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Sample records for hawaiian islands lobster

  1. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2013 at zero lobsters....

  2. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... Monument (74 FR 47119, September 15, 2009). During December 2009 and January 2010, eligible NWHI lobster... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster...

  3. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in...

  4. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2011 is established at...

  5. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  6. Some preliminary findings on the nutritional status of the Hawaiian spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrish, F.A.; Martinelli-Liedtke, T. L.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the nutritional status of spiny lobster (Panulirus marginatus) were collected on the commercial trapping grounds of Necker Bank, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, in the summers of 1991, 1994, and 1995. Glycogen levels measured in abdominal tissue of intermolt males were used as an index of nutritional health of the field population. The range of glycogen sampled from wild lobster was less than half the level measured in captive lobster fed to satiation in a previous study. An analysis of covariance identified significant interannual and spatial effects explaining 46% of the variance in the sample of wild lobsters. Most significant was a decline in lobster glycogen levels between samples collected in 1991 and 1994-1995. Seasonal influences on lobster nutrition are unknown and were identified as an obvious direction for future ecological research.

  7. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  8. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (Map of the US with the states that have significant Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations according to the Census Bureau) HI - ...

  9. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Diabetes Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Asian Americans, in general, have the same ... However, there are differences within the Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander population. From a national survey, Native Hawaiians/ ...

  10. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Asthma Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders are 70 percent more likely to have ... being told they had asthma, 2014 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ ...

  11. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were four times more likely than non- ... a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander adults have developed several of the high ...

  13. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders were seven times ... At a glance – Cancer Rates for Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Liver & IBD Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  14. Pearl and Hermes Reef, Hawaiian Island Chain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Pearl and Hermes Reef (28.0N, 176.0W) in the Hawaiian Island Chain, are seen with several small sandy islands, forming an atoll that caps a seamount on the long chain that extends some 1,500 miles northwestward from the more familiar Hawaiian Islands proper. Pearl and Hermes Reef lies about 100 miles southeast of Midway island. A reticulate network of coral patch reefs separates the lagoon into more or less isolated pools.

  15. Island of Hawaii, Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This single photo covers almost all of the big island of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5E) in the Hawaiian Archipelago. The active Kilauea Volcano and lava flow is under clouds and hardly visible at the lower right edge but the Mauna Loa volcano crater and its older lava flow is at the bottom center. The Kona Coast, that produces the only coffee grown in the United States, is to the left. Mauna Kea is the extinct volcano and lava flow in the right center.

  16. Hydrogeology of the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, Stephen B.; Oki, Delwyn S.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic-rock aquifers are the most extensive and productive aquifers in the Hawaiian Islands. These aquifers contain different types of groundwater systems depending on the geologic setting in which they occur. The most common groundwater systems include coastal freshwater-lens systems in the dike-free flanks of the volcanoes and dike-impounded systems within the dike-intruded areas of the volcanoes. In some areas, a thick (hundreds of meters) freshwater lens may develop because of the presence of a coastal confining unit, or caprock, that impedes the discharge of groundwater from the volcanic-rock aquifer, or because the permeability of the volcanic rocks forming the aquifer is low. In other areas with low groundwater-recharge rates and that lack a caprock, the freshwater lens may be thin or brackish water may exist immediately below the water table. Dike-impounded groundwater systems commonly have high water levels (hundreds of meters above sea level) and contribute to the base flow of streams where the water table intersects the stream. Recent numerical modeling studies have enhanced the conceptual understanding of groundwater systems in the Hawaiian Islands.

  17. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information How to Talk to Your ... Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander women Accidents Alcoholism and drug abuse Asthma ...

  18. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links to health issues that affect Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders.

  19. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders Suicide affects Americans of every racial and ... group is the Asian, Native Hawaiian, or other Pacific Islander population. According to the combined 2008 to ...

  20. Thysanoptera-Terebrantia of the Hawaiian Islands: an identification manual

    PubMed Central

    Mound, Laurence; Nakahara, Sueo; Tsuda, Dick M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract An illustrated identification system is presented to 99 species and 49 genera in three families recorded from the Hawaiian Islands in the Thysanoptera suborder Terebrantia. Only seven (possibly eight) of these species are considered endemic, the remainder being adventive to these islands. The only previous study of Hawaiian Thysanoptera, by Zimmerman in 1948, included 47 Terebrantia species in 21 genera. PMID:26843832

  1. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register A. Regulatory History and... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI.... 14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following...

  2. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall infant mortality rate for Asians/Pacific Islanders is comparable to the white population, disparities ...

  3. PCB and metal concentrations in American lobsters from the Acushnet River estuary and Long Island Sound

    SciTech Connect

    Mercaldo-Allen, R.; Kuropat, C.A.; Greig, R.A.; Sennefelder, G. )

    1994-12-01

    The American lobster, Homarus americanus, is commonly found in coastal waters adjacent to heavily industrialized areas where pollutant input generally occurs. Environmental contamination is known to affect many aspects of lobster biology. Heavy metals, pesticides, pulp mill effluent, petroleum hydrocarbons and other pollutants can adversely affect lobster physiology and behavior. Sublethal concentrations of contaminants can stress lobsters, making them more susceptible to disease or other conditions that would normally be tolerated. Lobster embryos and larvae, particularly the first-stage, are sensitive to a variety of organic and metal pollutants. Sediments in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, are heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); edible tissues of lobsters collected there have been found to contain PCB concentrations exceeding the FDA action level of 2 [mu]g/g wet wt. PCBs are strongly lipophilic and accumulate in fatty tissues including egg masses. Metals and PCBs are contaminants of concern in Long Island Sound. This study examines whether field exposure of ovigerous female lobsters to PCBs results in subsequent contamination of embryos, first-stage larvae, postlarvae, and juvenile offspring of [open quotes]berried[close quotes] lobsters from New Bedford Harbor and selected locations in Long Island Sound. Metal contamination in the embryos and offspring of Long Island Sound lobsters was also measured. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. On the Gravity of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Taylor, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are part of the most geologically studied intra-plate volcanic island chain. Surprisingly, the only chain wide compilation of marine and terrestrial gravity data is now more than 40 years old. Early terrestrial studies conducted by J. G. Moore, H.L Krivoy, G. P. Woollard, W. E Strange and others in the early 1960's were meant to serve as reconnaissance surveys only. In addition, early marine surveys were limited in both accurate positioning and data density. Detailed analysis of the crustal density structure of the island chain was limited. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation incorporating the original island-specific survey data, recently published data on the island of Kauai and Hawaii, as well as more than 10 years of newly incorporated marine data collected aboard the University of Hawaii's R/V Kilo Moana. This data was supplemented by surveys aboard the R/V Farnella among others. We present free-air (FAA), simple/complete Bouguer, and residual gravity maps on an unprecedented resolution and geographical extent for the area. This data will be hosted as an interactive Google-Earth overlay at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG - www.soest.hawaii.edu/HMRG) and made available to the scientific community. We hope that this dataset will be used for further comparison of the gravity fields of other intra-plate volcanic systems (French Polynesia, etc.) and to constrain seismic studies of crustal structure in the Hawaiian-chain through joint seismic-gravity inversions.

  5. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Eben H; Camp, Richard J; Gorresen, P Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H; Leonard, David L; VanderWerf, Eric A

    2016-09-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua'i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species' ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua'i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai'i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  6. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Eben H.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Crampton, Lisa H.; Leonard, David L.; VanderWerf, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    The viability of many species has been jeopardized by numerous negative factors over the centuries, but climate change is predicted to accelerate and increase the pressure of many of these threats, leading to extinctions. The Hawaiian honeycreepers, famous for their spectacular adaptive radiation, are predicted to experience negative responses to climate change, given their susceptibility to introduced disease, the strong linkage of disease distribution to climatic conditions, and their current distribution. We document the rapid collapse of the native avifauna on the island of Kaua‘i that corresponds to changes in climate and disease prevalence. Although multiple factors may be pressuring the community, we suggest that a tipping point has been crossed in which temperatures in forest habitats at high elevations have reached a threshold that facilitates the development of avian malaria and its vector throughout these species’ ranges. Continued incursion of invasive weeds and non-native avian competitors may be facilitated by climate change and could also contribute to declines. If current rates of decline continue, we predict multiple extinctions in the coming decades. Kaua‘i represents an early warning for the forest bird communities on the Maui and Hawai‘i islands, as well as other species around the world that are trapped within a climatic space that is rapidly disappearing. PMID:27617287

  7. 77 FR 27185 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  8. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL COMPARISON OF ALGAL BIODIVERSITY AND BENTHIC COVER AT GARDNER PINNACLES, NORTHWESTERN HAWAI`IAN ISLANDS(1).

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Timmers, Molly A V

    2009-04-01

    Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawai`ian Islands is the second largest marine protected area in the world, providing an opportunity for scientists to understand natural ecosystem fluctuations in subtropical marine communities with little anthropogenic impact. Gardner Pinnacles is composed of two emergent basaltic rocks and has the smallest land area of any island in the Northwestern Hawai`ian Island chain but has among the largest submerged reef area. Gardner Pinnacles is also among the least anthropogenically impacted island in the Hawai`ian Archipelago, although a thriving lobster and bottomfish industry existed in the area for many years. This study assesses nearshore algal biodiversity and percent cover at Gardner Pinnacles to examine interannual differences in community dynamics and places them in an ecosystem context by also examining associated invertebrate and fish communities. Biodiversity surveys increased the number of known eukaryotic algal species occurring in marine environments immediately adjacent to the emergent portion of Gardner Pinnacles from 31 to 77. Algal percent cover, specifically populations of the green alga Microdictyon setchellianum M. Howe, varied dramatically between sampling years, possibly in response to seasonal differences. Towed-diver surveys revealed that macroalgae covered >90% of the substrate during the 2003 sampling period but returned to 2000 levels (1%-35% cover) by 2004 without any detectable damage to other reef organisms. Fish communities remained statistically similar between sampling years, and percent cover of live coral around the island did not exceed 7%. PMID:27033812

  9. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island... Hawaii, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on all other bays, harbors, and lagoons of the Hawaiian...

  14. Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are

  15. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors,...

  16. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (−6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested. PMID:18426752

  17. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  18. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  19. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  20. Month-Year Rainfall Maps of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Diaz, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have one of the most spatially-diverse rainfall patterns on earth. Island topography, persistent trade winds, thermal effects of the islands, and the presence of the trade-wind inversion interact to cause air to be lifted in distinct spatial patterns anchored to the topography. The resulting clouds and rainfall produced by this uplift lead to extreme gradients in monthly and annual rainfall in the islands. Knowledge of the rainfall patterns is critically important for a variety of resource management issues, including ground water and surface water development and protection, controlling and eradicating invasive species, protecting and restoring native ecosystems, and planning for the effects of global warming. In this study, development of month-year rainfall maps from 1920-2007 for the six major Hawaiian islands using geostatistical methods is undertaken. While mean monthly and annual rainfall maps for Hawaii are available, spatially continuous maps of precipitation for individual months do not exist. Simple methods, such as linear interpolation or ordinary kriging, are not appropriate for interpolating month-year rainfall due to the extreme spatial diversity. A method comparison is performed here to choose the best interpolation method for each island. The comparison focuses on different kriging algorithms including kriging with an external drift and simple kriging with varying local means. Parameter sensitivity tests are used for each method, and several covariates are considered to reduce interpolation error. The different combinations of methods, covariates and parameters are evaluated using cross validation statistics. To produce the final maps, the anomaly method is used to relate station data from every individual month with the 1978-2007 mean monthly maps. The anomalies are interpolated using the best method determined from the comparison, and then recombined with the mean maps to produce the final maps for the six major Hawaiian

  1. Dynamical Downscaling of Climate Change over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Hamilton, K. P.; Lauer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The pseudo-global-warming (PGW) method was applied to the Hawaii Regional Climate Model (HRCM) to dynamically downscale the projected climate in the late 21st century over the Hawaiian Islands. The initial and boundary conditions were adopted from MERRA reanalysis and NOAA SST data for the present-day simulations. The global warming increments constructed from the CMIP3 multi-model ensemble mean were added to the reanalysis and SST data to perform the future climate simulations. We found that the Hawaiian Islands are vulnerable to global warming effects and the changes are diverse due to the varied topography. The windward side will have more clouds and receive more rainfall. The increase of the moisture in the boundary layer makes the major contribution. On the contrary, the leeward side will have less clouds and rainfall. The clouds and rain can slightly slow down the warming trend over the windward side. The temperature increases almost linearly with the terrain height. Cloud base and top heights will slightly decline in response to the slightly lower trade wind inversion base height, while the trade wind occurrence frequency will increase by about 8% in the future. More extreme rainfall events will occur in the warming climate over the Hawaiian Islands. And the snow cover on the top of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa will nearly disappear in the future winter.

  2. Short- and long-term movements of painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor) on a coral reef at Northwest Island, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisch, A. J.

    2007-06-01

    Understanding movements of palinurid (spiny) lobsters is important to fisheries management. However, movement data obtained with mark-capture techniques are often influenced by artefacts (e.g., displacement, tag-loss, tag-induced injury). To avoid these problems, a novel approach was employed to investigate the movements of an important coral reef palinurid, the painted lobster ( Panulirus versicolor). Eighty adult individuals were captured by hand near Northwest Island, Australia. Each lobster was tagged internally (with elastomer) and externally (with plastic zip-ties) to enable both short- (1-10 days) and long-term (6-24 months) observations. Shortly thereafter, all lobsters were manually returned to their shelters (dens). After 6-24 months, 44 lobsters were recaptured, giving an overall recapture rate of 55%. All of these individuals were recaptured within 500 m of their original den, thus indicating a high level of site-fidelity for this species. Short-term observations revealed that individuals moved frequently to and from nearby dens, and that male lobsters typically moved further than female lobsters. It is hypothesized that male lobsters move about their home range more actively, perhaps to seek mating opportunities or to defend resources. The significance of these observations is discussed with respect to the management of this important fishery resource.

  3. Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment…

  4. Phylogenetics of the Antopocerus-Modified Tarsus Clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: Diversification across the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lapoint, Richard T.; Magnacca, Karl N.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  5. Phylogenetics of the antopocerus-modified tarsus clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: diversification across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Richard T; Magnacca, Karl N; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  6. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The ‘tree lobsters’ are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4 kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the ‘tree lobster’ body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22 Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  7. Maternal and Child Health of Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) women and infants, but do not ... and childbirth are meaningful and important to many AA and NHPI families. The health care system must ...

  8. Book review: Conservation biology of Hawaiian forest birds: Implications for island avifauna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles, III

    2010-01-01

    Review info: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. By Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds., 2009. ISBN 978-0300141085, 707 pp.

  9. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce,...

  10. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume II. Impact of geothermal development on the geology and hydrology of the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, C.; Siegel, B.Z.

    1980-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: the geological setting of the Hawaiian Islands, regional geology of the major islands, geohydrology of the Hawaiian Islands, Hawaiis' geothermal resources, and potential geological/hydrological problems associated with geothermal development. Souces of information on the geology of Hawaii are presented. (MHR)

  11. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasko, Lisa; Mayeda, David T.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian and…

  12. Temporal variability of marine debris deposition at Tern Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Agustin, Alyssa E; Merrifield, Mark A; Potemra, James T; Morishige, Carey

    2015-12-15

    A twenty-two year record of marine debris collected on Tern Island is used to characterize the temporal variability of debris deposition at a coral atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Debris deposition tends to be episodic, without a significant relationship to local forcing processes associated with winds, sea level, waves, and proximity to the Subtropical Convergence Zone. The General NOAA Operational Modeling Environment is used to estimate likely debris pathways for Tern Island. The majority of modeled arrivals come from the northeast following prevailing trade winds and surface currents, with trajectories indicating the importance of the convergence zone, or garbage patch, in the North Pacific High region. Although debris deposition does not generally exhibit a significant seasonal cycle, some debris types contain considerable 3 cycle/yr variability that is coherent with wind and surface pressure over a broad region north of Tern. PMID:26578295

  13. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  14. Hawaiian Islands Captured by Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. A 200-ft long (60 meter) mast supporting the SRTM jutted into space from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth, the giant structure was deployed on February 12, 2000 and the C-band and X-band anternae mounted on it quickly went to work mapping parts of the Earth. The SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, and obtained 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs. This image is an example of the data required by the SRTM. This is a view of the three Hawaiian Islands; Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, ranging from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 5900 feet (1800 meters) of total relief. SRTM will help local officials to better understand and prepare for volcanic, tidal wave, and earthquake activities.

  15. 75 FR 40759 - Initiation of Review of Management Plan/Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... regulations that became effective December 29, 1999 (64 FR 63262). NOAA anticipates completion of the revised.../Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare Draft...) has initiated a review of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS...

  16. A Comparison of Health Education and Physical Activity Practice in Four Regions of the Hawaiian Island of Oahu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Donna; Eburne, Norman; Donnelly, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare four distinct Hawaiian districts on the island of Oahu regarding their efforts in presenting quality health education and physical activity. The ethnic groups represented in this study included Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, Asian and Caucasian. Questionnaires based on the Action for Healthy Kids Healthy…

  17. Toward improved health: disaggregating Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander data.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, S; Guillermo, T

    2000-01-01

    The 2000 census, with its option for respondents to mark 1 or more race categories, is the first US census to recognize the multiethnic nature of all US populations but especially Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders. If Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders have for the most part been "invisible" in policy debates regarding such matters as health care and immigration, it has been largely because of a paucity of data stemming from the lack of disaggregated data on this heterogeneous group of peoples. Studies at all levels should adhere to these disaggregated classifications. Also, in addition to oversampling procedures, there should be greater regional/local funding for studies in regions where Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander populations are substantial. PMID:11076241

  18. Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Kimberly L.; Royden, Leigh H.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2015-05-01

    Rates of island vertical motion above intra-plate hotspots record the processes that arise from interactions between lithospheric plates and mantle plumes. To assess the contribution of mantle and lithospheric processes to surface motion above the Hawaiian hotspot, we compare simple models of lithospheric deformation to vertical motion rates measured from dated paleoshorelines and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. Our analysis shows that observed uplift and subsidence rates mainly record the flexural response of the lithosphere to volcanic loads. The effective elastic plate thickness that best fits the spatial distribution of subsidence and uplift rates is ∼40 km, consistent with previous estimates based on total vertical deflection. Because volcanic loading dominates the vertical motion signal, Hawaiian Islands appear to follow a predictable trajectory of vertical motion when they reside within one flexural half-wavelength of the active volcanic center. Islands initially subside at rapid and decreasing rates in the first ∼1 Myr following their construction, uplift relatively slowly ∼1-2.5 Myr following their construction, and eventually subside again, but at slow rates, within ∼5 Myr of their construction. This observed pattern of uplift and subsidence is consistent with the pattern of vertical motion predicted to result from volcanic loading at the Hawaiian hotspot. Lithospheric migration over the long-wavelength topographic swell associated with the Hawaiian hotspot has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Its contribution to island vertical motion is not readily observed in our data, with the possible exception of some uplift observed in the past ∼500 kyr on O'ahu that might correspond to non-steady state behavior of the Hawaiian plume.

  19. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4

  20. Chemical weathering fluxes from volcanic islands and the importance of groundwater: The Hawaiian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopka, Herdis Helga; Derry, Louis A.

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the products and rates of chemical weathering on the Hawaiian Islands, sampling streams on Kaua'i and both streams and groundwater wells on the island of Hawai'i. Dissolved silica was used to investigate the flowpaths of water drained into streams. We found that flowpaths exert a major control on the observed chemical weathering rates. A strong link exists between the degree of landscape dissection and flowpaths of water through the landscape, with streams in undissected landscapes receiving water mainly from surface runoff and streams in highly dissected landscapes receiving a considerable fraction of their water from groundwater (springs and/or seepage). Total alkalinity in Hawaiian streams and groundwater is produced exclusively by silicate chemical weathering. We find that fluxes of total alkalinity (often called "CO2 consumption rate" in the geochemical literature), from the islands are lower than those observed in basaltic regions elsewhere. Groundwater is, overall, the major transport vector for products of chemical weathering from the Hawaiian Islands. On the youngest and largest island, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) transports more than an order of magnitude more solutes to the ocean than surface water and on the youngest part of the youngest island, SGD is the only link between the terrestrial weathering system and the ocean. These results suggest that groundwater, and particularly SGD, needs to be included in geochemical weathering budgets of volcanic islands.

  1. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  2. 75 FR 970 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... and alternate members of the following seats on its Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine... other various groups that help to focus efforts and attention on the humpback whale and its...

  3. English Learners (ELs) Who Are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI). Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report on English Learners (ELs) who are Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (NHPI) include: (1) Local Education Agencies (LEAs) With the Largest Number…

  4. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979... FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14 CFR Part... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal...

  5. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory....byers@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a ]...

  6. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS... the following vacant seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine protected area designed to...

  7. When worlds collide: challenges and opportunities for conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Pratt, Thane K.; Banko, Paul C.; Jacobi, James D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter identifies four key challenges and opportunities for long-term conservation of biodiversity in the Hawaii's Islands. Following are the challenges that need to be resolved for remaining species of native forest birds to survive into the next century: invasive species, landscape processes, social factors, and climate change. These challenges are also relevant to other threatened terrestrial taxonomic groups (i.e., plants and invertebrates) in the Hawaiian Islands. Such threats are familiar to conservation biologists the world over, but rarely do they act as synergistically as they do in the Hawaiian Islands. The chapter reviews conservation successes and failures in Hawaii, and provides an example of the possible future course of conservation in other island communities.

  8. Identification of ciguatoxins in Hawaiian monk seals Monachus schauinslandi from the Northwestern and Main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Bottein, Marie-Yasmine Dechraoui; Kashinsky, Lizabeth; Wang, Zhihong; Littnan, Charles; Ramsdell, John S

    2011-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are potent algal neurotoxins that concentrate in fish preyed upon by the critically endangered Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi). The only report for Hawaiian monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins occurred during a 1978 mortality event when two seal liver extracts tested positive by mouse bioassay. Ciguatoxins were thus proposed as a potential threat to the Hawaiian monk seal population. To reinvestigate monk seal exposure to ciguatoxins we utilized more selective detection methods, the Neuro-2A cytotoxicity assay, to quantify ciguatoxin activity and an analytical method LC-MS/MS to confirm the molecular structure. Tissue analysis from dead stranded animals revealed ciguatoxin activity in brain, liver, and muscle, whereas analysis of blood samples from 55 free-ranging animals revealed detectable levels of ciguatoxin activity (0.43 to 5.49 pg/mL P-CTX-1 equiv) in 19% of the animals. Bioassay-guided LC fractionation of two monk seal liver extracts identified several ciguatoxin-like peaks of activity including a peak corresponding to the P-CTX-3C which was confirmed present by LC-MS/MS. In conclusion, this work provides first confirmation that Hawaiian monk seals are exposed to significant levels of ciguatoxins and first evidence of transfer of ciguatoxin to marine mammals. This threat could pose management challenges for this endangered marine mammal species. PMID:21591690

  9. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jordan, Stephen A.; Simon, C.; Foote, D.; Englund, R.A.

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1?? gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Steve; Simon, Chris; Foote, David; Englund, Ronald A

    2005-10-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from two closely related, endemic Hawaiian damselfly species in order to test these predictions, and generate novel insights into the effects of Pleistocene glaciation and climate change on island organisms. Megalagrion xanthomelas and Megalagrion pacificum are currently restricted to five islands, including three islands of the Maui Nui super-island complex (Molokai, Lanai, and Maui) that were connected during periods of Pleistocene glaciation, and Hawaii island, which has never been subdivided. Maui Nui and Hawaii are effectively a controlled, natural experiment on the genetic effects of Pleistocene sea level change. We confirm well-defined morphological species boundaries using data from the nuclear EF-1alpha gene and show that the species are reciprocally monophyletic. We perform phylogeographic analyses of 663 base pairs (bp) of cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) gene sequence data from 157 individuals representing 25 populations. Our results point to the importance of Pleistocene land bridges and historical island habitat availability in maintaining inter-island gene flow. We also propose that repeated bottlenecks on Maui Nui caused by sea level change and restricted habitat availability are likely responsible for low genetic diversity there. An island analogue to northern genetic purity and southern diversity is proposed, whereby islands with little suitable habitat exhibit genetic purity while islands with more exhibit genetic diversity. PMID:16156815

  11. Genetic Diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an Introduction Pathway Into California.

    PubMed

    Barr, Norman B; Ledezma, Lisa A; Leblanc, Luc; San Jose, Michael; Rubinoff, Daniel; Geib, Scott M; Fujita, Brian; Bartels, David W; Garza, Daniel; Kerr, Peter; Hauser, Martin; Gaimari, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. In total, 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across the four islands were sequenced for a 1,500-bp fragment of the gene named the C1500 marker. Genetic variation was low on the Hawaiian Islands with >96% of flies having just two haplotypes: C1500-Haplotype 1 (63.2%) or C1500-Haplotype 2 (33.3%). The other 33 flies (3.5%) had haplotypes similar to the two dominant haplotypes. No population structure was detected among the islands or within islands. The two haplotypes were present at similar frequencies at each sample site, suggesting that flies on the various islands can be considered one population. Comparison of the Hawaiian data set to DNA sequences of 165 flies from outbreaks in California between 2006 and 2012 indicates that a single-source introduction pathway of Hawaiian origin cannot explain many of the flies in California. Hawaii, however, could not be excluded as a maternal source for 69 flies. There was no clear geographic association for Hawaiian or non-Hawaiian haplotypes in the Bay Area or Los Angeles Basin over time. This suggests that California experienced multiple, independent introductions from different sources. PMID:26309285

  12. Copious, Long-lived Rejuvenated Volcanism in the Northern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.; Jicha, B. R.; Ito, G.

    2015-12-01

    New marine surveying and submersible sampling of Kaul'a Volcano, located 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian Chain, have revealed widespread areas of young volcanism. New 40Ar/39Ar and geochemical analyses of the olivine-phyric submarine and subaerial volcanic rocks show that Kaul'a is shrouded with young alkalic basalts (1.9 to 0.5 Ma). The ages and chemistry of these rocks overlap with rejuvenated lavas from nearby shields Ni'ihau, Kaua'i and South Kaua'i Swell. Collectively, rejuvenated lavas cover a vast area (~7000 km2) in the northern Hawaiian Islands. Kaul'a rejuvenated lavas show a much larger (5x) variation of incompatible elements than those from adjacent Ni'ihau but comparable to Honolulu rejuvenated lavas. Unlike both suites, heavy REE elements in Kaul'a lavas are pinned at Ybn 10, indicating a strong garnet signature in the source. Rejuvenated lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge have slightly higher radiogenic Pb isotope ratios than those from the southern Hawaiian Islands (Maui to O'ahu) and partly straddle the LOA-KEA boundary. Rejuvenated volcanism was nearly coeval occurrence from ~0.3 to 0.6 Ma along a 450 km segment of the Hawaiian Islands (West Maui to north of Ni'ihau), which is inconsistent with most models for rejuvenated volcanism except the Ballmer et al.2 dynamic melting model. This model invokes increasing pyroxenite contributions and the interaction with scale-scale convection rolls in the lithosphere to enhance the volume and duration of rejuvenation volcanism. Thus, a pyroxenite-bearing, mixed Kea-Loa source component may have contributed to the prolonged and extensive rejuvenated volcanism in the northern Hawaiian Islands. 1Robinson & Eakins 2006, J. Vol. Geotherm. Res., 151, 309-317; 2Ballmer et al. 2011, Nat. Geosc. 4, 457-460.

  13. Genetic variation in an apomictic grass, heteropogon contortus, in the hawaiian islands

    PubMed

    Carino; Daehler

    1999-12-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to assess genetic variation within and among Hawaiian populations of an apomictic grass, Heterogopon contortus (pili grass). From among 56 individuals sampled from six populations on O'Ahu and Hawai'i, 55 unique genotypes were detected using 33 polymorphic markers. This lack of uniformity among individuals may indicate frequent sexual reproduction in these populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed significant variation among populations (30.2%), but higher levels of variation within populations (68.1%). Cluster analysis revealed a high degree of clustering for most populations, but populations from different islands did not cluster together. The presence of among-population differentiation but lack of between-island differentiation may suggest that H. contortus was an early Polynesian introduction to the Hawaiian Islands. PMID:10632863

  14. 78 FR 59626 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2013-14

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed specifications, finalized here, and a request for public comments (78 FR 52125). Additional... Hawaiian Islands for the 2013-14 fishing year. The action supports the long-term sustainability of...

  15. Annotated bibliography: Marine geologic hazards of the Hawaiian Islands with special focus on submarine slides and turbidity currents

    SciTech Connect

    Normark, W.R.; Herring, H.H.

    1993-10-01

    This annotated bibliography was compiled to highlight the submarine geology of the Hawaiian Islands and identify known and potential marine geologic hazards with special emphasis on turbidity currents, submarine slides and tsunamis. Some references are included that are not specific to Hawaii but are needed to understand the geologic processes that can affect the integrity of submarine cables and other man-made structures. Entries specific to the Hawaiian Island area are shown in bold type.

  16. Composition and origin of basaltic magma of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powers, H.A.

    1955-01-01

    Silica-saturated basaltic magma is the source of the voluminous lava flows, erupted frequently and rapidly in the primitive shield-building stage of activity, that form the bulk of each Hawaiian volcano. This magma may be available in batches that differ slightly in free silica content from batch to batch both at the same and at different volcanoes; differentiation by fractionation of olivine does not occur within this primitive magma. Silica-deficient basaltic magma, enriched in alkali, is the source of commonly porphyritic lava flows erupted less frequently and in relatively negligible volume during a declining and decadent stage of activity at some Hawaiian volcanoes. Differentiation by fractionation of olivine, plagioclase and augite is evident among these lavas, but does not account for the silica deficiency or the alkali enrichment. Most of the data of Hawaiian volcanism and petrology can be explained by a hypothesis that batches of magma are melted from crystalline paridotite by a recurrent process (distortion of the equatorial bulge by forced and free nutational stresses) that accomplishes the melting only of the plagioclase and pyroxene component but not the excess olivine and more refractory components within a zone of fixed and limited depth. Eruption exhausts the supply of meltable magma under a given locality and, in the absence of more violent melting processes, leaves a stratum of crystalline refractory components. ?? 1955.

  17. Length-Based Assessment of Coral Reef Fish Populations in the Main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Nadon, Marc O.; Ault, Jerald S.; Williams, Ivor D.; Smith, Steven G.; DiNardo, Gerard T.

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable “average length in the exploited phase of the population (L¯)”, estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  18. Length-based assessment of coral reef fish populations in the main and northwestern Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Nadon, Marc O; Ault, Jerald S; Williams, Ivor D; Smith, Steven G; DiNardo, Gerard T

    2015-01-01

    The coral reef fish community of Hawaii is composed of hundreds of species, supports a multimillion dollar fishing and tourism industry, and is of great cultural importance to the local population. However, a major stock assessment of Hawaiian coral reef fish populations has not yet been conducted. Here we used the robust indicator variable "average length in the exploited phase of the population ([Formula: see text])", estimated from size composition data from commercial fisheries trip reports and fishery-independent diver surveys, to evaluate exploitation rates for 19 Hawaiian reef fishes. By and large, the average lengths obtained from diver surveys agreed well with those from commercial data. We used the estimated exploitation rates coupled with life history parameters synthesized from the literature to parameterize a numerical population model and generate stock sustainability metrics such as spawning potential ratios (SPR). We found good agreement between predicted average lengths in an unfished population (from our population model) and those observed from diver surveys in the largely unexploited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Of 19 exploited reef fish species assessed in the main Hawaiian Islands, 9 had SPRs close to or below the 30% overfishing threshold. In general, longer-lived species such as surgeonfishes, the redlip parrotfish (Scarus rubroviolaceus), and the gray snapper (Aprion virescens) had the lowest SPRs, while short-lived species such as goatfishes and jacks, as well as two invasive species (Lutjanus kasmira and Cephalopholis argus), had SPRs above the 30% threshold. PMID:26267473

  19. Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-10-01

    The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

  20. The search for Father Bachelot: first Catholic missionary to the Hawaiian Islands (1827-1837).

    PubMed

    Pietrusewsky, M; Willacker, L M

    1997-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine if the remains of Father Bachelot, leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands, can be identified among the commingled human skeletal remains brought back from Pohnpei, Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, in 1977. An osteological/forensic examination of these remains, a review of the literature, interviews with leaders of the expedition, and ancillary considerations suggest that, in all probability, none of the skeletal remains from Pohnpei are those of Father Bachelot. Father Alexis Bachelot, born in France, in 1796, was leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands. He died in 1837, after being exiled from the Hawaiian Kingdom. His remains were buried on the small islet of Na, off the coast of Pohnpei, the same year. An expedition to Pohnpei in 1977, to recover the remains of Father Bachelot, resulted in the recovery of several sets of commingled remains which are the subject of this study. A detailed osteological/forensic study of these remains indicates the presence of at least ten individuals, including two subadults, two adult females, and six adult males. Stature estimates, the presence of osseous changes suggestive of treponemal disease, and other cranial, dental, and skeletal features are more consistent with Pohnpean than European ancestry. The presence of shell beads and other mortuary features strengthens this assertion. Recommendations for any future attempts to recover the remains of this famous personage are made. PMID:9068178

  1. Shallow terraces in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Implications for carbonate accretion and sea level variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, J. R.; Edwards, M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Rooney, J. J.; Clague, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and backscatter data recently collected by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Division permit the first detailed analysis of the submarine geomorphology of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Here we focus on the character, spatial extent, depth, and number of terraces, scarps, and other shallow seafloor features in the NWHI. The islands and atolls at or near sea level and the flat top banks have terraces and scarps at a variety of depths above the major breaks in slope and consistent paleoreef complexes are present at average depths of 30-45 m, 55-65 m, and 110-130 m. Their geomorphology is controlled by vertical coral reef accretion during sea-level highstands and erosion and karstification during lowstands. Wave energy also plays a major role in shaping the NWHI. Our results suggest that although the NWHI features are discontinuous and probably occupied by sea level on more than one occasion they group into general depth ranges that correlate with late-Quaternary sea-level features in the MHI and phases of postglacial reef growth separated by melt-water pulses. Identification and correlation of these features is important for developing sea-level and reef accretion histories in the Hawaiian Islands. Further work is needed to constrain the absolute ages of these reef features and construct an accurate sea-level curve for the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  2. The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chague-Goff, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  4. Collection of High Energy Yielding Strains of Saline Microalgae from the Hawaiian Islands: Final Technical Report, Year 1

    SciTech Connect

    York, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    Microalgae were collected from 48 locations in the Hawaiian Islands in 1985. The sites were an aquaculture tank; a coral reef; bays; a geothermal steam vent; Hawaiian fish ponds; a Hawaiian salt punawai (well); the ocean; river mouths; saline lakes; saline pools; saline ponds; a saline swamp; and the ponds, drainage ditches and sumps of commercial shrimp farms. From 4,800 isolations, 100 of the most productive clones were selected to be maintained by periodic transfer to sterile medium. Five clones were tested for growth rate and production in a full-spectrum-transmitting solarium.

  5. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  6. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head...

  7. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  8. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing spiny lobster intact. 622.455... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean spiny lobster in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with head...

  9. Validation of a New Rainbow Model Over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Adams, P. L.; Barckike, J.

    2012-12-01

    A new realistic model of the rainbow has been developed at the CNRM. It is based on the Airy theory. The main entry parameters are the droplet size distribution, the angle of the sun above the horizon, the temperature of the droplets and the wavelength. The island of Hawaii seems to be a perfect place for the validation of the rainbow model. Not only because of its famous rainbows, but also because of the convenient ring road along the coast. The older lower islands for more frequent viewing opportunities having to do with the proximity of clear sky to heavy rainfall. Both Oahu and Kauai as well as the western part of Maui have coastal roads that offer good access to rainbows. The best time to view rainbows is when the sun angle is lowest, in other words near the winter solstice. Figure 1 = Map of mean annual rainfall for the islands of Kauai and Oahu, developed from the new 2011 Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii. The base period of the statistics is 1978-2007. Figure 2 = Moisture zone map by Gon et al (1998). Blue areas are the wet ones. Green areas are the Mesic ones. Yellow areas are the dry ones.

  10. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank; Lorence, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea kauaulaensis H. Oppenheimer & Lorence, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated with field photos, and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from 62 mature plants and is restricted to Kaua`ula and Waikapu valleys on leeward western Maui. It differs from all other species of Cyanea by its combination of many-branched habit; glabrous, unarmed, undivided leaves; small, narrow, glabrous corollas with small calyx lobes that do not persist in fruit; and bright orange, subglobose to obovoid fruits. PMID:22787424

  11. Evidence for a gradual decrease of geoid to topography ratio along the Hawaiian island chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diament, M.; Cadio, C.; Panet, I.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that the seafloor around the Hawaiian island chain is unusually shallow. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: the thermal lithospheric thinning and the dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the apparent compensation depth; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess the swell support. This is why the topography and geoid anomalies over the Hawaiian swell have been the subject of many investigations. The observed GTR has been reported to lie between 4 and 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to the volcanic edifice and lithospheric flexure, and this biases the resulting GTR. Consequently, we propose a new method based on continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to obtain the GTR in the space and in the frequency domains. We show that the GTR varies along the swell, from 8 m/km on Big Island to 3-4 m/km 2000 km to the northwest, for the scales ranging between 1100 and 1600 km. This reflects a decay of the apparent compensation depth moving along the islands chain. Our results are consistent with the recent seismic study from Li et al. [Nature 427 (2004) 827-829], where the authors evidence that the lithosphere gradually thins along the islands chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. These results together converge to a hybrid model for the origin of the Hawaiian swell: the swell as a whole is supported dynamically

  12. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

  13. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  14. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kosaki, Randall K.; Wagner, Daniel; Kane, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs. PMID:27383614

  15. Structure of Mesophotic Reef Fish Assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Atsuko; Kosaki, Randall K; Wagner, Daniel; Kane, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) support diverse communities of marine organisms with changes in community structure occurring along a depth gradient. In recent years, MCEs have gained attention due to their depths that provide protection from natural and anthropogenic stressors and their relative stability over evolutionary time periods, yet ecological structures of fish assemblages in MCEs remain largely un-documented. Here, we investigated composition and trophic structure of reef fish assemblages in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) along a depth gradient from 1 to 67 m. The structure of reef fish assemblages as a whole showed a clear gradient from shallow to mesophotic depths. Fish assemblages at mesophotic depths had higher total densities than those in shallower waters, and were characterized by relatively high densities of planktivores and invertivores and relatively low densities of herbivores. Fishes that typified assemblages at mesophotic depths included six species that are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. The present study showed that mesophotic reefs in the NWHI support unique assemblages of fish that are characterized by high endemism and relatively high densities of planktivores. Our findings underscore the ecological importance of these undersurveyed ecosystems and warrant further studies of MCEs. PMID:27383614

  16. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  17. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  18. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  19. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M., III; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  20. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.

    2010-08-01

    New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua'i, the other between the islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. These gravitational highs are similar in size and magnitude to those of other Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating local zones of high-density crust, attributed to olivine cumulates in solidified magma reservoirs. The residual gravity high over Kaua'i is located in the Līhu'e Basin, offset 8-12 km east of Kaua'i's geologically mapped caldera. This offset suggests that the mapped caldera is a collapsed feature later filled in with lava and not the long-term center of Kaua'i shield volcanism. A second residual gravity high, in the submarine channel between Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, marks the volcanic center of the Ni'ihau shield volcano. This second residual gravity anomaly implies that Ni'ihau's eastern boundary extended ˜20 km east of its present location. Through inversion, the residual gravity anomalies were modeled as being produced by two solidified magma reservoirs with average densities of 3100 kg/m3 and volumes between 2470 and 2540 km3. Considering the locations and sizes of the residual gravity anomalies/magma reservoirs, the extent of the two islands' paleoshorelines and potassium-argon dating of shield-stage lavas, we conclude that the two islands were not connected subaerially during their respective shield stages and that Ni'ihau's topographic summit was removed by an eastern flank collapse between 4.3 and 5.6 Ma. Continued constructional volcanism on western Kaua'i likely covered much of the submerged remains of eastern Ni'ihau.

  1. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates of the Lateral Boundary Closures and Excluded Areas. A Appendix A to Subpart Q of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued)...

  2. Cryptosporidium sp. infections in green turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a potential source of marine waterborne oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, T.K.; Balazs, G.H.; Work, T.M.; Aguirre, A.A.; Ellis, D.M.; Murakawa, S.K.K.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum.

  3. Improving Access to Healthy Foods for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders: Lessons Learned from the STRIVE Program

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona C.; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Edward; Lipman, Jesse; Kunkel, Sarah; Le, Daniel Q.; Chin, Kathy Ko; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Summary Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs) experience a large burden from certain chronic disease-related risk factors. The STRIVE Program funded four AANHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted community gardens and farmers' markets to increase access to healthy foods. CBO key informant interviews were conducted to understand processes and lessons learned. PMID:25981093

  4. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates of the Lateral Boundary Closures and Excluded Areas. A Appendix A to Subpart Q of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued)...

  5. Cryptosporidium sp. Infections in Green Turtles, Chelonia mydas, as a Potential Source of Marine Waterborne Oocysts in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, T. K.; Balazs, G. H.; Work, T.; Aguirre, A. A.; Ellis, D. M.; Murakawa, S.; Morris, R.

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were identified in fecal and intestinal samples from free-ranging marine turtles, Chelonia mydas, from the Hawaiian Islands. The oocysts produced positive reactions with commercial test kits recommended for the detection of human-infectious waterborne oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum. PMID:16535658

  6. Has Social Work Met Its Commitment to Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders? A Review of the Periodical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokuau, Noreen; Garlock-Tuialii, Jessica; Lee, Palama

    2008-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs) were recognized in the 2000 U.S. census as a distinct racial minority group, with unique histories, values, and traditions. The profession of social work, with its historical commitment to social and cultural diversity, has begun to establish a knowledge base on this population in the…

  7. 77 FR 56791 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2012-13

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...In this rule, NMFS specifies a quota of 325,000 lb of Deep 7 bottomfish in the main Hawaiian Islands for the 2012-13 fishing year, based on an annual catch limit of 346,000 lb. The action supports the long-term sustainability of Hawaii...

  8. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  9. Lithospheric flexure revealed by Pleistocene emerged marine terraces on the southern Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.T. . Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    New field and geochronological data from emerged marine deposits in the southern Hawaiian Islands suggest uplift of the islands of Molokai, Lanai and Oahu. Corals from these islands were dated by ESR. The accumulated dose for aragonitic coral at ESR signal, g = 2.0007, was determined by the additive dose method. The environmental dose rate was estimated from the Uranium concentration in corals and by using an estimate of 2.5 rad/a for the cosmic ray dose. The ESR ages of the highest terraces on Molokai are 290 [+-] 31 ka (30 m), on Lanai 217 [+-] 19 ka (50 m) and on Oahu 468 [+-] 36 ka (28 m). The age and elevation of the marine terraces are interpreted to imply uplift during the Late Quaternary. Lithospheric flexure combined with horizontal plate motion is proposed as a mechanism to describe the pattern of uplifted terraces on these islands. Using two-dimensional elastic plate models, the height of maximum bulge is approximately 4% to 7% of the maximum deflection for a continuous or broken plate model. Drowned reefs off Hawaii indicate subsidence of 1 km since 340 ka. Thus, the magnitude of observed uplift (30--50 m) is consistent with theoretical maximum bulge heights derived from numerical results.

  10. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui.

    PubMed

    Cantley, Jason T; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J; Chau, Marian M

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  11. New and resurrected Hawaiian species of pilo (Coprosma, Rubiaceae) from the island of Maui

    PubMed Central

    Cantley, Jason T.; Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Chau, Marian M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae) J.R.Forst. & G.Forst. are described from the island of Maui of the Hawaiian Archipelago. A newly described taxon, Coprosma cordicarpa J.Cantley, Sporck-Koehler, & M.Chau, sp. nov. is locally common in medium to high elevation dry forests and shrublands of leeward East Maui. The second taxon is resurrected from the synonymy of Coprosma foliosa A.Gray as Coprosma stephanocarpa Hillebr. and occurs in mesic to wet rainforests of both East and West Maui. Both taxa are segregated from Coprosma foliosa, with which they share similar morphological characters. A conspicuous and persistent calyx of the fruit and various floral characters most easily differentiate both taxa from other Hawaiian taxa. The newly described Coprosma cordicarpa is further distinguished from Coprosma stephanocarpa by a central constriction of the fruit with a depressed apex, which gives it a characteristic heart shape. Furthermore, the taxa are largely separated phenologically, ecologically, and geographically. Descriptions, conservation status, and specimens examined for the new species are included. PMID:27081343

  12. Erosion of Fluted Cliffs on the Na Pali Coast, Kauai, Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, G.; Mohr, S.; Blay, C.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitous sea cliffs on the northwest side of Kauai, sculpted into deep bedrock gullies and sharp divides, are known as "Na Pali", Hawaiian for "the cliffs", and are commonly referred to as fluted cliffs. Rising 500 m above the coast, they constitute some of the most dramatic scenery on planet Earth and are a world famous tourist attraction. After the discovery of flank collapses on some Hawaiian volcanoes the great Na Pali escarpment was hypothesized to have been generated by a megalandslide, but bathymetric data show the shallow submarine shelf off the Na Pali coast bears no landslide deposits. It is likely that wave erosion at the base of the local thin-bedded lavas, particularly in winter, is responsible for the escarpment. Superimposed on the escarpment are the deep gullies, or grooves, and divides, which constitute drainage networks that happen to be developed on very steep slopes. Networks are poorly developed on relatively young parts of the escarpment and well developed on older parts, which feature coalescing tributaries and very deep gullies. In most cases gullies shallow going upslope, and many fade out completely just below drainage divides, just like in drainage networks developed on more gently sloping landscapes. The drainage networks show that the basalts along this coast are relatively easily eroded by runoff. Rocks easily eroded by runoff generally do not stand in 500-m-high cliffs because they are not mechanically strong enough to resist failure and mass movement. The key to development of high fluted cliffs is a mix of mechanical strength and erodibiity, a combination whose rarity explains why analogs to the Na Pali cliffs are not found outside the Hawaiian Islands. The combination here is provided by basalt which is strong where unweathered but rotten and in some case completely decomposed close to the surface, courtesy of the Hawaiian climate. Weathering must proceed downward at about the same rate as removal of mass by runoff erosion

  13. Improving Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Health: National Organizations Leading Community Research Initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Weir, Rosy Chang; Ro, Margeurite; Ko, Kathy Lim; Panapasa, Sela; Bautista, Roxanna; Asato, Lloyd; Chung, Corina; Cabllero, Jeffery; Islam, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Background Functionally, many CBPR projects operate through a model of academic partners providing research expertise and community partners playing a supporting role. Objectives To demonstrate how national umbrella organizations deeply rooted in communities, cognizant of community needs, and drawing on the insights and assets of community partners, can lead efforts to address health disparities affecting their constituents through research. Methods Case studies of two Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander national organizations Results Strategically engaging a diverse range of partners and securing flexible funding mechanisms that support research were important facilitators. Main challenges included limited interest of local community organizations whose primary missions as service or health care providers may deprioritize research. Conclusions Efforts to make research relevant to the work of community partners and to instill the value of research in community partners, as well as flexible funding mechanisms, may help to promote community-driven research. PMID:22643786

  14. Health Disparities in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders Following Hysterectomy for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Michael; Kim, Robert; Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Miyamura, Jill

    2016-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to assess disparities in 5 year admission rates and mortality following hysterectomy for endometrial cancer in the State of Hawai‘i. Data from the Hawai‘i Health Information Corporation was utilized to determine five-year admission rates and overall mortality. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) patients were compared to non-NHOPI patients for the period January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2013. Secondary admission rates were significantly higher for NHOPI patients compared to non-NHOPI patients (P=.02). Overall mortality was not different. NHOPI patients living on Oahu were less likely to live in Honolulu (P=.01), were more likely to have government insurance (P=.01), and were significantly younger (P=.02) than non-NHOPI patients. The findings suggest that race, insurance, and demographic factors are interrelated and are associated with disparities following surgery for endometrial cancer. PMID:27239393

  15. Maximizing Multi-core Performance of the Weather Research and Forecast Model over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, K.; Stevens, D.

    2010-09-01

    The Hawaiian Islands consist of dramatic terrain changes over short distances, resulting in a variety of microclimates in close proximity. To handle these challenging conditions, weather models must be run at very fine vertical and horizontal resolutions to produce accurate forecasts. Computational demands require WRF to be executed in parallel on the Maui High Performance Computing Center’s Mana system, a PowerEdge M610 Linux cluster. This machine has 1,152 compute nodes, each with two 2.8 GHz quad-core Intel® Nehalem processors and 24 GB RAM. Realizing maximum performance on Mana relied on the determination of an optimal number of cores to use per socket, the efficiency of an MPI only implementation, an optimal set of parameters for adaptive time stepping, a way to meet the strict stability requirements necessary for Hawaii, effective choices for processor and memory affinity, and parallel automation techniques for producing forecast imagery.

  16. Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the vertical structure of low-level clouds from CALIPSO lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Wu; Xie, Shang-Ping; Zhang, Su-Ping

    2015-01-01

    steady northeast trade winds impinge on the Hawaiian Islands, producing prominent island wakes of multispatial scales from tens to thousands of kilometers. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) reveal rich three-dimensional structures of low-level clouds that are induced by the islands, distinct from the background environment. The cloud frequency peaks between 1.5 and 2.0 km in cloud top elevation over the windward slopes of the islands of Kauai and Oahu due to orographic lifting and daytime island heating. In the nighttime near-island wake of Kauai, CALIPSO captures a striking cloud hole below 1.6 km as the cold advection from the island suppresses low-level clouds. The cyclonic eddy of the mechanical wake behind the island of Hawaii favors the formation of low-level clouds (below 2.5 km), and the anticyclonic eddy suppresses the low-level cloud formation, indicative of the dynamical effect on the vertical structure of low-level clouds. In the long Hawaiian wake due to air-sea interaction, low-level clouds form over both the warmer and colder waters, but the cloud tops are 400-600 m higher over the warm than the cold waters. In addition, the day-night differences and the sensitivity of low-level clouds to the background trade wind inversion height are also studied.

  17. Changes in the vertical profiles of mean temperature and humidity in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, Henry F.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Eischeid, Jon K.

    2011-05-01

    Recent drought and warmer than normal temperatures affecting the Hawaiian Islands have raised concern among natural resource managers that impacts associated with global warming are becoming manifest in the region. A number of studies published over the past few decades have documented changes in the climate of Hawai'i that are generally consistent with expectations from climate change projections, such as those found in the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change assessment report (IPCC, 2007). In this study we examine a suite of climate variables that are important from the point of view of ecosystem impacts, but that also relate to societal concerns such Island water resources. Our results are consistent with previous studies in showing a significant warming trend, especially evident at higher elevations. In particular, we document a decrease in the frequency of occurrence of freezing temperatures in the upper slopes of the higher terrain on Maui and the Big Island and a concomitant rise in the freezing level surface in the region that is in good agreement with analogous studies done for other mountainous areas of the world. Temperatures at standard reference surfaces in the free atmosphere have warmed throughout the troposphere, with a maximum near the 850 mb level. The warming peak at this level could be associated with an increased frequency of occurrence and/or lowering of the trade wind inversion layer.

  18. Drowned reefs and antecedent karst topography, Au'au channel, S.E. Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grigg, R.W.; Grossman, E.E.; Earle, S.A.; Gittings, S.R.; Lott, D.; McDonough, J.

    2002-01-01

    During the last glacial maximum (LGM), about 21,000 years ago, the Hawaiian Islands of Maui, Lanai, and Molokai were interconnected by limestone bridges, creating a super-island known as Maui-Nui. Approximately 120 m of sea-level rise during the Holocene Transgression flooded, and then drowned, these bridges separating the islands by inter-island channels. A new multibeam high-resolution bathymetric survey of the channels between the islands, coupled with observations and video-transects utilizing DeepWorker-2000 submersibles, has revealed the existence of numerous drowned reef features including concentric solution basins, solution ridges (rims), sand and sediment plains, and conical-shaped reef pinnacles. The concentric basins contain flat lagoon-like bottoms that are rimmed by steep-sided limestone walls. Undercut notches rim the basins at several depths, marking either sea-level still stands or paleo-lake levels. All of the solution basins shallower than 120 m were subaerial at the LGM, and at one stage or another may have been shallow shoreline lakes. Today, about 70 drowned reef pinnacles are scattered across the Maui-Lanai underwater bridge and all are situated in wave-sheltered positions. Most drowned during the interval between 14,000 and 10,000 years ago when sea-level rise averaged 15 mm/year. Virtually all of the surficial topography in the Au'au Channel today is a product of karst processes accentuated by marginal reef growth during the Holocene. Both the submerged basins and the drowned reefs represent an archive of sea-level and climate history in Hawaii during the late Quaternary.

  19. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Carbonate Chemistry in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, C.; Winn, C. D.; Kahng, S.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in atmospheric and surface ocean CO2 concentrations has the potential to drastically alter the metabolic processes particularly in nearshore ecosystems. However, much of what is known about carbonate chemistry is based on observations and analysis of surface waters of the open ocean where spatial and temporal variability is far less dynamic than in nearshore coral reef ecosystems. Carbon system dynamics data from four consecutive years has been examined in the coastal and nearshore waters of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This data has been collected for the purpose of improving our understanding of the carbon system dynamics in this unique and pristine environment. The data collected includes continuous CTD data and discrete bottle samples, as well as continuous underway measurements. In addition to standard hydrographic profile data, water column alkalinity and pH have been measured on discrete water samples, and continuous underway measurements of pCO2 and pH have been obtained. This data is used to investigate the impact of NWHI coral reef ecosystems on the carbon system in and surrounding the archipelago. The data demonstrates that a significant "island mass effect" with respect to the oceanographic carbon system exists around the islands within the archipelago. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of several oceanographic features that exhibit a radial, latitudinal, or longitudinal gradient in the nearshore waters of the NWHI islands, islets, and atolls will be described. Finally, a shallow pH maximum coincident with the shallow oxygen maximum is observed, which suggests an open ocean feature substantially influenced by turbulence surrounding the islands within the monument. The data analysis and coral reef ecosystem monitoring will aid in developing a long-term plan to assist in the sustainability of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument.

  20. Geographic structure and host specificity shape the community composition of symbiotic dinoflagellates in corals from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stat, Michael; Yost, Denise M.; Gates, Ruth D.

    2015-12-01

    How host-symbiont assemblages vary over space and time is fundamental to understanding the evolution and persistence of mutualistic symbioses. In this study, the diversity and geographic structure of coral-algal partnerships across the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands archipelago was investigated. The diversity of symbionts in the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium was characterised using the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene in corals sampled at ten reef locations across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Symbiodinium diversity was reported using operational taxonomic units and the distribution of Symbiodinium across the island archipelago investigated for evidence of geographic structure using permutational MANOVA. A 97 % sequence similarity of the ITS2 gene for characterising Symbiodinium diversity was supported by phylogenetic and ecological data. Four of the nine Symbiodinium evolutionary lineages (clades A, C, D, and G) were identified from 16 coral species at French Frigate Shoals, and host specificity was a dominant feature in the symbiotic assemblages at this location. Significant structure in the diversity of Symbiodinium was also found across the archipelago in the three coral species investigated. The latitudinal gradient and subsequent variation in abiotic conditions (particularly sea surface temperature dynamics) across the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands encompasses an environmental range that decouples the stability of host-symbiont assemblages across the archipelago. This suggests that local adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions by at least one partner in coral-algal mutualism occurs prior to the selection pressures associated with the maintenance of a symbiotic state.

  1. Strategies to increase breast and cervical cancer screening among Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipina women in Hawai’i

    PubMed Central

    Aitaoto, Nia; Tsark, JoAnn U.; Wong, Danette Tomiyasu; Yamashita, Barbara A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    The Hawai’i Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) offers free mammograms and Pap smears to women who are uninsured or underinsured through a statewide provider network. Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders and Filipinas are priority populations for this program, and BCCCP providers are required through contract with the Hawaii Department of Health to utilize half of their allotted mammograms and Pap smears for eligible women from these groups. To identify strategies for increasing use by these groups of mammography and Pap smear screening services through BCCCP, we held focus groups with women who could potentially use BCCCP services, and we conducted key informant interviews with 9 of Hawai’i’s 11 BCCCP providers and 9 non-BCCCP outreach workers serving these populations. Findings led to recommendations for promoting awareness of BCCCP and enhancing outreach to Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander and Filipina communities in Hawai’i. PMID:19842363

  2. Developing and testing solar irradiance forecasting techniques in the Hawaiian Islands region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    The Hawaíi Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) is developing an operational solar forecasting for the Hawaiian Islands. The system comprises the following three components, covering forecasting horizons from seconds to days ahead. (i) A ground-observation driven advection model, using sky imagery and cloud height data. (ii) A satellite-image based advection model, primarily driven by Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imagery. (iii) A coupled ocean-atmosphere model, using the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, including newly available microphysics, shallow convection parameterization, and radiative transfer physics options. The satellite and NWP components provide coverage for the entire island chain, however, lack the resolution in time and space, to accurately forecast ramp events (large changes in irradiance that occur over a short period of time). Knowledge of the magnitude, duration and timing of ramp events are particularly important in Hawaíi due to the small size of the electric grids. Currently, HNEI employs a sky imager and ceilometer installed on the University of Hawaíi campus for high resolution forecasting, however, instrument design and cost limit widespread deployment. We discuss the development and preliminary validation of a new forecasting system based on inexpensive, panoramic (large FOV), off-the-shelf cameras with a cloud base height retrieval algorithm that does not require additional instrumentation.

  3. Stability of submerged slopes on the flanks of the Hawaiian Islands, a simplified approach

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.J.; Torresan, M.E.; McArthur, W.

    1994-12-31

    Undersea transmission lines and shoreline AC-DC conversion stations and near-shore transmission lines are being considered as part of a system for transporting energy between the Hawaiian Islands. These facilities will need to be designed so that they will not be damaged or destroyed by coastal or undersea landslides. Advanced site surveys and engineering design of these facilities will require detailed site specific analyses, including sediment sampling and laboratory testing of samples, in situ testing of sediment and rock, detailed charting of bathymetry, and two- or three-dimensional numerical analyses of the factors of safety of the slopes against failure from the various possible loading mechanisms. An intermediate approximate approach can be followed that involves gravity and piston cores, laboratory testing and the application of simplified models to determine a seismic angle of repose for actual sediment in the vicinity of the planned facility. An even simpler and more approximate approach involves predictions of angles of repose using classification of the sediment along a proposed route as either a coarse volcaniclastic sand, a calcareous ooze, or a muddy terrigenous sediment. The steepest slope that such a sediment can maintain is the static angle of repose. Sediment may be found on slopes as steep as these, but it must be considered metastable and liable to fail in the event of any disturbance, storm or earthquake. The seismic angle of repose likely governs most slopes on the Hawaiian Ridge. This declivity corresponds to the response of the slope to a continuing seismic environment. As a long history of earthquakes affects the slopes, they gradually flatten to this level. Slopes that exceed or roughly equal this value can be considered at risk to fail during future earthquakes. Seismic and static angles of repose for three sediment types are tabulated in this report.

  4. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622.453 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.453 Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ...

  5. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622.453 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.453 Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ...

  6. An Assessment of Diurnal and Seasonal Cloud Cover Changes Over the Hawaiian Islands Using Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M.; Miura, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Chen, Q.

    2012-12-01

    To date, there has not yet been a spatial and temporal analysis of cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands using high spatial resolution data. An understanding of patterns in cloud cover is essential to analyzing and understanding atmospheric and hydrologic processes, including evapotranspiration. The MODIS instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites provide observations with the high spatial resolution necessary to determine patterns of cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this study was to determine how spatial patterns of cloudiness change diurnally and seasonally over the Hawaiian Islands using high resolution cloud cover data generated from the Terra and Aqua MODIS satellite sensors. The MODIS cloud mask products (MOD35 and MYD35) were obtained for the entire MODIS time series over the major Hawaiian Islands. Monthly statistics including mean cloud cover probability at the daytime and nighttime overpasses for each instrument were generated from the daily MOD35 and MYD35 cloudiness time series. The derived monthly statistics for January and June (the wet and dry season, respectively) were analyzed for diurnal (morning vs. afternoon and late evening vs. early morning) changes in total amount and spatial patterns of cloudiness. They were also compared to analyze seasonal changes in cloudiness. Cloud probability generally increased with elevation until the elevation of the inversion layer. The lowest cloud cover probability was observed above the inversion layer on the islands of Maui and Hawaii. This elevational gradient varied in relation to the facings of slopes; cloud cover probability was higher on the windward (northeastern) sides than on the leeward (southwestern) sides of the mountains. Both morning and afternoon observations indicate that the Hawaiian Islands were cloudier in June than in January. This is the opposite of what we might expect as January is in the wet season and June is in the dry season. Both late evening and early

  7. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on

  8. Elements needed in design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takasaki, Kiyoshi J.

    1977-01-01

    The elements needed in the design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network in the Hawaiian Islands are described and summarized. The elements are given by geohydrologie units which represent areas where there are similarities in the occurrence of ground water or in the geology pertinent to the occurrence of ground water. The goal is to establish a network of observation points to inventory and maintain surveillance of existing and potential sources of pollution of ground water. Of principal concern to Hawaii's environment is pollution of the potable ground-water supplies and of the near-shore recreational waters, the latter by the discharge of polluted ground water. Existing monitoring efforts, although intensive in many areas, are not adequate because they are geared more toward (1) the detection and surveillance of pollutants in the conveyances of ground water instead of in the sources of ground water and (2) the monitoring of extensive nonpoint sources of pollution instead of from discrete point sources.

  9. Physical and chemical properties of submarine basaltic rocks from the submarine flanks of the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yokose, H.; Lipman, P.W.; Kanamatsu, T.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate physical and chemical diversity in submarine basaltic rocks, approximately 280 deep submarine samples recovered by submersibles from the underwater flanks of the Hawaiian Islands were analyzed and compared. Based on observations from the submersibles and hand specimens, these samples were classified into three main occurrence types (lavas, coarse-grained volcaniclastic rocks, and fine-grained sediments), each with several subtypes. The whole-rock sulfur content and porosity in submarine basaltic rocks, recovered from depths greater than 2000 m, range from < 10 ppm and 2 vol.% to 2200 ppm and 47 vol.%, respectively. These wide variations cannot be due just to different ambient pressures at the collection depths, as inferred previously for submarine erupted lavas. The physical and chemical properties of the recovered samples, especially a combination of three whole-rock parameters (Fe-oxidation state, Sulfur content, and Porosity), are closely related to the occurrence type. The FSP triangular diagram is a valuable indicator of the source location of basaltic fragments deposited in deep submarine areas. This diagram can be applied to basaltic rocks such as clasts in debris-flow deposits, submarine-emplaced lava flows that may have crossed the shoreline, and slightly altered geological samples. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Marine debris accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: an examination of rates and processes.

    PubMed

    Dameron, Oliver J; Parke, Michael; Albins, Mark A; Brainard, Russell

    2007-04-01

    Large amounts of derelict fishing gear accumulate and cause damage to shallow coral reefs of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). To facilitate maintenance of reefs cleaned during 1996-2005 removal efforts, we identify likely high-density debris areas by assessing reef characteristics (depth, benthic habitat type, and energy regime) that influence sub-regional debris accumulation. Previously cleaned backreef and lagoonal reefs at two NWHI locations were resurveyed for accumulated debris using two survey methods. Accumulated debris densities and weights were found to be greater in lagoonal reef areas. Sample weight-based debris densities are extrapolated to similar habitats throughout the NWHI using a spatial 'net habitat' dataset created by generalizing IKONOS satellite derivatives for depth and habitat classification. Prediction accuracy for this dataset is tested using historical debris point data. Annual NWHI debris accumulation is estimated to be 52.0 metric tonnes. For planning purposes, individual NWHI atolls/reefs are allotted a proportion of this total. PMID:17217968

  11. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  12. Diabetes Among Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders--United States, 2011-2014.

    PubMed

    Kirtland, Karen A; Cho, Pyone; Geiss, Linda S

    2015-11-20

    Asians and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) are fast-growing U.S. minority populations at high risk for type 2 diabetes. Although national studies have described diabetes prevalence, incidence, and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs compared with non-Hispanic whites, little is known about state-level diabetes prevalence among these two racial groups, or about how they differ from one another with respect to diabetes risk factors. To examine state-level prevalence of self-reported, physician-diagnosed (diagnosed) diabetes and risk factors among Asians and NHPIs aged ≥18 years, CDC analyzed data from the 2011-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Among five states and Guam with sufficient data about NHPIs for analysis, the age-adjusted diabetes prevalence estimate for NHPIs ranged from 13.4% (New York) to 19.1% (California). Among 32 states, the District of Columbia (DC), and Guam that had sufficient data about Asians for analysis, diabetes prevalence estimates for Asians ranged from 4.9% (Arizona) to 15.3% (New York). In the five states and Guam with sufficient NHPI data, NHPIs had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes than did Asians, and a higher proportion of NHPIs were overweight or obese and had less than a high school education compared with Asians. Effective interventions and policies might reduce the prevalence of diabetes in these growing, high-risk minority populations. PMID:26583766

  13. Two new paratanaid Tanaidacea (Crustacea: Malacostraca: Peracarida) from the Hawaiian Islands, with illustrated taxonomic keys.

    PubMed

    Morales-Núñez, Andrés G; Pelleteri, Sara; Heard, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Two new tanaidomorphan tanaidaceans, Aparatanais hawaiensis, sp. nov. and Metatanais spinipropodus, sp. nov. represent the first members of the Family Paratanaidae to be described from the Hawaiian Islands. Aparatanais hawaiensis is distinguished from the other species of the genus by the setation of the antenna, maxilliped, chela, and pereopods. Metatanais spinipropodus is distinguished from the other three members of its genus by its chela having a strongly developed, chisel-like, spiniform seta on the inner face of propodus near the sub-distal margin of the fixed finger. The Hawaiian occurrence of M. spinipropodus extends the range for the genus Metatanais well-eastward into the mid-Pacific Ocean. This study presents the first description of a male attributable to the genus Aparatanais. PMID:27615684

  14. Microsatellite variation and rare alleles in a bottlenecked Hawaiian Islands endemic: implications for reintroductions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Pearce, John M.; Lavretsky, Philip; Seixas, Pedro P.; Courtot, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of genetic biodiversity in endangered wildlife populations is an important challenge to address since the loss of alleles and genetic drift may influence future adaptability. Reintroduction aims to re-establish species to restored or protected ecosystems; however, moving a subset of individuals may result in loss of gene variants during the management-induced bottleneck (i.e. translocation). The endangered Laysan teal Anas laysanensis was once widespread across the Hawaiian archipelago, but became isolated on Laysan Island (415 ha) from the mid-1800s until 2004 when a translocation to Midway Atoll (596 ha) was undertaken to reduce extinction risks. We compared genetic diversity and quantified variation at microsatellite loci sampled from 230 individuals from the wild populations at Laysan (1999 to 2009) and Midway (2007 to 2010; n = 133 Laysan, n = 96 Midway birds). We identified polymorphic markers by screening nuclear microsatellites (N = 83). Low nuclear variation was detected, consistent with the species’ insular isolation and historical bottleneck. Six of 83 microsatellites were polymorphic. We found limited but similar estimates of allelic richness (2.58 alleles per locus) and heterozygosity within populations. However, 2 rare alleles found in the Laysan source population were not present in Midway’s reintroduced population, and a unique allele was discovered in an individual on Midway. Differentiation between island populations was low (FST = 0.6%), but statistically significant. Our results indicate that genetic drift had little effect on offspring generations 3 to 6 yr post-release and demonstrate the utility of using known founder events to help quantify genetic capture during translocations and to inform management decisions.

  15. Public Awareness of a Long-Established Siren-Based Warning System for Tsunami in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C.; Houghton, B.; Paton, D.; Johnston, D.

    2003-12-01

    Tsunami represent one of the greatest threats in the Hawaiian Islands because much of the built environment is located in the coastal areas and has been constructed after the last statewide damaging tsunami (1960). Moreover, the threat posed by short warning times of locally generated tsunami suggests an urgent need for a well briefed and prepared society. The Federal Emergency Alert System (EAS) is employed to communicate emergency information to the Hawaiian population (1.2 million residents; 6.4 million annual visitors). A network of sirens located throughout the islands supplements the EAS. These sirens have been used since the mid 20th Century to provide emergency information to islanders. The siren is currently defined as an "Attention Alert Signal" i.e. is intended to prompt people to listen to the radio or television for specific information. The sirens are tested monthly. Since the inception of the sirens there have been a range of tones and number of soundings used to indicate various threats and prompt specific public responses. However, the impact of these changes on interpretation of the sirens has received little attention (Lachman et al. 1961). The long time during which the warning system has been in place and the routine tests of the sirens would suggest that the population in Hawaii is largely aware of the siren. We present data from four Hawaiian Islands showing the relationship between awareness of the routine tests and interpretations of the sirens. We link this to findings from a tsunami preparedness study in Hilo, Hawaii.

  16. Tropical cyclone inundation potential on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Andrew B.; Westerink, Joannes J.; Smith, Jane M.; Hope, Mark E.; Hartman, Michael; Taflanidis, Alexandros A.; Tanaka, Seizo; Westerink, Hans; Cheung, Kwok Fai; Smith, Tom; Hamann, Madeleine; Minamide, Masashi; Ota, Aina; Dawson, Clint

    2012-08-01

    The lack of a continental shelf in steep volcanic islands leads to significant changes in tropical cyclone inundation potential, with wave setup and runup increasing in importance and wind driven surge decreasing when compared to more gently-sloped mainland regions. This is illustrated through high resolution modeling of waves, surge, and runup on the Hawaiian Islands of Oahu and Kauai. A series of hurricane waves and water levels were computed using the SWAN + ADCIRC models for a suite of 643 synthetic storm scenarios, while local wave runup was evaluated along a series of 1D transects using the phase-resolving model Bouss1D. Waves are found to be an extremely important component of the inundation, both from breaking wave forced increases in storm surge and also from wave runup over the relatively steep topography. This is clear in comparisons with debris lines left by Hurricane Iniki on the Island of Kauai, where runup penetration is much greater than still water inundation in most instances. The difference between steeply-sloping and gently-sloping topographies was demonstrated by recomputing Iniki with the same landfall location as Hurricane Katrina in Louisiana. Surge was greatly increased for the mild-slope Iniki-in-Louisiana case, while pure wind surge for Iniki-in-Kauai was very small. For the entire suite of storms, maxima on Kauai show predicted inundation largely confined to a narrow coastal strip, with few locations showing more than a few hundred meters of flooding from the shoreline. As expected, maximum flooded areas for the 643 storms were somewhat greater than the Iniki inundation. Oahu has significantly more low-lying land compared to Kauai, and consequently hypothetical tropical cyclone landfalls show much more widespread inundation. Under direct impact scenarios, there is the potential for much of Honolulu and most of Waikiki to be inundated, with both still water surge and wave runup contributing. Other regions of Oahu show inundation confined

  17. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

  18. Disparities among Asians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Matthew A.; Asai, Susan M.; Chang, Cherylee W.; Seto, Todd B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate disparities in cardiovascular risk factors among Asians and Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) in Hawaii who are hospitalized with ischemic stroke. Methods: We performed a retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2004 and 2010. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was compared for NHPI, Asians, and whites who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke. Results: A total of 1,921 patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were less likely to be older (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94–0.96), more likely to be female (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.07–2.24), and more likely to have diabetes (OR 2.74, 95% CI 1.87–4.00), hypertension (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.27–3.10), and obesity (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.25–2.65) than whites. NHPI had higher low-density lipoprotein levels (114 ± 50 mg/dL vs 103 ± 45 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and lower high-density lipoprotein levels (38 ± 11 mg/dL vs 45 ± 15 mg/dL, p < 0.0001) than whites. Compared with Asians, NHPI were less likely to be older (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.94–0.97) and more likely to have diabetes (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.35–2.61), previous stroke or TIA (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09–2.25), and obesity (OR 6.05, 95% CI 4.31–8.48). Conclusions: Asians, NHPI, and whites with ischemic stroke have substantially different cardiovascular risk factors. Targeted secondary prevention will be important in reducing disparities among these racial groups. PMID:23365055

  19. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians.

    PubMed

    Obana, Kyle K; Davis, James

    2016-06-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai'i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65-79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45-54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m(2) greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  20. Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium from Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Vanessa K; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Golke, Jan; Saw, Jimmy H W; Alam, Maqsudul; Donachie, Stuart P

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, helical bacterium designated PH27AT was cultivated from an anchialine pool on Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The obligately halophilic strain was motile by bipolar tufts of flagella and grew optimally at pH 7, and microaerobically or aerobically. Closest neighbours based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence identity are Marinospirillum celere v1c_Sn-redT (93.31 %) and M. alkaliphilum Z4T (92.10 %) in the family Oceanospirillaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. PH27AT is distinguished phenotypically from members of the genus Marinospirillum by its hydrolysis of gelatin, the absence of growth in media containing ≤ 1 % (w/v) NaCl and the ranges of temperature (12–40 °C) and pH (5–8) for growth. The major compound ubiquinone Q-9 distinguishes the quinone system of strain PH27AT from those in members of the genus Marinospirillum and other members of the Oceanospirillaceae, in which the major quinone is Q-8. Major polar lipids in PH27AT were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine. Spermidine and cadaverine dominated the polyamine pattern; large proportions of cadaverine have not been reported in members of the genus Marinospirillum. Genotypic and chemotaxonomic data show that PH27AT does not belong in the genus Marinospirillum or other genera of the family Oceanospirillaceae or the Halomonadaceae. We propose a new genus, Terasakiispira gen. nov., be created to accommodate Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species, with PH27AT ( = ATCC BAA-995T = DSM 16455T = DSM 23961T) as the type strain. PMID:26297573

  1. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

  2. Racial Disparities in the Prevalence of Arthritis among Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders, Whites, and Asians

    PubMed Central

    Obana, Kyle K

    2016-01-01

    The health disparities of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are well established for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but less is known about disparities in arthritis. This study examined possible disparities in the prevalence of arthritis by age, sex, and severity comparing NHPI, Whites, and Asians. The study population included adult Hawai‘i participants in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey. NHPI males had a significantly higher prevalence of arthritis, which peaked twenty years earlier, than White and Asian males (P<.001). The prevalence of arthritis peaked at 65–79 years in males and females in all racial groups, except in NHPI males where it peaked at 45–54 years. The mean ages (years) for males with arthritis were 46.2 for NHPI, 59.1 for Whites, and 60.5 for Asians; the respective ages for females were 54.2, 60.5, and 58.8. NHPI males body mass index averaged 2.4 kg/m2 greater than White males (P<.001), and obese NHPI males had twice the age-adjusted odds of arthritis than obese White males. Although NHPI females had a greater body mass index than White females (P=.05), the prevalence of arthritis was only slightly and not significantly higher. NHPI males and females reported high pain scores more frequently than Whites did, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. Diabetes was a comorbidity more than twice as often in NHPI and Asians of both sexes than among Whites. This study demonstrated racial disparities in the prevalence of arthritis among NHPI, Whites, and Asians. PMID:27413625

  3. Modifiable Determinants of Obesity in Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Claudio R

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, obesity continues to be a major public health concern. Obesity disproportionately affects Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) who demonstrate alarming rates of obesity and its related chronic conditions. However, little is known about the causes of obesity for this group. Given the modest effects of individual-level obesity treatments, identifying the most impactful determinants that can be modified to prevent or reduce obesity in NHOPI youth is critical to the development of interventions that best meet the needs of this population. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, with additional expert-recommended articles identified through the Hawai‘i Initiative for Childhood Obesity Research and Education (HICORE) research database, to evaluate the current body of research on modifiable determinants or correlates of obesity in NHOPI youth. Of an initial pool of 471 articles, 60 articles were read in full and 14 articles were selected for inclusion in the qualitative synthesis. Utilizing an ecological framework to identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas for future research, findings from this review indicate that early life and contextual factors—namely, infant-feeding mode, geographic location, and education—appear to play an important role in obesity in NHOPI youth. However, more research is needed, particularly pre-birth cohort studies evaluating the effects of prenatal and early life risk factors, studies on the sociocultural influences on obesity-related psychosocial factors and health behaviors, as well as the influence of environmental and policy-level variables. PMID:27413626

  4. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ..., and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands; Exempted Fishing... contracted commercial fishermen to temporarily possess undersized and berried Caribbean spiny lobster for non... would include implanting a tag on each spiny lobster before releasing the lobster with minimal...

  5. Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

  6. Host introduction and parasites: a case study on the parasite community of the peacock grouper Cephalopholis argus (Serranidae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vignon, Matthias; Sasal, Pierre; Galzin, René

    2009-03-01

    The peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus) was intentionally introduced to the Hawaiian coastal waters 50 years ago to enhance the local fisheries. Following introduction, this species spread rapidly and became extremely abundant. A comparison of the metazoan parasite community of C. argus was performed between its native range (Moorea Island, French Polynesia) and its introduced range (Oahu and Big Island, Hawaii). Polynesian groupers were infected with a highly diversified parasite community whereas Hawaiian groupers exhibited a depauperate ensemble of parasite species, C. argus having lost most of the parasites common in their native range. Interestingly, the grouper has not acquired new parasites present in Hawaiian waters. This study provides the first field evidence of significant parasite release in a wild but previously introduced fish in coral reefs and is discussed in relation to the Enemy-Release Hypothesis which has never been assessed in those ecosystems. PMID:19002714

  7. Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non

  8. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non

  9. Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and

  10. The implementation of rare events logistic regression to predict the distribution of mesophotic hard corals across the main Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Veazey, Lindsay M; Franklin, Erik C; Kelley, Christopher; Rooney, John; Frazer, L Neil; Toonen, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Predictive habitat suitability models are powerful tools for cost-effective, statistically robust assessment of the environmental drivers of species distributions. The aim of this study was to develop predictive habitat suitability models for two genera of scleractinian corals (Leptoserisand Montipora) found within the mesophotic zone across the main Hawaiian Islands. The mesophotic zone (30-180 m) is challenging to reach, and therefore historically understudied, because it falls between the maximum limit of SCUBA divers and the minimum typical working depth of submersible vehicles. Here, we implement a logistic regression with rare events corrections to account for the scarcity of presence observations within the dataset. These corrections reduced the coefficient error and improved overall prediction success (73.6% and 74.3%) for both original regression models. The final models included depth, rugosity, slope, mean current velocity, and wave height as the best environmental covariates for predicting the occurrence of the two genera in the mesophotic zone. Using an objectively selected theta ("presence") threshold, the predicted presence probability values (average of 0.051 for Leptoseris and 0.040 for Montipora) were translated to spatially-explicit habitat suitability maps of the main Hawaiian Islands at 25 m grid cell resolution. Our maps are the first of their kind to use extant presence and absence data to examine the habitat preferences of these two dominant mesophotic coral genera across Hawai'i. PMID:27441122

  11. UV Responses in Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders and Asians Residing in Hawai'i and in Maryland

    PubMed Central

    Colmenares, Leticia U.; Coelho, Sergio; Miller, Sharon A.; Boomer, KB; Beer, Janusz Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background UV exposure causes a wide range of skin damage including cutaneous melanoma. The mechanisms of cellular and molecular damage as well as erythemal and pigmentation responses to UV exposure have largely been studied in the White population. Methods This study systematically investigates responses to UV exposure in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) and Asian populations living in Hawai'i (A/HI) as well as in Asians living in Maryland (A/MD). Results Our analyses indicate that the NHPI population is less sensitive to UV exposure than the A/HI population. Comparisons between the two Asian groups suggest that, despite slightly but not statistically different baseline constitutive pigmentation (pre-UV exposure), the A/HI and A/MD had similar UV sensitivity, measured as minimal erythemal dose (MED). However, the A/MD population had higher levels of oxy-hemoglobin at doses of 2.0, 2.8 and 4.0 MED. Unexpectedly the A/MD subjects retained higher levels of pigmentation 2 weeks post UV exposure. Conclusion This study provides insight into UV responses of the inhabitants of Hawai'i and shows that such responses are statistically significant for relatively small samples of Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islanders, and for Asians living in Hawai'i and Asians living in Maryland. PMID:23651272

  12. The implementation of rare events logistic regression to predict the distribution of mesophotic hard corals across the main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Erik C.; Kelley, Christopher; Frazer, L. Neil; Toonen, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive habitat suitability models are powerful tools for cost-effective, statistically robust assessment of the environmental drivers of species distributions. The aim of this study was to develop predictive habitat suitability models for two genera of scleractinian corals (Leptoserisand Montipora) found within the mesophotic zone across the main Hawaiian Islands. The mesophotic zone (30–180 m) is challenging to reach, and therefore historically understudied, because it falls between the maximum limit of SCUBA divers and the minimum typical working depth of submersible vehicles. Here, we implement a logistic regression with rare events corrections to account for the scarcity of presence observations within the dataset. These corrections reduced the coefficient error and improved overall prediction success (73.6% and 74.3%) for both original regression models. The final models included depth, rugosity, slope, mean current velocity, and wave height as the best environmental covariates for predicting the occurrence of the two genera in the mesophotic zone. Using an objectively selected theta (“presence”) threshold, the predicted presence probability values (average of 0.051 for Leptoseris and 0.040 for Montipora) were translated to spatially-explicit habitat suitability maps of the main Hawaiian Islands at 25 m grid cell resolution. Our maps are the first of their kind to use extant presence and absence data to examine the habitat preferences of these two dominant mesophotic coral genera across Hawai‘i. PMID:27441122

  13. Genome sequencing of Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae), a dominant species in various habitats in the Hawaiian Islands with remarkable phenotypic variations.

    PubMed

    Izuno, Ayako; Hatakeyama, Masaomi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Tamaki, Ichiro; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Sasaki, Ryuta; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-07-01

    Whole genome sequences, which can be provided even for non-model organisms owing to high-throughput sequencers, are valuable in enhancing the understanding of adaptive evolution. Metrosideros polymorpha, a tree species endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, occupies a wide range of ecological habitats and shows remarkable polymorphism in phenotypes among/within populations. The biological functions of genetic variations observed within this species could provide significant insights into the adaptive radiation found in a single species. Here de novo assembled genome sequences of M. polymorpha are presented to reveal basic genomic parameters about this species and to develop our knowledge of ecological divergences. The assembly yielded 304-Mbp genome sequences, half of which were covered by 19 scaffolds with >5 Mbp, and contained 30 K protein-coding genes. Demographic history inferred from the genome-wide heterozygosity indicated that this species experienced a dramatic rise and fall in the effective population size, possibly owing to past geographic or climatic changes in the Hawaiian Islands. This M. polymorpha genome assembly represents a high-quality genome resource useful for future functional analyses of both intra- and interspecies genetic variations or comparative genomics. PMID:27052216

  14. Factors affecting marine debris deposition at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 1990-2006.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Carey; Donohue, Mary J; Flint, Elizabeth; Swenson, Christopher; Woolaway, Christine

    2007-08-01

    Data on the amount and type of small debris items deposited on the beaches of the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge Tern Island station, French Frigate Shoals were collected over 16 years. We calculated deposition rates and investigated the relationship among deposition and year, season, El Niño and La Niña events from 1990 to 2006. In total 52,442 debris items were collected with plastic comprising 71% of all items collected. Annual debris deposition varied significantly (range 1116-5195 items) but was not influenced by season. Debris deposition was significantly greater during El Niño events as compared to La Niña events. Although often deduced to influence floating marine pollution, this study provides the first quantitative evidence of the influence of El Niño/La Niña cycles on marine debris deposition. PMID:17572447

  15. New records of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Anomura: Munididae) from deep-water off Okinawa Islands, Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Komai, Tomoyuki; Higashiji, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    Two species of the squat lobster genus Munida Leach, 1820, M. pollioculus n. sp. and M. zebra Macpherson, 1994, are recorded from deep-waters off Okinawa Islands, the Ryukyu Islands, at depths of 1000 m and 495 m, respectively. The new species closely resembles M. clevai Macpherson, 1999 and M. microps Alcock, 1894, but it differs from the latter two in the absence of a proximal spine on the mesial margin of the cheliped dactylus and the more stout dactylus of the second pereopod. Munida zebra is first recorded from the Northwest Pacific, as well as Japanese waters, with its geographical range extended to the north from the previously known southwestern Pacific localities. PMID:27394885

  16. Evolution on a volcanic conveyor belt: using phylogeographic reconstructions and K-Ar-based ages of the Hawaiian Islands to estimate molecular evolutionary rates.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, R C; McIntosh, C E; Tarr, C L

    1998-04-01

    The Hawaiian Islands form as the Pacific Plate moves over a 'hot spot' in the earth's mantle where magma extrudes through the crust to build huge shield volcanos. The islands subside and erode as the plate carries them to the north-west, eventually to become coral atolls and seamounts. Thus islands are ordered linearly by age, with the oldest islands in the north-west (e.g. Kauai at 5.1 Ma) and the youngest in the south-east (e.g. Hawaii at 0.43 Ma). K-Ar estimates of the date of an island's formation provide a maximum age for the taxa inhabiting the island. These ages can be used to calibrate rates of molecular change under the following assumptions: (i) K-Ar dates are accurate; (ii) tree topologies show that derivation of taxa parallels the timing of island formation; (iii) populations do not colonize long after island emergence; (iv) the coalescent point for sister taxa does not greatly predate the formation of the colonized younger island; (v) saturation effects and (vi) among-lineage rate variation are minimal or correctable; and (vii) unbiased standard errors of distances and regressions can be estimated from multiple pairwise comparisons. We use the approach to obtain overall corrected rate calibrations for: (i) part of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Hawaiian drepanidines (0.016 sequence divergence/Myr); (ii) the Yp1 gene in Hawaiian Drosophila (0.019/Myr Kambysellis et al. 1995); and (iii) parts of the mitochondrial 12S and 16S rRNA and tRNAval in Laupala crickets (0.024-0.102/Myr, Shaw 1996). We discuss the reliability of the estimates given the assumptions (i-vii) above and contrast the results with previous calibrations of Adh in Hawaiian Drosophila and chloroplast DNA in lobeliods. PMID:9628004

  17. Major element variations in Hawaiian shield lavas: Source features and perspectives from global ocean island basalt (OIB) systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Matthew G.; Weis, Dominique; Huang, Shichun

    2012-09-01

    Among volcanic hot spots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. Olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. Individual data points exhibit remarkable trends and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lava at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. The Hawaiian data set exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt (OIB) database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian lavas with radiogenic Pb and SiO2-poor lavas are sourced by a SiO2-poor mafic component (pyroxenite) admixed with peridotite, while Hawaiian lavas with unradiogenic Pb and high SiO2 are sourced by a SiO2-rich mafic component (eclogite). The variable SiO2 in the mafic component may result from different degrees of SiO2-extraction from the slab during subduction.

  18. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

    2008-12-01

    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  19. Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ʻIʻiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Naturalists in the 1800s described the ʻIʻiwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ʻIʻiwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ʻIʻiwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawaiʻi, east Maui, and Kauaʻi, with a few birds apparently persisting on Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, and west Maui. ʻIʻiwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ʻIʻiwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ʻIʻiwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ʻIʻiwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawaiʻi, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kauaʻi. ʻIʻiwi population trends vary across the islands. ʻIʻiwi population in Kauaʻi has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawaiʻi, population trends are mixed. On the windward

  20. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Koehler, Tobias B.; Marquez, Sebastian N.; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O‘ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the Kōnāhua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko‘olau Mountains, located on Windward O‘ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla. PMID:25829854

  1. Risk factors of suicide and depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander youth: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Laura C.; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C.; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  2. Recommendations for Implementing Policy, Systems, and Environmental Improvements to Address Chronic Diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  3. Interpersonal Violence and Mental Health Outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander College Students

    PubMed Central

    Archambeau, Olga G.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Herman, Steve; Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 614) we studied interpersonal violence victimization, perpetration, and mental health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural-based sample of Asian Americans (27%), and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (25%), two groups vastly underrepresented in trauma research. High rates of interpersonal violence (34%), violence perpetration (13%), and probable psychiatric diagnoses (77%), including posttraumatic stress disorder, were found. Exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology. Female participants were associated with higher likelihood of sexual violence victimization compared to male participants, and Asian American status (especially among males) was associated with lower likelihood of physical and sexual violence compared with European Americans. These data enhance our understanding of interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among previously understudied minority groups. PMID:21297936

  4. Risk Factors of Suicide and Depression among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander Youth: A Systematic Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Laura C; Ung, Tien; Park, Rebecca; Kwon, Simona C; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-05-01

    Suicide has become an increasing public health challenge, with growing incidence among Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) youth. Using an ecological framework, the purpose of this systematic review was to explicate risk and protective factors for depression or suicide among AA and NHPI youth from available peer reviewed research. The ecological framework provides a useful blueprint for translating social determinants of health to explain the experience of depression and suicidal behaviors among AA and NHPI youth. Sixty-six studies were extracted from PsychInfo, Ovid Med-line, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Policy and practice recommendations are offered in light of relevant themes that emerged. Further research and data disaggregation is needed to develop and strengthen population health strategies, interventions, and policies that address the underlying social conditions and cultural contexts of mental health disparities associated with depression and suicide among AA and NHPI youth. PMID:25981098

  5. Recommendations for implementing policy, systems, and environmental improvements to address chronic diseases in Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Kwon, Simona; Rideout, Catlin; Patel, Shilpa; Chung, Marianne; Bautista, Roxanna; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Ko-Chin, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis has increased recently on disseminating high-impact, population-wide strategies for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, such strategies are typically not effective at reaching Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, or other underserved communities. The objectives of this article were to 1) present the methods of the Strategies to Reach and Implement the Vision of Health Equity program in which 15 community-based organizations in the United States and the Pacific region implemented evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental improvements in their local communities and 2) provide recommendations for using these tailored approaches in other communities and geographic locations. Further support is needed for organizations in tailoring these types of population-wide strategies. Implementing population health improvements should be adapted to maximize effectiveness to decrease chronic diseases in these populations and ultimately eliminate racial/ethnic health disparities. PMID:25412025

  6. Challenges in identifying Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in population-based cancer registries in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-10-01

    Lack of disaggregated data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) in the U.S. has resulted in severe gaps in understanding health disparities and unique health needs of NHPIs. Telephone interviews were conducted with 272 cancer patients identified by a population-based cancer registry. The self-reported NHPIs status was compared with that identified by the registry. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were calculated. Alternative NHPIs identification methods were explored. The registry had acceptable sensitivity (89%), specificity (96%) and NPV (99%), but low PPV (62%) in identifying NHPIs. Using additional information on surname and birthplace from the registry improved the identification of NHPIs, but either increased the false positive or decreased the counts of true NHPIs cases. Improved data collection methods and practices in identifying NHPIs in population-based cancer registries are needed and caution in interpreting cancer data for NHPIs is warranted. PMID:20803254

  7. Hf-Nd-Pb Isotopes in Lavas and Pyroxenites From Kaula Island Reveal a Depleted Component in the Hawaiian Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, M.; Garcia, M. O.; Norman, M. D.; Salters, V. J.

    2008-05-01

    The presence of depleted material within the otherwise isotopically enriched Hawaiian plume has fundamental implications on the source composition and the scales of heterogeneities and mixing in mantle plumes. A depleted plume component has been recognized in the Pb isotope systematics of Oahu rejuvenated stage lavas (the Honolulu Volcanics, or HV) and in the Hf-Nd isotope compositions of garnet pyroxenite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater (SLC). Also, peridotite xenoliths from SLC with extreme Hf and Os isotope compositions and up to 2 Ga old Re-depletion ages have been interpreted as fragments of an ancient depleted recycled lithosphere that is part of the plume. Here we present the first combined Hf-Nd-Sr-Pd isotope investigation of phonolite and nephelinite lavas and pyroxenite xenoliths from Kaula Island, Hawaii. The location of Kaula some 300km from Oahu and on a cross-trend relation with the main Hawaiian ridge allows to investigate whether this depleted component has been continuously present in the Hawaiian plume the last ~2-3 Ma, or it is only recognized in Oahu. In terms of major and trace element contents, the Kaula nephelinites and pyroxenites generally overlap the compositions of the HV and SLC pyroxenites on Oahu, respectively. The garnet pyroxenites are interpreted as high pressure cumulates near the base of the lithosphere (70-100km), while the spinel pyroxenites possibly come from shallower depths. In Hf-Nd isotope space both Kaula lavas and pyroxenites (data on cpx separates) plot above the Hawaiian tholeiite trend, with relatively radiogenic Hf isotopes (ɛHf = 13.5-21) for a given Nd (ɛNd=7.3-8.3). These compositions do not intersect the Pacific MORB field. The Pb isotopic compositions of the Kaula lavas and pyroxenites, and new Pb data on the SLC pyroxenites (all data collected by high precision MC-ICPMS using the Tl addition technique) extend to lower 206Pb/204Pb (18.09-17.80) and 208Pb/204Pb (37.42-37.76) than previously reported in Hawaiian

  8. Major Element Variations in Hawaiian Shield Lavas: Source Features and Perspectives from global Ocean Island Basalt (OIB) Systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, M. G.; Weis, D. A.; Huang, S.

    2012-12-01

    Among volcanic hotspots globally, Hawaii has the highest magma flux, yet there is significant controversy surrounding the composition of the mantle sourcing Hawaiian lavas. In order to place constraints on the source lithologies of Hawaiian lavas, we explore relationships between major elements and radiogenic isotopes in tholeiitic, shield-building lavas. As originally discovered by Hauri (1996), olivine-fractionation corrected lava compositions reveal clear trends between radiogenic isotopes and major elements. However, we find that individual data points exhibit remarkable trends, and there is no need to average the data by volcano. Data form arrays that are anchored by Koolau lavas at one end (with high 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and low 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3) and by Kea and Loihi lavas at the other (with low 87Sr/86Sr, 187Os/188Os, SiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, and high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb, TiO2, CaO and CaO/Al2O3). Only FeOtotal, Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations (corrected to MgO 16%) do not correlate with radiogenic isotopes. When plotted against 206Pb/204Pb, the fractionation-corrected FeOtotal concentrations of the extreme low 143Nd/144Nd Loa-trend lavas—all from Koolau, Kahoolawe and Lanai—appear to be shifted to slightly lower values than Kea-trend volcanoes and Loihi. Fractionation-corrected Al2O3 and Na2O concentrations appear to be offset to somewhat higher values in most of Loa-trend lavas, while Hawaiian lavas with the highest 143Nd/144Nd, including Loihi and Kea-trend volcanoes, tend to have slightly lower Al2O3 and Na2O abundances. The Hawaiian dataset exhibits correlations that mirror the best correlations between major elements and radiogenic isotope in the global ocean island basalt database. We suggest that the mechanism driving the correlations in Hawaii illustrates, in microcosm, a larger global process that generates major element variability in mantle plumes. Like the global arrays, the Hawaiian

  9. Ethnoracial Disparities in Sexual Assault among Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Crisanti, Annette S.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Gundaya, Debbie; Salvail, Florentina R.; Triffleman, Elisa G.

    2010-01-01

    Context Ethnoracial differences may exist in exposure to trauma and post-traumatic outcomes. However, Asian-Americans and Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPI) are vastly underrepresented in research pertaining to trauma and health status sequelae. Objective To determine whether there are ethnoracial disparities in sexual trauma exposure and its sequelae for health and functioning among Asian-Americans and NHOPI. Design, Setting, Participants We examined data on sexual assault exposure from the 2006–2007 Hawai`i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (H-BRFSS), cross-sectional adult community-based probability sample (n = 12,573). Data were collected via computer-assisted random-digit landline telephone survey. Survey response rate was found to be about 48% in 2006 and 52% in 2007. Main Outcome Measures Demographic information, the Sexual Violence Module regarding unwanted sexual experiences, and questions about health lifestyles, chronic diseases and disability, and health status and quality of life. Results Participants were 42.3% White, 14.4% NHOPI, and 39.3% Asian-American. NHOPI had a higher 12-month period prevalence (2.24 per 100, CI=1.32–3.78) of any unwanted sexual experience, but a lower prevalence estimate and odds ratio for any lifetime unwanted sexual experience (prevalence: 9.38 per 100, CI=7.59–11.55; odds ratio: 0.61, CI=0.47–0.81) relative to Whites, after adjusting for age, gender, income and education level. Asian-Americans had lower prevalence estimates for 12-month period prevalence (0.78 per 100, CI=0.44–1.39), and lower lifetime prevalence estimates and odds ratios (prevalence: 3.91 per 100, CI=3.23–4.72; odds ratio: 0.27, CI=0.21–0.34). 12-month and lifetime prevalence estimate any unwanted sexual experiences for Whites were 0.71 per 100 (CI=0.45–1.12) and 12.01 per 100 (CI=10.96–13.14), respectively. Sexual assault experiences were highly associated with adverse health status sequelae (e.g., disability, poor

  10. Socio-demographic, Behavioral, and Biological Variables Related to Weight Loss in Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe`aimoku; Townsend, Claire K.M.; Ige, Arlene; Sinclair, Ka`imi A.; Mau, Marjorie K.; Leake, Anne; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl R.; Kekauoha, Puni; Hughes, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs) have a high obesity prevalence compared to other ethnic groups. We examined socio-demographic, behavioral, and biological factors related to ≥3% weight loss in 100 overweight/obese NHs/PIs who completed a lifestyle intervention. Data were from 56 Native Hawaiians, 22 Chuukese, and 22 Other Pacific Islanders who participated in a randomized controlled trial. All completed a 3-month weight loss program (WLP) to initiate weight loss and were then randomized into either a 6-month family/community focused WLP called the PILI Lifestyle Program (PLP; n=49) or a standard behavior WLP (SBP; n=51). We collected baseline, 3- and 9-month follow-up data on socio-demographics, weight (kg), a 6-min. walk test, dietary fat, exercise frequency, and blood pressure. Based on ANCOVA or logistic fit, ethnicity, sex, initial weight loss, fat in diet at baseline, change in systolic blood pressure, and intervention type were significantly associated (p≤.05) with ≥3% weight loss at 9-month follow-up. A logistic regression model indicated that Chuukese (OR=6.04; CI=1.14–32.17) and participants who had more weight loss in the first 3-months (OR=1.47; CI=1.22–1.86) and who were in the PLP (OR=4.50; CI=1.50–15.14) were more likely to achieve ≥3% weight loss [model; χ2 (7, N=100) = 45.50, p < .0001]. The same lifestyle intervention does not benefit all NHs/PIs equally, possibly due to differences in acculturation status and social support. The findings also point to the importance of initial weight loss to sustain motivation toward long-term weight loss maintenance. PMID:23404724

  11. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S. J.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-11-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. These observations have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii. We have formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 10^20 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian islands is, therefore, a consequence of the interaction between load-induced deformation and mantle dynamics.

  12. An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

  13. Spatial scale-dependent habitat heterogeneity influences submarine canyon macrofaunal abundance and diversity off the Main and Northwest Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Vetter, Eric W.; Smith, Craig R.; Rowden, Ashley A.; McGranaghan, Matthew

    2014-06-01

    The mapping of biodiversity on continental margins on landscape scales is highly relevant to marine spatial planning and conservation. Submarine canyons are widespread topographic features on continental and island margins that enhance benthic biomass across a range of oceanic provinces and productivity regimes. However, it remains unclear whether canyons enhance faunal biodiversity on landscape scales relevant to marine protected area (MPA) design. Furthermore, it is not known which physical attributes and heterogeneity metrics can provide good surrogates for large-scale mapping of canyon benthic biodiversity. To test mechanistic hypotheses evaluating the role of different canyon-landscape attributes in enhancing benthic biodiversity at different spatial scales we conducted 34 submersible dives in six submarine canyons and nearby slopes in the Hawaiian archipelago, sampling infaunal macrobenthos in a depth-stratified sampling design. We employed multivariate multiple regression models to evaluate sediment and topographic heterogeneity, canyon transverse profiles, and overall water mass variability as potential drivers of macrobenthic community structure and species richness. We find that variables related to habitat heterogeneity at medium (0.13 km2) and large (15-33 km2) spatial scales such as slope, backscatter reflectivity and canyon transverse profiles are often good predictors of macrobenthic biodiversity, explaining 16-30% of the variance. Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux and distance from shore are also important variables, implicating food supply as a major predictor of canyon biodiversity. Canyons off the high Main Hawaiian Islands (Oahu and Moloka'i) are significantly affected by organic enrichment, showing enhanced infaunal macrobenthos abundance, whereas this effect is imperceptible around the low Northwest Hawaiian Islands (Nihoa and Maro Reef). Variable canyon alpha-diversity and high rates of species turnover (beta-diversity), particularly for

  14. New and poorly known species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea (Bairdiidae, Ostracoda) from French Frigate Shoals and O'ahu, the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Rosalie F

    2015-01-01

    Bairdoppilata scaura, n. sp. and five species of Bairdoppilata and Paranesidea in open nomenclature are described from encrusting communities on French Frigate Shoals and Kane'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaiian Islands. Some poorly documented anatomical traits (carapace setae, hingement, antennal claws, genitalia) are examined for their potential taxonomic significance, in order to confirm the coherence of the Genus Bairdoppilata and to explore its diversity. PMID:26701564

  15. Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Kido, Michael H; Jokiel, Paul L; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai'i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management. PMID:22538320

  16. Population structure and comparative phylogeography of jack species (Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus) in the high Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Santos, Scott R; Xiang, Yu; Tagawa, Annette W

    2011-01-01

    Members of the family Carangidae are top-level predators and highly prized food and sport fishes. Although ecologically and economically important, little is known about the biology of numerous species in the family. This is particularly true of the jacks Caranx ignobilis and C. melampygus, which have experienced recent population reductions around the high Hawaiian Islands due to overfishing. Previous studies have documented territorial tendencies as well as cases of long-distance excursions in both species, suggesting populations may exhibit a range of structure at the genetic level. To explore this possibility, mitochondrial DNA ATPase6 and ATPase8 gene sequence variation was assessed from 91 individuals (33 C. ignobilis and 58 C. melampygus) spanning the islands of Kaua'i, O'ahu, Moloka'i, Maui, and Hawai'i. Although a total of 20 distinct haplotypes (8 for C. ignobilis; 12 for C. melampygus) were recovered, no evidence of population structure was found for either species across the examined geographic range. However, distinct demographic patterns were identified, implying differing evolutionary histories and/or population dynamics. Additionally, ∼ 6% of the examined C. ignobilis were C. ignobilis × C. melampygus hybrids because they harbored mitochondrial haplotypes typical of C. melampygus. These hybrids contribute to measurable gene flow between the species and may play a significant role in the evolution of the genus. PMID:20881031

  17. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  18. Hydrological Properties and Flow Paths Change with 4.1 Million Years of Soil Development in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, K. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2002-12-01

    A well-characterized chronosequence of soils in the Hawaiian archipeligo provides an excellent opportunity to examine the effects of time on hydrological properties and flow paths in a humid tropical environment. Detailed hydrological studies were conducted at the extreme ends of a chronosequence of soils in the Hawaiian Islands as a part of a larger study evaluating hydrologic losses of nitrogen (N) under elevated N supply. Specifically, we determined in-situ soil-water retention, soil hydraulic conductivity, and flow path characteristics on a 300 year old Andisol and 4.1 million year old Oxisol both supporting native montane tropical forest. We found that surface and subsurface soils drained rapidly at the young site but observed significant differences between surface and subsurface soil-water retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics at the old site. An artificial rainfall experiment with deuterium isotope tracer showed that water was dominantly downward advecting at the young site. At the old site, water moved fast as by-pass flow through the near-surface soils to an impeding subsurface clay layer and then moved both laterally along the clay contact and slowly downward as piston flow. Across the soil age gradient, soil anisotropy and the probability of lateral flow increased as saturated hydraulic conductivity in subsurface soils declined. Findings from this study demonstrate that soil development with time can have a profound effect on the rate and direction of water flow which have important implications for the rate and trajectory of soil and ecosystem formation, nutrient cycling and storm runoff mechanisms.

  19. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casey, R.N.; Quackenbush, S.L.; Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Bowser, P.R.; Casey, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those displaying fibropapillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for polymerase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conventional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme activity in healthy turtles hatched and raised in captivity were much lower than those observed in asymptomatic free-ranging turtles. Turtles with fibropapillomas displayed a broad range of reverse transcriptase activity. Skin and eye fibropapillomas and a heart tumor were further analyzed and shown to have reverse transcriptase activity that banded in a sucrose gradient at 1.17 g ml-1. The reverse transcriptase activity purified from the heart tumor displayed a temperature optimum of 37??C and showed a preference for Mn2+ over Mg2+. Sucrose gradient fractions of this sample displaying elevated reverse transcriptase activity contained primarily retrovitalsized particles with prominent envelope spikes, when negatively stained and examined by electron microscopy. Sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of gradient-purified virions revealed a conserved profile among 4 independent tumors and showed 7 prominent proteins having molecular weights of 116, 83, 51, 43, 40, 20 and 14 kDa. The data suggest that retroviral infections are widespread in Hawaiian green turtles and a comprehensive investigation is warranted to address the possibility that these agents cause green turtle fibropapillomatosis (GTFP).

  20. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  1. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  2. Disparities in Use of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services by Asian and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander Women

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Van M.; Juon, Hee-soon; Gielen, Andrea C.; Steinwachs, Donald; Duggan, Anne

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if disparities exist in lifetime utilization of mental health/substance abuse services among Asian, Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) and white mothers. The study sample was comprised of mothers assessed to be at-risk (n=491) and not at-risk (n=218) for child maltreatment in the Hawaii Healthy Start Program study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to test the effects of predisposing, need, and enabling factors on utilization of services. Results revealed that, among mothers with depressive symptoms, compared with whites, Asians and NHOPI were significantly less likely to have received services. There were no significant racial differences in use of mental health/substance use services by other factors. These results suggest that racial disparities exist in utilization of mental health/substance abuse services among mothers with depressive symptoms. Future research is needed to identify barriers and facilitators to accessing needed services for Asian and NHOPI women. PMID:17647106

  3. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of population differentiation in the tree legume Acacia koa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fredua-Agyeman, Rudolph; Adamski, Daniel; Liao, Richard Junfu; Morden, Clifford; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and use microsatellite markers to characterize the high-value timber tree Acacia koa (koa), which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Genomic DNA fragments of 300-1000 bp were cloned and sequenced following enrichment for microsatellite motifs by PCR using 7 oligonucleotide repeat primers in separate reactions. Among 96 sequences analyzed, 63 contained unique microsatellite motifs flanked by variable sequences. A dual PCR method involving a primer walking step was used to develop 15 primer pairs. Another 16 primer pairs were developed directly from the variable sequences on both sides of the microsatellite motifs. These 31 primer pairs were tested on 172 koa plants representing 11 populations collected from 4 of the major Hawaiian Islands. Nine of the primers that identified polymorphic microsatellite loci and 3 that detected unique alleles exclusively in some populations were used for genetic diversity studies of koa. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of the allelic phenotype data revealed that koa from Kauai formed a distinct group separate from koa of the neighboring islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. The oldest of the four islands, Kauai, also had the most diverse populations of koa. PMID:19088813

  5. Description of a new species of Leiopathes (Antipatharia: Leiopathidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Daniel; Opresko, Dennis M

    2015-01-01

    The Hawaiian antipatharian coral previously identified as Leiopathes glaberrima (Esper, 1792) and Leiopathes sp. is described using polyp morphology, skeletal spine morphology and in situ photographs, and assigned the new name of Leiopathes annosa sp. nov. The species is characterized by tall (1 m or more), fan-shaped colonies, with thick, sometimes overlapping branches, and tissues that are colored bright orange when alive. Skeletal spines are smooth, hemispherical, often times multi-lobed, and typically 75 μm tall, but range between 30-225 μm. Polyps are of variable size (0.88-3.35 mm) and arranged on all sides of the corallum on thicker branches, and uniserially on terminal branches. Leiopathes annosa sp. nov differs from all other nominal species of Leiopathes by having a generally flabellate corallum with thick branches and conspicuous skeletal spines that are multi-lobed and hemispherical. The biogeographical distribution of species within the monogeneric family Leiopathidae is presented and discussed. PMID:26249904

  6. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  7. 77 FR 70915 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Population Segment AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...: National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Regional Office, Protected Resources Division, 1601.../), which we completed as required by the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.),...

  8. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased

  9. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased

  10. Vertical Motions of the Hawaiian Islands during the last 400 ka and their Implications for Plate-Plume Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, S.; Watts, A. B.

    2001-12-01

    Radiometric dating on drowned coral reefs and sub-aerial lavas including those from the Hilo scientific drilling hole [e.g., Lipman and Moore, 1996] indicates that Hawaii has subsided for ~1.2 km in the last 450 ka. Studies by Grigg and Jones [1997] of elevated coral deposits on Lanai and Molokai, which are located ~250 km from Hawaii, indicate up to ~60-80 meters uplift in the last 300 ka for these islands. Similar studies show that Oahu which is ~340 km from Hawaii has experienced smaller amount of uplift during approximately the same period. The observed patterns of vertical motions have been attributed to the flexural effects of loading of Hawaii on an elastic plate overlying an inviscid substratum. Such a model, however, is time-invariant and does not take into account any changes that may occur in the subsidence and uplift history during loading. We have therefore formulated a viscoelastic model to investigate the vertical motion induced by the loading of Hawaii. The viscosity structure is determined from thermal age and a Newtonian flow law with activation energy 120 KJ/mol and reference viscosity 1020 Pa s [Watts and Zhong, 2000]. A feature of the model is that at the time-scales appropriate to loading at Hawaii a significant portion of the lithosphere with viscosity greater than 1022 Pa s may still support stresses, which results in a larger apparent elastic thickness than has been deduced from flexural loading studies. Our studies show that while a viscoelastic model with a variable loading history can explain the subsidence at Hawaii, it fails to account for the uplift that is observed at Lanai and Molokai. One possibility is that these islands have been influenced by dynamic uplift due to an ascending plume beneath Hawaii. Our 3-D convection calculations show that the 10 cm/year motion of the Pacific plate causes the topography induced by a plume to peak "downstream" of Hawaii in the region of Lanai and Molokai. The vertical motion of the Hawaiian

  11. Phylogeny, Floral Evolution, and Inter-Island Dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) Based on ISSR Variation and Plastid Spacer Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Bean, Gregory J.; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or—perhaps more plausibly—a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree

  12. Phylogeny, floral evolution, and inter-island dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) based on ISSR variation and plastid spacer sequences.

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J; Bean, Gregory J; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or--perhaps more plausibly--a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with

  13. Sea level higher than present 3500 years ago on the northern main Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Eric E.; Fletcher, Charles H., III

    1998-04-01

    New data from an emerged coastal bench and associated fossil beach on Kapapa Island (Oahu), Hawaii, preserve a detailed history of middle to late Holocene sea level. These include 29 new calibrated radiocarbon ages and elevations indicating mean sea level reached a maximum position of 2.00 ± 0.35 m ca. 3500 yr B.P. These results correlate with additional evidence from Hawaii and other Pacific islands and provide constraints on Oahu's long-term uplift rate (0.03 0.07 mm/yr), previously based solely on Pleistocene age shorelines. Our sea-level reconstruction is consistent with geophysical model predictions of Earth's geoid response to the last deglaciation and with observations of increased Antarctic ice volume during the late Holocene.

  14. Using Evidence-Based Policy, Systems, and Environmental Strategies to Increase Access to Healthy Food and Opportunities for Physical Activity Among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  15. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  16. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  17. Translating Diabetes Prevention into Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Communities: The PILI ‘Ohana Pilot Project

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; West, Margaret R.; Leake, Anne; Efird, James T.; Rose, Charles; Palakiko, Donna-Marie; Yoshimura, Sheryl; Kekauoha, Puni B.; Gomes, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Native Hawaiians (NHs) and Other Pacific Islanders (OPIs) bear an excess burden of diabetes health disparities. To address this, Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR) approaches were used to: 1) culturally-adapt the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention (DPP-LI) for NHOPI communities; and 2) implement and examine the effectiveness of the culturally-adapted program to promote weight loss in 5 NHOPI communities. . Methods Informant interviews (n=15) and focus groups (n=15, 112 NHOPI participants) were completed to inform the cultural adaptation of the DPP-LI program. A team of 5 community investigators and 1 academic research team collaboratively developed and implemented the 12-week pilot study to assess the effectiveness of the culturally-adapted program. Results A total of 127 NHOPIs participated in focus groups and informant interviews that resulted in the creation of a significantly modified version of the DPP-LI, entitled the PILI ‘Ohana Lifestyle Intervention (POLI). In the pilot study, 239 NHOPIs were enrolled and after 12 weeks (post-program), mean weight loss was −1.5 kg (95%CI −2.0,−1.0) with 26% of participants losing ≥3% of their baseline weight. Mean weight loss among participants who completed all 8 lessons at 12 weeks was significantly higher (−1.8 kg, 95%CI −2.3, −1.3) than participants who completed less than 8 lessons (−0.70 kg, 95%CI −1.1, −0.29). Conclusion A fully engaged CBPR approach was successful in translating an evidence based diabetes prevention program into a culturally relevant intervention for NHOPI communities. This pilot study demonstrates that weight loss in high risk minority populations can be achieved over a short period of time using CBPR approaches. PMID:20364073

  18. Risk factors associated with methamphetamine use and heart failure among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Island peoples

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Marjorie K; Asao, Karynna; Efird, Jimmy; Saito, Erin; Ratner, Robert; Hafi, Muhannad; Seto, Todd

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Heart failure (HF), a long term outcome of chronic methamphetamine use (MU), occurs more frequently in racial and ethnic minority populations at high risk for cardiovascular disparities. This study examined the association of socio-demographic and clinical risk factors with MU among heart failure patients who are Native Hawaiians (NH) or other Pacific Island peoples (PIP). Design/Setting/Patient population: Cross-sectional study of NHs and PIPs with advanced heart failure enrolled in the Malama Pu’uwai Study, a randomized control trial to test an educational intervention to reduce re-hospitalization and/or death. A total of 82 participants were enrolled between 6/1/06 to 12/31/07 and met the following eligibility criteria: 1) self-identified NH or PIP, 2) Left ventricular systolic ejection fraction ≤45%, 3) Age of 21 years or older. Data were analyzed by odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and multiple logistic regression analysis. Main outcome measure: Methamphetamine use. Results: Twenty-two percent of HF participants were identified as being current or prior methamphetamine users. Younger age and non-married status (combined never married or divorced/separated) were independently associated with MU after adjustment for sex, education, and other co-morbidities associated with HF (ie, age >50 years, OR = 0.16, 95% CI, 0.03–0.84; non-married status combined as never married OR = 8.5, CI, 1.5–47; divorced/separated OR = 11, CI 1.8–75). Conclusions: Risk factors associated with MU in NH and PIPs with heart failure include: younger age and being divorced/separated or never married. Health care providers should be aware of MU as a contributing factor in the approach and treatment of HF in NHs and PIPs. PMID:19436660

  19. Illicit and nonmedical drug use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The racial/ethnic composition of the United States is shifting rapidly, with non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals the fastest growing segments of the population. We determined new drug use estimates for these rising groups. Prevalences among Whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were from the 2005–2011 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Substance use among respondents aged ≥12 years was assessed by computer-assisted self-interviewing methods. Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use. Results Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6–11.8% in 2009–2011 (P<0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use. Conclusions Findings reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:23890491

  20. Cancer statistics for Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders, 2016: Converging incidence in males and females.

    PubMed

    Torre, Lindsey A; Sauer, Ann M Goding; Chen, Moon S; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Jemal, Ahmedin; Siegel, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islanders (AANHPIs). In this report, the American Cancer Society presents AANHPI cancer incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. Among AANHPIs in 2016, there will be an estimated 57,740 new cancer cases and 16,910 cancer deaths. While AANHPIs have 30% to 40% lower incidence and mortality rates than non-Hispanic whites for all cancers combined, risk of stomach and liver cancers is double. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio among AANHPIs declined from 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.49) in 1992 to 1.04 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.07) in 2012 because of declining prostate and lung cancer rates in males and increasing breast cancer rates in females. The diversity within the AANHPI population is reflected in the disparate cancer risk by subgroup. For example, the overall incidence rate in Samoan men (526.5 per 100,000) is more than twice that in Asian Indian/Pakistani men (216.8). Variations in cancer rates in AANHPIs are related to differences in behavioral risk factors, use of screening and preventive services, and exposure to cancer-causing infections. Cancer-control strategies include improved use of vaccination and screening; interventions to increase physical activity and reduce excess body weight, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption; and subgroup-level research on burden and risk factors. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:182-202. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26766789

  1. GRB Astrophysics with LOBSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Sveda, L.; Inneman, A.

    2006-05-19

    We refer on the recent developments of LOBSTER project suggesting novel wide-field Lobster-Eye type of X-ray All Sky Monitor to detect and to analyze GRBs including XRF and X-ray rich GRBs. The triggers can be detected and localized by their X-ray emission in the 0.1 - 8 keV energy range. The system exhibits fine detecting sensitivities of order of 10-12 ergcm-2s-1 and the localization accuracy is of order of a few arcmin. The LOBSTER is expected to contribute significantly to analyses of GRBs and especially the XRFs.

  2. Quantifying Atmospheric Fallout of Fukushima-derived Radioactive Isotopes in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-04-01

    On March 11, 2011, several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage and released the radioisotopes iodine-131, cesium-134, and cesium-137 into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawaii and in milk samples analyzed from the Big Island. Because the detected levels were significantly below levels of health concern, the state did not attempt to quantify the deposition of these nuclides on the islands. This study estimated the magnitude of atmospheric fallout of cesium and iodine, and examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed in March 2011. Mushroom and soil samples were collected along precipitation gradients on Oahu and the island of Hawaii and analyzed for cesium isotopes using gamma spectrometry. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of Cs-134, which has a shorter half-life of 2.06 years and the fact that Cs-134 and 137 were released from the severed power plant nearly in parity. We found that Fukushima-derived cesium was present in both mushrooms and soil and the soil inventories ranged 2.2-60.9 Bq/m2 for Cs-137 and 16.1-445.8 Bq/m2 for I-131. Additionally, we found that Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were correlated with precipitation gradients. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in Hawaii, however the activities detected were orders of magnitude lower than fallout associated with the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific.

  3. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet

  4. LIGA for lobster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H.; Nugent, Keith A.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Moldovan, Nicolaie A.; Christenson, Todd R.; Petre, Robert; Brumby, Steven P.; Priedhorsky, William C.

    2001-01-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  5. LIGA FOR LOBSTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Peele, A.G.; Irving, T.H.

    2000-09-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  6. HURL's 2003 OE and NURP Deep Submergence Science Program in the NW and Main Hawaiian Islands and Projects Planned for 2004-2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation will emphasise the advantages of using manned submersibles in conjunction with ROV pre-surveys during UH's NOAA-funded Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 64-day Ocean Exploration research cruise in the NW Hawaiian Islands scheduled for Sept 3-Nov 6, 2003. The up-leg to Kure Atoll will focus on "Submarine Canyon and Scavenger Communities" (PIs Craig Smith & Eric Vetter) and "Characteristics of Deepwater Fish and Precious Corals on the Seamounts Neighboring Hawaii's Most Remote Seal Colonies" (PI: Frank Parrish). Two projects for PIs Amy Baco-Taylor & Timothy Shank are scheduled for the down-leg: "Seamount Surveys of Deep-Water Corals as Related to Geological Setting in the NWHI" and "Reproductive Biology and population genetics of Precious Corals in Hawaii". For 2004 -2006, HURL has 18 peer-reviewed projects approved. These include 45 submersible dives for projects in US Flag Waters SE of Hawaii, during a joint NURP-OE Expedition to American Samoa, scheduled for late 2004 and early 2005. Dives for most projects in the Main and nearer NW Hawaiian Islands will be scheduled for 2006, with a few exceptions. The scope and rationale of this planned program exemplifies the synergy between NOAA's Ocean Exploration and Undersea Research Program objectives.

  7. Applying Tafkaa For Atmospheric Correction of Aviris Over Coral Ecosystems In The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, James A.; Montes, Marcos J.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Growing concern over the health of coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs, has produced increased interest in remote sensing as a tool for the management and monitoring of these valuable natural resources. Hyperspectral capabilities show promising results in this regard, but as yet remain somewhat hindered by the technical and physical issues concerning the intervening water layer. One such issue is the ability to atmospherically correct images over shallow aquatic areas, where complications arise due to varying effects from specular reflection, wind blown surface waves, and reflectance from the benthic substrate. Tafkaa, an atmospheric correction algorithm under development at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, addresses these variables and provides a viable approach to the atmospheric correction issue. Using imagery from the Advanced Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) over two shallow coral ecosystems in the Hawai ian Islands, French Frigate Shoals and Kane ohe Bay, we first demonstrate how land-based atmospheric corrections can be limited in such an environment. We then discuss the input requirements and underlying algorithm concepts of Tafkaa and conclude with examples illustrating the improved performance of Tafkaa using the same AVIRIS images.

  8. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  9. Benthic composition of a healthy subtropical reef: baseline species-level cover, with an emphasis on algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Vroom, Peter S; Braun, Cristi L

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a "healthy" reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  10. Chemical Weathering Across a Climate by Time Matrix in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porder, S.; Hilley, G. E.; Chadwick, O. A.

    2006-12-01

    We determined the total mass loss and rate of chemical weathering for three, minimally eroded, lava flows (~ 10, 170, and 350 ky old) on the Island of Hawai'i. Using a backhoe, we sampled the entire weathering zone in 7-14 locations on each flow, and calculated mass loss of each major element by comparison to an immobile element (niobium). Each flow crosses a precipitation gradient that ranges from ~ 600 to ~ 2,500 mm yr -1, so we were able to assess the relative influence of climate and substrate age on the chemical depletion of the parent material. Time-averaged mass loss rates were highest on the youngest flow under the wettest climatic conditions (55 t km -2 yr -1), and decreased almost twenty fold on the older flows under similar conditions. There was a precipitation threshold below which mass loss was relatively small, and above which mass loss was substantial but insensitive to increased rainfall. This threshold was dependent on parent material age, ranging from 1650 mm yr -1 on the youngest flow to 1000 mm yr ^{- 1} on the oldest. Rainfall had a smaller effect than flow age on weathering rates, which increased by a factor of <5 with increased rainfall. Every site exhibited mass loss rates within the range measured in granitic catchments, despite the higher reactivity of basalt than granite. Thus these data underscore the importance of physical weathering in producing chemically weatherable substrate. Finally, the soils on each of these basaltic flows contain quartz-rich dust blown predominantly from Asian deserts, and we calculated the total mass of dust added to each weathering zone during its development. Surprisingly, even though Hawai'i is one of the least dusty places in the northern hemisphere, dust inputs equaled up to 45% of the total mass loss from the weathering zone at some sites, highlighting the potential importance of dust as a component of observed weathering fluxes from catchments worldwide.

  11. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  12. Mantle Anisotropy Beneath the Hawaiian Islands from Measurements of Shear-wave Splitting: Results from the PLUME Ocean-Bottom and Land Seismograph Deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Wolfe, C. J.; Laske, G.; Solomon, S. C.; Detrick, R. S.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bercovici, D. A.; Hauri, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    The fieldwork component of the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) project consisted of two consecutive one-year deployments of ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) and land stations, respectively offshore and on the Hawaiian Islands. Thirty-five OBSs were deployed in the first year in a relatively dense array around the modern locus of the Hawaiian hotspot; in the second year, 38 OBSs were deployed over an area extending from west of Kauai to east of Hawaii. Ten portable land stations were operated for a period spanning both OBS deployments. We have analyzed SKS phases recorded by both OBS and land stations for anisotropy-induced shear-wave splitting. Splitting measurements were typically made in the frequency band 0.05-0.1 Hz in order to minimize tilt-generated noise at the low-frequency end and microseismic noise at the high end. Only events with Mw ≥ 6 yielded measurements with adequate precision. Data quality is such that there are about 5 events per station that yield good splitting measurements. Splitting parameters were measured using the stacking technique of Wolfe and Silver [1998]. The geographical distribution of fast-polarization azimuths does not show an obvious signature of a localized center of mantle upwelling and divergence. Fast azimuths are predominantly parallel to the fossil spreading direction (~75°), with a smaller number parallel to the present-day direction of absolute plate motion (-58°). Measured delay times are typically about 1 s or less, although some stations display larger splitting times of 1-2 s. The variability in the delay times across the different stations may indicate differences in either the degree of anisotropy or thickness of the anisotropic lithosphere. Some well- constrained null measurements may provide constraints on the amount of heating and deformation of the lithosphere due to interaction with upwelling mantle.

  13. Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

  14. Hawaiian health practitioners in contemporary society.

    PubMed

    Chang, H K

    2001-09-01

    Hawaiian medical practices in Hawai'i became fragmented and deteriorated following the arrival of Western civilization. With the resurgence of Hawaiian pride, interest has risen to preserve what remains of Hawaiian healing methods. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which Hawaiian healing modalities are still in existence and practiced in the 1990s by Hawaiian health practitioners. Twenty-five Hawaiian health practitioners on the island of O'ahu agreed to in-depth interviews on their specific training and current practices of Hawaiian healing. Data collection included demographic characteristics, cultural attributes, training patterns, healing modalities, motivation to practice, spirituality and health, use of Hawaiian medicines, and training of haumana (students). Common practices as well as differences between practitioners and specialties were explored. This study found that a small, but substantive, component of Hawaiian healing is practiced by a growing number of Hawaiian practitioners. Content analyses identified two major components of Hawaiian healing: (1) attributes of Hawaiian culture, and (2) elements of spirituality in health and healing. Three significant modalities remain: ho'olomilomi, massage; la'au lapa'au, herbal medicine; and ho'oponopono, conflict resolution. Seventeen or 68% reported being skilled in more than one healing modality and 56% were training haumana. All practitioners reported apprenticeships under one or more master healers or a recognized elder healer--often a family member. Prior to, and after, the administration of any healing modality, spiritual blessings were administered by all practitioners to initiate the healing process and end the healing session. Hawaiian values--such as lokahi, harmony between man, nature, and the gods--are essential for holistic health. Without lokahi, there is illness. In summary, this study provides data that previously did not exist on contemporary Hawaiian health practitioners

  15. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  16. New R/V Falkor Multibeam Data from the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.; Kelley, C.; Boston, B.; Dechnik, B.; Habel, S.; Harrison, L.; Leonard, J.; Lichowski, F.; Luers, D.; Miller, J. E.; Orange, R.; Patterson, M. A.; Shiro, B.; Taylor, J.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.; Tucker, J.; Wagner, D.; Webster, J.; Wright, N.

    2014-12-01

    From March to June 2014, the Schmidt Ocean Institute, along with National Marine Sanctuaries and the National Science Foundation, supported 72 days of mapping surveys on two cruises using R/V Falkor in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) located within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). PMNM is one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. Approximately 127,000 km2, 35% of the PMNM, were surveyed using dual multibeam systems from less than 30 to >5000 meters water depth, and thus covering the habitat depth ranges for shallow living corals, mesophotic corals, drowned reefs, to deep-sea corals and sponge communities. A total of 18 seamounts, guyots, banks, or atoll flanks (e.g., Midway and Kure) were mapped in the upper northwestern section of the monument, including the generically named Bank 9 Seamount, which appears to be a composite of a younger Hawaiian seamount and an older Cretaceous guyot. The middle segment of the PMNM consists mostly of large volcanic rift zone ridges and broad carbonate platforms. The rift zones located there are comparable in shape and size with those off Maui and the Island of Hawai'i in the main islands. Likewise, the magnitude of the largest carbonate platform of Gardner Pinnacles suggests its original high island may have met or exceeded the enormity of the Island of Hawai'i. Furthermore, the new mapping data have revealed the detail of numerous landslides and their deposits all along the chain, including an unusual rift zone flank failure creating a knife-edge ridge off Pioneer Bank. Dives with the Pisces V submersible were previously carried out on this feature, where extensive filter feeding biological communities were discovered. Not to be overlooked, the sidescan backscatter component of the multibeam data proved essential for identifying subtle reef features, numerous carbonate terraces, and debris channels that appear to transport sediment down the edifice flanks to the deep seafloor

  17. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Wood, Kenneth R; Lorence, David H; Kiehn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Coprosma kawaikiniensis K.R. Wood, Lorence & Kiehn (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from Kaua'i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated along with a previously undescribed endemic plant community, the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland (DSSF). The new species differs from Hawai'i congeners by its combination of opposite, long, elliptic to narrowly elliptic or ovate-elliptic leaves with revolute margins; caducous stipules 7-10 mm long, externally glabrous, densely hirtellous-pilose near the margins of the inner surface; unbranched inflorescences with peduncles 20-28 mm long; flowers 6-8 per cluster; and persistent calyx tube with 4-8 irregular dentate lobes. Known only from the windward slopes and ridges of southeastern Kaua'i below the Kawaikini summit, Coprosma kawaikiniensis falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27081342

  18. Coprosma kawaikiniensis (Rubiaceae) a new species from the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland community on Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Kenneth R.; Lorence, David H.; Kiehn, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coprosma kawaikiniensis K.R. Wood, Lorence & Kiehn (Rubiaceae), a rare endemic tree from Kaua‘i, Hawaiian Islands, is described and illustrated along with a previously undescribed endemic plant community, the Dubautia-Sadleria shrubland-fernland (DSSF). The new species differs from Hawai‘i congeners by its combination of opposite, long, elliptic to narrowly elliptic or ovate-elliptic leaves with revolute margins; caducous stipules 7–10 mm long, externally glabrous, densely hirtellous-pilose near the margins of the inner surface; unbranched inflorescences with peduncles 20–28 mm long; flowers 6–8 per cluster; and persistent calyx tube with 4–8 irregular dentate lobes. Known only from the windward slopes and ridges of southeastern Kaua‘i below the Kawaikini summit, Coprosma kawaikiniensis falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) Red List category. PMID:27081342

  19. On Verifying Currents and Other Features in the Hawaiian Islands Region Using Fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System Compared to Global Ocean Model and Ocean Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jessen, P. G.; Chen, S.

    2014-12-01

    This poster introduces and evaluates features concerning the Hawaii, USA region using the U.S. Navy's fully Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS-OS™) coupled to the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). It also outlines some challenges in verifying ocean currents in the open ocean. The system is evaluated using in situ ocean data and initial forcing fields from the operational global Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM). Verification shows difficulties in modelling downstream currents off the Hawaiian islands (Hawaii's wake). Comparing HYCOM to NCOM current fields show some displacement of small features such as eddies. Generally, there is fair agreement from HYCOM to NCOM in salinity and temperature fields. There is good agreement in SSH fields.

  20. Things Hawaiian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Lehua

    In this short guide, activities are described in five areas: musical instruments, games, canoe building, clothing instruction, and cooking with Hawaiian recipes. All of these activities are designed to help young Hawaiians find out about Hawaii's past. This guide is part of an artifacts kit which contains a few of the many different kinds of…

  1. Benthic Composition of a Healthy Subtropical Reef: Baseline Species-Level Cover, with an Emphasis on Algae, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Vroom, Peter S.; Braun, Cristi L.

    2010-01-01

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) are considered to be among the most pristine coral reef ecosystems remaining on the planet. These reefs naturally contain a high percent cover of algal functional groups with relatively low coral abundance and exhibit thriving fish communities dominated by top predators. Despite their highly protected status, these reefs are at risk from both direct and indirect anthropogenic sources. This study provides the first comprehensive data on percent coverage of algae, coral, and non-coral invertebrates at the species level, and investigates spatial diversity patterns across the archipelago to document benthic communities before further environmental changes occur in response to global warming and ocean acidification. Monitoring studies show that non-calcified macroalgae cover a greater percentage of substrate than corals on many high latitude reef sites. Forereef habitats in atoll systems often contain high abundances of the green macroalga Microdictyon setchellianum and the brown macroalga Lobophora variegata, yet these organisms were uncommon in forereefs of non-atoll systems. Species of the brown macroalgal genera Padina, Sargassum, and Stypopodium and the red macroalgal genus Laurencia became increasingly common in the two northernmost atolls of the island chain but were uncommon components of more southerly islands. Conversely, the scleractinian coral Porites lobata was common on forereefs at southern islands but less common at northern islands. Currently accepted paradigms of what constitutes a “healthy” reef may not apply to the subtropical NWHI, and metrics used to gauge reef health (e.g., high coral cover) need to be reevaluated. PMID:20305808

  2. Hawaiian Duck's Future Threatened by Feral Mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uyehara, Kimberly J.; Engilis, Andrew, Jr.; Reynolds, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Nearly 70 percent of Hawaii's native bird species are found nowhere else on Earth, and many of these species are declining or in danger of extinction. Although the Hawaiian Islands were once home to a remarkable diversity of waterfowl, only three species remain-the Hawaiian Goose (Nene), Laysan Duck, and Hawaiian Duck (Koloa maoli)-all Federally endangered. The Koloa maoli is the only Hawaiian bird threatened by 'genetic extinction' from hybridization with an invasive species-feral Mallard ducks. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) biologists in Hawaii are working to find the causes of bird endangerment and ways to prevent extinction of the Koloa maoli and other threatened birds.

  3. Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Abigail E.; Saito, Mak A.; Maiti, Kanchan; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.

    2008-05-01

    The vertical distributions of cobalt, iron, and manganese in the water column were studied during the E-Flux Program (E-Flux II and III), which focused on the biogeochemistry of cold-core cyclonic eddies that form in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. During E-Flux II (January 2005) and E-Flux III (March 2005), 17 stations were sampled for cobalt ( n=147), all of which demonstrated nutrient-like depletion in surface waters. During E-Flux III, two depth profiles collected from within a mesoscale cold-core eddy, Cyclone Opal, revealed small distinct maxima in cobalt at ˜100 m depth and a larger inventory of cobalt within the eddy. We hypothesize that this was due to a cobalt concentrating effect within the eddy, where upwelled cobalt was subsequently associated with sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) via biological activity and was released at a depth coincident with nearly complete POC remineralization [Benitez-Nelson, C., Bidigare, R.R., Dickey, T.D., Landry, M.R., Leonard, C.L., Brown, S.L., Nencioli, F., Rii, Y.M., Maiti, K., Becker, J.W., Bibby, T.S., Black, W., Cai, W.J., Carlson, C.A., Chen, F., Kuwahara, V.S., Mahaffey, C., McAndrew, P.M., Quay, P.D., Rappe, M.S., Selph, K.E., Simmons, M.P., Yang, E.J., 2007. Mesoscale eddies drive increased silica export in the subtropical Pacific Ocean. Science 316, 1017-1020]. There is also evidence for the formation of a correlation between cobalt and soluble reactive phosphorus during E-Flux III relative to the E-Flux II cruise that we suggest is due to increased productivity, implying a minimum threshold of primary production below which cobalt-phosphate coupling does not occur. Dissolved iron was measured in E-Flux II and found in somewhat elevated concentrations (˜0.5 nM) in surface waters relative to the iron depleted waters of the surrounding Pacific [Fitzwater, S.E., Coale, K.H., Gordon, M.R., Johnson, K.S., Ondrusek, M.E., 1996. Iron deficiency and phytoplankton growth in the equatorial Pacific. Deep

  4. 186Os- 187Os systematics of Hawaiian picrites revisited: New insights into Os isotopic variations in ocean island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, T. J.; Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.

    2011-08-01

    Eighteen picrites (MgO > 13 wt.%) and three related basalts from six Hawaiian volcanoes were analyzed for 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os. Variations in these ratios reflect long-term Re/Os and Pt/Os differences in the mantle source regions of these volcanoes. 187Os/ 188Os ratios vary from ˜0.129 to 0.136, consistent with the range defined by previous studies of Hawaiian picrites and basalts. Samples with lower 187Os/ 188Os are mainly from Kea trend volcanoes (Mauna Kea and Kilauea), and the more radiogenic samples are mainly from Loa trend volcanoes (Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Koolau and Loihi). As previously suggested, differences in 187Os/ 188Os between volcanic centers are most consistent with the presence of variable proportions of recycled materials and/or pyroxenitic components in the Hawaiian source. 186Os/ 188Os ratios vary from 0.1198332 ± 26 to 0.1198480 ± 20, with some samples having ratios that are significantly higher than current estimates for the ambient upper mantle. Although the range of 186Os/ 188Os for the Hawaiian suite is consistent with that reported by previous studies, the new data reveal significant heterogeneities among picrites from individual volcanoes. The linear correlation between 187Os/ 188Os and 186Os/ 188Os reported by a previous study is no longer apparent with the larger dataset. The postulated recycled materials and pyroxenites responsible for the dominant variations in 187Os/ 188Os are likely not responsible for the variations in 186Os/ 188Os. Such materials are typically characterized by both insufficiently high Os concentrations and Pt/Os to account for the 186Os/ 188Os heterogeneities. The lack of correspondence between 186Os/ 188Os variations and the Kea and Loa trends supports this conclusion. The primary cause of 186Os/ 188Os variations are evaluated within the framework of two mixing scenarios: (1) metasomatic transport of Pt and/or 186Os-rich Os into some portions of the Hawaiian source, and (2) interaction between an

  5. Multibeam Synthesis of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Supports Diverse Research in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Kelley, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) was established in 2006 and is both the single largest conservation area under U.S. jurisdiction (366,631 km2), and one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. The NWHI stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main or Southeastern Hawaiian Islands and contains 47 individual islands, seamounts, atolls, ridges, and submerged banks. The PMNM boundary is 100 nm (185 km) wide centered on the emergent landforms and thus nearly the entire monument (98%) is in deepwater (>100 m) beyond the range of technical wet diving. Because of its remote location, dedicated multibeam mapping of the PMNM region began only ten years ago, although research in the NWHI has taken place for decades. In an effort to consolidate the more recent systematic surveys with older transit data swaths for this region, a synthesis of all existing multibeam data was undertaken between 2009 and 2010. This dataset was then merged with the much lower resolution global bathymetry dataset to generate a more complete picture and allow users to visualize the remainder of the as yet unmapped features within and adjacent to the PMNM boundaries. One of the primary benefits of the synthesis has been to provide researchers with base maps for study site selection including submersible and ROV dive locations. In addition, fusion with the global dataset permits calculation of statistics using geospatial software and may serve as input for physical oceanographic models. With a number of different entities carrying out mapping activities in the PMNM in recent years, this data compilation also provides a road map showing where existing multibeam data are located so as to avoid duplication of effort. The synthesis was prepared with a grid cell interval of 120 m in order to accommodate the large area and water depths to >5000 m, although some of the individual surveys are of much higher

  6. Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800 m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80 kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30 s every 5 min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night. PMID:23654414

  7. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  8. Sky monitoring with LOBSTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Tichy, V.

    2014-12-01

    The X--ray sky monitoring represents valuable energy spectral extension to optical sky monitoring. Lobster--Eye all--sky monitors are able to provide relatively high sensitivity and good time resolution in the soft X--ray energy range up to 10 keV. The fine time resolution can be used to alert optical robotic telescopes for follow--up and multispectral analyzes in the visible light.

  9. New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, D.R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  10. The Return of Hawaiian: Language Networks of the Revival Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenzinger, Matthias; Heinrich, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Some 40 years ago, language transmission in Hawai'i was interrupted among Hawaiians across all islands with the sole exception of language maintenance among a small community on the tiny, isolated Ni'ihau Island. Today, Hawaiian has returned as spoken and written medium with some 5000-7000 new speakers. The present paper provides an…

  11. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  12. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  15. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Big Island) 2 20°16′5.3″20°17′59.9″ −155°51′0.5″−155°51′17.2″ 13 Keahole Pt., Hawaii (Big Island) 2 19...). ER29NO99.002 Bound No. (Fig.2) Geographic Name No. of Points Latitude Longitude 14 Kawaihae Harbor,...

  16. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  17. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  18. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  19. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  20. 36 CFR 7.84 - Channel Islands National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... invertebrates may be taken in water less than five (5) feet in depth. (2) The taking of abalone and lobsters for...) Lobster permits for Anacapa and Santa Barbara Islands will be issued only to applicants who filed with the California State Department of Fish and Game fish receipts for lobsters caught at Anacapa and Santa...

  1. ISS-Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, S. D.; Petre, R.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Ptak, A.

    2014-01-01

    This poster presents ISS-Lobster, a wide-field X-ray transient mission proposed to be deployed on the International Space Station. Through its unique imaging X-ray optics that allow a 30 deg by 30 deg FoV, a 1 arc min position resolution and a 10^-11 erg/(sec cm2) sensitivity in 2000 sec, ISS-Lobster will observe numerous events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including: tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts, and perhaps most exciting, X-ray counterparts of gravitational wave detections involving both stellar mass and supermassive black holes. A 3-axis gimbal system will allow fast pointing in response to any independent, multi-wavelength indication of these events. Finally, deployment of this detector on the ISS will realize significant cost savings compared to a free-flying satellite as power, communication, and ISS transport are provided.

  2. Applications of lobster eye optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Inneman, A.; Tichy, V.

    2015-05-01

    Applications of wide field Lobster Eye X ray telescopes are presented and discussed. The wide field X ray optics was originally proposed for use in X-ray astronomy, but there are numerous other application areas as well.

  3. Chemical weathering, mass loss, and dust inputs across a climate by time matrix in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porder, Stephen; Hilley, George E.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2007-06-01

    We determined the total mass loss and rate of chemical weathering from three minimally eroded, Hawaiian lava flows that are ˜ 10, 170, and 350 ka old. Using a backhoe, we sampled the entire weathering zone at 28 sites and measured the depletion or enrichment of each major element in each soil horizon relative to parent material. We were able to assess the influence of both climate and substrate age on chemical weathering because each flow crosses a precipitation gradient from ˜ 600 to ˜ 2500 mm yr - 1 . Mass loss rates were highest for the 0-10 ka interval under the wettest climatic conditions (54 t km - 2 yr - 1 ), and decreased to near zero in the wet sites during the 10-170 and 170-350 ka intervals. Not surprisingly, weathering rates were lower in drier sites; ˜ 24 t km - 2 yr - 1 from 0-10 ka to < 2 t km - 2 yr - 1 thereafter. However the effects of precipitation were non-linear. There was a precipitation threshold below which mass loss was relatively small, and above which mass loss was substantial but insensitive to increased rainfall. Chemical weathering rates depend on tectonic uplift, erosion, climate, rock type or some combination thereof. By working on stable, uneroded surfaces of a single rock type across a well-constrained precipitation gradient, we were able to identify another potential driver: the rate of dust deposition. Although Hawaíi is one of the least dusty places in the northern hemisphere, dust inputs reached 82% of the total mass loss from the weathering zone at some sites, and averaged 30% on the 170 ka flow. This highlights the potential importance of dust as a component of observed weathering fluxes from catchments worldwide.

  4. Mahukona: The missing Hawaiian volcano

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.O.; Muenow, D.W. ); Kurz, M.D. )

    1990-11-01

    New bathymetric and geochemical data indicate that a seamount west of the island of Hawaii, Mahukona, is a Hawaiian shield volcano. Mahukona has weakly alkalic lavas that are geochemically distinct. They have high {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios (12-21 times atmosphere), and high H{sub 2}O and Cl contents, which are indicative of the early state of development of Hawaiian volcanoes. The He and Sr isotopic values for Mahukona lavas are intermediate between those for lavas from Loihi and Manuna Loa volcanoes and may be indicative of a temporal evolution of Hawaiian magmas. Mahukona volcano became extinct at about 500 ka, perhaps before reaching sea level. It fills the previously assumed gap in the parallel chains of volcanoes forming the southern segment of the Hawaiian hotspot chain. The paired sequence of volcanoes was probably caused by the bifurcation of the Hawaiian mantle plume during its ascent, creating two primary areas of melting 30 to 40 km apart that have persisted for at least the past 4 m.y.

  5. Attraction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects to methyl eugenol bucket traps with different preservative fluids on Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Grant K; Mackey, Bruce E; McInnis, Donald O; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-06-01

    Attraction of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and nontarget insects to preservative fluids ethylene glycol antifreeze, propylene glycol antifreeze, or mineral oil in bucket traps that contained captured decaying male oriental fruit flies, a male lure (methyl eugenol), and a toxicant (DDVP vapor insecticidal strip) were compared with dry control traps. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater numbers of B. dorsalis were captured in propylene glycol antifreeze traps than in other attractant trap types. Among attractant trap types with lowest negative impacts on nontarget insects, control traps captured significantly lower numbers of three species and one morphospecies of scavenger flies, one species of plant-feeding fly, and one species each of sweet-and lipid-feeding ants. Mineral oil traps captured significantly lower numbers of two species of scavengers flies and one morphospecies of plant-feeding fly, and one species of sweet-feeding ant. Because of the fragile nature of endemic Hawaiian insect fauna, the propylene glycol antifreeze bucket trap is best suited for use in environments (e.g., non-native habitats) where endemic species are known to be absent and mineral oil traps are more suited for minimizing insect captures in environmentally sensitive habitats. PMID:17598531

  6. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G; Gersing, Kenneth R; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)-the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N = 4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1-90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12-17. MRs aged 35-49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ≥ 2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  7. Nonmedical Stimulant Use among Young Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and Mixed-Race Individuals Aged 12–34 years In the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Blazer, Dan G.; Hoyle, Rick H.

    2014-01-01

    There are concerns over nonmedical use of prescription stimulants among youths, but little is known about the extent of use among young Asian-Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined prevalences and correlates of nonmedical stimulant use (NMSU) and disorder (StiUD) for these underrecognized groups. Whites were included as a comparison. Data were from young individuals aged 12–34 years in the 2005–2012 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. We used logistic regression to estimate odds of past-year NMSU status. Significant yearly increases in lifetime NMSU prevalence were noted in Whites only. NHs/PIs (lifetime 7.33%, past-year 2.72%) and mixed-race individuals (10.20%, 2.82%) did not differ from Whites in NMSU prevalence (11.68%, 3.15%). Asian-Americans (lifetime 3.83%, past-year 0.90%) had lower prevalences than Whites. In each racial/ethnic group, “Methamphetamine/Desoxyn/Methedrine or Ritalin” was more commonly used than other stimulant groups; “got them from a friend/relative for free” and “bought them from a friends/relative” were among the most common sources. Females had greater odds than males of NMSU (among White, NH/PI, mixed-race individuals) and StiUD (among mixed-race individuals). Young adults (aged 18–25) had elevated odds of NMSU (White, NH/PI); adolescents had elevated odds of StiUD (White, mixed-race). Other substance use (especially marijuana, other prescription drugs) increased odds of NMSU and StiUD. NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals were as likely as Whites to misuse stimulants. Research is needed to delineate health consequences of NMSU and inform prevention efforts for these understudied, rapidly-growing populations. PMID:25263275

  8. Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMartini, E.E.; Zgliczynski, B.J.; Boland, R.C.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave "exposed" sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes) at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore water flow and transport by surface currents. The densities of recruits (juveniles ???5 cm total length) were higher overall on windward versus leeward sectors of carbonate rock-rubble back reefs at both atolls, and the pattern was stronger for smaller (likely younger, more recently settled) recruits of four of the five most abundant species and the remainder pooled as an "Other" taxon. The windward-leeward disparity was four-fold greater at Pearl Hermes (the atoll with a three-fold longer perimeter) than at Kure. Resident predator biomass also was correlated with recruit densities, but habitat (benthic substratum) effects were generally weak. The distribution and abundance of recruits and juveniles of the primarily endemic reef fishes on shallow back reefs at these atolls appear partly influenced by relative rates of water flow over windward vs. leeward sectors of barrier reef and by the size, shape, and orientation of habitat parcels that filter out postlarval fishes with relatively weak swimming capabilities like labroids. Whole-reef geomorphology as well as fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and rugosity should be considered among the suite of many factors used to interpret observed spatial patterns of post-settlement juvenile fish distribution at atolls and perhaps some other tropical reefs. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  9. A comparison of static versus dynamic models of sea-level rise impacts to atolls: Insights from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Berkowitz, P.; Reynolds, M.; Logan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and impact terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islets on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an islet at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using US Army Corps of Engineers hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled Delft3D wave, current, and water level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the islet shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and islet configuration. Islet inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested by passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models.

  10. Prevention, early detection and containment of invasive, nonnative plants in the Hawaiian Islands: current efforts and needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christoph Kueffer; Loope, Lloyd

    2009-01-01

    Some of these new introductions may quickly become serious pests. Fireweed, first recorded in Hawaii on the Big Island in the early 1980s, is now considered one of the Kueffer & Loope 2009 5/48 worst weeds of pastures and is also invading natural areas from near sea level to above 10,000 feet. Although the cultivated and as yet non-invasive Cortaderia selloana has been present in Hawaii for 50 years or more, the morphologically similar Cortaderia jubata was simultaneously found to be present on Maui and invading on a large scale in 1989. It played an important role in inspiring the establishment of the Maui Invasive Species Committee (MISC) in 1997, and MISC now spends roughly $200,000 per year removing and containing C. jubata to keep it from becoming widespread in high elev

  11. Diseases of spiny lobsters: a review.

    PubMed

    Shields, J D

    2011-01-01

    Spiny lobsters have few reported pathogens, parasites and symbionts. However, they do have a diverse fauna comprised of a pathogenic virus, several bacteria, protozoans, helminths and even symbiotic crustaceans. A few idiopathic syndromes have also been reported, but these appear correlated with lobsters held in poor conditions. Fungal and bacterial pathogens present significant threats for rearing spiny lobsters in aquaculture settings, but only one pathogen, Panulirus argus virus 1, is thought to have damaged a fishery for a spiny lobster. No doubt others will emerge as lobsters are brought into aquaculture setting and as fishing pressure intensifies with stocks become more susceptible to anthropogenic stressors. PMID:21215357

  12. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-10

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  13. Optical Sensor for Measuring American Lobster Vitality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F.

    2011-06-01

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  14. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    PubMed

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to

  15. Hawaii Play Fairway Analysis: Hawaiian Place Names

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-11-15

    Compilation of Hawaiian place names indicative of heat. Place names are from the following references: Pukui, M.K., and S.H. Elbert, 1976, Place Names of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI 96822, 289 pp. ; Bier, J. A., 2009, Map of Hawaii, The Big Island, Eighth Edition, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, HI  96822, 1 sheet.; and Reeve, R., 1993, Kahoolawe Place Names, Consultant Report No. 16, Kahoolawe Island Conveyance Commission, 259 pp.

  16. Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the

  17. Predictors of Dental Cleaning Over a Two-year Time Period Around Pregnancy Among Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander Race Subgroups in Hawai‘i, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Turnure, Matthew; Mattheus, Deborah J; Shannon, Maureen T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oral health disease is linked to several chronic diseases including adverse health outcomes around pregnancy. Optimizing a woman's oral health before, during, and after pregnancy can impact her health and the health of her children. Preventive, diagnostic, and restorative dental services can be done safely and effectively including during pregnancy. We examined data from the 2009–2011 Hawai‘i Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) to assess the prevalence of dental cleanings over an approximately 2 year (Median: 2.0 years, Range:1.6–2.5 years) time period (12 months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first few months postpartum) among 4,735 mothers who recently had a live birth. Adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) of dental cleanings were calculated for both race and Medicaid/QUEST insurance status adjusting for maternal age and education. During a two-year span before, during, and after pregnancy an estimated 60.8% of women had dental cleanings. Native Hawaiian (APR=0.87; 95% CI=0.80–0.93), Other Pacific Islander (0.70; 0.58–0.83), Filipino (0.90; 0.82–0.97), and Chinese (0.76; 0.63–0.93) mothers were less likely to have had dental cleanings compared to white mothers. Additionally, mothers with Medicaid/QUEST health insurance (0.73; 0.68–0.79) were less likely to have had cleanings. More than one-third of recently pregnant mothers did not have dental cleanings in the approximately two-year time period. Native Hawaiian, Other Pacific Islander, Filipino, and Chinese mothers and those on Medicaid/QUEST health insurance were less likely to receive regular dental care. Identification of the reasons why these populations do not seek regular dental care can inform programmatic efforts to improve oral health outcomes for women and families. PMID:26535162

  18. Pathological findings in the Hawaiian monk seal.

    PubMed

    Banish, L D; Gilmartin, W G

    1992-07-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 45 Hawaiian monk seals (Monachus schauinslandi) collected during field research on the beaches of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (USA) from 1981 to 1985. Both males and females of all age groups, perinatal through adult, were examined. Frequent findings included parasites, trauma, cardiovascular disease (congenital and acquired), and respiratory infections. Emaciation was a common condition. All animals except neonates were infected with parasites; infection was severe in several cases. Splenic hematopoiesis was a universal histopathologic finding. Some cases exhibited lesions consistent with renal, gastrointestinal, and toxic disorders; ectopic tissue calcification; gallstones; and ophthalmologic and dental problems. PMID:1512875

  19. Mapping the Hawaiian plume conduit with converted seismic waves

    PubMed

    Li; Kind; Priestley; Sobolev; Tilmann; Yuan; Weber

    2000-06-22

    The volcanic edifice of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts, as well as the surrounding area of shallow sea floor known as the Hawaiian swell, are believed to result from the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle hotspot. Although geochemical and gravity observations indicate the existence of a mantle thermal plume beneath Hawaii, no direct seismic evidence for such a plume in the upper mantle has yet been found. Here we present an analysis of compressional-to-shear (P-to-S) converted seismic phases, recorded on seismograph stations on the Hawaiian islands, that indicate a zone of very low shear-wave velocity (< 4 km s(-1)) starting at 130-140 km depth beneath the central part of the island of Hawaii and extending deeper into the upper mantle. We also find that the upper-mantle transition zone (410-660 km depth) appears to be thinned by up to 40-50 km to the south-southwest of the island of Hawaii. We interpret these observations as localized effects of the Hawaiian plume conduit in the asthenosphere and mantle transition zone with excess temperature of approximately 300 degrees C. Large variations in the transition-zone thickness suggest a lower-mantle origin of the Hawaiian plume similar to the Iceland plume, but our results indicate a 100 degrees C higher temperature for the Hawaiian plume. PMID:10879532

  20. A baseline analysis of the distribution, host-range, and severity of the rust Puccinia Psidii in the Hawaiian islands, 2005-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    state of Florida in the United States. While the rust has been present in Florida for over 30 years, only recently has it spread westward. Although possibly present earlier, P. psidii was found in California in November 2005 in a nursery in San Diego County on Myrtus communis and documented by a report in a nursery newsletter (Mellano 2006). Puccinia psidii was first found in Hawai`i on a young plant of `ōhi`a (Metrosideros polymorpha) in April 2005, in a nursery on the island of O`ahu (Killgore and Heu 2005; Uchida et al. 2006). The fungus subsequently spread to most islands of the Hawaiian chain, infecting `ōhi`a and other myrtaceous hosts (Hauff 2006, Anderson et al. 2007). P. psidii was first found in Japan in May 2007 on cultivated `ōhi`a (Kawanishi et al. 2009).


    Most recently, a rust identified as Uredo rangelii was discovered in April 2010 in New South Wales, Australia (Carnegie et al. 2010). This rust is closely related to Puccinia psidii and is part of the guava rust complex described by Simpson et al. (2006). Although treated as a separate species by Simpson et al. (2006), many authors now consider U. rangelii a synonym for U. psidii, which is the anamorph (asexual stage) of P. psidii, and therefore, the same species (Glen et al. 2007, Carnegie et al. 2010). Because of the large diversity of native Myrtaceae present in Australia, the number of Myrtaceae hosts attacked by species of the guava rust complex will likely grow now that U. rangelii has arrived

  1. 75 FR 23245 - American Lobster Fishery Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-AT31 American Lobster Fishery Management AGENCY... impact statement (DEIS) that identifies several proposed management actions and alternatives for the American lobster fishery in Federal waters. The management actions are based on recommendations to NMFS...

  2. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  3. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  4. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  5. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  6. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  7. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  8. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  9. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  10. 50 CFR 300.132 - Lobster harvest limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster harvest limitations. 300.132... FISHERIES REGULATIONS Vessels of the United States Fishing in Colombian Treaty Waters § 300.132 Lobster harvest limitations. (a) Berried lobsters. A berried (egg-bearing) lobster in treaty waters may not...

  11. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.409 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that...

  12. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section... Measures § 697.18 Lobster management areas. The following lobster management areas are established for... American lobster EEZ management areas is available upon request to the Office of the Regional...

  13. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.409 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that...

  14. Scientists probe Earth’s secrets at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unger, J.D.

    1974-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) sits on the edge of Kilauea Caldera at the summit of Kilauea Volcao, one of the five volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, the largest island in the Hawaiian Islands chain. Of the five, only Kilauea and Mauna Loa have been active in the past 100 years. Before its last eruption in June 1950, Mauna Loa had erupted more frequently and copiously than Kilauea, but since then only Kilauea has been active. 

  15. 78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... rule to implement the Plan (77 FR 71260). The Plan and the final rule were developed to address the... Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... for the Main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct...

  16. Antimicrobial activity in the cuticle of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Mars Brisbin, Margaret; McElroy, Anne E; Pales Espinosa, Emmanuelle; Allam, Bassem

    2015-06-01

    American lobster, Homarus americanus, continues to be an ecologically and socioeconomically important species despite a severe decline in catches from Southern New England and Long Island Sound (USA) and a high prevalence of epizootic shell disease in these populations. A better understanding of lobster immune defenses remains necessary. Cuticle material collected from Long Island Sound lobsters was found to be active against a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Gram-negative and -positive species. The antimicrobial activity was characterized by boiling, muffling, and size fractioning. Boiling did not significantly reduce activity, while muffling did have a significant effect, suggesting that the active component is organic and heat stable. Size fractioning with 3 and 10 kDa filters did not significantly affect activity. Fast protein liquid chromatography fractions were also tested for antimicrobial activity, and fractions exhibiting protein peaks remained active. MALDI mass spectrometry revealed peptide peaks at 1.6, 2.8, 4.6, and 5.6 kDa. The data presented suggest that one or several antimicrobial peptides contribute to antimicrobial activity present in the American lobster cuticle. PMID:25804485

  17. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

  18. Lobster Tail Ice Formation on Aerosurface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Glace Ice formation commonly refered to as 'Lobster Tail' by scientists and engineers, is caused to form on the leading edge of a aircraft tail section in the icing research tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio.

  19. Distinct and extinct: genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle.

    PubMed

    Hailer, Frank; James, Helen F; Olson, Storrs L; Fleischer, Robert C

    2015-02-01

    Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000 years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator. PMID:25463753

  20. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  1. Psychosocial risk and protective influences in Hawaiian adolescent psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Nahulu, L B; Andrade, N N; Makini, G K; Yuen, N Y; McDermott, J F; Danko, G P; Johnson, R C; Waldron, J A

    1996-01-01

    A large community sample of adolescents of a Native Hawaiian (Asian/ Pacific Islander) minority group was studied along with a small comparison group of non-Hawaiians, for the relationship between psychopathology (as measured by standard symptom scales) and (a) perceived support from family and friends, and (b) discussing problems with others. Expected gender patterns for friend support but not for family support were found. The Hawaiian boys appeared atypical, reporting nearly equal family support as Hawaiian girls. Discussing problems with another person was correlated with lower anxiety and depression scores but not aggression and substance abuse scores. It is concluded that gender and cultural factors influence symptom prevalence and severity as well as the impact of psychosocial risk factors. PMID:9225566

  2. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  3. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous geologic features can be discerned on ERTS-1 imagery of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A thick homoclinal sequence of north-dipping Tertiary marine strata along the northwestern Olympic Peninsula is readily discernible because of the banded nature of its outcrop. The submarine basalt on which the sequence rests shows as a high, rugged ridge. Within the sedimentary sequence, alternating sandstone and siltstone members 100 m or more thick show in the southeast corner of the image. Broad folds in this banded sequence and faults that cut it can be detected. One large fault, the Pysht River fault, and a large syncline in sandstone and siltstone east of it show prominently on the image. Numerous lineations on the image of southern Vancouver Island correlate with faults shown on Muller's map. Particularly prominent are the Leech River and San Juan faults along the southernmost part of the island.

  4. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  5. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits...

  6. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  7. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits...

  8. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits...

  9. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  10. Hawaiian Music for Hawaii's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Dorothy K.

    1972-01-01

    Hawaiian music has developed from the simple chant and accompanying hula to choral singing and the use of the guitar and ukulele. Article also presents a compositional and choreographic analysis of Hawaiian music. (RK)

  11. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitril...

  12. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks…

  13. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  14. The chemical structure of the Hawaiian mantle plume.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhong-Yuan; Ingle, Stephanie; Takahashi, Eiichi; Hirano, Naoto; Hirata, Takafumi

    2005-08-11

    The Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic island and seamount chain is usually attributed to a hot mantle plume, located beneath the Pacific lithosphere, that delivers material sourced from deep in the mantle to the surface. The shield volcanoes of the Hawaiian islands are distributed in two curvilinear, parallel trends (termed 'Kea' and 'Loa'), whose rocks are characterized by general geochemical differences. This has led to the proposition that Hawaiian volcanoes sample compositionally distinct, concentrically zoned, regions of the underlying mantle plume. Melt inclusions, or samples of local magma 'frozen' in olivine phenocrysts during crystallization, may record complexities of mantle sources, thereby providing better insight into the chemical structure of plumes. Here we report the discovery of both Kea- and Loa-like major and trace element compositions in olivine-hosted melt inclusions in individual, shield-stage Hawaiian volcanoes--even within single rock samples. We infer from these data that one mantle source component may dominate a single lava flow, but that the two mantle source components are consistently represented to some extent in all lavas, regardless of the specific geographic location of the volcano. We therefore suggest that the Hawaiian mantle plume is unlikely to be compositionally concentrically zoned. Instead, the observed chemical variation is probably controlled by the thermal structure of the plume. PMID:16100780

  15. Shear-wave velocity characterization of the USGS Hawaiian strong-motion network on the Island of Hawaii and development of an NEHRP site-class map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, I.G.; Stokoe, K.H., II; Cox, B.R.; Yuan, J.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Terra, F.; Okubo, P.; Lin, Y.-C.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the level and nature of ground shaking in Hawaii for the purposes of earthquake hazard mitigation and seismic design, empirical groundmotion prediction models are desired. To develop such empirical relationships, knowledge of the subsurface site conditions beneath strong-motion stations is critical. Thus, as a first step to develop ground-motion prediction models for Hawaii, spectralanalysis-of-surface-waves (SASW) profiling was performed at the 22 free-field U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strong-motion sites on the Big Island to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) data. Nineteen of these stations recorded the 2006 Kiholo Bay moment magnitude (M) 6.7 earthquake, and 17 stations recorded the triggered M 6.0 Mahukona earthquake. VS profiling was performed to reach depths of more than 100 ft. Most of the USGS stations are situated on sites underlain by basalt, based on surficial geologic maps. However, the sites have varying degrees of weathering and soil development. The remaining strong-motion stations are located on alluvium or volcanic ash. VS30 (average VS in the top 30 m) values for the stations on basalt ranged from 906 to 1908 ft/s [National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classes C and D], because most sites were covered with soil of variable thickness. Based on these data, an NEHRP site-class map was developed for the Big Island. These new VS data will be a significant input into an update of the USGS statewide hazard maps and to the operation of ShakeMap on the island of Hawaii.

  16. LIGA for lobster: First observation of lobster-eye focusing from lithographically produced optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peele, Andrew G.; Irving, Thomas H. K.; Nugent, Keith A.; Mancini, Derrick C.; Christenson, Todd R.; Petre, Rob; Brumby, Steven P.; Priedhorsky, William C.

    2001-03-01

    The prospect of making a lobster-eye telescope is drawing closer with recent developments in the manufacture of microchannel-plate optics. This would lead to an x-ray all-sky monitor with vastly improved sensitivity and resolution over existing and other planned instruments. We consider a new approach, using deep etch x-ray lithography, to making a lobster-eye lens that offers certain advantages even over microchannel-plate technology.

  17. Growth and degradation of Hawaiian volcanoes: Chapter 3 in Characteristics of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, David A.; Sherrod, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Large Hawaiian volcanoes can persist as islands through the rapid subsidence by building upward rapidly enough. But in the long run, subsidence, coupled with surface erosion, erases any volcanic remnant above sea level in about 15 m.y. One consequence of subsidence, in concert with eustatic changes in sea level, is the drowning of coral reefs that drape the submarine flanks of the actively subsiding volcanoes. At least six reefs northwest of the Island of Hawai‘i form a stairstep configuration, the oldest being deepest.

  18. Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  19. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  20. Exploiting volatile opportunistic computing resources with Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodard, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Mueller, Charles; Tovar, Ben; Donnelly, Patrick; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high energy physics experiments using the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can be limited by availability of computing resources. As a joint effort involving computer scientists and CMS physicists at Notre Dame, we have developed an opportunistic workflow management tool, Lobster, to harvest available cycles from university campus computing pools. Lobster consists of a management server, file server, and worker processes which can be submitted to any available computing resource without requiring root access. Lobster makes use of the Work Queue system to perform task management, while the CMS specific software environment is provided via CVMFS and Parrot. Data is handled via Chirp and Hadoop for local data storage and XrootD for access to the CMS wide-area data federation. An extensive set of monitoring and diagnostic tools have been developed to facilitate system optimisation. We have tested Lobster using the 20 000-core cluster at Notre Dame, achieving approximately 8-10k tasks running simultaneously, sustaining approximately 9 Gbit/s of input data and 340 Mbit/s of output data.

  1. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

  2. Spatial heterogeneity of benthic community assemblages with an emphasis on reef algae at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawai`ian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vroom, Peter S.; Page, Kimberly N.; Peyton, Kimberly A.; Kukea-Shultz, J. Kanekoa

    2005-12-01

    Reefs in tropical atoll systems have historically been described on a geomorphic basis, and segregated into loosely defined fore-reef, back-reef, and lagoonal reef zones. However, recent oceanographic monitoring data have shown that physical factors within a single geomorphic zone can vary significantly, calling into question whether benthic communities within a single zone are biologically similar. To determine the amount of benthic variability that may occur in a geomorphic zone, percent cover of benthic organisms was determined at the species level for 28 sites in three geomorphic zones at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawai‘ian Islands. Multivariate statistical analyses found most windward fore-reef and back-reef sites to be statistically similar, but considerable variation to exist among sites within calmer lagoonal areas. Surveys revealed macroalgae to dominate over scleractinian coral species at the majority of sites in this healthy, subtropical reef system, although select lagoonal areas were dominated by dense coral communities.

  3. Molecular evidence for an African origin of the Hawaiian endemic Hesperomannia (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyi-Gyung; Keeley, Sterling C.; Vroom, Peter S.; Jansen, Robert K.

    1998-01-01

    Identification of the progenitors of plants endemic to oceanic islands often is complicated by extreme morphological divergence between island and continental taxa. This is especially true for the Hawaiian Islands, which are 3,900 km from any continental source. We examine the origin of Hesperomannia, a genus of three species endemic to Hawaii that always have been placed in the tribe Mutisieae of the sunflower family. Phylogenetic analyses of representatives from all tribes in this family using the chloroplast gene ndhF (where ndhF is the ND5 protein of chloroplast NADH dehydrogenase) indicate that Hesperomannia belongs to the tribe Vernonieae. Phylogenetic comparisons within the Vernonieae using sequences of both ndhF and the internal transcribed spacer regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA reveal that Hesperomannia is sister to African species of Vernonia. Long-distance dispersal northeastward from Africa to southeast Asia and across the many Pacific Ocean island chains is the most likely explanation for this unusual biogeographic connection. The 17- to 26-million-year divergence time between African Vernonia and Hesperomannia estimated by the DNA sequences predates the age of the eight existing Hawaiian Islands. These estimates are consistent with an hypothesis that the progenitor of Hesperomannia arrived at one of the low islands of the Hawaiian-Emperor chain between the late Oligocene and mid-Miocene when these islands were above sea level. Subsequent to its arrival the southeast Pacific island chains served as steppingstones for dispersal to the existing Hawaiian Islands. PMID:9860987

  4. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  5. Corrosion tests in Hawaiian geothermal fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen-Basse, J.; Lam, Kam-Fai

    1984-01-01

    Exposure tests were conductd in binary geothermal brine on the island of Hawaii. The steam which flashes from the high pressure, high temperature water as it is brought to ambient pressure contains substantial amounts of H{sub 2}S. In the absence of oxygen this steam is only moderately aggressive but in the aerated state it is highly aggressive to carbon steels and copper alloys. The liquid after flasing is intermediately aggressive. The Hawaiian fluid is unique in chemistry and corrosion behavior; its corrosiveness is relatively mild for a geothermal fluid falling close to the Iceland-type resources. 24 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae).

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Patrick M; Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatellaamnica and Scatellastagnalis from Kauai, Scatellaoahuense from Lanai, and Scatellaterryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  7. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  8. The Hawaiian Mantle Plume from Toe to Head along the Northwest Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Garcia, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Hawaiian-Emperor (HE) chain records ~82 Myr of volcanism1 with two distinct geochemical and geographical trends, Kea and Loa, identified on the archipelago. The Northwest Hawaiian Ridge (NWHR) includes 51 volcanoes, spanning ~42 Myr between the bend in the HE chain and the Hawaiian Islands (47% of the HE chain2), that has no high-precision isotopic data aside from two volcanoes near the bend1. Only Kea compositions have been observed on Emperor seamounts (>50 Ma)1,3, whereas the Hawaiian Islands (<6.5 Ma) have both Kea and Loa lavas3,4. We have analyzed 23 samples of shield stage tholeiitic lavas from 13 NWHR volcanoes for Pb isotopes to test if the Loa trend exhibits a persistent presence along the ridge after Diakakuji seamount1. Age corrected 206Pb/204Pb range from 17.870 at Diakakuji to 18.654 at Midway atoll. The most enriched Loa isotopic compositions are erupted at Diakakuji (comparable to Lanai), and Mokumanamana, West Nihoa, and Nihoa have isotopic compositions similar to Mauna Loa. These observations suggest an ephemeral presence of the Loa geochemical trend along the NWHR. When shield-stage lavas of each Hawaiian volcano is averaged, NWHR volcanoes shows the most and least radiogenic Pb of the entire HE dataset: Diakakuji (0.9703) and Midway (0.9247). The NWHR exhibits the most geochemically extreme lava compositions along a region where many geophysical parameters (volcanic propagation rate, magmatic flux, mantle potential temperature) were changing significantly2,5. At a broader scale, correlation between radiogenic Pb and magmatic flux suggests source composition may control some of these changes, and help explain why the Hawaiian mantle plume seems to be strengthening5 rather than waning like classic plumes and LIPs. 1Regelous et al., 2003, J. Pet., 44, 1, 113-140. 2Garcia et al., 2015, GSA Sp. Pap. 511. 3Tanaka et al., 2008, EPSL, 265, 450-465. 4Weis et al., 2011, Nat. Geosci., 4, 831-838. 5Vidal & Bonneville, 2004, J. Geophy. Res., 109.

  9. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  10. Galatheid squat lobster species from Chinese waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chao; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-11-01

    Five galatheid squat lobster species belonging to four genera of two galatheid families are reported for the first time from Chinese waters, namely Lauriea simulata Macpherson and Robainas-Barcia, 2013, Phylladiorhynchus ikedai (Miyake and Baba, 1965), Phylladiorhynchus integrirostris (Dana, 1852), Babamunida sp., and Raymunida elegantissima (de Man, 1902). The genera Lauriea Baba, 1971 and Babamunida Cabezas, Macpherson, and Machordom, 2008 have not previously been recorded from Chinese waters.

  11. GLORIA mosaic of the U. S. Hawaiian exclusive economic zone

    SciTech Connect

    Torresan, M.E. )

    1990-06-01

    Digital long-range side-scan sonar reconnaissance surveys using GLORIA have imaged about 65% of the nearly 2.4 million km{sup 2} of the Hawaiian EEZ. The images have been processed and compiled into one mosaic that comprises the EEZ area surrounding the principal Hawaiian islands (from Hawaii to Kauai); extending on the south side of the ridge west to Kure Island, and on the north side to St. Rogatien Bank. The GLORIA images depict a variety of features that include enormous slumps and debris avalanches, lava flows, seafloor spreading fabric, fracture zones, seamounts, and unusual sedimentation patterns with more detail than previously had been possible with typical seismic reflection techniques. Some of these features were unknown before the GLORIA surveys. In particular, the GLORIA images show that the major degradational processes that affect the island and ridge areas are massive, likely tsunamogenic, blocky debris avalanches and slumps. These failures mantle the flanks of the ridge; some extending across the trough and up on to the Hawaiian Arch (up to 230 km from their sources). Over 30 failures are identified, ranging in area from 250 to > 6,000 km{sup 2} and having volumes from 500 to > 5,000 km{sup 3}. Such deposits cover > 125,000 km{sup 3} of the Ridge and adjacent seafloor. Also imaged are large Cenozoic submarine volcanic flow fields situated on the Hawaiian Arch. One such field, the North Arch field, is located north of Oahu between the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, and covers about 200,000 km{sup 2}. Prior to the GLORIA imagery only a small portion of this flow field was mapped. In addition, the imagery depicts the finer details of the Molokai and Murray fracture zones, the Cretaceous seafloor spreading fabric, and tensional faults on the Hawaiian Arch.

  12. 1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane disposition in the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus and the American lobster, Homarus americanus

    SciTech Connect

    Little, P.J.; James, M.O.; Foureman, G.L.; Weatherby, R.P.; Bend, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    1-/sup 14/C-n-hexadecane, a model compound for the non-volatile aliphatic hydrocarbon components of crude oil, was administered by intrapericardial injection to the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, and the clawed or American lobster, Homarus americanus. Experiments were conducted in Florida (spiny lobster) and Maine (American lobster). The animals were sacrificed at various times from 0.5 hr to 8 wks after administration of the dose. The tissues and fluids were analyzed for /sup 14/C content by digestion or catalytic oxidation and liquid scintillation counting. Selected tissues (hepatopancreas, tail muscle and hemolymph) were extracted with ethyl acetate to allow quantitation of the unmetabolized n-hexadecane by thin layer chromatography. n-Hexadecane-derived radioactivity was very persistent in both the spiny lobster (t1/2 = 4.6 wk) and the American lobster (t1/2 = 11.2 wk). In both lobsters, the hepatopancreas (HP) acquired the highest specific activity and the tail muscle had the longest half life for elimination from an individual tissue. Although hexadecane was metabolized more rapidly in the HP of the spiny lobster than in the HP of the American lobster, unmetabolized hexadecane persisted in the HPs of both species for at least 8 weeks after the dose (the longest time studied).

  13. What, When, Where, and Why of Secondary Hawaiian Hotspot Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Ito, G.; Applegate, B.; Weis, D.; Swinnard, L.; Flinders, A.; Hanano, D.; Nobre-Silva, I.; Bianco, T.; Naumann, T.; Geist, D.; Blay, C.; Sciaroni, L.; Maerschalk, C.; Harpp, K.; Christensen, B.

    2007-12-01

    Secondary hotspot volcanism occurs on most oceanic island groups (Hawaii, Canary, Society) but its origins remain enigmatic. A 28-day marine expedition used multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery to map the extent of submarine volcanic fields around the northern Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Niihau and Kaula), and the JASON2 ROV to sample many volcanoes to characterize the petrology, geochemistry (major and trace elements, and isotopes) and ages of the lavas from these volcanoes. Our integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical study attempts to examine the what (compositions and source), where (distribution and volumes), when (ages), and why (mechanisms) of secondary volcanism on and around the northern Hawaiian Islands. A first-order objective was to establish how the submarine volcanism relates in space, time, volume, and composition to the nearby shield volcanoes and their associated onshore secondary volcanism. Our surveying and sampling revealed major fields of submarine volcanoes extending from the shallow slopes of these islands to more than 100 km offshore. These discoveries dramatically expand the volumetric importance, distribution and geodynamic framework for Hawaiian secondary volcanism. New maps and rock petrology on the samples collected will be used to evaluate currently proposed mechanisms for secondary volcanism and to consider new models such as small-scale mantle convection driven by thermal and melt-induced buoyancy to produce the huge volume of newly discovered lava. Our results seem to indicate substantial revisions are needed to our current perceptions of hotspot dynamics for Hawaii and possibly elsewhere.

  14. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  15. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

  16. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Hawaiian Navigators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa C.

    2016-01-01

    This poster provides an introduction to the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders, Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This poster presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  17. Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a : Astronomy of the Modern Hawaiian Wayfinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha`o, Celeste; Dye, Ahia G.; Slater, Stephanie J.; Slater, Timothy F.; Baybayan, Kalepa

    2015-08-01

    This paper provides an introduction to Kilohoku Ho`okele Wa`a, the astronomy of the Hawaiian wayfinders. Rooted in a legacy of navigation across the Polynesian triangle, wayfinding astronomy has been part of a suite of skills that allows navigators to deliberately hop between the small islands of the Pacific, for thousands of years. Forty years ago, in one manifestation of the Hawaiian Renaissance, our teachers demonstrated that ancient Hawaiians were capable of traversing the wide Pacific to settle and trade on islands separated by thousands of miles. Today those same mentors train a new generation of navigators, making Hawaiian voyaging a living, evolving, sustainable endeavor. This paper presents two components of astronomical knowledge that all crewmen, but particularly those in training to become navigators, learn early in their training. Na Ohana Hoku, the Hawaiian Star Families constitute the basic units of the Hawaiian sky. In contrast to the Western system of 88 constellations, Na Ohana Hoku divides the sky into four sections that each run from the northern to the southern poles. This configuration reduces cognitive load, allowing the navigator to preserve working memory for other complex tasks. In addition, these configurations of stars support the navigator in finding and generatively using hundreds of individual, and navigationally important pairs of stars. The Hawaiian Star Compass divides the celestial sphere into a directional system that uses 32 rather than 8 cardinal points. Within the tropics, the rising and setting of celestial objects are consistent within the Hawaiian Star Compass, providing for extremely reliable direction finding. Together, Na Ohana Hoku and the Hawaiian Star Compass provide the tropical navigator with astronomical assistance that is not available to, and would have been unknown to Western navigators trained at higher latitudes.

  18. Native Hawaiian Epistemology: Exploring Hawaiian Views of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1998-01-01

    Empiricism is culturally defined in that culture shapes sensory knowledge. Hawaiians recognize senses beyond the five that Western culture recognizes. Hawaiians are not unempirical; they draw conclusions of their own from their empirical experiences. It is time to validate other ways of knowing, long suppressed in the U.S. educational system. (TD)

  19. Native Hawaiian Education: Talking Story with Three Hawaiian Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, David Kekaulike; Hunter, Alapa; Meyer, Manu Aluli

    1999-01-01

    Interview with three Hawaiian educators discusses Hawaiian educational philosophy focused on the importance of family and community and the relationary nature of knowledge; educational self-determination; the politics of promoting culture-based education; and the spiritual aspect of helping students pursue both a career and a destiny. (SV)

  20. 15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. 'PLAN AND PROFILE OF THE ANNISQUAM BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE ... JUNE 5, 1899.' Winslow Webber, City Engineer. Photocopied from the original plan in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  1. 16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. 'BRIDGE OVER LOBSTER COVE, ANNISQUAM, MASS.) SEPT. 15, 1908 ... SCHEDULE FOR REPAIRS.' Plan) elevation, and typical section. Photocopied from the original drawing in the office of the City Engineer, Gloucester, Massachusetts. - Annisquam Bridge, Spanning Lobster Cove between Washington & River Streets, Gloucester, Essex County, MA

  2. DRILLING FLUID EFFECTS TO DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of drilling operations for oil exploration on populations of the American lobster (Homarus americanus). The effects of used, whole drilling fluids on the larval stages of the lobster were assessed in continuous flow bio...

  3. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G

    2013-06-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  4. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  5. Culture Studies: Hawaiian Studies Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazama, Dorothy, Ed.

    Reports and materials from the Hawaiian Studies Project are presented. The document, designed for elementary school teachers contains two major sections. The first section describes the planning phase of the project, the Summer Institute for Hawaiian Culture Studies (1976) and the follow-up workshops and consultant help (1976-77). The appendix to…

  6. 50 CFR 622.406 - Areas closed to lobster trap gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Areas closed to lobster trap gear. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.406 Areas closed to lobster trap gear. (a) Fishing with spiny lobster trap gear is prohibited year-round in the following...

  7. 50 CFR 622.406 - Areas closed to lobster trap gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Areas closed to lobster trap gear. 622... ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622.406 Areas closed to lobster trap gear. (a) Fishing with spiny lobster trap gear is prohibited year-round in the following...

  8. Factors affecting post-capture survivability of lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Basti, David; Bricknell, Ian; Hoyt, Ken; Chang, Ernest S; Halteman, William; Bouchard, Deborah

    2010-06-11

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design to compare the physiological changes that occur in lobsters over time as the result of differences in depth, hauling rate, and storage methodology. The results indicate that lobsters destined for long distance transport or temporary storage in pounds undergo physiological disturbance as part of the capture process. These changes are significant over time for total hemocyte counts, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, L-lactate, ammonia, and glucose. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for glucose indicates a significant interaction between depth and storage methodology over time for non-survivors. A Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium indicum, was identified in pure culture from hemolymph samples of 100% of weak lobsters. Histopathology revealed the presence of Gram-negative bacteria throughout the tissues with evidence of antemortem edema and necrosis suggestive of septicemia. On the basis of these findings, we recommend to the lobster industry that if a reduction in depth and hauling rate is not economically feasible, fishermen should take particular care in handling lobsters and provide them with a recovery period in recirculating seawater prior to land transport. The ecological role of P. indicum is not fully defined at this time. However, it may be an emerging opportunistic pathogen of stressed lobsters. Judicious preemptive antibiotic therapy may be necessary to reduce mortality in susceptible lobsters destined for high-density holding facilities. PMID:20662372

  9. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

  10. Fishing for lobsters indirectly increases epidemics in sea urchins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, K.D.

    2004-01-01

    Two ecological paradigms, the trophic cascade and the host-density threshold in disease, interact in the kelp-forest ecosystem to structure the community. To investigate what happens when a trophic cascade pushes a host population over a host-threshold density, I analyzed a 20-year data set of kelp forest communities at 16 sites in the region of the Channel Islands National Park, California, USA. Historically, lobsters, and perhaps other predators, kept urchin populations at low levels and kelp forests developed a community-level trophic cascade. In geographic areas where the main predators on urchins were fished, urchin populations increased to the extent that they overgrazed algae and starvation eventually limited urchin-population growth. Despite the limitation of urchin population size by food availability, urchin densities, at times, well exceeded the host-density threshold for epidemics. An urchin-specific bacterial disease entered the region after 1992 and acted as a density-dependent mortality source. Dense populations were more likely to experience epidemics and suffer higher mortality. Disease did not reduce the urchin population at a site to the density that predators previously did. Therefore, disease did not fully replace predators in the trophic cascade. These results indicate how fishing top predators can indirectly favor disease transmission in prey populations.

  11. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  12. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington

  13. A PCR test for avian malaria in Hawaiian birds.

    PubMed

    Feldman, R A; Freed, L A; Cann, R L

    1995-12-01

    The decline of native Hawaiian forest birds since European contact is attributed to factors ranging from habitat destruction to interactions with introduced species. Remaining populations of Hawaiian honeycreepers (Fringillidae: Drepanidinae) are most abundant and diverse in high elevation refuges above the normal range of disease-carrying mosquitoes. Challenge experiments suggest that honeycreepers are highly susceptible to avian malaria (Plasmodium sp.) but resistance exists in some species. In order to detect low levels of malarial infection and quantify prevalence of Plasmodium in high elevation natural populations of Hawaiian birds, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnostic test was developed that identifies rRNA genes of Plasmodium in avian blood samples. Quantitative competitive PCR (QC-PCR) experiments indicate that the detection limit of our test is an order of magnitude greater than that reported for human malaria DNA blot tests. Compared with standard histological methods, the PCR test detected a higher prevalence of diseased birds at mid-elevations. Malaria was detected in three species of native birds living in a high elevation wildlife refuge on the island of Hawaii and in four species from Maui. Our results show that avian malaria is more widespread in Hawaiian forests than previously thought, a finding that has important conservation implications for these threatened species. PMID:8564006

  14. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark J.; Behringer, Donald C.; Dolan, Thomas W.; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of “behavioral immunity”; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  15. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  16. Genetic Consequences of Pleistocene Sea-Level Change on Hawaiian Megalagrion Damselflies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Brandon R; Jordan, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have long been an important laboratory for evolutionary research because their geological histories offer many natural experiments. For example, the Maui Nui complex, 4 islands that have been repeatedly connected and separated by fluctuating sea levels, lie near Hawaii Island, which has never been connected to another island. Here, we examine the genetic consequences of fluctuating island areas and connectivity using microsatellite analysis of 2 widespread, endemic Hawaiian damselflies. We screened 152 Megalagrion xanthomelas individuals from 5 islands at 14 loci and 34 Megalagrion pacificum from 3 islands at 11 loci to explore dispersal patterns and genetic diversity. Our data suggest that Pleistocene fluctuations in sea level alternated between creating land bridges that facilitated gene flow between once and future islands, and ocean channels that inhibited dispersal. Furthermore, interglacial periods of high sea stands likely reduced suitable habitat availability, causing the loss of genetic diversity on Maui Nui due to bottlenecks and founder events. Finally, we propose that gene flow from Molokai to Lanai may be enhanced by assisted dispersal from the trade winds that are channeled between volcanoes on western Maui and eastern Molokai. Our results emphasize the importance of variable microevolutionary processes in Hawaiian biogeography. PMID:26093025

  17. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  18. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  19. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Hawaiian Craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  20. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Hawaiian craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  1. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  2. Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.

    PubMed Central

    Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

    1985-01-01

    Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies. PMID:3860822

  3. Native Hawaiian Views on Biobanking

    PubMed Central

    Tauali‘i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-01-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N=92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: 1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, 2) research transparency, 3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, 4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, 5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and 6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise “G.R.E.A.T. Research:” (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai‘i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  4. Aloha Aina: Native Hawaiians Fight for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealoha, Gard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history, values, and cultural background of the native Hawaiian population, asserting that Hawaiians want to recapture and reaffirm the native rights guaranteed by the constitution of Hawaii in 1846. (Author/JM)

  5. A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior…

  6. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Heather R L; Meyer, Matthias; James, Helen F; Hofreiter, Michael; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Evolutionary theory has gained tremendous insight from studies of adaptive radiations. High rates of speciation, morphological divergence, and hybridization, combined with low sequence variability, however, have prevented phylogenetic reconstruction for many radiations. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are an exceptional adaptive radiation, with high phenotypic diversity and speciation that occurred within the geologically constrained setting of the Hawaiian Islands. Here we analyze a new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny. We show that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches (Carpodacus) and probably came to Hawaii from Asia. We use island ages to calibrate DNA substitution rates, which vary substantially among gene regions, and calculate divergence times, showing that the radiation began roughly when the oldest of the current large Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Niihau) formed, ~5.7 million years ago (mya). We show that most of the lineages that gave rise to distinctive morphologies diverged after Oahu emerged (4.0-3.7 mya) but before the formation of Maui and adjacent islands (2.4-1.9 mya). Thus, the formation of Oahu, and subsequent cycles of colonization and speciation between Kauai and Oahu, played key roles in generating the morphological diversity of the extant honeycreepers. PMID:22018543

  7. Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Wölbern, Ingo; Hanka, Winfried

    2004-02-26

    The volcanism responsible for creating the chain of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts is believed to mark the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle plume. In this picture hot material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow conduit to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere. Although a number of models describe possible plume-lithosphere interactions, seismic imaging techniques have not had sufficient resolution to distinguish between them. Here we apply the S-wave 'receiver function' technique to data of three permanent seismic broadband stations on the Hawaiian islands, to map the thickness of the underlying lithosphere. We find that under Big Island the lithosphere is 100-110 km thick, as expected for an oceanic plate 90-100 million years old that is not modified by a plume. But the lithosphere thins gradually along the island chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. The width of the thinning is about 300 km. In this zone, well within the larger-scale topographic swell, we infer that the rejuvenation model (where the plume thins the lithosphere) is operative; however, the larger-scale topographic swell is probably supported dynamically. PMID:14985758

  8. Incorporating Technology into a Hawaiian Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'awa, Makalapua; Hawkins, Emily

    This paper describes Hawaiian language courses that incorporate computer technology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. In the past decade, enrollments in all types of Hawaiian language programs have increased rapidly. The University of Hawaii is committed to extending Hawaiian language education, especially the full development of Hawaiian…

  9. Native Hawaiian Educational Assessment Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamehameha Schools/Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate, Honolulu, HI.

    This report documents the educational needs of Native Hawaiians across ecosystem levels. Identifying the unique educational needs of Native Hawaiians and effective Native American and local programs that meet the unique educational needs of native Hawaiians, this project works within certain parameters: (1) part of a continuous needs assessment,…

  10. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

  11. Evolution and biogeography of the woody Hawaiian violets (Viola, Violaceae): arctic origins, herbaceous ancestry and bird dispersal.

    PubMed

    Ballard, H E; Sytsma, K J

    2000-10-01

    Specialists studying the genus Viola have consistently allied the Hawaiian violets comprising section Nosphinium--most of which are subshrubs or treelets--with putatively primitive subshrubs in certain South American violet groups. Hawaiian violets also possess inflorescences, a floral disposition otherwise found only in other genera of the Violaceae, thus strengthening the hypothesis of a very ancient origin for the Hawaiian species. A survey of phylogenetic relationships among infrageneric groups of Viola worldwide using nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences revealed a dramatically different biogeographic origin for the Hawaiian violets: A monophyletic Hawaiian clade was placed in a close sister relationship with the amphi-Beringian tundra violet, V. langsdorffii s. 1., in a highly derived position. This remarkable and unforeseen relationship received strong clade support values across analyses, and monophyly of the Hawaiian lineage was further indicated by a unique 26-base-pair deletion in section Nosphinium. The high polyploid base chromosome number (n approximately equal to 40) in the Hawaiian violets relates them to Alaskan and eastern Siberian populations in the polyploid V. langsdorffii complex. More than 50 species of the 260 allochthonous birds wintering in the Hawaiian Islands are found to breed in the Arctic, occupying habitats in which individual birds might have encountered ancestral V. langsdorffii populations and served as dispersers to the central Pacific region. Acquisition of derived morphological traits (e.g., arborescence and inflorescences), significance of a confirmed Arctic origin for a component of the Hawaiian flora, and the likelihood of other "cryptic" Arctic elements in the Hawaiian flora deserving independent molecular phylogenetic corroboration are discussed. PMID:11108581

  12. Deformation-related volcanism in the Pacific Ocean linked to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, John M.; Hoernle, Kaj; Müller, R. Dietmar; Morgan, Jason P.; Butterworth, Nathaniel P.; Hauff, Folkmar; Sandwell, David T.; Jokat, Wilfried; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Stoffers, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ocean islands, seamounts and volcanic ridges are thought to form above mantle plumes. Yet, this mechanism cannot explain many volcanic features on the Pacific Ocean floor and some might instead be caused by cracks in the oceanic crust linked to the reorganization of plate motions. A distinctive bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain has been linked to changes in the direction of motion of the Pacific Plate, movement of the Hawaiian plume, or a combination of both. However, these links are uncertain because there is no independent record that precisely dates tectonic events that affected the Pacific Plate. Here we analyse the geochemical characteristics of lava samples collected from the Musicians Ridges, lines of volcanic seamounts formed close to the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. We find that the geochemical signature of these lavas is unlike typical ocean island basalts and instead resembles mid-ocean ridge basalts. We infer that the seamounts are unrelated to mantle plume activity and instead formed in an extensional setting, due to deformation of the Pacific Plate. 40Ar/39Ar dating reveals that the Musicians Ridges formed during two time windows that bracket the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend, 53-52 and 48-47 million years ago. We conclude that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend was formed by plate-mantle reorganization, potentially triggered by a series of subduction events at the Pacific Plate margins.

  13. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    PubMed Central

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  14. Diversity of zoanthids (anthozoa: hexacorallia) on Hawaiian seamounts: description of the Hawaiian gold coral and additional zoanthids.

    PubMed

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V; Baco, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  15. Disease effects on lobster fisheries, ecology, and culture: overview of DAO Special 6.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Donald C; Butler, Mark J; Stentiford, Grant D

    2012-08-27

    Lobsters are prized by commercial and recreational fishermen worldwide, and their populations are therefore buffeted by fishery practices. But lobsters also remain integral members of their benthic communities where predator-prey relationships, competitive interactions, and host-pathogen dynamics push and pull at their population dynamics. Although lobsters have few reported pathogens and parasites relative to other decapod crustaceans, the rise of diseases with consequences for lobster fisheries and aquaculture has spotlighted the importance of disease for lobster biology, population dynamics and ecology. Researchers, managers, and fishers thus increasingly recognize the need to understand lobster pathogens and parasites so they can be managed proactively and their impacts minimized where possible. At the 2011 International Conference and Workshop on Lobster Biology and Management a special session on lobster diseases was convened and this special issue of Diseases of Aquatic Organisms highlights those proceedings with a suite of articles focused on diseases discussed during that session. PMID:23186696

  16. Age, geochemistry and melt flux variations for the Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D. A.; Greene, A. R.; Wessel, P.; Harrison, L.; Tree, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Hawaiian Ridge portion of the Hawaiian-Emperor Chain, the classic example of a mantle plume produced linear island chain, is 6000 km in length, active for 80+ Myr, and tectonically simple. Despite its importance to our understanding of mantle plumes and Cenozoic plate motion, there are large data gaps for the age and geochemistry of lavas from volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge (HR) portion of the Chain. Ages: Only volcanoes near the Hawaiian-Emperor bend and in the Hawaiian Islands have modern Ar-Ar ages, leaving a gap of 2000 km where existing K-Ar ages suggest synchronous volcanism over a 1000 km section. Geochemistry: There is a 2900 km gap in high precision geochemical data for the HR. The Emperor Seamounts (>45 Ma) have better regional coverage of recent isotopic data and show a correlation of Sr isotope composition with age of the underlying oceanic lithosphere (Regelous et al. 2003). The HR has an unexplained, exponential increase in magma flux over the last 30 Myr (Vidal & Bonneville 2004). Potential explanations for the increase in magma flux include: changes in melting conditions (temperature and/or pressure), change in source fertility related to rock type (pyroxenite vs. peridotite) or previous melting history, and/or changes in plate stresses resulting from reconfigurations of plate motion. Our new multi-disciplinary project will: 1) Determine 40Ar/39Ar ages, and whole-rock major, trace element, and Pb, Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic geochemistry for lavas from 20 volcanoes spanning ~2150 km of the HR (NW of the Hawaiian Islands). 2) Use the geochemical data to determine the long-term evolution of the Hawaiian mantle plume source components and to evaluate whether there have been systematic variations in mantle potential temperature, melting pressure, and/or source lithology during the creation of the HR. If so, are they responsible for the 300% variation in melt production along the Ridge? Also, we will assess when the more fertile Loa source component

  17. Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric lava tubes as well as the historic tubes located in the bombing range near Mauna Loa. These natural structures should be considered for use in planning for the expansion and advanced stages of the future manned lunar base.

  18. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  19. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  20. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  1. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  2. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions in... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  3. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  4. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  5. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  6. 50 CFR 665.249 - Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lobster size and condition restrictions... WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.249 Lobster size and condition restrictions in Permit Area 2. (a) Only spiny lobsters with a carapace length of 8.26 cm or greater may be retained (see Figure 1 to...

  7. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... lobster permits. 697.24 Section 697.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT... lobster permits. A person or vessel holding a valid permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person to engage in commercial fishing for American lobster may, with the approval...

  8. Sound detection and production in the American lobster, Homarus americanus: Sensitivity range and behavioral implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pye, Heidi J.; Watson, Winsor H.

    2001-05-01

    Many crustaceans including spiny lobsters, some crabs, and a few shrimp are known to produce sounds for a variety of purposes. One brief report and several preliminary studies indicate that American lobsters also produce sounds, and may be capable of detecting acoustic signals. The focus of this study was to (1) quantify the frequency range over which lobsters are capable of detecting sounds and (2) characterize the sounds that lobsters produce. Twelve sexually immature and 11 mature lobsters were tested for their ability to detect frequencies in the range of 20-10000 Hz. Immature lobsters of both sexes detected sounds in the range of 20-1000 Hz (>50%), while sexually mature lobsters exhibited two distinct peaks in their acoustic sensitivity (20-300 Hz and 1000-5000 Hz). Lobsters of both sexes produced a buzzing vibration when grasped but larger lobsters (120-149 mm in carapace length) vibrated most consistently (>35% of surveyed lobsters). The greater tendency for sound production in large lobsters may indicate a role in mating behavior. Currently, we are characterizing the acoustical properties of produced sounds and investigating the possibility that the American lobster may produce sounds for more than one purpose. [Work supported by University of New Hampshire Center for Marine Biology.

  9. Hygienic Responses to Varroa Destructor by Commercial and Feral Honey Bees from the Big Island of Hawaii Before Exposure to Mites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The important honey bee queen production industry on the Big Island of Hawaii is threatened by the recent discovery of Varroa destructor on the island. We tested the pre-exposure level of resistance to mites of three sources of commercial Hawaiian bees and feral Hawaiian bees based on their expressi...

  10. Extremophilic Eukaryote Life in Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2008-12-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms exist in all three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria), but are less known in eukaryotes. Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for these organisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent with all forming within geochemically similar basalt substrates. We used metagenomics to detect 18S rDNA from eukaryotic extremophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (temperature and pH) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, 11 samples from 3 fumaroles were collected over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 31.0oC to 62.7oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93 allowing for 8 different microenvironments. Fifty sequences per sample were analyzed with eighteen different organisms identified, the majority belonging to the family Cercozoa. The most diverse fumarole consisted of 8 different genera residing in a temperature of 34.1oC and a pH of 3.0. Unclassified mosses were identified in the fumarole with the highest temperature and Phaeoceros (hornworts) were identified at the most acidic fumarole. Both of these groups have been previously identified in geothermal areas.

  11. Diversity of Thermophilic Microorganisms within Hawaiian Fumaroles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, C. A.; Anderson, S.; Anderson, C.

    2007-12-01

    Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for thermophilic microorganisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent. We used metagenomics to detect 16S rDNA from archaeal and bacterial thermophilic microorganisms indicating their presence in Hawaiian fumaroles. The fumaroles sampled exist along elevation and precipitation gradients; varying from sea level to 4,012ft and annual rainfall from less than 20in to greater than 80in. To determine the effects of environmental gradients (including temperature, pH, elevation, and precipitation) on microbial diversity within and among fumaroles, we obtained 22 samples from 7 fumaroles over a three-day period in February of 2007. Temperature variations within individual fumaroles vary from 2.3oC to 35oC and the pH variances that range from 0.4 to 2.0. Temperatures of the different fumaroles range from 29.9oC to greater than 105oC, with pH values that vary from 2.55 to 6.93. Further data on the microbial diversity within fumaroles and among fumaroles will be determined once the sequencing of the microbial 16S rDNA regions is completed. We are currently assembling and sequencing clone libraries of bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA fragments from fumaroles.

  12. Beach profile variation on Hawaiian carbonate beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, A.E.; Richmond, B.M.; Fletcher, C.H.

    2000-01-01

    Beach profiles from selected Oahu and Maui beaches quantitatively document beach volume variation and change between 1994 and 1999. Along exposed, high-energy beaches, large fluctuations in beach volume, characterized primarily by the formation and erosion of extensive berms, dominate the seasonal changes. Beaches along more protected stretches of coastline show much less variation in profile morphology. Beaches on the west (leeward) coast of Oahu experienced the most seasonal variation in profile volume, followed by the north shore, east (windward) shore, and south shore. Similar to Oahu, beaches along the west coast of Maui showed the greatest overall profile variation. However, the mean variation for profiles along a single coastal reach showed little difference compared to other coastal segments. Although some beaches showed net gain or loss during the study period, most beaches remained relatively stable with change limited to a finite envelope. No island-wide trends in beach erosion or accretion were observed during the study period. However, no extreme events, such as tropical storms or hurricanes, directly influenced the Hawaiian Islands during the study period. This data set should therefore be considered as representative of typical annual beach activity. Greater variation and possible long-term change would be expected during extreme events.

  13. 76 FR 59102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Spiny Lobster Tail-Separation Permit Requirements Spiny Lobster Amendment 1 (July 15, 1987, 52 FR 22659... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South... to implement Amendment 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

  14. Solitary electromechanical pulses in lobster neurons.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Perez, A; Mosgaard, L D; Budvytyte, R; Villagran-Vargas, E; Jackson, A D; Heimburg, T

    2016-09-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. First experiments in the 1980s suggested small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. However, there have been no modern attempts to study mechanical phenomena in nerves. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 2-12Å in the giant axons of the lobster. We show that the nerve thickness changes in phase with voltage changes. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse. PMID:27448851

  15. Multiple Reversals of Bill Length over 1.7 Million Years in a Hawaiian Bird Lineage.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Medeiros, Matthew C I; Cann, Rebecca L

    2016-03-01

    Evolutionary change has been documented over geological time, but reversals in morphology, from an ancestral state to a derived state and back again, tend to be rare. Multiple reversals along the same lineage are even rarer. We use the chronology of the Hawaiian Islands and an avian example, the Hawaiian honeycreeper 'amakihi (Hemignathus spp.) lineage, which originated on the oldest main island of Kaua'i 1.7 million years ago, to examine the process of sequential reversals in bill length. We document three single and two multiple reversals of bill length on six main islands from oldest to youngest, consistent with the phylogeny of the lineage. Longer bills occur on islands with endemic species, including phylogenetically relevant outgroups, that may compete with or dominate the 'amakihi. On islands without those species, the 'amakihi had shorter bills of similar length. Both types of reversals in morphology in this lineage integrate microevolutionary processes with macroevolution in the adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers. PMID:26913948

  16. Petrology and Geochronology of Kaula Volcano lavas: An off-axis window into the Hawaiian Mantle Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Jicha, B. R.; Tree, J. P.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands extend NW for 625 km from Lō'ihi to Ka'ula island. One anomalous feature cross-cutting the Hawaiian Islands is the Kaua'i Ridge, a 165 km-long bathymetric high with three well-defined gravity highs. These gravity highs are centered under or near the islands of Ka'ula, Ni'ihau and Kaua'i, and represent the cores of three shield volcanoes whose volumes decrease dramatically with distance from the axis of the Hawaiian Chain (Kaua'i, 58 x 103 km3, Ni'ihau x 103 km, Ka'ula 10 x 103 km; Robinson and Eakins 2006). Ka'ula Volcano, on the SW end of the Kaua'i Ridge, is centered 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The volcano is capped by a small island, which is a remnant of a nephelinitic tuff cone. The cone contains abundant accidental bombs of lava (tholeiite, phonolite and basanite), peridotite and pyroxenite, and unexploded ordnance from US military bombing. Two JASON dives on the flanks of Ka'ula recovered only alkalic lavas. Three stage of Ka'ula volcanism have been identified from sampling the volcanic bombs and flanks of the volcano. These rocks were dated using 40Ar/39Ar methods for the basalts and K-Ar for the phonolites. A tholeiitic shield basalt yielded an age of 6.2 Ma, the oldest reliable age for any Hawaiian Island tholeiite. Post-shield phonolites gave ages of 4.0 to 4.2 Ma (Garcia et al., 1986) and rejuvenation stage alkalic basalts yielded ages of 1.9 to 0.5 Ma. These ages are nearly identical to those for the same stages for adjacent Ni'ihau volcano but slightly older than on Kauai, 100 km to the NE (Sherrod et al. 2007). Thus, volcanism was nearly simultaneous along Kaua'i Ridge. The new age results extend to 420 km the distance within the Hawaiian Islands that experienced coeval rejuvenated volcanism. Geochemically, the rejuvenated and tholeiitic lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge are very similar with mixed source signatures of Loa and Kea trend compositions. Mixed Loa-Kea sources have been found for many other Hawaiian

  17. Hawaii Forest Bird Interagency Database Project: Collecting, Understanding, and Sharing Population Data on Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thane K.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are distinguished by the diversity of endemic forms derived from a small number of ancestral colonists. However, the avifauna has been decimated by human activities both before and after Western contact. At least 71 species or subspecies disappeared before the arrival of Capt. James Cook in 1778, and an additional 24 went extinct after 1778, of which 11 were lost since the 1960s alone. Many of the remaining Hawaiian bird populations are declining or are in danger of extinction. Vigorous efforts to survey and monitor bird populations over the past 3 decades have generated considerable information from which to assess the current status of the Hawaiian forest birds.

  18. Mating asymmetry and the direction of evolution in the Hawaiian cricket genus Laupala.

    PubMed

    Shaw, K L; Lugo, E

    2001-03-01

    Based on studies from native Hawaiian Drosophila, a model was proposed to explain sexual isolation and mating asymmetry, from which one could potentially infer the 'direction of evolution'. We examined sexual isolation between allopatric cricket species of the genus Laupala, another endemic Hawaiian insect with an elaborate mating system, to begin to explore the nature of sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in closely related Hawaiian organisms. We studied sexual isolation and mating asymmetry in two contrasts. First, an inter-island comparison, including L. makaio from the older island of Maui and L. paranigra from the younger island of Hawaii, and second, an intra-island (Hawaii) comparison, including L. nigra from the older volcano of Mauna Kea and L. paranigra with a primary distribution on the younger volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea. We used a 'no-choice' experimental design, pairing individual males and females in homospecific or heterospecific combinations. Several behavioural aspects of courtship (proportion of male singing, latency to male singing, production of spermatophores and courtship initiation speed) were quantified as well as the success or failure of matings. We demonstrate asymmetry in sexual isolation between reciprocal combinations of L. makaio and L. paranigra. This result is examined in light of the differences in courtship behaviour manifest in the experiments with these two species. We did not find evidence of asymmetry in sexual isolation between L. nigra and L. paranigra, although differences in courtship initiation speed were evident between reciprocal combinations of these two species. In addition to the geological argument that species on older islands and older volcanoes give rise to species on younger islands and younger volcanoes, we discuss phylogenetic evidence consistent with these biogeographic hypotheses of relationships among the focal taxa. The patterns of asymmetrical sexual isolation and mating asymmetry are

  19. Surviving Paradise: A Hawaiian Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    An Ohio University program that introduces botany students to field work sent a team to study Hawaiian species of violets and algae, endangered by invasive, imported plants. The situation of the native species relates to larger scientific and ecological issues because algae is the basis of the aquatic food chain, and violets adapt in unique ways…

  20. Metallothionein-like protein in lobsters (Homarus americanus)

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, J.; White, M.

    1981-12-01

    A metallothionein-like protein (MLP) was isolated from naturally cadmium-contaminated lobster hepatopancreas, gills, and green glands. Between 76-99% of the total cadmium was associated with this protein (molecular weight 9,500 daltons) while the remainder was associated with both high (>68,000 daltons) and low (<6,000 daltons) molecular weight proteins. MLP was not present in uncontaminated lobster hepatopancreas and only 1% of the total cadmium was associated with the gel filtration fraction corresponding to the protein.

  1. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  2. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  3. Predation Risk within Fishing Gear and Implications for South Australian Rock Lobster Fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Briceño, Felipe; Linnane, Adrian Joseph; Quiroz, Juan Carlos; Gardner, Caleb; Pecl, Gretta Tatyana

    2015-01-01

    Depredation of southern rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) within fishing gear by the Maori octopus (Pinnoctopus cordiformis) has economic and ecological impacts on valuable fisheries in South Australia. In addition, depredation rates can be highly variable resulting in uncertainties for the fishery. We examined how in-pot lobster predation was influenced by factors such as lobster size and sex, season, fishing zone, and catch rate. Using mixed modelling techniques, we found that in-pot predation risk increased with lobster size and was higher for male lobsters. In addition, the effect of catch rate of lobsters on predation risk by octopus differed among fishing zones. There was both a seasonal and a spatial component to octopus predation, with an increased risk within discrete fishing grounds in South Australia at certain times of the year. Information about predation within lobster gear can assist fishery management decision-making, potentially leading to significant reduction in economic losses to the fishery. PMID:26489035

  4. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New Distributional Records for Endemic Asteia (Asteiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New island records are reported for five species of Asteia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Asteia hawaiiensis, Asteia mauiensis, Asteia molokaiensis, Asteia palikuensis, Asteia sabroskyi). These new records expand our understanding of distributions in Asteia, change the percentage of single island endemics from 78% to 33%, and have significance in how we view the process of diversification acting in this lineage. We also present a list of the known rearing records for two species in this group. Asteia montgomeryi has been recorded from Erythrina and Asteia sabroskyi has been reared from Pisonia, Urera, Charpentiera and Hibiscadelphus. PMID:24855434

  5. Posterosional volcanism in the Cretaceous part of the Hawaiian hotspot trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonsdale, Peter; Dieu, Julie; Natland, James

    1993-03-01

    Multibeam bathymetry and seismic reflection profiling shows the Cretaceous products of the Hawaiian hotspot to be a ridge of coalesced guyots that prolong the N-NW trend of the more isolated Paleocene Emperor Seamounts, a 10,000 sq km plateau (Detroit Plateau), where the trail changes strike to NW, and the Obruchev Rise hotspot ridge, which extends to the Kamchatka Trench. The northernmost guyots were submerged and tilted southeast by the load of new shield volcanoes added to the end of the chain, then secondary volcanism built small cones on their summit platforms and in a gap between two guyots. On one guyot these submarine eruptions were in the alkalic postshield stage of Hawaiian volcanism and at another were probably in the alkalic rejuvenated stage. Seamount-building eruptions at Detroit Plateau produced lavas that belong geochemically to the alkalic rejuvenated stage and are very similar to Pleistocene lavas in the Hawaiian Islands. However, these eruptions postdated passage off the hotspot plume by a much longer time than the 0.5-2.5 m.y. observed in the Hawaiian Islands and were probably initiated by different tectonic processes.

  6. Genomic Signatures of Speciation in Sympatric and Allopatric Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lin; Settlage, Robert; McMahon, Wyatt; Michalak, Katarzyna; Tae, Hongseok; Garner, Harold R.; Stacy, Elizabeth A.; Price, Donald K.; Michalak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago provides a natural arena for understanding adaptive radiation and speciation. The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most diverse endemic groups in Hawaiì with up to 1,000 species. We sequenced and analyzed entire genomes of recently diverged species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila, Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura from Hawaiì Island, in comparison with Drosophila planitibia, their sister species from Maui, a neighboring island where a common ancestor of all three had likely occurred. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism patterns suggest the more recent origin of D. silvestris and D. heteroneura, as well as a pervasive influence of positive selection on divergence of the three species, with the signatures of positive selection more prominent in sympatry than allopatry. Positively selected genes were significantly enriched for functional terms related to sensory detection and mating, suggesting that sexual selection played an important role in speciation of these species. In particular, sequence variation in Olfactory receptor and Gustatory receptor genes seems to play a major role in adaptive radiation in Hawaiian pictured-winged Drosophila. PMID:27189993

  7. Genomic Signatures of Speciation in Sympatric and Allopatric Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lin; Settlage, Robert; McMahon, Wyatt; Michalak, Katarzyna; Tae, Hongseok; Garner, Harold R; Stacy, Elizabeth A; Price, Donald K; Michalak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago provides a natural arena for understanding adaptive radiation and speciation. The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most diverse endemic groups in Hawaiì with up to 1,000 species. We sequenced and analyzed entire genomes of recently diverged species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila, Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura from Hawaiì Island, in comparison with Drosophila planitibia, their sister species from Maui, a neighboring island where a common ancestor of all three had likely occurred. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism patterns suggest the more recent origin of D. silvestris and D. heteroneura, as well as a pervasive influence of positive selection on divergence of the three species, with the signatures of positive selection more prominent in sympatry than allopatry. Positively selected genes were significantly enriched for functional terms related to sensory detection and mating, suggesting that sexual selection played an important role in speciation of these species. In particular, sequence variation in Olfactory receptor and Gustatory receptor genes seems to play a major role in adaptive radiation in Hawaiian pictured-winged Drosophila. PMID:27189993

  8. Rapid adaptive radiation and host plant conservation in the Hawaiian picture wing Drosophila (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Magnacca, Karl N; Price, Donald K

    2015-11-01

    The Hawaiian picture wing Drosophila are a striking example of adaptive radiation in specialist saprophages on an island system. We use DNA sequences from five nuclear genes with a total of 4260 nucleotides to provide a comprehensive phylogeny and biogeographic analysis of 90 species in the Hawaiian Drosophila picture wing clade. The current analysis indicates that the evolution of the picture wing clade took place more recently than previously suggested. The relationships of several morphologically anomalous taxa are resolved with strong support. Biogeography and host plant analyses show two periods of rapid divergence occurred when Kauai and Oahu were the main high islands, indicating that a combination of complex topographical features of islands and development of novel host plant associations was key to the rapid diversification of these lineages. For the past 2 million years, host associations within lineages have been largely stable, and speciation has occurred primarily due to the establishment of populations on newer islands as they arose followed by divergence by isolation. The existence of several apparently relictual taxa suggests that extinction has also played a major role in assembly of the present Hawaiian Drosophila fauna. PMID:26151218

  9. Phylogeny and age of diversification of the planitibia species group of the Hawaiian Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonacum, James; O'Grady, Patrick M; Kambysellis, Michael; Desalle, Rob

    2005-10-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila offer a unique opportunity to examine evolutionary questions because of the known ages of the Hawaiian Islands and the large number of species endemic to this archipelago. One of the more well studied groups of Hawaiian Drosophila is the planitibia species group, a long-standing population genetic model system. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all 17 taxa in the planitibia group based on nucleotide sequences from two mitochondrial (16S and COII) and four nuclear (Adh, Gpdh, Yp1, and Yp2) loci, accounting for over 4kb of sequence per taxon. We use these data to estimate major divergence times within this group. Our results suggest that the basal diversification within this group, calculated at 6.1 +/- 0.47 MY, predates the oldest high island of Kauai. The older diversifications in this group took place on Kauai, with subsequent colonization and speciation events occurring as new islands became available to Drosophila. Understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of this important group will place the existing population genetic work in a macroevolutionary context and stimulate additional work, particularly on those taxa endemic to the Maui Nui complex of islands. PMID:16182150

  10. The Lobster Tale: An Exercise in Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepanovich, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…

  11. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  12. Air-sea coupling in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M.; Powell, B.; Mattheus, D.

    2014-12-01

    A coupled numerical model is used to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the lee of the Hawaiian archipelago. The wind curl generated by the island blocking of the trade winds is known to give rise to ocean eddies; however, the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and velocity fronts associated with these eddies on the atmosphere is less understood. The main coupling mechanisms are: (i) changes in the near-surface stability and surface stress, (ii) vertical transfer of momentum from higher atmospheric levels to the ocean surface due to an increase of the turbulence in the boundary layer, (iii) secondary circulations associated with perturbations in the surface atmospheric pressure over the SST fronts, and (iv) the impact of the oceanic eddy currents on the net momentum transferred between the atmosphere and the ocean. To assess the relative contribution from each process, a coupled simulation between the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models is conducted for the main Hawaiian Islands. The impact of the coupling, the perturbation of the mean wind pattern, and the different spatial scales involved in the air-sea exchanges of momentum and heat are explored.

  13. Earthquakes of Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, F.W.

    1982-01-01

    Loihi is an active submarine volcano located 35km S of the island of Hawaii and may eventually grow to be the next and S most island in the Hawaiian chain. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory recorded two major earthquake swarms located there in 1971-1972 and 1975 which were probably associated with submarine eruptions or intrusions. The swarms were located very close to Loihi's bathymetric summit, except for earthquakes during the second stage of the 1971-1972 swarm, which occurred well onto Loihi's SW flank. The flank earthquakes appear to have been triggered by the preceding activity and possible rifting along Loihi's long axis, similar to the rift-flank relationship at Kilauea volcano. Other changes accompanied the shift in locations from Loihi's summit to its flank, including a shift from burst to continuous seismicity, a rise in maximum magnitude, a change from small earthquake clusters to a larger elongated zone, a drop in b value, and a presumed shift from concentrated volcanic stresses to a more diffuse tectonic stress on Loihi's flank. - Author

  14. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-12-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

  15. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

  16. Phylogeography and ecology of an endemic radiation of Hawaiian aquatic case-bearing moths (Hyposmocoma: Cosmopterigidae).

    PubMed

    Rubinoff, Daniel

    2008-10-27

    The endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) may be one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse genera in Hawaii. Among this diversity is the Hyposmocoma saccophora clade with previously unrecorded aquatic larvae. I present a molecular phylogeny based on 773 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 762 bp of the nuclear gene elongation factor 1-alpha. Topologies were constructed from data using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian search criteria. Results strongly support the monophyly of the H. saccophora clade and the monophyly of the genus Hyposmocoma. The H. saccophora clade has single-island endemic species on Oahu, Molokai and West Maui. By contrast, there are three species endemic to Kauai, two being sympatric. The H. saccophora clade appears to follow the progression rule, with more basal species on older islands, including the most basal species on 11 Myr-old Necker Island, one of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Aquatic behaviour either evolved recently in the species on the main Hawaiian Islands or was secondarily lost on the arid northwestern Necker Island. The phylogeny suggests that Hyposmocoma is older than any of the current main islands, which may, in part, explain Hyposmocoma's remarkable diversity. PMID:18765359

  17. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  18. The Heterogeneous Hawaiian Lithosphere: New Isotope Data From Kauai and Oahu Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, M.; Salters, V. J.; Sen, G.; Keshav, S.; Ducea, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Hf-Os isotope systematics of peridotites from Oahu suggest that the Hawaiian lithosphere is highly heterogeneous. We found that many Salt Lake Crater (SLC) peridotites vent are fragments of > 500Ma old recycled depleted lithosphere brought to the surface by the Hawaiian plume. In contrast, peridotites from the Pali vent have Hf-Os compositions appropriate for the 90 Ma old Pacific lithosphere. Here we present additional Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element data from peridotites from the island of Kauai and from Salt Lake Crater and Pali vents on Oahu, in order to further constrain the extent and origin of the heterogeneity observed in the Hawaiian lithosphere. Two Kauai peridotites overlap the Koloa Volcanics post erosional lava compositions in Sr-Nd isotope space. A third Kauai peridotite has higher 87Sr/86Sr (0.70422) and lower 143Nd/144Nd (0.51291) than any published Kauai lavas and extends towards more radiogenic Sr (for a given Nd) than the Hawaiian lavas in general. This sample has depleted characteristics with high Mg# (0.925) and Cr# (0.311), and low HREE in cpx. It also has the highest La/Yb ratio and largest Ti depletions we have yet determined in Hawaiian peridotites. In contrast, three peridotites from SLC have less radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr (0.70316-0.70334), for a given 143Nd/144Nd (0.51285-0.51278) than all other analyzed peridotites and Hawaiian lavas. One peridotite straddles the proposed LoNd array thought to represent mixing between HIMU and EM-I mantle endmember components. In Hf-Nd space, this sample falls below the Hawaiian lava array having lower 176Hf/177Hf (0.28287) than even the most isotopically enriched Koolau lavas. Our new peridotite data show a much greater Sr and Nd isotope variability than previously observed, and support our conclusions based on the Hf-Os systematics for a highly heterogeneous lithosphere. The incompatible nature of Sr and Nd in peridotites makes them very susceptible to metasomatic overprint but the observed

  19. A young source for the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Sobolev, Alexander V; Hofmann, Albrecht W; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kuzmin, Dmitry V; Stoll, Brigitte

    2011-08-25

    Recycling of oceanic crust through subduction, mantle upwelling, and remelting in mantle plumes is a widely accepted mechanism to explain ocean island volcanism. The timescale of this recycling is important to our understanding of mantle circulation rates. Correlations of uranogenic lead isotopes in lavas from ocean islands such as Hawaii or Iceland, when interpreted as model isochrons, have yielded source differentiation ages between 1 and 2.5 billion years (Gyr). However, if such correlations are produced by mixing of unrelated mantle components they will have no direct age significance. Re-Os decay model ages take into account the mixing of sources with different histories, but they depend on the assumed initial Re/Os ratio of the subducted crust, which is poorly constrained because of the high mobility of rhenium during subduction. Here we report the first data on (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios for 138 melt inclusions in olivine phenocrysts from lavas of Mauna Loa shield volcano, Hawaii, indicating enormous mantle source heterogeneity. We show that highly radiogenic strontium in severely rubidium-depleted melt inclusions matches the isotopic composition of 200-650-Myr-old sea water. We infer that such sea water must have contaminated the Mauna Loa source rock, before subduction, imparting a unique 'time stamp' on this source. Small amounts of seawater-derived strontium in plume sources may be common but can be identified clearly only in ultra-depleted melts originating from generally highly (incompatible-element) depleted source components. The presence of 200-650-Myr-old oceanic crust in the source of Hawaiian lavas implies a timescale of general mantle circulation with an average rate of about 2 (±1) cm yr(-1), much faster than previously thought. PMID:21832996

  20. Indigenous Youth Bilingualism from a Hawaiian Activist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William H.; Kamana, Kauanoe

    2009-01-01

    Hawai'i's massive language shift began a century ago. In the late 1800s, everyone spoke Hawaiian, but being monolingual in Hawaiian marked one as unsophisticated. Then Hawaiian medium schools were banned, resulting in young people speaking Hawaiian with adults and Hawai'i Creole English with peers. The next generation could understand, but not…

  1. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  2. Mantle shear-wave velocity structure beneath the Hawaiian hot spot.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Cecily J; Solomon, Sean C; Laske, Gabi; Collins, John A; Detrick, Robert S; Orcutt, John A; Bercovici, David; Hauri, Erik H

    2009-12-01

    Defining the mantle structure that lies beneath hot spots is important for revealing their depth of origin. Three-dimensional images of shear-wave velocity beneath the Hawaiian Islands, obtained from a network of sea-floor and land seismometers, show an upper-mantle low-velocity anomaly that is elongated in the direction of the island chain and surrounded by a parabola-shaped high-velocity anomaly. Low velocities continue downward to the mantle transition zone between 410 and 660 kilometers depth, a result that is in agreement with prior observations of transition-zone thinning. The inclusion of SKS observations extends the resolution downward to a depth of 1500 kilometers and reveals a several-hundred-kilometer-wide region of low velocities beneath and southeast of Hawaii. These images suggest that the Hawaiian hot spot is the result of an upwelling high-temperature plume from the lower mantle. PMID:19965755

  3. Native Hawaiian Community College Students: What Happens?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra; Lester, Jaime; Moon, Hye Sun; Tibbetts, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    Using a weighted database of approximately 3,000 students, this study involves the tracing of the postsecondary history of 2,516 students who identified as Native Hawaiian, graduated from high school between 1993 and 1995, and attended college. Virtually none of the students are 100% Hawaiian. Due to a long history of intermarriage, the Hawaiian…

  4. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  5. Tenure Experiences of Native Hawaiian Women Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka opua, Heipua

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the status of women of color in academe with a particular focus on Native Hawaiian women faculty. Using a qualitative narrative design, this research examined the experiences of tenured instructional Native Hawaiian women faculty (Na Wahine) at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. Two research questions guided this inquiry:…

  6. Nutritional value of spiny lobsters (Panulirus sp.) from Southern Coast of Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryono, F. Eko Dwi; Hutabarat, Sahala; Hutabarat, Johannes; Ambariyanto

    2015-12-01

    Five species of spiny lobsters are known to live in southern coast of Java. These lobsters are very popular seafood which was believed to have high nutritional value. However, nutrition content of these species from the area has not been investigated. This research was conducted to study nutrition content in these crustaceans. Five spiny lobsters i.e. Panulirus homarus, P. versicolor, P. ornatus, P. penicullatus, and P. longipes, were collected randomly from different locations at the southern coast of Java. Morphometric measurements were conducted prior to proximate analysis of these lobsters. All species of spiny lobsters investigated have similar carapace length. However, P. homarus and P. versicolor have the highest muscle weight. Proximate analysis shows that P. homarus also has high protein (24.18%) and carbohydrate content (55.68%) and lowest lipid content (6.18%) compare with other species. These results suggest that this lobster has best nutritional value for consumption.

  7. Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

  8. New species, corallivory, in situ video observations and overview of the Goniasteridae (Valvatida, Asteroidea) in the Hawaiian Region.

    PubMed

    Mah, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Goniasteridae, Astroceramus eldredgei n. sp. and Apollonaster kelleyi n. sp. are described from the Hawaiian Islands region. Prior to this occurrence, Apollonaster was known only from the North Atlantic. The Goniasteridae is the most diverse family of asteroids in the Hawaiian region. Additional in situ observations of several goniasterid species, including A. eldredgei n. sp. are reported. These observations extend documentation of deep-sea corallivory among goniasterid asteroids. New species occurrences presented herein suggested further biogeographic affinities between tropical Pacific and Atlantic goniasterid faunas. PMID:25781779

  9. Paraliparis hawaiiensis, a new species of snailfish (Scorpaeniformes: Liparidae) and the first described from the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Stein, D L; Drazen, J C

    2014-05-01

    Paraliparis hawaiiensis n.sp. is described from the north-western Hawaiian Islands from two specimens collected at 2196 and 3055 m. It differs from other North Pacific Ocean species in its chin pore arrangement, tooth pattern and body proportions. Although liparid specimens have previously been collected from Hawaii, they were undescribed and are now lost. Therefore, this is the first liparid species described from the archipelago. In situ photographs of Hawaiian snailfishes are also shown and discussed here. PMID:24697612

  10. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kathleen E; Ray, Chittaranjan; Ki, Seo Jin; Spokas, Kurt A; Koskinen, William C

    2015-08-15

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole (DKN)] and two neutral non-ionizable herbicides [oxyfluorfen, alachlor], their sorption coefficients were determined on three prevalent soils from the island of Oahu. Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocylcopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN were relatively low sorbing herbicides (K(oc) = 3-53 mL g(-1)), alachlor was intermediate (K(oc) = 120-150 mL g(-1)), and oxyfluorfen sorbed very strongly to the three soils (K(oc) > 12,000 mL g(-1)). Following determination of K(oc) values, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) indices for these compounds were calculated to predicted their behavior with the Comprehensive Leaching Risk Assessment System (CLEARS; Tier-1 methodology for Hawaii). Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN would be categorized as likely leachers in all three Hawaiian soils, indicating a high risk of groundwater contamination across the island of Oahu. In contrast, oxyfluorfen, regardless of the degradation rate, would possess a low and acceptable leaching risk due to its high sorption on all three soils. The leaching potential of alachlor was more difficult to classify, with a GUS value between 1.8 and 2.8. In addition, four different biochar amendments to these soils did not significantly alter their sorption capacities for aminocyclopyrachlor, indicating a relatively low impact of black carbon additions from geologic volcanic inputs of black carbon. Due to the fact that pesticide environmental risks are chiefly dependent on local soil characteristics, this work has demonstrated that once soil specific sorption parameters are known one can assess the potential pesticide leaching risks. PMID:26024994

  11. GRBs and Lobster Eye X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2013-07-01

    A large majority of GRBs exhibit X-ray emission. In addition, a dedicated separate group of GRB, the XRFs, exists which emission dominates in the X-ray spectral range. And the third group of GRB related objects (yet hypothetical) are the group of off-axis observed GRBs (orphan afterglows). These facts justify the consideration of an independent experiment for monitoring, detection and analyses of GRBs and others fast X-ray transients in X-rays. We will present and discuss such experiment based on wide-field X-ray telescopes of Lobster Eye type. We show that the wide field and fine sensitivity of Lobster Eye X-ray All-Sky Monitor make such instruments important tools in study of GRBs.

  12. Transcriptional responses to teflubenzuron exposure in European lobster (Homarus gammarus).

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Samuelsen, Ole B; Agnalt, Ann-Lisbeth; Lunestad, Bjørn T

    2015-10-01

    Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.3±0.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined. One claw from each animal was collected for transcriptional analysis. Overall, exposed animals showed low cumulative mortality. Six animals, two from the low dose treatment and four from the high dose, showed exoskeletal abnormalities (claw deformities or stiff walking legs). Residual levels of teflubenzuron in juvenile lobster were 2.7-fold higher in the high dose (282 ng/g) compared to the low dose treatment (103 ng/g). The transcriptional examination showed significant effects of teflubenzuron on 21 out of 39 studied genes. At the transcriptional level, environmentally relevant levels of the anti-salmon lice drug impacted genes linked to drug detoxification (cyp3a, cyp6a2, cyp302a, sult1b1, abcc4), cellular stress (hsp70, hsp90, chh), oxidative stress (cat, gpx3) and DNA damage (p53), as well as molting and exoskeleton regulation (chi3l1, ecr, jhl1, chs1, ctbs, gap65, jhel-ces1) in claw tissue (muscle and exoskeleton). In conclusion, teflubenzuron at sub-lethal levels can affect many molecular mechanisms in European lobster claws. PMID:26318677

  13. Determination of Moulting Events in Rock Lobsters from Pleopod Clipping

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Caleb; Mills, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rock lobster growth is routinely measured for research to optimise management measures such as size limits and quotas. The process of estimating growth is complicated in crustaceans as growth only occurs when the animal moults. As data are typically collected by tag-recapture methods, the timing of moulting events can bias results. For example, if annual moulting events take place within a very short time-at-large after tagging, or if time-at-large is long and no moulting occurs. Classifying data into cases where moulting has / has not occurred during time-at-large can be required and can generally be determined by change in size between release and recapture. However, in old or slow growth individuals the moult increment can be too small to provide surety that moulting has occurred. A method that has been used since the 1970’s to determine moulting in rock lobsters involves clipping the distal portion of a pleopod so that any regeneration observed at recapture can be used as evidence of a moult. We examined the use of this method in both tank and long-duration field trials within a marine protected area, which provided access to large animals with smaller growth increments. Our results emphasised that determination of moulting by change in size was unreliable with larger lobsters and that pleopod clipping can assist in identifying moulting events. However, regeneration was an unreliable measure of moulting if clipping occurred less than three months before the moult. PMID:24009769

  14. Microbiological evaluation of South Australian rock lobster meat.

    PubMed

    Yap, A S

    1977-12-01

    Samples of frozen precooked rock lobster meat from five South Australian fish-processing plants situated in the West Coast and south-east regions were tested over a period of six months during the 1974/5 lobster fishing season. The most probable number (MPN) of E. coli and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella, as well as total plate count (TPC) were determined in 480 samples. Monthly geometric mean TPC ranged from 1600/g to 25,000/g. The highest geometric mean of the MPN of coliforms and E. coli were 4.9/g and 1.8/g respectively. The highest geometric mean number of staphylococci was 18.6/g. Salmonella was not detected in the 480 units tested. Only 0.4% of the samples had TPC exceeding 100,000/g. Coliforms and E. coli were not present in 76.1% and 92.7% respectively of the samples tested. Staphylococcus aureus was not detected in 67.7% of the samples. The numbers of organisms in 82% of the samples fall within the microbiological standards proposed by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia for frozen precooked foods. The results of this study demonstrate the microbial quality of precooked lobster meat attainable when good manufacturing practices are used. PMID:336790

  15. Hawaiian Starlight: Sharing the Beauty of the Hawaiian Skies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuillandre, J. C.

    Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corp. The summit of Mauna Kea (14,000 feet) offers the best viewing of the Cosmos in the northern hemisphere, and the film "Hawaiian Starlight" delivers a pure esthetic experience from the mountain into the Universe. Seven years in the making, this cinematic symphony reveals the spectacular beauty of the mountain and its connection to the Cosmos through the magical influence of time-lapse cinematography scored exclusively (no narration) with the awe-inspiring, critically acclaimed, Halo music by Martin O'Donnell and Michael Salvatori. Daytime and nighttime landscapes and skyscapes alternate with stunning true color images of the Universe captured by an observatory on Mauna Kea, all free of any computer generated imagery. An extended segment of the film will be presented at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies Conference to celebrate the international year of Astronomy 2009, a global effort initiated by the IAU (International Astronomical Union) and UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) to help the citizens of the world rediscover their place in the Universe through the day- and night-time sky, and thereby engage a personal sense of wonder and discovery. Hawaiian Starlight is true to this commitment. The inspiration and technology of the film will be shortly presented by the film's director.

  16. Evolution of Hawaiian shield volcano revealed by antecryst-hosted melt inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sakyi, P. A.; Kobayashi, K.; Nakamura, E.

    2009-12-01

    Ocean island basalts, exemplified by the Hawaiian Volcanics, are often considered to be the best targets for understanding the chemical and thermal structure of upwelling mantle plumes. The important feature with regards to the petrogenesis of the recent Hawaiian shield building lavas is the existence of a double volcanic loci (Loa and Kea), which has resulted in large-scale heterogeneity between the north-western and south-eastern sides of the plume. The temporal Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb isotopic trends displayed by the Loa-type lavas may have been caused by systematic vertical heterogeneity of the SW part of the Hawaiian plume. The majority of the available OIB samples are limited to the youngest lava flows covering the shield, with the exception of samples obtained from drilled cores and land slide deposits. Thus, sampling is biased to the latest stages of the shield building process, and consequently, so are geochemical studies. We found that the majority of olivine crystals coarser than ˜1 mm in the Hawaiian lavas are antecryst, which originally crystallized from previous stages of Hawaiian magmatism. These anatecrysts were then plastically deformed prior to entrainment in the erupted host magmas. The Pb isotopic compositions of antecryst-hosted melt inclusions reveal that the mantle source components that formed Hawaiian shields successively changed during shield formation. The temporal geochemical trend in the Kilauea melt inclusion could be caused by increasing the degree of partial melting by moving the melting source of the volcano from the periphery to the centre of the plume. The Pb isotopic trend of Koolau melt inclusions are consistent with the previously identified temporal isotopic trend, which shows that the 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb of the Koolau magma systematically increased with time. Thus, antecryst-hosted melt inclusions preserve geochemical information regarding the petrogenesis of the Hawaiian shield lavas, which is unobtainable via whole rock

  17. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non

  18. Kahua A'o: A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Place and Culture-based Geoscience Teacher Education and Curriculum Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinwood, I.; Stone, K.; Spencer, L.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o is a collaborative project funded by the National Science Foundation aimed at developing science curriculum grounded in Hawaiian culture and place-based education. The project team is composed of members who contribute expertise in meteorology, geology, curriculum development, and Hawaiian language. To date, six lessons have been produced, four with a focus in meteorology and two with a focus in geology. The lessons are geared towards the middle school level, but can easily be adapted for other levels. Each lesson combines a scientific topic with relevant Hawaiian language resources. Serving as the main source for resources is the Hawaiian language newspaper archive, which is an online database of 75,000 pages from newspapers that were published between 1834 and 1948. By incorporating Hawaiian language newspaper articles into science lessons, we aim to teach science through culture and show a history of scientific inquiry intrinsic to Hawaiian culture in order to generate more interest in science among Hawai'i students, especially native Hawaiian students, who are underrepresented in scientific fields. Since most of the articles are specific to the Hawaiian Islands, all students will find more relevance with the lesson through place-based education. Kahua A'o lessons are currently being piloted with groups of public school teachers. Bishop Museum is also incorporating elements of the meteorology lessons into their science education curriculum. The goal of Kahua A'o is to become the first of many such interdisciplinary collaborations, especially those that utilize the rich repository of untapped knowledge in the Hawaiian language newspaper archive.

  19. Thermoluminescence dating of Hawaiian basalt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, Rodd James

    1979-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) properties of plagioclase separates from 11 independently dated alkalic basalts 4,500 years to 3.3 million years old and 17 tholeiitic basalts 16 years to 450,000 years old from the Hawaiian Islands were investigated for the purpose of developing a TL dating method for young volcanic rocks. Ratios of natural to artificial TL intensity, when normalized for natural radiation dose rates, were used to quantify the thermoluminescence response of individual samples for age-determination purposes. The TL ratios for the alkalic basalt plagioclase were found to increase with age at a predictable exponential rate that permits the use of the equation for the best-fit line through a plot of the TL ratios relative to known age as a TL age equation. The equation is applicable to rocks ranging in composition from basaltic andesite to trachyte over the age range from about 2,000 to at least 250,000 years before present (B.P.). The TL ages for samples older than 50,000 years have a calculated precision of less than :t 10 percent and a potential estimated accuracy relative to potassium-argon ages of approximately :t 10 percent. An attempt to develop a similar dating curve for the tholeiitic basalts was not as successful, primarily because the dose rates are on the average lower than those for the alkalic basalts by a factor of 6, resulting in lower TL intensities in the tholeiitic basalts for samples of equivalent age, and also because the age distribution of dated material is inadequate. The basic TL properties of the plagioclase from the two rock types are similar, however, and TL dating of tholeiitic basalts should eventually be feasible over the age range 10,000 to at least 200,000 years B.P. The average composition of the plagioclase separates from the alkalic basalts ranges from oligoclase to andesine; compositional variations within this range have no apparent effect on the TL ratios. The average composition of the plagioclase from the tholeiitic

  20. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy; Roderick, George K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host–parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens, also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure.

  1. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from Oʻahu and Kauaʻi revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Molokaʻi, Lanaʻi, and Hawaiʻi), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kauaʻi) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A

  2. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  3. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  4. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  5. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Area 1 trap limits. The Area 1 trap limit is 800 traps. Federally permitted lobster fishing vessels shall not fish with, deploy in, possess in, or haul back...

  6. 76 FR 54727 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... Requirements Spiny Lobster Amendment 1 (July 15, 1987, 52 FR 22659) initially implemented the Federal spiny... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South... Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic (FMP)...

  7. 50 CFR 697.19 - Trap limits and trap tag requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... vessels fishing with lobster traps. 697.19 Section 697.19 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... requirements for vessels fishing with lobster traps. (a) Trap limits for vessels fishing or authorized to fish... management area designation certificate or valid limited access American lobster permit specifying one...

  8. 77 FR 50642 - Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Amendment 11; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...: Correction On July 27, 2012 (77 FR 44168, July 27, 2012), incorrect latitudinal coordinates for Lobster Trap... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 640 RIN 0648-BB44 Spiny Lobster Fishery of the... Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Fishery in the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Regions that...

  9. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

  10. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states

    PubMed Central

    Kirch, Patrick V.; Mills, Peter R.; Lundblad, Steven P.; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G.

    2012-01-01

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua‘a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai‘i Island as well as quarries on O‘ahu, Moloka‘i, and Lāna‘i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  11. Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

    2013-07-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai`i, Kaua`i, and Ni`ihau, and >122,000 km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka`ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the Hāna and Ka`ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85 g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

  12. Intrusive dike complexes, cumulate cores, and the extrusive growth of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.; Sinton, John M.; Kauahikaua, Jim; Taylor, Brian

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the most geologically studied hot-spot islands in the world yet surprisingly, the only large-scale compilation of marine and land gravity data is more than 45 years old. Early surveys served as reconnaissance studies only, and detailed analyses of the crustal-density structure have been limited. Here we present a new chain-wide gravity compilation that incorporates historical island surveys, recently published work on the islands of Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, and Ni‘ihau, and >122,000 km of newly compiled marine gravity data. Positive residual gravity anomalies reflect dense intrusive bodies, allowing us to locate current and former volcanic centers, major rift zones, and a previously suggested volcano on Ka‘ena Ridge. By inverting the residual gravity data, we generate a 3-D view of the dense, intrusive complexes and olivine-rich cumulate cores within individual volcanoes and rift zones. We find that the Hāna and Ka‘ena ridges are underlain by particularly high-density intrusive material (>2.85 g/cm3) not observed beneath other Hawaiian rift zones. Contrary to previous estimates, volcanoes along the chain are shown to be composed of a small proportion of intrusive material (<30% by volume), implying that the islands are predominately built extrusively.

  13. Interpolity exchange of basalt tools facilitated via elite control in Hawaiian archaic states.

    PubMed

    Kirch, Patrick V; Mills, Peter R; Lundblad, Steven P; Sinton, John; Kahn, Jennifer G

    2012-01-24

    Ethnohistoric accounts of late precontact Hawaiian archaic states emphasize the independence of chiefly controlled territories (ahupua'a) based on an agricultural, staple economy. However, elite control of unevenly distributed resources, such as high-quality volcanic rock for adze production, may have provided an alternative source of economic power. To test this hypothesis we used nondestructive energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) analysis of 328 lithic artifacts from 36 archaeological features in the Kahikinui district, Maui Island, to geochemically characterize the source groups. This process was followed by a limited sampling using destructive wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) analysis to more precisely characterize certain nonlocal source groups. Seventeen geochemical groups were defined, eight of which represent extra-Maui Island sources. Although the majority of stone tools were derived from Maui Island sources (71%), a significant quantity (27%) of tools derived from extraisland sources, including the large Mauna Kea quarry on Hawai'i Island as well as quarries on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Lāna'i islands. Importantly, tools quarried from extralocal sources are found in the highest frequency in elite residential features and in ritual contexts. These results suggest a significant role for a wealth economy based on the control and distribution of nonagricultural goods and resources during the rise of the Hawaiian archaic states. PMID:22203984

  14. A new species of Brisingenes from the Hawaii undersea military munitions assessment area with an overview of Hawaiian brisingid in situ video observations and functional morphology of subambulacral spines (Forcipulatacea; Asteroidea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mah, Christopher L.

    2016-06-01

    A new species of Brisingenes, Brisingenes margoae nov. sp. is described from the HUMMA Study Area (see overview (Edwards et al., 2016-a), Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands. This represents a range extension for Brisingenes to the North Pacific and is the fifth-known brisingid species in the Hawaiian region. An overview of other Hawaiian brisingid species based on HURL in situ video observations is presented. Submersible-collected B. margoae and Brisingenes panopla provides new insight into functional morphology of brisingid subambulacral spines. The high abundance of brisingids in the HUMMA Study Area is briefly reviewed. Identification keys for relevant taxa are provided.

  15. Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

    2014-10-01

    Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10 430 km(2) island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500 000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

  16. Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Stacy, E A; Johansen, J B; Sakishima, T; Price, D K; Pillon, Y

    2014-01-01

    Although trees comprise a primary component of terrestrial species richness, the drivers and temporal scale of divergence in trees remain poorly understood. We examined the landscape-dominant tree, Metrosideros polymorpha, for variation at nine microsatellite loci across 23 populations on young Hawai'i Island, sampling each of the island's five varieties throughout its full geographic range. For four varieties, principal coordinate analysis revealed strong clustering of populations by variety across the 10 430 km2 island, indicating partitioning of the species into multiple evolutionarily significant units. The single island-endemic form, riparian var. newellii, showed especially strong differentiation from other varieties despite occurring in sympatry with other varieties and likely evolved from a bog form on the oldest volcano, Kohala, within the past 500 000 years. Along with comparable riparian forms on other Pacific Islands, var. newellii appears to represent parallel incipient ecological speciation within Metrosideros. Greater genetic distance among the more common varieties on the oldest volcano and an inverse relationship between allelic diversity and substrate age appear consistent with colonization of Hawai'i Island by older, partially diverged varieties followed by increased hybridization among varieties on younger volcanoes. This study demonstrates that broad population-level sampling is required to uncover patterns of diversification within a ubiquitous and long-lived tree species. Hawaiian Metrosideros appears to be a case of incipient radiation in trees and thus should be useful for studies of divergence and the evolution of reproductive isolating barriers at the early stages of speciation. PMID:24824285

  17. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. ‘homaria’ (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  18. Host behavior alters spiny lobster-viral disease dynamics: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas W; Butler, Mark J; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2014-08-01

    Social behavior confers numerous benefits to animals but also risks, among them an increase in the spread of pathogenic diseases. We examined the trade-off between risk of predation and disease transmission under different scenarios of host spatial structure and disease avoidance behavior using a spatially explicit, individual-based model of the host pathogen interaction between juvenile Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) and Panulirus argus Virus 1 (PaV1). Spiny lobsters are normally social but modify their behavior to avoid diseased conspecifics, a potentially effective means of reducing transmission but one rarely observed in the wild. We found that without lobster avoidance of diseased conspecifics, viral outbreaks grew in intensity and duration in simulations until the virus was maintained continuously at unrealistically high levels. However, when we invoked disease avoidance at empirically observed levels, the intensity and duration of outbreaks was reduced and the disease extirpated within five years. Increased lobster (host) spatial aggregation mimicking that which occurs when sponge shelters for lobsters are diminished by harmful algal blooms, did not significantly increase PaV1 transmission or persistence in lobster populations. On the contrary, behavioral aversion of diseased conspecifics effectively reduced viral prevalence, even when shelters were limited, which reduced shelter availability for all lobsters but increased predation, especially of infected lobsters. Therefore, avoidance of diseased conspecifics selects against transmission by contact, promotes alternative modes of transmission, and results in a more resilient host-pathogen system. PMID:25230484

  19. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  20. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  1. 76 FR 71501 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... published an Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) in the Federal Register (74 FR 67) to notify the... Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes new Federal American lobster regulations that would limit...

  2. 33 CFR 100.118 - Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Searsport Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME. 100.118 Section 100.118 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Races, Searsport Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated Area. The regulated area includes all waters...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  6. 33 CFR 100.111 - Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stonington Lobster Boat Races, Stonington, ME. 100.111 Section 100.111 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.111 Stonington Lobster...

  7. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carapace Length of Lobsters 1 Figure 1 to Part 665 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters ER14JA10.126...

  8. 78 FR 35217 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; American Lobster Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... fishery could potentially involve limiting access to Federal Lobster Conservation Management Areas (64 FR... comment on the issue on September 5, 2002 (67 FR 56800). When the Commission added effort control as a... separate the effort control rulemakings from lobster brood stock protection rulemakings (70 FR 24495,...

  9. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  10. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  11. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  12. Soundscape Ecology of Hawaiian Spinner Dolphin Resting Bays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heenehan, Heather Leigh

    Sound is a key sensory modality for Hawaiian spinner dolphins. Like many other marine animals, these dolphins rely on sound and their acoustic environment for many aspects of their daily lives, making it is essential to understand soundscape in areas that are critical to their survival. Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest during the day in shallow coastal areas and forage offshore at night. In my dissertation I focus on the soundscape of the bays where Hawaiian spinner dolphins rest taking a soundscape ecology approach. I primarily relied on passive acoustic monitoring using four DSG-Ocean acoustic loggers in four Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting bays on the Kona Coast of Hawai'i Island. 30-second recordings were made every four minutes in each of the bays for 20 to 27 months between January 8, 2011 and March 30, 2013. I also utilized concomitant vessel-based visual surveys in the four bays to provide context for these recordings. In my first chapter I used the contributions of the dolphins to the soundscape to monitor presence in the bays and found the degree of presence varied greatly from less than 40% to nearly 90% of days monitored with dolphins present. Having established these bays as important to the animals, in my second chapter I explored the many components of their resting bay soundscape and evaluated the influence of natural and human events on the soundscape. I characterized the overall soundscape in each of the four bays, used the tsunami event of March 2011 to approximate a natural soundscape and identified all loud daytime outliers. Overall, sound levels were consistently louder at night and quieter during the daytime due to the sounds from snapping shrimp. In fact, peak Hawaiian spinner dolphin resting time co-occurs with the quietest part of the day. However, I also found that humans drastically alter this daytime soundscape with sound from offshore aquaculture, vessel sound and military mid-frequency active sonar. During one recorded mid

  13. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  14. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, S.I.; Triglia, D.; Giannoulis, A.; Farias, M.; Bianchi, K.; Atkinson, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and 'Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster. Pox isolates from one of these two clusters appear closely related to canarypox and other passerine pox viruses, while the second appears more specific to Hawai'i. There was no evidence that birds were infected simultaneously with multiple pox virus variants based on evaluation of multiples clones from four individuals. No obvious temporal or geographic associations were observed and strict host specificity was not apparent among the 4b-defined field isolates. We amplified a 116 bp 4b core protein gene fragment from an 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sandwichensis) collected in 1900 on Hawai'i Island that clustered closely with the second of the two variants, suggesting that this variant has been in Hawai'i for at least 100 years. The high variation detected between the three 4b clusters provides evidence for multiple, likely independent introductions, and does not support the hypothesis of infection of native species through introduction of infected fowl. Preliminary experimental infections in native Hawai'i 'Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) suggest that the 4b-defined variants may be biologically distinct, with one variant appearing more virulent. These pox viruses may interact with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum), another introduced pathogen in Hawaiian forest bird populations, through modulation of host immune responses. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  15. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  16. Effect of magnetic pulses on Caribbean spiny lobsters: implications for magnetoreception.

    PubMed

    Ernst, David A; Lohmann, Kenneth J

    2016-06-15

    The Caribbean spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, is a migratory crustacean that uses Earth's magnetic field as a navigational cue, but how these lobsters detect magnetic fields is not known. Magnetic material thought to be magnetite has previously been detected in spiny lobsters, but its role in magnetoreception, if any, remains unclear. As a first step toward investigating whether lobsters might have magnetite-based magnetoreceptors, we subjected lobsters to strong, pulsed magnetic fields capable of reversing the magnetic dipole moment of biogenic magnetite crystals. Lobsters were subjected to a single pulse directed from posterior to anterior and either: (1) parallel to the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field (i.e. toward magnetic north); or (2) antiparallel to the horizontal field (i.e. toward magnetic south). An additional control group was handled but not subjected to a magnetic pulse. After treatment, each lobster was tethered in a water-filled arena located within 200 m of the capture location and allowed to walk in any direction. Control lobsters walked in seemingly random directions and were not significantly oriented as a group. In contrast, the two groups exposed to pulsed fields were significantly oriented in approximately opposite directions. Lobsters subjected to a magnetic pulse applied parallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component walked westward; those subjected to a pulse directed antiparallel to the geomagnetic horizontal component oriented approximately northeast. The finding that a magnetic pulse alters subsequent orientation behavior is consistent with the hypothesis that magnetoreception in spiny lobsters is based at least partly on magnetite-based magnetoreceptors. PMID:27045095

  17. A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2–6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6–12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID

  18. Kahua A'o—A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Earth Science Professional Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, P. W.

    2012-12-01

    Kahua A'o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 as a foundation for culturally responsive geoscience curriculum and professional development. In Hawaii, a lack of qualified teachers limits students' awareness of Earth Science in their lives, as careers and a way to understand past, present, and future. This particularly impacts Native Hawaiians, 28% of students in Hawaii''s public schools but underrepresented in STEM majors and careers. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists, Hawaiian translators, and science educators utilize articles to develop meteorology and geology modules for middle school teachers. Articles provide insights about living sustainably on islands exposed to volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunami, drought, and storms. Hawaii's remoteness and diverse topography supported the development of mountain-to-sea, sustainable, social ecosystems called ahupuaa. Hawaiians recognized each ahupuaa's unique winds, rains, fauna, flora, cultivars, and geologic features. The story of Pele chanting the winds of Kauai to prove she was not a stranger grounds identity and status in environmental knowledge. The story is culturally congruent with science explanations of how the Hawaiian Islands' diverse shapes and topography interact with heating, cooling, and large scale wind systems to create hundreds of local winds and rains. This presentation reports on "Local Winds and Rains of Hawaii, I Kamaāina i Na Makani a Me Nā Ua and "Weather Maps and Hazardous Storms in Hawaii, Nā 'Ino Ma Hawaii Nei." Highly detailed observations of an 1871 severe wind event enable students to estimate winds speeds using the Beaufort Scale, determine the storm's path and decide if it was the first recorded hurricane on the island of Hawaii. A visit to NOAA's National Weather Service triggered discussions about Hawaiian language weather reports. A Hawaiian

  19. Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization. PMID:22844071

  20. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

  1. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  2. Functional response of sport divers to lobsters with application to fisheries management.

    PubMed

    Eggleston, David B; Parsons, Darren M; Kellison, G Todd; Plaia, Gayle R; Johnson, Eric G

    2008-01-01

    Fishery managers must understand the dynamics of fishers and their prey to successfully predict the outcome of management actions. We measured the impact of a two-day exclusively recreational fishery on Caribbean spiny lobster in the Florida Keys, USA, over large spatial scales (>100 km) and multiple years and used a theoretical, predator-prey functional response approach to identify whether or not sport diver catch rates were density-independent (type I) or density-dependent (type II or III functional response), and if catch rates were saturated (i.e., reached an asymptote) at relatively high lobster densities. We then describe how this predator-prey framework can be applied to fisheries management for spiny lobster and other species. In the lower Keys, divers exhibited a type-I functional response, whereby they removed a constant and relatively high proportion of lobsters (0.74-0.84) across all pre-fishing-season lobster densities. Diver fishing effort increased in a linear manner with lobster prey densities, as would be expected with a type-I functional response, and was an order of magnitude lower in the upper Keys than lower Keys. There were numerous instances in the upper Keys where the density of lobsters actually increased from before to after the fishing season, suggesting some type of "spill-in effect" from surrounding diver-disturbed areas. With the exception of isolated reefs in the upper Keys, the proportion of lobsters removed by divers was density independent (type-I functional response) and never reached saturation at natural lobster densities. Thus, recreational divers have a relatively simple predatory response to spiny lobster, whereby catch rates increase linearly with lobster density such that catch is a reliable indicator of abundance. Although diver predation is extremely high (approximately 80%), diver predation pressure is not expected to increase proportionally with a decline in lobster density (i.e., a depensatory response), which could

  3. Time-Domain Astronomy with Swift, Fermi and Lobster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, Neil; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cannizzo, John K.

    2012-04-01

    The dynamic transient gamma-ray sky is revealing many interesting results, largely due to findings by Fermi and Swift. The list includes new twists on gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), a GeV flare from a symbiotic star, GeV flares from the Crab Nebula, high-energy emission from novae and supernovae, and, within the last year, a new type of object discovered by Swift-a jetted tidal disruption event. In this review we present highlights of these exciting discoveries. A new mission concept called Lobster is also described; it would monitor the X-ray sky at order-of-magnitude higher sensitivity than current missions can.

  4. Nā Inoa Hōkū: Hawaiian and Polynesian star names

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.; Kaipo Mahelona, John; Kawena Johnson, Rubellite

    2015-08-01

    important new light on beliefs and practices brought to the Hawaiian Islands by the earliest Polynesian settlers.

  5. New constraints on the Hawaiian swell origin using wavelet analysis of the geoid to topography ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadio, C.; Ballmer, M.; Panet, I.; Ribe, N.; Diament, M.

    2012-04-01

    Analyzing the formation of hotspot swells, including the shallowness around the Hawaiian Islands, is critical for understanding the origin of intraplate volcanism and the underlying geodynamical processes. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: thermal lithospheric thinning, and dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain the two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the depth of the compensating mass; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess swell support mechanisms. According to previous work, the observed GTR has been reported to range from 4 to 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to loading of the volcanic edifices and related lithospheric flexure. In order to resolve these issues, we apply a continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to retrieve lateral variations of the GTR at each spatial scale. A series of synthetic tests based on different geodynamic models clearly indicates that by efficiently filtering the unwanted contributions, our approach is able to estimate the proper GTR of the Hawaiian swell. A high GTR of 8 m/km is recovered on the current hotspot location. Therefore, for the first time, the recovered GTR agrees with realistic geodynamic models of the Hawaiian plume. Accordingly, the thermal rejuvenation model can be ruled out by our analysis. Instead, the swell as a whole is shown to be mainly supported dynamically by the uprising Hawaiian plume

  6. Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

    2013-01-01

    This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.

  7. The Lithium Isotopic Signature of Hawaiian Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recycling of oceanic crust and sediment is a common mechanism to account for the presence of chemical heterogeneities observed in oceanic island basalts (OIBs). On Hawai';i, a mantle plume-sourced OIB with a high mass flux, sampling of deep mantle heterogeneities accounts for the presence of two unique geochemical and geographical trends called the Loa and Kea trends. The Loa trend overlaps the Pacific large low shear velocity province and is distinctly more enriched [1] than the Kea trend with average Pacific mantle compositions [2]. Because of the sizeable fractionation of lithium isotopes in low temperature environments, lithium serves as a tracer for the presence of recycled material in OIB sources, including Hawai'i. In this study, we analyzed 87 samples of Hawaiian basalt from the pre-shield, shield, post-shield, and rejuvenated volcanic stages and 10 samples of altered oceanic crust from ODP Site 843 for lithium isotopes using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Correlations of lithium isotopes with the radiogenic isotopes Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr indicate lithium isotopes may be used to trace components in mantle plumes such as Hawai';i. The measured range of lithium isotopes for shield stage lavas is δ7Li = 1.8 - 5.7‰ and for post-shield lavas is δ7Li = 0.8 - 4.7‰. Pre-shield stage lavas (Lo'ihi volcano only) and rejuvenated lavas are the least and most homogeneous volcanic stages, respectively, in lithium isotopes. The Loa and Kea geochemical trends have different lithium isotopic signatures, with Loa trend shield volcanoes exhibiting lighter lithium isotopic signatures (δ7Li = 3.5‰ [N=43]) than Kea trend shield volcanoes (δ7Li = 4.0‰ [N=31]) [3]. Similarly, post-shield lavas have systematically lighter δ7Li than shield lavas. The presence of systematic differences in lithium isotopic signatures may indicate: 1) the sampling of distinct components in the deep source, to account for variations between Kea and Loa trend

  8. Navigating Rough Waters: Hawaiian Science Teachers Discuss Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Franklin S.

    2013-01-01

    Research with Native Hawaiian science teachers is contributing to a better understanding of issues relating to equity in science education, and toward improving science curriculum to support Native Hawaiian students as well as support systems for Native Hawaiian students interested in pursuing higher education and science-based careers.…

  9. Hawaiian Language Immersion: The Role of Kamehameha Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paleka, Hinano; Hammond, Ormond

    1992-01-01

    Hawaii has a strong crusade to revive the Hawaiian language to preserve the Hawaiian culture. The article examines the events leading up to the implementation of Hawaiian language immersion programs through the State Department of Education and lists specific immersion school goals and strategies. (SM)

  10. Predicting the Timing and Location of the next Hawaiian Volcano

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Joseph; Mattox, Stephen; Kildau, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The wealth of geologic data on Hawaiian volcanoes makes them ideal for study by middle school students. In this paper the authors use existing data on the age and location of Hawaiian volcanoes to predict the location of the next Hawaiian volcano and when it will begin to grow on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. An inquiry-based lesson is also…

  11. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  12. Experimental Infection and Detection of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium in the American Lobster Homarus americanus

    PubMed Central

    Avila-Villa, Luz A.; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Martínez-Porchas, Marcel; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) is an obligated intracellular bacteria causing severe hepatopancreatic damages and mass mortalities in penaeid shrimp. The worldwide distribution of penaeid shrimp as alien species threatens the life cycle of other crustacean species. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the possibility of experimentally infecting the American lobster (Homarus americanus) with NHPB extracted from shrimp hepatopancreas. Homogenates from infected shrimp were fed by force to lobsters. Other group of lobsters was fed with homogenates of NHPB-free hepatopancreas. After the 15th day from initial inoculation, the presence of NHPB was detected by polymerase chain reaction in feces and hepatopancreas from lobsters inoculated with infected homogenates. Necrotized spots were observed in the surface of lobster hepatopancreas. In contrast, lobsters fed on NHPB-free homogenates resulted negative for NHPB. Evidence suggests the plasticity of NHPB which can infect crustacean from different species and inhabiting diverse latitudes. Considering the results, the American lobster could be a good candidate to maintain available NHPB in vivo. PMID:22645497

  13. Use of Herring Bait to Farm Lobsters in the Gulf of Maine

    PubMed Central

    Grabowski, Jonathan H.; Clesceri, Erika J.; Baukus, Adam J.; Gaudette, Julien; Weber, Matthew; Yund, Philip O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecologists, fisheries scientists, and coastal managers have all called for an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, yet many species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) are still largely managed individually. One hypothesis that has yet to be tested suggests that human augmentation of lobster diets via the use of Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as bait may contribute to recent increases in lobster landings. Currently 70% of Atlantic herring landings in the Gulf of Maine are used as bait to catch lobsters in traps throughout coastal New England. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effects of this herring bait on the diet composition and growth rate of lobsters at heavily baited vs. seasonally closed (i.e., bait free) sites in coastal Maine. Our results suggest that human use of herring bait may be subsidizing juvenile lobster diets, thereby enhancing lobster growth and the overall economic value and yield of one of the most valuable fisheries in the U.S. Conclusions/Significance Our study illustrates that shifting to an ecosystem approach to fisheries management should require consideration of cross-fishery interactions. PMID:20419167

  14. Trophic cascades induced by lobster fishing are not ubiquitous in southern California kelp forests.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Carla M; Lenihan, Hunter S; Grant, Laura E; Lopez-Carr, David; Reed, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    Fishing can trigger trophic cascades that alter community structure and dynamics and thus modify ecosystem attributes. We combined ecological data of sea urchin and macroalgal abundance with fishery data of spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) landings to evaluate whether: (1) patterns in the abundance and biomass among lobster (predator), sea urchins (grazer), and macroalgae (primary producer) in giant kelp forest communities indicated the presence of top-down control on urchins and macroalgae, and (2) lobster fishing triggers a trophic cascade leading to increased sea urchin densities and decreased macroalgal biomass. Eight years of data from eight rocky subtidal reefs known to support giant kelp forests near Santa Barbara, CA, USA, were analyzed in three-tiered least-squares regression models to evaluate the relationships between: (1) lobster abundance and sea urchin density, and (2) sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass. The models included reef physical structure and water depth. Results revealed a trend towards decreasing urchin density with increasing lobster abundance but little evidence that urchins control the biomass of macroalgae. Urchin density was highly correlated with habitat structure, although not water depth. To evaluate whether fishing triggered a trophic cascade we pooled data across all treatments to examine the extent to which sea urchin density and macroalgal biomass were related to the intensity of lobster fishing (as indicated by the density of traps pulled). We found that, with one exception, sea urchins remained more abundant at heavily fished sites, supporting the idea that fishing for lobsters releases top-down control on urchin grazers. Macroalgal biomass, however, was positively correlated with lobster fishing intensity, which contradicts the trophic cascade model. Collectively, our results suggest that factors other than urchin grazing play a major role in controlling macroalgal biomass in southern California kelp forests, and

  15. Is heterostyly rare on oceanic islands?

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kenta; Sugawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Heterostyly has been considered rare or absent on oceanic islands. However, there has been no comprehensive review on this issue. Is heterostyly truly rare on oceanic islands? What makes heterostyly rare on such islands? To answer these questions, we review the reproductive studies on heterostyly on oceanic islands, with special emphasis on the heterostylous genus Psychotria in the Pacific Ocean as a model system. Overall, not many reproductive studies have been performed on heterostylous species on oceanic islands. In Hawaiian Psychotria, all 11 species are thought to have evolved dioecy from distyly. In the West Pacific, three species on the oceanic Bonin and Lanyu Islands are distylous (Psychotria homalosperma, P. boninensis and P. cephalophora), whereas three species on the continental Ryukyu Islands show various breeding systems, such as distyly (P. serpens), dioecy (P. rubra) and monoecy (P. manillensis). On some other Pacific oceanic islands, possibilities of monomorphy have been reported. For many Psychotria species, breeding systems are unknown, although recent studies indicate that heterostylous species may occur on some oceanic islands. A shift from heterostyly to other sexual systems may occur on some oceanic islands. This tendency may also contribute to the rarity of heterostyly, in addition to the difficulty in colonization/autochthonous evolution of heterostylous species on oceanic islands. Further investigation of reproductive systems of Psychotria on oceanic islands using robust phylogenetic frameworks would provide new insights into plant reproduction on oceanic islands. PMID:26199401

  16. On the origin and variation of colors in lobster carapace.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamima; Cianci, Michele; Durbeej, Bo; Falklöf, Olle; Hädener, Alfons; Helliwell, John R; Helliwell, Madeleine; Regan, Andrew C; Ian F Watt, C

    2015-07-14

    The chemical basis of the blue-black to pink-orange color change on cooking of lobster, due to thermal denaturation of an astaxanthin-protein complex, α-crustacyanin, in the lobster carapace, has so far been elusive. Here, we investigate the relaxation of the astaxanthin pigment from its bound enolate form to its neutral hydroxyketone form, as origin of the spectral shift, by analyzing the response of UV-vis spectra of a water-soluble 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-β-ionone model of astaxanthin to increases in pH, and by performing extensive quantum chemical calculations over a wide range of chemical conditions. The enolization of astaxanthin is consistent with the X-ray diffraction data of β-crustacyanin (PDB code: ) whose crystals possess the distinct blue color. We find that enolate formation is possible within the protein environment and associated with a large bathochromic shift, thus offering a cogent explanation for the blue-black color and the response to thermal denaturation and revealing the chemistry of astaxanthin upon complex formation. PMID:25797168

  17. Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. δ13C and δ15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather δ15N and δ13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in δ15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in δ15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1

  18. Disposition of phenanthrene and octachlorostyrene in spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, after intragastric administration

    SciTech Connect

    Solbakken, J.E.; Knap, A.H.

    1986-11-01

    Spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) is a commercial crustacean in Bermuda. It was therefore of interest to study the fate of xenobiotics in the species as very little attention has been paid to toxicological studies with spiny lobsters. Earlier it was found that the temperate crustacean, Nephrops norveqicus (Norway lobster) had the ability to accumulate and eliminate phenanthrene. The aim of this investigation was to gain a better understanding of the fate of xenobiotics in crustaceans under different environmental conditions, and to compare the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, phenenthrene, with the more environmentally persistent chlorinated compound octachlorostyrene, a by-product of magnesium metal production.

  19. Cogeneration in the Hawaiian sugar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    For nearly a century the Hawaiian sugar industry has produced most of the steam and electricity needed to process sugarcane and to power its factories and irrigation pumps. Judicious use of bagasse and cane trash has made the Hawaiian sugar industry among the most efficient in the world in converting biomass into electricity --- in comparison with typical worldwide cane-to-electricity productivities of {approximately}10 kWh per ton of cane, Hawaiian sugar factories today generate, on average, about 60 kWh per ton of cane and, in some factories, 100 kWh or more. Plantations in Hawaii produce about 800 million kWh annually, and, after satisfying virtually all of their internal power requirements, export roughly 400 million kWh to public utility companies. To attain world prominence in generating and exporting power from bagasse, Hawaiian sugar companies have had to address numerous technical, operational, regulatory, and contractual issues relating to the production and distribution of steam and electricity. Prior to 1970 the development of electricity generation in the Hawaiian sugar industry was shaped almost entirely by technical developments --- better utilization of the available biomass resources; consolidation of steam-generation facilities into fewer, larger, and more efficient units; and increased operating pressures and temperatures of steam and electrical generating units and better heat recovery to achieve higher thermal efficiency in the cogeneration plant. In more recent years, however, non-technical issues have influenced electricity generation and sale more than technical factors. 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben H.; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria’s life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations. PMID:26509270

  1. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  2. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  3. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 μg L−1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 μg L−1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 μg L−1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 μg L−1) or malathion (1 μg L−1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ≤ 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass

  4. Surveys on the distribution and abundance of the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the District of Puna, Hawaii. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Dwyer, J.; Viggiano, A.; Nielsen, B.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1994-08-01

    In 1993 the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) entered into an interagency agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) to conduct wildlife surveys relative to identifying potential impacts of geothermal resource development on the native biota of the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano in the Puna district on the island of Hawaii. This report presents data on the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Hawaiian bat), or opeapea (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), within the proposed Hawaii geothermal subzones. Potential effects of geothermal development on Hawaiian bat populations are also discussed. Surveys were conducted to determine the distribution and abundance of bats throughout the District of Puna. Baseline information was collected to evaluate the status of bats within the study area and to identify important foraging habitats. Little specific data exists in the published literature on the population status and potential limiting factors affecting the Hawaiian bat. A USFWS recovery plan does not exist for this endangered species.

  5. THE PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL BASIS FOR OLFACTORY PERCEPTION OF STEROIDS DURING AGONISITC BEHAVIOR IN LOBSTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    During fighting, American lobsters urinate on each other with antennule flicking highest during this period. Blocking excretion of urine obliterates previously established dominance relationships, suggesting that individual recognition requires a urine signal (Breithaupt et al.,...

  6. Transience beyond the catchment: large-scale evolution of the Hawaiian landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihimaki, C. A.; Gasparini, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    The systematic progression of ages of the Hawaiian Islands, established subsidence patterns of inactive Hawaiian volcanoes, and strong spatial variability in precipitation rates provide an opportunity to test models of landscape evolution in response to tectonic and climatic forcing. In contrast to studies focusing on channel-scale dynamics, we focus our attention on larger-scale patterns by analyzing elevation and slope versus bedrock age and precipitation rates for the islands as a whole. Elevations and slopes extracted by geologic formation age show that while elevations decrease, slopes systematically increase with the age of the geologic formation, from an average slope of ~8% for bedrock <750 years old to nearly 60% for bedrock 4-6 Ma, despite ongoing subsidence of older islands. This long-lived transience in the landscape evolution provides an important target for numerical models of landscape evolution, such as CHILD. Comparisons of elevations with PRISM precipitation data reveal a complex relationship between surface processes and orographic precipitation. High precipitation rates are correlated with high elevations and steep slopes, likely reflecting the dominance of topography in setting precipitation rates. Low precipitation rates are correlated with high elevations and low slopes, likely indicating lower erosion rates caused by minimal rainfall. An intermediate precipitation rate of 3-4 m/yr is correlated with the lowest elevations and steep slopes, perhaps reflecting ideal conditions for mass movement processes that lower elevation while steepening slopes. We hypothesize that large, steep landslide scarps, known locally as palis, and steep-walled river canyons are significant topographic features that become dominant as the Hawaiian landscape ages.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of Banza (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), the endemic katydids of the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, L H; Strazanac, J S; Roderick, G K

    2006-10-01

    The extant endemic katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) of the Hawaiian Archipelago include one to three species per high island and a single species on Nihoa, all currently placed in the genus Banza. These acoustic insects provide an excellent opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation, but such studies require an understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the group. We use maximum parsimony, likelihood-based Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood to infer phylogenetic relationships among these taxa, based on approximately 2kb of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b. Our results strongly support two distinct high island clades: one clade ("Clade I") composed of species from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Lanai and another clade ("Clade II") composed of species from Maui and Hawaii (Banza unica, from Oahu, may be basal to both these clades, but its placement is not well resolved). Within these clades, some inferred relationships are strongly supported, such as the sister status of B. kauaiensis (Kauai) and B. parvula (Oahu) within Clade I, but other relationships remain more ambiguous, such as the relative position of B. brunnea (Maui) within Clade II. Although a detailed reconstruction of the historical biogeography of the Hawaiian katydids is difficult, we use our genetic data combined with the known geological history of the Hawaiian Islands to set limits on plausible historical scenarios for diversification of this group. Beyond these historical biogeographic inferences, our results indicate possible cryptic speciation on both Oahu and Hawaii, as well as what may be unusually high average rates of nucleotide substitution. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of this group. PMID:16781170

  8. Recharge Data for Hawaii Island

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Recharge data for Hawaii Island in shapefile format. The data are from the following sources: Whittier, R.B and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human Health and Environmental Risk Ranking of On-Site Sewage Disposal systems for the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final, Prepared for Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics. Oki, D. S. 1999. Geohydrology and Numerical Simulation of the Ground-Water Flow System of Kona, Island of Hawaii. U.S. Water-Resources Investigation Report: 99-4073. Oki, D. S. 2002. Reassessment of Ground-water Recharge and Simulated Ground-Water Availability for the Hawi Area of North Kohala, Hawaii. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation report 02-4006.

  9. Hawaii Island Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for Hawaii Island. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume II – Island of Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014.

  10. Amphitheater-Headed Valleys: Unique or Non-Unique Origin? The Hawaiian Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pederson, D. T.; Blay, C.

    2007-12-01

    While the formation and migration of amphitheaters (knickpoints) in unconsolidated sediment is fairly well understood the same cannot be said for amphitheaters formed in a variety of bedrock types, climate settings, and even planetary location. The question remains, is there a single knickpoint forming process at work or do multiple landscape forming processes have a convergence tendency because of cybernetic feedback? A simple example would be a waterfall creating a micro-environment that enhances and focuses specific landscape forming processes like weathering, microbial action, and vegetation growth aiding in the continuation of the knickpoint form. It should be noted that weathering, microbial growth and vegetation growth would have cybernetic feedback among them. In fact it may be difficult to determine the controlling process, if any. If one considers that knickpoints likely intercept the regional groundwater flow system there is an additional focused source of water supply which further contributes to the micro-environment of the knickpoint. Groundwater discharge has significant cybernetic feedbacks with landscape forming processes. The nature and composition of the bedrock and climatic factors may determine rates of knickpoint migration but the resulting morphologic features in different settings would likely be similar with cybernetic feedback. It should be noted that cybernetic feedback can either be damping or amplifying. Amphitheater-headed valleys have developed in many locations on the Hawaiian Islands. The islands have formed in a time sequence as the supporting oceanic plate moves over a focused mantle source for the basalts. The amphitheaters of Hawaii occur in "fresh" and "older" basaltic rock depending on island location. Weathering processes have acted longer on some islands. Because of the topography and its affect on trade winds the main islands have focused rainfall, significant recharge, and active groundwater flow systems. While climate is

  11. Can tephra be recognized in Hawaiian drill core, and if so, what can be learned about the explosivity of Hawaiian volcanoes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lautze, N. C.; Haskins, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Nearly 6000 feet of drill core was recently recovered from the Pohakula Training Area (PTA) near the Saddle Road between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes on Hawaii Island. Drilling was funded by the US Army with an objective to find a potable water source; the rock core was logged and archived thanks to funding from the National Science Foundation. Within the first few hundred meters, alluvial outwash from the slopes of Mauna Kea is underlain by post-shield Mauna Kea lavas. Below this depth the core is predominantly pahoehoe and to a lesser extent a'a lavas expected to be from Mauna Kea's shield stage volcanism. During the logging effort, and throughout the core, a number of suspect-pyroclastic deposits were identified (largely based on particle texture). These deposits will be examined in more detail, with results presented here. An effort will be made to determine whether explosive deposits can, in fact, be unequivocally identified in drill core. Two anticipated challenges are differentiating between: scoria and 'clinker' (the latter associated with a'a lava flows), and primary volcanic ash, loess, and glacial sediments. Recognition of explosive deposits in the PTA drill core would lend insight into Mauna Kea's explosive history, and potentially that of other Big Island volcanoes as well. If the characteristics of tephra in Hawaiian drill core can be identified, core from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) and Scientific Observation Holes (SOH-1,2,4) may also be examined.

  12. Analytical description of lobster eye and similar multi-foil optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichý, Vladimír.; Hudec, René; Barbera, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Analytical equations describing lobster eye optical parameters on dependence on its geometric parameters are presented. The paper partially gives review of main previously known results. At next, the paper gives new results discussing parameters, that were not included to previously published models but may be significant. The results are applicable for a Schmidt as well as for an Angel lobster eye and for some related multi-foil systems.

  13. Characterization and functional classification of American lobster (Homarus americanus) immune factor transcripts.

    PubMed

    Clark, K Fraser

    2014-11-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) is the most important commercially exploited marine species in Canada. Very little is known about the H. americanus molecular humoral immune response or how to determine if a seemingly healthy lobster is infected with a pathogen. The goal of this work is to characterize several important H. americanus immune genes as well as highlight and classify hundreds of others into functional immune groups. The protein sequence of H. americanus acute phase serum amyloid protein A (SAA) was found to be similar to that of vertebrate SAA, and is likely a good clinical marker for immune activation in lobsters and some crustaceans. Additionally, only one gene, Trypsin 1b, was found to be differentially regulated during bacterial, microparasitic and viral challenges in lobster and is likely critical for the activation of the H. americanus immune response. Bioinformatic analysis was used to functionally annotate, 263 H. americanus immune genes and identify the few shared patterns of differential gene expression in lobsters in response to bacterial, parasitic and viral challenge. Many of the described immune genes are biomarker candidates which could be used as clinical indicators for lobster health and disease. Biomarkers can facilitate early detection of pathogens, or anthropomorphic stressors, so that mitigation strategies can be developed in order to prevent the devastating economic losses that have occurred in Southern New England, USA. This work is contributes to further our understanding of how the lobster immune system works and how it can be used to maintain the health and sustainability of the overall American lobster fishery. PMID:24981290

  14. NASA's IMERG Shows Darby's Rainfall Over The Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Video Gallery

    Estimates of rainfall accompanying Tropical Storm Darby were produced using NASA's Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data. GPM is the Global Precipitation Measurement mission co...

  15. Asian dust: seasonal transport to the hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Parrington, J R; Zoller, W H; Aras, N K

    1983-04-01

    Analyses of atmospheric particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii from February 1979 through September 1982 reveal strong influxes of Asian dust in the spring of each year. Concentrations of a typical crustal element, aluminum, are more than an order of magnitude greater between February and June than during the remainder of the year (71 +/- 51 versus 6.7 +/- 2.3 nanograms per cubic meter). The mass of crustal material transported during the relatively short dust episodes accounts for an average of 80 percent of the total yearly mass of atmospheric particles at 3400 meters on Mauna Loa. PMID:17795828

  16. Asian dust: seasonal transport to the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Parrington, J.R.; Zoller, W.H.; Aras, N.K.

    1983-04-08

    Analyses of atmospheric particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii from February 1979 through September 1982 reveal strong influxes of Asian dust in the spring of each year. Concentrations of a typical crustal element, aluminum, are more than an order of magnitude greater between February and June than during the remainder of the year (71 +/- 51 versus 6.7 +/- 2.3 nanograms per cubic meter). The mass of crustal material transported during the relatively short dust episodes accounts for an average of 80 percent of the total yearly mass of atmospheric particles at 3400 meters on Mauna Loa.

  17. Foraging range movements of the endangered Hawaiian hoary bat, Lasiurus cinereus semotus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Todd, Christopher M.; Miles, Adam C.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2015-01-01

    We documented nightly movements of Hawaiian hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) on the island of Hawai’i. Based on data from 28 radiotagged individuals mean foraging range (FR) was 230.7±72.3 ha, core-use area (CUA) was 25.5±6.9 ha (or 11.1% of mean FR), and the mean long axis (LAX) across the FR was 3,390.8±754.3 m. There was almost no overlap in CUAs among 4 adult males having overlapping foraging areas and tracked simultaneously or within a 90-day window of each other. CUAs of subadults partially overlapped with multiple adult males or with one other subadult. High variance in FRs, cores use areas, and LAX across the FR perhaps reflect localized stochastic variables such as weather, habitat, and food resources. Hawaiian hoary bats use moderately large FRs among insectivorous bats studied with comparable methodologies; however, foraging activity indicated by documentation of acoustic feeding buzzes is concentrated within one or a few disjunct areas cumulatively forming the 50% fixed kernel of CUA. The concentration of feeding activity, low values of individual overlap, and agonistic chasing behavior within CUAs all demonstrate a structured use of individual space by Hawaiian hoary bats.

  18. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  19. Detailed simulation of a Lobster-eye telescope.

    PubMed

    Putkunz, Corey T; Peele, Andrew G

    2009-08-01

    The concept of an x-ray telescope based on the optics of the eye of certain types of crustacea has been in currency for nearly thirty years. However, it is only in the last decade that the technology to make the telescope and the opportunity to mount it on a suitable space platform have combined to allow the idea to become a reality. Accordingly, we have undertaken a detailed simulation study, updating previous simplified models, to properly characterise the performance of the instrument in orbit. The study reveals details of how the particular characteristics of the lobster-eye optics affect the sensitivity of the instrument and allow us to implement new ideas in data extraction methods. PMID:19654826

  20. Analog electronic model of the lobster pyloric central pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkovskii, A.; Brugioni, S.; Levi, R.; Rabinovich, M.; Selverston, A.; Abarbane, H. D. I.

    2005-01-01

    An electronic circuit intended to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of a simplified 3-cell model of the pyloric central pattern generator in California spiny lobster stomato gastric ganglion is presented. The model employs the synaptic phase locked loop (SPLL) concept where the frequency of oscillations of a postsynaptic cell is mainly controlled by the synaptic current which depends on the phase shift between the oscillations. The theoretical study showed that the system has a stable steady state with correct phase shifts between the oscillations and that this regime is stable when the frequency of the pacemaker cell is varied over a wide range. The main bifurcations in the system were studied analytically, in computer simulations, and in experiments with the electronic circuit. The experimental measurements are in good agreement with the expectations of the theoretical model.