass decays by 20 km over a distance of 500 km from Hawaii to Kauai. Thus, a second mechanism has to be invoked to fully explain the Hawaiian swell formation. One of our synthetic tests including small-scale convection in the center of the plume pancake is able to recover the rate of this decay, but not its full spectral characteristics. Nevertheless, in agreement with seismic evidence for lithospheric thinning along the Hawaiian chain, we propose that additional small-scale convection on the flanks of the pancake can resolve this discrepancy.

Cadio, C.; Ballmer, M.; Panet, I.; Ribe, N.; Diament, M.

2012-04-01

279

Helminth parasites of native Hawaiian freshwater fishes: an example of extreme ecological isolation.  

PubMed

The Hawaiian Islands harbor a depauperate native freshwater fish fauna comprised of 4 endemic gobies (Gobiidae) and 1 endemic sleeper (Eleotridae). We hypothesized that the natural helminth parasite community of these stream fishes would be depauperate because of colonizing constraints. In the absence of exotic fishes, native fishes in streams of Hanakapi'ai and Nu'alolo valleys harbored no adult helminth parasites. In Hakalau Stream on Hawai'i and Wainiha River on Kaua'i, we found introduced swordtails and guppies (Poeciliidae); here, the native gobioid fishes shared species of helminths with poeciliids. They were the nematode Camallanus cotti, the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, and the leech Myzobdella lugubris. Such parasitological data should be incorporated into management plans for the conservation of native Hawaiian stream fishes as these parasites have been previously demonstrated to cause disease. PMID:7931902

Font, W F; Tate, D C

1994-10-01

280

Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)  

SciTech Connect

A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

Ray, J.; White, M.

1981-12-01

281

mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000–500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems.

Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

2002-01-01

282

Plunge Pools in Hawaiian Submarine Canyons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many submarine canyon systems include well-defined intra-canyon depressions. Often, these depressions are found at the base of scarps along the canyon thalweg, with morphologic characteristics similar to subarial plunge pools formed at waterfalls. One plausible mechanism for the origin of these features is scouring during submarine debris flows. Other processes which can plausibly contribute to the formation of re-entrants and depressions in submarine canyons include erosion by spring sapping, slumping, collapse following gas expulsion or subsurface dissolution, and channel damming by mass wasting of canyon walls. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institution conducted ROV dives around the Hawaiian Islands during a spring 2001 expedition of the R/V Western Flyer and ROV Tiburon. Three ROV dives investigated submarine canyons on the north (windward) sides of Molokai and Hawaii that exhibit well-developed intra-canyon depressions. These depressions ranged from 10 m deep and 150 m across to 90 m deep and 750 m across. The headwall scarps ranged from 20 m to 350 m. ROV video observations combined with rock and sediment sampling allowed us to characterize the depressions' detailed morphology, relate the morphology to the underlying geology, and view the genesis of these features in the context of the origin and evolution of the canyon systems as a whole. Our observations support the hypothesis that these intra-canyon depressions, or plunge pools, are formed through scouring during submarine debris flows. In all cases the down-canyon depression sills are dams composed of debris piles, with angular rubble exposed on the depression side and sand covering the down-canyon side. The Molokai plunge pool is draped with mud and silt, suggesting no recent activity. However, the Kohala plunge pools show clear signs of recent scour and no sediment cover. The headwalls above the plunge pools expose layered volcanoclastic and lava flow units, with more resistant layers frequently forming vertical or overhanging walls. We interpret these canyons as being largely formed through retrogressive (headward) erosion and slope failure. Periodic rockfalls and debris flows following undercutting of the headwalls scours the depressions, builds the pool dams, and both lengthens and deepens the canyons. >http://www.mbari.org/education/cruises/Hawaii/

Caress, D. W.; Greene, H. G.; Greene, H. G.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.; Clague, D.; Moore, J. G.; Maher, N. H.

2001-12-01

283

Evolution of Drosophila on the newer Hawaiian volcanoes.  

PubMed

The 20-year odyssey taken by the Hawaiian Drosophila project has recently become focussed on a selected microcosm: this consists of the Island of Hawaii ("the Big Island") and one of its endemic species. Drosophila silvestris. Both the island and the species are considerably less than one million years old. Along with a morphologically distinct, but partially sympatric, close relative, D. heteroneura, silvestris inhabits moderate-altitude rainforests. They are the only members of the planitibia subgroup that occur on this island. The distribution of these species discontinuous due to the dissection of the forests by recent lava flows and to the irregular distribution of their main host plants. Although allozyme heterozygosity within both species is considerable, local populations of both species show high similarity coefficients. The two species are, furthermore, virtually indistinguishable electrophoretically; nevertheless, significant differences in single-copy DNA have been demonstrated. Within silvestris, five inversion polymorphisms are widespread; six others have more restricted distributions. Populations in some of the geologically newer areas are the most polymorphic, both chromosomally and morphologically. Altitudinal clines of gene arrangement frequency are clear in areas on both sides of the island. The same inversions are involved in these clines on the two sides of the island. Males of silvestris from populations from the north and east side of the island ("Hilo-side") display a novel morphological secondary sexual character. This is absent not only from south and west ("Kona-side") silvestris but also from heteroneura and from the three closely related species endemic to older adjacent islands. In view of the phylogenetic novelty of this evolutionary development, Hilo-side silvestris is judged to be derived from Kona-side rather than vice versa. The character in question involves the addition of about 25 large cilia to the dorsal surface of the tibia of the male. This portio of the leg is used in a very specific fashion to stimulate the female's abdomen during the courtship ritual. Studies of sexual behaviour of individuals drawn from various natural and laboratory populations of silvestris and its relatives have been carried out. Hybrid sterility and/or inviability is lacking in crosses both within and between populations of heterneura and silvestra. An interesting regularity has been widely observed; there is a positive correlation between the phylogenetic age of the population and the degree of discrimination by the female sex in mating. When this principle is applied to silvestris populations, the Kona-side populations of Hualalai volcano are judged to be the oldest in the species. As expected, Hilo-side populations with the novel bristle character appear to be newly-derived... PMID:7042651

Carson, H L

1982-02-01

284

Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development  

SciTech Connect

A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

Siegel, S.M.

1980-06-01

285

"I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

2011-01-01

286

Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. ?13C and ?15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather ?15N and ?13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in ?15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in ?15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1,000 years. These data offer rare insight into the long-term fluxuations of seabird foraging habits as well as important information for the conservation of Hawaiian petrels and ultimately, the ecosystems they inhabit.

Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

2010-12-01

287

Resilience, Family Adversity and Well-Being Among Hawaiian and Non-Hawaiian Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Minorities and indigenous peoples are likely to have poor mental health and physical outcomes. This study examines resiliency indicators in Hawaiian adolescents.Aims: Multiple resiliency indicators were examined across different domains including individual, family and community in relation to increased psychological well-being.Methods: Existing data from the Native Hawaiian Mental Health Research Development Program (NHMHRDP) were used. These data included information

Barry S. Carlton; Deborah A. Goebert; Robin H. Miyamoto; Naleen N. Andrade; Earl S. Hishinuma; George K. Makini; Noelle Y. C. Yuen; Cathy K. Bell; Laurie D. Mccubbin; Iwalani R. N. Else; Stephanie T. Nishimura

2006-01-01

288

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase mediated signaling in lobster olfactory receptor neurons  

PubMed Central

In vertebrates and some invertebrates, odorant molecules bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to initiate signal transduction. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity has been implicated physiologically in olfactory signal transduction, suggesting a potential role for a GPCR-activated class I PI3K. Using isoform-specific antibodies, we identified a protein in the olfactory signal transduction compartment of lobster ORNs that is antigenically similar to mammalian PI3K? and cloned a gene for a PI3K with amino acid homology with PI3K?. The lobster olfactory PI3K co-immunoprecipitates with the G protein ? and ? subunits, and an odorant-evoked increase in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate can be detected in the signal transduction compartment of the ORNs. PI3K? and ? isoform-specific inhibitors reduce the odorant-evoked output of lobster ORNs in vivo. Collectively, these findings provide evidence that PI3K is indeed activated by odorant receptors in lobster ORNs and further support the potential involvement of G protein activated PI3K signaling in olfactory transduction.

Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Pezier, Adeline; Ache, Barry W.

2010-01-01

289

Effects of habitat edges on American lobster abundance and survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat edges frequently possess distinct ecological conditions that affect interactions such as competition and predation. Within a species' preferred habitat, the structural complexity and resource availability of adjacent habitats may influence the effect of edges on ecological processes. In nearshore waters of New England, American lobsters (Homarus americanus) inhabit fragmented cobble reefs that often are bordered by unvegetated sediment and

Jennifer C. Selgrath; Kevin A. Hovel; Richard A. Wahle

2007-01-01

290

Lobster Eye X-Ray Imaging Underwater Scatterometer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Lobster Eye X-Ray Imaging Underwater Scatterometer (LEXIUS) being developed by Physical Optics Corporation (POC) is an underwater X-ray imager/scatterometer system for high-quality imaging of mines and other objects buried in seabed sediment. The syst...

M. Gertsenshteyn

2005-01-01

291

Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).  

PubMed

An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 ?mol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented. PMID:22566215

Battison, A L

2012-05-07

292

Lobster-eye x-ray telescopes: recent progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe and discuss the LOBSTER EYE X-ray telescope project including recent results of the development and tests of advanced telescope prototypes. They include both very small (3 × 3 mm) as well as large (300 × 300 mm) Schmidt lenses. Considerations for a space experiment on a small scientific satellite of a Nadezhda type are also discussed.

Hudec, Rene; Inneman, Adolf V.; Pina, Ladislav; Hudcova, V.; Sveda, L.; Ticha, Hana

2003-03-01

293

Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage- clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations

TOSHIO NARAHASHI; JOHN W. MOORE; WILLIAM R. SCOTT

1964-01-01

294

Spectral properties of Hawaiian microearthquakes: source, site, and attenuation effects  

SciTech Connect

Shear-wave spectra were determined for 397 Hawaiian earthquakes located near Kilauea Caldera, and on its south flank, with moments (M/sub 0/) from 10/sup 17.4/ to 10/sup 20.8/ dyne-cm. An inversion of the spectra averaged the path effects, and separated the source spectra from the effects of site response relative to assumed good stations. Large variations in site response explain the station dependence of corner frequencies and magnitude that were seen in earlier studies. The theoretical spectra for the Brune source model, modified by an assumed spectral decay parameter related to near-surface attenuation, were examined. Previous investigators hypothesized that the south flank of Kilauea is moving away from the rest of the island along the old oceanic sediment layer. The author suggests that this layer is divided into a rupture zone defined by the earthquakes at depths of 9 km, and one or two slide zones that allow sliding but not fracture. The smaller, shallower earthquakes may result from stresses in the block above the rupture zone, caused by motion of the block away from the rest of the island. The author speculates that near the rift zones, the old sedimentary layer has been strengthened and made capable of fracture by intrusion of sills into the sediments, or by thermal or hydrothermal alteration of sediments, or both.

Savage, M.K.

1987-01-01

295

Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife  

USGS Publications Warehouse

BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

2006-01-01

296

Effects of habitat, wave exposure, and marine protected area status on coral reef fish assemblages in the Hawaiian archipelago  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationships between fish assemblages, their associated habitat, and degree of protection from fishing were evaluated over a broad spatial scale throughout the main Hawaiian islands. Most fish assemblage characteristics showed positive responses to protection whether it was physical (e.g. habitat complexity), biological (e.g. coral cover growth forms), or human-induced (e.g. marine reserves). Fish biomass was lowest in areas of

A. M. Friedlander; E. K. Brown; P. L. Jokiel; W. R. Smith; K. S. Rodgers

2003-01-01

297

Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

Dalrymple, G. B.; Clague, D. A.

1976-01-01

298

Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust).

B. A. Wiegand; O. A. Chadwick; P. M. Vitousek; J. L. Wooden

2003-01-01

299

Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

2010-02-01

300

Evolution of the Hawaiian Mantle Plume: Shield and Rejuvenescent Magmatism at Middle Bank, the Youngest Sunken Hawaiian Volcano  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Post-shield volcanism provides unique insight into the structure of mantle plumes and the magmatic processes responsible for the evolution of ocean islands. Middle Bank is the closest seamount to the main Hawaiian archipelago, thus providing a perspective into the processes related to the dying phase of a Hawaiian volcano. We conducted a detailed survey of the volcano in 2007 using multibeam sonar coupled with Jason2 ROV imaging and sampling. According to plate tectonic models, Middle Bank volcano should be about 9.6 Ma, if it formed near the present location of Kilauea. Middle Bank is 100 km in diameter and rises nearly 5000 m from base level. Its morphology is dominated by three major rift zones that emanate to the east, west, and south from the beveled summit platform. The rifts are separated by talus fans, and the volcano is surrounded by dozens of satellite cones. Many of the satellite cones are covered by remarkably unsedimented lavas that were erupted in the submarine environment, which we interpret as a rejuvenated stage of volcanism. Most of the sampled rocks are strongly alkaline and range from basanite to hawaiite and trachyte. Samples from two sites are tholeiitic, which is consistent with them forming during the shield stage of volcanism. If so, then most of the late history of volcanism, from shield building to rejuvenated volcanism is preserved at Middle Bank. The alkaline basalts and basanites have La/Sm and La/Yb ratios that are higher than the tholeiites, and all of the rocks are strongly LREE enriched. Major and trace element compositions of hawaiites and trachytes are consistent with large amounts of crystal fractionation, which especially affected magmas erupted on the outer flanks of the volcano. The tholeiites have Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb that suggest that the Middle Bank shield is akin to the modern-day "Kea" trend geochemically. Thus, Middle Bank has preserved the archetypical tholeiitic-shield to alkaline-rejuvenated evolutionary stages that characterize the subaerial Hawaiian volcanoes.

Geist, D.; Garcia, M.; Ito, G.; Harpp, K.; Weis, D.

2008-12-01

301

Trends in birth defects for a Hawaiian population exposed to heptachlor and for the United States.  

PubMed

The 1980-1982 milk supply contamination on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, by the insecticide heptachlor offered an opportunity to investigate the possible human teratogenicity of this organochlorine. An analysis of incidence rates for 23 major congenital malformations, derived from hospital-generated data collected by the Birth Defects Monitoring Program of the Centers for Disease Control, failed to show any remarkable rate increase on Oahu in 1981-1983, based on comparisons with the rates for previous time periods on this island and with the rates for two unexposed populations (the other Hawaiian islands and the total U.S.). A rise in the rates of cardiovascular malformations and hip dislocation was apparent but antedated the exposure. These results suggest that no major rate increase for malformations recognized at birth resulted from the heptachlor contamination on Oahu. However, misclassification of exposure status in this study may have obscured a more moderate effect. PMID:3740952

Le Marchand, L; Kolonel, L N; Siegel, B Z; Dendle, W H

302

Auditory sensitivity of Hawaiian moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and selective predation by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Chiroptera: Lasiurus cinereus semotus).  

PubMed

The islands of Hawai'i offer a unique opportunity for studying the auditory ecology of moths and bats since this habitat has a single species of bat, the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), which exerts the entire predatory selection pressure on the ears of sympatric moths. I compared the moth wings discarded by foraging bats with the number of surviving moths on the island of Kaua'i and concluded that the endemic noctuid Haliophyle euclidias is more heavily preyed upon than similar-sized endemic (e.g. Agrotis diplosticta) and adventive (Agrotis ipsilon and Pseudaletia unipuncta) species. Electrophysiological examinations indicated that, compared with species less preyed upon, H. euclidias has lower auditory sensitivities to the bat's social and echolocation calls, which will result in shorter detection distances of the bat. The poor ears of H. euclidias suggest that this moth coevolved with the bat using non-auditory defences that resulted in auditory degeneration. This moth now suffers higher predation because it is drawn away from its normal habitat by the man-made lights that are exploited by the bat. PMID:11429137

Fullard, J H

2001-07-01

303

Volcanism and archipelagic aprons in the Marquesas and Hawaiian Islands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical observations demonstrate that the archipelagic apron surrounding the Marquesan hot-spot volcanoes is derived almost entirely from mass wasting processes. Seismic reflection and refraction data constrain the volume of the apron sediments to approximately 200,000 km3, with thicknesses reaching over 2 km in the deep portions of the moat near the edge of the volcanic edifice. Seismic velocities average 4

P. E. Filmer; M. K. McNutt; H. F. Webb; D. J. Dixon

1994-01-01

304

Stream Macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands: A Floristic Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 2001 and May 2003, 167 stream segments on the is- lands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Maui, and Hawai'i were sampled for stream macroalgae and measured for a series of physical and chemical conditions. Conditions ranged more widely than previously reported, which is likely due to the greater diversity of habitats accessed and the year-round sampling representation in this study.

Alison R. Sherwood

2006-01-01

305

Transience beyond the catchment: large-scale evolution of the Hawaiian landscape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The systematic progression of ages of the Hawaiian Islands, established subsidence patterns of inactive Hawaiian volcanoes, and strong spatial variability in precipitation rates provide an opportunity to test models of landscape evolution in response to tectonic and climatic forcing. In contrast to studies focusing on channel-scale dynamics, we focus our attention on larger-scale patterns by analyzing elevation and slope versus bedrock age and precipitation rates for the islands as a whole. Elevations and slopes extracted by geologic formation age show that while elevations decrease, slopes systematically increase with the age of the geologic formation, from an average slope of ~8% for bedrock <750 years old to nearly 60% for bedrock 4-6 Ma, despite ongoing subsidence of older islands. This long-lived transience in the landscape evolution provides an important target for numerical models of landscape evolution, such as CHILD. Comparisons of elevations with PRISM precipitation data reveal a complex relationship between surface processes and orographic precipitation. High precipitation rates are correlated with high elevations and steep slopes, likely reflecting the dominance of topography in setting precipitation rates. Low precipitation rates are correlated with high elevations and low slopes, likely indicating lower erosion rates caused by minimal rainfall. An intermediate precipitation rate of 3-4 m/yr is correlated with the lowest elevations and steep slopes, perhaps reflecting ideal conditions for mass movement processes that lower elevation while steepening slopes. We hypothesize that large, steep landslide scarps, known locally as palis, and steep-walled river canyons are significant topographic features that become dominant as the Hawaiian landscape ages.

Riihimaki, C. A.; Gasparini, N. M.

2010-12-01

306

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2010-07-01

307

40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory....

2009-07-01

308

34 CFR 402.1 - What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education Program...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NATIVE HAWAIIAN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAM General § 402.1 What is the Native Hawaiian Vocational Education...

2013-07-01

309

Micronekton abundance and biomass in Hawaiian waters as influenced by seamounts, eddies, and the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micronekton abundance, biomass, and community composition was determined from 58 Cobb trawl samples taken from 2005 to 2008 at several locations in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The results indicated a strong influence of the lunar illumination on micronekton abundance and biomass. This effect was evident in shallow night tows and probably was the result of lunar light affecting the nighttime depths of migrating species. The abundance and biomass of micronekton is remarkably consistent between years and areas in Hawaiian waters after the affects of moon phase are accounted for. Micronekton, principally migratory myctophids, were reduced over the summit of Cross Seamount but not Finch Seamount that has a summit below the daytime depth of most migrators. However, during a new moon, micronekton abundance over Cross seamount was similar to surrounding areas either because of altered migration patterns or because predators such as tunas cannot forage as effectively at night without lunar illumination. Species belonging to the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary layer community were found to vary in presence and abundance between years at Cross Seamount suggesting that a consistent seamount associated fauna does not exist. Sparse sampling of a cyclonic mid-ocean eddy suggested very high micronekton abundance and biomass both in shallow waters at night but also at depth during the day. Although preliminary, these results suggest that eddies may aggregate the micronekton which probably feed on the enhanced secondary productivity.

Drazen, Jeffrey C.; De Forest, Lisa G.; Domokos, Reka

2011-05-01

310

An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.  

PubMed

Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

2013-02-27

311

Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae)  

PubMed Central

The endemic Hawaiian lobeliads are exceptionally species rich and exhibit striking diversity in habitat, growth form, pollination biology and seed dispersal, but their origins and pattern of diversification remain shrouded in mystery. Up to five independent colonizations have been proposed based on morphological differences among extant taxa. We present a molecular phylogeny showing that the Hawaiian lobeliads are the product of one immigration event; that they are the largest plant clade on any single oceanic island or archipelago; that their ancestor arrived roughly 13?Myr ago; and that this ancestor was most likely woody, wind-dispersed, bird-pollinated, and adapted to open habitats at mid-elevations. Invasion of closed tropical forests is associated with evolution of fleshy fruits. Limited dispersal of such fruits in wet-forest understoreys appears to have accelerated speciation and led to a series of parallel adaptive radiations in Cyanea, with most species restricted to single islands. Consistency of Cyanea diversity across all tall islands except Hawai `i suggests that diversification of Cyanea saturates in less than 1.5?Myr. Lobeliad diversity appears to reflect a hierarchical adaptive radiation in habitat, then elevation and flower-tube length, and provides important insights into the pattern and tempo of diversification in a species-rich clade of tropical plants.

Givnish, Thomas J.; Millam, Kendra C.; Mast, Austin R.; Paterson, Thomas B.; Theim, Terra J.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Henss, Jillian M.; Smith, James F.; Wood, Kenneth R.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

2008-01-01

312

Amphitheater-Headed Valleys: Unique or Non-Unique Origin? The Hawaiian Laboratory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the formation and migration of amphitheaters (knickpoints) in unconsolidated sediment is fairly well understood the same cannot be said for amphitheaters formed in a variety of bedrock types, climate settings, and even planetary location. The question remains, is there a single knickpoint forming process at work or do multiple landscape forming processes have a convergence tendency because of cybernetic feedback? A simple example would be a waterfall creating a micro-environment that enhances and focuses specific landscape forming processes like weathering, microbial action, and vegetation growth aiding in the continuation of the knickpoint form. It should be noted that weathering, microbial growth and vegetation growth would have cybernetic feedback among them. In fact it may be difficult to determine the controlling process, if any. If one considers that knickpoints likely intercept the regional groundwater flow system there is an additional focused source of water supply which further contributes to the micro-environment of the knickpoint. Groundwater discharge has significant cybernetic feedbacks with landscape forming processes. The nature and composition of the bedrock and climatic factors may determine rates of knickpoint migration but the resulting morphologic features in different settings would likely be similar with cybernetic feedback. It should be noted that cybernetic feedback can either be damping or amplifying. Amphitheater-headed valleys have developed in many locations on the Hawaiian Islands. The islands have formed in a time sequence as the supporting oceanic plate moves over a focused mantle source for the basalts. The amphitheaters of Hawaii occur in "fresh" and "older" basaltic rock depending on island location. Weathering processes have acted longer on some islands. Because of the topography and its affect on trade winds the main islands have focused rainfall, significant recharge, and active groundwater flow systems. While climate is uniform overall, the wet and dry sides of the islands coupled with topography represent multiple climatic zones. This affords the opportunity to use the Hawaiian Islands as a laboratory to study the cybernetic feedbacks among knickpoint forming processes. Feedback examples will be presented for several Hawaiian knickpoints.

Pederson, D. T.; Blay, C.

2007-12-01

313

A vessel?deployed passive postlarval collector to assess settlement of the American lobster Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive collectors are used widely in postlarval settlement and recruitment monitoring of spiny lobsters and crabs, but they have only been used in a limited way with clawed lobsters. For nearly two decades, diver?based suction sampling has served to monitor spatial?temporal patterns of American lobster (Homarus americanus) postlarval settlement and early juvenile abundance in shallow near?shore nurseries. Collectors could reveal

Richard A. Wahle; Carl Wilson; Matthew Parkhurst; Charlene E. Bergeron

2009-01-01

314

Staring\\/focusing lobster-eye hard x-ray imaging for non-astronomical objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to hard X-ray imaging is proposed, based on staring optics consisting of a lobster-eye lens. This new Staring Imaging Lobster-Eye X-Ray approach is especially suited to X-ray lobster-eye imaging of non-astronomical objects at finite distances, because the staring optics replacing the standard scanning optics, result in an extremely efficient power budget, making possible not only the use

Michael Gertsenshteyn; Tomasz Jannson; Gajendra Savant

2005-01-01

315

Platinum-Group Element Variations in Hawaiian Lavas: Constraints on the Role of Sulfides during Melt Generation and Fractional Crystallization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Platinum-group elements (PGE) are highly compatible in mantle and magmatic sulfides, with sulfide melt/silicate melt partition coefficients typically on the order of 104 or higher. PGE abundances in basaltic melts are therefore very sensitive to the presence or absence of residual sulfides during melt generation and the fractionation of magmatic sulfides during crystallization. PGE abundances (Ir, Os, Ru, Pt, Pd) were measured in lavas from Mauna Kea and Koolau volcanoes, Hawaiian Islands to constrain the abundance of residual sulfide in the Hawaiian plume during melt generation as well as the role of sulfide fractionation during melt evolution. Iridium, Os, and Ru are positively correlated with MgO content in lavas ranging from ˜6-28 wt.% MgO. Bulk partition coefficients during fractional crystallization range from ˜4 (Ir) to ˜7 (Os). The compatible behavior of Ir, Os and Ru in Hawaiian melts likely reflects the high compatibility of these elements in Cr-spinel, which coprecipitates with olivine in most Hawaiian lavas. In contrast, no significant trend is observed in Pt or Pd abundances with MgO content, indicating bulk partition coefficients for these elements of ˜1. Pt and Pd are predicted to be incompatible in Cr-spinels, but are highly compatible in magmatic sulfides (Dsulfide/silicate = 4.5x104) . The low bulk partition coefficients for Pt and Pd in the Koolau and Mauna Kea lavas indicate that sulfide segregation was insignificant during fractional crystallization, even in lavas that have experienced up to 25% olivine fractionation. Lack of sulfide saturation/segregation could reflect sulfur degassing in shallow magma chambers. However, deep submarine lavas from the HSDP-2 Mauna Kea drillcore display similar PGE trends. Therefore, it is likely that primary Hawaiian magmas (with ˜15-16 wt.% MgO) are at least ˜20-25% sulfur undersaturated when they reach crustal levels. If the source of Hawaiian lavas contains residual sulfide, primary Hawaiian melts should be sulfur-saturated at their depth of origin. However, because sulfur solubility increases with decreasing pressure, sulfur-saturated melts generated at depth become undersaturated as they rise, provided they do not reequilibrate with sulfide-bearing mantle during ascent. Sulfur undersaturation in primary Hawaiian lavas thus precludes significant interaction with the oceanic lithosphere during magma ascent. Bulk partition coefficients for the PGEs during melt generation are constrained from the PGE abundances in primitive Hawaiian lavas assuming primitive mantle abundances in the Hawaiian plume. Bulk partition coefficients during melt generation are higher than those for fractional crystallization, ranging from ˜3.5 (Pt) to 14 (Ir). Significantly, MgO-Ir, -Ru, and -Os trends are identical in the Koolau and Mauna Kea lavas, suggesting similar PGE and sulfide abundances in the sources of these two suites. Based on available sulfide/basalt PGE partition data, the bulk partition coefficients for melt generation are consistent with no more than ˜100-150 ppm residual sulfide ( ˜30-50 ppm sulfur) in the Hawaiian plume. If primary Hawaiian melts are generated by ˜5% partial melting and contain ˜1000 ppm sulfur, this suggests a sulfur content in the plume prior to melting of ˜100 ppm, significantly less than the sulfur content of primitive mantle. Low sulfur abundances in the plume may reflect the presence of significant quantities of recycled oceanic crust and lithospheric mantle that have had volatile species removed during subduction-induced dehydration.

Lassiter, J. C.

2003-12-01

316

Bait and the susceptibility of American lobsters Homarus americanus to epizootic shell disease.  

PubMed

Shell disease (SD) has been observed in lobster populations for almost a hundred years, but recently, rates of an epizootic form of shell disease (ESD) have increased in the southern New England (USA) area. A large proportion of fish in the diet of American lobsters Homarus americanus has been linked to increased rates of SD. Therefore, the use of fish as lobster bait may be linked to increased ESD rates in lobsters. Lobsters from the western portion of Martha's Vineyard, MA (41 degrees N, 71 degrees W), were randomly divided into 3 groups of 16 and exposed to dietary treatments (100% herring; 48% crab, 48% blue mussel and 4% plant matter; or 50% herring, 24% crab, 24% mussel, 2% plant matter) to determine if lobster tissue delta15N levels reflected diet. The results of the feeding experiment confirmed that differences in diet are observed in the delta15N levels of lobster muscle tissue. The delta15N levels of tissue samples from 175 wild lobsters with varying degrees of ESD were unrelated to ESD severity but did indicate lobsters were eating large amounts of fish (bait). This result does not support the speculation that fish used as bait is contributing to ESD outbreaks in portions of the southern New England area. PMID:21797030

Bethoney, N David; Stokesbury, Kevin D E; Stevens, Bradley G; Altabet, Mark A

2011-05-24

317

Effect of natural and laboratory diet on O : N ratio in juvenile lobsters (Homarus americanus).  

PubMed

Oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates of juvenile lobsters spanning the size range from shelter-restricted to vagile (7-60 mm CL, carapace length) were measured. There are no significant size-dependent break points in the slope of oxygen consumption or nitrogen excretion rates versus weight in freshly caught wild or laboratory fed lobsters. This suggests that there are no inherent changes in energy metabolism in juvenile lobster in the 7-60 mm CL range (stage V to adolescent lobsters), despite major behavioral shifts related to foraging and shelter use. In addition, the O : N ratio of freshly caught wild lobsters (15.7+/-7.4, mean+/-S.D.) is not significantly different from that of lobsters fed brown algae (13.4+/-4.9) or a mixed carbohydrate/protein diet (13.7+/-6.8) in lab. The O : N ratio of wild lobsters is significantly higher than lobsters fed a high protein diet (7.5+/-2.5) in the lab. This suggests that carbohydrates, particularly algal-derived carbohydrates, make up a significant portion of the metabolic fuel of wild juvenile lobsters from settlement through adolescence. PMID:16549378

Brown, Anne Christine

2006-03-06

318

Temperature and acid-base balance in the American lobster Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Lobsters (Homarus americanus) in the wild inhabit ocean waters where temperature can vary over a broad range (0-25 degrees C). To examine how environmental thermal variability might affect lobster physiology, we examine the effects of temperature and thermal change on the acid-base status of the lobster hemolymph. Total CO(2), pH, P(CO)2 and HCO(-)(3) were measured in hemolymph sampled from lobsters acclimated to temperature in the laboratory as well as from lobsters acclimated to seasonal temperatures in the wild. Our results demonstrate that the change in hemolymph pH as a function of temperature follows the rule of constant relative alkalinity in lobsters acclimated to temperature over a period of weeks. However, thermal change can alter lobster acid-base status over a time course of minutes. Acute increases in temperature trigger a respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis of the hemolymph. Both the strength and frequency of the lobster heartbeat in vitro are modulated by changes in pH within the physiological range measured in vivo. These observations suggest that changes in acid-base status triggered by thermal variations in the environment might modulate lobster cardiac performance in vivo. PMID:17371923

Qadri, Syed Aman; Camacho, Joseph; Wang, Hongkun; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Worden, Mary Kate

2007-04-01

319

Petrogenesis of Hawaiian tholeiites: 1, phase equilibria constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most magnesian olivine phenocrysts [Mg no.=100 Mg\\/(Mg+Fe)=90.5] in Hawaiian tholeiites provide evidence for the earliest stages of differentiation of Hawaiian magmas. Based on the correction of olivine fractionation effects, the primitive melt compositions which have crystallised these olivines are picritic with ˜16 wt% MgO. They are excellent primary-melt candidates. An experimental study on a new Hawaiian picritic primary-melt estimate

S. M. Eggins

1992-01-01

320

Tropical Islands as Paleoecological Laboratories: Gauging the Consequences of Human Arrival  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inter-island paleoecological comparisons have provided useful information concerning the role of humans vs. background-level disturbance in tropical ecosystems. Major ecological changes have occurred since human arrival in Madagascar, the West Indies, the Hawaiian Islands, and elsewhere. Prehuman vegetation changes and disturbances have also been documented for many islands. Instructive inter-island similarities and differences have been detected in the chronology, distribution,

David A. Burney

1997-01-01

321

High genetic diversity in a remote island population system: sans sex.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that long-distance dispersal of mosses to the Hawaiian Islands rarely occurs and that the Hawaiian population of the allopolyploid peat moss Sphagnum palustre probably resulted from a single dispersal event. Here, we used microsatellites to investigate whether the Hawaiian population of the dioicous S. palustre had a single founder and to compare its genetic diversity to that found in populations of S. palustre in other regions. The genetic diversity of the Hawaiian population is comparable to that of larger population systems. Several lines of evidence, including a lack of sporophytes and an apparently restricted natural distribution, suggest that sexual reproduction is absent in the Hawaiian plants. In addition, all samples of Hawaiian S. palustre share a genetic trait rare in other populations. Time to most recent ancestor (TMRCA) analysis indicates that the Hawaiian population was probably founded 49-51 kyr ago. It appears that all Hawaiian plants of S. palustre descend from a single founder via vegetative propagation. The long-term viability of this clonal population coupled with the development of significant genetic diversity suggests that vegetative propagation in a moss does not necessarily preclude evolutionary success in the long term. PMID:22188609

Karlin, Eric F; Hotchkiss, Sara C; Boles, Sandra B; Stenøien, Hans K; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell I; Shaw, A Jonathan

2011-12-21

322

Deep under the sea: unraveling the evolutionary history of the deep-sea squat lobster Paramunida (Decapoda, Munididae).  

PubMed

The diversification of Indo-Pacific marine fauna has long captivated the attention of evolutionary biologists. Previous studies have mainly focused on coral reef or shallow water-associated taxa. Here, we present the first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history--phylogeny, diversification, and biogeography--of a deep-water lineage. We sequenced the molecular markers 16S, COI, ND1, 18S, and 28S for nearly 80% of the nominal species of the squat lobster genus Paramunida. Analyses of the molecular phylogeny revealed an accelerated diversification in the late Oligocene-Miocene followed by a slowdown in the rate of lineage accumulation over time. A parametric biogeographical reconstruction showed the importance of the southwest Pacific area, specifically the island arc of Fiji, Tonga, Vanuatu, Wallis, and Futuna, for diversification of squat lobsters, probably associated with the global warming, high tectonic activity, and changes in oceanic currents that took place in this region during the Oligocene-Miocene period. These results add strong evidence to the hypothesis that the Neogene was a period of major diversification for marine organisms in both shallow and deep waters. PMID:22671553

Cabezas, Patricia; Sanmartín, Isabel; Paulay, Gustav; Macpherson, Enrique; Machordom, Annie

2012-03-04

323

50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

2012-10-01

324

50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section...limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish in any...

2011-10-01

325

Gross dissection of the stomach of the lobster, Homarus Americanus.  

PubMed

The stomach of the American lobster (Homarus americanus) is located in the cephalothorax, between the rostrum and the cervical groove. The anterior end of the stomach is defined by the mouth opening and the posterior end by the bottom of the pylorus. Along the dorsal side of the stomach lies the stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). This nervous system, which contains rhythmic networks that underlie feeding behavior, is an established model system for studying rhythm generating networks and neuromodulation. While it is possible to study this system in vivo, the STNS continues to produce its rhythmic activity when isolated in vitro. In order to study this system in vitro the stomach must be removed from the animal. This video article describes how the stomach can be dissected from the American lobster. In an accompanying video article(4) we demonstrate how the STNS can be isolated from the stomach. PMID:19506546

Bierman, Hilary S; Tobin, Anne-Elise

2009-05-22

326

Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds.

Hatfield, Jeff S.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Seavy, Nathaniel E.; Krause, Crystal M.

2012-01-01

327

Stereoselective detection of amino acids by lobster olfactory receptor neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Biochemical and electrophysiological assays were used to test the hypothesis that the olfactory system of the Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, contains populations of chemosensory receptors that are differentially sensitive to the L- and D-stereoisomers of the amino acid alanine.2.Independent binding sites for L-alanine (dissociation constant (Kd) of 6.6 µM and maximum binding (Bmax) of 16.8 fmole\\/µg protein) and for

W. C. Michel; H. G. Trapido-Rosenthal; E. T. Chao; M. Wachowiak

1993-01-01

328

A parasitic scuticociliate infection in the Norway lobster ( Nephrops norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A histophagous ciliate infection was discovered in a number of Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) from the Clyde Sea Area, Scotland. Silver-carbonate staining of cultured ciliates revealed an oral apparatus and additional structural features that are morphologically similar to scuticociliates in the genus Mesanophrys, which are known to parasitize crustaceans. However, ribosomal DNA sequences (ITS1\\/5.8S\\/ITS2) of the ciliate were identical to

H. J. Small; D. M. Neil; A. C. Taylor; K. Bateman; G. H. Coombs

2005-01-01

329

THE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF LOBSTER NEUROMUSCULAR SYNAPSES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of drugs on resting potential, membrane resistance, and excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.'s and i.p.s.p.'s) of lobster muscle fibers were studied using intracellular microelectrodes Acetylcholine, d-tubocurarine, strychnine, and other drugs of respectively related actions on vertebrate synapses were without effects even in 1 per cent solutions (10 -2 w\\/v). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) acted powerfully and nearly maximally at

H. Grundfest; J. P. REUBEN; W. H. RICKLES

1959-01-01

330

Antioxidant activity of Hawaiian marine algae.  

PubMed

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer. PMID:22412808

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J; Tabandera, Nicole K; Wright, Patrick R; Wright, Anthony D

2012-02-15

331

Antioxidant Activity of Hawaiian Marine Algae  

PubMed Central

Marine algae are known to contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds, many of which have commercial applications in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. Natural antioxidants, found in many algae, are important bioactive compounds that play an important role against various diseases and ageing processes through protection of cells from oxidative damage. In this respect, relatively little is known about the bioactivity of Hawaiian algae that could be a potential natural source of such antioxidants. The total antioxidant activity of organic extracts of 37 algal samples, comprising of 30 species of Hawaiian algae from 27 different genera was determined. The activity was determined by employing the FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) assays. Of the algae tested, the extract of Turbinaria ornata was found to be the most active. Bioassay-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of a variety of different carotenoids as the active principles. The major bioactive antioxidant compound was identified as the carotenoid fucoxanthin. These results show, for the first time, that numerous Hawaiian algae exhibit significant antioxidant activity, a property that could lead to their application in one of many useful healthcare or related products as well as in chemoprevention of a variety of diseases including cancer.

Kelman, Dovi; Posner, Ellen Kromkowski; McDermid, Karla J.; Tabandera, Nicole K.; Wright, Patrick R.; Wright, Anthony D.

2012-01-01

332

The Spectral Sensitivity of Crayfish and Lobster Vision  

PubMed Central

(1) The spectral sensitivity function for the compound eye of the crayfish has been determined by recording the retinal action potentials elicited by monochromatic stimuli. Its peak lies at approximately 570 mµ. (2) Similar measurements made on lobster eyes yield functions with maxima in the region of 520 to 525 mµ, which agree well with the absorption spectrum of lobster rhodopsin if minor allowances are made for distortion by known screening pigments. (3) The crayfish sensitivity function, since it is unaffected by selective monochromatic light adaptation, must be determined by a single photosensitive pigment. The absorption maximum of this pigment may be inferred with reasonable accuracy from the sensitivity data. (4) The visual pigment of the crayfish thus has its maximum absorption displaced by 50 to 60 mµ towards the red end of the spectrum from that of the lobster and other marine crustacea. This shift parallels that found in both rod and cone pigments between fresh water and marine vertebrates. In the crayfish, however, an altered protein is responsible for the shift and not a new carotenoid chromophore as in the vertebrates. (5) The existence of this situation in a new group of animals (with photoreceptors which have been evolved independently from those of vertebrates) strengthens the view that there may be strong selection for long wavelength visual sensitivity in fresh water.

Kennedy, Donald; Bruno, Merle S.

1961-01-01

333

Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

2012-01-01

334

Biomimetic robot lobster performs chemo-orientation in turbulence using a pair of spatially separated sensors: Progress and challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lobsters are capable of tracking turbulent plumes to their sources faster than can be accomplished by estimating a spatial gradient from time-averaging the concentration signal. We have used RoboLobster, a biomimetic robot lobster to investigate biologically scaled chemotaxis algorithms using two point concentration sampling to track a statistically characterized turbulent plume. Our results identify the range of effectiveness of these

Frank W. Grasso; Thomas R. Consi; Jelle Atema

2000-01-01

335

Contrasting phylogeography in three endemic Hawaiian limpets (Cellana spp.) with similar life histories.  

PubMed

The marine environment offers few obvious barriers to dispersal for broadcast-spawning species, yet population genetic structure can occur on a scale much smaller than the theoretical limits of larval dispersal. Comparative phylogeographical studies of sympatric sister species can illuminate how differences in life history, behaviour, and habitat affinity influence population partitioning. Here we use a mitochondrial DNA marker (612 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) to investigate population structure of three endemic Hawaiian broadcast-spawning limpets (Cellana spp.) with planktonic larvae that are competent to settle within 4 days. All three species exhibit significant population structure and isolation by distance, but the spatial scales of partitioning differ among the species. Cellana talcosa (n = 105) exhibits strong population structure between Kauai and the other main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) where the maximum channel width is 117 km, and no shared haplotypes were observed (Phi(CT) = 0.30, P < 0.001). In contrast, populations of Cellana exarata (n = 149) and Cellana sandwicensis (n = 109) exhibit weaker population structure within the MHI (Phi(ST) = 0.03-0.04, P < 0.05), and between the MHI and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Phi(ST) = 0.03-0.09, P < 0.01), where the maximum channel width is 260 km. Biogeographical range and microhabitat use were correlated with estimates of dispersal, while phylogenetic affiliation and minimum pelagic larval duration were poor predictors of population partitioning. Despite similar life histories, these closely related limpets have contrasting patterns of population structure, illustrating the danger of relying on model species in management initiatives to predict population structure and dispersal in the context of marine protected area delineation. PMID:17651195

Bird, Christopher E; Holland, Brenden S; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J

2007-08-01

336

Patterns of Coral Disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating Disease to Environment  

PubMed Central

In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing a negative association, but no significant explanatory power was offered for PorTLS.

Aeby, Greta S.; Williams, Gareth J.; Franklin, Erik C.; Kenyon, Jean; Cox, Evelyn F.; Coles, Steve; Work, Thierry M.

2011-01-01

337

Restoration of movement patterns of the Hawaiian Goose  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used visual observations of banded individuals and satellite telemetry from 2007 to 2011 on Hawai?i Island to document movement patterns of the Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandvicensis), commonly known as Nene. Visual observations of numbered leg bands identified >19% and ?10% of 323 geese at one of two breeding sites and one of two distant non-breeding areas during 2007-2011. We used satellite telemetry to document movement patterns of 10 male Nene from 2009 to 2011, and log-linear models to quantify the magnitude and individual differences in altitudinal migration. Two subpopulations of Nene moved 974.4 m (95% CI ± 22.0) and 226.4 m (95% CI ± 40.7) in elevation between seasons on average, from high-elevation shrublands during the non-breeding season of May-August, to lower-elevation breeding and molting areas in September-April. Traditional movement patterns were thought to be lost until recently, but the movement pattern we documented with satellite telemetry was similar to altitudinal migration described by early naturalists in Hawai?i prior to the severe population decline of Nene in the 20th century.

Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Jeffrey, John J.

2012-01-01

338

Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The

B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

2003-01-01

339

The substrate preference and burrowing behaviour of juvenile lobsters (Homarus gammarus (L.))  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information is sparse on the ecology of the larval and juvenile stages of the lobster (Homarus gammarus (L.)). A knowledge of the distribution and particularly the abundance of this species is vital for the development of stock-recruitment theory. Attempts were therefore made to determine the distribution of juvenile lobsters in the field by Scuba diving and the fishing of small

A. E. Howard; D. B. Bennett

1979-01-01

340

Quality Evaluation of American Lobsters Fed Diets Containing Crab Processing Waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of incorporating wet crab processing waste (CW) into pelleted feeds on (1) weight gain; (2) shell strength; (3) sensory quality; and (4) proximate composition of American lobsters. Soft shell lobsters were fed one of three pelleted diets (0%, 20% or 40% CW) or a cod rack control (industry standard diet)

Denise I. Skonberg; Darrell W. Donahue; Robert C. Bayer; Eric Floreto; John G. Riley

2001-01-01

341

Use of Avoidance Responses to Keep Spider Crabs Out of Traps for American Lobsters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spider crabs Libinia spp. are a problem when caught in lobster traps because they have no market value, consume bait, occupy space in the trap, and increase trap-processing time. We conducted fishing experiments in which freshly crushed spider crabs were added to the bait in lobster traps. This treatment significantly reduced the catch of spider crabs compared to traps which

R. Anne Richards; J. Stanley Cobb

1987-01-01

342

Circadian rhythms of heart rate in freely moving and restrained American lobsters, Homarus americanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

While circadian rhythms of locomotion have been reported in the American lobster, Homarus americanus, it is unclear whether heart rate is also modulated on a circadian basis. To address this issue, both heart rate and locomotor activity were continuously monitored in light-dark (LD) cycles and constant darkness (DD). Lobsters in running wheels exhibited significant nocturnal increases in locomotor activity and

Christopher C. Chabot; Laura K. Webb

2008-01-01

343

Population Assessment of the Pacific Green Spiny Lobster Panulirus gracilis in Pacific Panama  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Populations of the green spiny lobster Panulirus gracilis (Streets 1871) have sustained increasing harvesting pressure in Pacific Panama for decades, but basic information about their biology and ecology in the region is scarce. This study provides baseline data for the densities and biometrics of P. gracilis in Las Perlas and Coiba Archipelagos. The number,of surveyed lobsters in both archipelagos

Hector M. Guzman; Roberto Cipriani; Angel J. Vega; Melina Lopez; James M. Mair

2008-01-01

344

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits...Management Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits...if such fishing is conducted in such waters in accordance with all other...

2012-10-01

345

50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits...Management Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits...if such fishing is conducted in such waters in accordance with all other...

2011-10-01

346

33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section... § 100.111 Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. (a) Regulated area...the right to delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2010-07-01

347

33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section... § 100.111 Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. (a) Regulated area...the right to delay, modify, or cancel the race as conditions or circumstances...

2009-07-01

348

Isolation and Purification of the Molting Hormones from the American Lobster (Homarus americanus).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed procedure for the isolation of molting hormones from a lobster is described. Ecdysterone has been isolated from postmolt adult female lobsters. This molting hormone by itself, or in combination with other ecdysones, plays a major role in the mo...

R. B. Gagosian R. A. Bourbonniere

1974-01-01

349

Recruitment Habitats and Nursery Grounds of the American Lobster Homarus Americanus: A Demographic Bottleneck?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified benthic recruitment habitats and nursery grounds of the American lobster Homarus americanus Milne Edwards in the coastal Gulf of Maine, USA, by systematically censusing subtidal sediment, cobble, and ledge substrata. We distinguish lobsters between settlement size (5 mm carapace length (CL) to ca 40 mm CL as the 'early benthic phase' (EBP) because they are ecologically and

Richard Wahle; Robert Steneck

1991-01-01

350

Molecular phylogeny and adaptive radiation of the endemic Hawaiian Plantago species (Plantaginaceae).  

PubMed

Insular oceanic islands provide excellent opportunities for the study of evolutionary processes and adaptive radiation. The Hawaiian Plantago radiation comprises six endemic taxa showing considerable inter- and intraspecific morphological and ecological diversity. The rDNA internal (ITS) and external (ETS) transcribed spacers and two recently described chloroplast spacers, ndhF-rpl32 and rpl32-trnL, were sequenced to study phylogenetic relationships within this morphologically complex group. Phylogenetic analysis provided strong evidence for the monophyly of Hawaiian Plantago, suggesting that the lineage arose from a single long-distance dispersal event. Inconsistencies between nuclear and chloroplast phylogenies suggest a history of hybridization. The basal, unresolved dichotomy of the combined phylogeny is consistent with rapid phenotypic diversification of the major lineages early in the history of this group. Speciation has largely occurred allopatrically, with divergence a result of intraisland ecological shifts between bog and woodland habitats and interisland dispersal events. Most interisland colonizations were from older to younger islands with initial colonization of Kaua'i. In our analysis, P. pachyphylla is paraphyletic and taxonomic separation of the distinct morphotypes of this species appears justified. Furthermore, the apparent hybrid ancestry and unique morphology and habitat of the endangered P. princeps var. longibracteata support its recognition at the specific rank. PMID:21632435

Dunbar-Co, Stephanie; Wieczorek, Ania M; Morden, Clifford W

2008-09-01

351

Evaluation of relationships within the endemic Hawaiian Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence.  

PubMed

Relationships among 69 species of Hawaiian Platynini, a monophyletic beetle radiation, was investigated based on evidence from five data partitions, comprising mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (cytochrome oxidase II, 624 bp; cytochrome b, 783 bp; 28S rDNA, 668 bp; wingless; 441 bp) and morphology (206 features of external and internal anatomy). Results from individual and combined data analyses generally support the monophyly of three putative divisions within Platynini in Hawaii: Division 0 (Colpocaccus species group), Division 1 (Blackburnia species group), and Division 2 (Metromenus species group). However, relationships within and among these three divisions differ from previous morphological hypotheses. An extensive series of sensitivity analyses was performed to assess robustness of recovered clades under a variety of weighted parsimony conditions. Sensitivity analyses support the monophyly of Divisions 0 and 1, but were equivocal for the monophyly of Division 2. A phylogeny based on combined data suggests at least four independent losses/reductions of platynine flight wings. The combined analysis provides corroboration for biogeographic hypotheses, including (1) colonization of Kauai by Hawaiian Platynini with subsequent dispersal and colonization along the island chain from Oahu to Maui Nui to Hawaii Island and (2) incongruent area relationships among Eastern Molokai, West Maui, and Haleakala for two species triplets. PMID:11603938

Cryan, J R; Liebherr, J K; Fetzner, J W; Whiting, M F

2001-10-01

352

Age and rate of diversification of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae)  

PubMed Central

Comparisons between insular and continental radiations have been hindered by a lack of reliable estimates of absolute diversification rates in island lineages. We took advantage of rate-constant rDNA sequence evolution and an “external” calibration using paleoclimatic and fossil data to determine the maximum age and minimum diversification rate of the Hawaiian silversword alliance (Compositae), a textbook example of insular adaptive radiation in plants. Our maximum-age estimate of 5.2 ± 0.8 million years ago for the most recent common ancestor of the silversword alliance is much younger than ages calculated by other means for the Hawaiian drosophilids, lobelioids, and honeycreepers and falls approximately within the history of the modern high islands (?5.1 ± 0.2 million years ago). By using a statistically efficient estimator that reduces error variance by incorporating clock-based estimates of divergence times, a minimum diversification rate for the silversword alliance was estimated to be 0.56 ± 0.17 species per million years. This exceeds average rates of more ancient continental radiations and is comparable to peak rates in taxa with sufficiently rich fossil records that changes in diversification rate can be reconstructed.

Baldwin, Bruce G.; Sanderson, Michael J.

1998-01-01

353

Sources of Solutes in Hawaiian Stream Waters and Their Spatial Variability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanical denudation rates of mountainous islands in the tropics are much higher than the global average. This is largely due to high rainfall, steep slopes and elevated temperatures. Basaltic terranes have higher chemical denudation rates than other crystalline areas (e.g. Dessert et al., 2003). Studies of river geochemistry in the tropics are severly hampered by a lack of chemistry and runoff data. In order to circumvent this problem, we are investigating methods of using variables related to topography, vegetation type, bedrock geology and precipitation to estimate the rates of chemical denudation of tropical basalt terranes. The islands of Hawai'i (less than 150 kyr) and Kaua'i (av. age ~4 Myr) represent the extremes in bedrock age, topographic development and soil maturity on the Hawaiian islands. Samples were collected from nearly thirty streams and rivers on Hawai'i and Kaua'i and from 11 groundwater wells on Hawai'i. All samples were analyzed for major elements and are being analyzed for DIC ?13C and Sr isotopes. Preliminary results show that the TDS (mg/L) is high compared to major world rivers, i.e. (62 ± 30) mg/L on Hawai'i and (92 ± 33) mg/L on Kaua'i. Solutes in streams derive from both weathering and precipitation inputs and the rain signal must be removed before making inferences about chemical denudation. We need better constraints on Hawaiian rain chemistry but make the general assumption that [X]/[Cl] in rain is identical to seawater. After correcting for input of recycled marine aerosols, we find the weathering contribution to the dissolved load to be higher on Hawai'i than on Kaua'i. On both islands, most of stream Na is supplied by rain and most of stream Ca comes from weathering. On Kaua'i all stream sulfate is derived from precipitation while approximately half of it comes from weathering on Hawai'i. Seasalt-corrected K/Ca-values indicate weathering of primary mineral sources on Hawai'I, but point to significant mixing of primary weathering solutions with rainwater on Kaua'i. These preliminary results show first-order differences in stream geochemistry across bedrock age gradients on the Hawaiian islands. Further work investigating the links between stream geochemistry and topographic, climatic and landcover variables will be presented.

Schopka, H. H.; Derry, L. A.

2005-12-01

354

The Sociopolitical Context of Establishing Hawaiian-Medium Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the Hawaiian-language-revitalization effort, which is the most developed of any indigenous-language revitalization in the United States. During the last 15 years, Hawaiian-language revitalization has centered around establishing indigenous-medium/immersion education and implementing the official status of the language of Hawaii.…

Wilson, William H.

1998-01-01

355

Dasheen mosaic potyvirus in Hawaiian taro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures were developed to detect dasheen mosaic potyvirus (DsMV) in\\u000a Hawaiian taro (Colocasia esculenta) plantings. This virus was detected from samples equivalent to 0.01 mg taro leaf tissue using either DsMV-specific polyclonal\\u000a antiserum or a commercially available monoclonal broad-spectrum potyvims antibody. The distribution of DsMV within taro plants\\u000a was examined. DsMV titres were higher in

J. S. Hu; S. Meleisea; M. Wang; M. A. Shaarawy; F. W. Zettler

1995-01-01

356

Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the experiences of the Hawaiian sugar industry in generating and exporting electricity and discusses the technical and contractual aspects of steam and power generation and sale. Cogeneration facilities in the industry and their operating parameters are examined, and the different types of power export agreements, including the obligation to deliver and compensation for the electrical energy and capacity delivered, are discussed. The development and the essential features of regulations which govern the sale of electricity to utility companies are also discussed.

Kinoshita, C.M. (Hawaii Natural Energy Inst., Honolulu, HI (USA))

1990-01-01

357

ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A VERY FAST LOBSTER MUSCLE  

PubMed Central

The remotor muscle of the second antenna of the American lobster is functionally divided into two parts. One part produces slow, powerful contractions and is used for postural control. The other part produces very brief twitches, can follow frequencies over 100/sec without fusion and is probably used for sound production. This great speed is due, in part, to synchronous arrival of nerve impulses at multiple terminals, a very brief membrane electrical response and electrical continuity throughout large volumes of sarcoplasm. Calculations indicate that the very extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum is probably responsible for the rapid decline of tension in this muscle.

Mendelson, Martin

1969-01-01

358

Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea  

SciTech Connect

Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

1982-01-01

359

Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.  

PubMed

Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and that lobster fishing does not always catalyze a top-down trophic cascade. PMID:23209573

Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

2012-11-29

360

Trophic Cascades Induced by Lobster Fishing Are Not Ubiquitous in Southern California Kelp Forests  

PubMed Central

Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and that lobster fishing does not always catalyze a top-down trophic cascade.

Guenther, Carla M.; Lenihan, Hunter S.; Grant, Laura E.; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

361

Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, the determinants of that status, and the requirements of the human right to health. Needed particularly are longitudinal studies which provide data that may link multigenerational trauma and discrimination to poverty and other factors, ultimately producing healthy inequity for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents.

Alameda, Christian K

2011-01-01

362

Evolution of the Hawaiian Plume: Evidence from Submarine Haleakala Volcano (Hana Ridge), Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hana Ridge is the submarine portion of the east rift zone of Haleakala Volcano, Hawaii. At 140 km long, Hana Ridge is the longest submarine rift zone in the Hawaiian Island chain and has developed a complex morphology compared to other Hawaiian rift zones, such as Puna Ridge. The main ridge comprises two or three subparallel or subjacent ridges with distinct morphological expressions related to sequential accretionary stages of the shield-building phase of Haleakala volcano. In order to investigate the geochemical evolution of Haleakala shield-building, we sampled several sections of Hana Ridge on six dives with ROV Kaiko and Shinkai 6500 submersible, both operated by JAMSTEC, in 2001 and 2002. We report new geochemical data for basalt samples from these six dives on Hana Ridge. All the recovered rocks are primitive tholeiites and picrites and more than half of them, those obtained in the deeper portions of the ridge, are picrites. Major and trace elements of the submarine Hana ridge rocks are similar to modern Kilauea and unlike Honomanu series lavas. Our results indicate that the mantle plume source for the Haleakala shield has changed over time from Kilauea-like compositions (high La/Sm, low Zr/Nb) in the submarine lavas to Mauna Loa-like compositions (lower La/Sm, higher Zr/Nb) in the subaerial Honomanu shield lavas. Moreover, the submarine stages show a gradual, but irregular, trend from higher to lower La/Sm with decreasing water depth (inferred to be decreasing age). We infer that Haleakala volcano originally had typical Hawaiian tholeiite magma compositions whose source material was similar to present-day Kilauea volcano and that the magma source became more Mauna Loa-like during growth of Haleakala volcano.

Johnson, K. T.; Ren, Z.; Takahashi, E.; Orihashi, Y.

2002-12-01

363

Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem and its evolution in long-term primary succession  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millenia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp.) and the '?hi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp.), which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e. islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life-forms is similar as during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris lineraris) becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant '?hi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After that disturbance the forest becomes reestablished in about 30-40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1-25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader '?hi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands looses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum tolerant uluhe fern. The '?hi'a trees still thrive on soils rejuvenated from landslides and from Asian dust on the oldest (5 million year old) island Kaua'i but their stature and living biomass is greatly diminished.

Mueller-Dombois, D.; Boehmer, H. J.

2013-02-01

364

Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

Morden, C. W.; Gardner, D. E.; Weniger, D. A.

2003-01-01

365

Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge???, Anvil??? and Altosid??? application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003-Scourge, Anvil and Altosid-contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26-0.95 ??g L-1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16??C, respectively. Increased temperature (24??C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 ??g L-1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 ??g L-1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 ??g L -1) or malathion (1 ??g L-1) for 7 d at 16 or 22??C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ??? 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass detection limits of 0.1-0.3 ng L-1. Pesticide levels were often detected in the ng L-1 range in Long Island surface waters and western LIS (except in open waters), but rarely at concentrations found to be toxic in flow-through laboratory exposures, even immediately after spray events.

Zulkosky, A. M.; Ruggieri, J. P.; Terracciano, S. A.; Brownawell, B. J.; McElroy, A. E.

2005-01-01

366

Origin of the endemic fern genus Diellia coincides with the renewal of Hawaiian terrestrial life in the Miocene  

PubMed Central

The enigmatic fern genus Diellia, endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago, consists of five extant and one recently extinct species. Diellia is morphologically highly variable, and a unique combination of characters has led to several contrasting hypotheses regarding the relationship of Diellia to other ferns. A phylogenetic analysis of four chloroplast loci places Diellia within ‘black-stemmed’ rock spleenworts of the species-rich genus Asplenium, as previously suggested by W. H. Wagner. Using an external calibration point, we estimate the divergence of the Diellia lineage from its nearest relatives to have occurred at ca. 24.3 Myr ago matching an independent estimate for the renewal of Hawaiian terrestrial life (ca. 23 Myr ago). We therefore suggest that the ancestor of the Diellia lineage may have been among the first successful colonists of the newly emerging islands in the archipelago. Disparity between morphological and nucleotide sequence variation within Diellia is consistent with a recent rapid radiation. Our estimated time of the Diellia radiation (ca. 2 Myr ago) is younger than the oldest island of Kaua’i (ca. 5.1 Myr ago) but older than the younger major islands of Maui (ca. 1.3 Myr ago), Lana’i (ca. 1.3 Myr ago) and Hawaii (ca. 0.43 Myr ago).

Schneider, Harald; Ranker, Tom A.; Russell, Stephen J.; Cranfill, Raymond; Geiger, Jennifer M.O.; Aguraiuja, Ruth; Wood, Ken R.; Grundmann, Michael; Kloberdanz, Keelie; Vogel, Johannes C.

2005-01-01

367

Initial effects of vegetation on Hawaiian basalt weathering rates  

SciTech Connect

Weathering of Ca and Mg silicates on land and ensuing precipitation and burial of Ca and Mg carbonates in marine sediments is the principal sink for carbon dioxide from the atmosphere/ocean system on geologic time scales. Model calculations of ancient atmospheric CO[sub 2] partial pressure depend strongly on the authors assumptions about the enhancement of silicate weathering rates first by primitive terrestrial biota, then by the appearance and evolution of the vascular plants. Aa and pahoehoe basalts were collected from Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Flows ranged in age (one year to several thousand years) and in ambient climate. Where possible, each flow was sampled beneath a suite of current plant covers: none, lichens, and higher plants. Rocks were embedded in epoxy to preserve the plant-rock interface, then sectioned and subjected to electron probe microanalysis. During initial weathering, vascular plants appeared to promote congruent dissolution of minerals (particularly olivine and Ca-rich plagioclase) and glass near the surfaces of underlying basalts. In the neighborhood of roots, primary cracks widened with time into networks of open channels. This effect was observed prior to the formation of measurable leached zones in exterior grains and prior to the appearance of secondary minerals. As a result, initial mass loss from young, plant-covered basalts appeared to be up to one or more orders of magnitude greater than from bare-rock controls. Despite earlier reports of substantial enhancement of Hawaiian basalt weathering rates by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani, weathering observed beneath this lichen was comparable to that of unvegetated rocks.

Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. (Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States))

1992-01-01

368

Application of Reverse Osmosis Technology to Hawaiian Low Quality Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the application of reverse osmosis technology to the treatment of Hawaiian low quality waters was conducted. The purpose was to investigate the technical and economical feasibility of utilizing reverse osmosis technology to renovate waste water...

B. J. Chang R. H. F. Young J. C. S. Chou

1973-01-01

369

Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds  

PubMed Central

Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds.

Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

2012-01-01

370

Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Cyberinfrastructure for Monitoring Hawaiian ``Mountain-to-Sea'' Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding.

Kido, Michael H.; Mundt, Carsten W.; Montgomery, Kevin N.; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W.; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.

2008-10-01

371

Integration of wireless sensor networks into cyberinfrastructure for monitoring Hawaiian "mountain-to-sea" environments.  

PubMed

Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding. PMID:18618172

Kido, Michael H; Mundt, Carsten W; Montgomery, Kevin N; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y

2008-07-11

372

Hawaiian residents' preferences for Miconia control program attributes using conjoint choice experiment and latent class analysis.  

PubMed

Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens (Miconia). Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents' willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more ($2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii. PMID:20033159

Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

2009-12-23

373

A Study of the Spiny Lobster Fishery of Antigua and Barbuda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recognizing the decline in the landings of spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) in Antigua and Barbuda over the last four years, the British Overseas Development Administration undertook a study of the industry. Information is given on project procedures. The...

N. A. Peacock

1973-01-01

374

78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...understand, however, that lobster rules are not made in isolation. Changing circumstances in the fishery have necessitated...the next and then reactivated the third month. Without a temporal context, latency cannot be determined with any degree...

2013-06-12

375

Ocean mixing studied near Hawaiian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) is a grassroots program to study turbulent mixing processes near the Hawaiian Ridge. The HOME is motivated by the desire to understand diffusive aspects of the advective-diffusive balance that mediates the general circulation of the oceans. HOME is focused on tidally driven mixing, given the ubiquity of the tide as a deep-sea energy source.As the sea surface cools at high latitude, surface waters sink. Subsidence rate is sufficient to fill the worlds ocean with cold bottom water in approximately 3,000 years. Diffusive processes that transfer heat into the abyssal ocean are required to maintain a steady-state thermal structure. An effective eddy diffusivity of order Kp=10-4 m2 s-1, 700 times the molecular diffusivity of heat, is necessary [Munk, 1966]. Such a diffusivity might be supported by either mechanical mixing (turbulent transport) or thermodynamic (so-called doubly diffusive) processes.

Pinkel, Robert; Munk, Walter; Worcester, Peter; Comuelle, Bruce D.; Rudnick, Daniel; Sherman, Jeffrey; Filloux, Jean H.; Dushaw, Brian D.; Howe, Bruce M.; Sanford, Thomas B.; Lee, Craig M.; Kunze, Eric; Gregg, Michael C.; Miller, Jack B.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Luther, Douglas S.; Firing, Eric; Brainard, Rusty; Flament, Pierre J.; Chave, Alan D.; Moum, James M.; Caldwell, Douglas R.; Levine, Murray D.; Boyd, Timothy; Egbert, Gary D.

376

Revised age for Midway volcano, Hawaiian volcanic chain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New conventional K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and petrochemical data on alkalic basalt pebbles from the basalt conglomerate overlying tholeiitic flows in the Midway drill hole show that Midway evolved past the tholeiitic shield-building stage and erupted lavas of the alkalic suite 27.0 ?? 0.6 m.y. ago. The data also show that previously published conventional K-Ar ages on altered samples of tholeiite are too young by about 9 m.y. These results remove a significant anomaly in the age-distance relationships of the Hawaiian chain and obviate the need for large changes in either the rate of rotation of the Pacific plate about the Hawaiian pole or the motion of the plate relative to the Hawaiian hot spot since the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. All of the age data along the Hawaiian chain are now reasonably consistent with an average rate of volcanic propagation of 8.0 cm/yr and with 0.83??/m.y. of angular rotation about the Hawaiian pole. ?? 1977.

Dalrymple, G. B.; Clague, D. A.; Lanphere, M. A.

1977-01-01

377

Pacific Islanders' Perspectives on Heart Failure Management  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the health beliefs, attitudes, practices and social and family relations important in heart failure treatment among Pacific Islanders. Methods Four focus groups were convened with 36 Native Hawaiians and Samoans with heart failure and their family caregivers. Thematic data analysis was used to categorize data into four domains: health beliefs and attitudes, preferred health practices, social support systems, and barriers to heart failure care. Results Common coping styles and emotional experiences of heart failure in this population included avoidance or denial of illness, hopelessness and despair, and reliance on spiritual/religious beliefs as a means of support. Among study participants, more Samoans preferred to be treated by physicians whereas more Native Hawaiians preferred traditional Hawaiian methods of healing. Two types of social support (informational and tangible-instrumental) were identified as important in heart failure care. Barriers to heart failure care included poor knowledge of heart failure, lack of trust in physicians’ care, poor physician-patient relations, finances, dietary changes, and competing demands on time. Conclusion The recruitment, retention, and adherence of Pacific Islanders to heart failure interventions are affected by an array of psychosocial and socio-cultural factors. Practice Implications Interventions might be improved by offering participants accurate and detailed information about heart failure and its treatment, engaging the extended family in providing necessary supports, and providing tools to facilitate physician-patient relationships, among others, within the context of a larger socio-cultural system.

Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Saito, Erin; Mau, Marjorie K.; Latimer, Renee; Seto, Todd B.

2008-01-01

378

Maturation of large scale mass-wasting along the Hawaiian Ridge  

SciTech Connect

Extensive GLORIA side-scan sonar mapping of the Hawaiian Ridge from Hawaii to St. Rogatien Bank shows that massive slumps and blocky debris avalanches are the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas. About 30 failures have been imaged in the region surveyed; they range in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and in volume from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Four are rotational slumps, and the rest are blocky debris avalanches. Such deposits cover 125,000 km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian Ridge and adjacent seafloor. The slumps are wide (up to 110 km), short (30-35 km), thick (about 10 km), and slow moving. They are broken into comparatively few major rotational blocks that have not moved far and are characterized by steep toes and transverse ridges. Back rotation of the blocks has elevated their seaward edges, producing transverse ridges and perched basins filled with 5 to > 35 m of sediment. Compared to the slumps, the debris avalanches are lobate, long (up to 230 km), thin (0.5-2 km), and fast-moving. These deposits cross the Hawaiian Trough and run upslope onto the Hawaiian Arch (up to 550 m in elevation over a distance of 140 km). These failures commonly have amphitheaters and subaerial canyons at their heads. Their distal ends are hummocky, and blocky debris litters the seafloor adjacent to the ridge. As one proceeds west from Hawaii to St. Rogatien Bank, the GLORIA sonographs and seismic reflection profiles show a progression from youthful to mature failures and from active to about 12 Ma volcanoes. The Alika and Hilina slide complexes are examples of youthful failures on active volcanoes. Slumping in the Hilina slide is ongoing (7.2 magnitude earthquake in 1975). Little to no sediment covers the blocks and hummocky terrane of the Alika (about 100 ka), whereas the older deposits along the western part of the ridge are covered by up to 30 m of transparent sediment.

Torresan, M.E.; Clague, D.A.; Moore, J.G. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Jacobs, C.L. (Institute of Oceanographic Sciences, Wormley (England))

1990-06-01

379

Characterization of a biofilm bacterium from a recirculation system for European lobster ( Homarus gammarus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European lobster (Homarus gammarus) is often stored live in re-circulation systems. Previously bio-films and fouling has been reported to occur during storage of live aquatic animals. This investigation profiled a bacterium isolated from a bio-film observed on the carapace of live lobster and on the sub-water surfaces of the holding facility. Molecular analysis using a universal 16s rRNA primer

Jennifer E. Welsh; Pauline A. King; Eugene MacCarthy

2011-01-01

380

Aspartic Cathepsin D Endopeptidase Contributes to Extracellular Digestion in Clawed Lobsters Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid digestive proteinases were studied in the gastric fluids of two species of clawed lobster (Homarus americanus and Homarus gammarus). An active protein was identified in both species as aspartic proteinase by specific inhibition with pepstatin A. It was\\u000a confirmed as cathepsin D by mass mapping, N-terminal, and full-length cDNA sequencing. Both lobster species transcribed two\\u000a cathepsin D mRNAs: cathepsin

Liliana Rojo; Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Reinhard Saborowski; Fernando García-Carreño

2010-01-01

381

Temporal changes in kelp forest benthic communities following an invasion by the rock lobster Jasus lalandii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rock lobster Jasus lalandii expanded its centre of distribution south-eastwards into an area known as ‘East of Cape Hangklip’ on the south-west coast of South Africa in the early 1990s. Using historical and present data, we analysed differences in the abundance of key species and functional groups between the pre- and post-rock lobster invasion periods at two sites along

L K Blamey; G M Branch; K E Reaugh-Flower

2010-01-01

382

Factions, Models and Resource Regulation: Prospects for Lowering the Maine Lobster Trap Limit  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most important questions facing resource management is how to regulate industries exploiting natural resources.\\u000a Currently there is an effort in the Maine lobster industry to get lower trap limits, which provides an opportunity to get\\u000a detailed information on the political factors influencing legislation in an important and highly successful industry. In many\\u000a industries, including the Maine lobster

James M. Acheson; Ann W. Acheson

2010-01-01

383

Hawaiian Analog for Martian Amphitheatre-headed Valleys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stubby, amphitheatre-headed valleys are common on the surface of Mars. The abrupt terminations of these valleys at their headwalls have been used extensively to argue for valley erosion from springs (i.e., seepage erosion and groundwater sapping) rather than precipitation runoff. This interpretation has significant implications for Martian hydrology and the associated prospects for life. However, such a connection between channel form and the erosion processes induced by groundwater has only been demonstrated on Earth for sediment with little to no cohesion. Martian valleys have most likely been carved into basalt, and the extension of previous work to bedrock erosion is unclear. Perhaps the most widely cited terrestrial analogs for Martian amphitheatre-headed valleys in basalt are the spectacular canyons of Kohala, on the big island of Hawaii. Based on their amphitheatre heads and U-shaped cross sections, previous workers have suggested that these valleys were formed by enhanced chemical weathering and erosion induced by dike-impounded groundwater. Neighboring smaller streams that do not have amphitheatre heads and have more V-shaped cross sections were thought to represent streams where seepage erosion did not occur. These smaller streams run along side of and often drain into the larger canyons, or they end in waterfalls spilling over the ~350 m vertical sea cliffs into the ocean. We propose that the Hawaiian amphitheatre-headed valleys formed by upstream propagation of huge headwalls induced by a large deep-seated landslide. Recent bathymetric surveys have revealed that the large sea cliff at the mouth of the Kohala valleys is likely the headscarp of a huge rotational slump, the Pololu slump. Dominant streams cascaded over the cliffs forming waterfalls which, through plunge pool erosion and mass wasting, induced upstream propagation of headwalls eventually forming deep amphitheatre-headed valleys. We propose headwall retreat by waterfall erosion rather than seepage erosion because, at least under current conditions, this region receives over 4 m of annual precipitation, waterfalls are eroding plunge pools into the rock at most valley heads, and the streams are able to move the large boulders on the bed during storms. While springs do occur in some valley heads, we have not observed weathering, erosion, or transport of rock by seepage water, nor has it been documented by others to our knowledge. Following valley formation, island subsidence has resulted in alluviation of the valley floors creating the observed U-shaped valley cross sections. Our interpretation implies that deep amphitheatre-headed valleys can result from precipitation runoff with very little landscape dissection upstream of the valley head. If Martian valleys formed by similar processes, the Martian climate must once have been capable of supporting precipitation.

Lamb, M. P.; Howard, A. D.; Dietrich, W. E.; Perron, J. T.

2005-12-01

384

The PT-phase relations of an MgO-rich Hawaiian tholeiite: the compositions of primary Hawaiian tholeiites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The PT-phase relations of a Hawaiian tholeiite with 18.2% MgO has olivine–orthopyroxene multiple saturation at 20.5 kbar and 1,550°C. This pressure is less than the pressure at the lithosphere\\/asthenosphere transition, and it is suggested that tholeiites with this and lesser MgO contents are fractionated. Assuming a harzburgitic residuum it is shown that Hawaiian primary tholeiites contain about 23% MgO, and are

S. Maaløe

2004-01-01

385

Molecular identification of the lobster muscle protein tropomyosin as a seafood allergen.  

PubMed

Crustaceans are a major cause of seafood allergy. Recent studies have identified tropomyosin as the major allergen in shrimp. However, such data are lacking in other crustaceans. In the present study lobster allergens were identified and characterized by molecular cloning, sequencing, and expression. An IgE-reactive complementary DNA clone of 2 kilobase pairs (kb) was identified by screening an expression library of the spiny lobster Panulirus stimpsoni using sera from subjects with crustacean allergy. Expression and sequencing of this clone showed that it has an opening reading frame of 274 amino acids, coding for a 34-kDa protein designated as Pan s I. In addition, we expressed the fast muscle tropomyosin from the American lobster Homarus americanus and found that this protein, coined Hom a I, was also recognized by IgE from patients with crustacean allergies. The deduced amino acid sequences of Pan s I and Hom a I, which are the first identified lobster allergens, show significant homology to shrimp tropomyosin. Sera from subjects with crustacean allergies, when preabsorbed with recombinant proteins Pan s I or Hom a I, lost their IgE reactivity to muscle extract of P. stimpsoni and H. americanus. Preincubation of crustacean allergy sera with the recombinant shrimp tropomyosin Met e I also removed their IgE reactivity to lobster muscle extracts. The results suggest that patients with allergic reactions to crustaceans have common and possibly cross-reactive IgE-reactive epitopes in lobster and shrimp. PMID:9597774

Leung, P S; Chen, Y C; Mykles, D L; Chow, W K; Li, C P; Chu, K H

1998-03-01

386

Contemporary morphological diversification of passerine birds introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago  

PubMed Central

Species that have been introduced to islands experience novel and strong selection pressures after establishment. There is evidence that exotic species diverge from their native source populations; further, a few studies have demonstrated adaptive divergence across multiple exotic populations of a single species. Exotic birds provide a good study system, as they have been introduced to many locations worldwide, and we often know details concerning the propagule origin, time of introduction, and dynamics of establishment and dispersal within the introduced range. These data make them especially conducive to the examination of contemporary evolution. Island faunas have received intense scrutiny, therefore we have expectations concerning the patterns of diversification for exotic species. We examine six passerine bird species that were introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago less than 150 years ago. We find that five of these show morphological divergence among islands from the time since they were established. We demonstrate that some of this divergence cannot be accounted for by genetic drift, and therefore we must consider adaptive evolution to explain it. We also evaluate evolutionary divergence rates and find that these species are diverging at similar rates to those found in published studies of contemporary evolution in native species.

Mathys, Blake A.; Lockwood, Julie L.

2011-01-01

387

Geologic Sequestration Studies with Hawaiian Picrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Capturing and storing anthropogenic carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations is a potential CO2 mitigation solution being studied to reduce adverse effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations on the global climate. Basalt formations, widespread globally, are currently being considered as a long term storage option. Because combustion gas streams often contain impurities, it is also important to consider contaminants (e.g., SO2, N2, and O2) that could be co-injected with CO2. Injecting to depths greater than 800 m, these CO2 gas mixtures will reside as water-wet supercritical fluids in contact with the basalt reservoir rocks. Here we examine reaction products resulting from exposing Hawaiian picrite basalts to water equilibrated with scCO2, water bearing scCO2, and mixtures containing gaseous sulfur compounds. Hawaiian basalts in this study were fresh, vesicular, and olivine(fo68)-rich (20+vol%). Basalts, crushed or in large pieces, were exposed to wet supercritical fluid and aqueous dissolved gases for 80 to 550 days at 100 bar and 50°-100°C. Post-reacted basalt in the pure scCO2 system showed the least amount of reactivity. Carbonate precipitates formed discrete circular coatings on the olivine grain surfaces after 550 days of exposure to the aqueous dissolved CO2. However, the olivine surface was significantly altered in just 80 days after exposure to wet scCO2 containing 1% SO2. The most reactive basalt components were olivine grains, with surfaces dominated by cracks and precipitates of Mg-S compounds (Fig.1). Chemistry determined by SEM-EDS indicated the cracked surface was depleted in Mg and rich in Si. Minor amounts of sulfur were detected in this leached layer as well. Exposed olivine interiors were found to have the original olivine chemistry. Surface precipitates associated with the olivine crystals include hexahydrite (MgSO4?6H2O), magnesium thiosulfate hydrate (MgS2O3?6H2O), along with three different hydrated sulfite phases. These types of experiments illustrate the potential basalt formations hold for long term storage of CO2 and the importance of understanding supercritical phase chemical reactions involved in geologic carbon sequestration. Expanding on this work, research in collaboration with Yale scientists on the CO2 storage potential of a wide range of rocktypes will commence in Fall, 2010. Figure 1. SEM microphotograph of reacted olivine surface (HW496) after 85 days exposure to wet scCO2 containing ~1% SO2 (10 MPa and 50°C).

Johnson, K. T.; McGrail, B. P.; Schaef, H. T.

2010-12-01

388

Development of a Family Intervention for Native Hawaiian Women with Cancer: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Native Hawaiian women have high cancer rates and low survival rates. As with other women, a major source of support for Native Hawaiian women is their families. This pilot study reports on the feasibility of providing and measuring a culturally appropriate intervention designed to help Native Hawaiian women and their families deal with cancer.…

Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Wong, Linda K.; Higuchi, Paula; Gotay, Carolyn C.

2008-01-01

389

Engaging Participants in Design of a Native Hawaiian Worksite Wellness Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Native Hawaiians today face a disproportionately high rate of obesity. The Designing Healthy Worksites (DHW) project investigated existing administrative policies and supports for healthy eating and physical activity at eight Native Hawaiian-serving organizations in Hawai‘i, along with employee preferences for worksite wellness programming. Objectives. We describe the process by which Native Hawaiian researchers and community members worked together to

2010-01-01

390

Engaging Participants in Design of a Native Hawaiian Worksite Wellness Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Background. Native Hawaiians today face a disproportionately high rate of obesity. The Designing Healthy Worksites (DHW) project investigated existing administrative policies and supports for healthy eating and physical activity at eight Native Hawaiian-serving organizations in Hawai‘i, along with employee preferences for worksite wellness programming. Objectives. We describe the process by which Native Hawaiian researchers and community members worked together to

Jodi Haunani Leslie; Kathryn L. Braun

2010-01-01

391

Na Mele Ho Ona Auao (The Songs That Instruct). Hawaiian Studies Music Resource Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This music resource book is a compilation of traditional Hawaiian mele (songs) for use as a tool in music instruction and as a means to educate students in both the Hawaiian language and in various aspects of Hawaiian culture. Music and words are provided for each song as well as an English translation. The first section is comprised of songs or…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

392

Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 5. Eleutherodactylus coqui, the Coqui Frog (Anura: Leptodactylidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nocturnal, terrestrial frog Eleutherodactylus coqui, known as the Coqui, is endemic to Puerto Rico and was accidentally introduced to Hawai‘i via nursery plants in the late 1980s. Over the past two decades E. coqui has spread to the four main Hawaiian Islands, and a major campaign was launched to eliminate and control it. One of the primary reasons this

Karen H. Beard; William C. Pitt; Emily A. Price

2009-01-01

393

Immunological Change in a Parasite-Impoverished Environment: Divergent Signals from Four Island Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dramatic declines of native Hawaiian avifauna due to the human-mediated emergence of avian malaria and pox prompted an examination of whether island taxa share a common altered immunological signature, potentially driven by reduced genetic diversity and reduced exposure to parasites. We tested this hypothesis by characterizing parasite prevalence, genetic diversity and three measures of immune response in two recently-introduced species

Jon S. Beadell; Colm Atkins; Erin Cashion; Michelle Jonker; Robert C. Fleischer; Adam Ratner

2007-01-01

394

They Cast a Long Shadow. A History of the Nonwhite Races on Bainbridge Island.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written as a curriculum aid for students in the Bainbridge Island, Washington school district, this collection of stories about the Japanese, the Chinese, the Hawaiians, the Filipinos, the Vietnamese, and the American and Canadian Indians is an attempt to explain "what life is like for people who look different". The stories all relate the history…

Roberts, Brian, Ed.

395

Integrating high levels of wind in Island systems: Lessons from Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variability of power generation from intermittent resources such as wind and solar plants presents an operational challenge for grid operators. The economic incentives and technical challenges that accompany large amounts of variable generation in island power systems are often much greater. The Hawaiian Electric Company and its subsidiaries, the Maui Electric Company and the Hawaii Electric Light Company have considerable

N. Miller; D. Manz; H. Johal; S. Achilles; L. Roose; J. P. Griffin

2010-01-01

396

DIET COMPOSITION AND TERRESTRIAL PREY SELECTION OF THE LAYSAN TEAL ON LAYSAN ISLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Laysan teal (Anas laysanensis) is an endangered dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago but currently restricted to a single breeding population on Laysan Island. We studied its diet using fecal analysis and behavioral observations. Laysan teal fecal samples (N=118) contained prey items in 15 primary prey categories with a mean of ?.? (range 0-?) taxa per sample. Sixty-two

MICHELLE H. REYNOLDS; JOHN W. SLOTTERBACK; JEFFREY R. WALTERS

397

Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1977 Annual Administrative Report  

USGS Publications Warehouse

INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

Compiled by Nakata, Jennifer S.

2007-01-01

398

Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of Hawaiian Rainfall.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Empirical orthogonal function analysis was applied to monthly mean rainfall data at 63 stations in Hawaii encompassing a 37-year period. Major rainfall patterns in order to importance (E1-E3) proved to be trade wind, southwest wind and convective rainfall on an annual basis; trade wind, southwest wind and frontal rainfall during winter, spring and fall seasons; and trade wind, tropical disturbance and convective rainfall during summer. Trade wind rainfall (E1) explains most rainfall variance in summer and least variance in winter. Spectral analyses of the time-dependent coefficients for eigenvectors E1-E5 show annual, semi-annual, three-forths year, and 2-2 1/2 year cycles. No spectral peaks relating to the 11- and 22-year sunspot cycles were found. Composite rainfall maps for wet and dry winter and summer half-years indicate the contributions that specific eigenvector patterns make to these anomalies. Comparisons between Hawaiian rainfall and E1 Niños reveal that most (not all) E1 Niño winters in Hawaii are dry. Lack of trade wind rainfall is the primary cause.

Lyons, Steven W.

1982-11-01

399

Arsenic chemistry and remediation in Hawaiian soils.  

PubMed

Past use of arsenical pesticides has resulted in elevated levels of arsenic (As) in some Hawaiian soils. Total As concentrations of 20-100 mg/kg are not uncommon, and can exceed 900 mg/kg in some lands formerly planted with sugarcane. With high contents of amorphous aluminosilicates and iron oxides in many Hawaii's volcanic ash-derived Andisols, a high proportion (25-30%) of soil As was associated with either these mineral phases or with organic matter. Less than 1% of the total As was water soluble or exchangeable. Furthermore, the soils can sorb As strongly: the addition of 1000 mg/kg as As (+5) resulted in only between 0.03 and 0.30 mg/L As in soil solution. In contrast, soils having more crystalline minerals (e.g., Oxisols) sorb less As and thus often contain less As. Phosphate fertilization increases As bioaccessibility, whereas the addition of Fe(OH)3 decreases it. Brake fern (Pteris vittata L.) can be used to remove some soil As. Concentrations of As in fronds varied on average from 60 mg/kg when grown on a low-As Oxisol to 350 mg/kg when grown on a high-As Andisol. Ratios of leaf As to CaCl2-extractable soil As were 12 and 222 for the Oxisol and Andisol, respectively. PMID:23487989

Hue, Nguyen V

2013-01-01

400

Alkalic Lavas From Nintoku Seamount, Emperor Seamount Chain: Geochemistry of Hawaiian Post-Shield Magmatism at 55 Ma  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) Leg 197, Site 1205 penetrated 283 m into the volcanic basement of Nintoku Seamount, which is located roughly half-way along the Emperor Seamount Chain and has been dated at approximately 55-56 Ma by 40Ar-39Ar (R. Duncan, pers. comm., 2002). 25 subaerially-erupted lava flows, together with interflow sediments and soil horizons, were recovered. We report major and trace element compositions of 33 rock samples spanning the entire lava sequence and hawaiite clasts from a conglomerate immediately overlying the igneous basement. The volcanic rocks at Site 1205 are dominantly alkalic to intermediate basalts with between 5 and 11% MgO, with the degree of alkalinity generally increasing up-section, and the eruption rate (inferred from the thickness and abundance of interflow soils) appears to have decreased with time. Two flows in the lower half of the hole are tholeiitic and divide the section into two different alkalic basalt series. One of these flows contains accumulated olivine crystals and has a picritic composition. The upper alkalic series generally becomes enriched in the highly incompatible elements (ITEs) up-section from the tholeiitic units and is overlain by a conglomerate that contains cobbles of hawaiite that are highly enriched in ITEs. Normalized patterns are subparallel to those of the upper series of alkalic basalts, suggesting the hawaiites may be related by fractional crystallization. The lower alkalic series contains basalts that are among the most ITE enriched of the recovered basement sequence, but does not show the same variations as the upper series. The petrology of the Site 1205 lavas is very similar to those of lavas erupted during the later evolutionary stages of young volcanoes from the Hawaiian Islands and were probably all erupted during the post-shield alkalic stage; at Nintoku the post-shield alkalic cap appears to be relatively thick (at least 300m) compared to many other Hawaiian volcanoes, but is similar to that of Mauna Kea and Haleakala. Fractionation of the observed phenocryst phases (olivine and plagioclase) was responsible for much of the compositional variation within the Nintoku basaltic lavas, and the low Sc concentrations of the hawaiites show that they have also fractionated clinopyroxene. However, variations in incompatible trace element ratios indicate that the lavas cannot all be related by crystal fractionation from a single parental magma. Nintoku lavas exhibit broad similarities in major and trace element compositions of post-shield lavas from the Hawaiian Islands. For example, La/Yb ratios of the 1205 basalts (5-13) are similar to those of alkali basalts from Mauna Kea (5-12), but lower than those from Haleakala (12-17). However, distinct differences also occur. Nintoku lavas have relatively low Zr concentrations, so that they plot below the main Hawaiian array on a Zr/Nb-La/Yb diagram. Previous studies have show that lavas from the oldest Emperor Seamounts have relatively depleted incompatible trace element compositions; our data suggest that by 56 Ma, lavas erupted above the Hawaiian Hotspot were essentially similar to young (<5 Ma) lavas from the Hawaiian Islands.

Shafer, J. T.; Gudding, J. A.; Neal, C. R.; Regelous, M.

2002-12-01

401

Carbohydrate Dynamics and the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH): Effects of Parasitic Infection in Norway Lobsters ( Nephrops norvegicus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a dinoflagellate parasite (Hematodinium sp.) on carbohydrate metabolism were examined in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. Five stages of infection were observed. These included uninfected (Stage 0), subpatently infected (SP), and patently infected (Stage 1–4) lobsters. During patent infection, the concentration of glucose in the hemolymph was reduced significantly from its value of 180 ?g ml?1 in

G. D. Stentiford; E. S. Chang; S. A. Chang; D. M. Neil

2001-01-01

402

Abundance of marine resources in relation to dissolved oxygen in Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine effects of low dissolved oxygen on finfish, lobster, and squid under field conditions in\\u000a western Long Island Sound. The relationship between bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) and catch was examined for effects on abundance,\\u000a numbers of species, and mean length, for trawl sites throughout the sound. Examination of mean catch per tow, and species\\u000a number

Penelope Howell; David Simpson

1994-01-01

403

Selective allergy to lobster in a case of primary sensitization to house dust mites.  

PubMed

Allergy to only 1 kind of seafood is uncommon. We report a case of selective allergy to lobster. We studied a 30-year-old man who suffered generalized urticaria, facial erythema, and pharyngeal pruritus after eating lobster. He had a more than 10-year history of mild persistent asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. The study was performed by skin prick test, and prick-prick test, oral food challenge, specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations by CAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) and ADVIA-Centaur (ALK-Abelló, Madrid, Spain), and IgE-immunoblotting. The patient's serum recognized 2 allergens of around 198 kDa and 2 allergens of around 65 kDa from the lobster extract, allergens of around 15, 90, and 120 kDa from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract, and allergens of around 15 and 65 kDa from Dermatophagoides farinae extract. Serum did not recognize purified shrimp tropomyosin. Immunoblot-inhibition assay results indicated cross-reactivity between lobster and mite allergens. This is the first report of selective allergy to lobster. PMID:19862942

Iparraguirre, A; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; Juste, S; Ledesma, A; Moneo, I; Caballero, M L

2009-01-01

404

Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawaii  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.

Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter; Hendley Ii., James

405

Cancer Assessment Methodology in a Native Hawaiian Community  

PubMed Central

Background Limited data have been collected on cancer in Native Hawaiian communities, although Native Hawaiians tend to have higher cancer mortality rates than other ethnic groups in Hawai`i. Objectives We sought to describe the community-based participatory research (CBPR) process used to deliver a culturally tailored protocol, combining traditional Native Hawaiian practices and random sampling methods, to determine cancer screening practices and program preferences of residents of a Hawaiian Homes (HH) community. Methods Following a culturally tailored protocol, we at tempt ed to survey half of the 644 households in the Waim?nalo Hawaiian Homes Community (WHHC). Pairs of Native Hawaiian college students performed the majority of data collection; a community member joined them if avail able. Visits to the selected homes were tracked and participation rates estimated. Additional information on this method ology emerged from discussions between researchers and community members. Results Of the 449 households accessed, 187 (42%) completed the survey, with an average of two visits per household. Individuals at 63 (14%) households refused outright. The remaining 199 (44%) homes were visited up to five times, but produced no response. Although some homes were vacant, often it appeared that residents were home but unresponsive. Our sampling procedure (targeting every other house and requiring accrual of 75 individuals in each of four age–gender groups) reduced participation. Conclusions The use of CBPR built capacity for all partners by engaging them in all levels of research. The results, however, suggest the need for a more inclusive sampling strategy and the continued use of CBPR.

Siu, Andrea; Palakiko, Donna-Marie

2010-01-01

406

A Database of Wing Diversity in the Hawaiian Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Background Within genus Drosophila, the endemic Hawaiian species offer some of the most dramatic examples of morphological and behavioral evolution. The advent of the Drosophila grimshawi genome sequence permits genes of interest to be readily cloned from any of the hundreds of species of Hawaiian Drosophila, offering a powerful comparative approach to defining molecular mechanisms of species evolution. A key step in this process is to survey the Hawaiian flies for characters whose variation can be associated with specific candidate genes. The wings provide an attractive target for such studies: Wings are essentially two dimensional, and genes controlling wing shape, vein specification, pigment production, and pigment pattern evolution have all been identified in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a photographic database of over 180 mounted, adult wings from 73 species of Hawaiian Drosophila. The image collection, available at FlyBase.org, includes 53 of the 112 known species of “picture wing” Drosophila, and several species from each of the other major Hawaiian groups, including the modified mouthparts, modified tarsus, antopocerus, and haleakalae (fungus feeder) groups. Direct image comparisons show that major wing shape changes can occur even between closely related species, and that pigment pattern elements can vary independently of each other. Among the 30 species closest to grimshawi, diverse visual effects are achieved by altering a basic pattern of seven wing spots. Finally, we document major pattern variations within species, which appear to result from reduced diffusion of pigment precursors through the wing blade. Conclusions/Significance The database highlights the striking variation in size, shape, venation, and pigmentation in Hawaiian Drosophila, despite their generally low levels of DNA sequence divergence. In several independent lineages, highly complex patterns are derived from simple ones. These lineages offer a promising model system to study the evolution of complexity.

Edwards, Kevin A.; Doescher, Linden T.; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.; Yamamoto, Daisuke

2007-01-01

407

Absorption of tetraethylammonium (TEA+) by perfused lobster intestine.  

PubMed

The organic cation, tetraethylammonium (TEA(+)), is actively secreted by mammalian nephrons and crustacean urinary bladders by similar processes in both animal groups. These mechanisms consist of a basolateral Organic Cation Transporter (OCT family) that employs the transmembrane electrical potential as a driving force for organic cation uptake from the blood and a brush border secondary active transport process that exchanges luminal protons for TEA(+). The present study examined the nature of (14)C-TEA(+) transport across the perfused intestinal epithelium of the American lobster, Homarus americanus, to ascertain whether the gut complemented the kidneys in the clearance of these organic metabolites from the blood. Unidirectional mucosa to serosa (M to S) (14)C-TEA(+) fluxes in anterior and posterior intestine were hyperbolic functions of luminal [TEA(+)] and significantly (P<0.01) exceeded the respective serosa to mucosa (S to M) fluxes. Luminal quinine (1 mM) significantly (P<0.05) inhibited M to S flux of the organic cation, while serosal addition of the drug had no effect on S to M transfer of TEA(+). Reducing serosal pH from 7.20 to 6.02 significantly (P<0.01) stimulated M to S transfer of 0.1 mM (14)C-TEA(+), but significantly (P<0.05) lowered S to M transfer of the metabolite. Addition of 2.0 mM unlabelled serosal TEA(+) trans-stimulated the M to S flux of 0.1 mM (14)C-TEA and doubled the transfer rate of the organic cation from lumen to blood compared to its transport in the absence of TEA(+) in the bath. Results suggest that this organic cation is absorbed across lobster intestine by the combination of a brush border OCT-1-like transporter coupled with a basolateral H(+)/TEA(+) exchanger. A working model is presented for intestinal organic cation absorption in crustaceans and compared to the secretory transport model for this class of metabolites previously reported for crustacean and mammalian kidneys. PMID:17397071

Piersol, Megan C; Sterling, Kenneth M; Ahearn, Gregory A

2007-03-01

408

Recent settlement trends in Panulirus argius (Decapoda: Palinuridae) pueruli around St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands.  

PubMed

Puerulus settlement of the western Atlantic spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was monitored using modified Witham collectors from December 1996 to March 1998 at seven sites around St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands. A total of 605 pueruli were collected from 553 samples for a catch per unit effort (CPUE) for all sites of 1.09 pueruli. The greatest settlement occurred on sites within a recently declared marine reserve, which had an overall CPUE of 1.77 pueruli. Settlement in non-reserve sites was much lower with an overall CPUE of 0.31 pueruli. Pueruli recruitment declined 67% at inshore sites and 53% at offshore sites between July 1992 - April 1994 and February 1997 - March 1998. Also, only 10% of months sampled in 1997-98 had a CPUE > 0.5 compared to 55% in a previous study in 1992 - 1993. Despite the decline in pueruli CPUE in 1997-98 compared to 1992-94, the commercial lobster catch in the 2000-01 fishing season, and by inference the adult lobster population (legal lobster size in the US Virgin Islands is > or = 3.5 cm carapace length), remained stable. PMID:15264550

Kojis, B L; Quinn, N J; Caseau, S M

2003-06-01

409

Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798).  

PubMed

The effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) (Bio-Mos, Alltech, USA) on the growth, survival, physiology, bacteria and morphology of the gut and immune response to bacterial infection of tropical rock lobsters (Panulirus ornatus) juvenile were investigated. Dietary inclusion level of MOS at 0.4% was tested against the control diet (trash fish) without MOS inclusion. At the end of 56 days of rearing period, a challenged test was also conducted to evaluate the bacterial infection resistant ability of the lobsters fed the two diets. Lobster juvenile fed MOS diet attained 2.86 +/- 0.07 g of total weigh and 66.67 +/- 4.76% survival rate which were higher (P < 0.05) than the lobsters fed control diet (2.35 +/- 0.14 g total weight and 54.76 +/- 2.38% survival rate, respectively) thus providing the higher (P < 0.05) specific growth rate (SGR) and average weekly gain (AWG) of lobsters fed MOS diet. Physiological condition indicators such as wet tail muscle index (Tw/B), wet hepatosomatic index (Hiw) and dry tail muscle index (Td/B) of the lobsters fed MOS supplemented diet were higher (P < 0.05) than that of the lobsters fed the control diet. Bacteria in the gut (both total aerobic and Vibrio spp.) and gut's absorption surface indicated by the internal perimeter/external perimeter ratio were also higher (P < 0.05) when the lobsters were fed MOS diet. Lobsters fed MOS diet were in better immune condition showed by higher THC and GC, and lower bacteraemia. Survival, THC, GC were not different among the lobsters fed either MOS or control diet after 3 days of bacterial infection while bacteraemia was lower in the lobsters fed MOS diet. After 7 days of bacterial infection the lobsters fed MOS diet showed higher survival, THC, GC and lower bacteraemia than the lobsters fed the control diet. The experimental trial demonstrated the ability of MOS to improve the growth performance, survival, physiological condition, gut health and immune responses of tropical spiny lobsters juveniles. PMID:20034574

Sang, Huynh Minh; Fotedar, Ravi

2009-12-23

410

Tetrodotoxin Blockage of Sodium Conductance Increase in Lobster Giant Axons  

PubMed Central

Previous studies suggested that tetrodotoxin, a poison from the puffer fish, blocks conduction of nerve and muscle through its rather selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism. In order to verify this hypothesis, observations have been made of sodium and potassium currents in the lobster giant axons treated with tetrodotoxin by means of the sucrose-gap voltage-clamp technique. Tetrodotoxin at concentrations of 1 x 10-7 to 5 x 10-9 gm/ml blocked the action potential but had no effect on the resting potential. Partial or complete recovery might have occurred on washing with normal medium. The increase in sodium conductance normally occurring upon depolarization was very effectively suppressed when the action potential was blocked after tetrodotoxin, while the delayed increase in potassium conductance underwent no change. It is concluded that tetrodotoxin, at very low concentrations, blocks the action potential production through its selective inhibition of the sodium-carrying mechanism while keeping the potassium-carrying mechanism intact.

Narahashi, Toshio; Moore, John W.; Scott, William R.

1964-01-01

411

Characterization of exoskeletal proteins from the American lobster, Homarus americanus.  

PubMed

Proteins from the calcified exoskeleton of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. Electroblotting the proteins onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes followed by sequence determination gave 16 N-terminal amino-acid sequences and revealed that further eight proteins were N-terminally blocked. The relative molecular mass, M(r), was obtained for most of the electrophoretically separated proteins by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption mass spectrometry (MALDIMS) after electroelution from Coomassie-stained two-dimensional polyacrylamide gels. Eleven proteins were purified from extracts of the exoskeleton by low pressure ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance chromatography, and their sequences were determined by combined use of Edman degradation and mass spectrometry. Good agreement was obtained between the M(r)-values measured by mass spectrometry and those calculated from the sequences. Five of the sequenced proteins contain two copies of a previously observed 18-residue sequence motif, while a couple of the remaining sequences show similarity to sequences of exoskeletal proteins from shrimps and spiders. Only limited similarity to insect cuticular proteins was observed. PMID:9530820

Nousiainen, M; Rafn, K; Skou, L; Roepstorff, P; Andersen, S O

1998-01-01

412

Cadmium and copper metallothioneins in the American lobster, Homarus americanus  

SciTech Connect

Lobsters were fed cadmium-rich oysters for 28 days, and the induction of cadmium metallothionein and its relation to concentrations of cadmium, copper, and zinc in the digestive gland and gills was determined. A portion of the tissues also was retained for determining the cytosolic distribution of these metals by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. The digestive gland contained a majority of the cadmium, copper, and zinc, and both cadmium and zinc were actively accumulated from the oysters. Gel chromatography of the digestive gland cytosol showed that initially only copper was bound to a protein with a molecular weight in the range of metallothionein (i.e., 10,000-7000). However, after feeding on cadmium-laden oysters for 28 days, both cadmium and copper were bound to the metallothioneinlike protein. Further purification of the cadmium/copper protein by ion-exchange chromatography showed that a large portion of the copper and all of the cadmium did not bind to DEAE-Sephacel. The induction of cadmium metallothionein in the digestive gland is correlated with tissue cadmium concentration. Coincident with the induction of the cadmium metallothionein was a cytosolic redistribution of copper. The distribution of zinc was not affected.

Engel, D.W.; Brouwer, M.

1986-03-01

413

Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of HâS. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and

J. Larsen-Basse; Kam-Fai Lam

1984-01-01

414

Global absolute sea level: The Hawaiian network  

Microsoft Academic Search

NOAA has begun work on a pilot absolute sea level network in Hawaii. Tide gauge stations on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, and Kauai have been upgraded by installing Next Generation Water Level Measurements Systems (NGWLMS). A regular program of monitoring the stability of each tide gauge in the International Earth Rotation Service (IERS) conventional terrestrial reference frame has

William E. Carter; Miranda Chin; J. Ross Mackay; George Peter; Wolfgang Scherer; John Diamante

1988-01-01

415

Rhenium Loss During Outgassing of Hawaiian Lavas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean island basalts have on average lower Re contents than MORB, which has been thought to reflect primary compositional variations in the plume source, or the presence of residual sulfide and\\/or garnet. We have measured the concentrations of Re, Pt, Cu, Bi, Cd, and Sb by laser ablation ICPMS, and S and major elements by electron microprobe in a suite

M. D. Norman; M. O. Garcia; V. C. Bennett

2002-01-01

416

Sound of shallow and deep water lobsters: Measurements, analysis, and characterization (L)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Study of sound made by marine species aid in ambient noise studies and characterization. This letter presents the work carried out on measurement of sound made by lobsters in a controlled environment and the data processing and the spectral analysis to identify the frequency contents. Lobsters collected in the shallow waters as well as deep waters in the ocean have been used for the sound measurement. The Panulirus Homarus and Palinustur Waguersis species were kept in a tank in a laboratory and measurements were made. Their fundamental frequencies, harmonics, and peaks are analyzed in the band 3 to 100 kHz under different conditions such as molting and nonmolting states. Analysis with respect to diurnal variations is also carried out. The results show that lobsters produce sound like musical instruments, which agree with the observations of Patek [Nature (London) 411, 153-154 (2001)]. .

Latha, G.; Senthilvadivu, S.; Venkatesan, R.; Rajendran, V.

2005-05-01

417

Topographic Attributes of Three Hawaiian Lava Flows: Implications for Evaluation of Lava Flow Emplacement on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differential Global Positioning System surveys were carried out recently across portions of three lava flows on the Big Island of Hawaii. Transects crossed an entire flow in several cases, and in other cases provided detailed information about selected flow margins. The 1907 basalt (a'a) flow from the southwestern rift zone of Mauna Loa has easy access at several points via the Ocean View Estates road system; flow thickness ranges from about 1 m near the middle of the eastern flow lobe to more than 10 m toward the distal end of this flow. Several components of a benmoreite (alkali-rich basaltic andesite) flow complex from Mauna Kea were examined near the small community of Mana (with permission of the Parker Ranch management), on the western flank of the volcano. The flows are more than 14,000 years old and completely covered with soil more than a meter thick, but flow morphology at the decameter scale remains very evident in aerial photographs; some benmoreite flows have up to 30 m of relief along their middle reaches. A trachyte flow more than 100,000 years old extends down slope from Puu Waawaa, on the northern flank of Hualalai; Puu Anahulu represents a very advanced stage of magmatic differentiation that resulted in a flow complex with more than 120 m of relief at its southern margin. Width/thickness represents a good discriminator between these three Hawaiian lava flows. Unfortunately, width is often the most difficult parameter to measure remotely for flows on other planets. Recent imaging data from the Thermal Emission Imaging System on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft reveal important new details of lava flows in the Tharsis region of Mars, some of which can be combined with elevation information from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. The precise topographic characteristics of diverse Hawaiian lava flows provide a new tool for evaluating the potential emplacement conditions for some Martian lava flows, which appear to be more consistent with the basalt to basaltic andesite lava flows than with the highly evolved trachyte flows. Future work, supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program, will obtain additional precise topographic information for several Hawaiian flows to expand the topographic data set for comparison with the Martian flows, as well as lava flows on other planetary bodies.

Zimbelman, J. R.

2004-12-01

418

Evolutionary Relationships of Four Species of Hawaiian Drosophila as Measured by DNA Reassociation  

PubMed Central

Four species of the Hawaiian Drosophila planitibia subgroup which are homosequential in their polytene chromosomes are resident on the islands of Molokai, Maui and Hawaii. Comparisons of DNA sequence divergence in these four have been made by hybridization of total single-copy radiolabeled tracer DNA from each of the species with excess nonlabeled DNA from each of the species, and measurement of the reduction of average melting temperature (?Tma) was made in 2.4 m tetraethyl ammonium chloride. The mean ?Tma between either D. heteroneura or D. silvestris and either D. planitibia or D. differens was found to be 1.06°, whereas the difference between D. planitibia and D. differens in 0.65° and between D. heteroneura and D. silvestris is 0.75°. These measurements taken together with the distances calculated from isozyme studies, chromosomal relationships, as well as the island locations indicate that the ancestor of these species diverged from other planitibia subgroup flies on Molokai [age 1.8 million years before present, (My BP)]. We hypothesize that one line became the present-day D. differens and diverged probably at the time of formation of East Maui (0.8-1 My BP) to form the species D. planitibia. Flies from the other line migrated to Hawaii soon after its formation (0.7 My BP) to form the two species D. heteroneura and D. silvestris.

Hunt, John A.; Carson, Hampton L.

1983-01-01

419

Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease  

PubMed Central

Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like microorganism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The type strain (1AMA) displayed a thermal reduction time (D value) of 5.77 min at 37°C. All of the isolates required at least 1% NaCl for growth. Collectively, the data suggest that these isolates may embody a new biotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the isolates revealed five closely related subgroups. Some isolates produced a sheep hemagglutinin that was neither an outer membrane protein nor a metalloprotease. Several isolates possessed capsules. The isolates were highly susceptible to a variety of antibiotics tested. However, six isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Seventeen isolates harbored plasmids. Lobster challenge studies revealed that the 50% lethal dose of a plasmid-positive strain was 100-fold lower than that of a plasmid-negative strain, suggesting that the plasmid may enhance the pathogenicity of these microorganisms in lobsters. Microorganisms that were recovered from experimentally infected lobsters exhibited biochemical and PFGE profiles that were indistinguishable from those of the challenge strain. Tissue affinity studies demonstrated that the challenge microorganisms accumulated in heart and midgut tissues as well as in the hemolymph. Culture supernatants and polymyxin B lysates of the strains caused elongation of CHO cells in tissue culture, suggesting the presence of a hitherto unknown enterotoxin. Both plasmid-positive and plasmid-negative strains caused significant dose-related intestinal fluid accumulations in suckling mice. Absence of viable organisms in the intestinal contents of mice suggests that these microorganisms cause diarrhea in mice by intoxication rather than by an infectious process. Further, these results support the thermal reduction data at 37°C and suggest that the mechanism(s) that led to fluid accumulation in mice differs from the disease process observed in lobsters by requiring neither the persistence of viable microorganisms nor the presence of plasmids. In summary, results of lobster studies satisfy Koch's postulates at the organismal and molecular levels; the findings support the hypothesis that these V. fluvialis-like organisms were responsible for the originally described systemic disease, which is now called limp lobster disease.

Tall, B. D.; Fall, S.; Pereira, M. R.; Ramos-Valle, M.; Curtis, S. K.; Kothary, M. H.; Chu, D. M. T.; Monday, S. R.; Kornegay, L.; Donkar, T.; Prince, D.; Thunberg, R. L.; Shangraw, K. A.; Hanes, D. E.; Khambaty, F. M.; Lampel, K. A.; Bier, J. W.; Bayer, R. C.

2003-01-01

420

PLANT INTRODUCTION NEEDS OF THE HAWAIIAN SUGAR INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hawaiian sugar industry has introduced plants for three major purposes: 1) expansion of the genetic base from which new sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) cultivars are developed, 2) protection of water- sheds from erosion, and 3) development of new crops to supplement sugar plantation income. New, higher-yielding and disease-resistant cultivars of sugar cane were initially developed as a result of

Robert V. Osgood; Robert D. Wiemer

421

Field Keys to Common Hawaiian Marine Animals and Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are keys for identifying common Hawaiian marine algae, beach plants, reef corals, sea urchins, tidepool fishes, and sea cucumbers. Nearly all species considered can be distinguished by characteristics visible to the naked eye. Line drawings illustrate most plants and animals included, and a list of suggested readings follows each…

Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

422

Middle Ear Disorders and Hearing Loss in Native Hawaiian Preschoolers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Native Hawaiian preschoolers (n=172) received a battery of tests that included pure-tone audiometry, tympanometry, acoustic reflectometry, and pneumatic otoscopy. Approximately 15% of children failed a majority of the tests. Results are discussed in comparison to other indigenous groups at risk for middle ear disorders and hearing loss.…

Pang-Ching, Glenn; And Others

1995-01-01

423

Building Family Capacity for Native Hawaiian Women with Breast Cancer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Native Hawaiian women have the highest breast cancer incidence and mortality rates when compared with other large ethnic groups in Hawai'i. Like other women, they rely on the support of their families as co-survivors. This project explored the feasibility and effects of a culturally tailored educational intervention designed to build family…

Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.; Daniggelis, Ephrosine

2012-01-01

424

Tobacco use prevention and control: implications for Native Hawaiian communities.  

PubMed

Despite the fact that the State of Hawai'i has the second lowest smoking prevalence rate in the nation, a higher proportion of Native Hawaiians continue to smoke cigarettes. Three data sources are examined and reveal that tobacco use and the health impact of tobacco use disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian adults and youths in Hawai'i. Studies have documented that dissemination of the approaches and methods shown to be effective will reduce the number of young people who become addicted to tobacco, increase the success rate of people trying to quit using tobacco, decrease the exposure of nonsmokers to environmental tobacco smoke, and decrease the burden of tobacco-related diseases and death. Strategies recommended for reducing tobacco use among Native Hawaiians include: (1) the development of collaboration with local school districts to implement school-based prevention programs in conjunction with community-based and media-based activities and (2) the Native Hawaiian Health Programs developing activities to implement the "5 A's" for brief clinical interventions. PMID:16281690

Ichiho, Henry M

2004-09-01

425

Wetland Features That Influence Occupancy By The Endangered Hawaiian Duck  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habitat loss, introduced predators, and hybridization with feral Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) continue to threaten the existence of the endangered Hawaiian Duck or Koloa maoli (A. wyvilliana). Protection and management of core breeding areas is a recovery objective, but lack of quantitative information on the species' habitat needs hinders recovery efforts. We conducted bi-monthly surveys of 48 wetlands on private lands

Kimberly J. Uyehara; ANDREW ENGILIS JR; Bruce D. Dugger

2008-01-01

426

Factors Affecting Native Hawaiian Student Persistence in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the educational outcomes of 515 Native Hawaiian alumni who graduated between 1993 and 1995 from high schools throughout the State of Hawaii. The majority of students graduated from Kamehameha Schools, while the others received postsecondary financial aid from the Ke Alii Pauahi Foundation. Respondents were separated into two…

Matsumoto, Dolwin Haunani Keanu

2010-01-01

427

Unstable cytoplasms in Hawaiian strains of Neurospora intermedia  

Microsoft Academic Search

By subjecting a large sample of natural isolates of N. intermedia to prolonged serial subculturing, 26 cytoplasmic variants have been identified. These variants show senescence, and finally death at some strain-specific point in the subculture series. All senescent strains are from the Hawaiian archipelago, where their incidence in natural populations is high. Senescent cultures can be female-fertile. Random ascospore analyses

A. J. F. Griffiths; H. Bertrand

1984-01-01

428

Women of Hope: Native American/Hawaiian. Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study guide accompanies a poster series and documentary video about 12 American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian "women of hope." The women vary by age, education, profession, and geographic locale, but they share an unwavering commitment and dedication to their people's struggle to survive and flourish as distinct cultures. The…

Hirschfelder, Arlene; Molin, Paulette Fairbanks; Oneita, Kathryn; Wakim, Yvonne B.

429

Surveys of distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hawk within the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct specific biological surveys to identify potential impacts of proposed geothermal development on the biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the distribution, habitat use, and density of the Hawaiian hawk or `Io (Buteo solitarius). Data were collected by the USFWS to assess the potential impacts of geothermal development on `Io populations on the island of Hawaii. These impacts include degradation of potential nesting habitat and increased disturbance due to construction and operation activities. Data from these surveys were analyzed as part of an island wide population assessment conducted by the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology at the request of the USFWS.

Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D. [Fish and Wildlife Service, Hawaii National Park, HI (United States). Hawaii Research Station

1994-08-01

430

The National Center on Indigenous Hawaiian Behavioral Health Study of Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Native Hawaiian Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: The prevalence rates of disorders among a community-based sample of Hawaiian youths were determined and compared to previously published epidemiological studies. Method: Using a two-phase design, 7,317 adolescents were surveyed (60% participation rate), from which 619 were selected in a modified random sample during the 1992-1993 to…

Andrade, Naleen N.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; McDermott, John F., Jr.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Goebert, Deborah A.; Makini, George K., Jr.; Nahulu, Linda B.; Yuen, Noelle Y. C.; McArdle, John J.; Bell, Cathy K.; Carlton, Barry S.; Miyamoto, Robin H.; Nishimura, Stephanie T.; Else, Iwalani R. N.; Guerrero, Anthony P. S.; Darmal, Arsalan; Yates, Alayne; Waldron, Jane A.

2006-01-01

431

Contrast-enhanced photoacoustic imaging of live lobster nerve cord  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoacoustic imaging provides optical contrast with good penetration and high spatial resolution, making it an attractive tool for noninvasive neural applications. We chose a commercial dye (NK2761) commonly used for optical imaging of membrane potential to enhance photoacoustic images of the live lobster nerve cord. The abdominal segment of the nerve cord was excised, stained and positioned in a custom neural recording system, enabling electrical stimulation and recording of compound action potentials. Photoacoustic and pulse echo images were also collected using a commercial ultrasound scanner and a 10-MHz linear probe. A wavelength-tunable pulsed laser source (SureliteTM, 5 ns, ~15 mJ, 30 mJ/cm2) operating at 20 Hz produced photoacoustic waves. Longitudinal photoacoustic scans of a 25-mm segment of the excised nerve cord, including ganglionic and axonal processes, were collected and displayed every 7 seconds. Without the contrast agent, an average of 10 scans produced a peak photoacoustic signal 6 dB over background noise. An additional 29 dB was obtained after the nerve was submerged in the dye for 20 minutes. The gain decreased to 23 dB and 14 dB at 810 nm and 910 nm, respectively - consistent with the dye's optical absorbance measured using a portable spectrometer. The contrast-enhanced photoacoustic signal had a broad spectrum peaking at 4 MHz, and, after high pass filtering, images approached 200-?m spatial resolution. The hybrid imaging system, which provided several hours of electrical stimulation and recording, represents a robust testbed to develop novel photoacoustic contrast for neural applications.

Witte, Russell S.; Huang, S.; Ashkenazi, S.; Kim, K.; O'Donnell, M.

2007-03-01

432

Spectrum-RG/eROSITA/Lobster astrophysical mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A medium size satellite will be launched in the 2010-2011 timeframe into a 600 km equatorial (less than or equal to 5 deg.) orbit from Kourou or into a less than or equal to 30 deg. orbit from Baikonur as a fallback option. The payload includes eROSITA (extended ROentgen Survey with an Imaging Telescope Array, MPE, Germany) with 7 Wolter-type telescopes, the wide field X-ray monitor Lobster (LU, UK), the X-ray concentrator based on Kumakhov optics ART or coded-mask X-ray telescopes as a fallback (IKI, Russia) and GRB detector (Russian consortium). High particle background on high apogee orbits severely affects the capabilities of X-ray telescopes to study diffuse emission. For new baseline configuration of the SRG mission a low earth orbit was selected to circumvent this limitation. The mission will conduct the first all-sky survey with an imaging telescope in the 2-12 keV band to discover the hidden population of several hundred thousand obscured supermassive black holes and the first all-sky imaging X-ray time variability survey. In addition to the all-sky surveys it is foreseen to observe the extragalactic sky with high sensitivity to detect 50 to 100 thousand clusters of galaxies and thereafter to do follow-up pointed observations of selected sources, in order to investigate the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. The new SRG mission would thus be a highly significant scientific and technological step beyond Chandra/XMM-Newton and would provide important and timely inputs for the next generation of giant X-ray observatories like XEUS/Con-X planned for the 2015-2025 horizon.

Pavlinsky, M.; Hasinger, G.; Parmar, A.; Fraser, G.; Churazov, E.; Gilfanov, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Predehl, P.; Piro, L.; Arefiev, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Pinchuk, V.; Gorobets, D.

2006-07-01

433

Kinematics, hydrodynamics and force production of pleopods suggest jet-assisted walking in the American lobster (Homarus americanus).  

PubMed

The American lobster (Homarus americanus) displays a diverse set of locomotory behaviours that includes tail flips, walking and paddling. Paddling is carried out by the four pairs of paddle-shaped pleopods on the ventral abdomen. Although it is recognized that pleopod-generated fluid flows have some locomotory role in adults, reports on their relative importance in locomotion are inconsistent. This paper integrates experimental kinematics and hydrodynamics of lobster pleopod beating to determine the mechanism and magnitude of pleopod force production. A kinematic analysis of pleopod beating in live lobsters showed that the pleopods execute an adlocomotory metachronal beating pattern. We modelled in vivo pleopod kinematics with a set of simple trigonometric functions, and used these functions to program a mechanical lobster model consisting of motor-driven pleopods on a lobster abdomen exoskeleton. Based on flow visualizations obtained from applying particle image velocimetry to the lobster model, we propose that the unsteady metachronal kinematics of the pleopods can maximize thrust by exploiting forces arising from individual pleopod activity and interactions among adjacent pairs. The pleopods continuously entrain fluid surrounding the lobster and create a caudally directed fluid jet oriented parallel to the substratum. Inputting wake morphology and velocity data into a simplified model for steady jet thrust showed that the pleopods of the lobster model produced 27-54 mN of thrust, which is comparable to the propulsive forces generated by other proficient swimmers. These results suggest that lobster pleopods are capable of producing forces of a magnitude that could assist the walking legs in forward propulsion. PMID:19684205

Lim, Jeanette L; Demont, M Edwin

2009-09-01

434

Characteristics of the turbidite units derived from the Alika debris avalanches on the submarine flanks of the island of Hawaii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many giantic submarine landslides have been recognized around the Hawaiian Islands, and most of them are considered to be accompanied with giant tsunami. Core samples obtained from deep-sea floor are a useful record for estimating the frequency of giant submarine landslide. Hawever, correlation between turbidite deposits in the core sample and the giant submarine landslides are uncertain. In order to

Y. Fujimoto; H. Yokose; T. Kanamatsu; M. Murayama; K. Akimoto; T. Ishii

2007-01-01

435

An expressed sequence tag (EST) library from developing fruits of an Hawaiian endemic mint (Stenogyne rugosa, Lamiaceae): characterization and microsatellite markers  

PubMed Central

Background The endemic Hawaiian mints represent a major island radiation that likely originated from hybridization between two North American polyploid lineages. In contrast with the extensive morphological and ecological diversity among taxa, ribosomal DNA sequence variation has been found to be remarkably low. In the past few years, expressed sequence tag (EST) projects on plant species have generated a vast amount of publicly available sequence data that can be mined for simple sequence repeats (SSRs). However, these EST projects have largely focused on crop or otherwise economically important plants, and so far only few studies have been published on the use of intragenic SSRs in natural plant populations. We constructed an EST library from developing fleshy nutlets of Stenogyne rugosa principally to identify genetic markers for the Hawaiian endemic mints. Results The Stenogyne fruit EST library consisted of 628 unique transcripts derived from 942 high quality ESTs, with 68% of unigenes matching Arabidopsis genes. Relative frequencies of Gene Ontology functional categories were broadly representative of the Arabidopsis proteome. Many unigenes were identified as putative homologs of genes that are active during plant reproductive development. A comparison between unigenes from Stenogyne and tomato (both asterid angiosperms) revealed many homologs that may be relevant for fruit development. Among the 628 unigenes, a total of 44 potentially useful microsatellite loci were predicted. Several of these were successfully tested for cross-transferability to other Hawaiian mint species, and at least five of these demonstrated interesting patterns of polymorphism across a large sample of Hawaiian mints as well as close North American relatives in the genus Stachys. Conclusion Analysis of this relatively small EST library illustrated a broad GO functional representation. Many unigenes could be annotated to involvement in reproductive development. Furthermore, first tests of microsatellite primer pairs have proven promising for the use of Stenogyne rugosa EST SSRs for evolutionary and phylogeographic studies of the Hawaiian endemic mints and their close relatives. Given that allelic repeat length variation in developmental genes of other organisms has been linked with morphological evolution, these SSRs may also prove useful for analyses of phenotypic differences among Hawaiian mints.

Lindqvist, Charlotte; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Grey, Paris; Oppenheimer, David G; Leebens-Mack, James H; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Albert, Victor A

2006-01-01

436

Structural Equation Modeling of Group Differences in CES-D Ratings of Native Hawaiian and Non-Hawaiian High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Analyzes differences in self-reported Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression inventory results among ethnic Hawaiian and non-Hawaiian high school students, using different forms of latent variable structural equation models. Finds a high degree of invariance between students on depression. Discusses issues about common features and…

McArdle, John J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Hishinuma, Earl S.; Miyamoto, Robin H.; Andrade, Naleen N.

2001-01-01

437

Marine debris accumulation in the nearshore marine habitat of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi 1999-2001.  

PubMed

Large amounts of marine debris are present in shallow reefs adjacent to beach haulouts of the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monachus schauinslandi. These areas serve as seal pup nurseries, and injury and death caused by entanglement in marine debris are undermining population recovery efforts. We investigated the extent of this threat by measuring the accumulation of potentially entangling derelict fishing gear in nursery zones, 1999-2001. Plots of reef 1.0-1.3 km2 at three Northwestern Hawaiian Islands were initially cleaned of derelict fishing gear in 1999 then resurveyed in 2000 and 2001. Submerged debris densities across sites ranged from 16 to 165 debris items/km2. Resurveyed sites yielded annual marine debris accumulation rates from 0 to 141 debris items/km2. This large range was attributed to the physiography of reef areas surveyed. Trawl net webbing was significantly more common than other types of debris recovered and represented 84% of all debris encountered, suggesting that much of the debris originated from distant North Pacific Ocean fisheries. The likely source of most debris is the multinational trawl fisheries of the North Pacific Ocean. An international solution to this problem is needed. Targeted marine debris removal is a short-term, successful, entanglement mitigation strategy. PMID:14607537

Boland, Raymond C; Donohue, Mary J

2003-11-01

438

Identification of digestible carbohydrate sources for inclusion in formulated diets for juvenile spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbohydrates are a key ingredient in crustacean formulated diets because of their potential to greatly improve production efficiency. For the culture of spiny lobsters where daily food intake is limited, carbohydrates have the potential for delivering a low cost source of energy that could spare protein for growth. Therefore, the digestibility of different carbohydrate sources including refined sugars, mussel glycogen,

Cedric J. Simon

2009-01-01

439

Assessment of predation risk through conspecific alarm odors by spiny lobsters  

PubMed Central

Strong “alarm odors” emanating from lethally injured conspecifics may indicate an imminent risk of predation to spiny lobsters. In laboratory trials,1 strong conspecific alarm odors elicited avoidance in Panulirus argus, a highly gregarious species that displays collective defense behavior, but not in Panulirus guttatus, a species that tends to aggregate when reproductive activity is high (spring) but not when it is low (late summer) and does not display collective defensive behavior. To reduce predation risk, however, lobsters may autotomize limbs, thus sustaining nonlethal injuries. I tested the response of these lobsters to scents emanating from intact, lethally-injured and non-lethally injured conspecifics. In P. argus, these scents elicited, respectively, attraction, avoidance and a random response, suggesting that, in P. argus, avoidance of conspecific alarm odors depends on their strength. In contrast, P. guttatus lobsters responded at random to scents of lethally injured conspecifics and showed a similar response to scents of intact and non-lethally injured conspecifics in the spring (attraction) and in the summer (random), reflecting the more cryptic defensive behavior of this species. Therefore, both species use conspecific alarm odors for risk-assessment, but each responds to these cues in the most effective way to reduce its risk of predation.

2009-01-01

440

Staring/focusing lobster-eye hard x-ray imaging for non-astronomical objects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to hard X-ray imaging is proposed, based on staring optics consisting of a lobster-eye lens. This new Staring Imaging Lobster-Eye X-Ray approach is especially suited to X-ray lobster-eye imaging of non-astronomical objects at finite distances, because the staring optics replacing the standard scanning optics, result in an extremely efficient power budget, making possible not only the use of low-efficiency Compton backscattering but also operation with low-flux X-ray beams, increasing operator safety. The lobster-eye optics, consisting of square-cross-section microchannels, transmit an X-ray beam by total external reflection. This mode of operation has already been verified for viewing astronomical objects. Its major challenge is minimizing image defocusing by apodization. For this purpose, a new lens imaging equation is derived, and a new local optical axis concept is defined. Applications include medical imaging, cargo inspection, non-destructive testing, industrial and security safeguards, and surveillance.

Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Jannson, Tomasz; Savant, Gajendra

2005-08-01

441

Nervous responses from mechanosensory hairs on the antennal flagellum in the lobster, homarus gammarus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stimulus response characteristics of tactile hair receptors found on the exoskeleton in the antennal flagellum of the lobster were investigated. Two types of hair receptors could be identified. The receptors are small hair sensilla which are highly sensitive to water movement.One type of hair receptor was dually innervated and individual units involved were directionally sensitive. The receptor could produce a

K. Tazaki

1977-01-01

442

Evolution of operational management procedures for the South African West Coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial fishery for Jasus lalandii, the South Africa West Coast rock lobster, began in the late 1800s and at its peak in the early 1950s yielded an annual catch of 18 000 t. Although this annual catch has dropped to only some 2000 t over recent years, the fishery remains South Africa's third most valuable for landed value. The

S. J. Johnston; D. S. Butterworth

2005-01-01

443

Developing a cost-effective puerulus collector for the southern rock lobster ( Jasus edwardsii) aquaculture industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the extended duration of larval development, commercial rock lobster aquaculture is proceeding through the harvest of wild pueruli. Puerulus collectors appropriate for commercial use were developed by: (i) obtaining information on appropriate collection materials from industry and past research; (ii) directly comparing catch rates from these materials; and (iii) designing and comparing collectors appropriate for large-scale commercial deployment

David Mills; Bradley Crear

2004-01-01

444

Effects of manganese on chemically induced food search behaviour of the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decapod Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus (L.), lives on muddy sediments rich in manganese (Mn). In hypoxic conditions, manganese is reduced and released from the sediment, so increased concentrations of dissolved Mn2+ become bioavailable. In excess, manganese acts as a neurotoxin and may inhibit vital functions of benthic organisms, such as muscle contraction. We investigated in a laboratory flume experiment,

Anna-Sara Krång; Gunilla Rosenqvist

2006-01-01

445

The chemical basis of food detection in the lobster Homarus gammarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synthetic mixture of chemicals, based on the composition of an extract of squid muscle, has been developed, which is highly attractive for the lobster Homarus gammarus (L.). None of the components of this mixture was as attractive as the complete mixture, and substitution of D-amino acids for the natural L-forms also greatly reduced the attractiveness. This would indicate that

A. M. Mackie

1973-01-01

446

Competition between invasive green crab (Carcinus maenas) and American lobster (Homarus americanus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green crab (Carcinus maenas) have recently invaded the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada. Although these invasive crabs have coexisted without appreciable impact on American lobster (Homarus americanus) populations in northeastern United States, Bay of Fundy, and the southern shore of Nova Scotia, Canada, the green crab in the southern Gulf of St. Lawrence likely represents a new introduction of

P. J. Williams; C. MacSween; M. Rossong

2009-01-01

447

Factors affecting colour change in ‘white’ western rock lobsters, Panulirus cygnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 4–5 years old, western rock lobsters migrate offshore to the fishery, soon after their colouring has changed from red to a pale pink colour. Although a large number of these animals (known as ‘whites’) are landed by the commercial fishery during November to January each year, they are less popular with consumers in the Japanese market, and so have

Roy Melville-Smith; Yuk Wing Cheng; Adrian W. Thomson

2003-01-01

448

Possible In-Plant Sources of Contamination of Lobster and Snow Crab by Listeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to determine potential sources of Listeria monocytogenes contamination through statistical analysis of L. monocytogenes re