Sample records for hawaiian islands lobster

  1. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA838 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  2. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  3. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...

  4. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ...for calendar year 2010 is established at zero lobsters. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...resources (50 CFR 404.7), and establish a zero annual harvest guideline for lobsters...NMFS establishes the harvest guideline at zero lobsters for the NWHI commercial...

  5. Asthma and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... twice as likely to have asthma as non-Hispanic whites. National data for this population is very ... had asthma, 2012 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Non-Hispanic White Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander/ Non-Hispanic White ...

  6. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were almost four times more likely to ... data available at this time. HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  7. Hawaiian Monk Seal Pupping Locations in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM G. GILMARTIN

    Most births of the endangered Hawaiian monk seal, Monuchus schuuinslundi, occur in specific beach areas in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Data collected from 1981 to 1988 on the locations of monk seal births and of the first sightings of neonatal pups were summarized to identify preferred birth and nursery habitats. These areas are relatively short lengths of beach at the

  8. Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander Native Hawaiian/Pacific ... times more likely to be diagnosed with chronic liver disease in 2006. American Samoans were 8 times more ...

  9. Minority Women's Health: Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health > Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Minority Women's Health Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders Related information ... to Your Doctor or Nurse Illnesses and disabilities Women's health statistics Health conditions common in Native Hawaiian and ...

  10. Profile: Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa or other Pacific Islands. According to ... 000 Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders reside in Hawaii. Some other states that have a significant Native ...

  11. Restoring the lobster stock near Rhode Island: the North Cape lobster restoration program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Cooper; M. Clancy

    2005-01-01

    In a winter storm in January 1996, the oil barge North Cape ran aground on Moonstone Beach in Rhode Island, spilling approximately 800,000 gallons of home heating oil into Block Island Sound and onto the shore. It is estimated that 9 million American lobsters from juveniles to adults were killed in the spill, along with several thousand birds, and millions

  12. THE ``100 LOBSTERS'' PROJECT: A COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR HEALTH ASSESSMENTS OF LOBSTERS FROM RHODE ISLAND

    E-print Network

    OF LOBSTERS FROM RHODE ISLAND JEFFREY D. SHIELDS,1 * KERSTEN N. WHEELER,1 JESSICA MOSS,1 BARBARA SOMERS2 Science, The College of William & Mary, PO Box 1346, Gloucester Point, VA 23062; 2 University of Rhode Island Fisheries Center, East Farm Rd., Bldg. 83, Kingston, RI 02881 ABSTRACT The emergence of epizootic

  13. 78 FR 63381 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following commercial harbors are...

  14. 78 FR 29089 - Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Island Commercial Harbors, HI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...14-1414 Safety Zones; Hawaiian Islands Commercial Harbors; HI. (a) Location. The following areas are safety zones:...

  15. Hybrid Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) in the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES K. BAKER; SUZY ALLEN

    First- and second-generation hybrids of Hibiscadelphus giffardianus Rock and H. hualalaiensis Rock have been found in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, and elsewhere in the Hawaiian Islands. They are under cultivation from interspecifically cross-fertilized seed which occurred on parent trees within the park. A history of parent and hybrid species is given, and floral characteristics are analyzed. Hybrid occurrence and the

  16. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Describes the unique Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Ecosystem Reserve. Provides resources focused on NWHI coral reef ecosystems, and introductions to reef research, management and protection activities. Educational outreach includes: teacher workshops; student activities, and a Discovery Center in Hilo, Hawaii that features exhibits and activities for schools and the public.

  17. THE STARFISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. By VVALTER K. FISHER,

    E-print Network

    __ __ _.· __ _.. . .. __ __ _: __ _ . Relationships of the Hawaiian starfish fauna _. __ ._ _'..' _" _ . Species common to the Hawaiian Islands of Hilo, Hawaii. Altog-ether the collection numbers very nearly 1,650 specimens, and includes 60 species

  18. 76 FR 78309 - Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness Review and Legislative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...1265-0000-10137-SC] Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex; Wilderness...waters within the Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Refuge...Wilderness Coordinator, Hawaiian and Pacific Islands National Wildlife Refuge Complex,...

  19. Biology of Coral Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Grigg; Jeffrey Polovina; Alan M. Friedlander; Steven O. Rohmann

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI ) represent the northern three-quarters of the Hawaiian Archipelago. This part of\\u000a the Hawaiian chain stretches across 2,000 km of the North Pacific between 23 and 29 degrees north latitude and consists of\\u000a nine major islets, coral islands and\\/or atolls. Numerous reefs, submerged banks and seamounts also exist between and around\\u000a the main islands. Together

  20. EFFECTS OF TRAP VENTING ON GEAR SELECTIVITY IN THE INSHORE RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN LOBSTER,

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF TRAP VENTING ON GEAR SELECTIVITY IN THE INSHORE RHODE ISLAND AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS Rhode Island lobster fishery. The use ofrectangular vents (42 x 152mm) resulted in a 79% decrease on the effects of 'Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Division of Fish and Wildlife, 150 Fowler

  1. On the Gravity of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Taylor, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are part of the most geologically studied intra-plate volcanic island chain. Surprisingly, the only chain wide compilation of marine and terrestrial gravity data is now more than 40 years old. Early terrestrial studies conducted by J. G. Moore, H.L Krivoy, G. P. Woollard, W. E Strange and others in the early 1960's were meant to serve as reconnaissance surveys only. In addition, early marine surveys were limited in both accurate positioning and data density. Detailed analysis of the crustal density structure of the island chain was limited. We present a new chain-wide gravity compilation incorporating the original island-specific survey data, recently published data on the island of Kauai and Hawaii, as well as more than 10 years of newly incorporated marine data collected aboard the University of Hawaii's R/V Kilo Moana. This data was supplemented by surveys aboard the R/V Farnella among others. We present free-air (FAA), simple/complete Bouguer, and residual gravity maps on an unprecedented resolution and geographical extent for the area. This data will be hosted as an interactive Google-Earth overlay at the Hawaii Mapping Research Group (HMRG - www.soest.hawaii.edu/HMRG) and made available to the scientific community. We hope that this dataset will be used for further comparison of the gravity fields of other intra-plate volcanic systems (French Polynesia, etc.) and to constrain seismic studies of crustal structure in the Hawaiian-chain through joint seismic-gravity inversions.

  2. ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT IN THE QUATERNARY

    E-print Network

    Luther, Douglas S.

    ELEVATED FOSSIL CORAL DEPOSITS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: A MEASURE OF ISLAND UPLIFT Gary McMurtry Johanna Resig #12;ABSTRACT The origin of emerged marine fossils in the Hawaiian Islands waves swept up to 326 m on Lanai and neighboring islands depositing marine fossils 105 ka; (3

  3. 33 CFR 80.1410 - Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule. 80.1410 ...NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Islands § 80.1410 Hawaiian Island Exemption from General Rule....

  4. 76 FR 77779 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a [[Page...

  5. 77 FR 16211 - Availability of Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...Seats for the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...seats on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve Advisory Council...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The NWHI Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve is a marine...

  6. BIRDS OF LAYSAN AND THE LEEWARD' ISLANDS, HAWAIIAN GROUP.

    E-print Network

    BIRDS OF LAYSAN AND THE LEEWARD' ISLANDS, HAWAIIAN GROUP. By vvAL~ER K. FISHER. -~_.__. ====, F. C. B.1903, 1't. 3-1 767 #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;OJ c = #12;BIRDS OF LAYSAN large members from Hawaii to Niihau and Kauai, and the Leeward Islands or "'chain," comprising

  7. 76 FR 54689 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...of Class E Airspace; Hawaiian Islands, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...Class E airspace for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. The FAA is taking this action in response...above the surface for the Hawaiian Islands, HI. This action enhances the safety and...

  8. MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1

    E-print Network

    MOVEMENTS OF TAGGED AMERICAN LOBSTER, HOMARUS AMERICANUS, OFF RHODE ISLAND1 MICHAEL J. FOGARTY, Homarus americanus, were tagged and released at five sites along the Rhode Island coast, Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management, Wickford, R.I.; present address: Northeast

  9. Diabetes and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the white population. However in the state of Hawaii, Native Hawaiians are 2.2 times more likely ... pdf [PDF | 3.49MB] BRFSS, REACH 2010 Surveys Hawaii State BRFSS Percent of adults diagnosed with diabetes, ...

  10. Shoreline Change in the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, B. M.; Fletcher, C. H.; Barbee, M.; Frazer, L.; Anderson, T. R.

    2010-12-01

    Historical shoreline studies aid the coastal management community in identifying and managing coastal areas facing an increased risk of future beach erosion, assuming historical trends of shoreline change have a relationship to future shoreline changes. Beaches around the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are investigated for chronic beach erosion, defined as shoreline change occurring over 10’s to 100 years. Historical shoreline positions are mapped from orthorectified aerial photographs and topographic survey charts. Positional uncertainty is calculated for each historical shoreline using data from seasonal beach profile measurements and from the mapping process. Shoreline movement through time is measured along 244 km of beach at 12,203 transects spaced every 20 m along the shore. Shoreline change rates are calculated using two methods of weighted least-squares regression, providing cross-validation of model results and identification of statistically significant shoreline trends. Rates are calculated for long (full time series) and short (1940’s-) time series allowing rudimentary investigation into whether rates may be changing with time. Shoreline change behavior is spatially variable along Hawaii beaches with cells of erosion and accretion often separated by only a few hundred meters on a continuous beach, or by short headlands that separate the coast into many small embayments and pocket beaches. Twenty-one km or 9% of the total length of beach studied was completely lost to erosion over the time-span of available data. The remaining beaches of Kauai, Oahu, and Maui are erosional over the long and short term with an average long-term rate of all transects of -0.061 ± 0.005 m/yr and average short-term rate of -0.023 ± 0.008 m/yr. The majority of the shoreline on the three islands (61% long-term, 54% short-term) has a significant trend of erosion or is more likely erosional than accretional. Looking at the islands individually, Kauai beaches are erosional in the long-term with an average rate of all transects of -0.083 ± 0.012 m/yr and 65% of transects are either significantly erosional or more likely erosional than accretional. Short-term summary results for Kauai are inconclusive, with the average rate of all transects, 0.033 ± 0.023, suggesting short-term accretion, but with more transects (51%) indicating short-term erosion than accretion (36%). Eight percent of the beach on both Kauai and Oahu was lost to erosion in the time-span of available data. Oahu beaches are slightly erosional in the long and short-term with average rates of -0.006 ± 0.005 m/yr and -0.007 ± 0.006 m/yr, respectively, and more transects are erosional than accretional. Maui beaches are the most erosive of the three islands with 11% of beach lost to erosion and over 75% of transects erosional in the long and short-term. The average rates of all transects on Maui beaches are -0.131 ± 0.009 for long-term data and -0.119 ± 0.011 m/yr in the short-term.

  11. SPIRORCHIDIASIS AND FIBROPAPILLOMATOSIS IN GREEN TURTLES FROM THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Aguirre; T. R. Spraker; G. H. Balazs; B. Zimmerman

    1998-01-01

    Pathologic examination of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands (USA) was performed to determine the primary cause of mortality. Lesions were associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP) and\\/or spirorchidiasis (SP) in 16 of 17 green turtles examined. Gross lesions included moderate to severe emaciation, lobulated fibropapillomas of different size classes, serous atrophy of fat, and edema of subcutaneous tissue and

  12. BATHYMETRIC ATLAS AND WEBSITE FOR THE NORTHWESTERN HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOYCE E. MILLER; SUSAN VOGT; RONALD HOEKE; SCOTT FERGUSON; BRUCE APPELGATE; JOHN R. SMITH; MICHAEL PARKE

    Until recently the only bathymetric data available in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) came from single-beam charting surveys that were conducted before World War II. In many cases these data were poorly located, and individual banks could be mischarted by several kilometers. Because detailed bathymetric data are required for a variety of management and research purposes, including designation of boundaries

  13. Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Ocean Thermal Resources off the Hawaiian Islands luisvega@hawaii.edu 1 Ocean Thermal Resources off and Barriers p5 Ocean Thermal Resource in Hawaii: Introduction p6 Ocean Thermal Resource in Hawaii: Conclusion Cost: Update p16 References p19 Appendix A p20 List of Figures Figure 1 ­ Worldwide average ocean

  14. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot. Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Exploration--Grades 9-12 (Earth Science). Seismology and Geological Origins of the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This activity is designed to introduce to students the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that resulted in the formation of the Hawaiian Islands and the difference between S waves and P waves. Students are expected to explain how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, infer a…

  15. Native Hawaiian & Other Pacific Islander Populations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. According to ... or Other Pacific Islander populations in 2011 were Hawaii (359,000) and California (329,000) . The Native ...

  16. Geology and Geomorphology of Coral Reefs in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. Rooney; Pal Wessel; Ronald Hoeke; Jonathan Weiss; Jason Baker; Frank Parrish; Charles H. Fletcher; Joseph Chojnacki; Michael Garcia; Russell Brainard; Peter Vroom

    The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) comprise a portion of the middle of the 6,126 km long Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain,\\u000a considered to be the longest mountain chain in the world Grigg (1983) (Fig. 13.1). Located in the middle of the North Pacific\\u000a Ocean, the Hawaiian Islands have been referred to as the most geographically isolated archipelago in the world. The islands

  17. Month-Year Rainfall Maps of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, A. G.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Diaz, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have one of the most spatially-diverse rainfall patterns on earth. Island topography, persistent trade winds, thermal effects of the islands, and the presence of the trade-wind inversion interact to cause air to be lifted in distinct spatial patterns anchored to the topography. The resulting clouds and rainfall produced by this uplift lead to extreme gradients in monthly and annual rainfall in the islands. Knowledge of the rainfall patterns is critically important for a variety of resource management issues, including ground water and surface water development and protection, controlling and eradicating invasive species, protecting and restoring native ecosystems, and planning for the effects of global warming. In this study, development of month-year rainfall maps from 1920-2007 for the six major Hawaiian islands using geostatistical methods is undertaken. While mean monthly and annual rainfall maps for Hawaii are available, spatially continuous maps of precipitation for individual months do not exist. Simple methods, such as linear interpolation or ordinary kriging, are not appropriate for interpolating month-year rainfall due to the extreme spatial diversity. A method comparison is performed here to choose the best interpolation method for each island. The comparison focuses on different kriging algorithms including kriging with an external drift and simple kriging with varying local means. Parameter sensitivity tests are used for each method, and several covariates are considered to reduce interpolation error. The different combinations of methods, covariates and parameters are evaluated using cross validation statistics. To produce the final maps, the anomaly method is used to relate station data from every individual month with the 1978-2007 mean monthly maps. The anomalies are interpolated using the best method determined from the comparison, and then recombined with the mean maps to produce the final maps for the six major Hawaiian Islands.

  18. Upper-montane plant invasions in the Hawaiian Islands: Patterns and opportunities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis C. Daehler

    2005-01-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, massive volcanoes have created extreme elevation gradients, resulting in environments ranging from nearly tropical to alpine, spread across a distance of only a few dozen kilometers. Although the Hawaiian Islands are widely recognized for opportunities to study lowland tropical forest invasions, less attention has been paid to invasions of Hawaii's upper-montane forest, sub-alpine and alpine environments.

  19. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    E-print Network

    Ito, Garrett

    Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai January 2010; accepted 16 March 2010; published 31 August 2010. [1] New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua

  20. Extreme Rainfall Events in the Hawaiian Islands PAO-SHIN CHU

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    Extreme Rainfall Events in the Hawaiian Islands PAO-SHIN CHU Department of Meteorology, School Heavy rainfall and the associated floods occur frequently in the Hawaiian Islands and have caused huge economic losses as well as social problems. Extreme rainfall events in this study are defined by three

  1. Aloha, Welcome to the Hawaiian Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Happel, Sue

    A 4-week unit introduces intermediate grade students to Hawaii. Nine lessons of varying lengths cover the map of Hawaii and its climate, history, islands, economy and resources, sugar cane, pineapple, life and customs, and language. Each lesson contains 1 or more question-and-answer worksheets and, in many cases, a reading and a list of enrichment…

  2. Dominant spatial variability scales from observations around the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Dax; Powell, Brian; Milliff, Ralph

    2011-10-01

    We utilize a variety of available observations with a semivariogram technique to quantify the oceanic variability around the Hawaiian Islands. The Hawaiian Islands have a significant impact on the North Pacific circulation, and quantifying the characteristics of the variability is important for understanding the eddy energy, as well as required for statistical techniques to work with the data, such as optimal interpolation, data assimilation, etc. Both satellite sea surface height and temperature data are used to determine horizontal scales of variability, while Argo profiles, ship-borne profiles, and autonomous Seagliders provide estimates of the vertical scales. In the lee of the islands, satellite data reveal an increase in horizontal variability attributed to enhanced eddy activity that persists for over 1000 km westward; however, only within 400 km of the immediate lee the horizontal length scales are greatly reduced. Further west, length scales increase significantly indicating a change in the generation mechanism for eddy variability and where eddies merge and coalesce. The meridional length scale gradient is found to be larger than previous results and more representative of the gradient of the first baroclinic mode of the internal Rossby radius. Vertical length scales are shown to increase in the lee, with vertical temperature variability doubled from the windward side.

  3. Extreme convergence in stick insect evolution: phylogenetic placement of the Lord Howe Island tree lobster

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Thomas R.; Attanayake, Dilini; Bradler, Sven

    2008-01-01

    The ‘tree lobsters’ are an enigmatic group of robust, ground-dwelling stick insects (order Phasmatodea) from the subfamily Eurycanthinae, distributed in New Guinea, New Caledonia and associated islands. Its most famous member is the Lord Howe Island stick insect Dryococelus australis (Montrouzier), which was believed to have become extinct but was rediscovered in 2001 and is considered to be one of the rarest insects in the world. To resolve the evolutionary position of Dryococelus, we constructed a phylogeny from approximately 2.4?kb of mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data from representatives of all major phasmatodean lineages. Our data placed Dryococelus and the New Caledonian tree lobsters outside the New Guinean Eurycanthinae as members of an unrelated Australasian stick insect clade, the Lanceocercata. These results suggest a convergent origin of the ‘tree lobster’ body form. Our reanalysis of tree lobster characters provides additional support for our hypothesis of convergent evolution. We conclude that the phenotypic traits leading to the traditional classification are convergent adaptations to ground-living behaviour. Our molecular dating analyses indicate an ancient divergence (more than 22?Myr ago) between Dryococelus and its Australian relatives. Hence, Dryococelus represents a long-standing separate evolutionary lineage within the stick insects and must be regarded as a key taxon to protect with respect to phasmatodean diversity. PMID:19129110

  4. A new species of Heterorhabditis from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Gardner, S L; Stock, S P; Kaya, H K

    1994-02-01

    A new species of nematode of the genus Heterorhabditis (Nemata: Heterorhabditidae) was found during a survey of the soil entomopathogenic nematode fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Heterorhabditis hawaiiensis sp. n. can be separated from all other species of Heterorhabditis by the length of the infective juvenile and the morphological characters of the spicules, gubernaculum, and bursa. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragment analysis showed that this species also has a distinct genetic pattern in RAPD bands relative to the other 6 species or isolates of Heterorhabditis that were compared. PMID:8308642

  5. Phylogenetics of the antopocerus-modified tarsus clade of Hawaiian Drosophila: diversification across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Lapoint, Richard T; Magnacca, Karl N; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae radiation is an ecologically and morphologically diverse clade of almost 700 described species. A phylogenetic approach is key to understanding the evolutionary forces that have given rise to this diverse lineage. Here we infer the phylogeny for the antopocerus, modified tarsus and ciliated tarsus (AMC) clade, a lineage comprising 16% (91 of 687 species) of the described Hawaiian Drosophilidae. To improve on previous analyses we constructed the largest dataset to date for the AMC, including a matrix of 15 genes for 68 species. Results strongly support most of the morphologically defined species groups as monophyletic. We explore the correlation of increased diversity in biogeography, sexual selection and ecology on the present day diversity seen in this lineage using a combination of dating methods, rearing records, and distributional data. Molecular dating analyses indicate that AMC lineage started diversifying about 4.4 million years ago, culminating in the present day AMC diversity. We do not find evidence that ecological speciation or sexual selection played a part in generating this diversity, but given the limited number of described larval substrates and secondary sexual characters analyzed we can not rule these factors out entirely. An increased rate of diversification in the AMC is found to overlap with the emergence of multiple islands in the current chain of high islands, specifically Oahu and Kauai. PMID:25420017

  6. Pathways and Predictors of Juvenile Justice Involvement for Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Youths: A Focus on Gender

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Pasko; David T. Mayeda

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growth of Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) youths in court and correctional involvement, studies of their delinquency and juvenile justice involvement are quite limited, and the literature becomes almost nonexistent when examining gender differences. Using case file analysis of 150 Native Hawaiian\\/part-Hawaiian and Pacific Islander juvenile offenders, this article addresses this dearth of research by showing

  7. Far-Reaching Effects of the Hawaiian Islands on the Pacific Ocean-Atmosphere System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shang-Ping Xie; W. Timothy Liu; Qinyu Liu; Masami Nonaka

    2001-01-01

    Ocean islands modify surface winds on the leeside. Such an island wakegenerally dissipates quickly and lasts only a few hundred kilometers downwind. Using new satellite data, we detect a wake trailing behind the Hawaiian Islands for 3000 km, a length many times greater than observed anywhere else on Earth. The Islands' influence is not limited to the wind velocity field

  8. Phylogeographic patterns of Hawaiian Megalagrion damselflies (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) correlate with Pleistocene island boundaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STEVE JORDAN; CHRIS SIMON; DAVID FOOTE; RONALD A. ENGLUND

    2005-01-01

    The Pleistocene geological history of the Hawaiian Islands is becoming well understood. Numerous predictions about the influence of this history on the genetic diversity of Hawaiian organisms have been made, including the idea that changing sea levels would lead to the genetic differentiation of populations isolated on individual volcanoes during high sea stands. Here, we analyse DNA sequence data from

  9. Stroke Disparities: Disaggregating Native Hawaiians from other Pacific Islanders

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Kazuma; MacDonald, Pippa R.; Asai, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare the clinical characteristics of Native Hawaiians (NH) and other Pacific Islanders (PI) who are hospitalized with ischemic stroke. Design Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of medical records. Setting Tertiary, Primary Stroke Center in Honolulu, Hawaii. Patients Consecutive patients with race/ethnicity identified as NH or PI who were hospitalized for ischemic stroke between January 2006 and December 2012. Outcome Measures Age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) utilization rate and hospital length of stay. Results A total of 561 patients (57% NH and 43% PI) were studied. PI were younger (59 ± 13 years vs 62 ± 14 years, ,P=.002), had higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus (58% vs 41%, P<.0001) and prosthetic valve (6% vs 2%, P=.007), lower prevalence of smoking (14% vs 21%, P=.03), lower HDL cholesterol (38 ± 11 mg/dL vs 41 ± 13 mg/dL, P=.004), and higher discharge diastolic blood pressure (79 ± 15 vs 76 mm Hg ± 14 mm Hg, P=.04) compared to NH. No difference was seen in other cardiovascular risk factors. The IV-tPA utilization rate (5% vs 6%, P=.48) and the hospital length of stay (10 ± 17 days vs 10 ± 49 days, P=.86) were not different between the two groups. Conclusion Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with ischemic stroke have modestly different age of stroke presentation and burden of risk factors compared to each other. Disaggregating these two racial groups may be important to unmask any potential clinical differences in future studies. PMID:26118142

  10. 76 FR 46719 - Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fisheries; 2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...0648-XA470 Western Pacific Bottomfish and Seamount...2011-12 Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual...Administrator, NMFS, Pacific Islands Region (PIR), 1601...legally registered to Pacific Remote Island Area bottomfish...

  11. A Pre and Post-MARPOL Annex V Summary of Hawaiian Monk Seal Entanglements and Marine Debris Accumulation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982–1998

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Henderson

    2001-01-01

    Entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, were documented in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from 1982 to 1998, and debris which presented a threat of entanglement was inventoried and removed from 1987 to 1996. A total of 173 entanglements was documented. The number of entanglements did not change after implementation of MARPOL Annex V in 1989. Pups and juvenile

  12. Hawaiian Islands Marine Ecosystem Case Study: Ecosystem and Community-Based Management in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian N. Tissot; William J. Walsh; Mark A. Hixon

    2009-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands comprise a large and isolated archipelago that includes the largest reef area in the United States. Managing nearshore fisheries in this archipelago is a major challenge compounded by the difficulty of coordinating multiple agencies to provide governance across a broad series of islands with substantial social and political differences. There has been interest in, and progress toward,

  13. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  14. I. THE SHORE FISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, WITH A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE

    E-print Network

    I. THE SHORE FISHES OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS, WITH A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE FISH FAUNA. By DAVID FISHES OF THE HAWAIlAN ISLANDS, WITH A GENERAL ACCOUNT OF THE FISH FAUNA. By DAVID STARR JORDAN (Hawaii) four days afterwards. The vessel then spent seven weeks cruising about and examining- the coasts

  15. Spirorchidiasis and fibropapillomatosis in green turtles from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, A A; Spraker, T R; Balazs, G H; Zimmerman, B

    1998-01-01

    Pathologic examination of green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands (USA) was performed to determine the primary cause of mortality. Lesions were associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP) and/or spirorchidiasis (SP) in 16 of 17 green turtles examined. Gross lesions included moderate to severe emaciation, lobulated fibropapillomas of different size classes, serous atrophy of fat, and edema of subcutaneous tissue and muscle. Anasarca, hydropericardium and pulmonary edema were common findings. The neoplastic lesions observed in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, liver, and kidneys of 29% of turtles examined were histologically characterized as fibromas. A generalized thickening and hardening of major vessels and thrombosis with partial or complete lumen occlusion were observed in turtles with FP and SP. Histologically, lymphoplasmocytic endarteritis was observed in vessels of turtles with both conditions. Multifocal granulomas were associated with trematode ova in the parenchyma of most organs of all turtles with FP and SP. Spirorchidiasis and FP were considered the primary causes of mortality in the turtles examined. Further studies should focus on the pathogenic interaction of both conditions and their synergism as debilitating and fatal diseases in this threatened species. PMID:9476230

  16. Hawaiian Islands Captured by Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. A 200-ft long (60 meter) mast supporting the SRTM jutted into space from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth, the giant structure was deployed on February 12, 2000 and the C-band and X-band anternae mounted on it quickly went to work mapping parts of the Earth. The SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, and obtained 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs. This image is an example of the data required by the SRTM. This is a view of the three Hawaiian Islands; Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, ranging from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 5900 feet (1800 meters) of total relief. SRTM will help local officials to better understand and prepare for volcanic, tidal wave, and earthquake activities.

  17. Dominant influence of volcanic loading on vertical motions of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppert, Kimberly L.; Royden, Leigh H.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2015-05-01

    Rates of island vertical motion above intra-plate hotspots record the processes that arise from interactions between lithospheric plates and mantle plumes. To assess the contribution of mantle and lithospheric processes to surface motion above the Hawaiian hotspot, we compare simple models of lithospheric deformation to vertical motion rates measured from dated paleoshorelines and tide gauge records in the Hawaiian Islands. Our analysis shows that observed uplift and subsidence rates mainly record the flexural response of the lithosphere to volcanic loads. The effective elastic plate thickness that best fits the spatial distribution of subsidence and uplift rates is ?40 km, consistent with previous estimates based on total vertical deflection. Because volcanic loading dominates the vertical motion signal, Hawaiian Islands appear to follow a predictable trajectory of vertical motion when they reside within one flexural half-wavelength of the active volcanic center. Islands initially subside at rapid and decreasing rates in the first ?1 Myr following their construction, uplift relatively slowly ?1-2.5 Myr following their construction, and eventually subside again, but at slow rates, within ?5 Myr of their construction. This observed pattern of uplift and subsidence is consistent with the pattern of vertical motion predicted to result from volcanic loading at the Hawaiian hotspot. Lithospheric migration over the long-wavelength topographic swell associated with the Hawaiian hotspot has a comparatively minor influence on island uplift and subsidence. Its contribution to island vertical motion is not readily observed in our data, with the possible exception of some uplift observed in the past ?500 kyr on O'ahu that might correspond to non-steady state behavior of the Hawaiian plume.

  18. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  19. Chemical weathering fluxes from volcanic islands and the importance of groundwater: The Hawaiian example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopka, Herdis Helga; Derry, Louis A.

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the products and rates of chemical weathering on the Hawaiian Islands, sampling streams on Kaua'i and both streams and groundwater wells on the island of Hawai'i. Dissolved silica was used to investigate the flowpaths of water drained into streams. We found that flowpaths exert a major control on the observed chemical weathering rates. A strong link exists between the degree of landscape dissection and flowpaths of water through the landscape, with streams in undissected landscapes receiving water mainly from surface runoff and streams in highly dissected landscapes receiving a considerable fraction of their water from groundwater (springs and/or seepage). Total alkalinity in Hawaiian streams and groundwater is produced exclusively by silicate chemical weathering. We find that fluxes of total alkalinity (often called "CO2 consumption rate" in the geochemical literature), from the islands are lower than those observed in basaltic regions elsewhere. Groundwater is, overall, the major transport vector for products of chemical weathering from the Hawaiian Islands. On the youngest and largest island, submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) transports more than an order of magnitude more solutes to the ocean than surface water and on the youngest part of the youngest island, SGD is the only link between the terrestrial weathering system and the ocean. These results suggest that groundwater, and particularly SGD, needs to be included in geochemical weathering budgets of volcanic islands.

  20. or most of us, the Hawaiian Islands are a holiday hotspot, a haven for sun

    E-print Network

    Laske, Gabi

    F or most of us, the Hawaiian Islands are a holiday hotspot, a haven for sun and surf through cracks in the plate, giving rise to volcanoes. The plate's movement has produced a string models of the cir- culation of material in the Earth's mantle -- which drives the movement of the litho

  1. Author's personal copy Wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain

    E-print Network

    Author's personal copy Wave energy resources along the Hawaiian Island chain Justin E. Stopa model Wave atlas Wave energy Wave power a b s t r a c t Hawaii's access to the ocean and remoteness from demand for sustainable energy. The wave resources include swells from distant storms and year-round seas

  2. Annual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    AVISO SSH anomaly product. By using the method presented by Stammer [1997], an annual steric heightAnnual variations in sea surface height northeast of the Hawaiian Islands Shuiming Chen1 and Bo Qiu] A decade-long satellite altimeter data set is used to analyze the annual variations in the sea surface

  3. Movements and habitat use of satellite-tagged false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robin W. Baird; Gregory S. Schorr; Daniel L. Webster; Daniel J. McSweeney; M. Bradley Hanson; Russel D. Andrews

    2010-01-01

    There are 2 recognized stocks of false killer whales Pseudorca crassidens in the US Exclusive Economic Zone surrounding Hawai'i, a small demographically isolated population around the main Hawaiian Islands and a larger offshore ('pelagic') population. Recent evidence suggests the insular population may have declined precipitously over the last 20 yr, and one possible contributing factor is interactions with offshore longline

  4. Development of Regional Wind Resource and Wind Plant Output Datasets for the Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Manobianco, J.; Alonge, C.; Frank, J.; Brower, M.

    2010-07-01

    In March 2009, AWS Truepower was engaged by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a set of wind resource and plant output data for the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this project was to expand the methods and techniques employed in the Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study (EWITS) to include the state of Hawaii.

  5. Gift Exchange and Interpretations of Captain Cook in the Traditional Kingdoms of the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Dye

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the kanaka maoli people of the traditional kingdoms of the Hawaiian Islands and Captain James Cook and his crew is interpreted in the context of a theory of gift exchange. It is argued that interpretations of kanaka maoli behaviour based on an implicit assumption that social relations were structured primarily by property rights leads to error. Instead,

  6. IDEOLOGY, POLITICAL ECONOMY, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AFTER AD 1778

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Bayman

    Interpretations of European and American contact with Oceania often highlight the rapid changes that took place in the technologies and practices of its traditional socie- ties. In the Hawaiian Islands, for example, many scholars have assumed that stone adzes were quickly replaced with metal adzes, and that such change was an inevitable con- sequence of a more efficient western technology.

  7. A TROPICAL GARDEN FLORA, PLANTS CULTIVATED IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS AND OTHER TROPICAL AREAS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pemberton, R.W. A Tropical Garden Flora, Plants Cultivated in the Hawaiian Islands and Other Tropical Areas. Economic Botany This is an invited book review of an important new reference book on plants cultivated in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. This is the long awaited update of ...

  8. Title: Mutualism and invasion: Consequences of an invasive pollinator Keywords: Pollination, bees, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Silver, Whendee

    been suggested (1,4). Thus, honey bees in Hawaii may facilitate the invasion of exotic plant species, invasive species, Hawaiian Islands Introduction: Escape from antagonistic interactions is the classic model invasive species have been characterized as an invasional meltdown, and could lead to detrimental effects

  9. Molecular biogeography and diversification of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Robert H; Holland, Brenden S

    2008-10-27

    Oceanic islands have played a central role in biogeography and evolutionary biology. Here, we review molecular studies of the endemic terrestrial fauna of the Hawaiian archipelago. For some groups, monophyly and presumed single origin of the Hawaiian radiations have been confirmed (achatinelline tree snails, drepanidine honeycreepers, drosophilid flies, Havaika spiders, Hylaeus bees, Laupala crickets). Other radiations are derived from multiple colonizations (Tetragnatha and Theridion spiders, succineid snails, possibly Dicranomyia crane flies, Porzana rails). The geographic origins of many invertebrate groups remain obscure, largely because of inadequate sampling of possible source regions. Those of vertebrates are better known, probably because few lineages have radiated, diversity is far lower and morphological taxonomy permits identification of probable source regions. Most birds, and the bat, have New World origins. Within the archipelago, most radiations follow, to some degree, a progression rule pattern, speciating as they colonize newer from older islands sequentially, although speciation often also occurs within islands. Most invertebrates are single-island endemics. However, among multi-island species studied, complex patterns of diversification are exhibited, reflecting heightened dispersal potential (succineids, Dicranomyia). Instances of Hawaiian taxa colonizing other regions are being discovered (Scaptomyza flies, succineids). Taxonomy has also been elucidated by molecular studies (Achatinella snails, drosophilids). While molecular studies on Hawaiian fauna have burgeoned since the mid-1990s, much remains unknown. Yet the Hawaiian fauna is in peril: more than 70 per cent of the birds and possibly 90 per cent of the snails are extinct. Conservation is imperative if this unique fauna is to continue shedding light on profound evolutionary and biogeographic questions. PMID:18765363

  10. Diurnal trends in the mid-water biomass community of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands observed acoustically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.; Au, Whitlow W. L.

    2004-10-01

    The nighttime mid-water biomass occurring near six banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands was investigated using 38- and 120-kHz EK60 echosounders. Locations investigated included: French Frigate Shoals, Maro Reef, Lisianksi Island/Neva Shoals, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Kure Atoll and Midway Atoll. Surveys were designed to sample transect lines parallel and normal to shore between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. and once during daylight hours. A diurnal trend was found in the occurrence of mid-water sound scattering organisms at all six locations. Communities of organisms accumulate at night on the edges of each island between the 20- and 100-fathom isobaths. The highest densities of organisms restrict their horizontal movements to depths of 20 fathoms or deeper, but increases in biomass were also observed at shallower depths. The northern islands of Kure, Midway, and Pearl and Hermes Atolls exhibited patchier distributions than the southern islands. The composition of the biomass is presently unclear but resembles the mesopelagic boundary community found near the Main Hawaiian Islands. Simultaneous observations with the TOAD camera system revealed clouds of zooplankton mixed with small fish and other micronekton. The nightly influx of these organisms is likely a significant, though poorly understood, component of these islands ecosystems.

  11. Invasive slugs as under-appreciated obstacles to rare plant restoration: evidence from the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Joe; Curtis C. Daehler

    2008-01-01

    Introduced slugs have invaded many parts of the world where they were recognized as important pests of gardens and agriculture,\\u000a but we know little about the effects of introduced slugs on rare plants in natural areas. The Hawaiian Islands have no native\\u000a slugs, but over a dozen introduced slug species are now established. We reviewed Rare Plant Recovery Plans produced

  12. Habitat and reef-fish assemblages of banks in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Parrish; Raymond C. Boland

    2004-01-01

    The moderately deep terraces and banks of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) were surveyed to describe their habitat and reef-fish assemblages. These tracts of bottom at 30–40 m comprise more than 4,500 km 2of the region’s reef area. The habitat was found to be dominated by algal meadows (65% cover of exposed bottom), with infrequent relief features. Annual monitoring of select stations

  13. The search for Father Bachelot: first Catholic missionary to the Hawaiian Islands (1827-1837).

    PubMed

    Pietrusewsky, M; Willacker, L M

    1997-03-01

    The main objective of this study is to determine if the remains of Father Bachelot, leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands, can be identified among the commingled human skeletal remains brought back from Pohnpei, Caroline Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, in 1977. An osteological/forensic examination of these remains, a review of the literature, interviews with leaders of the expedition, and ancillary considerations suggest that, in all probability, none of the skeletal remains from Pohnpei are those of Father Bachelot. Father Alexis Bachelot, born in France, in 1796, was leader of the first Catholic missionary group to the Hawaiian Islands. He died in 1837, after being exiled from the Hawaiian Kingdom. His remains were buried on the small islet of Na, off the coast of Pohnpei, the same year. An expedition to Pohnpei in 1977, to recover the remains of Father Bachelot, resulted in the recovery of several sets of commingled remains which are the subject of this study. A detailed osteological/forensic study of these remains indicates the presence of at least ten individuals, including two subadults, two adult females, and six adult males. Stature estimates, the presence of osseous changes suggestive of treponemal disease, and other cranial, dental, and skeletal features are more consistent with Pohnpean than European ancestry. The presence of shell beads and other mortuary features strengthens this assertion. Recommendations for any future attempts to recover the remains of this famous personage are made. PMID:9068178

  14. The Hawaiian Islands - Integrated Approach to Understanding the Tsunami Risk in the Pacific (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chague-Goff, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands, because of their location in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, act as natural ';barometers' for tsunamis generated along the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is the most seismically active area in the world. A multi-proxy study in the remote Pololu valley on the Big Island provided the first evidence for two trans-Pacific events, namely the 1946 and 1957 Aleutian tsunamis. These were identified using radiometric, stratigraphic, microfossil, pollen and geochemical proxies and were corroborated by historical accounts. The islands have been impacted repeatedly by tsunamis in historical times (inc. the recent 2010 Maule and 2011 Tohoku-oki events), and there is strong archaeological evidence for large events affecting humans in prehistory. However, no geological research has yet been carried out, except for some associated with a palaeoecological study on Kauai. Historical evidence shows that tsunamis emanating from the Pacific Ring of Fire have run up to different elevations on different islands within the island chain depending upon their source. Here there is a possible key to understanding some of the key questions about the magnitude and frequency of tsunamis from various parts of the Pacific. Tsunamis from Japan are large on the SW side of the Big Island, those from Alaska seem to have been large in the NE of the island and so on throughout the island chain. A careful site selection from throughout the islands offers a unique opportunity to chart the palaeotsunami record of the Hawaiian Islands while at the same time matching and enhancing the palaeoseismic record of sources in the Pacific Ring of Fire. How big and how often events have occurred in circum-Pacific locations, and how badly they affected other Pacific nations may therefore be addressed by looking in the middle of the Pacific Ocean.

  15. Genetic diversity of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) on the Hawaiian Islands: Implications for an introduction pathway into California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Population genetic diversity of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu, Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii (the Big Island) was estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. A total of 932 flies representing 36 sampled sites across...

  16. More than Black and White: Differences in Predictors of Obesity among Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Alok; Archambeau, Olga G.; Milsom, Vanessa A.; Goldman, Rachel L.; Borckardt, Jeffery J.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Tuerk, Peter; Frueh, B. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Although Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders exhibit the highest rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases of any racial/ethnic group, they remain vastly underrepresented in health research. In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 402) we examined body mass index (BMI) and health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural sample of Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders (25.1%), Asian-Americans (39.8%) and European Americans (35.1%). Measures assessed BMI, health status, health behaviors, frequency of exercise, and symptoms of psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance abuse and dependence). Regression analyses revealed that an overall model of five predictors (gender, race, regular exercise, difficulty sleeping, and anxiety) was significantly associated with obesity (p<0.001) and correctly classified 84.2% of cases. 30.7% of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders were obese as compared to 9.2% of European Americans and 10.6% of Asian Americans. These findings suggest that Native Hawaiian/ Pacific Islanders are at high risk for obesity and associated medical comorbidities, but that regular physical activity may ameliorate this risk. Further, these results support the consideration of Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders as a distinct racial/ethnic subgroup separate from other Asian populations. PMID:22286530

  17. Suicidal Thoughts among Asians, Native Hawaiians, or Other Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health, each year about 8.5 million adults aged 18 or older had serious thoughts of suicide. This number includes about 315,000 Asians, Native ... families, and organizations ( ... or Other Pacific Islanders Aged 12 or Older, Compared with the National Average: ...

  18. Speciation on a conveyor belt: sequential colonization of the hawaiian islands by Orsonwelles spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    PubMed

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Arnedo, Miquel; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2003-02-01

    Spiders of the recently described linyphiid genus Orsonwelles (Araneae, Linyphiidae) are one of the most conspicuous groups of terrestrial arthropods of Hawaiian native forests. There are 13 known Orsonwelles species, and all are single- island endemics. This radiation provides an excellent example of insular gigantism. We reconstructed the cladistic relationships of Orsonwelles species using a combination of morphological and molecular characters (both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) within a parsimony framework. We explored and quantified the contribution of different character partitions and their sensitivity to changes in the traditional parameters (gap, transition, and transversion costs). The character data show a strong phylogenetic signal, robust to parameter changes. The monophyly of the genus Orsonwelles is strongly supported. The parsimony analysis of all character evidence combined recovered a clade with of all the non-Kauai Orsonwelles species; the species from Kauai form a paraphyletic assemblage with respect to the latter former clade. The biogeographic pattern of the Hawaiian Orsonwelles species is consistent with colonization by island progression, but alternative explanations for our data exist. Although the geographic origin of the radiation remains unknown, it appears that the ancestral colonizing species arrived first on Kauai (or an older island). The ambiguity in the area cladogram (i.e., post-Oahu colonization) is not derived from conflicting or unresolved phylogenetic signal among Orsonwelles species but rather from the number of taxa on the youngest islands. Speciation in Orsonwelles occurred more often within islands (8 of the 12 cladogenic events) than between islands. A molecular clock was rejected for the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated by using the nonparametric rate smoothing method of Sanderson (1997, Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:1218-1231) and the available geological data for calibration. The results suggest that the oldest divergences of Orsonwelles spiders (on Kauai) go back about 4 million years. PMID:12554442

  19. A pre- and post-MARPOL Annex V summary of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements and marine debris accumulation in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 1982-1998.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J R

    2001-07-01

    Entanglements of Hawaiian monk seals, Monachus schauinslandi, were documented in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) from 1982 to 1998, and debris which presented a threat of entanglement was inventoried and removed from 1987 to 1996. A total of 173 entanglements was documented. The number of entanglements did not change after implementation of MARPOL Annex V in 1989. Pups and juvenile seals were more likely to become entangled than older seals, and became entangled primarily in nets, whereas entanglement of subadults and adults was more likely to involve line. The subpopulation of seals at Lisianski Island experienced the most entanglements, although Lisianski did not accumulate the most debris. Localized high entanglement rates may gravely affect individual monk seal subpopulations. Accumulation of debris has not diminished since implementation of Annex V, nor has occurrence of derelict drift nets abated since a 1989 moratorium. Debris washing ashore has likely been circulating in the North Pacific Ocean for some time. PMID:11488238

  20. Validation of a New Rainbow Model Over the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricard, J. L.; Adams, P. L.; Barckike, J.

    2012-12-01

    A new realistic model of the rainbow has been developed at the CNRM. It is based on the Airy theory. The main entry parameters are the droplet size distribution, the angle of the sun above the horizon, the temperature of the droplets and the wavelength. The island of Hawaii seems to be a perfect place for the validation of the rainbow model. Not only because of its famous rainbows, but also because of the convenient ring road along the coast. The older lower islands for more frequent viewing opportunities having to do with the proximity of clear sky to heavy rainfall. Both Oahu and Kauai as well as the western part of Maui have coastal roads that offer good access to rainbows. The best time to view rainbows is when the sun angle is lowest, in other words near the winter solstice. Figure 1 = Map of mean annual rainfall for the islands of Kauai and Oahu, developed from the new 2011 Rainfall Atlas of Hawaii. The base period of the statistics is 1978-2007. Figure 2 = Moisture zone map by Gon et al (1998). Blue areas are the wet ones. Green areas are the Mesic ones. Yellow areas are the dry ones.

  1. Evidence for a gradual decrease of geoid to topography ratio along the Hawaiian island chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diament, M.; Cadio, C.; Panet, I.

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that the seafloor around the Hawaiian island chain is unusually shallow. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: the thermal lithospheric thinning and the dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the apparent compensation depth; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess the swell support. This is why the topography and geoid anomalies over the Hawaiian swell have been the subject of many investigations. The observed GTR has been reported to lie between 4 and 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to the volcanic edifice and lithospheric flexure, and this biases the resulting GTR. Consequently, we propose a new method based on continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to obtain the GTR in the space and in the frequency domains. We show that the GTR varies along the swell, from 8 m/km on Big Island to 3-4 m/km 2000 km to the northwest, for the scales ranging between 1100 and 1600 km. This reflects a decay of the apparent compensation depth moving along the islands chain. Our results are consistent with the recent seismic study from Li et al. [Nature 427 (2004) 827-829], where the authors evidence that the lithosphere gradually thins along the islands chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. These results together converge to a hybrid model for the origin of the Hawaiian swell: the swell as a whole is supported dynamically, but it is also partly due to heating and thinning of the lithosphere in its central portions.

  2. A new species of Hibiscadelphus Rock (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) from Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Oppenheimer, Hank L.; Bustamente, Keahi M.; Perlman, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hibiscadelphus stellatus H. Oppenheimer, Bustamente, & Perlman, sp. nov., a new, narrowly endemic species from West Maui, Hawaiian Islands is described, illustrated and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is currently known from three populations totaling 99 plants in Kaua`ula valley on leeward western Maui. It differs from H. wilderianus, its nearest congener, in its denser white or tan stellate pubescence on most parts; larger externally purple colored corollas that are 5–6.5 cm long; linear-subulate to lanceolate, acute to acuminate involucral bracts; globose-cuboid to ovoid capsules; and endocarp with scattered hairs. PMID:25197226

  3. Abundance, distribution, and population trends of the iconic Hawaiian Honeycreeper, the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) throughout the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, Eben H.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Camp, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Naturalists in the 1800s described the ?I?iwi (Vestiaria coccinea) as one of the most abundant forest birds, detected in forested areas from sea level to tree line across all the major Hawaiian Islands. However, in the late 1800s, ?I?iwi began to disappear from low elevation forests, and by the mid-1900s, the species was largely absent from low- and mid-elevation areas. Today, ?I?iwi are restricted to high-elevation forests on the islands of Hawai?i, east Maui, and Kaua?i, with a few birds apparently persisting on O?ahu, Moloka?i, and west Maui. ?I?iwi are highly vulnerable to introduced disease, and the prevalence of avian malaria in low and mid-elevations is believed to be the cause of ?I?iwi being restricted to high elevations where temperatures are too cold for the development of the disease and its mosquito vector. With global warming, it is feared that the disease will move quickly into the high-elevation forests where the last ?I?iwi reside, threatening their viability. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was petitioned to list the ?I?iwi as an Endangered Species in 2010, and this report provides a comprehensive review of the abundance, distribution, and trends using historical survey data as well as the most recently available survey information (up to 2012). We estimate the total population size of ‘I‘iwi at 550,972–659,864 (mean = 605,418) individuals. Of these, 90 percent are on the island of Hawai?i, followed by east Maui (about 10 percent), with less than 1 percent on Kaua?i. ?I?iwi population trends vary across the islands. ?I?iwi population in Kaua?i has experienced sharp declines, with a projected trend of 92 percent decline over a 25 year period based on the 2000–2012 surveys. On East Maui, the northeastern region has experienced declines (34 percent over a 25 year period), while the southeastern region has been stable to moderately increasing. On the island of Hawai?i, population trends are mixed. On the windward side, populations are largely declining, although the northern section (Hakalau Forest) has stable populations. On the leeward side, results suggest a strongly increasing population, with estimates of as much as a 147 percent increase over a 25 year period from the Pu?u Wa?awa?a region. However, it is unclear how much these results from the leeward side of Hawai?i show a population trend contrary to population trends in all other areas or are an artifact of a sparsely sampled area. Trends by elevation suggest a large decrease in numbers of ?I?iwi at elevations below 1,200 meters on Kaua?i and northeast Maui. Low elevation ?I?iwi populations also appear to have decreased in other regions, although low-elevation areas are not surveyed as often as other areas because of their lack of native forest birds. An exception to this pattern was the lower portions of the Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge Kona Unit in the central leeward part of the island of Hawai?i, where populations appeared stable at the lower elevations. Based on the most recent surveys (up to 2012), approximately 50 percent of ?I?iwi live in a narrow, 500-meter band at elevations of 1,200–1,700 meters, suggesting that ?I?iwi are vulnerable to future shifts in climate.

  4. Extreme heterogeneity in parasitism despite low population genetic structure among monarch butterflies inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Amanda A; de Roode, Jacobus C; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4-85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  5. Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Amanda A.; de Roode, Jacobus C.; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Host movement and spatial structure can strongly influence the ecology and evolution of infectious diseases, with limited host movement potentially leading to high spatial heterogeneity in infection. Monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) are best known for undertaking a spectacular long-distance migration in eastern North America; however, they also form non-migratory populations that breed year-round in milder climates such as Hawaii and other tropical locations. Prior work showed an inverse relationship between monarch migratory propensity and the prevalence of the protozoan parasite, Ophryocystis elektroscirrha. Here, we sampled monarchs from replicate sites within each of four Hawaiian Islands to ask whether these populations show consistently high prevalence of the protozoan parasite as seen for monarchs from several other non-migratory populations. Counter to our predictions, we observed striking spatial heterogeneity in parasite prevalence, with infection rates per site ranging from 4–85%. We next used microsatellite markers to ask whether the observed variation in infection might be explained by limited host movement and spatial sub-structuring among sites. Our results showed that monarchs across the Hawaiian Islands form one admixed population, supporting high gene flow among sites. Moreover, measures of individual-level genetic diversity did not predict host infection status, as might be expected if more inbred hosts harbored higher parasite loads. These results suggest that other factors such as landscape-level environmental variation or colonization-extinction processes might instead cause the extreme heterogeneity in monarch butterfly infection observed here. PMID:24926796

  6. Predictive Modeling of Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris) Resting Habitat in the Main Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, Lesley H.; Johnston, David W.; Urban, Dean L.; Tyne, Julian; Bejder, Lars; Baird, Robin W.; Yin, Suzanne; Rickards, Susan H.; Deakos, Mark H.; Mobley, Joseph R.; Pack, Adam A.; Chapla Hill, Marie

    2012-01-01

    Predictive habitat models can provide critical information that is necessary in many conservation applications. Using Maximum Entropy modeling, we characterized habitat relationships and generated spatial predictions of spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris) resting habitat in the main Hawaiian Islands. Spinner dolphins in Hawai'i exhibit predictable daily movements, using inshore bays as resting habitat during daylight hours and foraging in offshore waters at night. There are growing concerns regarding the effects of human activities on spinner dolphins resting in coastal areas. However, the environmental factors that define suitable resting habitat remain unclear and must be assessed and quantified in order to properly address interactions between humans and spinner dolphins. We used a series of dolphin sightings from recent surveys in the main Hawaiian Islands and a suite of environmental variables hypothesized as being important to resting habitat to model spinner dolphin resting habitat. The model performed well in predicting resting habitat and indicated that proximity to deep water foraging areas, depth, the proportion of bays with shallow depths, and rugosity were important predictors of spinner dolphin habitat. Predicted locations of suitable spinner dolphin resting habitat provided in this study indicate areas where future survey efforts should be focused and highlight potential areas of conflict with human activities. This study provides an example of a presence-only habitat model used to inform the management of a species for which patterns of habitat availability are poorly understood. PMID:22937022

  7. Bacterial communities of two parthenogenetic aphid species cocolonizing two host plants across the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ryan T; Bressan, Alberto; Greenwell, April M; Fierer, Noah

    2011-12-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) have been the focus of several studies with respect to their interactions with inherited symbionts, but bacterial communities of most aphid species are still poorly characterized. In this research, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial communities in aphids. Specifically, we examined the diversity of bacteria in two obligately parthenogenetic aphid species (the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii, and the cardamom aphid, Pentalonia caladii) cocolonizing two plant species (taro, Colocasia esculenta, and ginger, Alpinia purpurata) across four Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Maui, and Oahu). Results from this study revealed that heritable symbionts dominated the bacterial communities for both aphid species. The bacterial communities differed significantly between the two species, and A. gossypii harbored a more diverse bacterial community than P. caladii. The bacterial communities also differed across aphid populations sampled from the different islands; however, communities did not differ between aphids collected from the two host plants. PMID:21965398

  8. Atlas of the Shallow-Water Benthic Habitats of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    By the Remote Sensing Team (part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), these detailed maps released in February 2003 focus on the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This part of the island chain extends across over 2200 kilometers of open ocean, and the total shallow water area of the ten atolls encompasses over 8000 square kilometers. Most of the information for these maps was obtained through the use of high-resolution satellite imagery, along with field data collected during 2001. For each of the ten atolls covered in this project, visitors can read a brief description and history, along with viewing maps generated from the satellite images and the habitat cover of each particular atoll. Those seeking to learn more about the map development process will be pleased to find a document on this subject, and a description of the classification scheme used in the maps.

  9. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M., III; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing invasive species, and planning of conservation efforts.

  10. Gravity anomalies of the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Implications on the shield evolutions of Kauai and Niihau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, Ashton F.; Ito, Garrett; Garcia, Michael O.

    2010-08-01

    New land and marine gravity data reveal two positive residual gravity anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: one over Kaua'i, the other between the islands of Kaua'i and Ni'ihau. These gravitational highs are similar in size and magnitude to those of other Hawaiian volcanoes, indicating local zones of high-density crust, attributed to olivine cumulates in solidified magma reservoirs. The residual gravity high over Kaua'i is located in the L?hu'e Basin, offset 8-12 km east of Kaua'i's geologically mapped caldera. This offset suggests that the mapped caldera is a collapsed feature later filled in with lava and not the long-term center of Kaua'i shield volcanism. A second residual gravity high, in the submarine channel between Kaua'i and Ni'ihau, marks the volcanic center of the Ni'ihau shield volcano. This second residual gravity anomaly implies that Ni'ihau's eastern boundary extended ˜20 km east of its present location. Through inversion, the residual gravity anomalies were modeled as being produced by two solidified magma reservoirs with average densities of 3100 kg/m3 and volumes between 2470 and 2540 km3. Considering the locations and sizes of the residual gravity anomalies/magma reservoirs, the extent of the two islands' paleoshorelines and potassium-argon dating of shield-stage lavas, we conclude that the two islands were not connected subaerially during their respective shield stages and that Ni'ihau's topographic summit was removed by an eastern flank collapse between 4.3 and 5.6 Ma. Continued constructional volcanism on western Kaua'i likely covered much of the submerged remains of eastern Ni'ihau.

  11. A climatological study of the Keetch/Byram drought index and fire activity in the Hawaiian Islands

    E-print Network

    Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

    2005 Abstract The Hawaiian Islands experience damaging wildfires on a yearly basis. Soil moisture and Sanderson, 1993). One of the problems associated with deficient rainfall is that of wildfires. Although major wildfires in Hawaii are not as large as they are in the western United States, they still pose

  12. 78 FR 59626 - Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Annual Catch Limits and Accountability Measures for 2013-14

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...lb of Deep 7 bottomfish in the main Hawaiian Islands for the 2013-14 fishing year. The action supports the long-term sustainability of Hawaii bottomfish. DATES: The final specifications are effective October 28, 2013, through August 31, 2014,...

  13. Cryptic extinction of a common Pacific lizard Emoia impar (Squamata, Scincidae) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert; Ineich, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Most documented declines of tropical reptiles are of dramatic or enigmatic species. Declines of widespread species tend to be cryptic. The early (1900s) decline and extinction of the common Pacific skink Emoia impar from the Hawaiian Islands is documented here through an assessment of literature, museum vouchers and recent fieldwork. This decline appears contemporaneous with the documented declines of invertebrates and birds across the Hawaiian Islands. A review of the plausible causal factors indicates that the spread of the introduced big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is the most likely factor in this lizard decline. The introduction and spread of a similar skink Lampropholis delicata across the islands appears to temporally follow the decline of E. impar, although there is no evidence of competition between these species. It appears that L. delicata is spreading to occupy the niche vacated by the extirpated E. impar. Further confusion exists because the skink E. cyanura, which is very similar in appearance to E. impar, appears to have been introduced to one site within a hotel on Kaua'i and persisted as a population at that site for approximately 2 decades (1970s–1990s) but is now also extirpated. This study highlights the cryptic nature of this early species extinction as evidence that current biogeographical patterns of non-charismatic or enigmatic reptiles across the Pacific may be the historical result of early widespread invasion by ants. Conservation and restoration activities for reptiles in the tropical Pacific should consider this possibility and evaluate all evidence prior to any implementation.

  14. *URM = Underrepresented Minority (African American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American) Funding & Enrollment Sources: OMA&D Fiscal Office/OMA&D Assessment Unit

    E-print Network

    Yetisgen-Yildiz, Meliha

    *URM = Underrepresented Minority (African American, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, Latino, Native ENROLLMENT 2013 FALL QUARTER 54.5% LATINO 27.2% AFRICAN AMERICAN 10.6% NATIVE AMERICAN 7.7% HAWAIIAN/ PACIFIC such as the College Bound Scholarship Program expand pathways to college for low- income, first

  15. Lithospheric flexure revealed by Pleistocene emerged marine terraces on the southern Hawaiian Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A.T. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States). Dept. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    New field and geochronological data from emerged marine deposits in the southern Hawaiian Islands suggest uplift of the islands of Molokai, Lanai and Oahu. Corals from these islands were dated by ESR. The accumulated dose for aragonitic coral at ESR signal, g = 2.0007, was determined by the additive dose method. The environmental dose rate was estimated from the Uranium concentration in corals and by using an estimate of 2.5 rad/a for the cosmic ray dose. The ESR ages of the highest terraces on Molokai are 290 [+-] 31 ka (30 m), on Lanai 217 [+-] 19 ka (50 m) and on Oahu 468 [+-] 36 ka (28 m). The age and elevation of the marine terraces are interpreted to imply uplift during the Late Quaternary. Lithospheric flexure combined with horizontal plate motion is proposed as a mechanism to describe the pattern of uplifted terraces on these islands. Using two-dimensional elastic plate models, the height of maximum bulge is approximately 4% to 7% of the maximum deflection for a continuous or broken plate model. Drowned reefs off Hawaii indicate subsidence of 1 km since 340 ka. Thus, the magnitude of observed uplift (30--50 m) is consistent with theoretical maximum bulge heights derived from numerical results.

  16. Lithospheric flexure at the Hawaiian Islands and its implications for mantle rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shijie; Watts, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    The response of the lithosphere to long-term geological loads such as volcanoes, sediments and ice provide important insights to both plate mechanics and mantle dynamics. One of the largest loads on Earth's surface are the shield volcanoes that comprise the Hawaiian Islands in the Central Pacific Ocean. We have developed a 3-D finite element model for calculating the flexure and stress associated with the emplacement of an arbitrary-shaped volcano load on a crust and mantle with realistic non-linear viscoelastic rheology, including frictional sliding, low-temperature plasticity, and high-temperature creep. By comparing model predictions with seismic reflection and refraction observations of the depth to the top of the oceanic crust and the depth dependence of seismicity at the Hawaiian Islands, we have been able to constrain the long-term rheological properties of intraplate, plume influenced, Late Cretaceous (83-96 Ma) oceanic lithosphere. Our calculations show that while the load-induced surface flexure is insensitive to high-temperature creep, it is sensitive to both the frictional sliding and low-temperature plasticity laws. Results show that a frictional coefficient ranging from 0.25 to 0.70 and a low-temperature plasticity law that is significantly weaker than ones recently proposed from experimental rock mechanics data are required in order to account for the observations. For example, a frictional coefficient of 0.1 weakens the shallow part of the lithosphere so much that it causes the minima in strain rate and stress to occur at too large depths to be consistent with the observed depth distribution of seismicity while the low-temperature plasticity law of Mei et al (2010) strengthens the deep part of the lithosphere so much that it predicts too small an amplitude and long a wavelength flexure compared to the observed. Our best fit model suggest the maximum stress that accumulates in the flexed lithosphere beneath the Hawaiian Islands is 100-200 MPa, and therefore this stress may be viewed as among the largest that Earth's lithosphere is capable of supporting on long geological time-scales.

  17. Depth zonation and bathymetric trends of deep-sea megafaunal scavengers of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, John; Drazen, Jeffrey C.

    2009-02-01

    The deep sea has been shown to exhibit strong depth zonation in species composition and abundance. Examination of these patterns can offer ecological insight into how organisms adapt and respond to changing environmental parameters that co-occur with depth. Here we provide the first tropical study on bathymetric zonation and other depth-related trends (size, abundance, and species richness) spanning shelf to abyssal depths of scavenging megafauna. Baited time-lapse free-vehicle cameras were used to examine the deep-sea benthic and demersal scavenging communities of the Hawaiian Islands, an area for which the biology and ecology have remained poorly studied below 2000 m. Twenty-two deployments ranging in depth from 250 to 4783 m yielded 37 taxa attracted to bait, including the first known occurrence of the family Zoarcidae in the Hawaiian Islands. Cluster analysis of Bray-Curtis similarity of species peak abundance ( nmax) revealed four main faunal zones (250-500, 1000, 1500-3000, and ?4000 m) with significant separation (ANOSIM, global R=0.907, p=0.001) between designated depth groups. A major faunal break was identified at the 500-1000 m transition where species turnover was greatest, coinciding with the location of the local oxygen minimum zone. Dominance in species assemblage shifted from decapod crustaceans to teleosts moving from shallow to deeper faunal zones. Significant size differences in total length with depth were found for two of the four fish species examined. A logarithmic decline was observed in scavenger relative abundance with depth. Evidence of interaction between scavenging species was also noted between Synaphobranchus affinis and Neolithodes sp. (competition) and Histiobranchus sp. and aristeid shrimp (predation), suggesting that interactions between scavengers could influence indices of abundance generated from baited camera data.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Carbonate Chemistry in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlin, C.; Winn, C. D.; Kahng, S.

    2014-12-01

    The rapid increase in atmospheric and surface ocean CO2 concentrations has the potential to drastically alter the metabolic processes particularly in nearshore ecosystems. However, much of what is known about carbonate chemistry is based on observations and analysis of surface waters of the open ocean where spatial and temporal variability is far less dynamic than in nearshore coral reef ecosystems. Carbon system dynamics data from four consecutive years has been examined in the coastal and nearshore waters of the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument in the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. This data has been collected for the purpose of improving our understanding of the carbon system dynamics in this unique and pristine environment. The data collected includes continuous CTD data and discrete bottle samples, as well as continuous underway measurements. In addition to standard hydrographic profile data, water column alkalinity and pH have been measured on discrete water samples, and continuous underway measurements of pCO2 and pH have been obtained. This data is used to investigate the impact of NWHI coral reef ecosystems on the carbon system in and surrounding the archipelago. The data demonstrates that a significant "island mass effect" with respect to the oceanographic carbon system exists around the islands within the archipelago. In addition, spatial and temporal variability of several oceanographic features that exhibit a radial, latitudinal, or longitudinal gradient in the nearshore waters of the NWHI islands, islets, and atolls will be described. Finally, a shallow pH maximum coincident with the shallow oxygen maximum is observed, which suggests an open ocean feature substantially influenced by turbulence surrounding the islands within the monument. The data analysis and coral reef ecosystem monitoring will aid in developing a long-term plan to assist in the sustainability of Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument.

  19. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean...

  20. 50 CFR 622.455 - Landing spiny lobster intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.455 Landing spiny lobster intact. (a) A Caribbean...

  1. Predicting sea-level rise vulnerability of terrestrial habitat and wildlife of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Berkowitz, Paul; Courtot, Karen N.; Krause, Crystal M.

    2012-01-01

    If current climate change trends continue, rising sea levels may inundate low-lying islands across the globe, placing island biodiversity at risk. Recent models predict a rise of approximately one meter (1 m) in global sea level by 2100, with larger increases possible in areas of the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Islands are unique ecosystems home to many endangered endemic plant and animal species. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), which extend 1,930 kilometers (km) beyond the main Hawaiian Islands, are a World Heritage Site and part of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. These NWHI support the largest tropical seabird rookery in the world, providing breeding habitat for 21 species of seabirds, 4 endemic land bird species and essential foraging, breeding, or haul-out habitat for other resident and migratory wildlife. In recent years, concern has grown about the increasing vulnerability of the NWHI and their wildlife populations to changing climatic patterns, particularly the uncertainty associated with potential impacts from global sea-level rise (SLR) and storms. In response to the need by managers to adapt future resource protection strategies to climate change variability and dynamic island ecosystems, we have synthesized and down scaled analyses for this important region. This report describes a 2-year study of a remote northwestern Pacific atoll ecosystem and identifies wildlife and habitat vulnerable to rising sea levels and changing climate conditions. A lack of high-resolution topographic data for low-lying islands of the NWHI had previously precluded an extensive quantitative model of the potential impacts of SLR on wildlife habitat. The first chapter (chapter 1) describes the vegetation and topography of 20 islands of Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, the distribution and status of wildlife populations, and the predicted impacts for a range of SLR scenarios. Furthermore, this chapter explores the potential effects of SLR on wildlife breeding habitats for each island. The subsequent chapter (chapter 2) details a study of the Laysan Island ecosystem, describing a quantitative model that incorporates SLR, storm wave, and rising groundwater inundation. Wildlife, storm, and oceanographic data allowed for an assessment of the phenological and spatial vulnerability of Laysan Island's breeding bird species to SLR and storms. Using remote sensing and geospatial techniques, we estimated topography, classified vegetation, modeled SLR, and evaluated a range of climate change scenarios. On the basis of high-resolution airborne data collected during 2010-11 (root-mean-squared error = 0.05-0.18 m), we estimated the maximum elevation of 20 individual islands extending from Kure Atoll to French Frigate Shoals (range: 1.8-39.7 m) and computed the mean elevation (1.7 m, standard deviation 1.1 m) across all low-lying islands. We also analyzed general climate models to describe rainfall and temperature scenarios expected to influence adaptation of some plants and animals for this region. Outcomes for the NWHI predicted an increase in temperature of 1.8-2.6 degrees Celsius (°C) and an annual decrease in precipitation of 24.7-76.3 millimeters (mm) across the NWHI by 2100. Our models of passive SLR (excluding wave-driven effects, erosion, and accretion) showed that approximately 4 percent of the total land area in the NWHI will be lost with scenarios of +1.0 m of SLR and 26 percent will be lost with +2.0 m of SLR. Some atolls are especially vulnerable to SLR. For example, at Pearl and Hermes Atoll our analysis indicated substantial habitat losses with 43 percent of the land area inundated at +1.0 m SLR and 92 percent inundated at +2.0 m SLR. Across the NWHI, seven islands will be completely submerged with +2.0 m SLR. The limited global ranges of some tropical nesting birds make them particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts in the NWHI. Climate change scenarios and potential SLR impacts presented here emphasize the need for early climate change adaptation and mitigation planning, especially for spec

  2. Cancer research in Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander populations: accelerating cancer knowledge by acknowledging and leveraging heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Glaser, Sally L; Horn-Ross, Pamela L; Cheng, Iona; Quach, Thu; Clarke, Christina A; Reynolds, Peggy; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Yang, Juan; Lee, Marion M; Satariano, William A; Hsing, Ann W

    2014-11-01

    The Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander population is large, growing, and extremely heterogeneous. Not only do they bear unique burdens of incidence and outcomes for certain cancer types, they exhibit substantial variability in cancer incidence and survival patterns across the ethnic groups. By acknowledging and leveraging this heterogeneity through investing in cancer research within these populations, we have a unique opportunity to accelerate the availability of useful and impactful cancer knowledge. See all the articles in this CEBP Focus section, "Cancer in Asian and Pacific Islander Populations." PMID:25368394

  3. An Assessment of Diurnal and Seasonal Cloud Cover Changes Over the Hawaiian Islands Using Terra and Aqua MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, M.; Miura, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.; Chen, Q.

    2012-12-01

    To date, there has not yet been a spatial and temporal analysis of cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands using high spatial resolution data. An understanding of patterns in cloud cover is essential to analyzing and understanding atmospheric and hydrologic processes, including evapotranspiration. The MODIS instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites provide observations with the high spatial resolution necessary to determine patterns of cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands. The objective of this study was to determine how spatial patterns of cloudiness change diurnally and seasonally over the Hawaiian Islands using high resolution cloud cover data generated from the Terra and Aqua MODIS satellite sensors. The MODIS cloud mask products (MOD35 and MYD35) were obtained for the entire MODIS time series over the major Hawaiian Islands. Monthly statistics including mean cloud cover probability at the daytime and nighttime overpasses for each instrument were generated from the daily MOD35 and MYD35 cloudiness time series. The derived monthly statistics for January and June (the wet and dry season, respectively) were analyzed for diurnal (morning vs. afternoon and late evening vs. early morning) changes in total amount and spatial patterns of cloudiness. They were also compared to analyze seasonal changes in cloudiness. Cloud probability generally increased with elevation until the elevation of the inversion layer. The lowest cloud cover probability was observed above the inversion layer on the islands of Maui and Hawaii. This elevational gradient varied in relation to the facings of slopes; cloud cover probability was higher on the windward (northeastern) sides than on the leeward (southwestern) sides of the mountains. Both morning and afternoon observations indicate that the Hawaiian Islands were cloudier in June than in January. This is the opposite of what we might expect as January is in the wet season and June is in the dry season. Both late evening and early morning observations indicate that there was more variation in nighttime cloud cover probabilities across the islands in June than in January. Nighttime observations in January show that cloud cover probabilities were relatively homogenous across the islands, while in June, some areas had very high cloud cover probability and some areas had very low cloud cover probability. Comparison of morning and afternoon observations in January indicate that it was cloudier in the afternoon than in the morning. In June, cloudiness was nearly the same in the morning and afternoon. In January, comparison of late evening and early morning observations indicate that it was cloudier in the early morning than late evening. In June, cloudiness was nearly the same in late evening and early morning. Overall, Terra and Aqua MODIS 1km daily cloud mask data can illuminate spatial patterns of cloud cover in detail. Processing of the full MODIS record (10+ years) for the months of January and June allowed us to examine seasonal and diurnal trends in cloud cover over the Hawaiian Islands.

  4. Chemical ecology of red mangroves, Rhizophora mangle, in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, Brian; Cormier, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    The coastal red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle L., was introduced to the Hawaiian Islands from Florida 100 yr ago and has spread to cover many shallow intertidal shorelines that once were unvegetated mudflats. We used a field survey approach to test whether mangroves at the land-ocean interface could indicate watershed inputs, especially whether measurements of leaf chemistry could identify coasts with high nutrient inputs and high mangrove productivities. During 2001-2002, we sampled mangroves on dry leeward coasts of southern Moloka'i and O'ahu for 14 leaf variables including stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (delta13C, delta15N), macronutrients (C, N, P), trace elements (B, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), and cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca). A new modeling approach using leaf Na, N, P, and delta13C indicated two times higher productivity for mangroves in urban versus rural settings, with rural mangroves more limited by low N and P nutrients and high-nutrient urban mangroves more limited by freshwater inputs and salt stress. Leaf chemistry also helped identify other aspects of mangrove dynamics: especially leaf delta15N values helped identify groundwater N inputs, and a combination of strongly correlated variables (C, N, P, B, Cu, Mg, K, Ca) tracked the mangrove growth response to nutrient loading. Overall, the chemical marker approach is an efficient way to survey watershed forcing of mangrove forest dynamics.

  5. Desires and management preferences of stakeholders regarding feral cats in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2014-04-01

    Feral cats are abundant in many parts of the world and a source of conservation conflict. Our goal was to clarify the beliefs and desires held by stakeholders regarding feral cat abundance and management. We measured people's desired abundance of feral cats in the Hawaiian Islands and identified an order of preference for 7 feral cat management techniques. In 2011 we disseminated a survey to 5407 Hawaii residents. Approximately 46% of preidentified stakeholders and 20% of random residents responded to the survey (1510 surveys returned). Results from the potential for conflict index revealed a high level of consensus (86.9% of respondents) that feral cat abundance should be decreased. The 3 most common explanatory variables for respondents' stated desires were enjoyment from seeing feral cats (84%), intrinsic value of feral cats (12%), and threat to native fauna (73%). The frequency with which respondents saw cats and change in the perceived abundance of cats also affected respondent's desired abundance of cats; 41.3% of respondents stated that they saw feral cats daily and 44.7% stated that the cat population had increased in recent years. Other potential environmental impacts of feral cats had little affect on desired abundance. The majority of respondents (78%) supported removing feral cats from the natural environment permanently. Consensus convergence models with data from 1388 respondents who completed the relevant questions showed live capture and lethal injection was the most preferred technique and trap-neuter-release was the least preferred technique for managing feral cats. However, the acceptability of each technique varied among stakeholders. Our results suggest that the majority of Hawaii's residents would like to see effective management that reduces the abundance of feral or free-roaming cats. PMID:24372971

  6. Early recovery of a Hawaiian lowland rainforest following clearcutting at Kalapana on the Island of Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The recovery of lowland rainforest vegetation on the Island of Hawaii was evaluated 2 years after clearcutting. Rainforest quality was assessed with regeneration success associated with the environmental changes. Sixty-three percent of the 57 vascular species in the forest were native to the Hawaiian rainforest. Phanerophytes were the most important life form. The presence of Psidium cattleianum and other alien species demonstrated disturbances had occurred in selected areas prior to the clearcutting. Two years after clearcutting (1987), only 24% of the 101 species coming into the clearcut area were native. The shrubs, micro- and nano-phanerophyte, were the dominant life forms, represented by Pipturus albidus, a native rainforest shrub or tree, and four non-native shrub species. Metrosideros polymorpha, the dominant tree in the native forest, was successfully regenerating from seed across the clear-cut area. The forest seedbank analysis also demonstrated that Metrosideros, along with the seeds of important exotic species colonizing the clearcut area were presented in the forest soils. The forest and clearcut species had a high rate of correlation with the elevation gradient. The underlying lava flows strong influenced past and present vegetation associations. In the clearcut area, the degree of compaction and distance from the forest were critical factors determining the composition of recovering vegetation. The microclimate variables of soils, significantly altered due to the effects of clearcutting, and competition from weeds probably lead to poor germination and growth of native rainforest species. This native forest is not pristine, but unique in stature, in complex of cohort stands, and in position on the landscape. It is extremely prone to species composition shift following perturbation, due to the presence of the weed seedbank in the forest seedbank as demonstrated in the dominance of these species across the clearcut area.

  7. Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

  8. Evolution, insular restriction, and extinction of oceanic land crabs, exemplified by the loss of an endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Paulay, Gustav; Starmer, John

    2011-01-01

    Most oceanic islands harbor unusual and vulnerable biotas as a result of isolation. As many groups, including dominant competitors and predators, have not naturally reached remote islands, others were less constrained to evolve novel adaptations and invade adaptive zones occupied by other taxa on continents. Land crabs are an excellent example of such ecological release, and some crab lineages made the macro-evolutionary transition from sea to land on islands. Numerous land crabs are restricted to, although widespread among, oceanic islands, where they can be keystone species in coastal forests, occupying guilds filled by vertebrates on continents. In the remote Hawaiian Islands, land crabs are strikingly absent. Here we show that absence of land crabs in the Hawaiian Islands is the result of extinction, rather than dispersal limitation. Analysis of fossil remains from all major islands show that an endemic Geograpsus was abundant before human colonization, grew larger than any congener, and extended further inland and to higher elevation than other land crabs in Oceania. Land crabs are major predators of nesting sea birds, invertebrates and plants, affect seed dispersal, control litter decomposition, and are important in nutrient cycling; their removal can lead to large-scale shifts in ecological communities. Although the importance of land crabs is obvious on remote and relatively undisturbed islands, it is less apparent on others, likely because they are decimated by humans and introduced biota. The loss of Geograpsus and potentially other land crabs likely had profound consequences for Hawaiian ecosystems. PMID:21603620

  9. Fishing Effort Allocation and Fishermen's Decision Making Process in a Multi-Species Small-Scale Fishery: Analysis of the Conch and Lobster Fishery in Turks and Caicos Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christophe Béné; Alexander Tewfik

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the fishing effort allocation of fishermen in the artisanal fisheries of the Turks and Caicos Islands (British West Indies). These fishermen use a free-diving technique to simultaneously exploit the local stocks of queen conch and spiny lobster. Using an integrated framework combining a set of analytical tools within a multi-disciplinary holistic approach, we attempt to

  10. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  11. Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight over the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in 1998. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  12. Pathfinder-Plus on flight near Hawaiian island N'ihau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on a flight with the Hawaiian island of N'ihau in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  13. Eliminating Tobacco Disparities Among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders Through Policy Change: The Role of Community-Based Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P.

    2013-01-01

    Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California. PMID:23667058

  14. Eliminating tobacco disparities among native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders through policy change: the role of community-based organizations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Paula Healani; Lee, Cevadne; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Lepule, Jonathan Tana; Pang, Victor Kaiwi; Tui'one, Vanessa; Schmidt-Vaivao, Dorothy; Sabado, Melanie Dee; Sur, Roger; Tanjasiri, Sora P

    2013-09-01

    Although cigarette smoking in the general U.S. population has decreased considerably over the past several decades, prevalence rates among Native Hawaiian Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have remained elevated by comparison with other groups. The aggregation of NHPI smoking data with that of Asians has drawn attention away from the serious smoking problems that NHPIs experience, thus, limiting funding, programs, and policies to reduce tobacco-related health disparities in their communities. In California, community-based organizations (CBOs) have played a major role in supporting the state's comprehensive tobacco control program, which is arguably one of the most successful in the nation. In this commentary, we describe the tobacco control activities of five NHPI-serving CBOs in Southern California and how they have provided anti-tobacco education for thousands of Native Hawaiians, Chamorros, Marshallese, Samoans, Tongans, and other Pacific Islander subgroups, and used advocacy and coalition building to promote smoke-free environment policies in their communities. The concerted efforts of the CBOs and their community members have made vital contributions to the reduction of tobacco-related disparities for NHPI populations in California. PMID:23667058

  15. Variability and predictability of sea-level extremes in the Hawaiian and U.S.Trust Islands—a knowledge base for coastal hazards management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P.-S. Chu; Thomas A. Schroeder; Xin Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to provide an improved,climatology of sea level extremes,on seasonal and long-term time scales for Hawaii and the U.S-Trust islands. Observations revealed that the Hawaiian and U.S.- Trust islands, by and large, display a strong annual cycle. For estimating the statistics of return period, the three- parameter generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution is fitted

  16. Evidence for retrovirus infections in green turtles Chelonia mydas from the Hawaiian islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rufina N. Caseyl; Sandra L. Quackenbushl; Paul R. Bowser

    Apparently normal Hawaiian green turtles Chelonia mydas and those d~splaying fibro- papillomas were analyzed for infection by retroviruses. Strikingly, all samples were positive for poly- merase enhanced reverse transcriptase (PERT) with levels high enough to quantitate by the conven- tional reverse transcriptase (RT) assay. However, samples of skin, even from asymptomatic turtles, were RT positive, although the levels of enzyme

  17. Gravity Anomalies in the Northern Hawaiian Islands: Evidence for an Alternative Magma Chamber on Kauai and a Conjoined Niihau-Kauai Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flinders, A. F.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M.; Kim, S.; Appelgate, B.

    2008-12-01

    The shield stage evolution of the islands of Kauai and Niihau are poorly understood. Previous land-based gravity surveys provide only a coarse constraint on the observed gravitational field. Questions as to whether the island of Kauai was formed by a single or multiple shields and the developmental relationship between these neighboring islands are still debated. Our new land-based gravity survey of Kauai and ship-board gravity surveys around both islands identified large complete Bouguer gravitational anomalies under Kauai's Lihue Basin and offshore in the Kaulakahi Channel, a 30-km-long bathymetric ridge connecting the two islands. These gravitational highs are consistent in size and magnitude with those of other Hawaiian islands and imply local zones of high density crust, most likely attributed to magmatic intrusions; e.g. former magma chambers, or rift zones. The Lihue Basin anomaly observed is offset 20 km east from the geologically mapped caldera region. This offset implies either the unlikely case that the shield stage plumbing system connecting the magma chamber and caldera could have been inclined by up to 75 degrees from the vertical, or that the currently mapped caldera is a late feature, unrelated to shield volcanism. The location of the gravitational anomaly, in the Kaulakahi Channel, 20 km east of Niihau is consistent with geologic mapping, which indicates that Niihau is a remnant of an ancient shield volcano centered east of the island. The proximity of the Niihau gravitational anomaly 10 km from the western edge of Kauai supports the hypothesis that the two volcanoes were part of the same island.

  18. The evolution of water and solute fluxes and pathways in post-constructional volcanic landscapes of the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derry, L. A.; Schopka, H. H.

    2011-12-01

    Post-eruptive volcanic landscapes evolve rapidly in response to erosion, re-vegetation, and pedogenesis. The Hawaiian islands offer a time series to study the evolution of surface processes on a uniform lithology and under spatially varying but well-characterized climates. Young surfaces retain constructional topography largely controlled by the most recent lava flows and/or ash deposits. Young surfaces such as found on Mauna Loa (O 102 - 103 yrs) are highly permeable and surface runoff is rare or absent, even under conditions of high rainfall. We hypothesize that the development of soil is a key factor in reducing vertical infiltration rates and promoting lateral flow of water. Stream channelization begins with control by constructional topography and in some cases major faults or fracture zone. In areas with positive water balance stream erosion leads to rapid channel formation. On the windward side of Mauna Kea (O 104 - 105 yrs) stream incision into the shield topography is much more pronounced than on adjacent Mauna Loa surfaces. Flank collapse (e.g. windward Kohala, ? 105 yrs) leaves hanging valleys and drives deep canyon formation. On all of the Hawaiian islands direct submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) to the oceans is important. The ratio of water transported to the oceans as stream discharge (Q) vs SGD increases with surface age and incision, from near zero on Mauna Loa to > 1 on Kohala. Island wide, SGD ? 3.5 - 4x Q. The evolution of water pathways influences weathering fluxes to the oceans. Ground water from Hawaii has significantly larger concentrations of weathering-derived solutes than does stream water. This should result from longer path length and contact time, which increase interaction with reactive mineral surfaces, but the detailed controls on solute chemistry remain uncertain. Island-wide, the flux ratio of weathering solutes in SGD vs Q is near 15. SGDA is the dominant pathway for the delivery of silicate mineral weathering products to the oceans. These general results should apply to other young volcanic island or coastal terranes. Analysis of stream water fluxes may grossly underestimate weathering fluxes from volcanic terranes. Understanding the coupled evolution of land surface morphology, soil development, and hydrologic pathways is critical to evaluating the temporal behavior of surface processes in young volcanic terranes.

  19. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J.; Koehler, Tobias B.; Marquez, Sebastian N.; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O‘ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the K?n?hua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko‘olau Mountains, located on Windward O‘ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla. PMID:25829854

  20. Challenges in identifying Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders in population-based cancer registries in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihua; Tanjasiri, Sora Park; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-10-01

    Lack of disaggregated data for Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) in the U.S. has resulted in severe gaps in understanding health disparities and unique health needs of NHPIs. Telephone interviews were conducted with 272 cancer patients identified by a population-based cancer registry. The self-reported NHPIs status was compared with that identified by the registry. Sensitivity, Specificity, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) were calculated. Alternative NHPIs identification methods were explored. The registry had acceptable sensitivity (89%), specificity (96%) and NPV (99%), but low PPV (62%) in identifying NHPIs. Using additional information on surname and birthplace from the registry improved the identification of NHPIs, but either increased the false positive or decreased the counts of true NHPIs cases. Improved data collection methods and practices in identifying NHPIs in population-based cancer registries are needed and caution in interpreting cancer data for NHPIs is warranted. PMID:20803254

  1. A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko'olau Mountains of O'ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Sporck-Koehler, Margaret J; Koehler, Tobias B; Marquez, Sebastian N; Waite, Mashuri; Williams, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    Cyaneakonahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, M. Waite, A.M. Williams, sp. nov., a recently documented, narrowly endemic species from the Hawaiian Island of O'ahu, is described and illustrated with photographs from the field. The closest likely relatives to the species, current conservation needs, and management future are discussed. It is currently known from 20 mature plants from two subpopulations and is restricted to a drainage below the K?n?hua-nui summit (K1), the highest summit of the Ko'olau Mountains, located on Windward O'ahu. It differs from all other Cyanea species by its combination of densely pubescent leaves, petioles, and flowers; sparsely pubescent to glabrous stems, long calyx lobes, and staminal column being adnate to the corolla. PMID:25829854

  2. Interpersonal Violence and Mental Health Outcomes among Asian American and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander College Students

    PubMed Central

    Archambeau, Olga G.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Deliramich, Aimee N.; Elhai, Jon D.; Grubaugh, Anouk L.; Herman, Steve; Kim, Bryan S. K.

    2010-01-01

    In a cross-sectional survey of college students (N = 614) we studied interpersonal violence victimization, perpetration, and mental health outcomes in an ethnoracially diverse rural-based sample of Asian Americans (27%), and Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islanders (25%), two groups vastly underrepresented in trauma research. High rates of interpersonal violence (34%), violence perpetration (13%), and probable psychiatric diagnoses (77%), including posttraumatic stress disorder, were found. Exposure to physical violence, sexual violence, and life stress all were predictive of psychopathology. Female participants were associated with higher likelihood of sexual violence victimization compared to male participants, and Asian American status (especially among males) was associated with lower likelihood of physical and sexual violence compared with European Americans. These data enhance our understanding of interpersonal violence and mental health outcomes among previously understudied minority groups. PMID:21297936

  3. An autogamous rainforest species of Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, W.L.; Weller, S.G.; Sakai, A.K.; Medeiros, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new autogamous species of Schiedea is described and illustrated. It is known only from cliff habitat in rainforest on a single ridge in the Natural Area Reserve, Hanawi, East Maui. With the addition of this species there are 28 species in this endemic Hawaiian genus. The new species appears to be most closely related to Schiedea nuttallii, a species of mesic habitats on O'ahu, Moloka'i, and Maui.

  4. 75 FR 57441 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ...Council: Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/Commerce, Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Tourism, Lana`i Island Representative, and Moloka`i Island Representative. Applicants are chosen based upon their...

  5. 75 FR 77615 - Availability of Seats for the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...only), Commercial Shipping, Whale Watching, Ocean Recreation, Business/ Commerce, Citizen-at-Large, Conservation, Tourism, Lanai Island Representative, and Molokai Island Representative. Applicants are chosen based upon their particular...

  6. Multibeam Synthesis of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Supports Diverse Research in the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R.; Kelley, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) was established in 2006 and is both the single largest conservation area under U.S. jurisdiction (366,631 km2), and one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. The NWHI stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main or Southeastern Hawaiian Islands and contains 47 individual islands, seamounts, atolls, ridges, and submerged banks. The PMNM boundary is 100 nm (185 km) wide centered on the emergent landforms and thus nearly the entire monument (98%) is in deepwater (>100 m) beyond the range of technical wet diving. Because of its remote location, dedicated multibeam mapping of the PMNM region began only ten years ago, although research in the NWHI has taken place for decades. In an effort to consolidate the more recent systematic surveys with older transit data swaths for this region, a synthesis of all existing multibeam data was undertaken between 2009 and 2010. This dataset was then merged with the much lower resolution global bathymetry dataset to generate a more complete picture and allow users to visualize the remainder of the as yet unmapped features within and adjacent to the PMNM boundaries. One of the primary benefits of the synthesis has been to provide researchers with base maps for study site selection including submersible and ROV dive locations. In addition, fusion with the global dataset permits calculation of statistics using geospatial software and may serve as input for physical oceanographic models. With a number of different entities carrying out mapping activities in the PMNM in recent years, this data compilation also provides a road map showing where existing multibeam data are located so as to avoid duplication of effort. The synthesis was prepared with a grid cell interval of 120 m in order to accommodate the large area and water depths to >5000 m, although some of the individual surveys are of much higher resolution, especially in shallow water. Nearly all of the data included are currently available from the National Geophysical Data Center. Mapping products showing the synthesis will be presented along with an example of how it is being used in a deepwater biological survey project in the PMNM studying ancient volcanic ridges, seamounts, and isolated pinnacles where extensive deep-sea coral and sponge communities were discovered. The synthesis also reveals many other complex deepwater features in the monument where important biological resources will likely be revealed.

  7. Occurrence of Pasteuria-like Organisms on Selected Plant-Pamsitic Nematodes of Pineapple in the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Bernard, E. C.; Schmitt, D. P.; Sipes, B. S.

    1995-01-01

    Soils from 320 sites representing diverse undisturbed habitats from five Hawaiian Islands were assessed for occurrence of Pasteuria-like organisms. Mean annual rainfall at sites ranged from 125-350 cm, elevation from 69-2,286 m, and annual mean temperature from 12-24 C. Seven different natural communities were represented: wet lowland, mesic lowland, wet montane, mesk montane, dry montane, mesic subalpine, and dry alpine. Pasteuria spp. in a soil sample was detected by baiting with infective stages of Helicotylenchus dihystera, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and Rotylenchulus reniformis, followed by cultivation of the nematodes on pineapple plants for 10-11 months. All nematode baits except R. reniformis were readily recovered from the soil samples. A sample was considered Pasteuria-positive if at least 5 % of the nematode specimens showed endospore attachment. Thirteen percent of all samples were positive for Pasteuria-like organisms. The frequencies of association between Pasteuria spp. and Meloidogyne, Helicotylenchus, or Pratylenchus species were 52%, 24%, and 24%, respectively. Positive samples were more prevalent on the older islands of Kauai and Oahu (75%), in lowland communities (61%), and in areas with introduced vegetation (60%). More than 27% of the positive samples were associated with plant species in a few selected families that included Meliaceae and Myrtaceae. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. seemed to be positively associated with mean annual rainfall or temperature, but negatively associated with elevation. PMID:19277305

  8. Use of integrated landscape indicators to evaluate the health of linked watersheds and coral reef environments in the Hawaiian islands.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Ku'ulei S; Kido, Michael H; Jokiel, Paul L; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai'i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management. PMID:22538320

  9. Phylogeny, floral evolution, and inter-island dispersal in Hawaiian Clermontia (Campanulaceae) based on ISSR variation and plastid spacer sequences.

    PubMed

    Givnish, Thomas J; Bean, Gregory J; Ames, Mercedes; Lyon, Stephanie P; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies based on DNA restriction-site and sequence variation have shown that the Hawaiian lobeliads are monophyletic and that the two largest genera, Cyanea and Clermontia, diverged from each other ca. 9.7 Mya. Sequence divergence among species of Clermontia is quite limited, however, and extensive hybridization is suspected, which has interfered with production of a well-resolved molecular phylogeny for the genus. Clermontia is of considerable interest because several species posses petal-like sepals, raising the question of whether such a homeotic mutation has arisen once or several times. In addition, morphological and molecular studies have implied different patterns of inter-island dispersal within the genus. Here we use nuclear ISSRs (inter-simple sequence repeat polymorphisms) and five plastid non-coding sequences to derive biparental and maternal phylogenies for Clermontia. Our findings imply that (1) Clermontia is not monophyletic, with Cl. pyrularia nested within Cyanea and apparently an intergeneric hybrid; (2) the earliest divergent clades within Clermontia are native to Kauài, then Òahu, then Maui, supporting the progression rule of dispersal down the chain toward progressively younger islands, although that rule is violated in later-evolving taxa in the ISSR tree; (3) almost no sequence divergence among several Clermontia species in 4.5 kb of rapidly evolving plastid DNA; (4) several apparent cases of hybridization/introgression or incomplete lineage sorting (i.e., Cl. oblongifolia, peleana, persicifolia, pyrularia, samuelii, tuberculata), based on extensive conflict between the ISSR and plastid phylogenies; and (5) two origins and two losses of petaloid sepals, or--perhaps more plausibly--a single origin and two losses of this homeotic mutation, with its introgression into Cl. persicifolia. Our phylogenies are better resolved and geographically more informative than others based on ITS and 5S-NTS sequences and nuclear SNPs, but agree with them in supporting Clermontia's origin on Kauài or some older island and dispersal down the chain subsequently. PMID:23658747

  10. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  11. MONK SEAL PUPPING SEASON IN FULL SWING Main Hawaiian Islands Experiences Boom in Number of Newborns

    E-print Network

    and research of weather and climate-related events and information service delivery for transportation to save this island treasure. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, an agency of the U

  12. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Rameyer, R.A.; Morris, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84%) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20%), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3% each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores.

  13. Retrospective pathology survey of green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis in the Hawaiian Islands, 1993--2003.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H; Rameyer, Robert A; Morris, Robert A

    2004-11-23

    We necropsied 255 stranded green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) from the Hawaiian Islands, North Pacific, from August 1993 through May 2003. Of these, 214 (84 %) were euthanized due to advanced FP and the remainder were found dead in fresh condition. Turtles were assigned a standardized tumor severity score ranging from 1 (lightly tumored) to 3 (heavily tumored). Tumors were counted and measured and categorized as external, oral, or internal and tissues evaluated by light microscopy. Turtles in tumor score 2 and 3 categories predominated, and tumor score 3 turtles were significantly larger than the other 2 categories. More juveniles stranded than subadults or adults. Total cross-sectional area of tumors increased significantly with straight carapace length (SCL). Frequency distribution of total number of external tumors per turtle was significantly skewed to the right, and there were significantly more tumors at the front than rear of turtles. Eighty percent of turtles had oral tumors, and 51% of turtles with oral tumors had tumors in the glottis. Thirty-nine percent of turtles had internal tumors, most of them in the lung, kidney and heart. Fibromas predominated in lung, kidney and musculoskeletal system whereas myxofibromas were more common in intestines and spleen. Fibrosarcomas of low-grade malignancy were most frequent in the heart, and heart tumors had a predilection for the right atrium. Turtles with FP had significant additional complications including inflammation with vascular flukes, bacterial infections, poor body condition, and necrosis of salt gland. Turtles with oral tumors were more likely to have secondary complications such as pneumonia. Most turtles came from the island of Oahu (74%) followed by Maui (20 %), Hawaii, Molokai, and Lanai (<3 % each). On Oahu, significantly more turtles we necropsied stranded along the northwestern and northeastern shores. PMID:15648843

  14. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for analysis of population differentiation in the tree legume Acacia koa (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae) in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Fredua-Agyeman, Rudolph; Adamski, Daniel; Liao, Richard Junfu; Morden, Clifford; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and use microsatellite markers to characterize the high-value timber tree Acacia koa (koa), which is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Genomic DNA fragments of 300-1000 bp were cloned and sequenced following enrichment for microsatellite motifs by PCR using 7 oligonucleotide repeat primers in separate reactions. Among 96 sequences analyzed, 63 contained unique microsatellite motifs flanked by variable sequences. A dual PCR method involving a primer walking step was used to develop 15 primer pairs. Another 16 primer pairs were developed directly from the variable sequences on both sides of the microsatellite motifs. These 31 primer pairs were tested on 172 koa plants representing 11 populations collected from 4 of the major Hawaiian Islands. Nine of the primers that identified polymorphic microsatellite loci and 3 that detected unique alleles exclusively in some populations were used for genetic diversity studies of koa. Cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of the allelic phenotype data revealed that koa from Kauai formed a distinct group separate from koa of the neighboring islands of Oahu, Maui, and Hawaii. The oldest of the four islands, Kauai, also had the most diverse populations of koa. PMID:19088813

  15. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands - an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Carter T; Utzurrum, Ruth B; Lapointe, Dennis A; Camp, Richard J; Crampton, Lisa H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Giambelluca, Thomas W

    2014-08-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the 'Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and 'Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994-1997 and again during 2007-2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i 'Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria. PMID:24446093

  16. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands: an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Utzurrum, Ruth B.; LaPointe, Dennis A.; Camp, Richard J.; Crampton, Lisa H.; Foster, Jeffrey T.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands varies across altitudinal gradients and is greatest at elevations below 1500 m where both temperature and moisture are favorable for the sole mosquito vector, Culex quinquefasciatus, and extrinsic sporogonic development of the parasite, Plasmodium relictum. Potential consequences of global warming on this system have been recognized for over a decade with concerns that increases in mean temperatures could lead to expansion of malaria into habitats where cool temperatures currently limit transmission to highly susceptible endemic forest birds. Recent declines in two endangered species on the island of Kaua'i, the ‘Akikiki (Oreomystis bairdi) and ‘Akeke'e (Loxops caeruleirostris), and retreat of more common native honeycreepers to the last remaining high elevation habitat on the Alaka'i Plateau suggest that predicted changes in disease transmission may be occurring. We compared prevalence of malarial infections in forest birds that were sampled at three locations on the Plateau during 1994–1997 and again during 2007–2013, and also evaluated changes in the occurrence of mosquito larvae in available aquatic habitats during the same time periods. Prevalence of infection increased significantly at the lower (1100 m, 10.3% to 28.2%), middle (1250 m, 8.4% to 12.2%), and upper ends of the Plateau (1350 m, 2.0% to 19.3%). A concurrent increase in detections of Culex larvae in aquatic habitats associated with stream margins indicates that populations of the vector are also increasing. These increases are at least in part due to local transmission because overall prevalence in Kaua'i ‘Elepaio (Chasiempis sclateri), a sedentary native species, has increased from 17.2% to 27.0%. Increasing mean air temperatures, declining precipitation, and changes in streamflow that have taken place over the past 20 years are creating environmental conditions throughout major portions of the Alaka'i Plateau that support increased transmission of avian malaria.

  17. Roots of the Hawaiian Hotspot

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mel Goodwin

    In this lesson students will investigate the seismology and geological origins of the Hawaiian Islands to discover how scientists can obtain information on geological processes deep within the Earth. As a result of this activity, students will be able to explain the processes of plate tectonics and volcanism that formed the Hawaiian Islands and describe, compare, and contrast S waves and P waves. They will also learn how seismic data recorded at different locations can be used to determine the epicenter of an earthquake, and will infer a probable explanation for the existence of ultra-low velocity zones, and how these zones may be related to the Hawaiian hotspot.

  18. Using evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental strategies to increase access to healthy food and opportunities for physical activity among asian americans, native hawaiians, and pacific islanders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa; Kwon, Simona; Arista, Pedro; Tepporn, Ed; Chung, Marianne; Ko Chin, Kathy; Rideout, Catlin; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-07-01

    Recent initiatives have focused on the dissemination of evidence-based policy, systems, and environmental (EBPSE) strategies to reduce health disparities. Targeted, community-level efforts are needed to supplement these approaches for comparable results among Asian Americans and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs).The STRIVE Project funded 15 Asian American and NHPI community-based organizations (CBOs) to implement culturally adapted strategies. Partners reached more than 1.4 million people at a cost of $2.04 per person. CBOs are well positioned to implement EBPSE strategies to reduce health disparities. PMID:25905839

  19. Tobacco use among Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race individuals: 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Swartz, Marvin S.; Burchett, Bruce; Blazer, Dan G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-Hispanic Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race individuals are the fastest growing segments of the US population. We examined prevalences and correlates of tobacco use among these understudied groups. Prevalences among whites were included as a comparison. Methods Data were drawn from the 2002–2010 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Respondents aged ?12 years were assessed for current (past-month) use of cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco, snuff), and pipe tobacco. Respondents’ race/ethnicity, age, sex, household income, government assistance, urbanicity of residence, residential stability, self-rated health, alcohol use, and drug use were examined as correlates. Results Between 2002 and 2010, there was a decline in the prevalence of cigarette smoking among whites (26.9% in 2002; 24.3% in 2010) and Asian Americans (18.0% in 2002; 11.1% in 2010). Prevalence of pipe tobacco use among mixed-race individuals increased from 0.2% in 2002 to 1.6% in 2010; there was little change in the prevalence of cigar and smokeless tobacco use in these racial/ethnic groups. Adjusted analyses showed that, compared with Asian Americans, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of using four tobacco products, and NHs/PIs had greater odds of using cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco. Regardless of race/ethnicity, male sex was a correlate of use of cigars, smokeless tobacco, and pipe tobacco; alcohol and drug use increased the odds of cigarette and cigar smoking. Conclusions These new findings show prevalent tobacco use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race individuals, and highlight the importance of including these populations in future research and reporting. PMID:23394689

  20. Impact of Diabetes on Prolonged Hospital Stay among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders with Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vento, Megan A; Ing, Marissa M; Asai, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that minority groups have prolonged hospital stays after ischemic stroke. However, disparities in the hospital stay after ischemic stroke among Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders (NHPI) have not been studied. A retrospective study on consecutive patients hospitalized for ischemic stroke at a single tertiary center in Honolulu between 2008 and 2010 was performed. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictors of prolonged hospital stay (hospitalization > 12 days after admission) after ischemic stroke. A total of 740 patients (whites 22%, Asians 53%, NHPI 21%, others 4%) hospitalized for ischemic stroke were studied. NHPI were significantly younger (59 ± 14 years vs 72 ± 13 years) and had significantly higher prevalence of female sex (51% vs 38%), no insurance (10% vs 4%), diabetes (53% vs 18%), hypertension (82% vs 62%), obesity (55% vs 20%) and prolonged hospital stay (20% vs 11%), and lower prevalence of residence outside of O‘ahu (12% vs 23%) compared to whites. Univariate analyses showed that NHPI were more likely to have prolonged hospital stay (OR 1.87, 95% CI: 1.01, 3.49) compared to whites. After adjusting for age, sex, race, risk factors, health insurance status, and geographical factor, diabetes (OR 1.76, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.89) was the only independent predictor of prolonged hospital stay. NHPI are associated with prolonged hospitalization after ischemic stroke. However, this effect was attenuated by the impact of diabetes. Further prospective studies are needed to understand the relationship between diabetes and prolonged hospital stay after ischemic stroke. PMID:25535594

  1. Association of Modifiable Risk Factors and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction among Hospitalized Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Todd B; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Howard, Barbara; Ratner, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Background: Heart Failure (HF) disproportionately affects Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders (NHOPIs). This study examines risk factors associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) among 151 hospitalized NHOPI HF patients enrolled at a single tertiary care hospital between June 2006 and April 2010. Methods: Enrollment criteria: (1) NHOPI by self-identification. (2) Age ? 21 yrs. (3) Diagnosis of HF defined: (a) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ? 40% or LVEF ? 60% with abnormal diastolic function and (b) classic HF signs/symptoms. LVEF was measured by echocardiography within 6 weeks of hospitalization. Clinical measures, medical history, and questionnaires were assessed using standardized protocols. Linear regression modeling was used to examine the association of significant correlates of LVEF, which were then included en bloc into the final model. A P-value < .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Of 151 participants, 69% were men, mean age 54.3 ± 13.5 years, blood pressure 112 ± 20/69 ± 15 mmHg, and body mass index (BMI) 36.9 ± 9 kg/m2. Twenty-five percent of participants were smokers, 45% used alcohol and 23% reported a history of methamphetamine use. Clinically, 72% had hypertension, 49% were diabetic and 37% had a prior myocardial infarction. Nearly 60% had moderate to severe LVEF (< 35%). Higher LVEF was independently associated with female sex and greater BMI (P < .04) while pacemaker/defibrillator and methamphetamine use was independently associated with lower LVEF (P < .05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine use and BMI may be important modifiable risk factors associated with LVEF and may be important targets for improving HF morbidity and mortality. PMID:25535596

  2. Diverse gastropod hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the rat lungworm, globally and with a focus on the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaynee R; Hayes, Kenneth A; Yeung, Norine W; Cowie, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  3. Diverse Gastropod Hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the Rat Lungworm, Globally and with a Focus on the Hawaiian Islands

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaynee R.; Hayes, Kenneth A.; Yeung, Norine W.; Cowie, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis caused by the parasitic nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is an emerging infectious disease with recent outbreaks primarily in tropical and subtropical locations around the world, including Hawaii. Humans contract the disease primarily through ingestion of infected gastropods, the intermediate hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Effective prevention of the disease and control of the spread of the parasite require a thorough understanding of the parasite's hosts, including their distributions, as well as the human and environmental factors that contribute to transmission. The aim of this study was to screen a large cross section of gastropod species throughout the main Hawaiian Islands to determine which act as hosts of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and to assess the parasite loads in these species. Molecular screening of 7 native and 30 non-native gastropod species revealed the presence of the parasite in 16 species (2 native, 14 non-native). Four of the species tested are newly recorded hosts, two species introduced to Hawaii (Oxychilus alliarius, Cyclotropis sp.) and two native species (Philonesia sp., Tornatellides sp.). Those species testing positive were from a wide diversity of heterobranch taxa as well as two distantly related caenogastropod taxa. Review of the global literature showed that many gastropod species from 34 additional families can also act as hosts. There was a wide range of parasite loads among and within species, with an estimated maximum of 2.8 million larvae in one individual of Laevicaulis alte. This knowledge of the intermediate host range of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and the range of parasite loads will permit more focused efforts to detect, monitor and control the most important hosts, thereby improving disease prevention in Hawaii as well as globally. PMID:24788772

  4. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart Q of... - Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale, National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Description and Coordinates...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...legal delineation and were derived from: the Hawaiian shoreline as supplied by State of Hawaii through the Office of Planning GIS Office, the NOAA and State of Hawaii agreed upon lateral boundary and exclusion areas, and the 100 fathom isobath...

  5. Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathfinder-Plus on flight over Hawaiian Islands, with N'ihau and Lehua in the background. Pathfinder was a remotely controlled, solar-powered flying wing, designed and built as a proof-of-concept vehicle for a much larger aircraft capable of flying at extremely high altitudes for weeks at a time. It was built by AeroVironment, Inc., a California company that developed the human-powered Gossamer Condor and Gossamer Albatross lightweight aircraft during the 1970s, and later made the solar-electric powered Gossamer Penguin and Solar Challenger. The basic configuration and concepts for Pathfinder were first realized with the HALSOL (High Altitude Solar) aircraft, built in 1983 by AeroVironment and the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Pathfinder was constructed of advanced composites, plastics, and foam, and despite a wingspan of nearly 100 feet, it weighed only about 600 pounds. Pathfinder was one of several unpiloted prototypes under study by NASA's ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) program, a NASA-industry alliance which is helping develop advanced technologies that will enable aircraft to study the earth's environment during extremely long flights at altitudes in excess of 100,000 feet. (See project description below for Pathfinder's conversion to Pathfinder Plus.) In 1998, the Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing (see its photographs and project description) was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration and on Aug. 6, 1998, Pathfinder Plus set an altitude record (for propeller-driven aircraft) of approximately 80,285 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility. The goal of the Pathfinder Plus flights was to validate new solar, aerodynamic, propulsion, and systems technology developed for its successor, the Centurion, which was designed to reach and sustain altitudes in the 100,000-foot range. The Centurion was succeeded by the Helios Prototype with a goal of reaching and sustaining flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet and flying non-stop for at least 4 days above 50,000 feet. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus' Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Iniki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder science activities were coordinated by NASA's Ames Research Center, Mountain View, California, and included researchers from the University of Hawaii and the University of California. Pathfinder is part of NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program managed by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Pathfinder and Pathfinder Plus were designed, built, and operated by AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, California. Pathfinder had a 98.4-foot wing span and weighed 560 pounds. Pathfinder Plus has a 121-foot wing span and weighs about 700 pounds. Pathfinder was powered by six electric motors while Pathfinder Plus has eight. Pathfinder's solar arrays produced approximately 8,000 watts of power while Pathfinder Plus' solar arrays produce about 12,500 watts of power. Both Pathfinder aircraft were built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam.

  6. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the...

  7. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the...

  8. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. For the...

  9. AbstractThe natural diet of 506 American lobsters (Homarus america

    E-print Network

    benthic stages of American lobster (Homarus americanus), off the Magdalen Islands Bernard Sainte-Marie. Sainte-Marie): Sainte-Marie@dfo-mpo.gc.ca sters (28% and 39%, respectively) to the largest lobsters (2 analysis for a site in the Magdalen Islands, Gulf of St. Lawrence, eastern Canada. Cluster and factor

  10. HURL's 2003 OE and NURP Deep Submergence Science Program in the NW and Main Hawaiian Islands and Projects Planned for 2004-2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    This presentation will emphasise the advantages of using manned submersibles in conjunction with ROV pre-surveys during UH's NOAA-funded Hawaii Undersea Research Laboratory 64-day Ocean Exploration research cruise in the NW Hawaiian Islands scheduled for Sept 3-Nov 6, 2003. The up-leg to Kure Atoll will focus on "Submarine Canyon and Scavenger Communities" (PIs Craig Smith & Eric Vetter) and "Characteristics of Deepwater Fish and Precious Corals on the Seamounts Neighboring Hawaii's Most Remote Seal Colonies" (PI: Frank Parrish). Two projects for PIs Amy Baco-Taylor & Timothy Shank are scheduled for the down-leg: "Seamount Surveys of Deep-Water Corals as Related to Geological Setting in the NWHI" and "Reproductive Biology and population genetics of Precious Corals in Hawaii". For 2004 -2006, HURL has 18 peer-reviewed projects approved. These include 45 submersible dives for projects in US Flag Waters SE of Hawaii, during a joint NURP-OE Expedition to American Samoa, scheduled for late 2004 and early 2005. Dives for most projects in the Main and nearer NW Hawaiian Islands will be scheduled for 2006, with a few exceptions. The scope and rationale of this planned program exemplifies the synergy between NOAA's Ocean Exploration and Undersea Research Program objectives.

  11. Ingestion of plastic debris by Laysan albatrosses and wedge-tailed shearwaters in the Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fry, D.M.; Fefer, S.I.; Sileo, L.

    1987-01-01

    Surveys of Laysan Albatross and Wedge-tailed Shearwaters on Midway and Oahu Island, Hawaii, identified a high proportion of birds with plastic in the upper gastrointestinal tract, representing hazards to the health of adult birds and their chicks. Fifty Laysan Albatross chicks were examined for plastic items lodged within the upper digestive tract. Forty-five (90%) contained plastic, including 3 chicks having proventricular impactions or ulcerative lesions. Plastic items in 21 live albatross chicks weighed a mean of 35.7 g chicka??1 (range 1a??175 g). Four dead birds contained 14a??175 g (mean 76.7 g). Two of four adult albatross examined contained plastic in the gut. Laysan albatross chicks have the highest reported incidence and amount of ingested plastic of any seabird species. Twelve of 20 adult Wedge-tailed Shearwaters (60%) contained plastic particles 2a??4 mm in diameter. Impaction did not appear to be a significant hazard for adult shearwaters. Shearwater chicks were not examined. Chemical toxicity of plastic polymers, plasticizers and antioxidant additives is low, although many pigments are toxic and plastics may serve as vehicles for the adsorption of organochlorine pollutants from sea water, and the toxicity of plastics is unlikely to pose significant hazard compared to obstruction and impaction of the gut.

  12. Arthropod succession patterns onto burnt carrion in two contrasting habitats in the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Avila, F W; Goff, M L

    1998-05-01

    Decomposition studies were conducted using carcasses of domestic pigs, Sus scrofa L., one burned and the other unburned (the control) to determine effects of burning on arthropod succession patterns. The burnt carcass corresponded to a CGS level #2 burn victim. The studies were conducted in two contrasting habitats, both on the island of Oahu. The first was conducted in a xerophytic habitat from 1 Sept. 1995 through 1 Oct. 1995 while the second was conducted in a rainforest habitat from 29 April 1996 to 28 May 1996. No marked differences were noted in arthropod fauna present or the duration of the stages of decomposition between the carcasses at either site. The major oviposition by flies of the family Calliphoridae occurred one day earlier on the burnt carcass than the control carcass at Diamond Head and four days earlier at Lyon Arboretum. This resulted in all successional waves onto the burnt carcass occurring one day earlier at Diamond Head and four days earlier at Lyon Arboretum. These differences could alter a postmortem interval estimate based on arthropod succession patterns by up to 24 hours and 4 days, respectively. PMID:9608693

  13. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.

  14. [Book review] Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna, edited by T. K. Pratt, C. T. Atkinson, P. C. Banko, J. D. Jacobi, B. L. Woodworth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engstrom, R. Todd; van Riper, Charles, III

    2010-01-01

    Review of: Conservation Biology of Hawaiian Forest Birds: Implications for Island Avifauna. Thane K. Pratt, Carter T. Atkinson, Paul C. Banko, James D. Jacobi, and Bethany L. Woodworth, Eds. Yale University Press, New Haven. 2009. 707 pp. ISBN 9780300141085. Hardcover, $69.99.

  15. Health disparities in the Native Hawaiian homeless.

    PubMed

    Yamane, David P; Oeser, Steffen G; Omori, Jill

    2010-06-01

    While it is well accepted that Native Hawaiians have poor health statistics compared to other ethnic groups in Hawaii, it is not well documented if these disparities persist when comparing Native Hawaiian homeless individuals to the general homeless population. This paper examines the Native Hawaiian homeless population living in three shelters on the island of Oahu, to determine if there are significant differences in the frequency of diseases between the Native Hawaiian and non-Native Hawaiian homeless. A retrospective data collection was performed using records from the Hawaii Homeless Outreach and Medical Education (H.O.M.E.) project. Data from 1182 patients was collected as of 12/05/09. Information collected included patient demographics, frequency of self reported diseases, family history of diseases, risk factors, prevalence of chronic diseases, and most common complaints. The data from Native Hawaiians and non-Native Hawaiians were examined for differences and a 1-tail Fisher exact analysis was done to confirm significance. The data reveals that the Native Hawaiian homeless population is afflicted more frequently with asthma and hypertension compared to other ethnic groups. While diabetes constituted more visits to the clinics for Native Hawaiians compared to the non-Native Hawaiians, there was no significant difference in patient reported prevalence of diabetes. The Native Hawaiian homeless also had increased rates of risky behaviors demonstrated by higher past use of marijuana and methamphetamines. Interestingly, there was a lower use of alcohol in the Native Hawaiian homeless and no significant difference between Native Hawaiians and non-native Hawaiians in current use of illicit drugs, which may represent a hopeful change in behaviors. These troubling statistics show that some of the health disparities seen in the general Native Hawaiian population persist despite the global impoverished state of all homeless. Hopefully, these results will aid organizations like the H.O.M.E. project to better address the health needs of the Native Hawaiian homeless population. PMID:20540000

  16. Plate Tectonics: The Hawaiian Archipelago

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since the Hawaiian Islands were all created by volcanic activity, it is somewhat surprising that only the island of Hawaii now possesses any active volcanoes. Why did the volcanoes that built the other islands stop erupting and why are those on the big island still active? This video segment, adapted from a NOVA television broadcast, shows how plumes of hot material rise from the Earth's interior to create 'hot spots' in the crust which are the locations of volcanic activity. Movement of the Pacific Plate causes volcanic islands to continually form, migrate away from the hot spot, and become extinct, forming chains of islands like the Hawaiian Islands. The segment is four minutes thirty-seven seconds in length.

  17. Mantle Anisotropy Beneath the Hawaiian Islands from Measurements of Shear-wave Splitting: Results from the PLUME Ocean-Bottom and Land Seismograph Deployments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Wolfe, C. J.; Laske, G.; Solomon, S. C.; Detrick, R. S.; Orcutt, J. A.; Bercovici, D. A.; Hauri, E. H.

    2008-12-01

    The fieldwork component of the Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Melt Experiment) project consisted of two consecutive one-year deployments of ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) and land stations, respectively offshore and on the Hawaiian Islands. Thirty-five OBSs were deployed in the first year in a relatively dense array around the modern locus of the Hawaiian hotspot; in the second year, 38 OBSs were deployed over an area extending from west of Kauai to east of Hawaii. Ten portable land stations were operated for a period spanning both OBS deployments. We have analyzed SKS phases recorded by both OBS and land stations for anisotropy-induced shear-wave splitting. Splitting measurements were typically made in the frequency band 0.05-0.1 Hz in order to minimize tilt-generated noise at the low-frequency end and microseismic noise at the high end. Only events with Mw ? 6 yielded measurements with adequate precision. Data quality is such that there are about 5 events per station that yield good splitting measurements. Splitting parameters were measured using the stacking technique of Wolfe and Silver [1998]. The geographical distribution of fast-polarization azimuths does not show an obvious signature of a localized center of mantle upwelling and divergence. Fast azimuths are predominantly parallel to the fossil spreading direction (~75°), with a smaller number parallel to the present-day direction of absolute plate motion (-58°). Measured delay times are typically about 1 s or less, although some stations display larger splitting times of 1-2 s. The variability in the delay times across the different stations may indicate differences in either the degree of anisotropy or thickness of the anisotropic lithosphere. Some well- constrained null measurements may provide constraints on the amount of heating and deformation of the lithosphere due to interaction with upwelling mantle.

  18. Tetraplasandra lydgatei (Araliaceae): Taxonomic Recognition of a Rare, Endemic Species from O`ahu, Hawaiian Islands1

    E-print Network

    Carpenter, Kent E.

    of the genus. Several morphological characters and varying ecological habitats distin- guish the two species of the dry and mesic Hawaiian forests for housing and agriculture and also that the species was always only and Ron Fenstemacher over many years have led them to suspect that one lowland species, T. lydgatei, still

  19. Catalog of Hawaiian earthquakes, 1823-1959

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, Fred W.; Wright, Thomas L.

    2000-01-01

    This catalog of more than 17,000 Hawaiian earthquakes (of magnitude greater than or equal to 5), principally located on the Island of Hawaii, from 1823 through the third quarter of 1959 is designed to expand our ability to evaluate seismic hazard in Hawaii, as well as our knowledge of Hawaiian seismic rhythms as they relate to eruption cycles at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes and to subcrustal earthquake patterns related to the tectonic evolution of the Hawaiian chain.

  20. New R/V Falkor Multibeam Data from the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.; Kelley, C.; Boston, B.; Dechnik, B.; Habel, S.; Harrison, L.; Leonard, J.; Lichowski, F.; Luers, D.; Miller, J. E.; Orange, R.; Patterson, M. A.; Shiro, B.; Taylor, J.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.; Tucker, J.; Wagner, D.; Webster, J.; Wright, N.

    2014-12-01

    From March to June 2014, the Schmidt Ocean Institute, along with National Marine Sanctuaries and the National Science Foundation, supported 72 days of mapping surveys on two cruises using R/V Falkor in the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) located within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). PMNM is one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. Approximately 127,000 km2, 35% of the PMNM, were surveyed using dual multibeam systems from less than 30 to >5000 meters water depth, and thus covering the habitat depth ranges for shallow living corals, mesophotic corals, drowned reefs, to deep-sea corals and sponge communities. A total of 18 seamounts, guyots, banks, or atoll flanks (e.g., Midway and Kure) were mapped in the upper northwestern section of the monument, including the generically named Bank 9 Seamount, which appears to be a composite of a younger Hawaiian seamount and an older Cretaceous guyot. The middle segment of the PMNM consists mostly of large volcanic rift zone ridges and broad carbonate platforms. The rift zones located there are comparable in shape and size with those off Maui and the Island of Hawai'i in the main islands. Likewise, the magnitude of the largest carbonate platform of Gardner Pinnacles suggests its original high island may have met or exceeded the enormity of the Island of Hawai'i. Furthermore, the new mapping data have revealed the detail of numerous landslides and their deposits all along the chain, including an unusual rift zone flank failure creating a knife-edge ridge off Pioneer Bank. Dives with the Pisces V submersible were previously carried out on this feature, where extensive filter feeding biological communities were discovered. Not to be overlooked, the sidescan backscatter component of the multibeam data proved essential for identifying subtle reef features, numerous carbonate terraces, and debris channels that appear to transport sediment down the edifice flanks to the deep seafloor. Additionally, it was essential in delineating volcanic landforms such as lava flows, fissures, and eruptive cones. In short, the high quality and resolution of Falkor's bathymetric and backscatter data have exposed second and possibly third order deep-water geomorphologic and structural elements on a regional scale.

  1. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Benning, Tracy L; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T; Vitousek, Peter M

    2002-10-29

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae) represent a superb illustration of evolutionary radiation, with a single colonization event giving rise to 19 extant and at least 10 extinct species [Curnutt, J. & Pimm, S. (2001) Stud. Avian Biol. 22, 15-30]. They also represent a dramatic example of anthropogenic extinction. Crop and pasture land has replaced their forest habitat, and human introductions of predators and diseases, particularly of mosquitoes and avian malaria, has eliminated them from the remaining low- and mid-elevation forests. Landscape analyses of three high-elevation forest refuges show that anthropogenic climate change is likely to combine with past land-use changes and biological invasions to drive several of the remaining species to extinction, especially on the islands of Kauai and Hawaii. PMID:12374870

  2. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person...

  3. 50 CFR 622.409 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic § 622...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person...

  4. Endemism and evolution in Hawaiian marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Alison Kay, E; Palumbi, S R

    1987-07-01

    Endemism in Hawaiian marine invertebrates is strikingly lower than that in Hawaiian terrestrial organisms. Although marine speciation has been widespread, there have been no major radiations or species swarms comparable with those commonly reported for terrestrial animals and plants; the marine fauna of the Hawaiian islands is differentiated from its Indo-west Pacific roots but has not diversified. The marked differences between marine and terrestrial endemism provide broad support for several models in which speciation depends on dispersal, colonization rate, or effective population size. Distinguishing among these models will require detailed information on the genetic structure and phylogenies of marine species both in the Hawaiian archipelago and throughout the Pacific. PMID:21227847

  5. Cobalt, manganese, and iron near the Hawaiian Islands: A potential concentrating mechanism for cobalt within a cyclonic eddy and implications for the hybrid-type trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Abigail E.; Saito, Mak A.; Maiti, Kanchan; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.

    2008-05-01

    The vertical distributions of cobalt, iron, and manganese in the water column were studied during the E-Flux Program (E-Flux II and III), which focused on the biogeochemistry of cold-core cyclonic eddies that form in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. During E-Flux II (January 2005) and E-Flux III (March 2005), 17 stations were sampled for cobalt ( n=147), all of which demonstrated nutrient-like depletion in surface waters. During E-Flux III, two depth profiles collected from within a mesoscale cold-core eddy, Cyclone Opal, revealed small distinct maxima in cobalt at ˜100 m depth and a larger inventory of cobalt within the eddy. We hypothesize that this was due to a cobalt concentrating effect within the eddy, where upwelled cobalt was subsequently associated with sinking particulate organic carbon (POC) via biological activity and was released at a depth coincident with nearly complete POC remineralization [Benitez-Nelson, C., Bidigare, R.R., Dickey, T.D., Landry, M.R., Leonard, C.L., Brown, S.L., Nencioli, F., Rii, Y.M., Maiti, K., Becker, J.W., Bibby, T.S., Black, W., Cai, W.J., Carlson, C.A., Chen, F., Kuwahara, V.S., Mahaffey, C., McAndrew, P.M., Quay, P.D., Rappe, M.S., Selph, K.E., Simmons, M.P., Yang, E.J., 2007. Mesoscale eddies drive increased silica export in the subtropical Pacific Ocean. Science 316, 1017-1020]. There is also evidence for the formation of a correlation between cobalt and soluble reactive phosphorus during E-Flux III relative to the E-Flux II cruise that we suggest is due to increased productivity, implying a minimum threshold of primary production below which cobalt-phosphate coupling does not occur. Dissolved iron was measured in E-Flux II and found in somewhat elevated concentrations (˜0.5 nM) in surface waters relative to the iron depleted waters of the surrounding Pacific [Fitzwater, S.E., Coale, K.H., Gordon, M.R., Johnson, K.S., Ondrusek, M.E., 1996. Iron deficiency and phytoplankton growth in the equatorial Pacific. Deep-Sea Research II 43 (4-6), 995-1015], possibly due to island effects associated with the iron-rich volcanic soil from the Hawaiian Islands and/or anthropogenic inputs. Distinct depth maxima in total dissolved cobalt were observed at 400-600 m depth, suggestive of the release of metals from the shelf area of comparable depth that surrounds these islands.

  6. Science Nation: Dying Lobsters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The lobster is important to many local economies. But this crustacean is threatened by a new virus. The level of infection is believed to be between five and eight percent of the population. Researchers are using a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to try to understand the dynamics of the disease, and specifically how it's spreading. A better understanding of how the virus spreads could lead to more effective management strategies for protecting uninfected lobsters from getting the disease.

  7. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the endemic Hawaiian Succineidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca J Rundell; Brenden S Holland; Robert H Cowie

    2004-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian Succineidae represent an important component of the exceptionally diverse land snail fauna of the Hawaiian Islands, yet they remain largely unstudied. We employed 663-bp fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene to investigate the evolution and biogeography of 13 Hawaiian succineid land snail species, six succineid species from other Pacific islands and Japan, and various

  8. Nighttime foraging by deep diving echolocating odontocetes off the Hawaiian islands of Kauai and Ni'ihau as determined by passive acoustic monitors.

    PubMed

    Au, Whitlow W L; Giorli, Giacomo; Chen, Jessica; Copeland, Adrienne; Lammers, Marc; Richlen, Michael; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald; Moretti, David; Klinck, Holger

    2013-05-01

    Remote autonomous ecological acoustic recorders (EARs) were deployed in deep waters at five locations around the island of Kauai and one in waters off Ni'ihau in the main Hawaiian island chain. The EARs were moored to the bottom at depths between 400 and 800?m. The data acquisition sampling rate was 80?kHz and acoustic signals were recorded for 30?s every 5?min to conserve battery power and disk space. The acoustic data were analyzed with the M3R (Marine Mammal Monitoring on Navy Ranges) software, an energy-ratio-mapping algorithm developed at Oregon State University and custom MATLAB programs. A variety of deep diving odontocetes, including pilot whales, Risso's dolphins, sperm whales, spinner and pan-tropical spotted dolphins, and beaked whales were detected at all sites. Foraging activity typically began to increase after dusk, peaked in the middle of the night and began to decrease toward dawn. Between 70% and 84% of biosonar clicks were detected at night. At present it is not clear why some of the known deep diving species, such as sperm whales and beaked whales, concentrate their foraging efforts at night. PMID:23654414

  9. Understanding the scale of Marine protection in Hawai'i: from community-based management to the remote Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Stamoulis, Kostantinos A; Kittinger, John N; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Tissot, Brian N

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Hawaiians developed a sophisticated natural resource management system that included various forms of spatial management. Today there exists in Hawai'i a variety of spatial marine management strategies along a range of scales, with varying degrees of effectiveness. State-managed no-take areas make up less than 0.4% of nearshore waters, resulting in limited ecological and social benefits. There is increasing interest among communities and coastal stakeholders in integrating aspects of customary Hawaiian knowledge into contemporary co-management. A network of no-take reserves for aquarium fish on Hawai'i Island is a stakeholder-driven, adaptive management strategy that has been successful in achieving ecological objectives and economic benefits. A network of large-scale no-take areas for deepwater (100-400m) bottomfishes suffered from a lack of adequate data during their initiation; however, better technology, more ecological data, and stakeholder input have resulted in improvements and the ecological benefits are becoming clear. Finally, the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is currently the single largest conservation area in the United States, and one of the largest in the world. It is considered an unqualified success and is managed under a new model of collaborative governance. These case studies allow an examination of the effects of scale on spatial marine management in Hawai'i and beyond that illustrate the advantages and shortcomings of different management strategies. Ultimately a marine spatial planning framework should be applied that incorporates existing marine managed areas to create a holistic, regional, multi-use zoning plan engaging stakeholders at all levels in order to maximize resilience of ecosystems and communities. PMID:25358300

  10. New K-Ar ages for calculating end-of-shield extrusion rates at West Maui volcano, Hawaiian island chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrod, D.R.; Murai, T.; Tagami, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Thirty-seven new K-Ar ages from West Maui volcano, Hawai'i, are used to define the waning stages of shield growth and a brief episode of postshield volcanism. All but two samples from shield-stage strata have reversed polarity magnetization, so conceivably the exposed shield is not much older than the Olduvai Normal-Polarity subchron, or about 1.8 Ma. The oldest ages obtained are in the range 1.9-2.1 Ma but have large analytical error. Shield volcanism ended about 1.35 Ma, and postshield volcanism followed soon thereafter, persisting until about 1.2 Ma. Exposed shield-stage strata were emplaced at a rate of about 0.001 km3 per year, a rate smaller than historic Hawaiian magmatic rates by a factor of 100. Stratigraphic accumulation rates are similar to those measured previously at Wai'anae volcano (O'ahu) or the upper part of the Mauna Kea shield sequence (Hilo drill core, Hawai'i). These rates diminish sharply during the final 0.3-0.5 m.y. of the shield stage. Hawaiian shield volcanoes begin waning well before their last 0.5 m.y. of life, then end quickly, geologically speaking, if West Maui is representative. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  11. Hawaiian angiosperm radiations of North American origin

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Bruce G.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Putative phytogeographical links between America (especially North America) and the Hawaiian Islands have figured prominently in disagreement and debate about the origin of Pacific floras and the efficacy of long-distance (oversea) plant dispersal, given the obstacles to explaining such major disjunctions by vicariance. Scope Review of past efforts, and of progress over the last 20 years, toward understanding relationships of Hawaiian angiosperms allows for a historically informed re-evaluation of the American (New World) contribution to Hawaiian diversity and evolutionary activity of American lineages in an insular setting. Conclusions Temperate and boreal North America is a much more important source of Hawaiian flora than suggested by most 20th century authorities on Pacific plant life, such as Fosberg and Skottsberg. Early views of evolution as too slow to account for divergence of highly distinctive endemics within the Hawaiian geological time frame evidently impeded biogeographical understanding, as did lack of appreciation for the importance of rare, often biotically mediated dispersal events and ecological opportunity in island ecosystems. Molecular phylogenetic evidence for North American ancestry of Hawaiian plant radiations, such as the silversword alliance, mints, sanicles, violets, schiedeas and spurges, underlines the potential of long-distance dispersal to shape floras, in accordance with hypotheses championed by Carlquist. Characteristics important to colonization of the islands, such as dispersibility by birds and ancestral hybridization or polyploidy, and ecological opportunities associated with ‘sky islands’ of temperate or boreal climate in the tropical Hawaiian archipelago may have been key to extensive diversification of endemic lineages of North American origin that are among the most species-rich clades of Hawaiian plants. Evident youth of flowering-plant lineages from North America is highly consistent with recent geological evidence for lack of high-elevation settings in the Hawaiian chain immediately prior to formation of the oldest, modern high-elevation island, Kaua‘i. PMID:20382966

  12. Exploring Hawaiian volcanism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Okubo, Paul G.; Hon, Ken

    2013-01-01

    In 1912 the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) was established by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor Thomas A. Jaggar Jr. on the island of Hawaii. Driven by the devastation he observed while investigating the volcanic disasters of 1902 at Montagne Pelée in the Caribbean, Jaggar conducted a worldwide search and decided that Hawai‘i provided an excellent natural laboratory for systematic study of earthquake and volcano processes toward better understanding of seismic and volcanic hazards. In the 100 years since HVO’s founding, surveillance and investigation of Hawaiian volcanoes have spurred advances in volcano and seismic monitoring techniques, extended scientists’ understanding of eruptive activity and processes, and contributed to development of global theories about hot spots and mantle plumes.

  13. 50 CFR 17.99 - Critical habitat; plants on the islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.17.99...islands of Kauai, Niihau, Molokai, Maui, Kahoolawe, Oahu, and Hawaii, HI, and on the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.(a)...

  14. Proposal for a commercial interconnection among the Hawaiian islands based on the results of the Hawaii deep water cable program

    SciTech Connect

    Arnaud, U.; Bazzi, G.; Valenza, D. (Pirelli Cavi S.p.A., Milan (Italy))

    1992-10-01

    After the successful completion of the development program of the 2000 m water depth HVDC Hawaii Deep Water Self Contained Fluid Filled Cable, the interconnection between Hawaii island and Oahu island is examined. Thermal, electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, corrosion, length aspects are developed for both fluid filled and paper impregnated (SOLID) cables which are foreseen in different portions of the approximately 250 km length connection. Considerations are also presented for the requirements of the cable ship: 12 m sheave diameter, 7000 t capacity for the rotating platform. The feasibility of manufacturing, transporting and laying such cables within a practical schedule is discussed in this paper.

  15. POPULATION STATUS OF THE ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN HAWK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LINNEA S. HALL; MICHAEL L. MORRISON; PETER H. BLOOM

    We assessed the current abundance and distribution of Hawaiian Hawks ('io; Buteo solitarius) on the island of Hawaii to determine if this federally endangered bird should be downlisted to threat- ened status. We found a density of 0.004 hawks\\/ha on the island. Using an estimate of 400 000 ha of suitable 'io habitat on Hawaii, we estimated a total of

  16. 76 FR 68711 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Islands, and Amendment 3 to the FMP for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...procedures for the spiny lobster and Caribbean corals and reef associated plants and...

  17. The King of Crustaceans: Lobsters

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-28

    In the north Atlantic, the American Lobster is the undisputed king of crustaceans. It’s also a tremendously important commercial catch. While all the other fisheries are collapsing, why are lobsters resisting the trend? In this video, Jonathan goes out with a Maine lobsterman to learn why, and he dives down below to find the biggest lobsters he has ever seen. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

  18. Natural history, biogeography, and endangerment of Hawaiian dry forest trees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Pau; Thomas W. Gillespie; Jonathan P. Price

    2009-01-01

    We describe the floristic composition of Hawaiian dry forest trees and identify natural history characteristics and biogeographic\\u000a variables that are associated with risk of endangerment. Hawaiian dry forests are comprised of 109 tree species in 29 families,\\u000a with 90% of all species endemic, 10% indigenous, and 37% single-island endemics. Forty-five percent of Hawaiian dry forest\\u000a taxa are at risk of

  19. Congener-specific profile and toxicity assessment of PCBs in green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiu-Sheng Miao; George H. Balazs; Shawn K. K. Murakawa; Qing X. Li

    2001-01-01

    Chemical pollution may play a role in the etiology fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (Chelonia mydas). In this preliminary study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the livers and adipose fats of green turtles collected after they were stranded on Oahu Island, Hawaii in 1992–1993. Average concentrations of total PCBs were 45–58 ng\\/g dry weight and 73–665 ng\\/g in the liver

  20. Attraction of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) and nontarget insects to methyl eugenol bucket traps with different preservative fluids on Oahu Island, Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Grant K; Mackey, Bruce E; McInnis, Donald O; Vargas, Roger I

    2007-06-01

    Attraction of oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and nontarget insects to preservative fluids ethylene glycol antifreeze, propylene glycol antifreeze, or mineral oil in bucket traps that contained captured decaying male oriental fruit flies, a male lure (methyl eugenol), and a toxicant (DDVP vapor insecticidal strip) were compared with dry control traps. Significantly (P < 0.05) greater numbers of B. dorsalis were captured in propylene glycol antifreeze traps than in other attractant trap types. Among attractant trap types with lowest negative impacts on nontarget insects, control traps captured significantly lower numbers of three species and one morphospecies of scavenger flies, one species of plant-feeding fly, and one species each of sweet-and lipid-feeding ants. Mineral oil traps captured significantly lower numbers of two species of scavengers flies and one morphospecies of plant-feeding fly, and one species of sweet-feeding ant. Because of the fragile nature of endemic Hawaiian insect fauna, the propylene glycol antifreeze bucket trap is best suited for use in environments (e.g., non-native habitats) where endemic species are known to be absent and mineral oil traps are more suited for minimizing insect captures in environmentally sensitive habitats. PMID:17598531

  1. Valley development on Hawaiian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-01-01

    Work in progress on Hawaiian drainage evolution indicates an important potential for understanding drainage development on Mars. Similar to Mars, the Hawaiian valleys were initiated by surface runoff, subsequently enlarged by groundwater sapping, and eventually stabilized as aquifers were depleted. Quantitative geomorphic measurements were used to evaluate the following factors in Hawaiian drainage evolution: climate, stream processes, and time. In comparing regions of similar climate, drainage density shows a general increase with the age of the volcani island. With age and climate held constant, sapping dominated valleys, in contrast to runoff-dominated valleys, display the following: lower drainage densities, higher ratios of valley floor width to valley height, and more positive profile concavities. Studies of stream junction angles indicate increasing junction angles with time on the drier leeward sides of the major islands. The quantitative geomorphic studies and earlier field work yielded important insights for Martian geomorphology. The importance of ash mantling in controlling infiltration on Hawaii also seems to apply to Mars. The Hawaiian valley also have implications for the valley networks of Martian heavily cratered terrains.

  2. Ancient Hawaiian Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    The Hawaiian Islands provide a cultural setting where the prominent place of astronomy within religious, navigational, and calendrical traditions is evident from a rich ethnohistoric record. The many hundreds of temple platforms and enclosures (heiau) whose remains survive across the archipelago have provided a natural focus for archaeoastronomers not only to examine orientations and structural alignments but to explore a range of issues relating to field method and practice in a context where spatially patterned archaeological data and ethnohistorical evidence exist in relatively fine balance. As archaeoastronomy has developed within the islands, it has become better integrated into archaeological investigations tackling questions of broader anthropological significance, one of the most fascinating being when, how, and why Polynesian chiefdoms became transformed into archaic states, something that happened here but nowhere else in Polynesia.

  3. Influences of wind-wave exposure on the distribution and density of recruit reef fishes at Kure and Pearl and Hermes Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMartini, E.E.; Zgliczynski, B.J.; Boland, R.C.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a field survey designed to test the prediction that the density of benthic juveniles of shallow-reef fishes is greater on wind-wave "exposed" sectors of a pair of isolated oceanic atolls (Kure, Pearl and Hermes) at the far northwestern end of the Hawaiian Islands, an archipelago in which east-northeasterly trade winds dominate onshore water flow and transport by surface currents. The densities of recruits (juveniles ???5 cm total length) were higher overall on windward versus leeward sectors of carbonate rock-rubble back reefs at both atolls, and the pattern was stronger for smaller (likely younger, more recently settled) recruits of four of the five most abundant species and the remainder pooled as an "Other" taxon. The windward-leeward disparity was four-fold greater at Pearl Hermes (the atoll with a three-fold longer perimeter) than at Kure. Resident predator biomass also was correlated with recruit densities, but habitat (benthic substratum) effects were generally weak. The distribution and abundance of recruits and juveniles of the primarily endemic reef fishes on shallow back reefs at these atolls appear partly influenced by relative rates of water flow over windward vs. leeward sectors of barrier reef and by the size, shape, and orientation of habitat parcels that filter out postlarval fishes with relatively weak swimming capabilities like labroids. Whole-reef geomorphology as well as fine-scale habitat heterogeneity and rugosity should be considered among the suite of many factors used to interpret observed spatial patterns of post-settlement juvenile fish distribution at atolls and perhaps some other tropical reefs. ?? The Author(s) 2009.

  4. Comorbid substance use disorders with other Axis I and II mental disorders among treatment-seeking Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and mixed-race people

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Blazer, Dan G.; Gersing, Kenneth R.; Burchett, Bruce; Swartz, Marvin S.; Mannelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about behavioral healthcare needs of Asian Americans (AAs), Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders (NHs/PIs), and mixed-race people (MRs)—the fastest growing segments of the U.S. population. We examined substance use disorder (SUD) prevalences and comorbidities among AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs (N=4572) in a behavioral health electronic health record database. DSM-IV diagnoses among patients aged 1–90 years who accessed behavioral healthcare from 11 sites were systematically captured: SUD, anxiety, mood, personality, adjustment, childhood-onset, cognitive/dementia, dissociative, eating, factitious, impulse-control, psychotic/schizophrenic, sleep, and somatoform diagnoses. Of all patients, 15.0% had a SUD. Mood (60%), anxiety (31.2%), adjustment (30.9%), and disruptive (attention deficit-hyperactivity, conduct, oppositional defiant, disruptive behavior diagnosis, 22.7%) diagnoses were more common than others (psychotic 14.2%, personality 13.3%, other childhood-onset 11.4%, impulse-control 6.6%, cognitive 2.8%, eating 2.2%, somatoform 2.1%). Less than 1% of children aged <12 years had SUD. Cannabis diagnosis was the primary SUD affecting adolescents aged 12–17. MRs aged 35–49 years had the highest prevalence of cocaine diagnosis. Controlling for age at first visit, sex, treatment setting, length of treatment, and number of comorbid diagnoses, NHs/PIs and MRs were about two times more likely than AAs to have ?2 SUDs. Regardless of race/ethnicity, personality diagnosis was comorbid with SUD. NHs/PIs with a mood diagnosis had elevated odds of having SUD. Findings present the most comprehensive patterns of mental diagnoses available for treatment-seeking AAs, NHs/PIs, and MRs in the real-world medical setting. In-depth research is needed to elucidate intraracial and interracial differences in treatment needs. PMID:24060266

  5. RESPONSES OF NONTARGET INSECTS TO BUCKET TRAPS BAITED WITH METHYL EUGENOL, CUE-LURE, TRIMEDLURE, OR PROTEIN BAIT ON KAUAI ISLAND, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Responses of nontarget insect species to bucket traps baited with different tephritid fruit fly attractants were examined in primarily native habitats at three localities on Kauai Island. Traps were made according to a previous design and no effort was made to control the odors given off by collect...

  6. A comparison of static versus dynamic models of sea-level rise impacts to atolls: Insights from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storlazzi, C. D.; Berkowitz, P.; Reynolds, M.; Logan, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and impact terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islets on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an islet at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using US Army Corps of Engineers hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled Delft3D wave, current, and water level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the islet shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and islet configuration. Islet inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested by passive GIS-based "bathtub" inundation models.

  7. Effects of habitat patchiness on American lobster movement across a gradient of predation risk and shelter competition.

    PubMed

    Hovel, Kevin A; Wahle, Richard A

    2010-07-01

    The influence of landscape structure on marine ecological processes is receiving increasing attention. However, few studies conducted in coastal marine habitats have evaluated whether the effects of landscape structure on species interactions and organismal behavior are consistent across the range of an organism, over which landscape context and the strength of species interactions typically vary. American lobster (Homarus americanus) juveniles seek refuge from predators within shallow rocky habitat but make short-distance movements to forage outside of shelter. We evaluated how the patchiness of cobble habitat influences juvenile lobster movement by conducting mark-recapture experiments on lobsters placed within patchy and contiguous cobble plots in three regions of New England among which risk of predation and intraspecific shelter competition vary (Rhode Island, mid-coast Maine, and eastern Maine, USA). We also evaluated whether habitat patchiness influenced lobster colonization of plots and whether lobster fidelity to individual shelters corresponds to variability in predator abundance and conspecific density among regions. Cobble patchiness reduced rates of lobster movement in all three regions in 2004 and in two of three regions in 2005, despite large differences in landscape context among regions. Region had much larger effects on lobster colonization than did patchiness, but patchy plots were colonized at higher rates than were contiguous plots where lobster densities were highest. Fidelity to shelter was higher in regions with low conspecific density (Rhode Island and eastern Maine) than in mid-coast Maine where conspecific density is high and where unmarked lobsters often occupied shelters vacated by marked lobsters. Our results indicate that cobble patchiness influences juvenile lobster movement at small scales, but that the effects of patchiness on movement were consistent across much of the range of the American lobster despite strong regional variation in predator abundance and conspecific density. PMID:20715622

  8. Congener-specific profile and toxicity assessment of PCBs in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) from the Hawaiian Islands.

    PubMed

    Miao, X S; Balazs, G H; Murakawa, S K; Li, Q X

    2001-12-17

    Chemical pollution may play a role in the etiology of fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (Chelonia mydas). In this preliminary study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the livers and adipose fats of green turtles collected after they were stranded on Oahu Island, Hawaii in 1992-1993. Average concentrations of total PCBs were 45-58 ng/g dry weight and 73-665 ng/g in the liver and adipose tissues, respectively. Hexachlorobiphenyls were predominant homologues, PCBs 153 and 138 were dominant congeners in all the turtle tissues. Among the most toxic coplanar congeners, in the order of abundance, were PCB 77 > 126 > 169. Estimated toxic equivalents (TEQs) of PCBs to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin were 8-15 pg/g in the livers and 13-48 pg/g in the adipose tissues. PCB 126 contributed 85-91% of the total TEQs. PMID:11778957

  9. Patterns of endangerment in the hawaiian flora.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Ann K; Wagner, Warren L; Mehrhoff, Loyal A

    2002-04-01

    The Hawaiian flora, because of its great isolation, high levels of endemism, known lineages, and high rates of endangerment, offers unique opportunities to explore patterns of endangerment related to phylogeny, ecological and life history traits, and geographic patterns. Nine percent of the native flora of 1159 taxa are already extinct, and 52.5% are at risk (extinct, endangered, vulnerable, or rare). Risk is strongly associated with limited geographic distribution at several scales: endemic taxa (native only to the Hawaiian Islands) are at far greater risk than indigenous taxa (with both Hawaiian and extra-Hawaiian ranges); single-island endemics are more at risk than multi-island endemics; small islands have the highest proportion of endemic taxa at risk; and endemics with more limited habitat distributions (elevation, community type) are more at risk. Historic population density is a strong predictor of risk, and taxa with low historic population densities are at greatest risk with rapid anthropogenic changes. Among the major islands, Maui Nui has the highest percent of taxa that are extinct. Kaua'i has the lowest percent of extinct taxa and the highest proportion of single-island endemic taxa that are rare. Endemic taxa at risk are associated with distributions in shrublands, forests, bogs, and cliff habitats. Endemic taxa with distributions in low elevation dry habitats have the highest proportion of taxa at risk, but the greatest absolute numbers of taxa at risk have distributions in mesic lowland and montane forests, and in wet montane forests. The life history patterns associated with risk are complicated, and inclusion of the effects of evolutionary relationships (lineages) changes some of these patterns. Species level analyses without respect to lineage shows risk associated with monomorphic (hermaphroditic) breeding systems and bird pollination because of the large number of hermaphroditic, bird-pollinated species in the Campanulaceae. Analyses incorporating the effect of lineage greatly reduce the impact of large lineages and result in an association of risk with insect pollination, and no effect of breeding system. There is no association of lineage size and the percent of taxa at risk within the lineage; endemic taxa from lineages with large radiations are at no greater risk than endemic single-taxon lineages. The percentages of taxa at risk at the family level in the Hawaiian Islands and worldwide (excluding Hawaiian taxa) are positively correlated, although flowering plant families in the Hawaiian Islands have a much greater proportion of taxa at risk. Some of the approaches described here may be useful to predict geographical and biological patterns of endangerment in island and island-like ecosystems under increasing pressures of endangerment and extinction. PMID:12028733

  10. THE CAVERNICOLOUS FAUNA OF HAWAIIAN LAVA TUBES, 2. TWO NEW GENERA AND SPECIES OF BLIND ISOPOD CRUSTACEANS (Oniscoidea: Philosciidae)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George A. Schultz

    Two species of blind, pigmentless isopods are described from three different locations on the Hawaiian Island chain. They are inhabitants of lava tubes which are the caves of the Hawaiian Islands. Each species is described in a separate genus because they are widely different morphologically. The species, perhaps imported with soil, are most likely not endemic to the islands. Notes

  11. Interactions of climate change with biological invasions and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of endemic birds using a geographic information system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy L. Benning; Dennis Lapointe; Carter T. Atkinson; Peter M. Vitousek

    2002-01-01

    The Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidae) represent a superb illustration of evolutionary radiation, with a single colonization event giving rise to 19 extant and at least 10 extinct species [Curnutt, J. & Pimm, S. (2001) Stud. Avian Biol. 22, 15-30]. They also represent a dramatic example of anthropogenic extinction. Crop and pasture land has replaced their forest habitat, and human introductions of

  12. Invasive aphids attack native Hawaiian plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell H. Messing; Michelle N. Tremblay; Edward B. Mondor; Robert G. Foottit; Keith S. Pike

    2007-01-01

    Invasive species have had devastating impacts on the fauna and flora of the Hawaiian Islands. While the negative effects of\\u000a some invasive species are obvious, other species are less visible, though no less important. Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae)\\u000a are not native to Hawai’i but have thoroughly invaded the Island chain, largely as a result of anthropogenic influences. As\\u000a aphids cause both

  13. Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yi-Leng

    Numerical Simulations of the Island-Induced Circulations over the Island of Hawaii during HaRP YANG island-scale circulations over the island of Hawaii during the Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP, 11 July

  14. Covariation of climate and long-term erosion rates across a steep rainfall gradient on the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i

    E-print Network

    Ferrier, Ken L.

    Erosion of volcanic ocean islands creates dramatic landscapes, modulates Earth’s carbon cycle, and delivers sediment to coasts and reefs. Because many volcanic islands have large climate gradients and minimal variations ...

  15. Optical sensor for measuring American Lobster vitality

    SciTech Connect

    Tomassetti, Brian R. A.; Vetelino, John F. [LASST, University of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)

    2011-06-10

    The vitality of the American Lobster (Homarus americanus) is correlated to the total hemolymph protein (THP) in lobster hemolymph (blood). The standard technique for determining lobster vitality is to draw blood from a lobster and measure THP with a refractometer. This technique is invasive and endangers the lobster's health since blood must be drawn from the lobster. In the present work an optical sensor is developed to measure a lobster's vitality in vivo. It is comprised of a broadband light source, a monochromator, a fiber optic reflection probe, a spectrometer and a computer. This sensor measures protein concentrations by exciting a lobster with 280 nm and 334 nm wavelength light sources and measuring the corresponding absorbance peaks for THP and the fluorescence peak for hemocyanin (Hc), the majority protein in hemolymph. In this work several lobsters are tested. For each lobster, absorbance and fluorescence peaks are measured using the sensor and compared to protein concentrations measured using a refractometer. It is found that the shell thickness and muscle density, which correspond directly to protein concentration and the molting stage of the lobster have a significant effect on the absorbance and fluorescence measurements. It is also found that within specific molting stages, such as pre-molt and post-molt, protein concentration measured with a refractometer correlates linearly to absorbance and fluorescence measurements with the optical sensor.

  16. THE CAVERNICOLOUS FAUNA OF HAWAIIAN LAVA TUBES 12. A new species of blind troglobitic earwig (Dermaptera: Carcinophoridae), with a revision ofthe related surface-living earwigs of the Hawaiian Islands1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Brindle

    The first known species of blind troglobitic earwig, Anisolabis howarthi, is described from a pair found in caves on the island of Hawaii. The species is related to a complex of surface- living species hitherto knowrn under the name of Anisolabis perkinsi. This complex has been found to include, in addition to A. perkinsi, 4 new species, A. hawaiiensis, A.

  17. Bioaccumulation and Metabolic Effects of the Endocrine Disruptor Methoprene in the Lobster, Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Anna N; Bush, Parshall; Puritz, Jonathan; Wilson, Thomas; Chang, Ernest S; Miller, Tim; Holloway, Kenneth; Horst, Michael N

    2005-01-01

    Methoprene is a pesticide that acts as a juvenile hormone agonist. Although developed initially against insects, it has since been shown to have toxic effects on larval and adult crustaceans. Methoprene was one of several pesticides applied to the Western Long Island Sound (WLIS) watershed area during the summer of 1999; the other pesticides were malathion, resmethrin, and sumethrin. These pesticides were applied as part of a county-by-county effort to control the mosquito vector of West Nile Virus. Subsequently, the seasonal lobster catches from the WLIS have decreased dramatically. The lethality of the pesticides to lobsters had been unknown. We studied the effects of methoprene while other investigators studied effects of the other pesticides. We questioned whether methoprene, through its effects on larvae, adults or both, could have contributed to this decline. We found that low levels of methoprene had adverse effects on lobster larvae. It was toxic to stage II larvae at 1 ppb. Stage IV larvae were more resistant, but did exhibit significant increases in molt frequency beginning at exposures of 5 ppb. Juvenile lobsters exhibited variations in tissue susceptibility to methoprene: hepatopancreas appeared to be the most vulnerable, reflected by environmental concentrations of methoprene inhibiting almost all protein synthesis in this organ.Our results indicated that methoprene concentrates in the hepatopancreas, nervous tissue and epidermal cells of the adult lobster. Methoprene altered the synthesis and incorporation of chitoproteins (cuticle proteins) into adult postmolt lobster explant shells. SDS PAGE analyses of adult post-molt shell extracts revealed changes in the synthesis of chitoproteins in the methoprene-treated specimens, suggesting that methoprene affects the normal pathway of lobster cuticle synthesis and the quality of the post-molt shell. Although it is likely that a combination of factors led to the reduced lobster population in WLIS, methoprene may have contributed both by direct toxic effects and by disrupting homeostatic events under endocrine control. PMID:21676752

  18. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    PubMed

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to increased spillover, and CFR provides an ideal platform for continued assessment of fishery-reserve interactions. PMID:22471093

  19. Patterns of sexual cohabitation and female ejaculate storage in the American lobster ( Homarus americanus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Gosselin; Bernard Sainte-Marie; Louis Bernatchez

    2003-01-01

    Little is known of the time and ejaculate allocation strategies during mating of American lobster, Homarus americanus. This study investigated sexual cohabitation and female ejaculate accumulation patterns in a laboratory mating experiment, as well as female seminal receptacle load in exploited populations in the waters of the Magdalen and Anticosti Islands, in eastern Canada. In the laboratory experiment, the length

  20. NONTARGET ARTHROPODS CAPTURED IN CUE-LURE-BAITED BUCKET TRAPS AT AREA-WIDE PEST MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION SITES IN KAMUELA AND KULA, HAWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seventy and 2,371 specimens or about 1.1 and 34.4 individuals per day were captured in melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), cue-lure monitoring/suppression traps at two area-wide integrated pest management implementation sites in Kula (Maui Island) and Kamuela (Hawaii Island), respectively...

  1. ORIGIN OF HAWAIIAN POLYSTICHUM (DRYOPTERIDACEAE) IN THE CONTEXT OF A WORLD PHYLOGENY

    E-print Network

    Lintilhac, Philip M.

    of speciation. The high vagility of fern spores may also explain why the proportion of species endemic to single than 6% of ferns are single-island endemics (Ranker et al., 2000). Exploring such factors as spore, the origin of the Hawaiian species of Polystichum, like many Hawaiian fern genera with several species

  2. Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassandra R. Coombs; B. Ray Hawke

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric

  3. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucl...

  4. Diversification in Hawaiian long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae: Campsicnemus): biogeographic isolation and ecological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; Evenhuis, Neal L; Bartošová-Sojková, Pavla; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2014-12-01

    Flies in the genus Campsicnemus have diversified into the second-largest adaptive radiation of Diptera in the Hawaiian Islands, with 179 Hawaiian endemic species currently described. Here we present the first phylogenetic analysis of Campsicnemus, with a focus on the Hawaiian fauna. We analyzed a combination of two nuclear (CAD, EF1?) and five mitochondrial (COI, COII, 12S, 16S, ND2) loci using Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus Campsicnemus. Our sampling included a total of 84 species (6 species from Europe, 1 from North America, 7 species from French Polynesia and 70 species from the Hawaiian Islands). The phylogenies were used to estimate divergence times, reconstruct biogeographic history, and infer ancestral ecological associations within this large genus. We found strong support for a South Pacific+Hawaiian clade, as well as for a monophyletic Hawaiian lineage. Divergence time estimates suggest that Hawaiian Islands were colonized approximately 4.6 million years ago, suggesting that most of the diversity within Campsicnemus evolved since the current high islands began forming ?5 million years ago. We also observe a novel ecotype within the Pacific Campsicnemus; a widespread obligate water-skating form that has arisen multiple times across the Pacific Islands. Together, these analyses suggest that a combination of ecological, biogeographic and temporal factors have led to the impressive diversity of long-legged flies in Hawaii and elsewhere in the Pacific. PMID:25219449

  5. Coral diversity and the severity of disease outbreaks: a cross-regional comparison of Acropora white syndrome in a species-rich region (American Samoa) with a species-poor region (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Bourne, D.G.; Wilson, B.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of the coral disease, Acropora white syndrome (AWS), was directly compared on reefs in the species-poor region of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the species-rich region of American Samoa (AS) with results suggesting that biodiversity, which can affect the abundance of susceptible hosts, is important in influencing the impacts of coral disease outbreaks. The diversity-disease hypothesis predicts that decreased host species diversity should result in increased disease severity of specialist pathogens. We found that AWS was more prevalent and had a higher incidence within the NWHI as compared to AS. Individual Acropora colonies affected by AWS showed high mortality in both regions, but case fatality rate and disease severity was higher in the NWHI. The site within the NWHI had a monospecific stand of A. cytherea; a species that is highly susceptible to AWS. Once AWS entered the site, it spread easily amongst the abundant susceptible hosts. The site within AS contained numerous Acropora species, which differed in their apparent susceptibility to infection and disease severity, which in turn reduced disease spread. Manipulative studies showed AWS was transmissible through direct contact in three Acropora species. These results will help managers predict and respond to disease outbreaks.

  6. Excretory calcinosis: a new fatal disease of wild American lobsters Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Dove, Alistair D M; LoBue, Carl; Bowser, Paul; Powell, Mark

    2004-03-10

    A significant number of moribund and dead lobsters Homarus americanus were reported to New York state authorities by lobster fishers in Long Island Sound (LIS) during the summer of 2002. Morbid lobsters were characterised by an orange discolouration of the abdomen, lethargy, an excess of epibionts and poor post-capture survival. On necropsy, severe extensive multifocal or diffuse mineralised granulomatous inflammation of the gills and antennal glands was the most striking pathology. In the gills, granulomas often occluded the lumen of filaments, resulting in congestion, ischemia and coagulative necrosis of gill tissues. In the antennal glands, granulomas were concentrated along the border between the coelomosac and labyrinth. No significant pathogens were recovered from diseased individuals. In prechronic individuals, however, it was evident that granulomas were focused around calcium carbonate (aragonite) crystals. This disease may result from anomalously high sea-bottom temperatures in LIS (approximately 23 degrees C) during the summer of 2002 and associated disruptions of the calcium chemistry of lobsters in favour of deposition of minerals in soft tissues. The ultimate cause of death of affected lobsters is probably respiratory failure due to reduced effective surface area of the gills, exacerbated by hypermetabolic temperatures and an abundance of epibionts. PMID:15109145

  7. Principal sources and dispersal patterns of suspended particulate matter in nearshore surface waters of the northeast Pacific Ocean and the Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, P. R. (principal investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Numerous geologic features can be discerned on ERTS-1 imagery of the northwestern Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A thick homoclinal sequence of north-dipping Tertiary marine strata along the northwestern Olympic Peninsula is readily discernible because of the banded nature of its outcrop. The submarine basalt on which the sequence rests shows as a high, rugged ridge. Within the sedimentary sequence, alternating sandstone and siltstone members 100 m or more thick show in the southeast corner of the image. Broad folds in this banded sequence and faults that cut it can be detected. One large fault, the Pysht River fault, and a large syncline in sandstone and siltstone east of it show prominently on the image. Numerous lineations on the image of southern Vancouver Island correlate with faults shown on Muller's map. Particularly prominent are the Leech River and San Juan faults along the southernmost part of the island.

  8. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." Current and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Orr, Tim R.

    2008-01-01

    Lava from Kilauea volcano flowing through a forest in the Royal Gardens subdivision, Hawai'i, in February 2008. The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) monitors the volcanoes of Hawai'i and is located within Hawaiian Volcanoes National Park. HVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Kilauea and HVO at http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov.

  10. Is Detroit Seamount a "Hawaiian" Volcano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.; Frey, F. A.

    2002-12-01

    Detroit Seamount, near the northern terminus of the Emperor seamounts may be an early manifestation of the Hawaiian hotspot. Surprisingly, lavas recovered from Detroit seamount by ODP Leg 145 have incompatible element abundances and isotopic ratios (Sr and Nd) more similar to MORB than shield lavas forming Hawaiian islands. The age of oceanic lithosphere at the time of Emperor seamount formation decreases northwards; hence the depleted nature of these ~81 Ma Detroit seamount lavas has been proposed to reflect: (a) an extreme case of plume-spreading ridge interaction whereby seamount lavas are dominated by components derived from MORB-related asthenoshere and lithosphere (Keller et al., 2000) or (b) enhanced melting of refractory parts of the Hawaiian plume as a result of plume ascent to lower pressures beneath thin lithosphere (Regelous et al., in press). Other possible explanations are that Detroit seamount is unrelated to the Hawaiian hotspot or that the geochemical characteristics of the Hawaiian plume have varied. Drilling at Site 1203 Leg 197 penetrated 457 m of 18 basalt flow units and 12 volcaniclastic interbeds. The upper flows are tholeiitic basalt, but lower flows are vesicular and thick flows of alkalic basalt. Tholeiitic basalt overlying alkalic basalt is unlike the Hawaiian sequence where alkalic postshield-stage lavas erupt after tholeiitic shield-stage lavas, but it is characteristic of the initial submarine volcanism forming Hawaiian shields. We have not completed acquisition of Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic data, but our compositional data show that neither tholeiitic nor alkalic lavas at Site 1203 are similar to Hawaiian shield and postshield lavas. Although not as depleted in incompatible elements as MORB-like lavas from Leg 145 Site 884 on the eastern flank, Site 1203 tholeiitic lavas have incompatible element abundance intermediate between MORB and Hawaiian tholeiites. The alkalic lavas at Site 1203 have especially surprising geochemical characteristics. At given MgO content the abundance of relatively immobile incompatible elements are similar to those of Mauna Kea postshield alkalic basalt, but abundance of Sr and Ba are buffered at 220-260 ppm and 50-70 ppm, respectively. Some alkalic units also have anomalously low Ti/Zr (<80). Relatively compatible behavior of Sr, Ba and Ti is a characteristic of melts in equilibrium with phlogopite. Although phlogopite may be a residual phase during generation of highly alkalic rejuvenated-stage lavas, it is not a residual phase for late-shield or post-shield lavas. However, residual phlogopite has been inferred for submarine alkalic lavas erupted during the initial growth of Kilauea Volcano (Sisson et al., 2002). The broad northern summit region of Detroit Seamount has been sampled by 4 closely spaced holes (883E and F, 1204A and B). Relative to tholeiitic basalt from the flanks (Sites 884 and 1203), summit lavas have lower SiO2 and higher abundance of incompatible elements; higher pressure of melt segregation and lower extent of melting are inferred. In summary, Detroit Seamount lavas are less enriched in highly incompatible elements than lavas forming Hawaiian shields. For (La/Yb)PM the island extremes are ~2.8 for Mauna Loa and 4.6 for Kilauea whereas Detroit Seamount lavas range from a MORB-like <1 at Site 884 to 1.2-2.1 in summit lavas (Sites 883 and 1204) to 2.2-2.5 in alkalic basalt (Site 1203). Although it is premature to endorse any of the proposed hypotheses for explaining these differences, an important result is that the evidence for residual phlogopite during segregation of alkalic lavas at Site 1203 is consistent with shallow melt segregation, and inconsistent with a relatively large extent of plume melting promoted by a longer melting column.

  11. Genetic Isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific Populations of Pronghorn Spiny Lobster Panulirus penicillatus

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F.; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142–1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535–546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  12. Genetic isolation between the Western and Eastern Pacific populations of pronghorn spiny lobster Panulirus penicillatus.

    PubMed

    Chow, Seinen; Jeffs, Andrew; Miyake, Yoichi; Konishi, Kooichi; Okazaki, Makoto; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Abdullah, Muhamad F; Imai, Hideyuki; Wakabayasi, Toshie; Sakai, Mitsuo

    2011-01-01

    The pronghorn spiny lobster, Panulirus penicillatus, is a circumtropical species which has the widest global distribution among all the species of spiny lobster, ranging throughout the entire Indo-Pacific region. Partial nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA COI (1,142-1,207 bp) and 16S rDNA (535-546 bp) regions were determined for adult and phyllosoma larval samples collected from the Eastern Pacific (EP)(Galápagos Islands and its adjacent water), Central Pacific (CP)(Hawaii and Tuamotu) and the Western Pacific (WP)(Japan, Indonesia, Fiji, New Caledonia and Australia). Phylogenetic analyses revealed two distinct large clades corresponding to the geographic origin of samples (EP and CP+WP). No haplotype was shared between the two regional samples, and average nucleotide sequence divergence (Kimura's two parameter distance) between EP and CP+WP samples was 3.8±0.5% for COI and 1.0±0.4% for 16S rDNA, both of which were much larger than those within samples. The present results indicate that the Pacific population of the pronghorn spiny lobster is subdivided into two distinct populations (Eastern Pacific and Central to Western Pacific), with no gene flow between them. Although the pronghorn spiny lobster have long-lived teleplanic larvae, the vast expanse of Pacific Ocean with no islands and no shallow substrate which is known as the East Pacific Barrier appears to have isolated these two populations for a long time (c.a. 1MY). PMID:22195038

  13. MARINE ENVIRONMENT: Clinton Creates Huge Hawaiian Coral Haven.

    PubMed

    Malakoff, D

    2000-12-01

    President Bill Clinton last week signed an executive order creating the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve. Marine scientists say that the megareserve, which holds nearly 70% of the nation's reefs, will help protect some of the globe's most pristine ocean habitats. PMID:17742048

  14. Hawaiian Performance Cartography of Kaua'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akana, Kalani

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a discussion that examines Hawaiian performance cartography as described by Oliveira--but only as it relates to the island of Kaua'i. Section I begins with a chant asking permission to "enter" into the cultural landscape described in "mele" (songs) and "hula" (dance). Section II looks…

  15. Coral: A Hawaiian Resource. An Instructional Guidebook for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Ann; Moniz, Barbara

    Described are eight field trips to various sites on the Hawaiian island of Oahu. These experiences are designed to help teachers develop middle school students' awareness and understanding of Hawaii's natural resources, with particular emphasis upon coral. Each field trip unit contains a physical and biological description of the area and two to…

  16. Evolution and biogeography of native Hawaiian Hylaeus bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karl N. Magnacca; Bryan N. Danforth

    2006-01-01

    The only bees native to the Hawaiian Islands form a single clade of 60 species in the genus Hylaeus. The group is understudied and relatively poorly known. A data set consisting of 1201 base pairs of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I and II and tRNA- Leucine, and 14 morphological characters was used to construct a phylogenetic tree for 48

  17. Eruptions of Hawaiian Volcanoes: Past, Present, and Future

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Tilling

    The origin of the Hawaiian Islands, recorded eruptions, and eruption patterns are discussed in this United States Geological Survey (USGS) publication. The on-line book also covers volcano monitoring and research, landforms and structures, hazards and benefits, and a discussion of Loihi, Hawaii's newest volcano.

  18. Invasion Patterns along Elevation and Urbanization Gradients in Hawaiian Streams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne M. D. Brasher; Corene D. Luton; Steven L. Goodbred; Reuben H. Wolff

    2006-01-01

    Hawaii's extreme isolation has resulted in a native stream fauna characterized by high endemism and unusual life history characteristics. With the rapid increase in the human population, the viability of Hawaiian stream ecosystems is threatened by development and the associated habitat alteration. Thirty-eight sites on three islands (Oahu, Kauai, and Hawaii) were sampled to determine how habitat alteration resulting from

  19. Phylogeny and Biogeography of Pacific Rubus Subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) Species: Investigating the Origin of the Endemic Hawaiian Raspberry R. macraei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Gardner; Dana A. Weniger

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affin­ ities of R. hawaiensis to R. speaabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation

  20. Circling the Wagons: Agriculturalists and Conservation Biologists Must Cooperate to Protect Endemic Hawaiian Invertebrate Diversity and Control Invasive Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Rubinoff

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of native Hawaiian insects and suppression of invasive spe- cies are intrinsically connected propositions. The isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has produced a large endemic insect fauna that is ill equipped to compete with the onslaught of species that have been intentionally or inadvertently unleashed. However, most of the data needed to effectively preserve natives and control invasive species

  1. Winning Posters Hawai`i Island 4th Grade Students

    E-print Network

    Winning Posters created by Hawai`i Island 4th Grade Students 2012 Hawaiian Volcano Observatory #12;Congratulations to the winners! Mahalo to all Hawai`i Island 4th grade students who created posters in celebration

  2. Lobster-eye infrared focusing optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubsky, Victor; Gertsenshteyn, Michael; Jannson, Tomasz

    2006-08-01

    We propose a new imaging device for the long infrared spectral range, inspired by the natural eye of a lobster. Such a lobster-eye lens is composed of reflecting channels with a square cross section capable of wide angle of view and practically omni-directional imaging. As in large-aperture lenses, aberrations can significantly degrade the image. We show two methods of reducing aberrations: by selecting proper material for the mirrors and by making channels with absorbing sections.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the endemic Hawaiian Succineidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Rundell, Rebecca J; Holland, Brenden S; Cowie, Robert H

    2004-04-01

    The endemic Hawaiian Succineidae represent an important component of the exceptionally diverse land snail fauna of the Hawaiian Islands, yet they remain largely unstudied. We employed 663-bp fragments of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene to investigate the evolution and biogeography of 13 Hawaiian succineid land snail species, six succineid species from other Pacific islands and Japan, and various outgroup taxa. Results suggest that: (1) species from the island of Hawaii are paraphyletic with species from Tahiti, and this clade may have had a Japanese (or eastern Asian) origin; (2) species from five of the remaining main Hawaiian islands form a monophyletic group, and the progression rule, which states that species from older islands are basal to those from younger islands, is partially supported; no geographic origin could be inferred for this clade; (3) succineids from Samoa are basal to all other succineids sampled (maximum likelihood) or unresolved with respect to the other succineid clades (maximum parsimony); (4) the genera Succinea and Catinella are polyphyletic. These results, while preliminary, represent the first attempt to reconstruct the phylogenetic pattern for this important component of the endemic Hawaiian fauna. PMID:15019623

  4. USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory is perched on the rim of Kilauea Volcano's summit caldera (next to the Thomas A. Jaggar Museum in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park), providing a spectacular view of the active vent in Halema‘uma‘u Crater....

  5. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

  6. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

  7. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...subject to the jurisdiction of the United States Caribbean spiny lobster tail meat that is not in whole tail form with the exoskeleton attached. (2) Prohibitions related to egg-bearing spiny lobster . No person may import into any place...

  8. 61 FR 13454 - American Lobster Fishery; Emergency Gear Conflict Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-27

    ...0648-XX50 American Lobster Fishery; Emergency Gear Conflict Regulations AGENCY: National Marine...emergency rule implements a prohibition on mobile gear vessels fishing in newly defined Restricted Gear Areas I and II; a prohibition on lobster...

  9. The Introduced Hawaiian Avifauna Reconsidered: Evidence for Self-Organized Criticality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy H. Keitt; Pablo A. Marquet

    1996-01-01

    Over the last century, many bird species have been introduced into the Hawaiian islands. The data indicate a scenario in which island communities build up to a critical number of species, above which avalanches of extinction occur. Plotting the distribution of extinction event sizes approximates a power-law in accordance with the notion of a self-organized critical system. The lengths of

  10. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae)

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatella amnica and Scatella stagnalis from Kauai, Scatella oahuense from Lanai, and Scatella terryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  11. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera II: New Distributional Records for Endemic Scatella (Ephydridae).

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Patrick M; Arakaki, Keith; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2014-01-01

    Here we summarize the known distributional data for the Hawaiian Scatella (Ephydridae). We report on four new island records; Scatellaamnica and Scatellastagnalis from Kauai, Scatellaoahuense from Lanai, and Scatellaterryi from Maui. A list of material present, comprising over 3100 individual specimen records in the collections of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, University of Hawaii at Manoa, and Essig Musuem of Entomology at UC Berkeley is included, along with details distributional maps for the Hawaiian endemic species. PMID:25197231

  12. Factors Affecting Post-Capture Survivability of Lobster Homarus Americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Basti; Ian Bricknell; K. Hoyt; E. S. Chang; W. Halteman; D. Bouchard

    2010-01-01

    Technological advances in gear and fishing practices have driven the global expansion of the American lobster live seafood market. These changes have had a positive effect on the lobster industry by increasing capture efficiency. However, it is unknown what effect these improved methods will have on the post-capture fitness and survival of lobsters. This project utilized a repeated measures design

  13. EGG LOSS DURING INCUBATION FROM OFFSHORE NORTHERN LOBSTERS (DECAPODA: HOMARIDAE)

    E-print Network

    EGG LOSS DURING INCUBATION FROM OFFSHORE NORTHERN LOBSTERS (DECAPODA: HOMARIDAE) HERBERT C. PERKINS' ABSTRACT Egg loss during incubation from offshore northern lobsters, Homaru8 americanus Milne Edwards, was estimated by counting the eggs of 196 females. The lobsters were captured along the continental shelf off

  14. What, When, Where, and Why of Secondary Hawaiian Hotspot Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Ito, G.; Applegate, B.; Weis, D.; Swinnard, L.; Flinders, A.; Hanano, D.; Nobre-Silva, I.; Bianco, T.; Naumann, T.; Geist, D.; Blay, C.; Sciaroni, L.; Maerschalk, C.; Harpp, K.; Christensen, B.

    2007-12-01

    Secondary hotspot volcanism occurs on most oceanic island groups (Hawaii, Canary, Society) but its origins remain enigmatic. A 28-day marine expedition used multibeam bathymetry and acoustic imagery to map the extent of submarine volcanic fields around the northern Hawaiian Islands (Kauai, Niihau and Kaula), and the JASON2 ROV to sample many volcanoes to characterize the petrology, geochemistry (major and trace elements, and isotopes) and ages of the lavas from these volcanoes. Our integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical study attempts to examine the what (compositions and source), where (distribution and volumes), when (ages), and why (mechanisms) of secondary volcanism on and around the northern Hawaiian Islands. A first-order objective was to establish how the submarine volcanism relates in space, time, volume, and composition to the nearby shield volcanoes and their associated onshore secondary volcanism. Our surveying and sampling revealed major fields of submarine volcanoes extending from the shallow slopes of these islands to more than 100 km offshore. These discoveries dramatically expand the volumetric importance, distribution and geodynamic framework for Hawaiian secondary volcanism. New maps and rock petrology on the samples collected will be used to evaluate currently proposed mechanisms for secondary volcanism and to consider new models such as small-scale mantle convection driven by thermal and melt-induced buoyancy to produce the huge volume of newly discovered lava. Our results seem to indicate substantial revisions are needed to our current perceptions of hotspot dynamics for Hawaii and possibly elsewhere.

  15. Malathion immunotoxicity in the American lobster (Homarus americanus) upon experimental exposure.

    PubMed

    De Guise, Sylvain; Maratea, Jennifer; Perkins, Christopher

    2004-03-10

    A lobster die-off reduced the 1999 fall landings in western Long Island Sound by up to more then 99%. The die-off corresponded in time with the application of pesticides for the control of mosquitoes that carried West Nile virus, a new emerging disease in North America at the time. In order to determine the possible implication of pesticide application as a direct cause or contributing factor in the die-off, we studied the effects of experimental exposure to malathion on the health of lobsters. Lobsters were exposed in 20 gallon tanks, and the direct toxicity as well as sub-lethal effects on the immune system were determined. The 96 h LC50 for malathion upon single exposure was 38 microg/l. Malathion degraded rapidly in sea water, with 65-77% lost after 1 day and 83-96% lost after 3 days. Phagocytosis was significantly decreased 3 days after a single exposure to initial water concentrations as low as 5 ppb, when measured water concentrations were as low as 0.55 ppb. Similarly, effects on phagocytosis were observed at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after the initiation of weekly exposures. Cell counts did not differ significantly upon exposure to malathion. Malathion was not detected in muscle and hepatopancreas of exposed lobsters. Evaluation of phagocytosis is a sensitive indicator of subtle sub-lethal effects of malathion, and relatively small concentrations of malathion (6-7 times lower than the LC50) can affect lobster defense mechanisms. PMID:15168949

  16. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, J.E.; Eakins, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and a digital elevation model of the Hawaiian Islands are used to calculate the volumes of individual shield volcanoes and island complexes (Niihau, Kauai, Oahu, the Maui Nui complex, and Hawaii), taking into account subsidence of the Pacific plate under the load of the Hawaiian Ridge. Our calculated volume for the Island of Hawaii and its submarine extent (213 ?? 103 km3) is nearly twice the previous estimate (113 ?? 103 km3), due primarily to crustal subsidence that had not been accounted for in the earlier work. The volcanoes that make up the Island of Hawaii (Mahukona, Kohala, Mauna Kea, Hualalai, Mauna Loa, Kilauea and Loihi) are generally considered to have been formed within the past million years, and our revised volume for the island indicates that magma supply rates are greater than previously estimated, 0.21 km3/yr as opposed to ???0.1 km3/yr. This result also shows that compared with rates calculated for the Hawaiian Islands (0-6 Ma, 0.095 km3/yr), the Hawaiian Ridge (0-45 Ma, 0.017 km3/yr), and the Emperor Seamounts (45-80 Ma, 0.010 km3/yr), magma supply rates have increased dramatically to build the Island of Hawaii.

  17. ‘Imi Hale – The Native Hawaiian Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training Network: Second-Year Status Report

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn L.; Tsark, JoAnn; Ann Santos, Lorrie; Abrigo, Lehua

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe ‘Imi Hale, a program developed and managed by Native Hawaiians to increase cancer awareness and research capacity among Native Hawaiians. This US subgroup of indigenous people of the Hawaiian islands has disproportionately high rates of cancer mortality and low rates of participation in health and research careers. Methods As a community-based research project, ‘Imi Hale spent its first year gathering data from Native Hawaiians about their cancer awareness and research priorities. These findings guide ‘Imi Hale’s community and scientific advisors, a community-based Institutional Review Board, Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), and staff in developing and carrying out projects that address these priority areas. Emphasis is placed on transferring skills and resources to Native Hawaiians through training, technical assistance, and mentorship. A biennial survey assesses the extent to which community-based participatory research principles are being followed. Principal Findings By the end of the second year, statewide and island-specific awareness plans were produced, and 9 funded awareness projects are supporting the development and dissemination of Hawaiian health education materials. Research accomplishments include the enrollment of 42 Native Hawaiian Na Liko Noelo (budding researchers), 22 of which are involved in 14 funded research projects. The biennial evaluation survey found that 92% of our advisors felt that ‘Imi Hale was promoting scientifically rigorous research that was culturally appropriate and respectful of Native Hawaiian beliefs, and 96% felt that ‘Imi Hale was following its own principles of community-based participatory research. Conclusion ‘Imi Hale’s community-based approach to promoting cancer awareness will result in a sustainable infrastructure for reducing the cancer burden on Native Hawaiians. PMID:15352771

  18. Incorporating Technology into a Hawaiian Language Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'awa, Makalapua; Hawkins, Emily

    This paper describes Hawaiian language courses that incorporate computer technology at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. In the past decade, enrollments in all types of Hawaiian language programs have increased rapidly. The University of Hawaii is committed to extending Hawaiian language education, especially the full development of Hawaiian

  19. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D; Howarth, Francis G

    2013-06-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature's grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai'i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  20. Founder effects initiated rapid species radiation in Hawaiian cave planthoppers

    PubMed Central

    Wessel, Andreas; Hoch, Hannelore; Asche, Manfred; von Rintelen, Thomas; Stelbrink, Björn; Heck, Volker; Stone, Fred D.; Howarth, Francis G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands provide the venue of one of nature’s grand experiments in evolution. Here, we present morphological, behavioral, genetic, and geologic data from a young subterranean insect lineage in lava tube caves on Hawai‘i Island. The Oliarus polyphemus species complex has the potential to become a model for studying rapid speciation by stochastic events. All species in this lineage live in extremely similar environments but show strong differentiation in behavioral and morphometric characters, which are random with respect to cave age and geographic distribution. Our observation that phenotypic variability within populations decreases with increasing cave age challenges traditional views on founder effects. Furthermore, these cave populations are natural replicates that can be used to test the contradictory hypotheses. Moreover, Hawaiian cave planthoppers exhibit one of the highest speciation rates among animals and, thus, radically shift our perception on the evolutionary potential of obligate cavernicoles. PMID:23696661

  1. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  2. SPINY LOBSTER GEAR AND FISHING METHODS

    E-print Network

    -tined barbless grain · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·· Hawaiian sling: A - Armed sl ing; B Spear; C - Unarmed Page 1 2 3 4 5 7 7 9 9 10 11 12 sling · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · ·· 12 iii #12

  3. Diversity, origins and virulence of Avipoxviruses in Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan I. Jarvi; Dennis Triglia; Alexis Giannoulis; Margaret Farias; Kiara Bianchi; Carter T. Atkinson

    2008-01-01

    We cultured avian pox (Avipoxvirus spp.) from lesions collected on Hawai‘i, Maui, Moloka‘i, and ‘Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands from 15 native or non-native birds\\u000a representing three avian orders. Phylogenetic analysis of a 538 bp fragment of the gene encoding the virus 4b core polypeptide\\u000a revealed two distinct variant clusters, with sequences from chickens (fowlpox) forming a third distinct basal cluster.

  4. he volcanic Hawaiian Islands are the most

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    work with suction-cup attached radio tags and collecting skin biopsies for genetic studies. The skin expanded to include many other species. TECHNIQUES Our work involves photo-identifi- cation, some tagging a small plug of skin a

  5. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 6MB] A recent report from the state of Hawaii, a state with a high percentage of Native ... reveals some relevant facts: Minority Rate for Stroke, Hawaii 2005 Population Population / White Ratio White 32.1 -- ...

  6. Microsatellite Repeat Instability Fuels Evolution of Embryonic Enhancers in Hawaiian Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Brittain, Andrew; Stroebele, Elizabeth; Erives, Albert

    2014-01-01

    For ?30 million years, the eggs of Hawaiian Drosophila were laid in ever-changing environments caused by high rates of island formation. The associated diversification of the size and developmental rate of the syncytial fly embryo would have altered morphogenic gradients, thus necessitating frequent evolutionary compensation of transcriptional responses. We investigate the consequences these radiations had on transcriptional enhancers patterning the embryo to see whether their pattern of molecular evolution is different from non-Hawaiian species. We identify and functionally assay in transgenic D. melanogaster the Neurogenic Ectoderm Enhancers from two different Hawaiian Drosophila groups: (i) the picture wing group, and (ii) the modified mouthparts group. We find that the binding sites in this set of well-characterized enhancers are footprinted by diverse microsatellite repeat (MSR) sequences. We further show that Hawaiian embryonic enhancers in general are enriched in MSR relative to both Hawaiian non-embryonic enhancers and non-Hawaiian embryonic enhancers. We propose embryonic enhancers are sensitive to Activator spacing because they often serve as assembly scaffolds for the aggregation of transcription factor activator complexes. Furthermore, as most indels are produced by microsatellite repeat slippage, enhancers from Hawaiian Drosophila lineages, which experience dynamic evolutionary pressures, would become grossly enriched in MSR content. PMID:24978198

  7. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships of Wolbachia in Drosophila and other native Hawaiian insects

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Gordon M.; Pantoja, Norma A.; O’Grady, Patrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Wolbachia is a genus of parasitic alphaproteobacteria found in arthropods and nematodes, and represents on of the most common, widespread endosymbionts known. Wolbachia affects a variety of reproductive functions in its host (e.g., male killing, cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis), which have the potential to dramatically impact host evolution and species formation. Here, we present the first broad-scale study to screen natural populations of native Hawaiian insects for Wolbachia, focusing on the endemic Diptera. Results indicate that Wolbachia infects native Hawaiian taxa, with alleles spanning phylogenetic supergroups, A and B. The overall frequency of Wolbachia incidene in Hawaiian insects was 14%. The incidence of infection in native Hawaiian Diptera was 11% for individuals and 12% for all species screened. Wolbachia was not detected in two large, widespread Hawaiian dipteran families—Dolichopodidae (44 spp screened) and Limoniidae (12 spp screened). Incidence of infection within endemic Hawaiian lineages that carry Wolbachia was 18% in Drosophilidae species, 25% in Caliphoridae species, > 90% in Nesophrosyne species, 20% in Drosophila dasycnemia and 100% in Nesophrosyne craterigena. Twenty unique alleles were recovered in this study, of which 18 are newly recorded. Screening of endemic populations of D. dasycnemia across Hawaii Island revealed 4 unique alleles. Phylogenetic relationships and allele diversity provide evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia among Hawaiian arthropod lineages. PMID:22878693

  8. The Case of Lobster Shell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollen, Shawna; Toney, Jaime L.; Bisaccio, Daniel; Haberstroh, Karen Marie; Herbert, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    The authors combined content-driven and inquiry-based lessons into the framework of problem-based learning (PBL). They did this in eight third- through sixth-grade classrooms--two each from grades 3-5, one from sixth grade, and one mixed-grade special education. These older elementary students explored a local problem of lobsters infected by…

  9. Genetic diversity and relationships in native Hawaiian Saccharum officinarum sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Schenck, S; Crepeau, M W; Wu, K K; Moore, P H; Yu, Q; Ming, R

    2004-01-01

    Commercial sugarcane hybrid cultivars currently in production are high-yielding, disease-resistant, millable canes and are the result of years of breeding work. In Hawaii, these commercial hybrids are quite distinct from many Saccharum officinarum canes still in existence that were brought to the islands and cultivated by the native Polynesians. The actual genetic relationships among the native canes and the extent to which they contributed to the commercial hybrid germplasm has been the subject of speculation over the years. Genetic analysis of 43 presumed native Hawaiian S. officinarum clones using 228 DNA markers confirmed them to be a group distinct from the modern hybrid cultivars. The resulting dendrogram tended to confirm that there were several separate S. officinarum introductions that, owing to selections of somatic mutations, diverged into a number of cluster groups. When the "Sandwich Isles" were discovered by Captain James Cook in 1778, the Hawaiians were found to be growing sugarcane, S. officinarum ( Cook 1785). Sugarcane (ko, in the Hawaiian language) appeared in a variety of stalk and leaf colors, often with stripes (the "ribbon canes"). In the interest of preserving this historic germplasm, a collection was assembled in the 1920s by Edward L. Caum of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association and W. W. G. Moir of American Factors. Histories and descriptions of the canes were reported by Moir (1932). PMID:15247312

  10. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    E-print Network

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-12-30

    .plosone.org 1 December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12 | e85199 The Hawaiian endemic shrimp Halocaridinia rubra, which inhabits anchialine coastal pools, shows evidence of within- and between- island divergence and is comprised of multiple highly divergent lineages... as the monophyly of L. perkinsi from Kaua?i + L. hawaiensis from Kaua?i (p = 1 × 10 -5 ). Similar to the Hawaiian Ligia, the shrimp Halocaridinia rubra, which inhabits anchialine coastal pools, also shows multiple highly divergent lineages, with allopatric...

  11. Native Hawaiian views on biobanking.

    PubMed

    Tauali i, Maile; Davis, Elise Leimomi; Braun, Kathryn L; Tsark, JoAnn Umilani; Brown, Ngiare; Hudson, Maui; Burke, Wylie

    2014-09-01

    Genomic science represents a new frontier for health research and will provide important tools for personalizing health care. Biospecimen-based research is an important mechanism for expanding the genomic research capacity, and indigenous peoples are a target of biospecimen-based research due to their relative isolation and the potential to discover rare or unique genotypes. This study explored Native Hawaiian perceptions of and expectations for biobanking. Ten discussion groups were conducted with Native Hawaiians (N?=?92), who first heard a presentation on biobanking. Six themes emerged: (1) biobank governance by the Native Hawaiian community, (2) research transparency, (3) priority of Native Hawaiian health concerns, (4) leadership by Native Hawaiian scientists accountable to community, (5) re-consenting each time specimen is used, and (6) education of Native Hawaiian communities. Considered together, these findings suggest that biobanking should be guided by six principles that comprise "G.R.E.A.T. Research" (Governance, Re-consent, Education, Accountability, Transparency, Research priorities). These recommendations are being shared with biobanking facilities in Hawai'i as they develop protocols for biobanking participation, governance, and education. These findings also inform researchers and indigenous peoples throughout the world who are working on biobanking and genomic research initiatives in their nations. PMID:24683042

  12. Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of the Hawaiian craneflies Dicranomyia (Diptera: Limoniidae).

    PubMed

    Goodman, Kari Roesch; O'Grady, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian Diptera offer an opportunity to compare patterns of diversification across large and small endemic radiations with varying species richness and levels of single island endemism. The craneflies (Limoniidae: Dicranomyia) represent a small radiation of 13 described species that have diversified within the Hawaiian Islands. We used Bayesian and maximum likelihood approaches to generate a molecular phylogeny of the Hawaiian Dicranomyia using a combination of nuclear and mitochondrial loci, estimated divergence times and reconstructed ancestral ranges. Divergence time estimation and ancestral range reconstruction suggest that the colonization that led to most of the diversity within the craneflies arrived prior to the formation of Kauai and demonstrates that the two major clades within that radiation contrast sharply in their patterns of diversification. PMID:24058455

  13. Early growth of Kohala volcano and formation of long Hawaiian rift zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Transitional-composition pillow basalts from the toe of the Hilo Ridge, collected from outcrop by submersible, have yielded the oldest ages known from the Island of Hawaii: 1138 ?? 34 to 1159 ?? 33 ka. Hilo Ridge has long been interpreted as a submarine rift zone of Mauna Kea, but the new ages validate proposals that it is the distal east rift zone of Kohala, the oldest subaerial volcano on the island. These ages constrain the inception of tholeiitic volcanism at Kohala, provide the first measured duration of tholeiitic shield building (???870 k.y.) for any Hawaiian volcano, and show that this 125-km-long rift zone developed to near-total length during early growth of Kohala. Long eastern-trending rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes may follow fractures in oceanic crust activated by arching of the Hawaiian Swell in front of the propagating hotspot. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  14. Comentarios sobre la distribución de la langosta pinta Panulirus infl atus y la langosta roja P. interruptus (Crustacea: Palinuridae) en el Pacífi co mexicano Remarks on the distribution of the pinto lobster Panulirus infl atus and the red lobster P. interruptus (Crustacea: Palinuridae) in the Mexican Pacifi c

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernesto Campos

    2007-01-01

    Fieldwork along the west coast of the Baja California peninsula has resulted in a northern range extension, from Bahía Santa María to Punta Eugenia and vicinity, Baja California Sur, Mexico, for a permanent population of the pinto lobster Panulirus infl atus (Bouvier, 1895). Records of this species from Ángel de la Guarda Island (within the Gulf of California) and Guadalupe

  15. Restoration of Native Hawaiian Dryland Forest at Auwahi, Maui

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medieros, Arthur C.; vonAllmen, Erica

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND The powerful volcanoes that formed the high islands of the Hawaiian archipelago block northeasterly tradewinds, creating wet, windward rain forests and much drier, leeward forests. Dryland forests in Hawai'i receive only about 20 inches of rain a year. However, the trees in these forests intercept fog and increase ground moisture levels, thereby enabling these seemingly inhospitable habitats to support a diverse assemblage of plants and animals. Dryland forests of the Hawaiian Islands, like those worldwide, have been heavily impacted by humans both directly and indirectly. Less than 10% of Hawai'i's original dryland forest habitat remains. These forests have been severely impacted by urban development, ranching and agriculture, and invasive species. In particular, browsing animals and alien grasses have caused significant damage. Feral ungulates, including goats, sheep, cattle, and pigs, consume sensitive plants. Alien grasses have become dominant in the understory in many dryland habitats. In addition, these introduced grasses are fire-adapted and have increased the incidence of wildfire in these ecosystems. Native Hawaiian plants did not evolve with frequent fires or mammalian herbivores and typically do not survive well under these pressures.

  16. Ancient origin for Hawaiian Drosophilinae inferred from protein comparisons.

    PubMed

    Beverley, S M; Wilson, A C

    1985-07-01

    Immunological comparisons of a larval hemolymph protein enabled us to build a tree relating major groups of drosophiline flies in Hawaii to one another and to continental flies. The tree agrees in topology with that based on internal anatomy. Relative rate tests suggest that evolution of hemolymph proteins has been about as fast in Hawaii as on continents. Since the absolute rate of evolution of hemolymph proteins in continental flies is known, one can erect an approximate time scale for Hawaiian fly evolution. According to this scale, the Hawaiian fly fauna stems from a colonist that landed on the archipelago about 42 million years ago-i.e., before any of the present islands harboring drosophilines formed. This date fits with the geological history of the archipelago, which has witnessed the sequential rise and erosion of many islands during the past 70 million years. We discuss the bearing of the molecular time scale on views about rates of organismal evolution in the Hawaiian flies. PMID:3860822

  17. Aloha Aina: Native Hawaiians Fight for Survival

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kealoha, Gard

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the history, values, and cultural background of the native Hawaiian population, asserting that Hawaiians want to recapture and reaffirm the native rights guaranteed by the constitution of Hawaii in 1846. (Author/JM)

  18. 61 FR 11164 - General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Amendment to Temporary Closure of Block Island to Some...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1996-03-19

    ...Closure of Block Island to Some Fishing Gear Activity AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...operation of lobster traps, trawl and dredge gear designed or used for fishing on the ocean bottom or any other gear designed for harvesting benthic...

  19. Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae)

    E-print Network

    Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    , Kalaheo, HI 96741, USA The endemic Hawaiian lobeliads are exceptionally species rich and exhibit striking-elevations. Invasion of closed tropical forests is associated with evolution of fleshy fruits. Limited dispersal adaptive radiations in Cyanea, with most species restricted to single islands. Consistency of Cyanea

  20. A Typology and Analysis of Drug Resistance Strategies of Rural Native Hawaiian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis; Kawano, Kaycee Nahe; Kulis, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the drug resistance strategies described by Native Hawaiian youth residing in rural communities. Sixty-four youth from 7 middle and intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i participated in a series of gender-specific focus groups. Youth responded to 15 drug-related problem situations developed and validated from prior…

  1. Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes

    E-print Network

    Blob, Richard W.

    Ontogenetic change in novel functions: waterfall climbing in adult Hawaiian gobiid fishes R. W fishes climb waterfalls as part of an amphidromous life cycle, allowing them to re-penetrate adult stream gobies is well established, but adult fish in upstream island habitats also face potential

  2. An Invasive Grass Species Alters Carbon Cycling in Hawaiian Dry Forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Litton; D. R. Sandquist; S. Cordell

    2004-01-01

    At lower elevations on the leeward side of the island of Hawaii, remnant native forests are heavily invaded by an introduced African bunchgrass, Pennisetum setaceum (fountain grass). Our research is designed to determine the consequences of this invasion for carbon (C) cycling in Hawaiian dry forests. We examined above- and belowground C pools and fluxes in 400 m2 replicated forest

  3. Evaluating barriers to native seedling establishment in an invaded Hawaiian lowland wet forest

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Cordell; Rebecca Ostertag; Barbara Rowe; Linda Sweinhart; Lucero Vasquez-Radonic; Jene Michaud; T. Colleen Cole; Jodie R. Schulten

    2009-01-01

    Many tropical island forest ecosystems are dominated by non-native plant species and lack native species regeneration in the understorey. Comparison of replicated control and removal plots offers an opportunity to examine not only invasive species impacts but also the restoration potential of native species. In lowland Hawaiian wet forests little is known about native species seed dynamics, recruitment requirements, or

  4. Multilocus resolution of phylogeny and timescale in the extant adaptive radiation of Hawaiian honeycreepers.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Heather R L; Meyer, Matthias; James, Helen F; Hofreiter, Michael; Fleischer, Robert C

    2011-11-01

    Evolutionary theory has gained tremendous insight from studies of adaptive radiations. High rates of speciation, morphological divergence, and hybridization, combined with low sequence variability, however, have prevented phylogenetic reconstruction for many radiations. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are an exceptional adaptive radiation, with high phenotypic diversity and speciation that occurred within the geologically constrained setting of the Hawaiian Islands. Here we analyze a new data set of 13 nuclear loci and pyrosequencing of mitochondrial genomes that resolves the Hawaiian honeycreeper phylogeny. We show that they are a sister taxon to Eurasian rosefinches (Carpodacus) and probably came to Hawaii from Asia. We use island ages to calibrate DNA substitution rates, which vary substantially among gene regions, and calculate divergence times, showing that the radiation began roughly when the oldest of the current large Hawaiian Islands (Kauai and Niihau) formed, ~5.7 million years ago (mya). We show that most of the lineages that gave rise to distinctive morphologies diverged after Oahu emerged (4.0-3.7 mya) but before the formation of Maui and adjacent islands (2.4-1.9 mya). Thus, the formation of Oahu, and subsequent cycles of colonization and speciation between Kauai and Oahu, played key roles in generating the morphological diversity of the extant honeycreepers. PMID:22018543

  5. Rejuvenation of the lithosphere by the Hawaiian plume.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueqing; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui; Wölbern, Ingo; Hanka, Winfried

    2004-02-26

    The volcanism responsible for creating the chain of the Hawaiian islands and seamounts is believed to mark the passage of the oceanic lithosphere over a mantle plume. In this picture hot material rises from great depth within a fixed narrow conduit to the surface, penetrating the moving lithosphere. Although a number of models describe possible plume-lithosphere interactions, seismic imaging techniques have not had sufficient resolution to distinguish between them. Here we apply the S-wave 'receiver function' technique to data of three permanent seismic broadband stations on the Hawaiian islands, to map the thickness of the underlying lithosphere. We find that under Big Island the lithosphere is 100-110 km thick, as expected for an oceanic plate 90-100 million years old that is not modified by a plume. But the lithosphere thins gradually along the island chain to about 50-60 km below Kauai. The width of the thinning is about 300 km. In this zone, well within the larger-scale topographic swell, we infer that the rejuvenation model (where the plume thins the lithosphere) is operative; however, the larger-scale topographic swell is probably supported dynamically. PMID:14985758

  6. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  7. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  8. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  9. 33 CFR 334.1390 - Pacific Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. 334.1390...Ocean at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; missile range facility. (a) The...Hawaiian Area, Barking Sands, Kauai, Hawaii. [34 FR 7575, May 10, 1969....

  10. Hawaiian Studies Curriculum Guide. Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    This curriculum guide suggests activities and educational experiences within a Hawaiian cultural context for Grade 3 students in Hawaiian schools. First, an introduction discusses the contents of the guide; the relationship of classroom teacher and the kupuna (Hawaiian-speaking elder); the identification and scheduling of Kupunas; and how to use…

  11. The Island Institute

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since 1983, the Island Institute has employed a wide range of individuals, including photographers, artists, policy experts, and others, all in the name of maintaining the viability of the fifteen year-round island communities in the Gulf of Maine. They have become well-known for their outreach efforts, and their website will be of great value to anyone interested in this region, or how various island communities remain economically, culturally, and ecologically sustainable. Resources located on the Institute's homepage include information about fellowship opportunities and links to full and annual reports on the Atlantic herring spawning project. Visitors who are hoping to get a sense of the flavor of this unique region should definitely peruse their monthly publication, "The Working Waterfront." Recent articles include opinion pieces on fish hatcheries, the lobster business, and news profiles of local islanders.

  12. Host Susceptibility Hypothesis for Shell Disease in American Lobsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael F. Tlusty; Roxanna M. Smolowitz; Harlyn O. Halvorson; Simone E. DeVito

    2007-01-01

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) in American lobsters Homarus americanus is the bacterial degradation of the carapace resulting in extensive irregular, deep erosions. The disease is having a major impact on the health and mortality of some American lobster populations, and its effects are being transferred to the economics of the fishery. While the onset and progression of ESD in American

  13. MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR THE NEW ZEALAND ROCK LOBSTER, ]ASUS EDWARDSII

    E-print Network

    MORTALITY ESTIMATES FOR THE NEW ZEALAND ROCK LOBSTER, ]ASUS EDWARDSII JOHN H. ANNALA' ABSTRACT The instantaneous total mortality rate and instantaneous fishing mortality rate were estimated for an exploited population ofmale New Zealand rock lobster,Jasusedwardsii. Instantaneous total mortality rate estimates were

  14. Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Holland, Brenden S; Hadfield, Michael G

    2004-08-01

    Tree snails of the endemic subfamily Achatinellinae comprise a diverse and important component of the Hawaiian fauna. In recent decades anthropogenic impacts have resulted in devastating extinction rates in Hawaiian tree snails. To address long-standing biogeographic, systematic, and evolutionary questions we used cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of 23 extant species spanning the range of the subfamily from five Hawaiian Islands. To investigate family-level relationships, data were analyzed from 11 terrestrial pulmonate families. Although nodal support for monophyly of the endemic Pacific family Achatinellidae and endemic Hawaiian subfamily Achatinellinae was strong, bifurcation order among deeper ingroup nodes was not well-supported by bootstrap resampling. We hypothesize that lineage extinction and rapidity of lineage formation may have rendered evolutionary reconstruction difficult using a standard phylogenetic approach. Use of an optimized evolutionary model, however, improved resolution and recovered three main clades. The diversification pattern inferred contradicts the traditional biogeographic hypothesis of a Maui origin of the achatinelline lineage. Taxa comprising the basal ingroup clade (Achatinella spp.) and seeding lineages for subsequent clades originated on O'ahu. Therefore it appears that the ancestral colonizing species of achatinellines arrived first on O'ahu from an unknown source, and that O'ahu is the Hawaiian origin of the subfamily. Species previously defined by morphological criteria were generally found to be phylogenetically distinct, and the overall colonization pattern follows the island-age progression rule with several instances of generic polyphyly and back-colonization. PMID:15223040

  15. The eastern rock lobster, Jasus ver-reauxi, reportedly is the largest

    E-print Network

    25 The eastern rock lobster, Jasus ver- reauxi, reportedly is the largest spiny rock lobster, comparisons of mitochondrial DNA from juvenile rock lobsters from NSW and New Zealand waters have suggested that the populations are genetically distinct (Brasher et al., 1992). The distribution of rock lobsters across habitat

  16. NATURAL HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN LOBSTER By Francis Hobart Herrick, Ph. D., Sc. D.

    E-print Network

    .. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Movements of tagged lobsters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 IV. Molting.................................................................... 200 The skin

  17. Diversity of Zoanthids (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia) on Hawaiian Seamounts: Description of the Hawaiian Gold Coral and Additional Zoanthids

    PubMed Central

    Sinniger, Frederic; Ocaña, Oscar V.; Baco, Amy R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hawaiian gold coral has a history of exploitation from the deep slopes and seamounts of the Hawaiian Islands as one of the precious corals commercialised in the jewellery industry. Due to its peculiar characteristic of building a scleroproteic skeleton, this zoanthid has been referred as Gerardia sp. (a junior synonym of Savalia Nardo, 1844) but never formally described or examined by taxonomists despite its commercial interest. While collection of Hawaiian gold coral is now regulated, globally seamounts habitats are increasingly threatened by a variety of anthropogenic impacts. However, impact assessment studies and conservation measures cannot be taken without consistent knowledge of the biodiversity of such environments. Recently, multiple samples of octocoral-associated zoanthids were collected from the deep slopes of the islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago. The molecular and morphological examination of these zoanthids revealed the presence of at least five different species including the gold coral. Among these only the gold coral appeared to create its own skeleton, two other species are simply using the octocoral as substrate, and the situation is not clear for the final two species. Phylogenetically, all these species appear related to zoanthids of the genus Savalia as well as to the octocoral-associated zoanthid Corallizoanthus tsukaharai, suggesting a common ancestor to all octocoral-associated zoanthids. The diversity of zoanthids described or observed during this study is comparable to levels of diversity found in shallow water tropical coral reefs. Such unexpected species diversity is symptomatic of the lack of biological exploration and taxonomic studies of the diversity of seamount hexacorals. PMID:23326345

  18. Underplating of the Hawaiian Swell: evidence from teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Garrett M.; Collins, John A.; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Laske, Gabi; Solomon, Sean C.

    2010-10-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are the canonical example of an age-progressive island chain, formed by volcanism long thought to be fed from a hotspot source that is more or less fixed in the mantle. Geophysical data, however, have so far yielded contradictory evidence on subsurface structure. The substantial bathymetric swell is supportive of an anomalously hot upper mantle, yet seafloor heat flow in the region does not appear to be enhanced. The accumulation of magma beneath pre-existing crust (magmatic underplating) has been suggested to add chemical buoyancy to the swell, but to date the presence of underplating has been constrained only by local active-source experiments. In this study, teleseismic receiver functions derived from seismic events recorded during the PLUME project were analysed to obtain a regional map of crustal structure for the Hawaiian Swell. This method yields results that compare favourably with those from previous studies, but permits a much broader view than possible with active-source seismic experiments. Our results indicate that the crustal structure of the Hawaiian Islands is quite complicated and does not conform to the standard model of sills fed from a central source. We find that a shallow P-to-s conversion, previously hypothesized to result from the volcano-sediment interface, corresponds more closely to the boundary between subaerial and subaqueous extrusive material. Correlation between uplifted bathymetry at ocean-bottom-seismometer locations and presence of underplating suggests that much of the Hawaiian Swell is underplated, whereas a lack of underplating beneath the moat surrounding the island of Hawaii suggests that underplated crust outward of the moat has been fed from below by dykes through the lithosphere rather than by sills spreading from the island centre. Local differences in underplating may reflect focusing of magma-filled dykes in response to stress from volcanic loading. Finally, widespread underplating adds chemical buoyancy to the swell, reducing the amplitude of a mantle thermal anomaly needed to match bathymetry and supporting observations of normal heat flow.

  19. Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The University of Hawaii's Hawaiian Natural Resources Monitoring Database is a centralized database that includes monitoring data for Hawaii's natural resources. Designed to help meet the information needs of land managers in Hawaii, the database includes "standardized and fully-documented data collection efforts by federal, state, and private agencies." A license (free, with permission) is required to access the database. Recently, the site added an updated master species list for Hawaii and an update (from US Fish and Wildlife Service) on the Endangered/Threatened status of Hawaiian species (.zip format).

  20. Lunar and Hawaiian lava tubes: Analogs and uses based on terrestrial field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coombs, Cassandra R.; Hawke, B. Ray

    1991-01-01

    Presented here is an analysis of the data collected for a large number of Hawaiian lava tubes on the islands of Oahu, Molokai, and Hawaii. The results are extrapolated to lunar conditions. It is argued that lava tubes that formed on the Earth and the Moon are relatively stable over time, as illustrated by the ridigity of the Hawaiian prehistoric lava tubes as well as the historic tubes located in the bombing range near Mauna Loa. These natural structures should be considered for use in planning for the expansion and advanced stages of the future manned lunar base.

  1. Chromosomal sequences and interisland colonizations in hawaiian Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Carson, H L

    1983-03-01

    Of 103 picture-winged Drosophila species endemic to the high Hawaiian islands, all but three are endemic to single islands or island complexes. They are presumed to have evolved in situ on each island. The banding pattern sequences of the five major polytene chromosomes of these species have been mapped to a single set of Standard sequences. Sequential variation among these chromosomes is due to 213 paracentric inversions. An atlas of their break points is provided. Geographical, morphological and behavioral data may be used to supplement the cytological information in tracing ancestry. Starting at the newer end of the archipelago, the 26 species of the Island of Hawaii (less than 700,000 years old) are inferred to have been derived from 19 founders, 15 from the Maui complex, three from Oahu and one from Kauai. The existence of 40 Maui complex species is explicable as resulting from 12 founders, ten from Oahu and two from Kauai. The 29 Oahu species can be explained by 12 founder events, five from Kauai and seven from Maui complex (summary in Figure 5). Although the ancestry of two Kauai species can be traced to newer islands, the ten remaining ones on this island (age about 5.6 million years) are apparently ancient elements in the fauna, relating ultimately to Palearctic continental sources. PMID:17246115

  2. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  3. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  4. Hawaiian update - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, G.

    1987-06-01

    Progress with geothermal development on the Island of Hawaii has been slow since the July 1987 report. Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV), which plans to have 25 megawatts on line by 1993, is in the midst of changing owners. Although PGV hasn't drilled additional wells since the successful Kapoho State-1A in late 1985, the venture has been moving ahead with planning and design for the 25 megawatt project. The other developer in Hawaii is True/Mid-Pacific Geothermal Venture. Principals of both True Geothermal and Mid-Pacific Geothermal are from Wyoming. This group has run into local opposition since late 1981. Originally, they planned to construct a 250 megawatt project in the upper end of the Kilauea East Rift Zone (KERZ) on the Island of Hawaii, near the Volcanoes National Park. Then, they changed to a 100 megawatt project in the middle of the KERZ. The EIS has been accepted and the group has received the necessary, state land-use permit. However, the permit action was appealed by a few Pele practitioners. In July 1987, the Hawaii Supreme Court ruled unanimously in favor of the development project. In August 1987, Governor John Waihee established a blue-ribbon panel to study the feasibility of developing an inter-island cable system to transmit 500 megawatts of geothermally-produced electricity from the KERZ on the Island of Hawaii to the Islands of Maui and Oahu, where 80% of the state's population live. This system has a price tag of $475 million (1986). It will span a greater length of ocean and lie in deeper ocean depths than any other high-voltage submarine cable. There is no known US manufacturer with the capability to build such a cable.

  5. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark J.; Behringer, Donald C.; Dolan, Thomas W.; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of “behavioral immunity”; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  6. Relationships of the extinct moa-nalos, flightless Hawaiian waterfowl, based on ancient DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Sorenson, M D; Cooper, A; Paxinos, E E; Quinn, T W; James, H F; Olson, S L; Fleischer, R C

    1999-01-01

    The extinct moa-nalos were very large, flightless waterfowl from the Hawaiian islands. We extracted, amplified and sequenced mitochondrial DNA from fossil moa-nalo bones to determine their systematic relationships and lend insight into their biogeographical history. The closest living relatives of these massive, goose-like birds are the familiar dabbling ducks (tribe Anatini). Moa-nalos, however, are not closely related to any one extant species, but represent an ancient lineage that colonized the Hawaiian islands and evolved flightlessness long before the emergence of the youngest island, Hawaii, from which they are absent. Ancient DNA yields a novel hypothesis for the relationships of these bizarre birds, whereas the evidence of phylogeny in morphological characters was obscured by the evolutionary transformation of a small, volant duck into a giant, terrestrial herbivore. PMID:10649633

  7. Petrology and Geochronology of Kaula Volcano lavas: An off-axis window into the Hawaiian Mantle Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, M. O.; Weis, D.; Jicha, B. R.; Tree, J. P.; Bizimis, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Hawaiian Islands extend NW for 625 km from L?'ihi to Ka'ula island. One anomalous feature cross-cutting the Hawaiian Islands is the Kaua'i Ridge, a 165 km-long bathymetric high with three well-defined gravity highs. These gravity highs are centered under or near the islands of Ka'ula, Ni'ihau and Kaua'i, and represent the cores of three shield volcanoes whose volumes decrease dramatically with distance from the axis of the Hawaiian Chain (Kaua'i, 58 x 103 km3, Ni'ihau x 103 km, Ka'ula 10 x 103 km; Robinson and Eakins 2006). Ka'ula Volcano, on the SW end of the Kaua'i Ridge, is centered 100 km off the axis of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The volcano is capped by a small island, which is a remnant of a nephelinitic tuff cone. The cone contains abundant accidental bombs of lava (tholeiite, phonolite and basanite), peridotite and pyroxenite, and unexploded ordnance from US military bombing. Two JASON dives on the flanks of Ka'ula recovered only alkalic lavas. Three stage of Ka'ula volcanism have been identified from sampling the volcanic bombs and flanks of the volcano. These rocks were dated using 40Ar/39Ar methods for the basalts and K-Ar for the phonolites. A tholeiitic shield basalt yielded an age of 6.2 Ma, the oldest reliable age for any Hawaiian Island tholeiite. Post-shield phonolites gave ages of 4.0 to 4.2 Ma (Garcia et al., 1986) and rejuvenation stage alkalic basalts yielded ages of 1.9 to 0.5 Ma. These ages are nearly identical to those for the same stages for adjacent Ni'ihau volcano but slightly older than on Kauai, 100 km to the NE (Sherrod et al. 2007). Thus, volcanism was nearly simultaneous along Kaua'i Ridge. The new age results extend to 420 km the distance within the Hawaiian Islands that experienced coeval rejuvenated volcanism. Geochemically, the rejuvenated and tholeiitic lavas from the Kaua'i Ridge are very similar with mixed source signatures of Loa and Kea trend compositions. Mixed Loa-Kea sources have been found for many other Hawaiian volcanoes. These results indicate that the Hawaiian mantle plume was broadly homogeneous over 100 km distance but also heterogeneous on a fine scale. Garcia et al., 1986. Contr. Mineral. Petrol. 94, 461-471; Robinson and Eakins, 2006. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res. 151, 309-317; Sherrod et al., 2007. USGS Open-File Rept. 2007-1089.

  8. Hawaii Forest Bird Interagency Database Project: Collecting, Understanding, and Sharing Population Data on Hawaiian Forest Birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thane K.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Camp, Richard J.; Gorresen, P. Marcos

    2006-01-01

    The forest birds of the Hawaiian Islands are distinguished by the diversity of endemic forms derived from a small number of ancestral colonists. However, the avifauna has been decimated by human activities both before and after Western contact. At least 71 species or subspecies disappeared before the arrival of Capt. James Cook in 1778, and an additional 24 went extinct after 1778, of which 11 were lost since the 1960s alone. Many of the remaining Hawaiian bird populations are declining or are in danger of extinction. Vigorous efforts to survey and monitor bird populations over the past 3 decades have generated considerable information from which to assess the current status of the Hawaiian forest birds.

  9. 76 FR 59377 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Resources, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch, and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...framework procedures for spiny lobster and coral and reef associated plants and...

  10. 50 CFR 697.18 - Lobster management areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lobster management areas. 697.18 Section 697.18...Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...ATLANTIC COASTAL FISHERIES COOPERATIVE MANAGEMENT Management Measures § 697.18...

  11. Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands ecosystem, as well as staff projects that are currently in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, ecosystem diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.

  12. Tissue distribution and excretion of 99m Tc-disofenin in three marine species: Pleuronectes americanus (winter flounder), Homarus americanus (lobster), and Mya arenaria (soft-shell clam)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. R. Burn; M. S. Potts; R. H. Moore; A. J. Fischman; H. W. Strauss

    1993-01-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of a small lipophilic molecule in vivo, the distribution and accumulation of 99mTc-radiolabelled disofenin (diisopropylacetanilide iminodiacetic acid) were traced during 1991–1992 by scintigraphy and gamma well counting in winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus collected from Boston Harbor and Long Island Sound in 1992), lobsters (Homarus americanus collected from Massachusetts Bay in 1991), and soft-shell clams (Mya arenaria

  13. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ?Nd-?Hf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes existed at ~2.2 Ma when the Molokai Island volcanoes formed and has persisted until the present. References: Abouchami et al., 2005 Nature, 434:851-856 Xu et al., 2005 G3, doi: 10.1029/2004GC000830 Xu et al., 2007 G3, doi: 10.1029/2006GC001554

  14. Phylogeny and age of diversification of the planitibia species group of the Hawaiian Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Bonacum, James; O'Grady, Patrick M; Kambysellis, Michael; Desalle, Rob

    2005-10-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophila offer a unique opportunity to examine evolutionary questions because of the known ages of the Hawaiian Islands and the large number of species endemic to this archipelago. One of the more well studied groups of Hawaiian Drosophila is the planitibia species group, a long-standing population genetic model system. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic hypothesis of all 17 taxa in the planitibia group based on nucleotide sequences from two mitochondrial (16S and COII) and four nuclear (Adh, Gpdh, Yp1, and Yp2) loci, accounting for over 4kb of sequence per taxon. We use these data to estimate major divergence times within this group. Our results suggest that the basal diversification within this group, calculated at 6.1 +/- 0.47 MY, predates the oldest high island of Kauai. The older diversifications in this group took place on Kauai, with subsequent colonization and speciation events occurring as new islands became available to Drosophila. Understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of this important group will place the existing population genetic work in a macroevolutionary context and stimulate additional work, particularly on those taxa endemic to the Maui Nui complex of islands. PMID:16182150

  15. Air-sea coupling in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, J. M.; Powell, B.; Mattheus, D.

    2014-12-01

    A coupled numerical model is used to investigate the ocean-atmosphere interaction in the lee of the Hawaiian archipelago. The wind curl generated by the island blocking of the trade winds is known to give rise to ocean eddies; however, the impact of the sea surface temperature (SST) and velocity fronts associated with these eddies on the atmosphere is less understood. The main coupling mechanisms are: (i) changes in the near-surface stability and surface stress, (ii) vertical transfer of momentum from higher atmospheric levels to the ocean surface due to an increase of the turbulence in the boundary layer, (iii) secondary circulations associated with perturbations in the surface atmospheric pressure over the SST fronts, and (iv) the impact of the oceanic eddy currents on the net momentum transferred between the atmosphere and the ocean. To assess the relative contribution from each process, a coupled simulation between the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models is conducted for the main Hawaiian Islands. The impact of the coupling, the perturbation of the mean wind pattern, and the different spatial scales involved in the air-sea exchanges of momentum and heat are explored.

  16. Mercury sources and trophic ecology for hawaiian bottomfish.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Choy, C Anela; Popp, Brian; Pitz, Gerald L

    2015-06-01

    In Hawaii, some of the most important commercial and recreational fishes comprise an assemblage of lutjanids and carangids called bottomfish. Despite their importance, we know little about their trophic ecology or where the mercury (Hg) that ultimately resides in their tissue originates. Here we investigated these topics, by analyzing muscle samples for mercury content, nitrogen, carbon, and amino acid specific nitrogen isotope ratios in six species distributed across different depths from the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) and the Main Hawaiian Islands (MHI). Fishes had different sources of nitrogen and carbon, with isotopic values suggesting benthic food sources for shallow nearshore species. High trophic position lutjanids that foraged in deeper water, benthic environments generally had higher Hg levels. Model results also suggested that benthic Hg methylation was an important source of Hg for shallow benthic feeders, while deepwater sources of mercury may be important for those with a diet that derives, at least in part, from the pelagic environment. Further, despite the lack of freshwater sources of Hg in the NWHI, statistical models explaining the variation in tissue Hg in the MHI and NWHI were nearly identical, suggesting freshwater Hg inputs were not a major source of Hg in fish tissue. PMID:25936419

  17. Solitary electromechanical pulses in Lobster neurons

    E-print Network

    Gonzalez-Perez, Alfredo; Budvytyte, Rima; Villagran-Vargas, Edgar; Jackson, Andrew D; Heimburg, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of nerve activity have focused predominantly on electrical phenomena. Nerves, however, are thermodynamic systems, and changes in temperature and in the dimensions of the nerve can also be observed during the action potential. Measurements of heat changes during the action potential suggest that the nerve pulse shares many characteristics with an adiabatic pulse. In the past, experiments by Iwasa & Tasaki demonstrated small changes in nerve thickness and length during the action potential. Such findings have led to the suggestion that the action potential may be related to electromechanical solitons traveling without dissipation. Here, we present ultrasensitive AFM recordings of mechanical changes on the order of 0.2 - 1.2 nm in the giant axons of the lobster. When stimulated at opposite ends of the same axon, colliding action potentials pass through one another and do not annihilate. These observations are consistent with a mechanical interpretation of the nervous impulse.

  18. Fishery Bulletin Index Volume 100(14), 2002

    E-print Network

    , by Bernard Sainte-Marie and Denis Chabot 117 Age and growth of Hawaiian green seaturtles (Chelo nia mydas in natural diet during benthic stages of American lobster (Homarus americanus) off the Magdalen Islands

  19. Phylogeography and ecology of an endemic radiation of Hawaiian aquatic case-bearing moths (Hyposmocoma: Cosmopterigidae).

    PubMed

    Rubinoff, Daniel

    2008-10-27

    The endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) may be one of the most speciose and ecologically diverse genera in Hawaii. Among this diversity is the Hyposmocoma saccophora clade with previously unrecorded aquatic larvae. I present a molecular phylogeny based on 773 base pairs (bp) of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 762 bp of the nuclear gene elongation factor 1-alpha. Topologies were constructed from data using maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and Bayesian search criteria. Results strongly support the monophyly of the H. saccophora clade and the monophyly of the genus Hyposmocoma. The H. saccophora clade has single-island endemic species on Oahu, Molokai and West Maui. By contrast, there are three species endemic to Kauai, two being sympatric. The H. saccophora clade appears to follow the progression rule, with more basal species on older islands, including the most basal species on 11 Myr-old Necker Island, one of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Aquatic behaviour either evolved recently in the species on the main Hawaiian Islands or was secondarily lost on the arid northwestern Necker Island. The phylogeny suggests that Hyposmocoma is older than any of the current main islands, which may, in part, explain Hyposmocoma's remarkable diversity. PMID:18765359

  20. How old is the Hawaiian biota? Geology and phylogeny suggest recent divergence.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Jonathan P; Clague, David A

    2002-01-01

    This study quantifies long-term landscape changes in the Hawaiian archipelago relating to dispersal, speciation and extinction. Accounting for volcano growth, subsidence and erosion, we modelled the elevations of islands at time intervals of 0.5 Myr for the last 32 Myr; we also assessed the variation in the spacing of volcanoes during this period. The size, spacing and total number of volcanic islands have varied greatly over time, with the current landscape of large, closely spaced islands preceded by a period with smaller, more distantly spaced islands. Considering associated changes in rates of dispersal and speciation, much of the present species pool is probably the result of recent colonization from outside the archipelago and divergence within contemporary islands, with limited dispersal from older islands. This view is in accordance with abundant phylogenetic studies of Hawaiian organisms that estimate the timing of colonization and divergence within the archipelago. Twelve out of 15 multi-species lineages have diverged within the lifetime of the current high islands (last 5 Myr). Three of these, and an additional seven (mostly single-species) lineages, have colonized the archipelago within this period. The timing of colonization of other lineages remains uncertain. PMID:12495485

  1. BIASES AND DATA LIMITATIONS OF ODONTOCETE CETACEAN SIGHTING DATA FROM SMALL-BOAT BASED SURVEYS AROUND THE MAIN HAWAIIAN

    E-print Network

    Baird, Robin W.

    BIASES AND DATA LIMITATIONS OF ODONTOCETE CETACEAN SIGHTING DATA FROM SMALL-BOAT BASED SURVEYS. There are both inter-annual and seasonal biases in survey effort. While some species are probably resident of the area around the main Hawaiian Islands. Survey effort was geographically biased (by region and by depth

  2. First Results from the Hawaiian SWELL Pilot Experiment G. Laske, J. Phipps Morgan and J.A. Orcutt

    E-print Network

    Laske, Gabi

    deep. short title: Hawaiian SWELL Seismic Structure keywords: surface waves, ocean bottom instruments-frog hexagonal array of ocean-bottom instruments(Figure1). TheprimaryobjectiveoftheSWELLexperiment(Seismic Islands, we recorded teleseismic intermediate-period Rayleigh waves on ocean-bottom L-CHEAPO instruments

  3. The Hawaiian Rhodophyta Biodiversity Survey (2006-2010): a summary of principal findings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Hawaiian red algal flora is diverse, isolated, and well studied from a morphological and anatomical perspective, making it an excellent candidate for assessment using a combination of traditional taxonomic and molecular approaches. Acquiring and making these biodiversity data freely available in a timely manner ensures that other researchers can incorporate these baseline findings into phylogeographic studies of Hawaiian red algae or red algae found in other locations. Results A total of 1,946 accessions are represented in the collections from 305 different geographical locations in the Hawaiian archipelago. These accessions represent 24 orders, 49 families, 152 genera and 252 species/subspecific taxa of red algae. One order of red algae (the Rhodachlyales) was recognized in Hawaii for the first time and 196 new island distributional records were determined from the survey collections. One family and four genera are reported for the first time from Hawaii, and multiple species descriptions are in progress for newly discovered taxa. A total of 2,418 sequences were generated for Hawaiian red algae in the course of this study - 915 for the nuclear LSU marker, 864 for the plastidial UPA marker, and 639 for the mitochondrial COI marker. These baseline molecular data are presented as neighbor-joining trees to illustrate degrees of divergence within and among taxa. The LSU marker was typically most conserved, followed by UPA and COI. Phylogenetic analysis of a set of concatenated LSU, UPA and COI sequences recovered a tree that broadly resembled the current understanding of florideophyte red algal relationships, but bootstrap support was largely absent above the ordinal level. Phylogeographic trends are reported here for some common taxa within the Hawaiian Islands and include examples of those with, as well as without, intraspecific variation. Conclusions The UPA and COI markers were determined to be the most useful of the three and are recommended for inclusion in future algal biodiversity surveys. Molecular data for the survey provide the most extensive assessment of Hawaiian red algal diversity and, in combination with the morphological/anatomical and distributional data collected as part of the project, provide a solid baseline data set for future studies of the flora. The data are freely available via the Hawaiian Algal Database (HADB), which was designed and constructed to accommodate the results of the project. We present the first DNA sequence reference collection for a tropical Pacific seaweed flora, whose value extends beyond Hawaii since many Hawaiian taxa are shared with other tropical areas. PMID:21092229

  4. Affiliation Motivation and Hawaiian-American Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald

    1974-01-01

    Fantasy "n" affiliation (nAff) was correlated with reading achievement test scores, but not math achievement test scores, for a sample of 67 Hawaiian-American high school students. There was no relationship between "n" Ach and achievement test scores. The process linking "n" Aff and Hawaiian American achievement was suggested to involve…

  5. Ecology and diagnosis of introduced avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, Carter T.

    2005-01-01

    Avian malaria is a disease caused by species of protozoan parasites (Plasmodium) that infect birds. Related species commonly infect reptiles, birds and mammals in tropical and temperate regions of the world. Transmitted by mosquitoes, the parasites spend part of their lives in the red blood cells of birds (Figure 1). Avian malaria is common in continental areas, but is absent from the most isolated island archipelagos where mosquitoes do not naturally occur. More than 40 different species of avian Plasmodium have been described, but only one, P. relictum, has been introduced to the Hawaiian Islands. Because they evolved without natural exposure to avian malaria, native Hawaiian honeycreepers are extremely susceptible to this disease. Malaria currently limits the geographic distribution of native species, has population level impacts on survivorship, and is limiting the recovery of threatened and endangered species of forest birds.

  6. Fraser Island Lady Elliot Island

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yan

    Hinchinbrook Island Lizard Island Double Island Green Island Fitzroy Island North and South Stradbroke Islands Moreton Island GOLD COAST Gulf of Carpenteria Thursday Island Torres Strait Horn Island Maroochydore

  7. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622...622.453 Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ must...

  8. 50 CFR 622.453 - Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. 622.453 Section 622...622.453 Prohibition on harvest of egg-bearing spiny lobster. (a) Egg-bearing spiny lobster in the Caribbean EEZ must...

  9. Hemolymph clotting time as an indicator of stress in western rock lobster ( Panulirus cygnus George)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Jussila; S McBride; J Jago; L. H Evans

    2001-01-01

    A simple method to measure clotting time was introduced in an experiment studying the effects of exercise stress on western rock lobster (Panulirus cygnus). The treatment group lobsters (N=8) were made to exercise (tail flipping) in a 200 l tank for 2 min. Lobsters were then sampled immediately after exercise and once again 1 h later. Controls were sampled both

  10. Sublethal effects of azamethiphos on shelter use by juvenile lobsters ( Homarus americanus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P Abgrall; R. W Rangeley; L. E Burridge; P Lawton

    2000-01-01

    The use of pesticides to treat sea lice infestations in aquaculture may have negative impacts on non-target organisms such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Juvenile lobsters spend most of their time in shelter to avoid predation. This study examined: (1) whether the organophosphate pesticide azamethiphos affected shelter use by juvenile lobsters; (2) whether leaving shelter was a form of

  11. A global analysis of island pyrogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauernicht, C.; Murphy, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Islands have provided insight into the ecological role of fire worldwide through research on the positive feedbacks between fire and nonnative grasses, particularly in the Hawaiian Islands. However, the global extent and frequency of fire on islands as an ecological disturbance has received little attention, possibly because 'natural fires' on islands are typically limited to infrequent dry lightning strikes and isolated volcanic events. But because most contemporary fires on islands are anthropogenic, islands provide ideal systems with which to understand the linkages between socio-economic development, shifting fire regimes, and ecological change. Here we use the density of satellite-derived (MODIS) active fire detections for the years 2000-2014 and global data sets of vegetation, climate, population density, and road development to examine the drivers of fire activity on islands at the global scale, and compare these results to existing pyrogeographic models derived from continental data sets. We also use the Hawaiian Islands as a case study to understand the extent to which novel fire regimes can pervade island ecosystems. The global analysis indicates that fire is a frequent disturbance across islands worldwide, strongly affected by human activities, indicating people can more readily override climatic drivers than on continental land masses. The extent of fire activity derived from local records in the Hawaiian Islands reveals that our global analysis likely underestimates the prevalence of fire among island systems and that the combined effects of human activity and invasion by nonnative grasses can create conditions for frequent and relatively large-scale fires. Understanding the extent of these novel fire regimes, and mitigating their impacts, is critical to reducing the current and rapid degradation of native island ecosystems worldwide.

  12. Unfortunate encounters? Novel interactions of native Mecyclothorax , alien Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile , Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across a Hawaiian landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Liebherr; Paul D. Krushelnycky

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands support a speciose radiation of native Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). This lineage has undergone a classical island radiation resulting in extensive ecological\\u000a specialization, flight-wing loss, and 100% single-island endemism. We report on the sympatric occurrence of several Mecyclothorax species endemic to Haleakala volcano, East Maui with the newly arrived, adventive Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a tramp species

  13. Unfortunate encounters? Novel interactions of native Mecyclothorax , alien Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), and Argentine ant ( Linepithema humile , Hymenoptera: Formicidae) across a Hawaiian landscape

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James K. Liebherr; Paul D. Krushelnycky

    The Hawaiian Islands support a speciose radiation of native Mecyclothorax beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). This lineage has undergone a classical island radiation resulting in extensive ecological\\u000a specialization, flight-wing loss, and 100% single-island endemism. We report on the sympatric occurrence of several Mecyclothorax species endemic to Haleakala volcano, East Maui with the newly arrived, adventive Trechus obtusus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), a tramp species

  14. Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard A. Freed; Rebecca L. Cann

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in

  15. Ca Isotope Fractionation in the Hawaiian Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiegand, B. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Vitousek, P. M.; Wooden, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Investigations of the nutrient budgets in Hawaiian soils show the sources of major cations to be weathering of volcanic rock, marine aerosols, and Asian dust inputs. Especially at deeply weathered sites older than 150 ka, soils show strong depletion of the macronutrient calcium. Most of the calcium supply in these soils is of atmospheric origin (marine aerosols and continental dust). In contrast, younger soils are mainly supplied by calcium from weathering of volcanic bedrock. Based on the results of previous studies using strontium isotopic signatures and Sr/Ca ratios (e.g. Kennedy et al. 1998, Chadwick et al. 1999, Whipkey et al. 2000, Stewart et al. 2001) we have conducted research focusing on the isotope composition of calcium as a new tool for the investigation of sources of calcium and biogeochemical processes effecting Ca isotope fractionation in the plant-soil system. The study combines ? 44Ca with 87Sr/86Sr and Sr/Ca data of soils (bulk compositions and extractable Ca and Sr from soil exchange sites) and different plant species including native Ohia trees (Metrosideros polymorpha) from a soil chronosequence along the Hawaiian Island chain. The study sites differ in age of the underlying substrate from 0.3 ka to 4,100 ka, but show similar recent climate (mean annual temperature of 16 ° C) and amount of precipitation (about 2,500 mm/y). 44Ca/40Ca ratios were measured on a MAT262 at Stanford University, using a 42Ca-48Ca double spike, and are reported as ? 44Ca values relative to seawater (? 44Ca = 0 ‰ ). Results of the extractable, plant available calcium from six soil sites show ? 44Ca values in the range of +1.2 ‰ to -1.3 ‰ with generally more negative values related to younger soil sites where calcium is mainly derived from weathering of volcanic rocks. Bulk soil samples, however, show ? 44Ca values between -0.1 ‰ and -2.5 ‰ , indicating differences in composition as a result of contributions from volcanic minerals, continental dust, and marine aerosols in different proportions. Leaves and wood material of different plant species have ? 44Ca values in the range of -0.1 ‰ and -2.1 ‰ , suggesting biological fractionation of Ca isotopes during calcium uptake in plants. From our results we conclude that the pattern of Ca isotope fractionation in the Hawaiian ecosystem depend on several factors (1) the source of calcium, (2) physiological processes, and (3) soil biogeochemical processes. References Chadwick et al. (1999) Nature 397: 491-497. Kennedy et al. (1998) Geology 26: 1015-1018. Stewart et al. (2001) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65: 1087-1099. Whipkey et al. (2000) Chem. Geol. 168: 37-48.

  16. Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology projects for the US Pacific Islands. Final report, 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the status of 18 of the 33 Department of Energy (DOE) Appropriate Energy Technology (AET) Projects on the US Pacific Islands (excluding the Hawaiian Islands) as of August 1, 1982. The projects include: shallow lens water pumping on the Marshall Islands; hydroelectric power systems on Micronesia; hospital solar hot water system on Micronesia; wind and solar equipment

  17. OCCURRENCEAND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OFLESSER FRIGATEBIRDS (FREGATA-L) ONTERNISLAM),NOR-HAW= ISLANDS

    E-print Network

    Dearborn, Don

    ARTICLES OCCURRENCEAND BREEDING BEHAVIOR OFLESSER FRIGATEBIRDS (FREGATA-L) ONTERNISLAM),NOR- HAW= ISLANDS Donald C. Dearborn and Angela D. Anders Abstract: The Pacific breeding range of Lesser in a breeding colony of Great Frigatebirds (F. minor) on Tern Island, in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

  18. Observations on the Ecology of Epinepheline and Lutjanid Fishes of the Society Islands, with Emphasis on Food Habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John E. Randall; Vernon E. Brock

    1960-01-01

    Food habits and habitats frequented by several groupers (Epinephelinae) and snappers (Lutjanidae) of the Society Islands were investigated preliminary to the introduction into Hawaiian waters from French Oceania of selected inshore marine fishes of food and sport-fishing value. Fifteen species of groupers and 14 snappers which do not occur in the Hawaiian chain were collected in Tahiti and Moorea. Stomach

  19. Patterns of mtDNA variation in Hawaiian freshwater fishes: the phylogeographic consequences of amphidromy.

    PubMed

    Chubb, A L; Zink, R M; Fitzsimons, J M

    1998-01-01

    MtDNA sequencing was used to assess the phylogeographic structure of four species of Hawaiian freshwater fishes: Lentipes concolor, Stenogobius hawaiiensis, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Awaous guamensis. Samples of each species were collected from streams on the northeast side of Kauai, Maui, Molokai, Oahu, and Hawaii. We sequenced segments from both coding and noncoding regions (638-1391 bp) in each species. Sequence analysis uncovered genetic variability in these fishes but no evidence of strong geographic structure among island populations. This result is most readily explained by the fishes' larval marine life stage (amphidromy), which likely facilitates gene flow among island populations. By constraining genetic differentiation among populations, amphidromy may impede speciation in these fishes, possibly explaining why the Hawaiian freshwater fish fauna is depauperate compared to other species-rich Hawaiian faunas. It may also provide them with a kind of evolutionary flexibility atypical of other, more isolated island faunas and allow natural restocking to occur in streams that have been restored to suitable conditions. Comparisons of restriction site and sequence data suggested similar population genetic conclusions for all species except S. stimpsoni, for which the restriction site data is questioned. PMID:9487675

  20. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kathleen E; Ray, Chittaranjan; Ki, Seo Jin; Spokas, Kurt A; Koskinen, William C

    2015-08-15

    On the Hawaiian Islands, groundwater is the principal source of potable water and contamination of this key resource by pesticides is of great concern. To evaluate the leaching potential of four weak acid herbicides [aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, metsulfuron-methyl, biologically active diketonitrile degradate of isoxaflutole (DKN)] and two neutral non-ionizable herbicides [oxyfluorfen, alachlor], their sorption coefficients were determined on three prevalent soils from the island of Oahu. Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocylcopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN were relatively low sorbing herbicides (Koc = 3-53 mL g(-1)), alachlor was intermediate (Koc = 120-150 mL g(-1)), and oxyfluorfen sorbed very strongly to the three soils (Koc > 12,000 mL g(-1)). Following determination of Koc values, the groundwater ubiquity score (GUS) indices for these compounds were calculated to predicted their behavior with the Comprehensive Leaching Risk Assessment System (CLEARS; Tier-1 methodology for Hawaii). Metsulfuron-methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, picloram, and DKN would be categorized as likely leachers in all three Hawaiian soils, indicating a high risk of groundwater contamination across the island of Oahu. In contrast, oxyfluorfen, regardless of the degradation rate, would possess a low and acceptable leaching risk due to its high sorption on all three soils. The leaching potential of alachlor was more difficult to classify, with a GUS value between 1.8 and 2.8. In addition, four different biochar amendments to these soils did not significantly alter their sorption capacities for aminocyclopyrachlor, indicating a relatively low impact of black carbon additions from geologic volcanic inputs of black carbon. Due to the fact that pesticide environmental risks are chiefly dependent on local soil characteristics, this work has demonstrated that once soil specific sorption parameters are known one can assess the potential pesticide leaching risks. PMID:26024994

  1. New species, corallivory, in situ video observations and overview of the Goniasteridae (Valvatida, Asteroidea) in the Hawaiian Region.

    PubMed

    Mah, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Goniasteridae, Astroceramus eldredgei n. sp. and Apollonaster kelleyi n. sp. are described from the Hawaiian Islands region. Prior to this occurrence, Apollonaster was known only from the North Atlantic. The Goniasteridae is the most diverse family of asteroids in the Hawaiian region. Additional in situ observations of several goniasterid species, including A. eldredgei n. sp. are reported. These observations extend documentation of deep-sea corallivory among goniasterid asteroids. New species occurrences presented herein suggested further biogeographic affinities between tropical Pacific and Atlantic goniasterid faunas. PMID:25781779

  2. Interactions between finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Ronald H; Smith, Ruth E; Fisher, E Brian

    2014-11-15

    Interactions between open-net pen finfish aquaculture and lobster catches in a sheltered bay in Nova Scotia, Canada, were investigated using fishermen's participatory research in annual lobster trap surveys over seven years. Fishermen recorded lobster catches during the last two weeks of May from 2007 to 2013. Catches for each trap haul were recorded separately for ovigerous and market-sized lobsters. Catch trends within the bay were compared to regional trends. Results of correlation analyses indicated that ovigerous catch trends were strongly affected by the fish farm's feeding/fallow periods. There was no significant correlation between trends for bay and LFA lobster landings. Patterns of lobster catch per unit effort extending over considerable distance in Port Mouton Bay appear to be influenced by proximity to the fish farm regardless of year-to-year variation in water temperatures and weather conditions. Odours and habitat changes surrounding open-net pen finfish operations are potential factors affecting lobster displacement. PMID:25242235

  3. Mermithid parasitism of Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders in a fragmented landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Roderick, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    Hawaiian Tetragnatha spiders inhabiting small forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii are parasitized by mermithid nematodes. This is the first report of mermithid nematodes infecting spiders in Hawaii, and an initial attempt to characterize this host-parasite interaction. Because immature mermithids were not morphologically identifiable, a molecular identification was performed. A phylogenetic analysis based on 18S small ribosomal subunit nuclear gene sequences suggested that Hawaiian spider mermithids are more closely related to a mainland presumptive Aranimemis species that infects spiders, than to an insect-infecting mermithid collected on Oahu, HI, or to Mermis nigrescens. also a parasite of insects. Measured infection prevalence was low (ranging from 0 to 4%) but differed significantly among forest fragments. Infection prevalence was associated significantly with fragment area, but not with spider density nor spider species richness. Results suggest that mermithid populations are sensitive to habitat fragmentation, but that changes in infection prevalence do not appear to affect spider community structure. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impacts of Human Disturbances on Biotic Communities in Hawaiian Streams

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    ANNE M. D. BRASHER (; )

    2003-11-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about the effects of humans on Hawaiian streams. Streams throughout the tropics have been altered by water diversion, channel modification, introduced species, and water quality degradation. The Hawaiian Islands, with watersheds ranging from the relatively pristine to the highly degraded, offer an opportunity to examine the impacts of human disturbance on native stream communities. For example, urbanization is often accompanied by stream-channel modification and reduced canopy cover, resulting in higher water temperatures and greater fluctuations in daily temperature. Even in relatively pristine watersheds, stream diversions can result in decreased flow velocity and water depth, reducing habitat availability. Dewatering of stream reaches can also inhibit downstream dispersal of larvae and upstream migration of juveniles and adults of native species. Many nonnative aquatic species are better adapted than native species to degraded habitats; once established in these habitats, they can cause further reduction in native populations through competition, predation, and the introduction of parasites or diseases. Understanding the relationship between habitat alteration and aquatic community structure is critical for developing sound management strategies.

  5. Imaging spectroscopy studies of Hawaiian ecosystems, carbon properties, and disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Vitousek, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands contain more than two-thirds of the global life zones delineated by Holdridge1. We used high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) spectral mixture analysis to analyze the lateral distribution of plant tissues and bare substrate across bioclimatic gradients and ecological life zones in Hawai'i. Unique quantities of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation (PV, NPV) and bare substrate identified fundamental differences in ecosystem structure across life zones. There was a nearly 20-fold increase in PV fractional cover with a 10-fold increase in mean annual precipitation (< 250 to 2000 mm yr-1). NPV fractional cover remained nearly constant at ~50% in ecosystems with a mean annual precipitation < 1500 mm yr-1. Thereafter, NPV steadily declined to a minimum of ~ 20% at 3000 mm yr-1 of rainfall. Bare substrate fractions were highest (~50%) at precipitation levels < 750 mm yr-1, then declined to < 20% in the 750-1000 mm yr-1 zones. The combination of low bare substrate and high NPV cover in the 750-1000 mm yr-1 rainfall zones identified these areas as high fire risk. The results verify the applicability of SWIR imaging spectroscopy for ecosystem research on a global scale. They also set the framework for continued studies of ecosystem structure, function and invasive species throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago.

  6. The Hawaiian freshwater algae biodiversity survey (2009–2014): systematic and biogeographic trends with an emphasis on the macroalgae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A remarkable range of environmental conditions is present in the Hawaiian Islands due to their gradients of elevation, rainfall and island age. Despite being well known as a location for the study of evolutionary processes and island biogeography, little is known about the composition of the non-marine algal flora of the archipelago, its degree of endemism, or affinities with other floras. We conducted a biodiversity survey of the non-marine macroalgae of the six largest main Hawaiian Islands using molecular and microscopic assessment techniques. We aimed to evaluate whether endemism or cosmopolitanism better explain freshwater algal distribution patterns, and provide a baseline data set for monitoring future biodiversity changes in the Hawaiian Islands. Results 1,786 aquatic and terrestrial habitats and 1,407 distinct collections of non-marine macroalgae were collected from the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, Maui, Lanai and Hawaii from the years 2009–2014. Targeted habitats included streams, wet walls, high elevation bogs, taro fields, ditches and flumes, lakes/reservoirs, cave walls and terrestrial areas. Sites that lacked freshwater macroalgae were typically terrestrial or wet wall habitats that were sampled for diatoms and other microalgae. Approximately 50% of the identifications were of green algae, with lesser proportions of diatoms, red algae, cyanobacteria, xanthophytes and euglenoids. 898 DNA sequences were generated representing eight different markers, which enabled an assessment of the number of taxonomic entities for genera collected as part of the survey. Forty-four well-characterized taxa were assessed for global distribution patterns. This analysis revealed no clear biogeographic affinities of the flora, with 27.3% characterized as “cosmopolitan”, 11.4% “endemic”, and 61.3% as intermediate. Conclusions The Hawaiian freshwater algal biodiversity survey represents the first comprehensive effort to characterize the non-marine algae of a tropical region in the world using both morphological and molecular tools. Survey data were entered in the Hawaiian Freshwater Algal Database, which serves as a digital repository of photographs and micrographs, georeferenced localities and DNA sequence data. These analyses yielded an updated checklist of the non-marine macroalgae of the Hawaiian Islands, and revealed varied biogeographic affinities of the flora that are likely a product of both natural and anthropogenic dispersal. PMID:25343968

  7. A Complex Evolutionary History in a Remote Archipelago: Phylogeography and Morphometrics of the Hawaiian Endemic Ligia Isopods

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Carlos A.; Mateos, Mariana; Taiti, Stefano; DeWitt, Thomas J.; Hurtado, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the striking diversification and levels of endemism observed in many terrestrial groups within the Hawaiian Archipelago, marine invertebrates exhibit remarkably lower rates of endemism and diversification. Supralittoral invertebrates restricted to specific coastal patchy habitats, however, have the potential for high levels of allopatric diversification. This is the case of Ligia isopods endemic to the Hawaiian Archipelago, which most likely arose from a rocky supralittoral ancestor that colonized the archipelago via rafting, and diversified into rocky supralittoral and inland lineages. A previous study on populations of this isopod from O?ahu and Kaua?i revealed high levels of allopatric differentiation, and suggested inter-island historical dispersal events have been rare. To gain a better understanding on the diversity and evolution of this group, we expanded prior phylogeographic work by incorporating populations from unsampled main Hawaiian Islands (Maui, Moloka?i, Lana?i, and Hawai?i), increasing the number of gene markers (four mitochondrial and two nuclear genes), and conducting Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Our study revealed new lineages and expanded the distribution range of several lineages. The phylogeographic patterns of Ligia in the study area are complex, with Hawai?i, O?ahu, and the Maui-Nui islands sharing major lineages, implying multiple inter-island historical dispersal events. In contrast, the oldest and most geographically distant of the major islands (Kaua?i) shares no lineages with the other islands. Our results did not support the monophyly of all the supralittoral lineages (currently grouped into L. hawaiensis), or the monophyly of the terrestrial lineages (currently grouped into L. perkinsi), implying more than one evolutionary transition between coastal and inland forms. Geometric-morphometric analyses of three supralittoral clades revealed significant body shape differences among them. A taxonomic revision of Hawaiian Ligia is warranted. Our results are relevant for the protection of biodiversity found in an environment subject to high pressure from disturbances. PMID:24386463

  8. Chasing lava: a geologist's adventures at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, Wendell A.

    2003-01-01

    A lively account of the three years (1969-1972) spent by geologist Wendell Duffield working at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory at Kilauea, one of the world's more active volcanoes. Abundantly illustrated in b&w and color, with line drawings and maps, as well. Volcanologists and general readers alike will enjoy author Wendell Duffield's report from Kilauea--home of Pele, the goddess of fire and volcanoes. Duffield's narrative encompasses everything from the scientific (his discovery that the movements of cooled lava on a lava lake mimic the movements of the earth's crust, providing an accessible model for understanding plate tectonics) to the humorous (his dog's discovery of a snake on the supposedly snake-free island) to the life-threatening (a colleague's plunge into molten lava). This charming account of living and working at Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes, is sure to be a delight.

  9. Skin pathology in Hawaiian goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Aeby, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-eight goldring surgeonfish, Ctenochaetus strigosus (Bennett), manifesting skin lesions and originating from the north-western and main Hawaiian Islands were examined. Skin lesions were amorphous and ranged from simple dark or light discolouration to multicoloured tan to white sessile masses with an undulant surface. Skin lesions covered 2–66% of the fish surface, and there was no predilection for lesions affecting a particular part of the fish. Males appeared over-represented. Microscopy revealed the skin lesions to be hyperplasia, melanophoromas or iridophoromas. The presence of skin tumours in a relatively unspoiled area of Hawaii is intriguing. Explaining their distribution, cause and impact on survivorship of fish all merit further study because C. strigosus is an economically important fish in the region.

  10. High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomach

    E-print Network

    Hooper, Scott

    High-Resolution Computed Tomography of Lobster (Panulirus interruptus) Stomach Kevin H. Hobbs (Panulirus interruptus) stomach and identified on this image the previously defined stomach ossicles. These data are the first coordinate-based, three-dimensional description of the stomach and are a necessary

  11. Dominance hierarchies among communally held juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Sastry; R. E. Ehinger

    1980-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the time for establishment of dominance hierarchies, their stability, and their relationship to molting and death of cultured juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus. Agonistic displays between communally held animals were monitored daily. Interactions between all possible pairs of animals within each group were used to determine formation of a dominance hierarchy. A decrease in the

  12. Basic processes of locomotor coordination in the rock lobster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Clarac; C. Chasserat

    1986-01-01

    Rock lobsters are able to perform long and stereotyped stepping sequences above a motor driven treadmill. Forward walking samples are estimated by mean of statistical methods to draw out the basic rules involved in the locomotor behaviour (Fig. 1).- The spatial and temporal parameters defined in a single propulsive leg are either invariable in respect to the imposed speed, as

  13. Pathogenicity, serological responses, and diagnosis of experimental and natural malarial infections in native Hawaiian thrushes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Drake, B.M.; Shema, N.P.

    2001-01-01

    Omao (Myadestes obscurus) from the Hawaiian Islands typically have very low prevalences of infection with avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and it is not clear whether they share the same high susceptibility to this parasite that has been documented in native Hawaiian honeycreepers. We exposed four captive Omao to single infective mosquito bites and measured parasitemia, serological responses, and mortality over time. All four birds experienced transient infections with low parasitemias and were immune when rechallenged with multiple infective mosquito bites. By contrast, three of four honeycreepers (Maui Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana) that were exposed to the same dose and parasite isolate succumbed to infection. All four Omao developed antibodies to a common suite of malarial antigens that were detectable on immunoblots of a crude red blood cell extract of P. relictum. We used this technique to screen plasma samples from wild Omao and endangered Puaiohi (Myadestes palmeri) that were captured at elevations between 900 and 1300 m on the islands of Hawaii and Kauai. We found that the true prevalence of infection at elevations where active malaria transmission occurs is much higher than estimates based on blood smears alone. Hawaiian thrushes appear to have a high tolerance for malaria, with most individuals developing chronic, low-level infections after exposure that cannot be diagnosed accurately by blood smears.

  14. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino Involvement in Clinical Research Opportunities: Qualitative Findings from Hawai'i

    PubMed Central

    Gollin, Lisa X.; Harrigan, Rosanne C.; Perez, John; Easa, David; Calderón, José L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Participants Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Design Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Results Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Conclusions Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community. PMID:16312944

  15. Range-wide genetic connectivity of the Hawaiian monk seal and implications for translocation.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Jennifer K; Baker, Jason D; Toonen, Robert J; Harting, Albert L; Bowen, Brian W

    2011-02-01

    The Hawaiian monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) is one of the most critically endangered marine mammals. Less than 1200 individuals remain, and the species is declining at a rate of approximately 4% per year as a result of juvenile starvation, shark predation, and entanglement in marine debris. Some of these problems may be alleviated by translocation; however, if island breeding aggregates are effectively isolated subpopulations, moving individuals may disrupt local adaptations. In these circumstances, managers must balance the pragmatic need of increasing survival with theoretical concerns about genetic viability. To assess range-wide population structure of the Hawaiian monk seal, we examined an unprecedented, near-complete genetic inventory of the species (n =1897 seals, sampled over 14 years) at 18 microsatellite loci. Genetic variation was not spatially partitioned ((w) =-0.03, p = 1.0), and a Bayesian clustering method provided evidence of one panmictic population (K =1). Pairwise F(ST) comparisons (among 7 island aggregates over 14 annual cohorts) did not reveal temporally stable, spatial reproductive isolation. Our results coupled with long-term tag-resight data confirm seal movement and gene flow throughout the Hawaiian Archipelago. Thus, human-mediated translocation of seals among locations is not likely to result in genetic incompatibilities. PMID:21166713

  16. Biogeography of the deep-sea galatheid squat lobsters of the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macpherson, Enrique; Richer de Forges, Bertrand; Schnabel, Kareen; Samadi, Sarah; Boisselier, Marie-Catherine; Garcia-Rubies, Antoni

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed the distribution patterns of the galatheid squat lobsters (Crustacea, Decapoda, Galatheidae) of the Pacific Ocean. We used the presence/absence data of 402 species along the continental slope and continental rise (200-2000 m) obtained from 54 cruises carried out in areas around the Philippines, Indonesia, Solomon, Vanuatu, New Caledonia, Fiji, Tonga, Wallis and Futuna and French Polynesia. The total number of stations was ca. 3200. We also used published data from other expeditions carried out in the Pacific waters, and from an exhaustive search of ca. 600 papers on the taxonomy and biogeography of Pacific species. We studied the existence of biogeographic provinces using multivariate analyses, and present data on latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of species richness, rate of endemism and the relationship between body sizes with the size of the geographic ranges. Latitudinal species richness along the Western and Eastern Pacific exhibited an increase from higher latitudes towards the Equator. Longitudinal species richness decreased considerably from the Western to the Central Pacific. Size frequency distribution for body size was strongly shifted toward small sizes and endemic species were significantly smaller than non-endemics. This study concludes that a clear separation exists between the moderately poor galatheid fauna of the Eastern Pacific and the rich Western and Central Pacific faunas. Our results also show that the highest numbers of squat lobsters are found in the Coral Sea (Solomon-Vanuatu-New Caledonia islands) and Indo-Malay-Philippines archipelago (IMPA). The distribution of endemism along the Pacific Ocean indicates that there are several major centres of diversity, e.g. Coral Sea, IMPA, New Zealand and French Polynesia. The high proportion of endemism in these areas suggests that they have evolved independently.

  17. Leg 197 synthesis: Southward motion and geochemical variability of the Hawaiian hotspot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duncan, R.A.; Tarduno, J.A.; Scholl, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The bend in the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain is an often-cited example of a change in plate motion with respect to a stationary hotspot. Growing evidence, however, suggests that the bend might instead record variable drift of the Hawaiian hotspot within a convecting mantle. Paleomagnetic and radiometric age data from samples recovered during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 197 define an age-progressive paleolatitude history, indicating that the Emperor Seamounts volcanic trend was formed principally by rapid (4-5 cm/yr) southward motion of the Hawaiian hotspot during Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary time (81-47 Ma). Paleointensity data derived from Leg 197 suggest an inverse relationship between field strength and reversal frequency, consistent with an active lower mantle that controls the efficiency of the geodynamo. Petrochemical data and observations of volcanic products (lava flows and volcaniclastic sediments) from Detroit, Nintoku, and Koko Seamounts provide records of the evolution of these volcanic systems for comparison with recent activity in the Hawaiian Islands. We find that the Emperor Seamounts formed from similar mantle sources for melting (plume components and lithosphere) and in much the same stages of volcanic activity and time span as the Hawaiian volcanoes. Changes in major and trace element and Sr isotopic compositions of shield lavas along the lineament can be related to variations in thickness of the lithosphere overlying the hotspot that control the depth and extent of partial melting. Other geochemical tracers, such as He, Pb, and Hf isotopic compositions, indicate persistent contributions to melting from the plume throughout the volcanic chain.

  18. mtDNA from fossils reveals a radiation of Hawaiian geese recently derived from the Canada goose (Branta canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Paxinos, Ellen E.; James, Helen F.; Olson, Storrs L.; Sorenson, Michael D.; Jackson, Jennifer; Fleischer, Robert C.

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of 1.35 kb of mtDNA sequence from fossils revealed a previously unknown radiation of Hawaiian geese, of which only one representative remains alive (the endangered Hawaiian goose or nene, Branta sandvicensis). This radiation is nested phylogenetically within a living species, the Canada goose (Branta canadensis) and is related most closely to the large-bodied lineage within that species. The barnacle goose (Branta leucopsis) is also nested within the Canada goose species and is related most closely to the small-bodied lineage of Canada geese. The peripheral isolation of the barnacle goose in the Palearctic apparently allowed the evolution of its distinctive plumage pattern, whereas the two Nearctic lineages of Canada geese share a primitive plumage pattern. The Hawaiian lineage of Canada geese diverged more dramatically, splitting into at least three species that differ in body size, body proportions, and flight ability. One fossil species, limited to the island of Hawaii, was related closely to the nene but was over four times larger, flightless, heavy-bodied and had a much more robust cranium. Application of a rate calibration to levels of DNA divergence suggests that this species evolved on the island of Hawaii in less than 500,000 years. This date is consistent with the potassium/argon-based age of the island of Hawaii of 430,000–500,000 years. The giant Hawaii goose resembles the moa-nalos, a group of massive, extinct, flightless ducks that lived on older Hawaiian Islands and thus is an example of convergent evolution of similar morphologies in island ecosystems. PMID:11818543

  19. Ancient DNA reveals genetic stability despite demographic decline: 3,000 years of population history in the endemic Hawaiian petrel.

    PubMed

    Welch, Andreanna J; Wiley, Anne E; James, Helen F; Ostrom, Peggy H; Stafford, Thomas W; Fleischer, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    In the Hawaiian Islands, human colonization, which began approximately 1,200 to 800 years ago, marks the beginning of a period in which nearly 75% of the endemic avifauna became extinct and the population size and range of many additional species declined. It remains unclear why some species persisted whereas others did not. The endemic Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis) has escaped extinction, but colonies on two islands have been extirpated and populations on remaining islands have contracted. We obtained mitochondrial DNA sequences from 100 subfossil bones, 28 museum specimens, and 289 modern samples to investigate patterns of gene flow and temporal changes in the genetic diversity of this endangered species over the last 3,000 years, as Polynesians and then Europeans colonized the Hawaiian Islands. Genetic differentiation was found to be high between both modern and ancient petrel populations. However, gene flow was substantial between the extirpated colonies on Oahu and Molokai and modern birds from the island of Lanai. No significant reductions in genetic diversity occurred over this period, despite fears in the mid-1900s that this species may have been extinct. Simulations show that even a decline to a stable effective population size of 100 individuals would result in the loss of only 5% of the expected heterozygosity. Simulations also show that high levels of genetic diversity may be retained due to the long generation time of this species. Such decoupling between population size and genetic diversity in long-lived species can have important conservation implications. It appears that a pattern of dispersal from declining colonies, in addition to long generation time, may have allowed the Hawaiian petrel to escape a severe genetic bottleneck, and the associated extinction vortex, and persist despite a large population decline after human colonization. PMID:22844071

  20. Helminth parasites of native Hawaiian freshwater fishes: an example of extreme ecological isolation.

    PubMed

    Font, W F; Tate, D C

    1994-10-01

    The Hawaiian Islands harbor a depauperate native freshwater fish fauna comprised of 4 endemic gobies (Gobiidae) and 1 endemic sleeper (Eleotridae). We hypothesized that the natural helminth parasite community of these stream fishes would be depauperate because of colonizing constraints. In the absence of exotic fishes, native fishes in streams of Hanakapi'ai and Nu'alolo valleys harbored no adult helminth parasites. In Hakalau Stream on Hawai'i and Wainiha River on Kaua'i, we found introduced swordtails and guppies (Poeciliidae); here, the native gobioid fishes shared species of helminths with poeciliids. They were the nematode Camallanus cotti, the Asian tapeworm Bothriocephalus acheilognathi, and the leech Myzobdella lugubris. Such parasitological data should be incorporated into management plans for the conservation of native Hawaiian stream fishes as these parasites have been previously demonstrated to cause disease. PMID:7931902

  1. The Lithium Isotopic Signature of Hawaiian Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, L.; Weis, D.; Hanano, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Recycling of oceanic crust and sediment is a common mechanism to account for the presence of chemical heterogeneities observed in oceanic island basalts (OIBs). On Hawai';i, a mantle plume-sourced OIB with a high mass flux, sampling of deep mantle heterogeneities accounts for the presence of two unique geochemical and geographical trends called the Loa and Kea trends. The Loa trend overlaps the Pacific large low shear velocity province and is distinctly more enriched [1] than the Kea trend with average Pacific mantle compositions [2]. Because of the sizeable fractionation of lithium isotopes in low temperature environments, lithium serves as a tracer for the presence of recycled material in OIB sources, including Hawai'i. In this study, we analyzed 87 samples of Hawaiian basalt from the pre-shield, shield, post-shield, and rejuvenated volcanic stages and 10 samples of altered oceanic crust from ODP Site 843 for lithium isotopes using a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Correlations of lithium isotopes with the radiogenic isotopes Pb, Hf, Nd, and Sr indicate lithium isotopes may be used to trace components in mantle plumes such as Hawai';i. The measured range of lithium isotopes for shield stage lavas is ?7Li = 1.8 - 5.7‰ and for post-shield lavas is ?7Li = 0.8 - 4.7‰. Pre-shield stage lavas (Lo'ihi volcano only) and rejuvenated lavas are the least and most homogeneous volcanic stages, respectively, in lithium isotopes. The Loa and Kea geochemical trends have different lithium isotopic signatures, with Loa trend shield volcanoes exhibiting lighter lithium isotopic signatures (?7Li = 3.5‰ [N=43]) than Kea trend shield volcanoes (?7Li = 4.0‰ [N=31]) [3]. Similarly, post-shield lavas have systematically lighter ?7Li than shield lavas. The presence of systematic differences in lithium isotopic signatures may indicate: 1) the sampling of distinct components in the deep source, to account for variations between Kea and Loa trend shield stage volcanoes or amongst individual volcanoes; 2) differences in degree of mantle melt and spatial structure of the mantle heterogeneity melting in the case of pre-shield, shield, and post-shield differences. In Hawaiian basalts, lithium isotopes help distinguish between 'enriched' Loa source components: Ko';olau Makapu';u shield stage lavas may have between 4-10% of a carbonate input and Hualalai post-shield and shield lavas may reflect incorporation of subduction eroded lower continental crust. Comparison of this dataset with worldwide OIB published lithium isotopic data indicates that the lithium isotopic system behaves systematically on a mantle-wide scale. Hawai'i is generally characterized as EM-I like, with Hualalai post-shield lavas exhibiting both the lightest lithium isotopic signature and the most extreme EM-I characteristics. Lithium isotopes thus provide an additional insight into the nature of EM-I type mantle. [1] Weis, D. et al. (2011) Nature Geoscience 4, doi:10.1038/NGEO1328. [2] Nobre Silva, I.G. et al. (2013) Geochem. Geophy. Geosys. 14(3), doi: doi:10.1002/ggge.20047. [3] Chan, L.H., and Frey, F.A. (2003) Geochem. Geophy. Geosys. 4(3), doi: 10.1029/2002GC000365.

  2. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

  3. "I No Like Get Caught Using Drugs": Explanations for Refusal as a Drug-Resistance Strategy for Rural Native Hawaiian Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okamoto, Scott K.; Helm, Susana; Giroux, Danielle; Kaliades, Alexis

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the use of explanations for refusal as a drug-resistance strategy for rural Native Hawaiian youths. Fourteen gender-specific focus groups were conducted within seven middle or intermediate schools on the Island of Hawai'i (N = 64). Participants were asked to describe drug-resistance strategies in response to 15…

  4. Hawaii Energy Resource Overviews. Volume 3. Hawaiian ecosystem and its environmental determinants with particular emphasis on promising areas for geothermal development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1980-01-01

    A brief geobiological history of the Hawaiian Islands is presented. Climatology, physiography, and environmental degradation are discussed. Soil types and associations, land use patterns and ratings, and vegetation ecology are covered. The fauna discussed include: ancient and recent vertebrate life, land mollusca, marine fauma, and insect fauna. (MHR)

  5. Demographic patterns in the peacock grouper (Cephalopholis argus), an introduced Hawaiian reef fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donovan, Mary K.; Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Donahue, Megan J.; Williams, Ivor D.

    2013-01-01

    This study took advantage of a unique opportunity to collect large sample sizes of a coral reef fish species across a range of physical and biological features of the Hawaiian Archipelago to investigate variability in the demography of an invasive predatory coral reef fish, Cephalopholis argus (Family: Epinephelidae). Age-based demographic analyses were conducted at 10 locations in the main Hawaiian Islands and estimates of weight-at-length, size-at-age, and longevity were compared among locations. Each metric differed among locations, although patterns were not consistent across metrics. Length-weight relationships for C. argus differed among locations and individuals weighed less at a given length at Hilo, the southernmost location studied. Longevity differed among and within islands and was greater at locations on Maui and Hawaii compared to the more northern locations on Oahu and Kauai. Within-island growth patterns differed at Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. This work provides a case study of fundamental life history information from distant and/or spatially limited locations that are critical for developing robust fishery models. The differences observed both among and within islands indicate that variability may be driven by cross-scale mechanisms that need to be considered in fisheries stock assessments and ecosystem-based management.

  6. New constraints on the Hawaiian swell origin using wavelet analysis of the geoid to topography ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadio, C.; Ballmer, M.; Panet, I.; Ribe, N.; Diament, M.

    2012-04-01

    Analyzing the formation of hotspot swells, including the shallowness around the Hawaiian Islands, is critical for understanding the origin of intraplate volcanism and the underlying geodynamical processes. Two main hypotheses for the origin of this swell are generally considered: thermal lithospheric thinning, and dynamical support by a convective ascending plume. A major goal of these models is to quantitatively explain the two important characteristics of the Hawaiian swell: its topography and the corresponding geoid anomaly. In simple models of isostatic compensation, the geoid-to-topography ratio (GTR) is linearly related to the depth of the compensating mass; therefore it is often considered as a fundamental parameter to assess swell support mechanisms. According to previous work, the observed GTR has been reported to range from 4 to 5 m/km. The corresponding apparent compensation depth is about 45 km, which is shallower than predicted by the dynamic support model. However, analysis of the data processing methods shows that the applied bandpass filters to retain only characteristic wavelengths of the swell topography and geoid, cannot completely remove the signal due to loading of the volcanic edifices and related lithospheric flexure. In order to resolve these issues, we apply a continuous wavelet transform, which allows us to retrieve lateral variations of the GTR at each spatial scale. A series of synthetic tests based on different geodynamic models clearly indicates that by efficiently filtering the unwanted contributions, our approach is able to estimate the proper GTR of the Hawaiian swell. A high GTR of 8 m/km is recovered on the current hotspot location. Therefore, for the first time, the recovered GTR agrees with realistic geodynamic models of the Hawaiian plume. Accordingly, the thermal rejuvenation model can be ruled out by our analysis. Instead, the swell as a whole is shown to be mainly supported dynamically by the uprising Hawaiian plume. Furthermore, we find that the depth of the compensating mass decays by 20 km over a distance of 500 km from Hawaii to Kauai. Thus, a second mechanism has to be invoked to fully explain the Hawaiian swell formation. One of our synthetic tests including small-scale convection in the center of the plume pancake is able to recover the rate of this decay, but not its full spectral characteristics. Nevertheless, in agreement with seismic evidence for lithospheric thinning along the Hawaiian chain, we propose that additional small-scale convection on the flanks of the pancake can resolve this discrepancy.

  7. Adversity and Resiliency in the Lives of Native Hawaiian Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2009-01-01

    Native Hawaiians constitute 401,000 or 0.1 percent of the total U.S. population, with approximately 60 percent residing in the state of Hawai'i. In Hawai'i, Native Hawaiian elders ("na kupuna") face a number of social and health disparities when compared with their non-Native Hawaiian counterparts: higher rates of poverty, greater disability…

  8. Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Information Panel The Embryonic Development of the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes the growing interest in Hawaiian bobtail squid (Euprymna scolopes) as a contemporary cephalopod developmental, and potential uses of E. scolopes as model organisms, see The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid (Euprymna scolopes

  9. Hawaiian Language Immersion Adoption of an Innovation: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, D. Lilinoe

    2012-01-01

    This is a story about some Native Hawaiian people written by Native Hawaiian people of the Papahana Kaiapuni, or the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP) of the Hawai`i public schools. Together they "talk story" and become the voice for the HLIP by painting a picture of their past, present, and future experiences with technology.…

  10. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Fraaije, René H B

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

  11. Overview of “bumper car” disease—Impact on the North American lobster fishery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Cawthorn

    1997-01-01

    Recent (1993) landings of American lobsters (Homarus americanus) were valued at $294 million (Can.) in Canada and $213 million (Can.) in the United States. However, post-harvest losses are estimated at $50–75 million (10–15%) annually. The lobster fishery is one of the few remaining viable traditional fisheries in eastern North America. “Bumper car” disease of lobsters, caused by the scuticociliate Anophryoides

  12. URINE RELEASE IN FREELY MOVING CATHETERISED LOBSTERS (HOMARUS AMERICANUS) WITH REFERENCE TO FEEDING AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS BREITHAUPT; DANIEL P. LINDSTROM; JELLE ATEMA

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that urine-borne pheromones play an important role in lobster agonistic and sexual behaviour. This paper investigates the pattern of urine release in catheterised, but otherwise freely moving, adult lobsters with respect to feeding, social and non-social activities. Lobsters on average released 4.1 ml (1 % of body mass) of urine over a 12 h period; this more

  13. Temperature and acid-base balance in the American lobster Homarus americanus.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Syed Aman; Camacho, Joseph; Wang, Hongkun; Taylor, Josi R; Grosell, Martin; Worden, Mary Kate

    2007-04-01

    Lobsters (Homarus americanus) in the wild inhabit ocean waters where temperature can vary over a broad range (0-25 degrees C). To examine how environmental thermal variability might affect lobster physiology, we examine the effects of temperature and thermal change on the acid-base status of the lobster hemolymph. Total CO(2), pH, P(CO)2 and HCO(-)(3) were measured in hemolymph sampled from lobsters acclimated to temperature in the laboratory as well as from lobsters acclimated to seasonal temperatures in the wild. Our results demonstrate that the change in hemolymph pH as a function of temperature follows the rule of constant relative alkalinity in lobsters acclimated to temperature over a period of weeks. However, thermal change can alter lobster acid-base status over a time course of minutes. Acute increases in temperature trigger a respiratory compensated metabolic acidosis of the hemolymph. Both the strength and frequency of the lobster heartbeat in vitro are modulated by changes in pH within the physiological range measured in vivo. These observations suggest that changes in acid-base status triggered by thermal variations in the environment might modulate lobster cardiac performance in vivo. PMID:17371923

  14. Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. ?13C and ?15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather ?15N and ?13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in ?15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in ?15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1,000 years. These data offer rare insight into the long-term fluxuations of seabird foraging habits as well as important information for the conservation of Hawaiian petrels and ultimately, the ecosystems they inhabit.

  15. A preliminary survey of yeasts isolated from marine habitats at Abaco Island, The Bahamas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Volz; D. E. Jerger; A. J. Wurzburger; J. L. Hiser

    1974-01-01

    Littoral zone marine sediment and sand, spiny lobster and conch were examined for yeasts. Nineteen yeast species were found to exist in varying abundance. Previous studies in the series examined the marine fungi (17), fresh water fungi (16), and keratinophilic fungi (15) of Abaco Island, The Bahamas.

  16. Effects of Feral Pig ( Sus scrofa ) Exclusion on Enterococci in Runoff from the Forested Headwaters of a Hawaiian Watershed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dashiell O. Dunkell; Gregory L. Bruland; Carl I. Evensen; Mark J. Walker

    The role feral pigs (Sus scrofa) as a source of fecal contamination in Pacific Island ecosystems is not well understood. This study investigated the effects\\u000a of feral pigs on enterococci (ENT) in runoff and soils of a Hawaiian forest. Seven sites were established with paired fenced\\/unfenced\\u000a runoff plots in the Manoa watershed. Runoff was collected monthly from these plots after

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in somatic growth of green sea turtles ( Chelonia mydas ) resident in the Hawaiian Archipelago

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. H. Balazs; M. Chaloupka

    2004-01-01

    The somatic growth dynamics of green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) resident in five separate foraging grounds within the Hawaiian Archipelago were assessed using a robust non-parametric regression modelling approach. The foraging grounds range from coral reef habitats at the north-western end of the archipelago, to coastal habitats around the main islands at the south-eastern end of the archipelago. Pelagic juveniles

  18. CRATER LAKE DEPOSITS AND FOSSIL BIRDS AT ULUPAU HEAD ,O AHU ,H AWAIIAN ISLANDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul J. HEARTY; Helen F. JAMES; Storrs L. OLSON

    Summary Pleistocene lake deposits in Ulupau Crater on Oahu contain the oldest fossil bird remains known from the Hawaiian Islands. These fossils are important for documenting evolutionary rates in a variety of lineages of land and water birds from the islands. Detailed stratigraphic analysis reveals distinct cycles of deposition involving interbedded lacustrine deposits, colluvium, and paleosols. The volcanic basin was

  19. A geographic mosaic of passive dispersal: population structure in the endemic Hawaiian amber snail Succinea caduca (Mighels, 1845).

    PubMed

    Holland, Brenden S; Cowie, Robert H

    2007-06-01

    We used 276 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, 645 bp) and a subset of 84 16S large ribosomal subunit (16S, 451 bp) sequences to evaluate geographic patterns of genetic variation in 24 populations of the endemic Hawaiian land snail Succinea caduca spanning its range on six islands. Haplotype networks, gene tree topologies, pairwise molecular divergence and F(ST) matrices suggest substantial geographic genetic structuring and complex dispersal patterns. Low nucleotide diversity and low pairwise molecular divergence values within populations coupled with higher between population values suggest multiple founder events. High overall haplotype diversity suggests diversification involving rare interpopulation dispersal, fragmentation by historical lava flows and variation in habitat structure. Within-island rather than between-island population comparisons accounted for the majority of molecular variance. Although 98% of 153 COI haplotypes were private by population, a Mantel test showed no evidence for isolation by distance. Mismatch distributions and population partitioning patterns suggest that genetic fragmentation has been driven by punctuated, passive dispersal of groups of closely related haplotypes that subsequently expanded and persisted in isolation for long periods (average > 2 million years ago), and that Pleistocene island connections may have been important in enhancing gene flow. Historical availability of mesic coastal habitat, together with effective dispersal may explain the long-term persistence and unusual multi-island distribution of this species, contrasting with the single-island endemism of much of the Hawaiian biota. PMID:17561903

  20. Mid-ocean isolation and the evolution of Hawaiian reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Hourigan, T F; Reese, E S

    1987-07-01

    The Hawaiian fish fauna has close affinities with the fauna of the Indo-west Pacific from which it is derived, but is depauperate. It is characterized by a large number of endemic species (30% of inshore fishes), which are often the most abundant species in their families in Hawaii. Although there is evidence of local adaptation, there has been no radiation of species within the island chain, as occurs in the terrestrial biota of isolated islands. Three major factors have contributed to these trends: (1) the geographic isolation of the islands, and oceanographic features, especially current patterns; (2) the life history characteristics of the fishes, especially their dispersal capabilities; and (3) the extent of adaptive differentiation to environmental conditions after they reached Hawaii. PMID:21227848

  1. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  2. Determination of Moulting Events in Rock Lobsters from Pleopod Clipping

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Caleb; Mills, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Rock lobster growth is routinely measured for research to optimise management measures such as size limits and quotas. The process of estimating growth is complicated in crustaceans as growth only occurs when the animal moults. As data are typically collected by tag-recapture methods, the timing of moulting events can bias results. For example, if annual moulting events take place within a very short time-at-large after tagging, or if time-at-large is long and no moulting occurs. Classifying data into cases where moulting has / has not occurred during time-at-large can be required and can generally be determined by change in size between release and recapture. However, in old or slow growth individuals the moult increment can be too small to provide surety that moulting has occurred. A method that has been used since the 1970’s to determine moulting in rock lobsters involves clipping the distal portion of a pleopod so that any regeneration observed at recapture can be used as evidence of a moult. We examined the use of this method in both tank and long-duration field trials within a marine protected area, which provided access to large animals with smaller growth increments. Our results emphasised that determination of moulting by change in size was unreliable with larger lobsters and that pleopod clipping can assist in identifying moulting events. However, regeneration was an unreliable measure of moulting if clipping occurred less than three months before the moult. PMID:24009769

  3. Introduced birds and the fate of hawaiian rainforests.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey T; Robinson, Scott K

    2007-10-01

    The Hawaiian Islands have lost nearly all their native seed dispersers, but have gained many frugivorous birds and fleshy-fruited plants through introductions. Introduced birds may not only aid invasions of exotic plants but also may be the sole dispersers of native plants. We assessed seed dispersal at the ecotone between native- and exotic-dominated forests and quantified bird diets, seed rain from defecated seeds, and plant distributions. Introduced birds were the primary dispersers of native seeds into exotic-dominated forests, which may have enabled six native understory plant species to become reestablished. Some native plant species are now as common in exotic forest understory as they are in native forest. Introduced birds also dispersed seeds of two exotic plants into native forest, but dispersal was localized or establishment minimal. Seed rain of bird-dispersed seeds was extensive in both forests, totaling 724 seeds of 9 native species and 2 exotics with over 85% of the seeds coming from native plants. Without suitable native dispersers, most common understory plants in Hawaiian rainforests now depend on introduced birds for dispersal, and these introduced species may actually facilitate perpetuation, and perhaps in some cases restoration, of native forests. We emphasize, however, that restoration of native forests by seed dispersal from introduced birds, as seen in this study, depends on the existence of native forests to provide a source of seeds and protection from the effects of ungulates. Our results further suggest that aggressive control of patches of non-native plants within otherwise native-dominated forests may be an important and effective conservation strategy. PMID:17883490

  4. Code switching in hawaiian creole

    E-print Network

    St. Clair, Robert N.; Murai, Harold M.

    1974-04-01

    . These first immigrants were the Hakkas, Yup, and Chung Shan of the Kwangtung province. They were followed in 1872 by the Portuguese who came from the islands of Madeira and Sao Miguel in the Azores. By 1884 the first major wave of immigrants culminated...

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Banza (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae), the endemic katydids of the Hawaiian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, L H; Strazanac, J S; Roderick, G K

    2006-10-01

    The extant endemic katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) of the Hawaiian Archipelago include one to three species per high island and a single species on Nihoa, all currently placed in the genus Banza. These acoustic insects provide an excellent opportunity for investigating the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation, but such studies require an understanding of phylogenetic relationships within the group. We use maximum parsimony, likelihood-based Bayesian inference, and maximum likelihood to infer phylogenetic relationships among these taxa, based on approximately 2kb of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and cytochrome b. Our results strongly support two distinct high island clades: one clade ("Clade I") composed of species from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Lanai and another clade ("Clade II") composed of species from Maui and Hawaii (Banza unica, from Oahu, may be basal to both these clades, but its placement is not well resolved). Within these clades, some inferred relationships are strongly supported, such as the sister status of B. kauaiensis (Kauai) and B. parvula (Oahu) within Clade I, but other relationships remain more ambiguous, such as the relative position of B. brunnea (Maui) within Clade II. Although a detailed reconstruction of the historical biogeography of the Hawaiian katydids is difficult, we use our genetic data combined with the known geological history of the Hawaiian Islands to set limits on plausible historical scenarios for diversification of this group. Beyond these historical biogeographic inferences, our results indicate possible cryptic speciation on both Oahu and Hawaii, as well as what may be unusually high average rates of nucleotide substitution. The present work sets the stage for future genetic and experimental investigations of this group. PMID:16781170

  6. Origin, adaptive radiation and diversification of the Hawaiian lobeliads (Asterales: Campanulaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Givnish, Thomas J.; Millam, Kendra C.; Mast, Austin R.; Paterson, Thomas B.; Theim, Terra J.; Hipp, Andrew L.; Henss, Jillian M.; Smith, James F.; Wood, Kenneth R.; Sytsma, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian lobeliads are exceptionally species rich and exhibit striking diversity in habitat, growth form, pollination biology and seed dispersal, but their origins and pattern of diversification remain shrouded in mystery. Up to five independent colonizations have been proposed based on morphological differences among extant taxa. We present a molecular phylogeny showing that the Hawaiian lobeliads are the product of one immigration event; that they are the largest plant clade on any single oceanic island or archipelago; that their ancestor arrived roughly 13?Myr ago; and that this ancestor was most likely woody, wind-dispersed, bird-pollinated, and adapted to open habitats at mid-elevations. Invasion of closed tropical forests is associated with evolution of fleshy fruits. Limited dispersal of such fruits in wet-forest understoreys appears to have accelerated speciation and led to a series of parallel adaptive radiations in Cyanea, with most species restricted to single islands. Consistency of Cyanea diversity across all tall islands except Hawai `i suggests that diversification of Cyanea saturates in less than 1.5?Myr. Lobeliad diversity appears to reflect a hierarchical adaptive radiation in habitat, then elevation and flower-tube length, and provides important insights into the pattern and tempo of diversification in a species-rich clade of tropical plants. PMID:18854299

  7. Osmium-isotope variations in Hawaiian lavas: evidence for recycled oceanic lithosphere in the Hawaiian plume

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lassiter; E. H. Hauri

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic heterogeneity in Hawaiian shield lavas reflects the presence of two distinct recycled components in the Hawaiian plume, both from the same packet of recycled oceanic lithosphere. Radiogenic Os-isotopes and anomalously heavy oxygen-isotopes in Koolau lavas reflect melt generation from recycled oceanic crust plus pelagic sediment. In contrast, Kea lavas have unradiogenic Os-isotopes but anomalously light oxygen-isotopes. Oxygen–osmium–lead isotope correlations

  8. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... births, 2002* Race of Mother Infant Mortality Rate Ratio vs. Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic White 5. ... by territory Race of Mother Infant Mortality Rate Ratio** vs. Non-Hispanic White Non-Hispanic White (U.S. ...

  9. Asian dust: seasonal transport to the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Parrington; W. H. Zoller; N. K. Aras

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of atmospheric particles collected at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii from February 1979 through September 1982 reveal strong influxes of Asian dust in the spring of each year. Concentrations of a typical crustal element, aluminum, are more than an order of magnitude greater between February and June than during the remainder of the year (71 +\\/- 51 versus 6.7

  10. removing marine debris in the northwestern hawaiian islands2012

    E-print Network

    LAYSAN MARO GARDNER NECKER NIHOA KAUAI NIIHAU HAWAII MAUI MOLOKAI OAHU FRENCH FRIGATE SHOALS KURE MIDWAY of birds found nowhere else in the world, including the world's most endangered duck, the Laysan Duck (PMNM, working with numerous partners across the state, created the Hawai`i Marine Debris Action Plan (updated

  11. Measurements of Mesospheric Sodium Abundance above the Hawaiian Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lewis C. Roberts Jr.; L. William Bradford; Christopher R. Neyman; Alan Z. Liu

    2007-01-01

    Laser guide stars have increased the utility of adaptive optics systems by expanding the number of observable objects. The most common type of laser excites sodium in the mesosphere, and mesospheric sodium density is key to the performance of the laser. While a variety of observatories have conducted studies of the mesospheric sodium density, there are no published studies from

  12. Cavernicoles in Lava Tubes on the Island of Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francis G. Howarth

    1972-01-01

    Cave-adapted arthropods have evolved in lava tubes in Hawaii. This is the first report of cavernicoles from the Hawaiian islands. The specialization of the cavernicolous insects and the recent origin of the lava tubes suggest that subterranean connections between lava tubes regularly occur and provide dispersal routes. The discovery that lava tubes were colonized by representatives of the adaptively radiating

  13. An invasive fish and the time-lagged spread of its parasite across the Hawaiian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Gaither, Michelle R; Aeby, Greta; Vignon, Matthias; Meguro, Yu-ichiro; Rigby, Mark; Runyon, Christina; Toonen, Robert J; Wood, Chelsea L; Bowen, Brian W

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to limit the impact of invasive species are frustrated by the cryptogenic status of a large proportion of those species. Half a century ago, the state of Hawai'i introduced the Bluestripe Snapper, Lutjanus kasmira, to O'ahu for fisheries enhancement. Today, this species shares an intestinal nematode parasite, Spirocamallanus istiblenni, with native Hawaiian fishes, raising the possibility that the introduced fish carried a parasite that has since spread to naïve local hosts. Here, we employ a multidisciplinary approach, combining molecular, historical, and ecological data to confirm the alien status of S. istiblenni in Hawai'i. Using molecular sequence data we show that S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are genetically affiliated with source populations in French Polynesia, and not parasites at a geographically intermediate location in the Line Islands. S. istiblenni from Hawai'i are a genetic subset of the more diverse source populations, indicating a bottleneck at introduction. Ecological surveys indicate that the parasite has found suitable intermediate hosts in Hawai'i, which are required for the completion of its life cycle, and that the parasite is twice as prevalent in Hawaiian Bluestripe Snappers as in source populations. While the introduced snapper has spread across the entire 2600 km archipelago to Kure Atoll, the introduced parasite has spread only half that distance. However, the parasite faces no apparent impediments to invading the entire archipelago, with unknown implications for naïve indigenous Hawaiian fishes and the protected Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument. PMID:23468894

  14. Micronekton abundance and biomass in Hawaiian waters as influenced by seamounts, eddies, and the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazen, Jeffrey C.; De Forest, Lisa G.; Domokos, Reka

    2011-05-01

    Micronekton abundance, biomass, and community composition was determined from 58 Cobb trawl samples taken from 2005 to 2008 at several locations in the lee of the Hawaiian Islands. The results indicated a strong influence of the lunar illumination on micronekton abundance and biomass. This effect was evident in shallow night tows and probably was the result of lunar light affecting the nighttime depths of migrating species. The abundance and biomass of micronekton is remarkably consistent between years and areas in Hawaiian waters after the affects of moon phase are accounted for. Micronekton, principally migratory myctophids, were reduced over the summit of Cross Seamount but not Finch Seamount that has a summit below the daytime depth of most migrators. However, during a new moon, micronekton abundance over Cross seamount was similar to surrounding areas either because of altered migration patterns or because predators such as tunas cannot forage as effectively at night without lunar illumination. Species belonging to the Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary layer community were found to vary in presence and abundance between years at Cross Seamount suggesting that a consistent seamount associated fauna does not exist. Sparse sampling of a cyclonic mid-ocean eddy suggested very high micronekton abundance and biomass both in shallow waters at night but also at depth during the day. Although preliminary, these results suggest that eddies may aggregate the micronekton which probably feed on the enhanced secondary productivity.

  15. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697...Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A...permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person...

  16. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697...Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A...permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person...

  17. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697...Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A...permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person...

  18. 50 CFR 697.24 - Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. 697...Measures § 697.24 Exempted waters for Maine State American lobster permits. A...permit or license issued by the State of Maine that lawfully permits that person...

  19. Temperature Sensitivity of a Ciliated Protozoa (Family Paranophryidae) from American Lobster, Homarus americanus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Loughlin; Robert C. Bayer

    1995-01-01

    Ciliated protozoan (family Paranophryidae) disease has been noted in American lobster, Homarus americanus, for twenty years. with annual outbreaks in impoundments since 1990. Mass mortalities and moribundity associated with this organism occur most frequently during periods when water temperatures are 2-3°C. Temperature sensitivity of this organism was evaluated in vitro. Results were compared to published data for lobsters to determine

  20. Identification of Chemosensory Sensilla Activating Antennular Grooming Behavior in the Caribbean Spiny Lobster, Panulirus argus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Wroblewska; Sean Whalley; Melissa Fischetti; Peter C. Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters clean or 'groom' their olfactory organ, the antennule, by wiping it through a pair of mouthpart appendages, the third maxillipeds. In the lobster, only a few chemicals found in prey extracts, especially glutamate, elicit grooming. Chemosensory input driving grooming is likely to be mediated via sensilla located on antennules and third maxillipeds. Chemosensory antennular

  1. Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. D. Tall; S. Fall; M. R. Pereira; M. Ramos-Valle; S. K. Curtis; M. H. Kothary; D. M. T. Chu; S. R. Monday; L. Kornegay; T. Donkar; D. Prince; R. L. Thunberg; K. A. Shangraw; D. E. Hanes; F. M. Khambaty; K. A. Lampel; J. W. Bier; R. C. Bayer

    2003-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like micro- organism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The

  2. Cuticles of European and American lobsters harbor diverse bacterial species and differ in disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Whitten, Miranda M A; Davies, Charlotte E; Kim, Anita; Tlusty, Michael; Wootton, Emma C; Chistoserdov, Andrei; Rowley, Andrew F

    2014-01-01

    Diseases of lobster shells have a significant impact on fishing industries but the risk of disease transmission between different lobster species has yet to be properly investigated. This study compared bacterial biofilm communities from American (Homarus americanus) and European lobsters (H. gammarus), to assess both healthy cuticle and diseased cuticle during lesion formation. Culture-independent molecular techniques revealed diversity in the bacterial communities of cuticle biofilms both within and between the two lobster species, and identified three bacterial genera associated with shell lesions plus two putative beneficial bacterial species (detected exclusively in healthy cuticle or healing damaged cuticle). In an experimental aquarium shared between American and European lobsters, heterospecific transmission of potentially pathogenic bacteria appeared to be very limited; however, the claws of European lobsters were more likely to develop lesions when reared in the presence of American lobsters. Aquarium biofilms were also examined but revealed no candidate pathogens for environmental transmission. Aquimarina sp. ‘homaria’ (a potential pathogen associated with a severe epizootic form of shell disease) was detected at a much higher prevalence among American than European lobsters, but its presence correlated more with exacerbation of existing lesions rather than with lesion initiation. PMID:24817518

  3. Habitat surrounding patch reefs influences the diet and nutrition of the western rock lobster

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study the influence of habitat on the diet and nutrition of a common reef-associated generalist consumer, the western rock lobster Panulirus cygnus, was tested. Stable isotopes (13C/12C and 15N/14N) and gut contents were used to assess the diet of lobsters collected from ...

  4. Thomas A. Jaggar, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Thomas A. Jaggar founded the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1912 and served as its Director until 1940.  Shown here in 1925, Jaggar is at work in HVO's first building, which, at the time, was located on the northeast rim of K?lauea Volcano’s summit caldera, near the present-day Volc...

  5. Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

  6. Predicting School Problems of the Hawaiian Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharp, Roland; Gallimore, Ronald

    An informal survey of Hawaiian school teachers and administrators revealed a considerable variance among communities in the type of problems mentioned. A model was formulated to specify the characteristics of the communities in the hope of discovering a basis for allocating future program resources. The model consists of two dimensions: density of…

  7. A holistic view of dietary carbohydrate utilization in lobster: digestion, postprandial nutrient flux, and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2-6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6-12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  8. A Holistic View of Dietary Carbohydrate Utilization in Lobster: Digestion, Postprandial Nutrient Flux, and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Casuso, Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Gutierrez, Odilia; Scull, Idania; Carrillo, Olimpia; Martos-Sitcha, Juan A.; García-Galano, Tsai; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Crustaceans exhibit a remarkable variation in their feeding habits and food type, but most knowledge on carbohydrate digestion and utilization in this group has come from research on few species. The aim of this study was to make an integrative analysis of dietary carbohydrate utilization in the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. We used complementary methodologies such as different assessments of digestibility, activity measurements of digestive and metabolic enzymes, and post-feeding flux of nutrients and metabolites. Several carbohydrates were well digested by the lobster, but maize starch was less digestible than all other starches studied, and its inclusion in diet affected protein digestibility. Most intense hydrolysis of carbohydrates in the gastric chamber of lobster occurred between 2–6 h after ingestion and afterwards free glucose increased in hemolymph. The inclusion of wheat in diet produced a slow clearance of glucose from the gastric fluid and a gradual increase in hemolymph glucose. More intense hydrolysis of protein in the gastric chamber occurred 6–12 h after ingestion and then amino acids tended to increase in hemolymph. Triglyceride concentration in hemolymph rose earlier in wheat-fed lobsters than in lobsters fed other carbohydrates, but it decreased the most 24 h later. Analyses of metabolite levels and activities of different metabolic enzymes revealed that intermolt lobsters had a low capacity to store and use glycogen, although it was slightly higher in wheat-fed lobsters. Lobsters fed maize and rice diets increased amino acid catabolism, while wheat-fed lobsters exhibited higher utilization of fatty acids. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the type of carbohydrate ingested had a profound effect on overall metabolism. Although we found no evidence of a protein-sparing effect of dietary carbohydrate, differences in the kinetics of their digestion and absorption impacted lobster metabolism determining the fate of other nutrients. PMID:25268641

  9. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports the reading and math proficiency rates of grade 8 Native Hawaiian

  10. The Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  11. Population dynamics of Hawaiian seabird colonies vulnerable to sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Jeff S; Reynolds, Michelle H; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Krause, Crystal M

    2012-08-01

    Globally, seabirds are vulnerable to anthropogenic threats both at sea and on land. Seabirds typically nest colonially and show strong fidelity to natal colonies, and such colonies on low-lying islands may be threatened by sea-level rise. We used French Frigate Shoals, the largest atoll in the Hawaiian Archipelago, as a case study to explore the population dynamics of seabird colonies and the potential effects sea-level rise may have on these rookeries. We compiled historic observations, a 30-year time series of seabird population abundance, lidar-derived elevations, and aerial imagery of all the islands of French Frigate Shoals. To estimate the population dynamics of 8 species of breeding seabirds on Tern Island from 1980 to 2009, we used a Gompertz model with a Bayesian approach to infer population growth rates, density dependence, process variation, and observation error. All species increased in abundance, in a pattern that provided evidence of density dependence. Great Frigatebirds (Fregata minor), Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra), Red-tailed Tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda), Spectacled Terns (Onychoprion lunatus), and White Terns (Gygis alba) are likely at carrying capacity. Density dependence may exacerbate the effects of sea-level rise on seabirds because populations near carrying capacity on an island will be more negatively affected than populations with room for growth. We projected 12% of French Frigate Shoals will be inundated if sea level rises 1 m and 28% if sea level rises 2 m. Spectacled Terns and shrub-nesting species are especially vulnerable to sea-level rise, but seawalls and habitat restoration may mitigate the effects of sea-level rise. Losses of seabird nesting habitat may be substantial in the Hawaiian Islands by 2100 if sea levels rise 2 m. Restoration of higher-elevation seabird colonies represent a more enduring conservation solution for Pacific seabirds. PMID:22624702

  12. Genetic divergence among extant and extirpated colonies of an endangered pelagic seabird, the Hawaiian petrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, A. J.; Fleischer, R. C.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    It is important to consider both the temporal and spatial dimensions of variability in ecology and evolution. Given the potentially great dispersal capabilities and long generation times of pelagic seabirds, genetic diversity in these species seems likely to be homogeneously distributed and relatively static over time. Investigating temporal and spatial processes involved in the ecology and evolution of seabird populations is important to island ecosystem sustainability, as they play a significant role in transferring marine derived nutrients to terrestrial oceanic ecosystems. Additionally, many seabird species are threatened by extinction due to increasing mortality both at land and at sea. Here we investigate population divergence of the endemic and endangered Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). We examined four extant colonies on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Lanai and Kauai, and employed ancient DNA techniques to study a prehistorically extirpated colony on Oahu, and a historically large, but likely extirpated, colony on the island of Molokai. Analyses of sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene as well as nuclear microsatellite markers indicate substantial differentiation (global ?st of 0.38, p < 0.0001). Significant divergence was found among each pair of the six islands except between Oahu and Molokai (?st = 0.10, p = 0.07). However, this could result from low power due to the limited availability of amplifiable samples, especially for the hot, low elevation colony formerly present on Oahu. The largest differentiation occurred between the islands of Lanai and Kauai (?st = 0.58, p < 0.0001). These results suggest that despite their great dispersal capabilities, spatially proximate colonies of the Hawaiian petrel are not genetically homogenous. Additionally, the extirpation of large colonies, such as those on Oahu and Molokai, could result in loss of a substantial amount of genetic diversity. Future work should further investigate temporal population dynamics of this endangered species.

  13. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered and Designating Critical...these 15 species on the Hawaiian island of Hawaii, and to designate critical habitat for...information meeting in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, on Wednesday, May 15, 2013,...

  14. Contrasting phylogeography in three endemic Hawaiian limpets (Cellana spp.) with similar life histories.

    PubMed

    Bird, Christopher E; Holland, Brenden S; Bowen, Brian W; Toonen, Robert J

    2007-08-01

    The marine environment offers few obvious barriers to dispersal for broadcast-spawning species, yet population genetic structure can occur on a scale much smaller than the theoretical limits of larval dispersal. Comparative phylogeographical studies of sympatric sister species can illuminate how differences in life history, behaviour, and habitat affinity influence population partitioning. Here we use a mitochondrial DNA marker (612 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) to investigate population structure of three endemic Hawaiian broadcast-spawning limpets (Cellana spp.) with planktonic larvae that are competent to settle within 4 days. All three species exhibit significant population structure and isolation by distance, but the spatial scales of partitioning differ among the species. Cellana talcosa (n = 105) exhibits strong population structure between Kauai and the other main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) where the maximum channel width is 117 km, and no shared haplotypes were observed (Phi(CT) = 0.30, P < 0.001). In contrast, populations of Cellana exarata (n = 149) and Cellana sandwicensis (n = 109) exhibit weaker population structure within the MHI (Phi(ST) = 0.03-0.04, P < 0.05), and between the MHI and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Phi(ST) = 0.03-0.09, P < 0.01), where the maximum channel width is 260 km. Biogeographical range and microhabitat use were correlated with estimates of dispersal, while phylogenetic affiliation and minimum pelagic larval duration were poor predictors of population partitioning. Despite similar life histories, these closely related limpets have contrasting patterns of population structure, illustrating the danger of relying on model species in management initiatives to predict population structure and dispersal in the context of marine protected area delineation. PMID:17651195

  15. Infrared science of Hawaiian volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, William A.; Moxham, R.M.; Polcyn, R.C.; Landis, G.H.

    1964-01-01

    Aerial infrared-sensor surveys of Kilauea volcano have depicted the areal extent and the relative intensity of abnormal thermal features in the caldera area of the volcano and along its associated rift zones. Many of these anomalies show correlation with visible steaming and reflect convective transfer of heat to the surface from subterranean sources. Structural details of the volcano, some not evident from surface observation, are also delineated by their thermal abnormalities. Several changes were observed in the patterns of infrared emission during the period of study; two such changes show correlation in location with subsequent eruptions, but the cause-and-effect relationship is uncertain. Thermal anomalies were also observed on the southwest flank of Mauna Loa; images of other volcanoes on the island of Hawaii, and of Haleakala on the island of Maui, revealed no thermal abnormalities. Approximately 25 large springs is- suing into the ocean around the periphery of Hawaii have been detected. Infrared emission varies widely with surface texture and composition, suggesting that similar observations may have value for estimating surface conditions on the moon or planets.

  16. Odors influencing foraging behavior of the California spiny lobster, Panulirus interruptus, and other decapod crustacea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer-Faust, R.K.; Case, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    Trapping experiments were conducted in the More Mesa coastal area of Santa Barbara, California, 4 km east of the U.C. Santa Barbara campus. Live intact and injured prey and excised tissues were placed in traps, in containers allowing odor release but preventing contacts with entering animals. Individuals of six prey species failed to attract lobsters when alive and intact, but some became attractive once injured. Excised tissues were the most effective baits. Abalone and mackerel muscle were attractive to lobsters but relatively nonattractive to crabs, while angel shark muscle was attractive to crabs but not to lobsters. Shrimp cephalothoraces were repellant to lobsters. Naturally occurring attractant and repellent tissues are thus identified and chemosensory abilities of lobsters and sympatric crabs are demonstrated to differ. Abalone muscle increased in attractivity following 1-2 days field exposure. Molecular weights of stimulants released by both weathered and fresh abalone were < 10,000 daltons with evidence suggesting that the 1000-10,000 dalton fraction may contribute significantly to attraction. Concentrations of total primary amines released from abalone muscle failed to differ from background levels, following an initial three (0-3h) period. Primary amines thus appear not to contribute directly to captures of lobsters, since animals were usually caught greater than or equal to 7 h after baits were positioned. Amino acids were the dominant contributors to present measurements of total primary amines, suggesting that these molecules may not direct lobster foraging behavior in the present experiments. 41 references, 4 figures, 8 tables.

  17. Comparative transcriptomics of maturity-associated color change in Hawaiian spiders.

    PubMed

    Yim, Kristina M; Brewer, Michael S; Miller, Craig T; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2014-01-01

    Discontinuous variation within individuals is increasingly recognized as playing a role in diversification and ecological speciation. This study is part of an effort to investigate the molecular genetic underpinnings of adaptive radiation in Hawaiian spiders (genus Tetragnatha). This radiation is found throughout the Hawaiian Islands, showing a common pattern of evolutionary progression from older to younger islands. Moreover, the species are characterized by repeated evolution of similar ecomorphs that can be recognized on the basis of color--Green, Maroon, Large Brown, and Small Brown. However, 2 species (including T. kauaiensis from Kauai) are polyphenic, changing from 1 ecomorph (Green) to another (Maroon) at a specific developmental period. The current study focuses on the age-associated color change in the early stages of the radiation to determine whether this ancestral flexibility in phenotype may have translated into diversification of more derived taxa. We conducted a comparative analysis of transcriptome data (expressed genes) from the Maroon morph of T. kauaiensis and T. perreirai (Oahu), which exhibits a single fixed ecomorph (Maroon). Over 70 million sequence reads were generated using Illumina sequencing of messenger RNA. Using reciprocal best hit BLAST searches, 9027 orthologous genes were identified, of which 32 showed signatures of positive selection between the 2 taxa and may be involved in the loss of the ancestral developmental polyphenism and associated switch to separate monophenic ecomorphs. These results provide critical groundwork that will allow us to advance our understanding of the genomic elements associated with adaptive radiations. PMID:25149253

  18. Evaluation of relationships within the endemic Hawaiian Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence.

    PubMed

    Cryan, J R; Liebherr, J K; Fetzner, J W; Whiting, M F

    2001-10-01

    Relationships among 69 species of Hawaiian Platynini, a monophyletic beetle radiation, was investigated based on evidence from five data partitions, comprising mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences (cytochrome oxidase II, 624 bp; cytochrome b, 783 bp; 28S rDNA, 668 bp; wingless; 441 bp) and morphology (206 features of external and internal anatomy). Results from individual and combined data analyses generally support the monophyly of three putative divisions within Platynini in Hawaii: Division 0 (Colpocaccus species group), Division 1 (Blackburnia species group), and Division 2 (Metromenus species group). However, relationships within and among these three divisions differ from previous morphological hypotheses. An extensive series of sensitivity analyses was performed to assess robustness of recovered clades under a variety of weighted parsimony conditions. Sensitivity analyses support the monophyly of Divisions 0 and 1, but were equivocal for the monophyly of Division 2. A phylogeny based on combined data suggests at least four independent losses/reductions of platynine flight wings. The combined analysis provides corroboration for biogeographic hypotheses, including (1) colonization of Kauai by Hawaiian Platynini with subsequent dispersal and colonization along the island chain from Oahu to Maui Nui to Hawaii Island and (2) incongruent area relationships among Eastern Molokai, West Maui, and Haleakala for two species triplets. PMID:11603938

  19. Ocean mixing studied near Hawaiian Ridge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Pinkel; Walter Munk; Peter Worcester; Bruce D. Comuelle; Daniel Rudnick; Jeffrey Sherman; Jean H. Filloux; Brian D. Dushaw; Bruce M. Howe; Thomas B. Sanford; Craig M. Lee; Eric Kunze; Michael C. Gregg; Jack B. Miller; Mark A. Merrifield; Douglas S. Luther; Eric Firing; Rusty Brainard; Pierre J. Flament; Alan D. Chave; James M. Moum; Douglas R. Caldwell; Murray D. Levine; Timothy Boyd; Gary D. Egbert

    2000-01-01

    The Hawaii Ocean Mixing Experiment (HOME) is a grassroots program to study turbulent mixing processes near the Hawaiian Ridge. The HOME is motivated by the desire to understand diffusive aspects of the advective-diffusive balance that mediates the general circulation of the oceans. HOME is focused on tidally driven mixing, given the ubiquity of the tide as a deep-sea energy source.As

  20. MORTALITY PATTERNS IN ENDANGERED HAWAIIAN GEESE (NENE; BRANTA SANDVICENSIS).

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Dagenais, Julie; Rameyer, Robert; Breeden, Renee

    2015-07-01

    Understanding causes of death can aid management and recovery of endangered bird populations. Toward those ends, we systematically examined 300 carcasses of endangered Hawaiian Geese (Nene; Branta sandvicensis) from Hawaii, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai between 1992 and 2013. The most common cause of death was emaciation, followed by trauma (vehicular strikes and predation), and infectious/inflammatory diseases of which toxoplasmosis (infection with Toxoplasma gondii) predominated. Toxicoses were less common and were dominated by lead poisoning or botulism. For captive birds, inflammatory conditions predominated, whereas emaciation, trauma, and inflammation were common in free-ranging birds. Mortality patterns were similar for males and females. Trauma predominated for adults, whereas emaciation was more common for goslings. Causes of death varied among islands, with trauma dominating on Molokai, emaciation and inflammation on Kauai, emaciation on Hawaii, and inflammation and trauma on Maui. Understanding habitat or genetic-related factors that predispose Nene (particularly goslings) to emaciation might reduce the impact of this finding. In addition, trauma and infection with T. gondii are human-related problems that may be attenuated if effectively managed (e.g., road signs, enforcement of speed limits, feral cat [Felis catus] control). Such management actions might serve to enhance recovery of this endangered species. PMID:26161721

  1. Restoration of movement patterns of the Hawaiian Goose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Misajon, Kathleen; Hu, Darcy; Jeffrey, John J.

    2012-01-01

    We used visual observations of banded individuals and satellite telemetry from 2007 to 2011 on Hawai?i Island to document movement patterns of the Hawaiian Goose (Branta sandvicensis), commonly known as Nene. Visual observations of numbered leg bands identified >19% and ?10% of 323 geese at one of two breeding sites and one of two distant non-breeding areas during 2007-2011. We used satellite telemetry to document movement patterns of 10 male Nene from 2009 to 2011, and log-linear models to quantify the magnitude and individual differences in altitudinal migration. Two subpopulations of Nene moved 974.4 m (95% CI ± 22.0) and 226.4 m (95% CI ± 40.7) in elevation between seasons on average, from high-elevation shrublands during the non-breeding season of May-August, to lower-elevation breeding and molting areas in September-April. Traditional movement patterns were thought to be lost until recently, but the movement pattern we documented with satellite telemetry was similar to altitudinal migration described by early naturalists in Hawai?i prior to the severe population decline of Nene in the 20th century.

  2. Overview of "bumper car" disease--impact on the North American lobster fishery.

    PubMed

    Cawthorn, R J

    1997-02-01

    Recent (1993) landings of American lobsters (Homarus americanus) were valued at $294 million (Can.) in Canada and $213 million (Can.) in the United States. However, post-harvest losses are estimated at $50-75 million (10-15%) annually. The lobster fishery is one of the few remaining viable traditional fisheries in eastern North America. "Bumper car" disease of lobsters, caused by the scuticociliate Anophryoides haemophila, can cause significant losses in coldwater impoundments. Apparently epidemics now occur more frequently and with greater severity; surprisingly the epidemiology and economic impacts of "bumper car" disease are not well documented. The ciliate A. haemophila is easily maintained in a cell-free, chemically defined, seawater-based medium at 5 degrees C. Cultured ciliates require longer and more parasites to kill lobsters than those transmitted by intrahaemocoelic injection from lobster-to-lobster. Regardless of source of ciliates, the larger the inoculum, the more rapid the death of lobsters. The pathogenesis of "bumper car" disease is unknown. Horizontal transmission could occur across the thin cuticle of gills or via wounds in the exoskeleton present during moulting of lobsters. Because ciliates are initially sequestered in lobster tissues for an extended period, they are detectable sooner by histological examination of tissues than by direct examination or culture of haemolymph. Additional to indirect fluorescent antibody testing and immunoperoxidase staining of tissues, utilizing monoclonal antibodies prepared to sonicated ciliates, the parasites are readily detected with oligonucleotide probes based on ssu-rDNA of A. haemophila. The prevalence of A. haemophila should be re-evaluated. Ciliates sequester in gill, heart and muscle tissues. Several disinfectants and chemotherapeutants, licensed in North America for veterinary use in food-producing animals, are efficacious against A. haemophila in vitro. A definition of healthy vs ciliate-infected lobsters is being prepared, based on haematology and clinical chemistry of haemolymph. Our novel bar-coded labelling system for aquatic organisms facilitates experimental design and randomization protocols of lobsters. The model of "bumper car" disease will aid study of health and infectious disease processes of lobsters and other crustaceans. PMID:9088987

  3. Colonization history and population genetics of the color-polymorphic Hawaiian happy-face spider Theridion grallator (Araneae, Theridiidae).

    PubMed

    Croucher, Peter J P; Oxford, Geoff S; Lam, Athena; Mody, Neesha; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2012-09-01

    Past geological and climatological processes shape extant biodiversity. In the Hawaiian Islands, these processes have provided the physical environment for a number of extensive adaptive radiations. Yet, single species that occur throughout the islands provide some of the best cases for understanding how species respond to the shifting dynamics of the islands in the context of colonization history and associated demographic and adaptive shifts. Here, we focus on the Hawaiian happy-face spider, a single color-polymorphic species, and use mitochondrial and nuclear allozyme markers to examine (1) how the mosaic formation of the landscape has dictated population structure, and (2) how cycles of expansion and contraction of the habitat matrix have been associated with demographic shifts, including a "quantum shift" in the genetic basis of the color polymorphism. The results show a marked structure among populations consistent with the age progression of the islands. The finding of low genetic diversity at the youngest site coupled with the very high diversity of haplotypes on the slightly older substrates that are highly dissected by recent volcanism suggests that the mosaic structure of the landscape may play an important role in allowing differentiation of the adaptive color polymorphism. PMID:22946805

  4. The Hawaiian PLUME Project: A Seismic Imaging Dataset Provides Glimpses into Ocean and Atmosphere Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, G.; Wolfe, C. J.; Collins, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The Hawaiian PLUME (Plume-Lithosphere Undersea Mantle Experiment) project operated a two-stage network of broadband ocean-bottom and land seismometers from early 2005 through May 2007. With an aperture exceeding 1000 km, the network included 10 land sites and nearly 70 ocean bottom sites (Laske et al., 2009). Most of the land and ocean bottom stations were equipped with 3-component broadband seismometers. In addition, the ocean bottom sites were also equipped with a Cox-Webb differential pressure gauge. The deployment of broadband instruments allowed us to apply a wide range of seismic analysis tools to determine seismic properties of the crust and mantle beneath the Hawaiian islands and its surrounding bathymetric swell. Body wave tomography conclusively imaged a complex low velocity anomaly that penetrates deep into the lower mantle (Wolfe et al., 2009), supporting the idea that Hawaii's extensive volcanism is fed by a deep-rooted mantle plume. The analysis of surface waves reveals a profoundly altered lithosphere beneath the island of Hawaii. The low shear velocity anomaly found at the base of the lithosphere continues into the asthenosphere but shifts westward, documenting an asymmetry in shallow mantle structure that mirrors some of the asymmetry of the bathymetric swell. Owing to the fact that PLUME made use of broadband instruments, the rich dataset from this experiment allowed us to also study patterns in seismicity around Hawaii. Using high-pass filtered records from the PLUME OBS networks we detected numerous off-shore events that were not detected by the monitoring networks on the Hawaiian islands (mainly the island of Hawaii). This gives new insight into seismic activity in some source regions and helps to refine seismic risk estimation for some high-population areas. Our network also produced excellent pressure recording of the somewhat enigmatic tsunami caused by the magnitude 8.3 15 November 2006 Kuril islands earthquake. This tsunami was relatively small when it reached Japan, and it caused no significant damage. After crossing the North Pacific ocean, it reached a height of over 1.5 m in Crescent City, CA and caused damage to the docks there estimated at nearly $2 million. This tsunami was recorded best on our DPGs but some horizontal seismometer components also show a signal. Finally, the PLUME instruments also recorded the journey of 2006 Hurricane Ioke. This long-lived category 5 hurricane was the largest recorded hurricane to form in the Central Pacific ocean. Unlike 2005 Hurricane Katrina, which released the most seismic energy when it made landfall as a weakened hurricane, the seismic energy release of Hurricane Ioke peaked when it reached the strongest state in the atmosphere. References: Laske, G., Collins, J.A., Wolfe, C.J., Solomon, S.C., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D. and Hauri, E.H., 2009. Probing The Hawaiian Hot Spot With New Ocean Bottom Instruments, EOS Trans. AGU, 90, 362-363. Wolfe, C.J., Solomon, S.C., Laske, G., Collins, J.A., Detrick, R.S., Orcutt, J.A., Bercovici, D. and Hauri, E.H., 2009. Mantle Shear-Wave Velocity Structure Beneath the Hawaiian Hot Spot. Science, 326, 1388-1390.

  5. On the origin and variation of colors in lobster carapace.

    PubMed

    Begum, Shamima; Cianci, Michele; Durbeej, Bo; Falklöf, Olle; Hädener, Alfons; Helliwell, John R; Helliwell, Madeleine; Regan, Andrew C; Ian F Watt, C

    2015-06-24

    The chemical basis of the blue-black to pink-orange color change on cooking of lobster, due to thermal denaturation of an astaxanthin-protein complex, ?-crustacyanin, in the lobster carapace, has so far been elusive. Here, we investigate the relaxation of the astaxanthin pigment from its bound enolate form to its neutral hydroxyketone form, as origin of the spectral shift, by analyzing the response of UV-vis spectra of a water-soluble 3-hydroxy-4-oxo-?-ionone model of astaxanthin to increases in pH, and by performing extensive quantum chemical calculations over a wide range of chemical conditions. The enolization of astaxanthin is consistent with the X-ray diffraction data of ?-crustacyanin (PDB code: ) whose crystals possess the distinct blue color. We find that enolate formation is possible within the protein environment and associated with a large bathochromic shift, thus offering a cogent explanation for the blue-black color and the response to thermal denaturation and revealing the chemistry of astaxanthin upon complex formation. PMID:25797168

  6. Crustose coralline algal diseases in the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Ángel, Bernardo

    2010-12-01

    Despite the critical role of crustose coralline algae (CCA) in coral reef formation, maintenance, and ecology, little is known about coralline algal disease abundance, distribution, etiology, or the potential implications of declining CCA flora. This paper presents the first quantitative study of CCA disease on U.S. Pacific coral reefs, based on Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 337 discrete sites, at 42 different U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands and Atolls, within 5 major geographical regions: main Hawaiian Islands, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, American Samoa, the Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIA), and Guam and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI). Five major disease categories were enumerated, and a disease occurrence index was estimated, based on case counts relative to percent CCA cover. CCA disease occurrence exhibited considerable spatial variability both between and within islands/atolls, with some regions being disproportionately affected by disease. No diseases were observed at remote Johnston and Wake Atolls, or the main Hawaiian Islands. Diseases were rare in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands; occasional to common around the PRIA, and common to abundant in American Samoa, Guam, and the Southern Mariana Islands. Pacific-wide, disease occurrence was statistically associated with CCA percent cover and sea surface temperatures (SSTs) but not with human population density; nonetheless, disease occurrence and population density were statistically correlated for those islands containing disease. Although Pacific-wide, the occurrence of disease was low, with no active outbreaks detected in any region, hot spots of disease were detected around Guam, the southern CNMI, American Samoa, and the PRIA. The high levels of spatial and temporal variability in disease occurrence herein underscore the patchy nature and fluctuating distribution dynamics of these afflictions. Also, the widespread dispersal capabilities and extraordinary infective properties of some of these pathogens highlight the importance of better understanding CCA disease dynamics and discerning the relative threat levels on coral reef ecosystems.

  7. Acute toxicity of resmethrin, malathion and methoprene to larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus amemcanus) and analysis of pesticide levels in surface waters after Scourge™, Anvil™ and Altsoid™ application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zulkosky, Ann M.; Ruggieri, Joseph P.; Terracciano, Stephen A.; Brownawell, Bruce J.; McElroy, Anne E.

    2005-01-01

    Acute toxicity and immune response, combined with temperature stress effects, were evaluated in larval and juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) exposed to malathion, resmethrin and methoprene. These pesticides were used to control West Nile virus in New York in 1999, the same year the American lobster population collapsed in western Long Island Sound (LIS). Whereas the suite of pesticides used for mosquito control changed in subsequent years, a field study was also conducted to determine pesticide concentrations in surface waters on Long Island and in LIS after operational applications. The commercial formulations used in 2002 and 2003—Scourge, Anvil and Altosid—contain the active ingredients resmethrin, sumithrin and methoprene, respectively. Concentrations of the synergist piperonyl butoxide (PBO) were also measured as a proxy for pesticide exposure. Acute mortality in Stage I-II larval lobsters demonstrated that they are extremely sensitive to continuous resmethrin exposure. Resmethrin LC50s for larval lobsters determined under flow-through conditions varied from 0.26–0.95 ?g L?1 in 48- and 96-h experiments at 16°C, respectively. Increased temperature (24°C) did not significantly alter resmethrin toxicity. Malathion and methoprene were less toxic than resmethrin. The 48-h LC50 for malathion was 3.7 ?g L?1 and methoprene showed no toxicity at the highest (10 ?g L?1) concentration tested. Phenoloxidase activity was used as a measure of immune response for juvenile lobsters exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations. In continuous exposures to sublethal doses of resmethrin (0.03 ?g L?1) or malathion (1 ?g L?1) for 7 d at 16 or 22°C, temperature had a significant effect on phenoloxidase activity (P ? 0.006) whereas pesticide exposure did not (P = 0.880). The analytical methods developed using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (LC-TOF-MS) provided high sensitivity with mass detection limits of 0.1–0.3 ng L?1. Pesticide levels were often detected in the ng L?1 range in Long Island surface waters and western LIS (except in open waters), but rarely at concentrations found to be toxic in flow-through laboratory exposures, even immediately after spray events.

  8. Raising Cultural Self-Efficacy among Faculty and Staff of a Private Native Hawaiian School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Randie Kamuela

    2012-01-01

    The Hawaiian cultural revitalization movement in Hawai`i is an important driver for many Hawaiian organizations as well as educational institutions that serve Native Hawaiians. One such organization is Kamehameha Schools, a private school system founded and endowed by Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop in 1887 to educate Native Hawaiian children. From…

  9. Creating Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures through Project ALOHA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Claire; Anderson, Thomas; Sakuda, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum project for fourth graders in a Hawaiian elementary school with a highly transient population. The project, ALOHA (Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures) was developed to motivate students in learning about Hawaii's culture and ecosystems. Cooperation between the library media specialist, technology coordinator,…

  10. Student Perceptions of Hawaiian Values in Business Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Pillis, Emmeline; Kim, Bryan; Thomas, Chris Allen; Kaulukukui, Guy

    2015-01-01

    Students attending a Native Hawaiian-serving institution read statements from two hypothetical job candidates. The passages had equivalent meaning, but one incorporated Hawaiian leadership values (HLV) without identifying them as such. Participants judged the HLV candidate to have lower credibility, rationality, and effectiveness, and preferred…

  11. Teacher Technology Narratives: Native Hawaiian Views on Education and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yong, D. Lilinoe; Hoffman, Ellen S.

    2014-01-01

    Narrative inquiry is a method by which "silenced voices" may be heard. In this study, eight Native Hawaiian teachers share their experiences of the Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP), or Papahana Kaiapuni, within the Hawai'i public school system. The teachers describe change over time in HLIP with a focus on technology and…

  12. BEHAVIOR OF THE HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHIN, STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS

    E-print Network

    BEHAVIOR OF THE HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHIN, STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS KENNETH S. NORRIS AND THOMAS P. DOHL' ABSTRACT The Hawaiian spinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris, was recorded from Kure Atoll cohesion beyond the limits of vision. The daily cycle of spinner dolphins consists of nighttime feeding

  13. DIRECTIONALITY IN THE WHISTLES OF HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHINS

    E-print Network

    DIRECTIONALITY IN THE WHISTLES OF HAWAIIAN SPINNER DOLPHINS (STENELLA LONGIROSTRIS): A SIGNAL@hawaii.edu ABSTRACT Dolphins produce frequency modulated (FM) whistles that are thought to promote the synchrony-ranging Hawaiian spinner dolphins (Stenella longirostris) were obtained using a towed, three-hydrophone line array

  14. Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony

    E-print Network

    Radio Telemetry of Hawaiian Green Turtles at Their Breeding Colony Andrew E. Dizon _TRIG ~~,-- , \\ - WHALE-SKATE ~'" Figure I. - French Frigate Shoals, site of 90 percent of the breeding percent of the breeding activity of the Hawaiian green turtle, Chelonia mydas, occurs at a small atoll

  15. Culture, Behavior and Education: A Study of Hawaiian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallimore, Ronald; And Others

    This research is based on two types of analyses. A cultural analysis focuses on the Hawaiian-American family and socialization system and is used to generate and interpret interface analysis findings. The second type of analysis concerns Hawaiian-American behavior in public school classrooms. The goal of the combined analyses is to specify points…

  16. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy for Total Carbon Analysis of Hawaiian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, M. L.; Bruland, G. L.; Deenik, J. L.; Grunwald, S.; Uchida, R.

    2010-12-01

    Accurate assessment of total carbon (Ct) content is important for fertility and nutrient management of soils, as well as for carbon sequestration studies. The non-destructive analysis of soils by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is a potential supplement or alternative to the traditional time-consuming and costly combustion method of Ct analysis, especially in spatial or temporal studies where sample numbers are large. We investigate the use of the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectra of soils coupled with chemometric analysis to determine their Ct content. Our specific focus is on Hawaiian soils of agricultural importance. Though this technique has been introduced to the soil community, it has yet to be fully tested and used in practical applications for all soil types, and this is especially true for Hawaii. In short, DRS characterizes and differentiates materials based on the variation of the light reflected by a material at certain wavelengths. This spectrum is dependent on the material’s composition, structure, and physical state. Multivariate chemometric analysis unravels the information in a set of spectra that can help predict a property such as Ct. This study benefits from the remarkably diverse soils of Hawaii. Our sample set includes 216 soil samples from 145 pedons from the main Hawaiian Islands archived at the National Soil Survey Center in Lincoln, NE, along with more than 50 newly-collected samples from Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. In total, over 90 series from 10 of the 12 soil orders are represented. The Ct values of these samples range from < 1% - 55%. We anticipate that the diverse nature of our sample set will ensure a model with applicability to a wide variety of soils, both in Hawaii and globally. We have measured the VNIR and MIR spectra of these samples and obtained their Ct values by dry combustion. Our initial analyses are conducted using only samples obtained from the Lincoln archive. In this preliminary case, we use Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression with cross validation to develop a prediction model for soils of unknown carbon content given only their spectral signature. We find R2 values of greater than 0.93 for the MIR spectra and 0.87 for the VNIR spectra, indicating a strong ability to correlate a soil’s spectrum with its Ct content. We build on these encouraging results by continuing chemometric analyses using the full data set, different data subsets, separate model calibration and validation groups, combined VNIR and MIR spectra, and exploring different data pretreatment options and variations to the PLS parameters.

  17. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person...

  18. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean...Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum...Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person...

  19. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 665 - Carapace Length of Lobsters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pt. 665, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 665—Carapace Length of Lobsters...

  20. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian waters.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Amanda L; Forney, Karin A; Oleson, Erin M; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n?=?5) and NWHI (n?=?1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n?=?5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?479-5,030) and 552 (CV?=?1.09; 95% CI?=?97-3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns. PMID:24587372

  1. Accounting for Subgroup Structure in Line-Transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in Hawaiian Waters

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Amanda L.; Forney, Karin A.; Oleson, Erin M.; Barlow, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters) of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ): an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n?=?5) and NWHI (n?=?1) false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n?=?5,000) of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai’i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV?=?0.66; 95% CI?=?479–5,030) and 552 (CV?=?1.09; 95% CI?=?97–3,123) individuals, respectively. Subgroup structure is an important factor to consider in line-transect analyses of false killer whales and other species with complex grouping patterns. PMID:24587372

  2. Pacific Islanders’ Perspectives on Heart Failure Management

    PubMed Central

    Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe‘aimoku; Saito, Erin; Mau, Marjorie K.; Latimer, Renee; Seto, Todd B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify the health beliefs, attitudes, practices and social and family relations important in heart failure treatment among Pacific Islanders. Methods Four focus groups were convened with 36 Native Hawaiians and Samoans with heart failure and their family caregivers. Thematic data analysis was used to categorize data into four domains: health beliefs and attitudes, preferred health practices, social support systems, and barriers to heart failure care. Results Common coping styles and emotional experiences of heart failure in this population included avoidance or denial of illness, hopelessness and despair, and reliance on spiritual/religious beliefs as a means of support. Among study participants, more Samoans preferred to be treated by physicians whereas more Native Hawaiians preferred traditional Hawaiian methods of healing. Two types of social support (informational and tangible-instrumental) were identified as important in heart failure care. Barriers to heart failure care included poor knowledge of heart failure, lack of trust in physicians’ care, poor physician-patient relations, finances, dietary changes, and competing demands on time. Conclusion The recruitment, retention, and adherence of Pacific Islanders to heart failure interventions are affected by an array of psychosocial and socio-cultural factors. Practice Implications Interventions might be improved by offering participants accurate and detailed information about heart failure and its treatment, engaging the extended family in providing necessary supports, and providing tools to facilitate physician-patient relationships, among others, within the context of a larger socio-cultural system. PMID:18068939

  3. Is seagrass an important nursery habitat for the Caribbean spiny lobster, panulirus argus, in Florida?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald C. Behringer; Mark J. Butler IV; William F. Herrnkind; John H. Hunt; Charles A. Acosta; William C. Sharp

    2009-01-01

    Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) settle preferentially in macroalgal?covered hard?bottom habitat, but seagrass is more prevalent in Florida (United States) and the Caribbean, so even low settlement of lobsters within seagrass could contribute substantially to recruitment if post?settlement survival and growth were high. We tested the role of seagrass and hard?bottom habitats for P. argus recruitment in three ways. We

  4. Culture-independent analysis of bacterial communities in hemolymph of American lobsters with epizootic shell disease.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Robert A; Smolowitz, Roxanna; Chistoserdov, Andrei Y

    2013-03-26

    Epizootic shell disease (ESD) of the American lobster Homarus americanus H. Milne Edwards, 1837 is a disease of the carapace that presents grossly as large, melanized, irregularly shaped lesions, making the lobsters virtually unmarketable because of their grotesque appearance. We analyzed the bacterial communities present in the hemolymph of lobsters with and without ESD using nested-PCR of the 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. All lobsters tested (n = 42) had bacterial communities in their hemolymph, and the community profiles were highly similar regardless of the sampling location or disease state. A number of bacteria were detected in a high proportion of samples and from numerous locations, including a Sediminibacterium sp. closely related to a symbiont of Tetraponera ants (38/42) and a Ralstonia sp. (27/42). Other bacteria commonly encountered included various Bacteroidetes, Pelomonas aquatica, and a Novosphingobium sp. One bacterium, a different Sediminibacterium sp., was detected in 20% of diseased animals (n = 29), but not in the lobsters without signs of ESD (n = 13). The bacteria in hemolymph were not the same as those known to be present in lesion communities except for the detection of a Thalassobius sp. in 1 individual. This work demonstrates that hemolymph bacteremia and the particular bacterial species present do not correlate with the incidence of ESD, providing further evidence that microbiologically, ESD is a strictly cuticular disease. Furthermore, the high incidence of the same species of bacteria in hemolymph of lobsters may indicate that they have a positive role in lobster fitness, rather than in disease, and further investigation of the role of bacteria in lobster hemolymph is required. PMID:23548364

  5. Response properties of lobster chemoreceptors: tuning of olfactory neurons sensitive to hydroxy-proline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce R. Johnson; Carl L. Merrill; Roy C. Ogle; Jelle Atema

    1988-01-01

    1.A prominent population of olfactory receptor cells from the lobsterHomarus americanus is narrowly tuned to trans-4-hydroxyl-L-proline (Hyp, Fig. 1) suggesting that Hyp may be an important chemical signal for this animal (Johnson and Atema 1983). However, Hyp is usually bound in connective tissue proteins of lobster prey and thus may be unavailable in sufficient quantities as a free amino acid

  6. Cloning and expression study of the lobster (Homarus americanus) vitellogenin: Conservation in gene structure among decapods.

    PubMed

    Tiu, Shirley Hiu Kwan; Hui, Ho-Lam; Tsukimura, Brian; Tobe, Stephen S; He, Jian-Guo; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the molecular characterization of the vitellogenin (Vg) of the lobster, Homarus americanus. Based on the annual collection of female lobsters, vitellogenesis commences in early March and continues through to September of each year. Using an antibody to vitellin of the lobster, H. americanus, several immunoreactive ovarian proteins were initially identified by Western blot analysis. The 80kDa protein contained the amino acid sequence APWGGNTPRC, identified subsequently by cDNA cloning to be identical to the lobster Vg. In common with the shrimp Metapenaeus ensis and crab Charybdis feriatus, the lobster HaVg1 gene comprises 14 introns and 15 exons. The deduced HaVg1 precursor is most similar to the Vg of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus (57%), followed by M. ensis (40-43% identity) and C. feriatus (38%). The results from genomic and RT-PCR cloning also confirmed the presence of multiple Vg genes in lobster. At early reproductive stages, the hepatopancreas HaVg1 transcript levels are low but increased to a maximum in animals with mature oocytes. The ovary, however, also expressed low levels of HaVg1. Using in vitro explant culture, treatment of hepatopancreas fragments with farnesoic acid or 20-hydroxyecdysone resulted in a significant stimulation in HaVg1 expression. From this study, it appears that Vg gene organization and expression pattern in decapods is highly conserved. Similar endocrine mechanisms may govern the process of vitellogenesis across the decapods. PMID:18992748

  7. Forest structure in low-diversity tropical forests: a study of Hawaiian wet and dry forests.

    PubMed

    Ostertag, Rebecca; Inman-Narahari, Faith; Cordell, Susan; Giardina, Christian P; Sack, Lawren

    2014-01-01

    The potential influence of diversity on ecosystem structure and function remains a topic of significant debate, especially for tropical forests where diversity can range widely. We used Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) methodology to establish forest dynamics plots in montane wet forest and lowland dry forest on Hawai'i Island. We compared the species diversity, tree density, basal area, biomass, and size class distributions between the two forest types. We then examined these variables across tropical forests within the CTFS network. Consistent with other island forests, the Hawai'i forests were characterized by low species richness and very high relative dominance. The two Hawai'i forests were floristically distinct, yet similar in species richness (15 vs. 21 species) and stem density (3078 vs. 3486/ha). While these forests were selected for their low invasive species cover relative to surrounding forests, both forests averaged 5->50% invasive species cover; ongoing removal will be necessary to reduce or prevent competitive impacts, especially from woody species. The montane wet forest had much larger trees, resulting in eightfold higher basal area and above-ground biomass. Across the CTFS network, the Hawaiian montane wet forest was similar to other tropical forests with respect to diameter distributions, density, and aboveground biomass, while the Hawai'i lowland dry forest was similar in density to tropical forests with much higher diversity. These findings suggest that forest structural variables can be similar across tropical forests independently of species richness. The inclusion of low-diversity Pacific Island forests in the CTFS network provides an ?80-fold range in species richness (15-1182 species), six-fold variation in mean annual rainfall (835-5272 mm yr(-1)) and 1.8-fold variation in mean annual temperature (16.0-28.4°C). Thus, the Hawaiian forest plots expand the global forest plot network to enable testing of ecological theory for links among species diversity, environmental variation and ecosystem function. PMID:25162731

  8. Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem and its evolution in long-term primary succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Dombois, D.; Boehmer, H. J.

    2013-02-01

    Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millenia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp.) and the '?hi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp.), which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e. islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life-forms is similar as during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris lineraris) becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant '?hi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After that disturbance the forest becomes reestablished in about 30-40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1-25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader '?hi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands looses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum tolerant uluhe fern. The '?hi'a trees still thrive on soils rejuvenated from landslides and from Asian dust on the oldest (5 million year old) island Kaua'i but their stature and living biomass is greatly diminished.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

  10. Can lowland dry forests represent a refuge from avian malaria for native Hawaiian birds?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tucker-Mohl, Katherine; Hart, Patrick; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2010-01-01

    Hawaii's native birds have become increasingly threatened over the past century. Introduced mosquito borne diseases such as avian malaria may be responsible for the near absence of endemic Hawaiian forest birds in low-elevation habitats. The recent recognition that some native Hawaiian forest birds may be repopulating moist lowland habitats as a result of evolved resistance to this disease has increased the conservation value of these areas. Here, we investigate whether remnant low elevation dry forests on Hawaii Island provide natural 'refuges' from mosquito-transmitted malaria by nature of their low rainfall and absence of suitable natural sources of water for mosquito breeding. Unlike lowland wet forests where high rates of disease transmission may be selecting for disease resistance, lowland dry forests may provide some refuge for native forest birds without natural resistance to malaria. We mistnetted forest birds in two lowland dry forests and tested all native birds by microscopy and serology for avian malaria caused by the Plasmodium relictum parasite. We also conducted surveys for standing water and mosquito larvae. Overall prevalence of infections with Plasmodium relictum in the Hawaii Amakihi Hemignathus virens virens was 15%. Most infected birds had lowlevel parasitemias, suggesting chronic infections. Although avian malaria is present in these lowland dry forest Amakihi populations, infection rates are significantly lower than in wet forest populations at similar elevations. Sources of breeding mosquitoes in these forests appeared to be largely anthropogenic; thus, there is potential to manage dry forests as mosquito-free habitat for Hawaii Amakihi and other Hawaiian forest birds.

  11. Evolution in Hawaiian cave-adapted isopods (Oniscidea: Philosciidae): vicariant speciation or adaptive shifts?

    PubMed

    Rivera, Malia Ana J; Howarth, Francis G; Taiti, Stefano; Roderick, George K

    2002-10-01

    We assessed evolutionary relationships among Hawaiian cave-adapted isopods using a maximum-likelihood criterion to analyze cytochrome oxidase I nucleotide sequences. Results support morphological data that two genera of philosciid isopods have invaded caves independently in the islands. In the genus Littorophiloscia, a sister relationship between a surface-dwelling species, L. hawaiiensis, and an undescribed cave species was corroborated. This evidence, along with the known parapatric distributions between species, supports a speciation event by an adaptive shift on the island of Hawaii from a marine littoral to a terrestrial subterranean habitat. The monophyletic genus Hawaiioscia contains four known obligate cave-dwelling species, each of which occurs on a separate island. However, despite present-day allopatric distributions between Hawaiioscia species, the geographic and phylogenetic patterns are not sufficient to support a vicariant mode of speciation. Instead, we believe that the known species of Hawaiioscia evolved from a widespread ancestral surface species or a group of closely related species through multiple, independent adaptive shifts on each of the islands of Kauai, Oahu, Molokai, and Maui. This is the first molecular investigation of evolutionary relationships between surface-dwelling and cavernicolous arthropods in Hawaii and it suggests that simple vicariance is insufficient to explain the evolution of troglobites in tropical zones. PMID:12383746

  12. Isolation and characterization of 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the endemic Hawaiian damselfly Megalagrion xanthomelas (Odonata: Coenagrionidae).

    PubMed

    Jones, Brandon R; Bogdanowicz, Steven M; Jordan, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Microsatellite loci have been isolated from two species of endemic Hawaiian damselflies, Megalagrion xanthomelas and M. eudytum, that are of conservation concern. Sixteen polymorphic loci were characterized in 32 M. xanthomelas from one population on Molokai and one on Hawaii Island. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 16 and observed population heterozygosity ranged from 0.0 to 0.963. Eleven of these loci amplified successfully in M. eudytum as well. These loci will be used to further conservation efforts and infer genetic consequences of Pleistocene glaciations. PMID:21564591

  13. Origin of the Hawaiian rainforest and its transition states in long-term primary succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Dombois, D.; Boehmer, H. J.

    2013-07-01

    This paper addresses the question of transition states in the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem with emphasis on their initial developments. Born among volcanoes in the north central Pacific about 4 million years ago, the Hawaiian rainforest became assembled from spores of algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, ferns and from seeds of about 275 flowering plants that over the millennia evolved into ca. 1000 endemic species. Outstanding among the forest builders were the tree ferns (Cibotium spp.) and the '?hi'a lehua trees (Metrosideros spp.), which still dominate the Hawaiian rainforest ecosystem today. The structure of this forest is simple. The canopy in closed mature rainforests is dominated by cohorts of Metrosideros polymorpha and the undergrowth by tree fern species of Cibotium. When a new lava flow cuts through this forest, kipuka are formed, i.e., islands of remnant vegetation. On the new volcanic substrate, the assemblage of plant life forms is similar to the assemblage during the evolution of this system. In open juvenile forests, a mat-forming fern, the uluhe fern (Dicranopteris linearis), becomes established. It inhibits further regeneration of the dominant '?hi'a tree, thereby reinforcing the cohort structure of the canopy guild. In the later part of its life cycle, the canopy guild breaks down often in synchrony. The trigger is hypothesized to be a climatic perturbation. After the disturbance, the forest becomes reestablished in about 30-40 yr. As the volcanic surfaces age, they go from a mesotrophic to a eutrophic phase, reaching a biophilic nutrient climax by about 1-25 K yr. Thereafter, a regressive oligotrophic phase follows; the soils become exhausted of nutrients. The shield volcanoes break down. Marginally, forest habitats change into bogs and stream ecosystems. The broader '?hi'a rainforest redeveloping in the more dissected landscapes of the older islands loses stature, often forming large gaps that are invaded by the aluminum tolerant uluhe fern. The '?hi'a trees still thrive on soils rejuvenated from landslides and from Asian dust on the oldest (5 million years old) island Kaua'i but their stature and living biomass is greatly diminished.

  14. Where are they now? The fates of two genetic lineages in an introduced Hawaiian reef fish.

    PubMed

    Neigel, Joseph E

    2010-03-01

    Humans, both wittingly and unwittingly, have been transporting marine organisms beyond their native ranges for centuries (Ruiz et al. 1997). A central challenge of invasion biology is to identify the factors that determine whether introduced species fail to become established, become benign members of a community, or spread so far and reach such densities as to be considered invasive. Organismal features such as physiological tolerance, niche breadth and fecundity are critical, but by themselves are inaccurate predictors of the fates of introduced species (Sakai et al. 2001). The size, age distribution, and genetic makeup of founder populations are also important, but because they are usually unknown they are most often viewed as sources of uncertainty. For marine species with planktonic larvae, the challenge is even greater because the consequences of a planktonic phase for dispersal and population viability are not well understood. In this issue, Gaither et al. (2010a) present a remarkable account of the introduction of a reef fish for which the number and genetic makeup of the founders are known. Between 1956 and 1961, the Division of Fish and Game for the Territory of Hawaii introduced 12 non-indigenous fish species into Hawaiian waters to establish commercial and sport fisheries. The introduction of Lutjanus kasmira, the bluestriped snapper, was the most successful (Fig. 1). There were two releases of fish from French Polynesia. In 1958, 2431 fish from the Marquesas Islands were released on Oahu, followed in 1961 with an additional 728 fish from the Society Islands. The blue striped snapper rapidly spread to the other Hawaiian Islands, reaching the northwestern end of the archipelago by 1992. The choice of the Marquesas as one of two sources for the introduction was fortuitous. Gaither et al. (2010b) found that the Marquesas population is genetically distinct from all other Indo-Pacific populations of L. kasmira. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of fish from the Marquesas belong to a separate lineage that diverged from others in the species roughly half a Ma. Allele frequencies for several nuclear loci are also distinct. This provided Gaither et al. (2010a) with an extraordinary opportunity to examine what became of the mixed genetic heritage of Hawaiian blue striped snappers after 50 years. PMID:20456222

  15. Social Determinants of Health for Native Hawaiian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Alameda, Christian K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Traditional Hawaiian thought places children in a position of prominence in the family. Yet in Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiian children and adolescents face significant inequity in health outcomes. From prenatal alcohol and tobacco use, late or no prenatal care, macrosomia as well as low birth rates, to exclusive breastfeeding rates at 6 months, and high rates of infant mortality, Native Hawaiians face inequities in pre and early childhood indicators. During childhood and adolescence, Native Hawaiians experience high rates of obesity, and physical, mental and sexual abuse. This review examines the determinants behind the health inequities encountered by Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, and contextualizes those inequities s in a human rights-based approach to health. Methods A literature review was conducted for relevant research on Native Hawaiian and other indigenous children and adolescents. Existing data sources were also reviewed for relevant Native Hawaiian data. Results There is a significant dearth of data on the determinants of health for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. Some prenatal data is available from the Prenatal Risk Assessment Monitoring System, while selected youth data is available from the Youth Behavioral Risk Factor system. Available data show significant inequities for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, compared to other groups in Hawai‘i. Based on comparisons with other indigenous and marginalized peoples, the etiology of these disparities may be a lack of health equity, deriving from multigenerational trauma and discrimination as well as poverty and inequities of housing, education, environment, healthcare access, and social capital. Conclusions The significant barriers facing Native Hawaiian children and adolescents achieving their full potential constitute a challenge to the fulfillment of the human right to health. Future research needs to more fully articulate the linkage between the health status of Native Hawaiian children and adolescents, the determinants of that status, and the requirements of the human right to health. Needed particularly are longitudinal studies which provide data that may link multigenerational trauma and discrimination to poverty and other factors, ultimately producing healthy inequity for Native Hawaiian children and adolescents. PMID:22235151

  16. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence.

    PubMed

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M; Asner, Gregory P; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E; Questad, Erin J; Thaxton, Jarrod M; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R

    2015-01-01

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands. PMID:26066334

  17. Primary Succession on a Hawaiian Dryland Chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Kealohanuiopuna M.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cordell, Susan; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Heckman, Katherine; Hotchkiss, Sara; Jeraj, Marjeta; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Knapp, David E.; Questad, Erin J.; Thaxton, Jarrod M.; Trusdell, Frank; Kellner, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We used measurements from airborne imaging spectroscopy and LiDAR to quantify the biophysical structure and composition of vegetation on a dryland substrate age gradient in Hawaii. Both vertical stature and species composition changed during primary succession, and reveal a progressive increase in vertical stature on younger substrates followed by a collapse on Pleistocene-aged flows. Tall-stature Metrosideros polymorpha woodlands dominated on the youngest substrates (hundreds of years), and were replaced by the tall-stature endemic tree species Myoporum sandwicense and Sophora chrysophylla on intermediate-aged flows (thousands of years). The oldest substrates (tens of thousands of years) were dominated by the short-stature native shrub Dodonaea viscosa and endemic grass Eragrostis atropioides. We excavated 18 macroscopic charcoal fragments from Pleistocene-aged substrates. Mean radiocarbon age was 2,002 years and ranged from < 200 to 7,730. Genus identities from four fragments indicate that Osteomeles spp. or M. polymorpha once occupied the Pleistocene-aged substrates, but neither of these species is found there today. These findings indicate the existence of fires before humans are known to have occupied the Hawaiian archipelago, and demonstrate that a collapse in vertical stature is prevalent on the oldest substrates. This work contributes to our understanding of prehistoric fires in shaping the trajectory of primary succession in Hawaiian drylands. PMID:26066334

  18. Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 120

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Ormond W.; Wilson, Melly; Barros, Corrin

    2011-01-01

    This summary describes a larger report that discusses how Native Hawaiian students represent the largest single ethnic group in Hawai'i, at 27 percent of the student population in 2008/09. This larger REL Pacific report, "Comparing the Achievement Patterns of Native Hawaiian and Non-Native Hawaiian Grade 8 Students in Reading and Math," reports…

  19. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

  20. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

  1. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...Indian Organizations, Indian-Owned Economic Enterprises, and Native Hawaiian...

  2. 48 CFR 252.226-7001 - Utilization of Indian organizations, Indian-owned economic enterprises, and native Hawaiian small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...For matters relating to Native Hawaiian small business concerns: Department of Hawaiian Home Lands, PO Box 1879, Honolulu, HI 96805. The Department of Hawaiian Home Lands will determine the eligibility and will notify the Contracting Officer. (e)...

  3. The dynamics, transmission, and population impacts of avian malaria in native hawaiian birds: A modeling approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Decastro, F.; Ahumada, J.A.; Lapointe, D.A.; Atkinson, C.T.; Woodworth, B.L.; Hart, P.J.; Duffy, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an epidemiological model of avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) across an altitudinal gradient on the island of Hawaii that includes the dynamics of the host, vector, and parasite. This introduced mosquito-borne disease is hypothesized to have contributed to extinctions and major shifts in the altitudinal distribution of highly susceptible native forest birds. Our goal was to better understand how biotic and abiotic factors influence the intensity of malaria transmission and impact on susceptible populations of native Hawaiian forest birds. Our model illustrates key patterns in the malaria-forest bird system: high malaria transmission in low-elevation forests with minor seasonal or annual variation in infection;episodic transmission in mid-elevation forests with site-to-site, seasonal, and annual variation depending on mosquito dynamics;and disease refugia in high-elevation forests with only slight risk of infection during summer. These infection patterns are driven by temperature and rainfall effects on parasite incubation period and mosquito dynamics across an elevational gradient and the availability of larval habitat, especially in mid-elevation forests. The results from our model suggest that disease is likely a key factor in causing population decline or restricting the distribution of many susceptible Hawaiian species and preventing the recovery of other vulnerable species. The model also provides a framework for the evaluation of factors influencing disease transmission and alternative disease control programs, and to evaluate the impact of climate change on disease cycles and bird populations. ??2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Hawaiian hoary bat occupancy at Kaloko-Honok?hau National Historical Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonaccorso, Frank J.; Pinzari, Corina; Montoya-Aiona, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus) vocalizations were recorded using Anabat SD1 and Song Meter SM2Bat ultrasonic recorders at four monitoring stations in Kaloko-Honok?hau National Historical Park on the island of Hawai‘i. We hypothesize that echolocation call events are more numerous during the reproductive season of this bat. Bat detectors recorded from 1700 to 0730 hrs on a total of 42 nights between October 2011 and September 2012. Peak activity occurred between 1800 and 2000 hrs, although in May a secondary peak occurred between 0100 and 0300 hrs. Detectability proportions (0 to 1.0) were calculated using the software program PRESENCE (v4.2) and reported for each seven day recording session which was repeated on a bimonthly schedule. Hawaiian hoary bats were present in four of the six bimonthly surveys: January, May, September, and October; however, no bat calls were detected in March or July. Detectability of bat calls was above 0.50 in January, May, and September. Foraging buzzes, indicating feeding activity, were recorded in all months that bats were present.

  5. The use of traditional Hawaiian knowledge in the contemporary management of marine resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poepoe, Kelson K.; Bartram, Paul K.; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2003-01-01

    It is traditional for Hawaiians to "consult nature" so that fishing is practiced at times and places, and with gear that causes minimum disruption of natural biological and ecological processes. The Ho'olehua Hawaiian Homestead continues this tradition in and around Mo'omomi Bay on the northwest coast of the island of Moloka'i. This community relies heavily on inshore marine resources for subsistence and consequently, has an intimate knowledge of these resources. The shared knowledge, beliefs, and values of the community are culturally channeled to promote proper fishing behavior. This informal system brings more knowledge, experience, and moral commitment to fishery conservation than more centralized government management. Community-based management in the Mo'omomi area involves observational processes and problem-solving strategies for the purpose of conservation. The system is not articulated in the manner of Western science, but relies instead on mental models. These models foster a practical understanding of local inshore resource dynamics by the fishing community and, thus, lend credibility to unwritten standards for fishing conduct. The "code of conduct" is concerned with how people fish rather than how much they catch.

  6. Changes in Timing, Duration, and Symmetry of Molt of Hawaiian Forest Birds

    PubMed Central

    Freed, Leonard A.; Cann, Rebecca L.

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650–1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989–1999 and 2000–2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989–1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000–2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

  7. Integration of wireless sensor networks into cyberinfrastructure for monitoring Hawaiian "mountain-to-sea" environments.

    PubMed

    Kido, Michael H; Mundt, Carsten W; Montgomery, Kevin N; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding. PMID:18618172

  8. Integration of Wireless Sensor Networks into Cyberinfrastructure for Monitoring Hawaiian ``Mountain-to-Sea'' Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kido, Michael H.; Mundt, Carsten W.; Montgomery, Kevin N.; Asquith, Adam; Goodale, David W.; Kaneshiro, Kenneth Y.

    2008-10-01

    Monitoring the complex environmental relationships and feedbacks of ecosystems on catchment (or mountain)-to-sea scales is essential for social systems to effectively deal with the escalating impacts of expanding human populations globally on watersheds. However, synthesis of emerging technologies into a robust observing platform for the monitoring of coupled human-natural environments on extended spatial scales has been slow to develop. For this purpose, the authors produced a new cyberinfrastructure for environmental monitoring which successfully merged the use of wireless sensor technologies, grid computing with three-dimensional (3D) geospatial data visualization/exploration, and a secured internet portal user interface, into a working prototype for monitoring mountain-to-sea environments in the high Hawaiian Islands. A use-case example is described in which native Hawaiian residents of Waipa Valley (Kauai) utilized the technology to monitor the effects of regional weather variation on surface water quality/quantity response, to better understand their local hydrologic cycle, monitor agricultural water use, and mitigate the effects of lowland flooding.

  9. Hawaiian residents' preferences for Miconia control program attributes using conjoint choice experiment and latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens (Miconia). Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents' willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more ($2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii. PMID:20033159

  10. Hawaiian Residents' Preferences for Miconia Control Program Attributes Using Conjoint Choice Experiment and Latent Class Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Lin, Tun; Yang, Fang; Sisior, Gwendalyn

    2010-02-01

    Invasive species control or eradication is an important issue. On the islands of Hawaii, this problem is exceedingly evident when it comes to Miconia calvescens ( Miconia) . Adequate funding is needed to control or eradicate this invasive plant, but with the limited amount of funding available for the fight against Miconia, it is important to make sure that the fund is being spent in a way that addresses the needs or preferences of the Hawaiian residents. Using the conjoint choice experiment method, we designed a survey that would measure the Hawaiian residents’ willingness to support Miconia control program attributes. The attributes focused on were cost, biodiversity loss, extent of spread and soil erosion. Latent class approach was used to assess the surveyed population to see the different preferences by individual classes. The results show three different classes or groups of individuals with varying preferences for a control program of which cost and erosion were the top preferred attributes among the classes. These groups were defined by their socio-demographics of income, the length of residency and exposure to farming/gardening activities. Even with a preference for lower cost, a group showed willingness to pay more (2.40) for a program that reduces erosion from high to low. Finally, the biodiversity attribute had very low consideration from a majority of the respondents showing the need for educating the public regarding its importance in preserving the unique environment in Hawaii.

  11. Changes in timing, duration, and symmetry of molt of Hawaiian forest birds.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650-1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989-1999 and 2000-2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989-1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000-2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds. PMID:22279547

  12. Genetic diversity and evidence for recent modular recombination in Hawaiian Citrus tristeza virus.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Michael J; Borth, Wayne B; Sether, Diane M; Ferreira, Stephen; Gonsalves, Dennis; Hu, John S

    2010-02-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are home to a widespread and diverse population of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), an economically important pathogen of citrus. In this study, we quantified the genetic diversity of two CTV genes and determined the complete genomic sequence for two strains of Hawaiian CTV. The nucleotide diversity was estimated to be 0.0565 + or - 0.0022 for the coat protein (CP) gene (n = 137) and 0.0822 + or - 0.0033 for the p23 gene (n = 30). The genome size and organization of CTV strains HA18-9 and HA16-5 were similar to other fully sequenced strains of CTV. The 3'-terminal halves of their genomes were nearly identical (98.5% nucleotide identity), whereas the 5'-terminal halves were more distantly related (72.3% nucleotide identity), suggesting a possible recombination event. Closer examination of strain HA16-5 indicated that it arose through recent recombination between the movement module of an HA18-9 genotype, and the replication module of an undescribed CTV genotype. PMID:19834797

  13. Spatial Distribution, Density Structure, and Relationship of Intrusive and Extrusive Volcanics of Seamounts Along the Northwest Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tree, J. P.; Ito, G.; Garcia, M. O.; Kelley, C.; Wessel, P.; Shiro, B.; Boston, B.; Togia, H.; Smith, J. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Papah?naumoku?kea Marine National Monument (PMNM) is a 362,073 km2 conservation area encompassing islands and seamounts with prodigious diversity of size and morphologies formed by Hawaiian hotspot volcanism 7-31 Myr ago. During the winter and spring of 2014, we collaborated with the Schmidt Ocean Institute to conduct a detailed bathymetric mapping and geophysical survey of the PMNM on board the R/V Falkor. On two cruises, we collected 14,585 km of gravity data using UNOL's BGM-3 marine gravimeter and magnetic data with the University of Hawaii's G-882 cesium magnetometer. We will present these new data paired with a select set of existing NGDC marine geophysical data. Using these new gravity and magnetics data, we will investigate the internal density structures of these seamounts and the oceanic lithosphere upon which they were emplaced. The locations and volumes of the dense intrusive magmatic centers and rift zone dike complexes of these seamounts will be determined to investigate whether the ratio of intrusive to extrusive volume varies with time and volcano size. One of the largest rift zones of Hawaiian volcanoes is that of the St. Rogatien volcano ( ~125 km in length), and preliminary results from the Bouguer gravity anomaly suggest it is largely made of a dense dike complex. This rift zone, and other long rifts within the Monument will be compared to and contrasted with previously studied rift zones in main Hawaiian Islands to more completely characterize these features along the chain. Few volcanoes within the Monument that have been sampled. Some of these have yielded Cretaceous ages (e.g., O'Conner et al. 2013) and therefore it is unclear how many volcanoes within the Monument were formed by the Hawaiian mantle plume. The gravity data will be used to identify which of the undated seamounts are compensated by an uncharacteristically thin elastic plate and thus, did not form as a part of the hotspot chain. These results will help refine models of Hawaiian mantle plume productivity through time, absolute plate motion, and better define the volcanic loads for studying the rheology of the flexing lithosphere beneath these volcanoes.

  14. DIET COMPOSITION AND TERRESTRIAL PREY SELECTION OF THE LAYSAN TEAL ON LAYSAN ISLAND

    E-print Network

    Walters, Jeffrey R.

    Station, Hawaii National Park, HI 1 USA, E-mail: michelle_reynolds@usgs.gov Current Address: Lenker St to a single breeding population (approximately 00 birds) on Laysan Island and a small, recently translocated population on Midway Atoll ( birds). The species was previously widespread across the Hawaiian Archipelago

  15. Biology and Impacts of Pacific Island Invasive Species. 5. Eleutherodactylus coqui, the Coqui Frog (Anura: Leptodactylidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen H. Beard; William C. Pitt; Emily A. Price

    2009-01-01

    The nocturnal, terrestrial frog Eleutherodactylus coqui, known as the Coqui, is endemic to Puerto Rico and was accidentally introduced to Hawai‘i via nursery plants in the late 1980s. Over the past two decades E. coqui has spread to the four main Hawaiian Islands, and a major campaign was launched to eliminate and control it. One of the primary reasons this

  16. Deposit from a Giant Wave on the Island of Lanai, Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Moore; George W. Moore

    1984-01-01

    Limestone-bearing gravel, the newly named Hulopoe Gravel, blankets the coastal slopes on Lanai. The deposit, which reaches a maximum altitude of 326 meters, formerly was believed to have been deposited along several different ancient marine strandlines, but dated submerged coral reefs and tide-gauge measurements indicate that the southeastern Hawaiian Islands sink so fast that former worldwide high stands of the

  17. Munidopsis kareenae, a new species of seamount squat lobster from New Zealand with a key to the New Zealand species of Munidopsis (Crustacea: Decapoda: Munidopsidae).

    PubMed

    Ahyong, Shane T

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the squat lobster genus Munidopsis is described from Nukuhou Seamount, North Island, New Zealand. The new species is allied to members of the "Galathodes group" within Munidopsis that share a flattened, distally trifid rostrum, an unarmed carapace surface (apart from paired epigastric spines in some species), unarmed abdominal tergites and absence of pereopodal epipods. The new species is readily separated from these species by the combination of unarmed lateral carapace margins posterior to the anterolateral spine, absence of epigastric spines, and prominently spinose extensor margins of the pereopod 2-4 meri. Fourteen species of Munidopsis are now recorded from New Zealand; a key to the New Zealand species is provided. PMID:24614002

  18. Peridotite vs pyroxenite source lithologies of primordial helium in the Iceland and Hawaiian plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Y.; Class, C.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hofmann, A. W.; Sobolev, A. V.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested that chemical compositions of olivine phenocrysts can be used to distinguish between olivine-rich and olivine-poor lithologies (peridotite and pyroxenite) in the mantle sources of MORB and OIB (Sobolev et al, 2005, 2007, Herzberg, 2011). Olivine phenocrysts are also used for 3He/4He analyses, allowing us to address linkages between basalt source lithologies and primordial helium storage in the mantle. We report 3He/4He analyses of olivine phenocrysts from Iceland and Hawaii that were previously analyzed for major and minor elements (Sobolev et al., 2007, 2008). 3He/4He in Iceland samples vary between 7-26 (R/RA) and correlate negatively with Mn/Fe and positively with Ni/Mg of the olivine phenocrysts, as well as 187Os/188Os and Gd/Lu in host lavas. These relationships suggest mixing between a degassed and incompatible element depleted peridotitic source (MORB-type?), and a primordial 3He enriched plume source containing lithologies with lower modal olivine/garnet (pyroxenite?). Hawaiian samples, on the other hand, form a positive trend in 3He/4He vs Mn/Fe space, as compared to the negative trend of the Iceland samples. Thus, the Iceland and Hawaiian plumes give contrasting results for the high 3He/4He host lithology - more pyroxenite-rich for Iceland and peridotite-rich for Hawaii. Plotting the Iceland and Hawaiian plume data together for 3He/4He vs Mn/Fe, the two divergent trends intersect at the composition of Loihi, characterized by intermediate pyroxenite/peridotite and 3He/4He of 9-28 RA. Baffin Island and West Greenland picrites have the highest known magmatic 3He/4He and high olivine Mn/Fe (Starkey et al., 2009, 2012), indicating high 3He/4He peridotites as well as pyroxenites in the Iceland plume. When plotted with the Iceland-Hawaii samples, they lie on an extension of the Hawaiian trend. This raises the possibility (pending more data from other plumes) that there is a global trend showing high 3He/4He residing in peridotite.

  19. S pin y Lobsters UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

    E-print Network

    Australia. Juan Fernandez Islands (off coast of Chile), New Zealand, South Africa, Tasmania, Tristan da (Mexico) Japan 1 Species Distribution Panulirus laevicauda Bermuda to northeastern South America Panulirus longipe s Western Australia, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Philippines, NewCaledonia Panulirus marginatus

  20. Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai’i Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Peck; Paul C. Banko; Marla Schwarzfeld; Melody Euaparadorn; Kevin W. Brinck

    2008-01-01

    Through intentional and accidental introduction, more than 100 species of alien Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera)\\u000a have become established in the Hawaiian Islands. The extent to which these parasitoid wasps have penetrated native wet forests\\u000a was investigated over a 1,765 m elevation gradient on windward Hawai’i Island. For >1 year, malaise traps were used to continuously\\u000a monitor parasitoid abundance and species richness

  1. Target strength measurements of Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals

    E-print Network

    Benoit-Bird, Kelly J.

    Target strength measurements of Hawaiian mesopelagic boundary community animals Kelly J. Benoit the envelope of the received echoes directly into a computer was used to measure the ex situ target strength TS

  2. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawaii

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christina Heliker

    This United States Geological Survey (USGS) on-line publication highlights the volcanic hazards facing the people living on the Island of Hawaii. These hazards include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, earthquakes and tsunamis. This report discusses these hazards, the volcanoes of Mauna Loa and Kilauea, and the work of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory to monitor and issue warnings to the people affected by these hazards.

  3. Cavernicoles in lava tubes on the island of hawaii.

    PubMed

    Howarth, F G

    1972-01-21

    Cave-adapted arthropods have evolved in lava tubes in Hawaii. This is the first report of cavernicoles from the Hawaiian islands. The specialization of the cavernicolous insects and the recent origin of the lava tubes suggest that subterranean connections between lava tubes regularly occur and provide dispersal routes. The discovery that lava tubes were colonized by representatives of the adaptively radiating native fauna offers significant potential for evolutionary studies. PMID:17814543

  4. Carbohydrate Dynamics and the Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH): Effects of Parasitic Infection in Norway Lobsters ( Nephrops norvegicus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Stentiford; E. S. Chang; S. A. Chang; D. M. Neil

    2001-01-01

    The effects of a dinoflagellate parasite (Hematodinium sp.) on carbohydrate metabolism were examined in the Norway lobster, Nephrops norvegicus. Five stages of infection were observed. These included uninfected (Stage 0), subpatently infected (SP), and patently infected (Stage 1–4) lobsters. During patent infection, the concentration of glucose in the hemolymph was reduced significantly from its value of 180 ?g ml?1 in

  5. 76 FR 82413 - Amendments to the Reef Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...Fish, Spiny Lobster, Queen Conch and Coral and Reef Associated Plants and Invertebrates...FMP), and Amendment 3 to the FMP for Corals and Reef Associated Plants and...

  6. 77 FR 76458 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...designated facility for a study to assess tag mortality and retention. DATES: Comments must...also intends to conduct research on tag mortality and retention on spiny lobsters. Lobsters...retained at the facility to assess tag mortality and the retention of tags through...

  7. Modeling and evaluating ecosystem in 1980s and 1990s for American lobster ( Homarus americanus) in the Gulf of Maine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuying Zhang; Yong Chen

    2007-01-01

    The Gulf of Maine (GOM) ecosystem has been observed to experience large changes over the last several decades, switching from a groundfish dominated system to a system dominated by crustacean species such as the American lobster (Homarus americanus) and crabs. The objective of this study is to develop a lobster ecosystem model and to evaluate the changes in the GOM

  8. A chymotrypsin from the Digestive Tract of California Spiny Lobster, Panulirus interruptus: Purification and Biochemical Characterization.

    PubMed

    Bibo-Verdugo, Betsaida; Rojo-Arreola, Liliana; Navarrete-Del-Toro, Maria A; García-Carreño, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    A chymotrypsin was purified from the gastric juice of California spiny lobster (Panulirus interrutpus), using preparative electrophoresis and affinity chromatography on agarose-p-aminobenzamidine. The molecular mass was estimated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under denaturing conditions to be 28 kDa. Chymotrypsin activity was totally inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and chymostatin. Lobster chymotrypsin had optimal pH 7.0-8.0 and temperature of 55 °C. The enzyme is highly stable under a wide range of pH (retaining up to 80 % of activity after 1 h of incubation at pH 3.0, 5.0, and 12.0), showing higher stability at pH 8.0, and was inactivated after 20 min at 55 °C. Lobster chymotrypsin was able to hydrolyze protein substrates at as low as pH 3.0. These results are consistent with the findings of enzyme stability. Activity was assessed after incubation of enzyme with different organic solvents (in the range of 10-50 %); when tested in the presence of acetone, ethanol, propanol, and butanol, lobster chymotrypsin residual activity was >80 %; whereas in the presence of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and toluene, lobster chymotrypsin residual activity was <80 %. Deduced amino acid sequence, corroborated by mass spectrometry, was determined. PMID:25877639

  9. Extremophilic Eukaryote Life in Hawaiian Fumaroles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ackerman; S. Anderson; C. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    Extremophilic microorganisms exist in all three domains of life (Eukarya, Archaea, Bacteria), but are less known in eukaryotes. Fumaroles provide heat and moisture characteristic of an environment suitable for these organisms. On the Island of Hawaii, fumaroles are scattered across the southeastern portion of the island as a result of the volcanic activity from Kilauea Crater and Pu'u' O'o vent

  10. Revised age for Midway volcano, Hawaiian volcanic chain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    New conventional K-Ar, 40Ar/39Ar, and petrochemical data on alkalic basalt pebbles from the basalt conglomerate overlying tholeiitic flows in the Midway drill hole show that Midway evolved past the tholeiitic shield-building stage and erupted lavas of the alkalic suite 27.0 ?? 0.6 m.y. ago. The data also show that previously published conventional K-Ar ages on altered samples of tholeiite are too young by about 9 m.y. These results remove a significant anomaly in the age-distance relationships of the Hawaiian chain and obviate the need for large changes in either the rate of rotation of the Pacific plate about the Hawaiian pole or the motion of the plate relative to the Hawaiian hot spot since the time of formation of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend. All of the age data along the Hawaiian chain are now reasonably consistent with an average rate of volcanic propagation of 8.0 cm/yr and with 0.83??/m.y. of angular rotation about the Hawaiian pole. ?? 1977.

  11. Submarine landslides around the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastel, Sebastian; Schmincke, Hans-Ulrich; Jacobs, Colin L.; Rihm, Roland; Le Bas, Timothy P.; AlibéS, BáRbara

    2001-01-01

    The morphology and structure of the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands were mapped using the GLORIA long-range side-scan sonar system, bathymetric multibeam systems, and sediment echosounders. Twelve young (<2 Ma) giant landslides have been identified on the submarine flanks of the Canary Islands up to now. Older landslide events are long buried under a thick sediment cover due to high sedimentation rates around the Canary Islands. Most slides were found on the flanks of the youngest and most active islands of La Palma, El Hierro, and Tenerife, but young giant landslides were also identified on the flanks of the older (15-20 Ma) but still active eastern islands. Large-scale mass wasting is an important process during all periods of major magmatic activity. The long-lived volcanic constructive history of the islands of the Canary Archipelago is balanced by a correspondingly long history of destruction, resulting in a higher landslide frequency for the Canary Islands compared to the Hawaiian Islands, where giant landslides only occur late in the period of active shield growth. The lower stability of the flanks of the Canaries is probably due to the much steeper slopes of the islands, a result of the abundance of highly evolved intrusive and extrusive rocks. Another reason for the enhanced slope instability is the abundance of pyroclastic deposits on Canary Islands resulting from frequent explosive eruptions due to the elevated volatile contents in the highly alkalic magmas. Dike-induced rifting is most likely the main trigger mechanism for destabilization of the flanks. Flank collapses are a major geological hazard for the Canary Islands due to the sector collapses themselves as well as triggering of tsunamis. In at least one case, a giant lateral blast occurred when an active magmatic or hydrothermal system became unroofed during flank collapse.

  12. Contemporary morphological diversification of passerine birds introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Blake A; Lockwood, Julie L

    2011-08-01

    Species that have been introduced to islands experience novel and strong selection pressures after establishment. There is evidence that exotic species diverge from their native source populations; further, a few studies have demonstrated adaptive divergence across multiple exotic populations of a single species. Exotic birds provide a good study system, as they have been introduced to many locations worldwide, and we often know details concerning the propagule origin, time of introduction, and dynamics of establishment and dispersal within the introduced range. These data make them especially conducive to the examination of contemporary evolution. Island faunas have received intense scrutiny, therefore we have expectations concerning the patterns of diversification for exotic species. We examine six passerine bird species that were introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago less than 150 years ago. We find that five of these show morphological divergence among islands from the time since they were established. We demonstrate that some of this divergence cannot be accounted for by genetic drift, and therefore we must consider adaptive evolution to explain it. We also evaluate evolutionary divergence rates and find that these species are diverging at similar rates to those found in published studies of contemporary evolution in native species. PMID:21208954

  13. Contemporary morphological diversification of passerine birds introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Mathys, Blake A.; Lockwood, Julie L.

    2011-01-01

    Species that have been introduced to islands experience novel and strong selection pressures after establishment. There is evidence that exotic species diverge from their native source populations; further, a few studies have demonstrated adaptive divergence across multiple exotic populations of a single species. Exotic birds provide a good study system, as they have been introduced to many locations worldwide, and we often know details concerning the propagule origin, time of introduction, and dynamics of establishment and dispersal within the introduced range. These data make them especially conducive to the examination of contemporary evolution. Island faunas have received intense scrutiny, therefore we have expectations concerning the patterns of diversification for exotic species. We examine six passerine bird species that were introduced to the Hawaiian archipelago less than 150 years ago. We find that five of these show morphological divergence among islands from the time since they were established. We demonstrate that some of this divergence cannot be accounted for by genetic drift, and therefore we must consider adaptive evolution to explain it. We also evaluate evolutionary divergence rates and find that these species are diverging at similar rates to those found in published studies of contemporary evolution in native species. PMID:21208954

  14. Validation and application of noninvasive glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone measures in free-ranging Hawaiian monk seals.

    PubMed

    Gobush, K S; Booth, R K; Wasser, S K

    2014-01-01

    We validate fecal glucocorticoid (GC) and thyroid (T3) hormone metabolite measures in the Critically Endangered Hawaiian monk seal for the first time, and examine variation in the concentrations of these hormones in individuals across the species' range. We test hypotheses that monk seals from declining subpopulations have relatively high GCs and low T3 on average suggesting impacts of food limitation, and that this hormone pattern is more apparent in immature animals compared to adults, as food limitation is specifically indicated as a principal cause of poor body condition and survival of juvenile monk seals. We opportunistically sampled scat from 84 individually identifiable monk seals during the 2010 breeding season from two geographic regions, the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). The MHI subpopulation of monk seals is growing, whereas subpopulations at many sites in the NWHI are in decline. Best fit general linear models predicting variation in GCs and T3 (examined separately) were similar (after accounting for significantly elevated hormone concentrations associated with molt and possibly lactation); both included sample date, region, and monk seal age as predictors. GC concentrations were significantly lower in MHI versus NWHI monk seals and decreased as the breeding season progressed. T3 concentrations were significantly lower in immature monk seals compared to adults. GC and T3 concentrations were positively correlated at 4 NWHI sites; prey may be adequate for physiological growth or maintenance at these sites but relatively stressful to acquire. GCs were highest at French Frigate Shoals, (a NWHI site) while T3 was relatively low here, indicating a possible signal of food limitation. GCs were lowest in the MHI. Disturbance associated with living near a high human population in the MHI appears to impact monk seal physiology less than other stressors encountered in the remote and highly protected NWHI where human presence is extremely low. PMID:24239792

  15. Characterising the fate of nitrogenous waste from the sea-cage aquaculture of spiny lobsters using numerical modelling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soxi; Hartstein, Neil D; Jeffs, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Although the aquaculture of spiny lobsters has been expanding since the 1970s, very little is known about the potential environmental impacts on water quality of this activity. This study quantified the production of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) from Australasian red spiny lobsters, Jasus edwardsii, in the laboratory, and these data were then used in a numerical model to predict the dispersal pattern of DIN from a hypothetical commercial spiny lobster farm for a coastal site where such a farm would typically be located. Modelling scenarios were set up with combinations of two different stocking densities (3 and 5 kg m(-3)), two different diets (mussels and moist artificial diet) and three different feed conversion ratios (FCR?=?3, 5 and 28). DIN excretion rate from unfed lobsters in the laboratory on average was 1.10?±?0.12 ?g N g(-1) h(-1) while feeding lobsters on mussels and artificial diet increased DIN excretion significantly by around eightfold and twofold, respectively. Ammonia was consistently the dominant contributor to measured DIN output from lobsters. Modelling results indicated that the mean elevated DIN from a hypothetical farm where the lobsters were fed with mussels ranged from 7 up to 20 ?g N L(-1) with increasing stocking density and FCR and was 30-150 % higher than the mean elevated DIN resulting from lobsters fed with artificial diet. Overall, the results indicated that DIN output from the hypothetical spiny lobster sea-cage farming is unlikely to be problematic using the FCR, stocking density, and the number of cages modelled at the coastal site in this study. Furthermore, feeding lobsters with artificial diet can help maintain a lower DIN output than seafood, such as mussels or trash fish. PMID:25601612

  16. CARBON DIOXIDE FROM THE NERVE CORD OF THE LOBSTER.

    PubMed

    Parker, G H

    1925-07-20

    1. The nerve cord of the lobster (Homarus americanus Milne-Edwards) is very delicate and can be used as a living preparation for only a few hours after its removal from the animal. 2. During the first hour or so after removal it discharges CO(2) at a steadily decreasing rate beginning at about 0.20 mg. CO(2) per gram of cord per minute and ending at about 0.07 mg. 3. This discharge exhibits a steady decrease in rate and is not divisible into a period of gush and a period of uniform outflow as with the lateral-line nerve of the dogfish. It terminates in a very few hours with the complete death of the cord. 4. Both handling and cutting the cord temporarily increase the rate of CO(2) output. 5. The stimulated cord discharges CO(2) at a rate about 26 per cent higher than that of the quiescent cord, an increase of about 1.6 times that of the increase observed in the lateral-line nerve of the dogfish under similar circumstances. PMID:19872168

  17. The composition and distribution of the rejuvenated component across the Hawaiian plume: Hf-Nd-Sr-Pb isotope systematics of Kaula lavas and pyroxenite xenoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizimis, Michael; Salters, Vincent J. M.; Garcia, Michael O.; Norman, Marc D.

    2013-10-01

    Rejuvenated volcanism refers to the reemergence of volcanism after a hiatus of 0.5-2 Ma following the voluminous shield building stage of Hawaiian volcanoes. The composition of the rejuvenated source and its distribution relative to the center of the plume provide important constraints on the origin of rejuvenated volcanism. Near-contemporaneous lavas from the Kaula-Niihau-Kauai ridge and the North Arch volcanic field that are aligned approximately orthogonally to the plume track can constrain the lateral geochemical heterogeneity and distribution of the rejuvenated source across the volcanic chain. Nephelinites, phonolites and pyroxenite xenoliths from Kaula Island have radiogenic Hf, Nd and unradiogenic Sr isotope compositions consistent with a time-integrated depleted mantle source. The pyroxenites and nephelinites extend to the lowest 208Pb/204Pb reported in Hawaiian rocks. These data, along with new Pb isotope data from pyroxenites from the Salt Lake Crater (Oahu) redefine the composition of the depleted end-member of the Hawaiian rejuvenated source at 208Pb/204Pb=37.35±0.05, 206Pb/204Pb = 17.75±0.03, ?Nd = 9-10, ?Hf ˜16-17 and 87Sr/88Sr <0.70305. The revised isotope composition also suggests that this depleted component may contribute to LOA and KEA trend shield stage Hawaiian lavas, consistent with the rejuvenated source being part of the Hawaiian plume and not entrained upper mantle. The isotope systematics of rejuvenated magmas along the Kaula-Niihau-Kauai-North Arch transect are consistent with a larger proportion of the rejuvenated depleted component in the periphery of the plume track rather than along its axis.

  18. Comparison of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations Related to Diabetes Among Native Hawaiian, Chinese, Filipino, and Japanese Elderly Compared with Whites, Hawai‘i, December 2006–December 2010

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyeong Jun; Juarez, Deborah T.; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Chen, John J.; Salvail, Florentina R.; Miyamura, Jill; Mau, Marjorie L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25% of individuals aged 65 years or older in the United States have diabetes mellitus. Diabetes rates in this age group are higher for Asian American and Pacific Islanders (AA/PI) than for whites. We examined racial/ethnic differences in diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations (DRPH) among people aged 65 years or older for Japanese, Chinese, Filipinos, Native Hawaiians, and whites. Methods Discharge data for hospitalizations in Hawai‘i for people aged 65 years or older from December 2006 through December 2010 were compared. Annual rates of DRPH by patient were calculated for each racial/ethnic group by sex. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated relative to whites. Multivariable models controlling for insurer, comorbidity, diabetes prevalence, age, and residence location provided final adjusted rates and RRs. Results A total of 1,815 DRPH were seen from 1,515 unique individuals. Unadjusted RRs for DRPH by patient were less than1 in all AA/PI study groups compared with whites, but were highest among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos. In fully adjusted models accounting for higher diabetes prevalence in AA/PI groups, Native Hawaiian (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 1.59), Filipino (aRR = 2.26), and Japanese (aRR = 1.86) men retained significantly higher rates of diabetes-related potentially preventable hospitalizations than whites, as did Filipino women (aRR = 1.61). Conclusion Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older have a higher risk than whites for DRPH. Health care providers and public health programs for elderly patients should consider effective programs to reduce potentially preventable hospitalizations among Native Hawaiian, Filipino, and Japanese men and Filipino women aged 65 years or older. PMID:23886042

  19. Population Genetic Structure of the Deep-Sea Precious Coral Corallium secundum from the Hawaiian Archipelago Based on Microsatellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baco-Taylor, A.

    2006-12-01

    Deep-sea precious corals (Gerardia sp., Corallium lauuense, and Corallium secundum) on the Islands and seamounts of the Hawaiian Archipelago have supported an extremely profitable fishery, yet little is known about the life history and dispersal of the exploited species. Recent studies indicate significant genetic structure between shallow-water coral populations, including several species capable of long distance dispersal. If significant genetic structure exists in seamount and Island populations of precious corals, this could suggest that the elimination (through overharvesting) of a bed of precious corals would result in loss of overall genetic diversity in the species. Here I discuss results based on microsatellite studies of the precious coral, Corallium secundum, from 11 sites in the Hawaiian Archipelago collected between 1998 and 2004, and compare the population genetic structure and dispersal capabilities of Corallium secundum to the results for Corallium lauuense. Microsatellite studies of Corallium lauuense indicated significant heterozygote deficiency in most populations, suggesting recruitment in most populations is from local sources with only occasional long-distance dispersal events. Also, two populations appear to be significantly isolated from other populations of Corallium lauuense and may be separate stocks. In contrast, Corallium secundum populations have little heterozygote deficiency and separate into 3 distinct regions. In addition to having fisheries management implications for these corals, the results of these studies also have implications for the management and protection of seamount fauna.

  20. Creation of a gilded trap by the high economic value of the Maine lobster fishery.

    PubMed

    Steneck, R S; Hughes, T P; Cinner, J E; Adger, W N; Arnold, S N; Berkes, F; Boudreau, S A; Brown, K; Folke, C; Gunderson, L; Olsson, P; Scheffer, M; Stephenson, E; Walker, B; Wilson, J; Worm, B

    2011-10-01

    Unsustainable fishing simplifies food chains and, as with aquaculture, can result in reliance on a few economically valuable species. This lack of diversity may increase risks of ecological and economic disruptions. Centuries of intense fishing have extirpated most apex predators in the Gulf of Maine (United States and Canada), effectively creating an American lobster (Homarus americanus) monoculture. Over the past 20 years, the economic diversity of marine resources harvested in Maine has declined by almost 70%. Today, over 80% of the value of Maine's fish and seafood landings is from highly abundant lobsters. Inflation-corrected income from lobsters in Maine has steadily increased by nearly 400% since 1985. Fisheries managers, policy makers, and fishers view this as a success. However, such lucrative monocultures increase the social and ecological consequences of future declines in lobsters. In southern New England, disease and stresses related to increases in ocean temperature resulted in more than a 70% decline in lobster abundance, prompting managers to propose closing that fishery. A similar collapse in Maine could fundamentally disrupt the social and economic foundation of its coast. We suggest the current success of Maine's lobster fishery is a gilded trap. Gilded traps are a type of social trap in which collective actions resulting from economically attractive opportunities outweigh concerns over associated social and ecological risks or consequences. Large financial gain creates a strong reinforcing feedback that deepens the trap. Avoiding or escaping gilded traps requires managing for increased biological and economic diversity. This is difficult to do prior to a crisis while financial incentives for maintaining the status quo are large. The long-term challenge is to shift fisheries management away from single species toward integrated social-ecological approaches that diversify local ecosystems, societies, and economies. PMID:21797925

  1. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  2. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  3. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  4. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  5. 40 CFR 409.70 - Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the Hawaiian raw cane sugar processing subcategory. 409.70 Section...CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Hawaiian Raw Cane Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.70...

  6. Paired windward and leeward biogeochemical time series reveal consistent surface ocean CO2 trends across the Hawaiian Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dore, John E.; Church, Matthew J.; Karl, David M.; Sadler, Daniel W.; Letelier, Ricardo M.

    2014-09-01

    Sustained time series have provided compelling evidence for progressive acidification of the surface oceans through exchange with the growing atmospheric reservoir of carbon dioxide. However, few long-term programs exist, and extrapolation of results from one site to larger oceanic expanses is hampered by the lack of spatial coverage inherent to Eulerian sampling. Since 1988, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series program has sampled CO2 system variables nearly monthly at Station ALOHA, a deep ocean site windward and 115 km north of the island of Oahu. Surface measurements have also been made at Station Kahe, a leeward site 12 km from the island and on the opposite side of the Hawaiian Ridge. Despite having different physical settings, the sites exhibit identical rates of surface pCO2 increase and hydrogen ion accumulation, suggesting that atmospheric forcing dominates over local dynamics in determining the CO2 trend in the surface waters of the North Pacific subtropical gyre.

  7. Kahua A';o--A Learning Foundation: Using Hawaiian Language Newspaper Articles for Science and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, P. W.; Businger, S.

    2013-12-01

    Kahua A';o, an NSF OEDG project, utilizes Hawaiian language newspaper articles written between 1843 and 1948 in lessons and professional development intended to increase participation of underrepresented Native Hawaiian students in earth science. Guided by sociocultural theories that view learning as experiential and culturally situated, geoscientists (Steven Businger, Scott Rowland, Floyd McCoy, UG student Kelly Lance); Hawaiian translators (M. Puakea Nogelmeier, GRAs Kapomaikai Stone and Iasona Ellinwood); science educators (Pauline Chinn, graduate student Lindsey Spencer), utilize articles to develop place-based meteorology and geology curricula for middle school teachers. Articles are valuable to science and science education: Native Hawaiians are citizen scientists who recorded, interpreted, and communicated findings to potentially critical audiences, while dated, descriptive, eye witness reports provide data on events unrecorded by westerners. Articles reveal Hawaiian intellectual tradition placed great value on environmental knowledge. Moolelo (traditional stories) e.g., Kuap?kaa (Nakuina, 1905), translated as The Wind Gourd of Laamaomao, tells of Kuap?kaa controlling all the winds of Hawai';i by chanting their names--a metaphor for the power of knowledge of winds, rains and their patterns. In the moolelo of Kalapana, a boy hero challenges and defeats the king of Kauai to a life-and-death riddling contest (Nakuina, 1902). Maly's (2001) translation of a riddle involving 22 zones spanning mountaintop to deep-sea underscores the knowledge base informing sustainable practices. Articles provide insight into indigenous maps (Nogelmeier, personal communication) while riddling contests (Beckwith, 1940/1970) establish demonstrations of knowledge as central to power, identity, and status. Eight field-based lessons have been presented to formal and informal science educators, with teachers adapting lessons for 3rd-12th grade students. Graduate students Spencer, Stone, and Ellinwood created ArcGIS wind maps associating winds in the Wind Gourd of Laamaomao with ahupua';a, traditional geographical units. Their innovative use of technology to visualize place-based indigenous knowledge inspires teachers to use anemometers and GPS and to want to learn to create maps of winds and other phenomena. A lesson being developed on ENSO/El Nino-La Nina addresses a phenomenon with implications for rainfall, drought, and biological impacts in Hawaii. In the context of climate change, reduced rainfall at higher elevations will increase stress on fragile ecosystems that are the last refuges of most of Hawaii's endemic species. A search of Hawaiian newspaper articles that mention storms, rains and drought shows interesting correlations with historical reconstructions of ENSO cycles in the Pacific. Damage reports in the articles establish that an 1871 tropical storm that impacted the island of Hawaii was a category 3 hurricane on the Saffir Simpson scale. This finding is of great scientific interest and the associated lesson effectively engages students in meaningful learning during Hawaii's hurricane season. As over 95% of 1.5 million pages of text are in Hawaiian, the project 1) increases resources for science teachers, scientists, and informal science educators and 2) conveys the science underlying Hawaiian cultural practices.

  8. Characterization of Vibrio fluvialis-Like Strains Implicated in Limp Lobster Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tall, B. D.; Fall, S.; Pereira, M. R.; Ramos-Valle, M.; Curtis, S. K.; Kothary, M. H.; Chu, D. M. T.; Monday, S. R.; Kornegay, L.; Donkar, T.; Prince, D.; Thunberg, R. L.; Shangraw, K. A.; Hanes, D. E.; Khambaty, F. M.; Lampel, K. A.; Bier, J. W.; Bayer, R. C.

    2003-01-01

    Studies were undertaken to characterize and determine the pathogenic mechanisms involved in a newly described systemic disease in Homarus americanus (American lobster) caused by a Vibrio fluvialis-like microorganism. Nineteen isolates were obtained from eight of nine lobsters sampled. Biochemically, the isolates resembled V. fluvialis, and the isolates grew optimally at 20°C; none could grow at temperatures above 23°C. The type strain (1AMA) displayed a thermal reduction time (D value) of 5.77 min at 37°C. All of the isolates required at least 1% NaCl for growth. Collectively, the data suggest that these isolates may embody a new biotype. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the isolates revealed five closely related subgroups. Some isolates produced a sheep hemagglutinin that was neither an outer membrane protein nor a metalloprotease. Several isolates possessed capsules. The isolates were highly susceptible to a variety of antibiotics tested. However, six isolates were resistant to erythromycin. Seventeen isolates harbored plasmids. Lobster challenge studies revealed that the 50% lethal dose of a plasmid-positive strain was 100-fold lower than that of a plasmid-negative strain, suggesting that the plasmid may enhance the pathogenicity of these microorganisms in lobsters. Microorganisms that were recovered from experimentally infected lobsters exhibited biochemical and PFGE profiles that were indistinguishable from those of the challenge strain. Tissue affinity studies demonstrated that the challenge microorganisms accumulated in heart and midgut tissues as well as in the hemolymph. Culture supernatants and polymyxin B lysates of the strains caused elongation of CHO cells in tissue culture, suggesting the presence of a hitherto unknown enterotoxin. Both plasmid-positive and plasmid-negative strains caused significant dose-related intestinal fluid accumulations in suckling mice. Absence of viable organisms in the intestinal contents of mice suggests that these microorganisms cause diarrhea in mice by intoxication rather than by an infectious process. Further, these results support the thermal reduction data at 37°C and suggest that the mechanism(s) that led to fluid accumulation in mice differs from the disease process observed in lobsters by requiring neither the persistence of viable microorganisms nor the presence of plasmids. In summary, results of lobster studies satisfy Koch's postulates at the organismal and molecular levels; the findings support the hypothesis that these V. fluvialis-like organisms were responsible for the originally described systemic disease, which is now called limp lobster disease. PMID:14660396

  9. Additional slipper lobsters of the subfamily Scyllarinae Latreille, 1825 (Crustacea, Achelata, Scyllaridae) from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chien-Hui; Lin, Chia-Wei; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2014-01-01

    Five scyllarine lobsters are recorded from Taiwan for the first time. They are Bathyarctus rubens (Alcock & Anderson, 1894), Biarctus sordidus (Stimpson, 1860), Chelarctus aureus (Holthuis, 1963), Crenarctus bicuspidatus (De Man, 1905) and Petrarctus veliger Holthuis, 2002. The distributions of B. rubens, C. aureus and P. veliger are extended northwards to Taiwan. Distinguishing characters of these five species are illustrated and color photographs of all but B. sordidus are provided. Altogether, nine genera and 17 species of scyllarine lobsters are now known from Taiwan.  PMID:25284402

  10. Comparison of focal properties of square-channel and meridional lobster-eye lenses.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Samuel; Erwin, Daniel A

    2014-12-01

    The lobster-eye telescope with square cross-section channels has been suggested as a possible candidate for a wide-field-of-view x-ray all-sky monitor. However, due to the difficult construction, especially with metals, variations of lobster-eye lenses have been proposed as possible alternatives. This work is a computational comparison of the focal properties of one variant, the meridional lens, with the square-channel lens. For both types of lens, the efficiency of focusing for imaged photons as well as the point-spread function in one dimension is studied for collimated sources. PMID:25606746

  11. New plant records from the Hawaiian Archipelago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starr, Forest; Starr, Kim; Loope, Lloyd L.

    2010-01-01

    The following contributions include 19 new plant records for the islands of Kure Atoll (1), Midway Atoll (7), L?na‘i (9), Kaho‘olawe (1), and Maui (1). The records are comprised of one new state record and 18 new island records. All but one of the records are non-natives. Images of most of the material examined can be seen at . Voucher specimens are housed in the Bishop Museum's Herbarium Pacificum (BISH), Honolulu, Hawai‘i.

  12. Video Article Obtaining Hemocytes from the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Euprymna scolopes and

    E-print Network

    McFall-Ngai, Margaret

    Video Article Obtaining Hemocytes from the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Euprymna scolopes and Observing.V. (2010). Obtaining Hemocytes from the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid Euprymna scolopes and Observing between the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes and the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri has

  13. Island Biogeography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John Jungck (BioQUEST Curriculum Consortium; Biology)

    2005-12-16

    This excel workbook demonstrates the principles of the MacArthur-Wilson theory of Island Biogeography. It allows the user to define the mainland species pool, area of the island, and distance of the island from the mainland. Graphical output included species richness equilibrium at varying island size and distance. The workbook also allows the user to calculate a species-area function for data entered into the data input page. Several datasets on island area and species richness are included for various types of islands and species. Variables and formulas are defined in the accompanying tutorial.

  14. Probing Prokaryotic Social Behaviors with Bacterial “Lobster Traps”

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Jodi L.; Wessel, Aimee K.; Parsek, Matthew R.; Ellington, Andrew D.; Whiteley, Marvin; Shear, Jason B.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria are social organisms that display distinct behaviors/phenotypes when present in groups. These behaviors include the abilities to construct antibiotic-resistant sessile biofilm communities and to communicate with small signaling molecules (quorum sensing [QS]). Our understanding of biofilms and QS arises primarily from in vitro studies of bacterial communities containing large numbers of cells, often greater than 108 bacteria; however, in nature, bacteria often reside in dense clusters (aggregates) consisting of significantly fewer cells. Indeed, bacterial clusters containing 101 to 105 cells are important for transmission of many bacterial pathogens. Here, we describe a versatile strategy for conducting mechanistic studies to interrogate the molecular processes controlling antibiotic resistance and QS-mediated virulence factor production in high-density bacterial clusters. This strategy involves enclosing a single bacterium within three-dimensional picoliter-scale microcavities (referred to as bacterial “lobster traps”) defined by walls that are permeable to nutrients, waste products, and other bioactive small molecules. Within these traps, bacteria divide normally into extremely dense (1012 cells/ml) clonal populations with final population sizes similar to that observed in naturally occurring bacterial clusters. Using these traps, we provide strong evidence that within low-cell-number/high-density bacterial clusters, QS is modulated not only by bacterial density but also by population size and flow rate of the surrounding medium. We also demonstrate that antibiotic resistance develops as cell density increases, with as few as ~150 confined bacteria exhibiting an antibiotic-resistant phenotype similar to biofilm bacteria. Together, these findings provide key insights into clinically relevant phenotypes in low-cell-number/high-density bacterial populations. PMID:21060734

  15. Kinematics, hydrodynamics and force production of pleopods suggest jet-assisted walking in the American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeanette L; Demont, M Edwin

    2009-09-01

    The American lobster (Homarus americanus) displays a diverse set of locomotory behaviours that includes tail flips, walking and paddling. Paddling is carried out by the four pairs of paddle-shaped pleopods on the ventral abdomen. Although it is recognized that pleopod-generated fluid flows have some locomotory role in adults, reports on their relative importance in locomotion are inconsistent. This paper integrates experimental kinematics and hydrodynamics of lobster pleopod beating to determine the mechanism and magnitude of pleopod force production. A kinematic analysis of pleopod beating in live lobsters showed that the pleopods execute an adlocomotory metachronal beating pattern. We modelled in vivo pleopod kinematics with a set of simple trigonometric functions, and used these functions to program a mechanical lobster model consisting of motor-driven pleopods on a lobster abdomen exoskeleton. Based on flow visualizations obtained from applying particle image velocimetry to the lobster model, we propose that the unsteady metachronal kinematics of the pleopods can maximize thrust by exploiting forces arising from individual pleopod activity and interactions among adjacent pairs. The pleopods continuously entrain fluid surrounding the lobster and create a caudally directed fluid jet oriented parallel to the substratum. Inputting wake morphology and velocity data into a simplified model for steady jet thrust showed that the pleopods of the lobster model produced 27-54 mN of thrust, which is comparable to the propulsive forces generated by other proficient swimmers. These results suggest that lobster pleopods are capable of producing forces of a magnitude that could assist the walking legs in forward propulsion. PMID:19684205

  16. Conservation implications of hybridization in Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Price, D K; Muir, C

    2008-06-01

    In this review, we discuss the importance of hybridization among species for the conservation of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila. Hybridization can be a positive evolutionary process that creates new species and increases the adaptation of populations and species through the spread of adaptive alleles and traits. Conversely, hybridization can disrupt the genetic integrity of species or populations and this may be most detrimental among taxa that are recently hybridizing due to recent ecological changes. The loss of biodiversity in Hawaiian Drosophila through hybridization may be facilitated by habitat alteration and introduced species that reduce population sizes and alter geographic distributions of native species. We briefly review the evidence for hybridization in the genus Drosophila and then focus on hybridization in the Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila. We examine three general approaches for identifying hybrids and for assessing the factors that appear to contribute to hybridization and the potential ecological and evolutionary outcomes of hybrids in natural populations. Overall, the potential for hybridization among species will likely increase the risk of extinction for Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila species. Thus, it is important to consider the potential for hybridization among species when developing plans for the conservation of Hawaiian Drosophila. PMID:18234526

  17. Geologic Sequestration Studies with Hawaiian Picrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. T.; McGrail, B. P.; Schaef, H. T.

    2010-12-01

    Capturing and storing anthropogenic carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations is a potential CO2 mitigation solution being studied to reduce adverse effects of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations on the global climate. Basalt formations, widespread globally, are currently being considered as a long term storage option. Because combustion gas streams often contain impurities, it is also important to consider contaminants (e.g., SO2, N2, and O2) that could be co-injected with CO2. Injecting to depths greater than 800 m, these CO2 gas mixtures will reside as water-wet supercritical fluids in contact with the basalt reservoir rocks. Here we examine reaction products resulting from exposing Hawaiian picrite basalts to water equilibrated with scCO2, water bearing scCO2, and mixtures containing gaseous sulfur compounds. Hawaiian basalts in this study were fresh, vesicular, and olivine(fo68)-rich (20+vol%). Basalts, crushed or in large pieces, were exposed to wet supercritical fluid and aqueous dissolved gases for 80 to 550 days at 100 bar and 50°-100°C. Post-reacted basalt in the pure scCO2 system showed the least amount of reactivity. Carbonate precipitates formed discrete circular coatings on the olivine grain surfaces after 550 days of exposure to the aqueous dissolved CO2. However, the olivine surface was significantly altered in just 80 days after exposure to wet scCO2 containing 1% SO2. The most reactive basalt components were olivine grains, with surfaces dominated by cracks and precipitates of Mg-S compounds (Fig.1). Chemistry determined by SEM-EDS indicated the cracked surface was depleted in Mg and rich in Si. Minor amounts of sulfur were detected in this leached layer as well. Exposed olivine interiors were found to have the original olivine chemistry. Surface precipitates associated with the olivine crystals include hexahydrite (MgSO4?6H2O), magnesium thiosulfate hydrate (MgS2O3?6H2O), along with three different hydrated sulfite phases. These types of experiments illustrate the potential basalt formations hold for long term storage of CO2 and the importance of understanding supercritical phase chemical reactions involved in geologic carbon sequestration. Expanding on this work, research in collaboration with Yale scientists on the CO2 storage potential of a wide range of rocktypes will commence in Fall, 2010. Figure 1. SEM microphotograph of reacted olivine surface (HW496) after 85 days exposure to wet scCO2 containing ~1% SO2 (10 MPa and 50°C).

  18. Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery

    E-print Network

    Myers, Ransom A.

    Essay Creation of a Gilded Trap by the High Economic Value of the Maine Lobster Fishery R. S§ School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME 04573, U, Australia §§§Marine Policy program, School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, U

  19. Biochemical investigations into the absence of rigor mortis in the Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. G. Gornik; A. Albalat; R. J. A. Atkinson; D. M. Neil

    2009-01-01

    It was found that the striated muscle of the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) does not exhibit the rigor mortis state otherwise typical for this type of muscle. This absence of rigor was investigated, concentrating on changes in the structure, ultrastructure and post-mortem biochemistry of the muscle. Samples were initially fixed for light and electron microscopy at the time of death

  20. Comparison of turnover in the olfactory organ of early juvenile stage and adult Caribbean spiny lobsters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Derby; Holly S. Cate; Pascal Steullet; Paul J. H. Harrison

    2003-01-01

    Proliferation and turnover of neurons occurs in the olfactory systems of many animals. In this study, we examined developmental changes in turnover in the olfactory organ of the Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus by examining two life-history stages—early juveniles and young adults. Turnover was compared using external morphology of the olfactory organ before and after molting to determine addition and