Science.gov

Sample records for hazard analysis guidance

  1. Recommendations for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis: Guidance on uncertainty and use of experts

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) is a methodology that estimates the likelihood that various levels of earthquake-caused ground motion will be exceeded at a given location in a given future time period. Due to large uncertainties in all the geosciences data and in their modeling, multiple model interpretations are often possible. This leads to disagreement among experts, which in the past has led to disagreement on the selection of ground motion for design at a given site. In order to review the present state-of-the-art and improve on the overall stability of the PSHA process, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) co-sponsored a project to provide methodological guidance on how to perform a PSHA. The project has been carried out by a seven-member Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) supported by a large number other experts. The SSHAC reviewed past studies, including the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the EPRI landmark PSHA studies of the 1980`s and examined ways to improve on the present state-of-the-art. The Committee`s most important conclusion is that differences in PSHA results are due to procedural rather than technical differences. Thus, in addition to providing a detailed documentation on state-of-the-art elements of a PSHA, this report provides a series of procedural recommendations. The role of experts is analyzed in detail. Two entities are formally defined-the Technical Integrator (TI) and the Technical Facilitator Integrator (TFI)--to account for the various levels of complexity in the technical issues and different levels of efforts needed in a given study.

  2. HANDBOOK: HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication, Volume III of the Hazardous Waste Incineration Guidance Series, contains general guidance to permit writers in reviewing hazardous waste incineration permit applications and trial burn plans. he handbook is a how-to document dealing with how incineration measure...

  3. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  4. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  5. 76 FR 23823 - Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls, Fourth Edition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guidance, Fourth Edition.'' The updated guidance supports and complements FDA's regulations for the safe and sanitary processing and importing of fish and fishery products using hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP)...

  6. GUIDANCE MANUAL ON OVERTOPPING CONTROL TECHNIQUES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE IMPOUNDMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of the project was to provide guidance for selecting cost-effective interim management methods to control overtopping of impoundments, pits, ponds, or lagoons at uncontrolled hazardous waste sites until final remedial actions could be initiated. Hazardous wa...

  7. NASA Hazard Analysis Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews The NASA Hazard Analysis process. The contents include: 1) Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight; 2) Subsystem Safety Engineering Through the Project Life Cycle; 3) The Risk Informed Design Process; 4) Types of NASA Hazard Analysis; 5) Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); 6) Hazard Analysis Process; 7) Identify Hazardous Conditions; 8) Consider All Interfaces; 9) Work a Preliminary Hazard List; 10) NASA Generic Hazards List; and 11) Final Thoughts

  8. Automated Hazard Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-06-26

    The Automated Hazard Analysis (AHA) application is a software tool used to conduct job hazard screening and analysis of tasks to be performed in Savannah River Site facilities. The AHA application provides a systematic approach to the assessment of safety and environmental hazards associated with specific tasks, and the identification of controls regulations, and other requirements needed to perform those tasks safely. AHA is to be integrated into existing Savannah River site work control andmore » job hazard analysis processes. Utilization of AHA will improve the consistency and completeness of hazard screening and analysis, and increase the effectiveness of the work planning process.« less

  9. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  10. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  11. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  12. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T

    2008-04-08

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process.

  13. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  14. Chemical process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  15. Counterfactual Volcano Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Gordon

    2013-04-01

    The historical database of past disasters is a cornerstone of catastrophe risk assessment. Whereas disasters are fortunately comparatively rare, near-misses are quite common for both natural and man-made hazards. The word disaster originally means 'an unfavourable aspect of a star'. Except for astrologists, disasters are no longer perceived fatalistically as pre-determined. Nevertheless, to this day, historical disasters are treated statistically as fixed events, although in reality there is a large luck element involved in converting a near-miss crisis situation into a disaster statistic. It is possible to conceive a stochastic simulation of the past to explore the implications of this chance factor. Counterfactual history is the exercise of hypothesizing alternative paths of history from what actually happened. Exploring history from a counterfactual perspective is instructive for a variety of reasons. First, it is easy to be fooled by randomness and see regularity in event patterns which are illusory. The past is just one realization of a variety of possible evolutions of history, which may be analyzed through a stochastic simulation of an array of counterfactual scenarios. In any hazard context, there is a random component equivalent to dice being rolled to decide whether a near-miss becomes an actual disaster. The fact that there may be no observed disaster over a period of time may belie the occurrence of numerous near-misses. This may be illustrated using the simple dice paradigm. Suppose a dice is rolled every month for a year, and an event is recorded if a six is thrown. There is still an 11% chance of no events occurring during the year. A variety of perils may be used to illustrate the use of near-miss information within a counterfactual disaster analysis. In the domain of natural hazards, near-misses are a notable feature of the threat landscape. Storm surges are an obvious example. Sea defences may protect against most meteorological scenarios. However

  16. 78 FR 41853 - Safety Advisory Guidance: Heating Rail Tank Cars To Prepare Hazardous Material for Unloading or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...This guidance provides safety precautions and recommended guidance for persons responsible for unloading or transloading \\1\\ hazardous materials from rail tank cars, specifically those persons heating a rail tank car to prepare its hazardous material contents for unloading or transloading. Further, this guidance reminds such persons of current regulatory requirements addressing this type of......

  17. Track 2 sites: Guidance for assessing low probability hazard sites at the INEL. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document presents guidance for assessment of Track 2 low probability hazard sites (LPHS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Track 2 classification was developed specifically for the INEL to streamline the implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Track 2 LPHSs are described as sites where insufficient data are available to make a decision concerning the risk level or to select or design a remedy. As such, these types of sites are not described in the National Contingency Plan or existing regulatory guidance. The goal of the Track 2 process is to evaluate LPHSs using existing qualitative and quantitative data to minimize the collection of new environmental data. To this end, this document presents a structured format consisting of a series of questions and tables. A qualitative risk assessment is used. The process is iterative, and addresses an LPHS from multiple perspectives (i.e., historical, empirical, process) in an effort to generate a reproducible and defensible method. This rigorous approach follows the data quality objective process and establishes a well organized, logical approach to consolidate and assess existing data, and set decision criteria. If necessary, the process allows for the design of a sampling and analysis strategy to obtain new environmental data of appropriate quality to support decisions for each LPHS. Finally, the guidance expedites consensus between regulatory parties by emphasizing a team approach to Track 2 investigations.

  18. 78 FR 69992 - Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ..., 2013 (78 FR 18273), FDA made available a draft guidance entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing... Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Purchasing Reef...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION PROCESSES UNDER THE NEW EPA DRAFT RISK BURN GUIDANCE: MEASUREMENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurement issues relating to the characterization of organic emissions from hazardous waste incineration processes under EPA's new risk burn guidance. The recently published draft quidance recommends that hazardous waste combustion facilities complete a mass...

  20. Modeling and Hazard Analysis Using STPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimatsu, Takuto; Leveson, Nancy; Thomas, John; Katahira, Masa; Miyamoto, Yuko; Nakao, Haruka

    2010-09-01

    A joint research project between MIT and JAXA/JAMSS is investigating the application of a new hazard analysis to the system and software in the HTV. Traditional hazard analysis focuses on component failures but software does not fail in this way. Software most often contributes to accidents by commanding the spacecraft into an unsafe state(e.g., turning off the descent engines prematurely) or by not issuing required commands. That makes the standard hazard analysis techniques of limited usefulness on software-intensive systems, which describes most spacecraft built today. STPA is a new hazard analysis technique based on systems theory rather than reliability theory. It treats safety as a control problem rather than a failure problem. The goal of STPA, which is to create a set of scenarios that can lead to a hazard, is the same as FTA but STPA includes a broader set of potential scenarios including those in which no failures occur but the problems arise due to unsafe and unintended interactions among the system components. STPA also provides more guidance to the analysts that traditional fault tree analysis. Functional control diagrams are used to guide the analysis. In addition, JAXA uses a model-based system engineering development environment(created originally by Leveson and called SpecTRM) which also assists in the hazard analysis. One of the advantages of STPA is that it can be applied early in the system engineering and development process in a safety-driven design process where hazard analysis drives the design decisions rather than waiting until reviews identify problems that are then costly or difficult to fix. It can also be applied in an after-the-fact analysis and hazard assessment, which is what we did in this case study. This paper describes the experimental application of STPA to the JAXA HTV in order to determine the feasibility and usefulness of the new hazard analysis technique. Because the HTV was originally developed using fault tree analysis

  1. Preparedness of hazardous materials emergencies in railyards: Guidance for railroads and adjacent communities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Railroads are a key part of the distribution system for hazardous materials and, thus, much hazardous material passes through railyards en route to intermediate or final consumers. While the vast majority of these materials are shipped without incident, both the number of shipments and the nature of the materials themselves dictate that railyards and surrounding communities be prepared to respond quickly and effectively to emergencies. This report contains information on 11 emergency preparedness functions and 150 guidance recommendations.

  2. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  3. Preliminary Hazards Analysis Plasma Hearth Process

    SciTech Connect

    Aycock, M.; Coordes, D.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1993-11-01

    This Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) follows the requirements of United States Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23 (DOE, 1992a), DOE Order 5480.21 (DOE, 1991d), DOE Order 5480.22 (DOE, 1992c), DOE Order 5481.1B (DOE, 1986), and the guidance provided in DOE Standards DOE-STD-1027-92 (DOE, 1992b). Consideration is given to ft proposed regulations published as 10 CFR 830 (DOE, 1993) and DOE Safety Guide SG 830.110 (DOE, 1992b). The purpose of performing a PRA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PRA then is followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title I and II design. This PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during construction, testing, and acceptance and completed before routine operation. Radiological assessments indicate that a PHP facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous material assessments indicate that a PHP facility will be a Low Hazard facility having no significant impacts either onsite or offsite to personnel and the environment.

  4. POTW sludge sampling and analysis guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-08-01

    In view of the variability of municipal sludge quality, appropriate procedures must be followed to collect and analyze samples that accurately represent each POTW's sludge quality. The manual was developed to provide that guidance to POTW operators, engineers, managers, chemists and permit writers. It was intended to provide guidance in developing and implementing a sampling and analysis program, to gather information on sludge quality and determine compliance with permit conditions. The manual is based on current, state-of-the-art field and laboratory practices and therefore is recommended for all sludge sampling and analysis programs.

  5. VTOL shipboard letdown guidance system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Karmali, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative letdown guidance strategies are examined for landing of a VTOL aircraft onboard a small aviation ship under adverse environmental conditions. Off line computer simulation of shipboard landing task is utilized for assessing the relative merits of the proposed guidance schemes. The touchdown performance of a nominal constant rate of descent (CROD) letdown strategy serves as a benchmark for ranking the performance of the alternative letdown schemes. Analysis of ship motion time histories indicates the existence of an alternating sequence of quiescent and rough motions called lulls and swells. A real time algorithms lull/swell classification based upon ship motion pattern features is developed. The classification algorithm is used to command a go/no go signal to indicate the initiation and termination of an acceptable landing window. Simulation results show that such a go/no go pattern based letdown guidance strategy improves touchdown performance.

  6. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    SciTech Connect

    R. Longwell; J. Keifer; S. Goodin

    2001-01-22

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  7. 21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hazard analysis. 120.7 Section 120.7 Food and... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.7 Hazard analysis. (a) Each processor shall develop, or have developed for it, a written hazard analysis...

  8. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard...

  9. 14 CFR 437.29 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.29 Section 437.29... Documentation § 437.29 Hazard analysis. (a) An applicant must perform a hazard analysis that complies with § 437.55(a). (b) An applicant must provide to the FAA all the results of each step of the hazard...

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION PROCESSES UNDER THE NEW EPA DRAFT RISK BURN GUIDANCE: MEASUREMENT ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's recently published draft Risk Burn Guidance recommends that hazardous waste combustion facilities complete a mass balance of the total organics (TOs) that may be emitted from the combustor. TOs, consisting of three distinct fractions (volatile, semivolatile, and nonvolatile...

  12. An analysis of physical guidance as reinforcement for noncompliance.

    PubMed

    Kern, Lee; Delaney, Beth A; Hilt, Alexandra; Bailin, Deborah E; Elliot, Christina

    2002-09-01

    Physical guidance is a strategy commonly used for noncompliance. In two experiments, we evaluated reinforcing effects of physical guidance. Experiment 1 include three individuals with developmental disabilities who were noncompliant with tasks. Anecdotal observations indicated physical contact was highly reinforcing, and a functional analysis identified attention as a reinforcer for problem behavior. Two conditions compared physical guidance following noncompliance and no physical guidance following noncompliance. Results showed noncompliance increased for all three participants when physical guidance followed noncompliance. The second experiment empirically evaluated the function of noncompliance prior to examining the effect of physical guidance on noncompliance. A functional analysis, conducted with two participants, indicated noncompliance served an escape function for one and an attention function for the other. Comparisons of physical guidance and no physical guidance indicated physical guidance resulted in decreased noncompliance for the participant with an escape function but increased noncompliance for the participant with an attention function. PMID:12205825

  13. The Integrated Hazard Analysis Integrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Hazard analysis addresses hazards that arise in the design, development, manufacturing, construction, facilities, transportation, operations and disposal activities associated with hardware, software, maintenance, operations and environments. An integrated hazard is an event or condition that is caused by or controlled by multiple systems, elements, or subsystems. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA) is especially daunting and ambitious for large, complex systems such as NASA s Constellation program which incorporates program, systems and element components that impact others (International Space Station, public, International Partners, etc.). An appropriate IHA should identify all hazards, causes, controls and verifications used to mitigate the risk of catastrophic loss of crew, vehicle and/or mission. Unfortunately, in the current age of increased technology dependence, there is the tendency to sometimes overlook the necessary and sufficient qualifications of the integrator, that is, the person/team that identifies the parts, analyzes the architectural structure, aligns the analysis with the program plan and then communicates/coordinates with large and small components, each contributing necessary hardware, software and/or information to prevent catastrophic loss. As viewed from both Challenger and Columbia accidents, lack of appropriate communication, management errors and lack of resources dedicated to safety were cited as major contributors to these fatalities. From the accident reports, it would appear that the organizational impact of managers, integrators and safety personnel contributes more significantly to mission success and mission failure than purely technological components. If this is so, then organizations who sincerely desire mission success must put as much effort in selecting managers and integrators as they do when designing the hardware, writing the software code and analyzing competitive proposals. This paper will discuss the necessary and

  14. Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis (also referred to as the Environmental Justice Technical Guidance or EJTG) is intended for use by Agency analysts, including risk assessors, economists, and other analytic staff that conduct analyse...

  15. Developing guidance for budget impact analysis.

    PubMed

    Trueman, P; Drummond, M; Hutton, J

    2001-01-01

    The role of economic evaluation in the efficient allocation of healthcare resources has been widely debated. Whilst economic evidence is undoubtedly useful to purchasers, it does not address the issue of affordability which is an increasing concern. Healthcare purchasers are concerned not just with maximising efficiency but also with the more simplistic goal of remaining within their annual budgets. These two objectives are not necessarily consistent. This paper examines the issue of affordability, the relationship between affordability and efficiency and builds the case for why there is a growing need for budget impact models to complement economic evaluation. Guidance currently available for such models is also examined and it is concluded that this guidance is currently insufficient. Some of these insufficiencies are addressed and some thoughts on what constitutes best practice in budget impact modelling are suggested. These suggestions include consideration of transparency, clarity of perspective, reliability of data sources, the relationship between intermediate and final end-points and rates of adoption of new therapies. They also include the impact of intervention by population subgroups or indications, reporting of results, probability of re-deploying resources, the time horizon, exploring uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, and decision-maker access to the model. Due to the nature of budget impact models, the paper does not deliver stringent methodological guidance on modelling. The intention was to provide some suggestions of best practice in addition to some foundations upon which future research can build. PMID:11456210

  16. 78 FR 18273 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning; Availability AGENCY: Food and...: Purchasing Reef Fish Species Associated With the Hazard of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will advise primary seafood processors who purchase reef fish how to minimize the...

  17. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee must... safety of property resulting from each permitted flight. This hazard analysis must— (1) Identify...

  18. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee must... safety of property resulting from each permitted flight. This hazard analysis must— (1) Identify...

  19. 21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis. 120.7 Section 120.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.7 Hazard analysis. (a) Each processor shall develop,...

  20. Quality Guidance: A Sectoral Analysis. NICEC Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, A. G.; Sadler, Jackie

    This report reviews the structure of the guidance field and provides a sector-by-sector analysis of current quality assurance arrangements in the United Kingdom. Part 1 presents an outline of the guidance sector, including some key concepts, structures, and roles. It defines guidance and other terms; discusses the three main categories…

  1. INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS FOR LICENSE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    R.J. Garrett

    2005-02-17

    The purpose of this internal hazards analysis is to identify and document the internal hazards and potential initiating events associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain. Internal hazards are those hazards presented by the operation of the facility and by its associated processes that can potentially lead to a radioactive release or cause a radiological hazard. In contrast to external hazards, internal hazards do not involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. This internal hazards analysis was performed in support of the preclosure safety analysis and the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. The methodology for this analysis provides a systematic means to identify internal hazards and potential initiating events that may result in a radiological hazard or radiological release during the repository preclosure period. These hazards are documented in tables of potential internal hazards and potential initiating events (Section 6.6) for input to the repository event sequence categorization process. The results of this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of event sequence analyses for the repository preclosure period. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that internal hazards that have not been previously evaluated are identified.

  2. Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS, T.B.

    2000-03-16

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) Hazard Analysis to support the final CSB Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis process identified hazardous conditions and material-at-risk, determined causes for potential accidents, identified preventive and mitigative features, and qualitatively estimated the frequencies and consequences of specific occurrences. The hazard analysis was performed by a team of cognizant CSB operations and design personnel, safety analysts familiar with the CSB, and technical experts in specialty areas. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process. Attachment A provides two lists of hazard analysis team members and describes the background and experience of each. The first list is a complete list of the hazard analysis team members that have been involved over the two-year long process. The second list is a subset of the first list and consists of those hazard analysis team members that reviewed and agreed to the final hazard analysis documentation. The material included in this report documents the final state of a nearly two-year long process involving formal facilitated group sessions and independent hazard and accident analysis work. The hazard analysis process led to the selection of candidate accidents for further quantitative analysis. New information relative to the hazards, discovered during the accident analysis, was incorporated into the hazard analysis data in order to compile a complete profile of facility hazards. Through this process, the results of the hazard and accident analyses led directly to the identification of safety structures, systems, and components, technical safety requirements, and other

  3. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS, T.B.

    1999-05-11

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the CSB final safety analysis report (FSAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports'', and meets the intent of HNF-PRO-704, ''Hazard and Accident Analysis Process''. This hazard analysis implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports''.

  4. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  5. Guidance for Safety Analysis of Other Than Nuclear Facilities/Activities at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, Douglas Sidney; Perry, Scott William

    2002-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) provided guidance per DOE-ID Orders 420.C, "Safety Basis Review and Approval Process," and 420.D, "Requirements and Guidance for Safety Analysis," for conducting safety analysis for facilities and activities that do not meet either the nuclear facility criteria or the criteria for not requiring additional safety analysis (NRASA). These facilities and activities are thus designated as "other than nuclear" (OTN), and hazard analyses are performed using a graded approach. This graded approach is done in accordance with DOE-ID Order 420.D. DOE-ID guidance is used to format these OTN facilities and activities into 3-chapter documents, rather than the 17-chapter format specified in DOE-STD-3009-94, "Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports."

  6. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (iii) Analysis. (b) A permittee must carry out the risk elimination and mitigation measures derived... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee...

  7. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (iii) Analysis. (b) A permittee must carry out the risk elimination and mitigation measures derived... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee...

  8. 14 CFR 437.55 - Hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (iii) Analysis. (b) A permittee must carry out the risk elimination and mitigation measures derived... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard analysis. 437.55 Section 437.55... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING EXPERIMENTAL PERMITS Safety Requirements § 437.55 Hazard analysis. (a) A permittee...

  9. Analysis of On-board Hazard Detection and Avoidance for Safe Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Andrew E.; Huertas, Andres; Werner, Robert A.; Montgomery, James F.

    2008-01-01

    Landing hazard detection and avoidance technology is being pursued within NASA to improve landing safety and increase access to sites of interest on the lunar surface. The performance of a hazard detection and avoidance system depends on properties of the terrain, sensor performance, algorithm design, vehicle characteristics and the overall all guidance navigation and control architecture. This paper analyzes the size of the region that must be imaged, sensor performance parameters and the impact of trajectory angle on hazard detection performance. The analysis shows that vehicle hazard tolerance is the driving parameter for hazard detection system design.

  10. MONITORED GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY INTERNAL HAZARDS ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S.E. Salzman

    1999-11-05

    This analysis was performed by the Management and Operating Contractor (M&O) Safety Assurance Department to identify and document the internal hazards and preliminary events associated with preclosure operations of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Internal hazards are those hazards presented by operation of the facility and associated processes. These are in contrast to external hazards which involve natural phenomena and external man-made hazards. The hazard analysis methodology used in this analysis provides a systematic means to identify facility hazards and associated events that may result in radiological consequences to the public and facility worker during the MGR preclosure period. The events are documented in a preliminary events list and are intended to be used as input to the MGR Design Basis Event (DBE) selection process. It is expected that the results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply to the performance of DBE analyses for the preclosure period of repository operation. As the MGR design progresses, this analysis will be reviewed to ensure no new hazards are introduced and that previously evaluated hazards have not increased in severity.

  11. Software Safety Analysis of a Flight Guidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W. (Technical Monitor); Tribble, Alan C.; Miller, Steven P.; Lempia, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This document summarizes the safety analysis performed on a Flight Guidance System (FGS) requirements model. In particular, the safety properties desired of the FGS model are identified and the presence of the safety properties in the model is formally verified. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the entire project, while Chapter 2 gives a brief overview of the problem domain, the nature of accidents, model based development, and the four-variable model. Chapter 3 outlines the approach. Chapter 4 presents the results of the traditional safety analysis techniques and illustrates how the hazardous conditions associated with the system trace into specific safety properties. Chapter 5 presents the results of the formal methods analysis technique model checking that was used to verify the presence of the safety properties in the requirements model. Finally, Chapter 6 summarizes the main conclusions of the study, first and foremost that model checking is a very effective verification technique to use on discrete models with reasonable state spaces. Additional supporting details are provided in the appendices.

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, D.E.

    1998-02-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) hazard analysis to support the CVDF phase 2 safety analysis report (SAR), and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, and implements the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.

  13. Canister storage building hazard analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Krahn, D.E.; Garvin, L.J.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Canister Storage Building (CSB) hazard analysis to support the final CSB safety analysis report (SAR) and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Report, and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  14. 78 FR 27235 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY..., ``Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis.'' The purpose of this... regulatory analyses. This guidance takes into account EPA's past experience in integrating EJ into...

  15. Analysis of Regulatory Guidance for Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munns, Thomas E.; Beard, Richard E.; Culp, Aubrey M.; Murphy, Dennis A.; Kent, Renee M.; Cooper, Eric G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the connection between current FAA regulations and the incorporation of Health Management (HM) systems into commercial aircraft. To address the overall objectives ARINC: (1) investigated FAA regulatory guidance, (2) investigated airline maintenance practices, (3) systematically identified regulations and practices that would be affected or could act as barriers to the introduction of HM technology, and (4) assessed regulatory and operational tradeoffs that should be considered for implementation. The assessment procedure was validated on a postulated structural HM capability for the B757 horizontal stabilizer.

  16. Analysis of guidance law performance using personal computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrios, J. Rene

    1990-01-01

    A point mass, three-degree of freedom model is presented as a basic development tool for PC based simulation models. The model has been used in the development of guidance algorithms as well as in other applications such as performance management systems to compute optimal speeds. Its limitations and advantages are discussed with regard to the windshear environment. A method for simulating a simple autopilot is explained in detail and applied in the analysis of different guidance laws.

  17. Hazard categorization and accident analysis techniques for compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The purpose of this DOE Standard is to establish guidance for facility managers and Program Secretarial Officers (PSOs) and thereby help them to comply consistently and more efficiently with the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. To this end, this guidance provides the following practical information: (1) The threshold quantities of radiological material inventory below which compliance with DOE Order 5480.23 is not required. (2) The level of effort to develop the program plan and schedule required in Section 9.b. (2) of the Order, and information for making a preliminary assessment of facility hazards. (3) A uniform methodology for hazard categorization under the Order. (4) Insight into the ''graded approach'' for SAR development, especially in hazard assessment and accident analysis techniques. Individual PSOs may develop additional guidance addressing safety requirements for facilities which fall below the threshold quantities specified in this document.

  18. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  19. Multicriteria analysis in hazards assessment in Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeleňáková, Martina; Gargar, Ibrahim; Purcz, Pavol

    2012-11-01

    Environmental hazards (natural and man-made) have always constituted problem in many developing and developed countries. Many applications proved that these problems could be solved through planning studies and detailed information about these prone areas. Determining time and location and size of the problem are important for decision makers for planning and management activities. It is important to know the risk represented by those hazards and take actions to protect against them. Multicriteria analysis methods - Analytic hierarchy process, Pairwise comparison, Ranking method are used to analyse which is the most dangerous hazard facing Libya country. The multicriteria analysis ends with a more or less stable ranking of the given alternatives and hence a recommendation as to which alternative(s) problems should be preferred. Regarding our problem of environmental risk assessment, the result will be a ranking or categorisation of hazards with regard to their risk level.

  20. 9 CFR 417.2 - Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. 417.2... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.2 Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. (a) Hazard analysis. (1) Every official establishment shall conduct, or have conducted for it, a hazard analysis...

  1. 9 CFR 417.2 - Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. 417.2... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.2 Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. (a) Hazard analysis. (1) Every official establishment shall conduct, or have conducted for it, a hazard analysis...

  2. 9 CFR 417.2 - Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. 417.2... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.2 Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. (a) Hazard analysis. (1) Every official establishment shall conduct, or have conducted for it, a hazard analysis...

  3. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  4. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Kubicek

    2001-09-07

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  5. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2002-03-28

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  6. Lunar mission safety and rescue: Hazards analysis and safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are presented of the hazards analysis which was concerned only with hazards to personnel and not with loss of equipment or property. Hazards characterization includes the definition of a hazard, the hazard levels, and the hazard groups. The analysis methodology is described in detail. The methodology was used to prepare the top level functional flow diagrams, to perform the first level hazards assessment, and to develop a list of conditions and situations requiring individual hazard studies. The 39 individual hazard study results are presented in total.

  7. Repository Subsurface Preliminary Fire Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richard C. Logan

    2001-07-30

    This fire hazard analysis identifies preliminary design and operations features, fire, and explosion hazards, and provides a reasonable basis to establish the design requirements of fire protection systems during development and emplacement phases of the subsurface repository. This document follows the Technical Work Plan (TWP) (CRWMS M&O 2001c) which was prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''; Attachment 4 of AP-ESH-008, ''Hazards Analysis System''; and AP-3.11Q, ''Technical Reports''. The objective of this report is to establish the requirements that provide for facility nuclear safety and a proper level of personnel safety and property protection from the effects of fire and the adverse effects of fire-extinguishing agents.

  8. Fire hazard analyses and safety analysis reports relationship

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, W.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-30

    DOE Order 5480.7A requires that Fire Hazard Analyses (FHA) be performed for new facilities, for facilities requiring a DOE 5480.23 Safety Analysis, or as directed by the DOE Program Secretarial Officer. DOE Order 5480.23 requires that a Safety Analysis Report (SAR) be prepared for DOE nuclear facilities. Both the FHA and SAR `documents provide important information and direction for facility design and operation. Each of the two documents address the effects of postulated fire scenarios, and both have common or at least consistent bases, and have overlapping elements. However, some of the objectives of the required analyses are distinctly different. These differences have historically resulted in variations in the interpretation and Understanding of the DOE Orders and associated guidance by organizations and individuals within the Westinghouse Hanford Company.

  9. Ontario's Guidance and Career Education Program: A Democratic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery J.; McKerracher, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    This article applies a democratic learning conceptual framework to an analysis of the Ontario (Canada) Guidance and Career Education program. Although the program respects some principles of democratic learning, it fails to explicitly recognise the distinction between social and natural reality. As a result, student agency and democratic…

  10. Analysis of the combined maglev levitation, propulsion, and guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.

    1995-03-01

    An analysis of a Japanese maglev system that uses only one set of coils in the guideway for combined levitation, propulsion, and guidance functions is presented. This preliminary study, using the dynamic circuit approach, indicates that the system is very promising.

  11. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  12. DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND MAINTENANCE OF COVER SYSTEMS FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE: AN ENGINEERING GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineering for cover over solid hazardous waste addresses complex interactions among many technical, environmental, and economical factors. The document emphasizes the special characteristics of solid waste management as they bear on the cover system while at the same time stres...

  13. 14 CFR 417.223 - Flight hazard area analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight hazard area analysis. 417.223..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.223 Flight hazard area analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a flight hazard area analysis that...

  14. 14 CFR 417.223 - Flight hazard area analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight hazard area analysis. 417.223..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.223 Flight hazard area analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a flight hazard area analysis that...

  15. 14 CFR 417.223 - Flight hazard area analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight hazard area analysis. 417.223..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.223 Flight hazard area analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a flight hazard area analysis that...

  16. 14 CFR 417.223 - Flight hazard area analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight hazard area analysis. 417.223..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.223 Flight hazard area analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a flight hazard area analysis that...

  17. 14 CFR 417.223 - Flight hazard area analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight hazard area analysis. 417.223..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.223 Flight hazard area analysis. (a) General. A flight safety analysis must include a flight hazard area analysis that...

  18. Practical guidance for statistical analysis of operational event data

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents ways to avoid mistakes that are sometimes made in analysis of operational event data. It then gives guidance on what to do when a model is rejected, a list of standard types of models to consider, and principles for choosing one model over another. For estimating reliability, it gives advice on which failure modes to model, and moment formulas for combinations of failure modes. The issues are illustrated with many examples and case studies.

  19. Decision analysis for INEL hazardous waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Roach, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In mid-November 1993, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) Manager requested that the INEL Hazardous Waste Type Manager perform a decision analysis to determine whether or not a new Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) was needed to store INEL hazardous waste (HW). In response to this request, a team was formed to perform a decision analysis for recommending the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. Personnel who participated in the decision analysis are listed in Appendix B. The results of the analysis indicate that the existing HWSF is not the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. The analysis detailed in Appendix C concludes that the best HW storage configuration would be to modify and use a portion of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) Waste Storage Building (WWSB), PBF-623 (Alternative 3). This facility was constructed in 1991 to serve as a waste staging facility for WERF incineration. The modifications include an extension of the current Room 105 across the south end of the WWSB and installing heating, ventilation, and bay curbing, which would provide approximately 1,600 ft{sup 2} of isolated HW storage area. Negotiations with the State to discuss aisle space requirements along with modifications to WWSB operating procedures are also necessary. The process to begin utilizing the WWSB for HW storage includes planned closure of the HWSF, modification to the WWSB, and relocation of the HW inventory. The cost to modify the WWSB can be funded by a reallocation of funding currently identified to correct HWSF deficiencies.

  20. Using Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Guide Quantitative Safety Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, J. F.; Allocco, M.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative methods can be beneficial in many types of safety investigations. However, there are many difficulties in using quantitative m ethods. Far example, there may be little relevant data available. This paper proposes a framework for using quantitative hazard analysis to prioritize hazard scenarios most suitable for quantitative mziysis. The framework first categorizes hazard scenarios by severity and likelihood. We then propose another metric "modeling difficulty" that desc ribes the complexity in modeling a given hazard scenario quantitatively. The combined metrics of severity, likelihood, and modeling difficu lty help to prioritize hazard scenarios for which quantitative analys is should be applied. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for airplane operatio ns at closely spaced parallel runways.

  1. 9 CFR 417.2 - Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.2 Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan. (a) Hazard... processing category identified in this paragraph, if the food safety hazards, critical control points, critical limits, and procedures required to be identified and performed in paragraph (c) of this...

  2. Analysis of cell locomotion. Contact guidance of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Matthes, T; Gruler, H

    1988-01-01

    The methods of statistical physics have been applied to the analysis of cell movement. Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes were exposed to different surfaces possessing parallel oriented physical structures (scratched glass surface, machine drilled aluminum surface, optical grid and stretched polyethylene foil) and cell migration was observed using time-lapse photography. We demonstrate that in cell migration along physical structures, referred to as contact guidance, two subgroups can be distinguished: 1) The nematic type where the cell size is large in relation to the grid distance of the undulate surface. 2) The smectic type where the cell size is small in relation to the grid distance of the substrate. Nematic contact guidance is characterized by an anisotropic random walk. In all substrates investigated the diffusion process parallel to the lines was faster than the diffusion process perpendicular to them. The angular dependent diffusion coefficient was described by an ellipse. Deviation from a circle defined an apolar order parameter, whose value was about 0.3. The amount of information which the cells collected from, the undulate surface was very low, between 0.1 and 0.2 bits. We demonstrate that cells do not recognize all the details of their surroundings and that their migration can be compared to the "groping around" of a short sighted man. The blurred environment can be described by a mean field whose strength is proportional to the apolar order parameter. It is argued that the anisotropic surface tension is the basic source for nematic contact guidance. Smectic contact guidance is characterized by an anisotropic random walk and is quantified by a density order parameter which is 0.28 in the case of the scratched glass surface of a Neubauer counting chamber. The information which the cells collect from their environment is very low (0.03 bits). The lines seen by the cell can be described by a mean field whose strength is proportional to the density oder

  3. Preliminary hazards analysis for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Brereton, S.J.

    1993-10-01

    This report documents the Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In summary, it provides: a general description of the facility and its operation; identification of hazards at the facility; and details of the hazards analysis, including inventories, bounding releases, consequences, and conclusions. As part of the safety analysis procedure set forth by DOE, a PHA must be performed for the NIF. The PHA characterizes the level of intrinsic potential hazard associated with a facility, and provides the basis for hazard classification. The hazard classification determines the level of safety documentation required, and the DOE Order governing the safety analysis. The hazard classification also determines the level of review and approval required for the safety analysis report. The hazards of primary concern associated with NIF are radiological and toxicological in nature. The hazard classification is determined by comparing facility inventories of radionuclides and chemicals with threshold values for the various hazard classification levels and by examining postulated bounding accidents associated with the hazards of greatest significance. Such postulated bounding accidents cannot take into account active mitigative features; they must assume the unmitigated consequences of a release, taking into account only passive safety features. In this way, the intrinsic hazard level of the facility can be ascertained.

  4. Characterizing adoption of precautionary risk management guidance for nanomaterials, an emerging occupational hazard.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Dahm, Matthew M; Schulte, Paul A; Hodson, Laura; Geraci, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to engineered nanomaterials (substances with at least one dimension of 1-100 nm) has been of increased interest, with the recent growth in production and use of nanomaterials worldwide. Various organizations have recommended methods to minimize exposure to engineered nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate available data to examine the extent to which studied U.S. companies (which represent a small fraction of all companies using certain forms of engineered nanomaterials) follow the guidelines for reducing occupational exposures to engineered nanomaterials that have been issued by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and other organizations. Survey data, field reports, and field notes for all NIOSH nanomaterial exposure assessments conducted between 2006 and 2011 were collected and reviewed to: (1) determine the level of adoption of precautionary guidance on engineering controls and personal protective equipment (PPE), and (2) evaluate the reliability of companies' self-reported use of engineering controls and PPE. Use of PPE was observed among 89% [95% confidence interval (CI): 76%-96%] of 46 visited companies, and use of containment-based engineering controls for at least some processes was observed among 83% (95% CI: 76%-96%). In on-site evaluations, more than 90% of the 16 engineered carbonaceous nanomaterial companies that responded to an industrywide survey were observed to be using engineering controls and PPE as reported or more stringently than reported. Since PPE use was slightly more prevalent than engineering controls, better communication may be necessary to reinforce the importance of the hierarchy of controls. These findings may also be useful in conducting exposure assessment and epidemiologic research among U.S. workers handling nanomaterials. PMID:25093252

  5. Analysis of a Multiprocessor Guidance Computer. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maltach, E. G.

    1969-01-01

    The design of the next generation of spaceborne digital computers is described. It analyzes a possible multiprocessor computer configuration. For the analysis, a set of representative space computing tasks was abstracted from the Lunar Module Guidance Computer programs as executed during the lunar landing, from the Apollo program. This computer performs at this time about 24 concurrent functions, with iteration rates from 10 times per second to once every two seconds. These jobs were tabulated in a machine-independent form, and statistics of the overall job set were obtained. It was concluded, based on a comparison of simulation and Markov results, that the Markov process analysis is accurate in predicting overall trends and in configuration comparisons, but does not provide useful detailed information in specific situations. Using both types of analysis, it was determined that the job scheduling function is a critical one for efficiency of the multiprocessor. It is recommended that research into the area of automatic job scheduling be performed.

  6. ANALYSIS OF GEOTHERMAL WASTES FOR HAZARDOUS COMPONENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations governing the disposal of hazardous wastes led to an assessment for geothermal solid wastes for potentially hazardous properties. Samples were collected from three active geothermal sites in the western United States: The Geysers, Imperial Valley, and northwestern Nev...

  7. Regional Frequency Analysis of Ocean Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardara, Pietro; Weiss, Jerome; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc

    2015-04-01

    The estimation of the extreme return level (up to 10-4 annual probability of exceedence) of natural phenomena is a very uncertain exercise, when extrapolating using the information and the measure collected in a single site. The aim of the Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) is to benefit from the information contained in observations and data collected not only on the site of interested but in a larger set of sites, located in the same region of the site of interest or sharing with it similar characteristics. This technique was introduced in the '60 and widely used in various domains including hydrology and meteorology. The RFA was recently acknowledge as a potential choice for the estimation of flooding hazard in the Methodological Guide for flooding hazard estimation [1], published in 2013 by the French Nuclear Safety Autority. The aim of this presentation is to bring in the main concepts of the RFA and illustrate the latest innovation on its application, delivered by EDF R&D. They concerns the statistical definition of storms, the formation of homogeneous regions and a new approach for filtering the redundant information linked to the spatial correlation of natural phenomena. Application to skew surges and waves will be shown 1. ASN, Guide pour la Protection des installations nucléaires de base contre les inondations externes. 2013, ASN. p. 44.

  8. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  9. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  10. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  11. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  12. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  13. 14 CFR 417.227 - Toxic release hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Toxic release hazard analysis. 417.227..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Flight Safety Analysis § 417.227 Toxic release hazard analysis. A flight safety analysis must establish flight commit criteria that protect the public from...

  14. Uncertainty Analysis and Expert Judgment in Seismic Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klügel, Jens-Uwe

    2011-01-01

    The large uncertainty associated with the prediction of future earthquakes is usually regarded as the main reason for increased hazard estimates which have resulted from some recent large scale probabilistic seismic hazard analysis studies (e.g. the PEGASOS study in Switzerland and the Yucca Mountain study in the USA). It is frequently overlooked that such increased hazard estimates are characteristic for a single specific method of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA): the traditional (Cornell-McGuire) PSHA method which has found its highest level of sophistication in the SSHAC probability method. Based on a review of the SSHAC probability model and its application in the PEGASOS project, it is shown that the surprising results of recent PSHA studies can be explained to a large extent by the uncertainty model used in traditional PSHA, which deviates from the state of the art in mathematics and risk analysis. This uncertainty model, the Ang-Tang uncertainty model, mixes concepts of decision theory with probabilistic hazard assessment methods leading to an overestimation of uncertainty in comparison to empirical evidence. Although expert knowledge can be a valuable source of scientific information, its incorporation into the SSHAC probability method does not resolve the issue of inflating uncertainties in PSHA results. Other, more data driven, PSHA approaches in use in some European countries are less vulnerable to this effect. The most valuable alternative to traditional PSHA is the direct probabilistic scenario-based approach, which is closely linked with emerging neo-deterministic methods based on waveform modelling.

  15. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Southern California Coastal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J; Foxall, B

    2004-04-16

    The overall objective of this study was to develop probabilistic seismic hazard estimates for the coastal and offshore area of Ventura, Los Angeles and Orange counties for use as a basis for the University of Southern California (USC) to develop physical models of tsunami for the coastal regions and by the California State Lands Commission (SLC) to develop regulatory standards for seismic loading and liquefaction evaluation of marine oil terminals. The probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was carried out by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in several phases over a time period of two years, following the method developed by LLNL for the estimation of seismic hazards at Department Of Energy (DOE) facilities, and for 69 locations of nuclear plants in the Eastern United States, for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This method consists in making maximum use of all physical data (qualitative, and quantitative) and to characterize the uncertainties by using a set of alternate spatiotemporal models of occurrence of future earthquakes, as described in the SSHAC, PSHA Guidance Document (Budnitz et al., 1997), and implemented for the NRC (Savy et al., 2002). In general, estimation of seismic hazard is based not only on our understanding of the regional tectonics and detailed characterization of the faults in the area but also on the analysis methods employed and the types of physical and empirical models that are deemed appropriate for the analysis. To develop this understanding, the body of knowledge in the scientific community is sampled in a series of workshops with a group of experts representative of the entire scientific community, including geologists and seismologists from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), members of the South California Earthquake Center (SCEC), and members of academic institutions (University of California Santa-Cruz, Stanford, UC Santa Barbara, and University of Southern California), and members of

  16. 327 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10

    In March 1998, the 327 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-E) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in five areas and provided nine recommendations (11 items) to bring the 327 Building into compliance. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 327 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and IUD 5480.7.

  17. Fire hazard analysis for the fuel supply shutdown storage buildings

    SciTech Connect

    REMAIZE, J.A.

    2000-09-27

    The purpose of a fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire and other perils within individual fire areas in a DOE facility in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE 5480.7A, Fire Protection, are met. This Fire Hazards Analysis was prepared as required by HNF-PRO-350, Fire Hazards Analysis Requirements, (Reference 7) for a portion of the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility.

  18. Fire hazards analysis of transuranic waste storage and assay facility

    SciTech Connect

    Busching, K.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-31

    This document analyzes the fire hazards associated with operations at the Central Waste Complex. It provides the analysis and recommendations necessary to ensure compliance with applicable fire codes.

  19. ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance System Window Manager Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Mike W.; Innis, John D.; Miller, Steven P.; Wagner, Lucas G.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in modeling languages have made it feasible to formally specify and analyze the behavior of large system components. Synchronous data flow languages, such as Lustre, SCR, and RSML-e are particularly well suited to this task, and commercial versions of these tools such as SCADE and Simulink are growing in popularity among designers of safety critical systems, largely due to their ability to automatically generate code from the models. At the same time, advances in formal analysis tools have made it practical to formally verify important properties of these models to ensure that design defects are identified and corrected early in the lifecycle. This report describes how these tools have been applied to the ADGS-2100 Adaptive Display and Guidance Window Manager being developed by Rockwell Collins Inc. This work demonstrates how formal methods can be easily and cost-efficiently used to remove defects early in the design cycle.

  20. Tracking Hazard Analysis Data in a Jungle of Changing Design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Young, Jonathan

    2006-05-16

    Tracking hazard analysis data during the 'life cycle' of a project can be an extremely complicated task. However, a few simple rules, used consistently, can give you the edge that will save countless headaches and provide the information that will help integrate the hazard analysis and design activities even if performed in parallel.

  1. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-09-28

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Hazards Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    CROWE, R.D.

    2000-08-07

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Hazard Analysis to support the CVDF Final Safety Analysis Report and documents the results. The hazard analysis was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports,'' and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, ''Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports.''

  3. 327 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Eggen, C.D.

    1998-09-16

    In March 1998, the 327 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FRA) (Reference 1) was approved by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (B and WHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in five areas and provided nine recommendations (11 items) to bring the 327 Building into compliance. To date, actions for five of the 11 items have been completed. Exemption requests will be transmitted to DOE-RL for two of the items. Corrective actions have been identified for the remaining four items. The completed actions address combustible loading requirements associated with the operation of the cells and support areas. The status of the recommendations and actions was confirmed during the July 1998 Fire Protection Assessment. B and WHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 327 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and RLID 5480.7.

  4. Active polarimeter optical system laser hazard analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Augustoni, Arnold L.

    2005-07-01

    A laser hazard analysis was performed for the SNL Active Polarimeter Optical System based on the ANSI Standard Z136.1-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers and the ANSI Standard Z136.6-2000, American National Standard for Safe Use of Lasers Outdoors. The Active Polarimeter Optical System (APOS) uses a pulsed, near-infrared, chromium doped lithium strontium aluminum fluoride (Cr:LiSAF) crystal laser in conjunction with a holographic diffuser and lens to illuminate a scene of interest. The APOS is intended for outdoor operations. The system is mounted on a height adjustable platform (6 feet to 40 feet) and sits atop a tripod that points the beam downward. The beam can be pointed from nadir to as much as 60 degrees off of nadir producing an illuminating spot geometry that can vary from circular (at nadir) to elliptical in shape (off of nadir). The JP Innovations crystal Cr:LiSAF laser parameters are presented in section II. The illuminating laser spot size is variable and can be adjusted by adjusting the separation distance between the lens and the holographic diffuser. The system is adjusted while platform is at the lowest level. The laser spot is adjusted for a particular spot size at a particular distance (elevation) from the laser by adjusting the separation distance (d{sub diffuser}) to predetermined values. The downward pointing angle is also adjusted before the platform is raised to the selected operation elevation.

  5. 324 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Eggen, C.D.

    1998-09-16

    In March 1998, the 324 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in six areas and provided 20 recommendations to bring the 324 Building into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A. Additionally, one observation was provided. To date, four of the recommendations and the one observation have been completed. Actions identified for seven of the recommendations are currently in progress. Exemption requests will be transmitted to DOE-RL for three of the recommendations. Six of the recommendations are related to future shut down activities of the facility and the corrective actions are not being addressed as part of this plan. The actions for recommendations associated with the safety related part of the 324 Building and operation of the cells and support areas were evaluated using the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process. Major Life Safety Code concerns have been corrected. The status of the recommendations and actions was confirmed during the July 1998 Fire Protection Assessment. BVMC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 324 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A and RLID 5480.7.

  6. 324 Building fire hazards analysis implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    BARILO, N.F.

    1999-05-10

    In March 1998, the 324 Building Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) (Reference 1) was approved by the U S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) for implementation by B and W Hanford Company (BWHC). The purpose of the FHA was to identify gaps in compliance with DOE Order 5480.7A (Reference 2) and Richland Operations Office Implementation Directive (RLID) 5480.7 (Reference 3), especially in regard to loss limitation. The FHA identified compliance gaps in six areas and provided 20 recommendations to bring the 324 Building into compliance with DOE Order 5480 7A. Additionally, one observation was provided. A status is provided for each recommendation in this document. The actions for recommendations associated with the safety related part of the 324 Building and operation of the cells and support areas were evaluated using the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process BWHC will use this Implementation Plan to bring the 324 Building and its operation into compliance with DOE Order 5480 7A and RLID 5480.7.

  7. Optical radiation hazards analysis of ultraviolet headlamps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliney, David H.; Fast, Peder; Ricksand, Anders

    1995-08-01

    The potential hazards to the eye and skin associated with the use of UV-emitting automotive headlamps are considered. Wide-scale use of high-beam, near-UV headlamps to permit viewing of fluorescence in clothes and fluorescent road markers at great distances can increase automotive safety; however, the potential hazards from exposure of persons to UV radiation must be evaluated. From the study we conclude that such headlamps can be safely designed to preclude human exposure to potentially hazardous levels of UV radiation.

  8. 78 FR 39284 - Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY Technical Guidance for Assessing Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis AGENCY... Regulatory Analysis.'' The purpose of this notice is to extend the public comment period by 60 days. The... Environmental Justice in Regulatory Analysis, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: 1890T,...

  9. SYNTHESIS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS AND FIRE HAZARD ANALYSIS METHODOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D

    2007-04-17

    Successful implementation of both the nuclear safety program and fire protection program is best accomplished using a coordinated process that relies on sound technical approaches. When systematically prepared, the documented safety analysis (DSA) and fire hazard analysis (FHA) can present a consistent technical basis that streamlines implementation. If not coordinated, the DSA and FHA can present inconsistent conclusions, which can create unnecessary confusion and can promulgate a negative safety perception. This paper will compare the scope, purpose, and analysis techniques for DSAs and FHAs. It will also consolidate several lessons-learned papers on this topic, which were prepared in the 1990s.

  10. Simple Sensitivity Analysis for Orion Guidance Navigation and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pressburger, Tom; Hoelscher, Brian; Martin, Rodney; Sricharan, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The performance of Orion flight software, especially its GNC software, is being analyzed by running Monte Carlo simulations of Orion spacecraft flights. The simulated performance is analyzed for conformance with flight requirements, expressed as performance constraints. Flight requirements include guidance (e.g. touchdown distance from target) and control (e.g., control saturation) as well as performance (e.g., heat load constraints). The Monte Carlo simulations disperse hundreds of simulation input variables, for everything from mass properties to date of launch. We describe in this paper a sensitivity analysis tool ("Critical Factors Tool" or CFT) developed to find the input variables or pairs of variables which by themselves significantly influence satisfaction of requirements or significantly affect key performance metrics (e.g., touchdown distance from target). Knowing these factors can inform robustness analysis, can inform where engineering resources are most needed, and could even affect operations. The contributions of this paper include the introduction of novel sensitivity measures, such as estimating success probability, and a technique for determining whether pairs of factors are interacting dependently or independently. The tool found that input variables such as moments, mass, thrust dispersions, and date of launch were found to be significant factors for success of various requirements. Examples are shown in this paper as well as a summary and physics discussion of EFT-1 driving factors that the tool found.

  11. Safety analysis reports for multiple hazard category facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Geeting, M.W.; Gerrard, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    The Savannah River Site contains many nuclear facilities for which safety analysis reports (SARs) are required. The current requirements with which the SARs must comply are given in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.23. This order requires use of the graded approach. The graded approach demands a more thoroughly documented assessment of complex, higher hazard facilities than simple, lower hazard facilities because grading is a function of both hazard potential and complexity. The treatment of different hazard category facilities in the development of the SAR for the Central Laboratory Facility at the Savannah River Site is described here.

  12. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable to meet the requirements of this paragraph. (g...) Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP); (5) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA); (6) Fault...

  13. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable to meet the requirements of this paragraph. (g...) Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP); (5) Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA); (6) Fault...

  14. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable to meet the requirements of this paragraph. (g...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis....

  15. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable to meet the requirements of this paragraph. (g...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis....

  16. 40 CFR 68.67 - Process hazard analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable as initial process hazards analyses. These... completed to comply with 29 CFR 1910.119(e) are acceptable to meet the requirements of this paragraph. (g...) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Program 3 Prevention Program § 68.67 Process hazard analysis....

  17. Hazard Analysis of Japanese Boxed Lunches (Bento).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Frank L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    For the purposes of identifying contaminants, of assessing risks, and of determining critical food processing control points, hazard analyses were conducted at two "bento" (oriental boxed meals) catering operations. Time and temperature abuses during the holding period, after cooking and prior to consumption, were found to be the primary reason…

  18. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  19. Guide for Hydrogen Hazards Analysis on Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, Harold; Woods, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The physical and combustion properties of hydrogen give rise to hazards that must be considered when designing and operating a hydrogen system. One of the major concerns in the use of hydrogen is that of fire or detonation because of hydrogen's wide flammability range, low ignition energy, and flame speed. Other concerns include the contact and interaction of hydrogen with materials, such as the hydrogen embrittlement of materials and the formation of hydrogen hydrides. The low temperature of liquid and slush hydrogen bring other concerns related to material compatibility and pressure control; this is especially important when dissimilar, adjoining materials are involved. The potential hazards arising from these properties and design features necessitate a proper hydrogen hazards analysis before introducing a material, component, or system into hydrogen service. The objective of this guide is to describe the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility hydrogen hazards analysis method that should be performed before hydrogen is used in components and/or systems. The method is consistent with standard practices for analyzing hazards. It is recommended that this analysis be made before implementing a hydrogen component qualification procedure. A hydrogen hazards analysis is a useful tool for hydrogen-system designers, system and safety engineers, and facility managers. A hydrogen hazards analysis can identify problem areas before hydrogen is introduced into a system-preventing damage to hardware, delay or loss of mission or objective, and possible injury or loss of life.

  20. Statistical analysis of the uncertainty related to flood hazard appraisal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, Vincenza; Freni, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of flood hazard frequency statistics for an urban catchment is of great interest in practice. It provides the evaluation of potential flood risk and related damage and supports decision making for flood risk management. Flood risk is usually defined as function of the probability, that a system deficiency can cause flooding (hazard), and the expected damage, due to the flooding magnitude (damage), taking into account both the exposure and the vulnerability of the goods at risk. The expected flood damage can be evaluated by an a priori estimation of potential damage caused by flooding or by interpolating real damage data. With regard to flood hazard appraisal several procedures propose to identify some hazard indicator (HI) such as flood depth or the combination of flood depth and velocity and to assess the flood hazard corresponding to the analyzed area comparing the HI variables with user-defined threshold values or curves (penalty curves or matrixes). However, flooding data are usually unavailable or piecemeal allowing for carrying out a reliable flood hazard analysis, therefore hazard analysis is often performed by means of mathematical simulations aimed at evaluating water levels and flow velocities over catchment surface. As results a great part of the uncertainties intrinsic to flood risk appraisal can be related to the hazard evaluation due to the uncertainty inherent to modeling results and to the subjectivity of the user defined hazard thresholds applied to link flood depth to a hazard level. In the present work, a statistical methodology was proposed for evaluating and reducing the uncertainties connected with hazard level estimation. The methodology has been applied to a real urban watershed as case study.

  1. Development of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Toshiaki Sakai; Tomoyoshi Takeda; Hiroshi Soraoka; Ken Yanagisawa; Tadashi Annaka

    2006-07-01

    It is meaningful for tsunami assessment to evaluate phenomena beyond the design basis as well as seismic design. Because once we set the design basis tsunami height, we still have possibilities tsunami height may exceeds the determined design tsunami height due to uncertainties regarding the tsunami phenomena. Probabilistic tsunami risk assessment consists of estimating for tsunami hazard and fragility of structures and executing system analysis. In this report, we apply a method for probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). We introduce a logic tree approach to estimate tsunami hazard curves (relationships between tsunami height and probability of excess) and present an example for Japan. Examples of tsunami hazard curves are illustrated, and uncertainty in the tsunami hazard is displayed by 5-, 16-, 50-, 84- and 95-percentile and mean hazard curves. The result of PTHA will be used for quantitative assessment of the tsunami risk for important facilities located on coastal area. Tsunami hazard curves are the reasonable input data for structures and system analysis. However the evaluation method for estimating fragility of structures and the procedure of system analysis is now being developed. (authors)

  2. ODH, oxygen deficiency hazard cryogenic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Augustynowicz, S.D.

    1993-07-01

    An oxygen deficiency exists when the concentration of oxygen, by volume, drops to a level at which atmosphere supplying respiratory protection must be provided. Since liquid cryogens can expand by factors of 700 (LN{sub 2}) to 850 (LH{sub e}), the uncontrolled release into an enclosed space can easily cause an oxygen-deficient condition. An oxygen deficiency hazard (ODH) fatality rate per hour ({O}) is defined as: {O} = {Sigma} N{sub i}P{sub i}F{sub i}, where N{sub i} = number of components, P{sub i} =probability of failure or operator error, and F{sub i} - fatality factor. ODHs range from ``unclassified`` ({O}<10{sup {minus}9} 1/h) to class 4, which is the most hazardous ({O}>10{sup {minus}1} 1/h). For Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) buildings where cryogenic systems exist, failure rate, fatality factor, reduced oxygen ratio, and fresh air circulation are examined.

  3. Department of Defense radiation hazards testing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortinberry, Jarrod Douglas

    The United States Department of Defense tests its weapons systems to many different real as well as man-made environments prior to deploying the systems to the troops. The intent of testing is to insure the systems function as they are intended without adverse reactions. One of the required tests is a Radiation Hazards test to insure that nonionizing radio frequency waves generated by transmitters, such as radios and jammers, do not cause harm to personnel, ordnance or fuel. This test is typically performed at a DoD test lab and data taken at the lab is used to determine safe operating parameters for a particular piece of equipment. This thesis presents measurements as well as mathematical models to demonstrate methods that can be employed to take more relevant Radiation Hazards data.

  4. Dispersion analysis for baseline reference mission 3A using powered explicit guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    A dispersion analysis considering 3 sigma uncertainties (or perturbations) in platform, vehicle, and environmental parameters was performed for baseline reference mission 3A. Powered explicit guidance (PEG) was used to develop closed loop steering commands for this dispersion analysis. The nominal profile for the dispersion analysis is identical to the nominal profile of Reference 1 ascent trajectory with the exception that generalized linear tangent (GLT) guidance is used in Reference 1. Nominal trajectory differences which result from using PEG instead of GLT were determined and dispersion data were developed using PEG for comparison with similar data developed using GLT guidance.

  5. Analysis of Brazilian data for seismic hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouet, S.; Assumpção, M.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic hazard analysis in Brazil is going to be re-assessed in the framework of the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) project. Since the last worldwide Global Seismic Hazard Analysis Project (GSHAP) there has been no specific study in this field in Brazil. Brazil is a stable continental region and is characterized by a low seismic activity. In this particular type of regions, seismic hazard assessment is a very hard task due to the limited amount of data available regarding the seismic sources, earthquake catalogue, or ground-motion amplitudes, and the uncertainties associated are very large. This study focuses on recorded data in South-East Brazil where broadband stations are installed, belonging to two networks: the network managed by the seismology group at the IAG-USP in São Paulo which exists since about 20 years, and the network managed by the Observatorio Nacional in Rio de Janeiro which has just been set up. The two networks are now integrated into the national network RSB (Rede Sismográfica Brasileira) which will also include stations from the rest of Brazil currently in installation by the Universities of Brasilia and Natal. There are a couple of events with magnitude greater than 3 recorded at these very sensitive stations, usually at rather large distances. At first sight these data may appear meaningless in the context of seismic hazard but they can help to improve different parts involved in the process. The analysis of the S-wave Fourier spectra can help to better resolve source, path and site effects in Brazil. For instance moment magnitudes can be computed from the flat part of the Fourier spectra. These magnitudes are of utmost importance in order to build an homogeneous catalogue in terms of moment magnitude. At the moment only body wave magnitude (or some equivalent scale) are determined routinely for the events in Brazil. Attenuation and site effect, especially the high-frequency attenuation known as the kappa effect will also help to

  6. Fire Hazards Analysis for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    This documents the Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) for the 200 Area Interim Storage Area. The Interim Storage Cask, Rad-Vault, and NAC-1 Cask are analyzed for fire hazards and the 200 Area Interim Storage Area is assessed according to HNF-PRO-350 and the objectives of DOE Order 5480 7A. This FHA addresses the potential fire hazards associated with the Interim Storage Area (ISA) facility in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5480 7A. It is intended to assess the risk from fire to ensure there are no undue fire hazards to site personnel and the public and to ensure property damage potential from fire is within acceptable limits. This FHA will be in the form of a graded approach commensurate with the complexity of the structure or area and the associated fire hazards.

  7. Speed your hazard analysis with the focused what if?

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, L.

    1996-07-01

    Chemical process industries (CPI) plants worldwide must diminish their associated hazards. CPI firms are driven by their need to protect the public, their plants` neighbors, and their operating staffs from the consequences of accidents, as well as to meet regulations. Assuring the company and its regulators of safe operation requires conducting hazard analyses to demonstrate that plants are designed and operated to be as safe as practicable. For all organizations, large and small, it can be daunting and resource-consuming to conduct hazard analyses. There are various acceptable methods of hazard analysis: the hazard and operability analysis (HAZOP), the what if?, failure modes and effects and analysis (FMEA), and checklists, among others. Of all these methods, the HAZOP is on its way to becoming the de facto standard, because it is seemingly the most comprehensive and detailed method. Unfortunately, the HAZOP analysis, in many cases, may not be a good choice for a hazard analysis. This article explains more of the why of the focused what if (FWI), describes what it is, tells where it has been applied successfully, and provides an abridged example of its use.

  8. 78 FR 69689 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary... collection provisions of our regulations mandating the application of hazard......

  9. Seismic hazard analysis for Jayapura city, Papua

    SciTech Connect

    Robiana, R. Cipta, A.

    2015-04-24

    Jayapura city had destructive earthquake which occurred on June 25, 1976 with the maximum intensity VII MMI scale. Probabilistic methods are used to determine the earthquake hazard by considering all possible earthquakes that can occur in this region. Earthquake source models using three types of source models are subduction model; comes from the New Guinea Trench subduction zone (North Papuan Thrust), fault models; derived from fault Yapen, TareraAiduna, Wamena, Memberamo, Waipago, Jayapura, and Jayawijaya, and 7 background models to accommodate unknown earthquakes. Amplification factor using geomorphological approaches are corrected by the measurement data. This data is related to rock type and depth of soft soil. Site class in Jayapura city can be grouped into classes B, C, D and E, with the amplification between 0.5 – 6. Hazard maps are presented with a 10% probability of earthquake occurrence within a period of 500 years for the dominant periods of 0.0, 0.2, and 1.0 seconds.

  10. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, B.; Siu, Y. L.; Mitchell, G.

    2015-12-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  11. Hazard interaction analysis for multi-hazard risk assessment: a systematic classification based on hazard-forming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Baoyin; Siu, Yim Ling; Mitchell, Gordon

    2016-03-01

    This paper develops a systematic hazard interaction classification based on the geophysical environment that natural hazards arise from - the hazard-forming environment. According to their contribution to natural hazards, geophysical environmental factors in the hazard-forming environment were categorized into two types. The first are relatively stable factors which construct the precondition for the occurrence of natural hazards, whilst the second are trigger factors, which determine the frequency and magnitude of hazards. Different combinations of geophysical environmental factors induce different hazards. Based on these geophysical environmental factors for some major hazards, the stable factors are used to identify which kinds of natural hazards influence a given area, and trigger factors are used to classify the relationships between these hazards into four types: independent, mutex, parallel and series relationships. This classification helps to ensure all possible hazard interactions among different hazards are considered in multi-hazard risk assessment. This can effectively fill the gap in current multi-hazard risk assessment methods which to date only consider domino effects. In addition, based on this classification, the probability and magnitude of multiple interacting natural hazards occurring together can be calculated. Hence, the developed hazard interaction classification provides a useful tool to facilitate improved multi-hazard risk assessment.

  12. A sensitivity analysis of hazardous waste disposal site climatic and soil design parameters using HELP3

    SciTech Connect

    Adelman, D.D.; Stansbury, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, And Liability Act (CERCLA), and subsequent amendments have formed a comprehensive framework to deal with hazardous wastes on the national level. Key to this waste management is guidance on design (e.g., cover and bottom leachate control systems) of hazardous waste landfills. The objective of this research was to investigate the sensitivity of leachate volume at hazardous waste disposal sites to climatic, soil cover, and vegetative cover (Leaf Area Index) conditions. The computer model HELP3 which has the capability to simulate double bottom liner systems as called for in hazardous waste disposal sites was used in the analysis. HELP3 was used to model 54 combinations of climatic conditions, disposal site soil surface curve numbers, and leaf area index values to investigate how sensitive disposal site leachate volume was to these three variables. Results showed that leachate volume from the bottom double liner system was not sensitive to these parameters. However, the cover liner system leachate volume was quite sensitive to climatic conditions and less sensitive to Leaf Area Index and curve number values. Since humid locations had considerably more cover liner system leachate volume than and locations, different design standards may be appropriate for humid conditions than for and conditions.

  13. Frequency Analysis of Aircraft hazards for License Application

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-10-24

    The preclosure safety analysis for the monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain must consider the hazard that aircraft may pose to surface structures. Relevant surface structures are located beneath the restricted airspace of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the eastern slope of Yucca Mountain, near the North Portal of the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel (Figure 1). The North Portal is located several miles from the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), which is used extensively by the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for training and test flights (Figure 1). The NTS airspace, which is controlled by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for NTS activities, is not part of the NTTR. Agreements with the DOE allow USAF aircraft specific use of the airspace above the NTS (Reference 2.1.1 [DIRS 103472], Section 3.1.1 and Appendix A, Section 2.1; and Reference 2.1.2 [DIRS 157987], Sections 1.26 through 1.29). Commercial, military, and general aviation aircraft fly within several miles to the southwest of the repository site in the Beatty Corridor, which is a broad air corridor that runs approximately parallel to U.S. Highway 95 and the Nevada-California border (Figure 2). These aircraft and other aircraft operations are identified and described in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Sections 6 and 8). The purpose of this analysis is to estimate crash frequencies for aircraft hazards identified for detailed analysis in ''Identification of Aircraft Hazards'' (Reference 2.1.3, Section 8). Reference 2.1.3, Section 8, also identifies a potential hazard associated with electronic jamming, which will be addressed in this analysis. This analysis will address only the repository and not the transportation routes to the site. The analysis is intended to provide the basis for: (1) Categorizing event sequences related to aircraft hazards; (2) Identifying design or operational requirements related to aircraft hazards.

  14. Fire hazards analysis for the Center for National Security and Arms Control (CNSAC) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Ross, S.B.

    1993-07-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis is sponsored by Plant Engineering and is prepared to support the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC Facility. This is a preliminary fire hazards analysis of a yet to be constructed facility and is based upon the current building design and the current understanding of the potential occupancy hazards. The governing occupancy for this building is personnel offices. The CNSAC facility will be dedicated primarily to two activities: (1) arms control and verification technology and (2) intelligence. This report supplements the Safety Assessment for the CNSAC facility and follows the guidance of DOE Memorandum EH-31.3 and meets the objectives of paragraph 4 of DOE Order 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection.`` This analysis demonstrates that under ``worst case`` assumptions a fire in the CNSAC facility will result in consequences which are below DOE offsite guidelines for accident conditions. This report is based upon preliminary design information and any major changes to the building design may require additional analyses.

  15. AN ENHANCED HAZARD ANALYSIS PROCESS FOR THE HANFORD TANK FARMS

    SciTech Connect

    SHULTZ MV

    2008-05-15

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., has expanded the scope and increased the formality of process hazards analyses performed on new or modified Tank Farm facilities, designs, and processes. The CH2M HILL process hazard analysis emphasis has been altered to reflect its use as a fundamental part of the engineering and change control process instead of simply being a nuclear safety analysis tool. The scope has been expanded to include identification of accidents/events that impact the environment, or require emergency response, in addition to those with significant impact to the facility worker, the offsite, and the 100-meter receptor. Also, there is now an expectation that controls will be identified to address all types of consequences. To ensure that the process has an appropriate level of rigor and formality, a new engineering standard for process hazards analysis was created. This paper discusses the role of process hazards analysis as an information source for not only nuclear safety, but also for the worker-safety management programs, emergency management, environmental programs. This paper also discusses the role of process hazards analysis in the change control process, including identifying when and how it should be applied to changes in design or process.

  16. Guidance in Kagome-like photonic crystal fibres I: analysis of an ideal fibre structure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Pearce, Greg J; Birks, Timothy A; Bird, David M

    2011-03-28

    Propagation of light in a square-lattice hollow-core photonic crystal fibre is analysed as a model of guidance in a class of photonic crystal fibres that exhibit broad-band guidance without photonic bandgaps. A scalar governing equation is used and analytic solutions based on transfer matrices are developed for the full set of modes. It is found that an exponentially localised fundamental mode exists for a wide range of frequencies. These analytic solutions of an idealised structure will form the basis for analysis of guidance in a realistic structure in a following paper. PMID:21451720

  17. Slash fire hazard analysis on the Siskiyou National Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radloff, David L.; Schopfer, Walter C.; Yancik, Richard F.

    1982-11-01

    Potential increase in fire hazard as a result of timber harvesting is a concern of forest managers throughout the United States. Treating fuels can help reduce unacceptable fire hazards. To evaluate alternative fuel treatments, managers need to know their effects on fire hazard. A decision analysis approach to estimating fire hazard in terms of expected burned area was applied to a watershed in the Siskiyou National Forest (Oregon). Three treatment alternatives (do nothing and two levels of yarding unmerchantable material) were evaluated, and the effects of the treatments were projected over a 90-yr period. Initially, the effects of applying a treatment are small. After 50 years of treatment, the most intense alternative can be expected to show almost a 50% reduction in burned area compared to no treatment. The procedure also estimates burned are by fire size and fire intensity classes. Managers may find this useful for estimating expected fire effects associated with a particular fuel treatment regime.

  18. FMEA, the alternative process hazard method. [Failure Mode Effects Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Goyal, R.K. )

    1993-05-01

    Failure mode effects analysis (FMEA) is an old reliability/assurance tool finding its way into the HPI. Not popular yet, this hazard technique has some viable applications that can improve hazard assessment data. Notably, FMEA studies can identify possible areas for improvement that may have not been discovered using other methods. Also, FMEA is not as labor intensive and costly as other process hazard analysis (PHA) methods. PSHA 1910.119 set in place an informational structure whose main purpose is the reduction of potential accidents and minimizing risks in the event of an accident. Consequently, HPI operators must evaluate their process systems and identify potential major hazards, such as fires, explosions and accidental release of toxic/hazardous chemicals, and protect their facilities, employees, the public and the environment. But, which PHA method(s) apply to a particular plant or process still remains a difficult question. This paper describes what FMEA is; types of FMEA; how to conduct a FMEA study; comparison with HAZOP (hazard and operability study); computer software; applicability of FMEA; and examples of its use.

  19. A Bayesian Seismic Hazard Analysis for the city of Naples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenza, Licia; Pierdominici, Simona; Hainzl, Sebastian; Cinti, Francesca R.; Sandri, Laura; Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Perfetti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    In the last years many studies have been focused on determination and definition of the seismic, volcanic and tsunamogenic hazard in the city of Naples. The reason is that the town of Naples with its neighboring area is one of the most densely populated places in Italy. In addition, the risk is increased also by the type and condition of buildings and monuments in the city. It is crucial therefore to assess which active faults in Naples and surrounding area could trigger an earthquake able to shake and damage the urban area. We collect data from the most reliable and complete databases of macroseismic intensity records (from 79 AD to present). For each seismic event an active tectonic structure has been associated. Furthermore a set of active faults, well-known from geological investigations, located around the study area that they could shake the city, not associated with any earthquake, has been taken into account for our studies. This geological framework is the starting point for our Bayesian seismic hazard analysis for the city of Naples. We show the feasibility of formulating the hazard assessment procedure to include the information of past earthquakes into the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. This strategy allows on one hand to enlarge the information used in the evaluation of the hazard, from alternative models for the earthquake generation process to past shaking and on the other hand to explicitly account for all kinds of information and their uncertainties. The Bayesian scheme we propose is applied to evaluate the seismic hazard of Naples. We implement five different spatio-temporal models to parameterize the occurrence of earthquakes potentially dangerous for Naples. Subsequently we combine these hazard curves with ShakeMap of past earthquakes that have been felt in Naples. The results are posterior hazard assessment for three exposure times, e.g., 50, 10 and 5 years, in a dense grid that cover the municipality of Naples, considering bedrock soil

  20. Pedestrian Evacuation Analysis for Tsunami Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. M.; Ng, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent catastrophic tsunamis in the last decade, as well as the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Alaskan event, have heightened awareness of the threats these natural hazards present to large and increasing coastal populations. For communities located close to the earthquake epicenter that generated the tsunami, strong shaking may also cause significant infrastructure damage, impacting the road network and hampering evacuation. There may also be insufficient time between the earthquake and first wave arrival to rely on a coordinated evacuation, leaving at-risk populations to self-evacuate on foot and across the landscape. Emergency managers evaluating these coastal risks need tools to assess the evacuation potential of low-lying areas in order to discuss mitigation options, which may include vertical evacuation structures to provide local safe havens in vulnerable communities. The U.S. Geological Survey has developed the Pedestrian Evacuation Analyst software tool for use by researchers and emergency managers to assist in the assessment of a community's evacuation potential by modeling travel times across the landscape and producing both maps of travel times and charts of population counts with corresponding times. The tool uses an anisotropic (directionally dependent) least cost distance model to estimate evacuation potential and allows for the variation of travel speed to measure its effect on travel time. The effectiveness of vertical evacuation structures on evacuation time can also be evaluated and compared with metrics such as travel time maps showing each structure in place and graphs displaying the percentage change in population exposure for each structure against the baseline. Using the tool, travel time maps and at-risk population counts have been generated for some coastal communities of the U.S. Pacific Northwest and Alaska. The tool can also be used to provide valuable decision support for tsunami vertical evacuation siting.

  1. Hazardous material analysis and coding system (HAZMZCS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, J.W.

    1991-06-01

    A new hazardous material classification system is being implemented. It consists of 55 Hazardous Characteristic Codes (HCC). The HCC will provide critical information needed to effectively manage, store and ship hazardous materials such as poisons, pesticides, radioactive materials, oxidizers, corrosive liquids and explosives. With implementation of new automated Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Warehousing and Shipping Procedures (DWASP), DLA depot receiving personnel will be required to assign the HCC if it it missing from pertinent documents. Without the HCC, the DWASP system will not assign a depot storage location. Because the new HCC must be assigned quickly and accurately, an expert systems approach offers a feasible and practical means for providing this support. Accordingly, the Hazardous Material Analysis and Coding System (HAZMACS) was developed. HAZMACS is a PC-based expert system which queries the user about the known characteristics of suspected hazardous material and assigns an HCC based on the user's responses. HAZMACS consists of a main knowledge base file which chains to any of 13 other hazard-specific knowledge base files.

  2. Influence of analysis methods on interpretation of hazard maps.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Kirsten A; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-06-01

    Exposure or hazard mapping is becoming increasingly popular among industrial hygienists. Direct-reading instruments used for hazard mapping of data collection are steadily increasing in reliability and portability while decreasing in cost. Exposure measurements made with these instruments generally require no laboratory analysis although hazard mapping can be a time-consuming process. To inform decision making by industrial hygienists and management, it is crucial that the maps generated from mapping data are as accurate and representative as possible. Currently, it is unclear how many sampling locations are necessary to produce a representative hazard map. As such, researchers typically collect as many points as can be sampled in several hours and interpolation methods are used to produce higher resolution maps. We have reanalyzed hazard-mapping data sets from three industrial settings to determine which interpolation methods yield the most accurate results. The goal is to provide practicing industrial hygienists with some practical guidelines to generate accurate hazard maps with 'off-the-shelf' mapping software. Visually verifying the fit of the variogram model is crucial for accurate interpolation. Exponential and spherical variogram models performed better than Gaussian models. It was also necessary to diverge from some of the default interpolation parameters such as the number of bins used for the experimental variogram and whether or not to allow for a nugget effect to achieve reasonable accuracy of the interpolation for some data sets. PMID:23258453

  3. Tracking Hazard Analysis Data in a Jungle of Changing Design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Robin S.; Young, Jonathan

    2006-05-14

    The biggest fear of the hazard analyst is the loss of data in the middle of the design jungle. When project schedules are demanding and design is changing rapidly it is essential that the hazard analysis data be tracked and kept current in order to provide the required project design, development, and regulatory support. Being able to identify the current information, as well as the past archived information, as the design progresses and to be able to show how the project is designing in safety through modifications based on hazard analysis results is imperative. At the DOE Hanford site in Washington State, Flour Hanford Inc is in the process of the removal and disposition of sludge from the 100 Area K Basins. The K Basins were used to store spent fuel from the operating reactors at the Hanford Site. The sludge is a by-product from the corrosion of the fuel and fuel storage canisters. The sludge removal project has been very dynamic involving the design, procurement and, more recently, the operation of processes at two basins, K East and K West. The project has an ambitious schedule with a large number of changes to design concepts. In order to support the complex K Basins project a technique to track the status of the hazard analysis data was developed. This paper will identify the most important elements of the tracking system and how it was used to assist the project in ensuring that current design data was reflected in a specific version of the hazard analysis and to show how the project was keeping up with the design and ensuring compliance with the requirements to design in safety. While the specifics of the data tracking strategy for the K Basins sludge removal project will be described in the paper, the general concepts of the strategy are applicable to similar projects requiring iteration of hazard analysis and design.

  4. Hazardous-waste analysis plan for LLNL operations

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-02-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is involved in many facets of research ranging from nuclear weapons research to advanced Biomedical studies. Approximately 80% of all programs at LLNL generate hazardous waste in one form or another. Aside from producing waste from industrial type operations (oils, solvents, bottom sludges, etc.) many unique and toxic wastes are generated such as phosgene, dioxin (TCDD), radioactive wastes and high explosives. One key to any successful waste management program must address the following: proper identification of the waste, safe handling procedures and proper storage containers and areas. This section of the Waste Management Plan will address methodologies used for the Analysis of Hazardous Waste. In addition to the wastes defined in 40 CFR 261, LLNL and Site 300 also generate radioactive waste not specifically covered by RCRA. However, for completeness, the Waste Analysis Plan will address all hazardous waste.

  5. Landslide hazards and systems analysis: A Central European perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klose, Martin; Damm, Bodo; Kreuzer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Part of the problem with assessing landslide hazards is to understand the variable settings in which they occur. There is growing consensus that hazard assessments require integrated approaches that take account of the coupled human-environment system. Here we provide a synthesis of societal exposure and vulnerability to landslide hazards, review innovative approaches to hazard identification, and lay a focus on hazard assessment, while presenting the results of historical case studies and a landslide time series for Germany. The findings add to a growing body of literature that recognizes societal exposure and vulnerability as a complex system of hazard interactions that evolves over time as a function of social change and development. We therefore propose to expand hazard assessments by the framework and concepts of systems analysis (e.g., Liu et al., 2007) Results so far have been promising in ways that illustrate the importance of feedbacks, thresholds, surprises, and time lags in the evolution of landslide hazard and risk. In densely populated areas of Central Europe, landslides often occur in urbanized landscapes or on engineered slopes that had been transformed or created intentionally by human activity, sometimes even centuries ago. The example of Germany enables to correlate the causes and effects of recent landslides with the historical transition of urbanization to urban sprawl, ongoing demographic change, and some chronic problems of industrialized countries today, including ageing infrastructures or rising government debts. In large parts of rural Germany, the combination of ageing infrastructures, population loss, and increasing budget deficits starts to erode historical resilience gains, which brings especially small communities to a tipping point in their efforts to risk reduction. While struggling with budget deficits and demographic change, these communities are required to maintain ageing infrastructures that are particularly vulnerable to

  6. Historical analysis of US pipeline accidents triggered by natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girgin, Serkan; Krausmann, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    Natural hazards, such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, or lightning, can initiate accidents in oil and gas pipelines with potentially major consequences on the population or the environment due to toxic releases, fires and explosions. Accidents of this type are also referred to as Natech events. Many major accidents highlight the risk associated with natural-hazard impact on pipelines transporting dangerous substances. For instance, in the USA in 1994, flooding of the San Jacinto River caused the rupture of 8 and the undermining of 29 pipelines by the floodwaters. About 5.5 million litres of petroleum and related products were spilled into the river and ignited. As a results, 547 people were injured and significant environmental damage occurred. Post-incident analysis is a valuable tool for better understanding the causes, dynamics and impacts of pipeline Natech accidents in support of future accident prevention and mitigation. Therefore, data on onshore hazardous-liquid pipeline accidents collected by the US Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) was analysed. For this purpose, a database-driven incident data analysis system was developed to aid the rapid review and categorization of PHMSA incident reports. Using an automated data-mining process followed by a peer review of the incident records and supported by natural hazard databases and external information sources, the pipeline Natechs were identified. As a by-product of the data-collection process, the database now includes over 800,000 incidents from all causes in industrial and transportation activities, which are automatically classified in the same way as the PHMSA record. This presentation describes the data collection and reviewing steps conducted during the study, provides information on the developed database and data analysis tools, and reports the findings of a statistical analysis of the identified hazardous liquid pipeline incidents in terms of accident dynamics and

  7. 75 FR 16202 - Office of New Reactors; Interim Staff Guidance on Ensuring Hazard-Consistent Seismic Input for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Site Response and Soil Structure Interaction Analyses AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC...) DC/COL-ISG-017 titled ``Ensuring Hazard-Consistent Seismic Input for Site Response and Soil Structure...-Consistent Seismic Input for Site Response and Soil Structure Interaction Analyses,'' (ADAMS Accession...

  8. Implementation of hazard analysis critical control point in jameed production.

    PubMed

    Al-Saed, A K; Al-Groum, R M; Al-Dabbas, M M

    2012-06-01

    The average of standard plate count and coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella counts for three home-made jameed samples, a traditional fermented dairy product, before applying hazard analysis critical control point system were 2.1 × 10(3), 8.9 × 10(1), 4 × 10(1) and less than 10 cfu/g, respectively. The developed hazard analysis critical control point plan resulted in identifying ten critical control points in the flow chart of jameed production. The critical control points included fresh milk receiving, pasteurization, addition of starter, water and salt, straining, personnel hygiene, drying and packaging. After applying hazard analysis critical control point system, there was significant improvement in the microbiological quality of the home-made jameed. The standard plate count was reduced to 3.1 × 10(2) cfu/g whereas coliform and Staphylococcus aureus counts were less than 10 cfu/g and Salmonella was not detected. Sensory evaluation results of color and flavor of sauce prepared from jameed showed a significant increase in the average scores given after hazard analysis critical control point application. PMID:22701056

  9. Fire Hazards Analysis for the Inactive Equipment Storage Sprung Structure

    SciTech Connect

    MYOTT, C.F.

    2000-02-03

    The purpose of the analysis is to comprehensively assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas in relation to proposed fire protection so as to ascertain whether the fire protection objective of DOE Order 5480.1A are met. The order acknowledges a graded approach commensurate with the hazards involved.

  10. Appalachian Play Fairway Analysis Seismic Hazards Supporting Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Frank Horowitz

    2016-07-20

    These are the data used in estimating the seismic hazards (both natural and induced) for candidate direct use geothermal locations in the Appalachian Basin Play Fairway Analysis by Jordan et al. (2015). xMin,yMin -83.1407,36.7461 : xMax,yMax -71.5175,45.1729

  11. Phase 2 fire hazard analysis for the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Sadanaga, C.T., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The fire hazard analysis assesses the risk from fire in a facility to ascertain whether the fire protection policies are met. This document provides a preliminary FHA for the CSB facility. Open items have been noted in the document. A final FHA will be required at the completion of definitive design, prior to operation of the facility.

  12. Time to the Doctorate: Multilevel Discrete-Time Hazard Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wao, Hesborn O.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary data on 1,028 graduate students nested within 24 programs and admitted into either a Ph. D. or Ed. D. program between 1990 and 2006 at an American public university were used to illustrate the benefits of employing multilevel discrete-time hazard analysis in understanding the timing of doctorate completion in Education and the factors…

  13. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19

    This Fire Hazard Analysis assesses the risk from fire within individual fire areas in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility at the Hanford Site in relation to existing or proposed fire protection features to ascertain whether the objectives of DOE Order 5480.7A Fire Protection are met.

  14. Hazard analysis of Clostridium perfringens in the Skylab Food System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Kiser, P. R.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rowley, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Food System presented unique microbiological problems because food was warmed in null-gravity and because the heat source was limited to 69.4 C (to prevent boiling in null-gravity). For these reasons, the foods were manufactured using critical control point techniques of quality control coupled with appropriate hazard analyses. One of these hazard analyses evaluated the threat from Clostridium perfringens. Samples of food were inoculated with C. perfringens and incubated for 2 h at temperatures ranging from 25 to 55 C. Generation times were determined for the foods at various temperatures. Results of these tests were evaluated taking into consideration: food-borne disease epidemiology, the Skylab food manufacturing procedures, and the performance requirements of the Skylab Food System. Based on this hazard analysis, a limit for C. perfringens of 100/g was established for Skylab foods.

  15. PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit process hazards analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    The objective of this report is to demonstrate that a thorough assessment of the risks associated with the operation of the Rust Geotech patented PO*WW*ER mobile treatment unit (MTU) has been performed and documented. The MTU was developed to treat aqueous mixed wastes at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office sites. The MTU uses evaporation to separate organics and water from radionuclides and solids, and catalytic oxidation to convert the hazardous into byproducts. This process hazards analysis evaluated a number of accident scenarios not directly related to the operation of the MTU, such as natural phenomena damage and mishandling of chemical containers. Worst case accident scenarios were further evaluated to determine the risk potential to the MTU and to workers, the public, and the environment. The overall risk to any group from operation of the MTU was determined to be very low; the MTU is classified as a Radiological Facility with low hazards.

  16. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other species where a food safety hazard has been associated with decomposition; (vii) Parasites, where the processor has knowledge or has reason to know that the parasite-containing fish or fishery product will be consumed without a process sufficient to kill the parasites, or where the processor...

  17. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other species where a food safety hazard has been associated with decomposition; (vii) Parasites, where the processor has knowledge or has reason to know that the parasite-containing fish or fishery product will be consumed without a process sufficient to kill the parasites, or where the processor...

  18. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other species where a food safety hazard has been associated with decomposition; (vii) Parasites, where the processor has knowledge or has reason to know that the parasite-containing fish or fishery product will be consumed without a process sufficient to kill the parasites, or where the processor...

  19. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other species where a food safety hazard has been associated with decomposition; (vii) Parasites, where the processor has knowledge or has reason to know that the parasite-containing fish or fishery product will be consumed without a process sufficient to kill the parasites, or where the processor...

  20. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other species where a food safety hazard has been associated with decomposition; (vii) Parasites, where the processor has knowledge or has reason to know that the parasite-containing fish or fishery product will be consumed without a process sufficient to kill the parasites, or where the processor...

  1. Guidance and Control Algorithms for the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jody L.; CwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Garcia-Llama, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Mars Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) study was to identify feasible technologies that will enable human exploration of Mars, specifically to deliver large payloads to the Martian surface. This paper focuses on the methods used to guide and control two of the contending technologies, a mid- lift-to-drag (L/D) rigid aeroshell and a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD), through the entry portion of the trajectory. The Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II (POST2) is used to simulate and analyze the trajectories of the contending technologies and guidance and control algorithms. Three guidance algorithms are discussed in this paper: EDL theoretical guidance, Numerical Predictor-Corrector (NPC) guidance and Analytical Predictor-Corrector (APC) guidance. EDL-SA also considered two forms of control: bank angle control, similar to that used by Apollo and the Space Shuttle, and a center-of-gravity (CG) offset control. This paper presents the performance comparison of these guidance algorithms and summarizes the results as they impact the technology recommendations for future study.

  2. D0 Detector Collision Hall Oxygen Deficiancy Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab

    1992-08-06

    EN-258, D0 Platform ODH Analysts. provided the oxygen deficiency hazard analysts for the D0 detector in the Assembly Hall. This note covers the same analysis. but revised for the Collision Hall. Liquid cryogens. released and warming to atmosphere conditions, expand to, on average, seven hundred times their liquid volume, and displace vital atmospheric oxygen. An oxygen deficiency hazard analysis assesses the increased risk to personnel in areas containing cryogenic systems. The D0 detector Collision Hall ODH analysis has been approached five different ways using established methods. If the low beta quad magnets are powered, and the exhaust rate is below 4220 scfm, the area is ODH class 1. In any other case, the analysis shows the area to be ODH class 0 as equipped (with ventilation fans) and requiring no special safety provisions. System designers have provided for a reduced oxygen level detection and warning system as well as emergency procedures to address fault conditions.

  3. Evaluation and Application of Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thio, H. K.; Wilson, R. I.; Miller, K.

    2014-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) and URS Corporation are in the process of generating tsunami hazard map products for land-use planning and construction through the California Seismic Hazard Mapping Act (Public Resources Code, sec 2690 et seq.). Similar to seismic hazard zonation, these products for land-use and development decision-making are typically based on a probabilistic analysis, and require information on the frequency of occurrence through a probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA). In Phase 1 of CGS's work, the California PTHA Work Group was established to evaluate the results of PTHA demonstration projects in Crescent City and Huntington Beach. The results of this Phase 1 review of the two independent analyses indicate PTHA's can be developed with recommended improvements in source characterization, PTHA methods, and numerical model use. An immediate significant improvement is to align the characterization of the Cascadia Subduction Zone PTHA with the seismic characterization of the National Seismic Hazard Map Program of the USGS. In addition to applying PTHA to land-use planning and the two demonstration projects, CGS and the CA-PTHA Work Group identified other potential applications for various PTHA risk levels (ARP = Average Return Period), including flood insurance (100 and 500 year ARP), building codes (2,500 year ARP), and emergency response planning (1000 year ARP or larger). CGS is working with URS Corp., the California Office of Emergency Services, and FEMA on a Phase 2 plan to produce a single set of reliable and consistent PTHA maps for multiple risk levels and work with various end-users to determine how to use the maps. The California PTHA and the results of the Work Group review are also proposed to be used by the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program to develop guidelines for production in other coastal states.

  4. Multi-hazard risk analysis for management strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappes, M.; Keiler, M.; Bell, R.; Glade, T.

    2009-04-01

    Risk management is very often operating in a reactive way, responding to an event, instead of proactive starting with risk analysis and building up the whole process of risk evaluation, prevention, event management and regeneration. Since damage and losses from natural hazards raise continuously more and more studies, concepts (e.g. Switzerland or South Tyrol-Bolozano) and software packages (e.g. ARMAGEDOM, HAZUS or RiskScape) are developed to guide, standardize and facilitate the risk analysis. But these approaches focus on different aspects and are mostly closely adapted to the situation (legislation, organization of the administration, specific processes etc.) of the specific country or region. We propose in this study the development of a flexible methodology for multi-hazard risk analysis, identifying the stakeholders and their needs, processes and their characteristics, modeling approaches as well as incoherencies occurring by combining all these different aspects. Based on this concept a flexible software package will be established consisting of ArcGIS as central base and being complemented by various modules for hazard modeling, vulnerability assessment and risk calculation. Not all modules will be developed newly but taken from the current state-of-the-art and connected or integrated into ArcGIS. For this purpose two study sites, Valtellina in Italy and Bacelonnette in France, were chosen and the hazards types debris flows, rockfalls, landslides, avalanches and floods are planned to be included in the tool for a regional multi-hazard risk analysis. Since the central idea of this tool is its flexibility this will only be a first step, in the future further processes and scales can be included and the instrument thus adapted to any study site.

  5. Assessment of Uncertainties Related to Seismic Hazard Using Fuzzy Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjiashvili, N.; Yokoi, T.; Javakhishvili, Z.

    2013-05-01

    Seismic hazard analysis in last few decades has been become very important issue. Recently, new technologies and available data have been improved that helped many scientists to understand where and why earthquakes happen, physics of earthquakes, etc. They have begun to understand the role of uncertainty in Seismic hazard analysis. However, there is still significant problem how to handle existing uncertainty. The same lack of information causes difficulties to quantify uncertainty accurately. Usually attenuation curves are obtained in statistical way: regression analysis. Statistical and probabilistic analysis show overlapped results for the site coefficients. This overlapping takes place not only at the border between two neighboring classes, but also among more than three classes. Although the analysis starts from classifying sites using the geological terms, these site coefficients are not classified at all. In the present study, this problem is solved using Fuzzy set theory. Using membership functions the ambiguities at the border between neighboring classes can be avoided. Fuzzy set theory is performed for southern California by conventional way. In this study standard deviations that show variations between each site class obtained by Fuzzy set theory and classical way are compared. Results on this analysis show that when we have insufficient data for hazard assessment site classification based on Fuzzy set theory shows values of standard deviations less than obtained by classical way which is direct proof of less uncertainty.

  6. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Disaggregation Analysis for the South of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, I.; Sousa, M.; Teves-Costa, P.

    2010-12-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard disaggregation analysis was performed and seismic scenarios were identified for Southern Mainland Portugal. This region’s seismicity is characterized by small and moderate magnitude events and by the sporadic occurrence of large earthquakes (e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake). Thus, the Portuguese Civil Protection Agency (ANPC) sponsored a collaborative research project for the study of the seismic and tsunami risks in the Algarve (project ERSTA). In the framework of this project, a series of new developments were obtained, namely the revision of the seismic catalogue (IM, 2008), the delineation of new seismogenic zones affecting the Algarve region, which reflects the growing knowledge of this region's seismotectonic context, the derivation of new spectral attenuation laws (Carvalho and Campos Costa, 2008) and the revision of the probabilistic seismic hazard (Sousa et al. 2008). Seismic hazard was disaggregated considering different spaces of random variables, namely, bivariate conditional hazard distributions of X-Y (seismic source latitude and longitude) and multivariate 4D conditional hazard distributions of M-(X-Y)-ɛ (ɛ - deviation of ground motion to the median value predicted by an attenuation model). These procedures were performed for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and for the 5% damped 1.0 and 2.5 Hz spectral acceleration levels of three return periods: 95, 475 and 975 years. The seismic scenarios controlling the hazard of a given ground motion level, were identified as the modal values of the 4D disaggregation analysis for each of the 84 parishes of the Algarve region. Those scenarios, based on a probabilistic analysis, are meant to be used in the emergency planning as a complement to the historical scenarios that severely affected this region. Seismic scenarios share a few number of geographical locations for all return periods. Moreover, seismic hazard of most Algarve’s parishes is dominated by the seismicity located

  7. Environmental risk analysis of hazardous material rail transportation.

    PubMed

    Saat, Mohd Rapik; Werth, Charles J; Schaeffer, David; Yoon, Hongkyu; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2014-01-15

    An important aspect of railroad environmental risk management involves tank car transportation of hazardous materials. This paper describes a quantitative, environmental risk analysis of rail transportation of a group of light, non-aqueous-phase liquid (LNAPL) chemicals commonly transported by rail in North America. The Hazardous Materials Transportation Environmental Consequence Model (HMTECM) was used in conjunction with a geographic information system (GIS) analysis of environmental characteristics to develop probabilistic estimates of exposure to different spill scenarios along the North American rail network. The risk analysis incorporated the estimated clean-up cost developed using the HMTECM, route-specific probability distributions of soil type and depth to groundwater, annual traffic volume, railcar accident rate, and tank car safety features, to estimate the nationwide annual risk of transporting each product. The annual risk per car-mile (car-km) and per ton-mile (ton-km) was also calculated to enable comparison between chemicals and to provide information on the risk cost associated with shipments of these products. The analysis and the methodology provide a quantitative approach that will enable more effective management of the environmental risk of transporting hazardous materials. PMID:24239259

  8. Long term volcanic hazard analysis in the Canary Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerril, L.; Galindo, I.; Laín, L.; Llorente, M.; Mancebo, M. J.

    2009-04-01

    Historic volcanism in Spain is restricted to the Canary Islands, a volcanic archipelago formed by seven volcanic islands. Several historic eruptions have been registered in the last five hundred years. However, and despite the huge amount of citizens and tourist in the archipelago, only a few volcanic hazard studies have been carried out. These studies are mainly focused in the developing of hazard maps in Lanzarote and Tenerife islands, especially for land use planning. The main handicap for these studies in the Canary Islands is the lack of well reported historical eruptions, but also the lack of data such as geochronological, geochemical or structural. In recent years, the use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and the improvement in the volcanic processes modelling has provided an important tool for volcanic hazard assessment. Although this sophisticated programs are really useful they need to be fed by a huge amount of data that sometimes, such in the case of the Canary Islands, are not available. For this reason, the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) is developing a complete geo-referenced database for long term volcanic analysis in the Canary Islands. The Canarian Volcanic Hazard Database (HADA) is based on a GIS helping to organize and manage volcanic information efficiently. HADA includes the following groups of information: (1) 1:25.000 scale geologic maps, (2) 1:25.000 topographic maps, (3) geochronologic data, (4) geochemical data, (5) structural information, (6) climatic data. Data must pass a quality control before they are included in the database. New data are easily integrated in the database. With the HADA database the IGME has started a systematic organization of the existing data. In the near future, the IGME will generate new information to be included in HADA, such as volcanological maps of the islands, structural information, geochronological data and other information to assess long term volcanic hazard analysis. HADA will permit

  9. Surface Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report-Constructor Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    R.E. Flye

    2000-10-24

    The purpose of this Fire Hazards Analysis Technical Report (hereinafter referred to as Technical Report) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas to ascertain whether the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) fire safety objectives are met. The objectives identified in DOE Order 420.1, Change 2, Facility Safety, Section 4.2, establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public, or the environment; Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding defined limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events.

  10. A Procedure for Rapid Localized Earthquake Hazard Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliday, J. R.; Rundle, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    In this presentation, we introduce various ground shaking and building response models. We then discuss the forecasting capabilities of different models submitted to the Collaboratory for the Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) and show how they can be used as inputs for these models. Finally, we discuss how outputs from such multi- tiered calculations would prove invaluable for real-time and scenario-based hazard assessment and for cost-benefit analysis of possible mitigation actions.

  11. Performance analysis of the combined EDS maglev propulsion, levitation, and guidance system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Coffey, H.T.; Rote, D.M.

    1993-10-01

    An analysis of the Japanese maglev system which uses only one set of coils in the guideway for combined levitation, propulsion, and guidance functions is presented in this paper. This preliminary study, using the dynamic circuit approach, indicates that the system is very promising.

  12. Guidance analysis of the aeroglide plane change maneuver as a turning point problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    The development of guidance approximations for the atmospheric (aeroglide) portion of the minimum fuel, orbital plane change, trajectory optimization problem is described. Asymptotic methods are used to reduce the two point, boundary value, optimization problem to a turning point problem from the bank angle control. The turning point problem solution, which yields an approximate optimal control policy, is given in terms of parabolic cylinder functions, which are tabulated, and integral expressions, which must be numerically computed. Comparisons of the former, over their region of validity, with optimal control solutions show good qualitative agreement. Additional work and analysis is needed to compute the guidance approximation work.

  13. A methodology for probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Youngs, R.R.; Arabasz, W.J.; Anderson, R.E.; Ramelli, A.R.; Ake, J.P.; Slemmons, D.B.; McCalpin, J.P.; Doser, D.I.; Fridrich, C.J.; Swan, F. H., III; Rogers, A.M.; Yount, J.C.; Anderson, L.W.; Smith, K.D.; Bruhn, R.L.; Knuepfer, P.L.K.; Smith, R.B.; DePolo, C.M.; O'Leary, D. W.; Coppersmith, K.J.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Schwartz, D.P.; Whitney, J.W.; Olig, S.S.; Toro, G.R.

    2003-01-01

    We present a methodology for conducting a site-specific probabilistic analysis of fault displacement hazard. Two approaches are outlined. The first relates the occurrence of fault displacement at or near the ground surface to the occurrence of earthquakes in the same manner as is done in a standard probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for ground shaking. The methodology for this approach is taken directly from PSHA methodology with the ground-motion attenuation function replaced by a fault displacement attenuation function. In the second approach, the rate of displacement events and the distribution for fault displacement are derived directly from the characteristics of the faults or geologic features at the site of interest. The methodology for probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis (PFDHA) was developed for a normal faulting environment and the probability distributions we present may have general application in similar tectonic regions. In addition, the general methodology is applicable to any region and we indicate the type of data needed to apply the methodology elsewhere.

  14. Coupling induced seismic hazard analysis with reservoir design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, V.; Wiemer, S.; Alcolea, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    positive impact on seismic hazard. However, as smaller magnitudes contribute less to permeability enhancement the efficiency of stimulation is degraded in case of high b-value conditions. Nevertheless, target permeability enhancement can be still be achieved under high b-value condition without reaching an unacceptable seismic hazard level, if either initial permeability is already high or if several fractures are stimulated. The proposed modelling approach is a first step towards including induced seismic hazard analysis into the design of reservoir stimulation.

  15. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.8 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan....

  16. 30 CFR 250.1911 - What hazards analysis criteria must my SEMS program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What hazards analysis criteria must my SEMS... and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1911 What hazards analysis criteria must my SEMS program meet? You must ensure that a hazards analysis (facility level) and a JSA (operations/task...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1911 - What hazards analysis criteria must my SEMS program meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What hazards analysis criteria must my SEMS... and Environmental Management Systems (SEMS) § 250.1911 What hazards analysis criteria must my SEMS program meet? You must ensure that a hazards analysis (facility level) and a JSA (operations/task...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... Analysis and Operational Procedures I Appendix I to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE..., App. I Appendix I to Part 417—Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and...

  1. A Hazard Analysis for a Generic Insulin Infusion Pump

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Jones, Paul L.; Jetley, Raoul

    2010-01-01

    Background Researchers at the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)/Center for Device and Radiological Health/Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories have been exploring the concept of model-based engineering as a means for improving the quality of medical device software. Insulin pumps were chosen as a research subject because their design provides the desired degree of research complexity and these types of devices present an ongoing regulatory challenge. Methods Insulin pump hazards and their contributing factors are considered in the context of a highly abstract generic insulin infusion pump (GIIP) model. Hazards were identified by consulting with manufacturers, pump users, and clinicians; by reviewing national and international standards and adverse event reports collected by the FDA; and from workshops sponsored by Diabetes Technology Society. This information has been consolidated in tabular form to facilitate further community analysis and discussion. Results A generic insulin infusion pump model architecture has been established. A fairly comprehensive hazard analysis document, corresponding to the GIIP model, is presented in this article. Conclusions We believe that this work represents the genesis of an insulin pump safety reference standard upon which future insulin pump designs can be based to help ensure a basic level of safety. More interaction with the diabetes community is needed to assure the quality of this safety modeling process. PMID:20307387

  2. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  3. Seismic Hazard analysis of Adjaria Region in Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorjiashvili, Nato; Elashvili, Mikheil

    2014-05-01

    The most commonly used approach to determining seismic-design loads for engineering projects is probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis (PSHA). The primary output from a PSHA is a hazard curve showing the variation of a selected ground-motion parameter, such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) or spectral acceleration (SA), against the annual frequency of exceedance (or its reciprocal, return period). The design value is the ground-motion level that corresponds to a preselected design return period. For many engineering projects, such as standard buildings and typical bridges, the seismic loading is taken from the appropriate seismic-design code, the basis of which is usually a PSHA. For more important engineering projects— where the consequences of failure are more serious, such as dams and chemical plants—it is more usual to obtain the seismic-design loads from a site-specific PSHA, in general, using much longer return periods than those governing code based design. Calculation of Probabilistic Seismic Hazard was performed using Software CRISIS2007 by Ordaz, M., Aguilar, A., and Arboleda, J., Instituto de Ingeniería, UNAM, Mexico. CRISIS implements a classical probabilistic seismic hazard methodology where seismic sources can be modelled as points, lines and areas. In the case of area sources, the software offers an integration procedure that takes advantage of a triangulation algorithm used for seismic source discretization. This solution improves calculation efficiency while maintaining a reliable description of source geometry and seismicity. Additionally, supplementary filters (e.g. fix a sitesource distance that excludes from calculation sources at great distance) allow the program to balance precision and efficiency during hazard calculation. Earthquake temporal occurrence is assumed to follow a Poisson process, and the code facilitates two types of MFDs: a truncated exponential Gutenberg-Richter [1944] magnitude distribution and a characteristic magnitude

  4. Seismic hazards in Thailand: a compilation and updated probabilistic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pailoplee, Santi; Charusiri, Punya

    2016-06-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Thailand was performed and compared to those of previous works. This PSHA was based upon (1) the most up-to-date paleoseismological data (slip rates), (2) the seismic source zones, (3) the seismicity parameters ( a and b values), and (4) the strong ground-motion attenuation models suggested as being suitable models for Thailand. For the PSHA mapping, both the ground shaking and probability of exceedance (POE) were analyzed and mapped using various methods of presentation. In addition, site-specific PSHAs were demonstrated for ten major provinces within Thailand. For instance, a 2 and 10 % POE in the next 50 years of a 0.1-0.4 g and 0.1-0.2 g ground shaking, respectively, was found for western Thailand, defining this area as the most earthquake-prone region evaluated in Thailand. In a comparison between the ten selected specific provinces within Thailand, the Kanchanaburi and Tak provinces had comparatively high seismic hazards, and therefore, effective mitigation plans for these areas should be made. Although Bangkok was defined as being within a low seismic hazard in this PSHA, a further study of seismic wave amplification due to the soft soil beneath Bangkok is required.

  5. Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Adaptation for CO2 Sequestration Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, K.; Eaton, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    Large-scale sequestration of CO2 in depleted oil and gas fields in sedimentary basins such as the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) and in particular, central Alberta, should consider, among other safety and risk issues, a seismic hazard analysis that would include potential ground motions induced by earthquakes. The region is juxtaposed to major tectonically active seismogenic zones such as the Cascadia Subduction Zone, the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone, and the northern Cordillera region. Hazards associated with large-scale storage from strong ground motions caused by large-magnitude earthquakes along the west coast of Canada, and/or medium-to-large magnitude earthquakes triggered by such earthquakes in the neighbourhood of the storage site, must be clearly understood. To this end, stochastic modeling of the accelerograms recorded during large magnitude earthquakes in western Canada has been undertaken. A lack of recorded accelerograms and the absence of a catalogue of ground-motion prediction equations similar to the Next Generation Attenuation (NGA) database, however, hamper such analysis for the WCSB. In order to generate our own database of ground-motions for probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, we employ a site-based stochastic simulation approach. We use it to simulate three-component ground-motion accelerograms recorded during the November 3, 2002 Denali earthquake to mimic the Queen Charlotte Fault earthquakes. To represent a Cascadia megathrust earthquake, we consider three-component strong-motion accelerograms recorded during the March 11, 2011 Tohoku earthquake in Japan. Finally, to simulate an event comparable to the thrust-style Kinbasket Lake earthquake of 1908, we use three-component ground-motion accelerograms recorded during the 1985 Nahanni earthquake and the 2004 Chuetsu earthquake. Here, we develop predictive equations for the stochastic model parameters that describe ground motions in terms of earthquake and site characteristics such as

  6. Hazard analysis of a computer based medical diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Chudleigh, M F

    1994-07-01

    Medical screening of sectors of the population is now a routine and vital part of health care: an example is cervical smear testing. There is currently significant interest in the possible introduction of semi-automated microscopy systems for cervical cytology and one such experimental system is now undergoing laboratory trials. A collaborative project has been set up to demonstrate the benefits and constraints that arise from applying safety-critical methods developed in other domains to such a diagnostic system. We have carried out a system hazard analysis, successfully using the HAZOP technique adapted from the petrochemical industry. PMID:7988111

  7. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... cloud center of mass altitude. (vi) Worst case initial source term assuming instantaneous release...

  8. A LiDAR based analysis of hydraulic hazard mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazorzi, F.; De Luca, A.; Checchinato, A.; Segna, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2012-04-01

    Mapping hydraulic hazard is a ticklish procedure as it involves technical and socio-economic aspects. On the one hand no dangerous areas should be excluded, on the other hand it is important not to exceed, beyond the necessary, with the surface assigned to some use limitations. The availability of a high resolution topographic survey allows nowadays to face this task with innovative procedures, both in the planning (mapping) and in the map validation phases. The latter is the object of the present work. It should be stressed that the described procedure is proposed purely as a preliminary analysis based on topography only, and therefore does not intend in any way to replace more sophisticated analysis methods requiring based on hydraulic modelling. The reference elevation model is a combination of the digital terrain model and the digital building model (DTM+DBM). The option of using the standard surface model (DSM) is not viable, as the DSM represents the vegetation canopy as a solid volume. This has the consequence of unrealistically considering the vegetation as a geometric obstacle to water flow. In some cases the topographic model construction requires the identification and digitization of the principal breaklines, such as river banks, ditches and similar natural or artificial structures. The geometrical and topological procedure for the validation of the hydraulic hazard maps is made of two steps. In the first step the whole area is subdivided into fluvial segments, with length chosen as a reasonable trade-off between the need to keep the hydrographical unit as complete as possible, and the need to separate sections of the river bed with significantly different morphology. Each of these segments is made of a single elongated polygon, whose shape can be quite complex, especially for meandering river sections, where the flow direction (i.e. the potential energy gradient associated to the talweg) is often inverted. In the second step the segments are analysed

  9. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  10. Analytic Drag Controller guidance gains evaluation. Mission planning, mission analysis and software formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treybig, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a study to optimize the guidance gains for the analytical drag control entry guidance system are presented. The guidance gains were optimized for study points chosen in all phases of entry.

  11. Fire hazard analysis for Plutonium Finishing Plant complex

    SciTech Connect

    MCKINNIS, D.L.

    1999-02-23

    A fire hazards analysis (FHA) was performed for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Complex at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford site. The scope of the FHA focuses on the nuclear facilities/structures in the Complex. The analysis was conducted in accordance with RLID 5480.7, [DOE Directive RLID 5480.7, 1/17/94] and DOE Order 5480.7A, ''Fire Protection'' [DOE Order 5480.7A, 2/17/93] and addresses each of the sixteen principle elements outlined in paragraph 9.a(3) of the Order. The elements are addressed in terms of the fire protection objectives stated in paragraph 4 of DOE 5480.7A. In addition, the FHA also complies with WHC-CM-4-41, Fire Protection Program Manual, Section 3.4 [1994] and WHC-SD-GN-FHA-30001, Rev. 0 [WHC, 1994]. Objectives of the FHA are to determine: (1) the fire hazards that expose the PFP facilities, or that are inherent in the building operations, (2) the adequacy of the fire safety features currently located in the PFP Complex, and (3) the degree of compliance of the facility with specific fire safety provisions in DOE orders, related engineering codes, and standards.

  12. Recent Advances on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C.; Cheng, C.; Lin, P.

    2002-12-01

    Before the occurrence of the September 21, 1999, Chi-Chi Taiwan earthquake (MW7.6), the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) from different agencies and different authors were totally underestimated earthquake hazard in Central Taiwan. The shortcoming of previous PSHA in Taiwan is due to lack of proper handling activity of fault sources. Other impacts on PSHA after the Chi-Chi earthquake includes: previously-used local magnitude ML is saturated at large magnitude, relative low of ground-motion level for a MW 7.6 earthquake, distinct hangingwall effect, velocity pulse of directivity and fling, and a must to use closest distance to fault in developing a ground-motion attenuation relationship and in PSHA. We firstly worked out the earthquake catalog and the strong-motion records, and established a main-shock catalog in moment magnitude MW, a database for strong-motion spectral accelerations (Sa) for each major earthquake and each recording station, and a database for attributes of active faults. Then, we carefully divided the earthquake sources into crustal earthquakes, subduction zone interface earthquakes and subduction zone intraslab earthquakes, and divided the site condition into hard site and soft site, and considered hangingwall effect for certain faults. We adopted the closest distance to seismogenic rupture and selected the Campbell form for regression analysis of Sa attenuation relationship for each combination of conditions. Totally eight sets of good quality Sa attenuation equation with 18 different spectral periods each were got. For PSHA, our primary achievement is the accomplishment of assessing fault parameters and developing a characteristic-earthquake model for each fault. We adopted the logic-tree method to handle uncertainty of parameters. Result reveals that the use of fault sources in PSHA is absolutely necessary in a tectonic active region such as in Taiwan. More meaningful hazard pattern and more reasonable hazard level have

  13. Resources Available for Hazards Analysis of Aerospace Fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, S. S.; Stewart, W. F.; Baker, D. L.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years, the legislative and executive branches of the federal government have pushed to make government more efficient and responsive to the needs of the marketplace. One of these initiatives, Public Law 104-113, also known as the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (NTTAA), is designed to accelerate technology transfer to industry and promote government-industry partnership. Summarized, NTTAA states that '... all Federal agencies and departments shall use technical standards that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus standards bodies, using such technical standards as a means to carry out policy objectives or activities determined by the agencies and departments. Government agencies must now determine if their in-house requirement-setting activities are sufficiently unique that no public interest is served by having them adopted by a voluntary consensus organization (VCO), or if not, to use or develop voluntary consensus standards. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is chartered by the law to monitor federal agency progress and report the results to Congress. In response to NTTAA, agency-wide oxygen and hydrogen safety standards sponsored by the NASA Headquarters (HQ) Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OSMA) were obvious choices for early adoption by VCOs. In 1996, HQ sought assistance from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), the technical lead for development of these safety standards, to evaluate their adoption by VCOs. At that time, WSTF-developed propellant hazards manuals were likewise identified for possible VCO adoption. Subsequently, WSTF was asked to represent NASA for development of an international ISO safety standard for hydrogen use. Concurrent with these WSTF standards activities are related efforts to develop and publish propellant hazards analysis protocols and safety courses for the industrial, propellant use of oxygen, hydrogen, and hypergols. This paper reports on

  14. Precise terrestrial time: A means for improved ballistic missile guidance analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrsam, E. E.; Cresswell, S. A.; Mckelvey, G. R.; Matthews, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach developed to improve the ground instrumentation time tagging accuracy and adapted to support the Minuteman ICBM program is desired. The Timing Insertion Unit (TIU) technique produces a telemetry data time tagging resolution of one tenth of a microsecond, with a relative intersite accuracy after corrections and velocity data (range, azimuth, elevation and range rate) also used in missile guidance system analysis can be correlated to within ten microseconds of the telemetry guidance data. This requires precise timing synchronization between the metric and telemetry instrumentation sites. The timing synchronization can be achieved by using the radar automatic phasing system time correlation methods. Other time correlation techniques such as Television (TV) Line-10 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GEOS) terrestial timing receivers are also considered.

  15. The European ASAMPSA_E project : towards guidance to model the impact of high amplitude natural hazards in the probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plants. Information on the project progress and needs from the geosciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimond, Emmanuel; Decker, Kurt; Guigueno, Yves; Klug, Joakim; Loeffler, Horst

    2015-04-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan resulted from the combination of two correlated extreme external events (earthquake and tsunami). The consequences, in particular flooding, went beyond what was considered in the initial engineering design design of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Such situations can in theory be identified using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology. PSA results may then lead industry (system suppliers and utilities) or Safety Authorities to take appropriate decisions to reinforce the defence-in-depth of the NPP for low probability event but high amplitude consequences. In reality, the development of such PSA remains a challenging task. Definitions of the design basis of NPPs, for example, require data on events with occurrence probabilities not higher than 10-4 per year. Today, even lower probabilities, down to 10-8, are expected and typically used for probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) of NPPs and the examination of so-called design extension conditions. Modelling the combinations of natural or man-made hazards that can affect a NPP and affecting some meaningful probability of occurrence seems to be difficult. The European project ASAMPSAE (www.asampsa.eu) gathers more than 30 organizations (industry, research, safety control) from Europe, US and Japan and aims at identifying some meaningful practices to extend the scope and the quality of the existing probabilistic safety analysis developed for nuclear power plants. It offers a framework to discuss, at a technical level, how "extended PSA" can be developed efficiently and be used to verify if the robustness of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in their environment is sufficient. The paper will present the objectives of this project, some first lessons and introduce which type of guidance is being developed. It will explain the need of expertise from geosciences to support the nuclear safety assessment in the different area (seismotectonic, hydrological, meteorological and biological

  16. Seismic hazard analysis for the NTS spent reactor fuel test site

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.W.

    1980-05-02

    An experiment is being directed at the Nevada Test Site to test the feasibility for storage of spent fuel from nuclear reactors in geologic media. As part of this project, an analysis of the earthquake hazard was prepared. This report presents the results of this seismic hazard assessment. Two distinct components of the seismic hazard were addressed: vibratory ground motion and surface displacement. (ACR)

  17. Analyzing Distributed Functions in an Integrated Hazard Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, A. Terry; Massie, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Large scale integration of today's aerospace systems is achievable through the use of distributed systems. Validating the safety of distributed systems is significantly more difficult as compared to centralized systems because of the complexity of the interactions between simultaneously active components. Integrated hazard analysis (IHA), a process used to identify unacceptable risks and to provide a means of controlling them, can be applied to either centralized or distributed systems. IHA, though, must be tailored to fit the particular system being analyzed. Distributed systems, for instance, must be analyzed for hazards in terms of the functions that rely on them. This paper will describe systems-oriented IHA techniques (as opposed to traditional failure-event or reliability techniques) that should be employed for distributed systems in aerospace environments. Special considerations will be addressed when dealing with specific distributed systems such as active thermal control, electrical power, command and data handling, and software systems (including the interaction with fault management systems). Because of the significance of second-order effects in large scale distributed systems, the paper will also describe how to analyze secondary functions to secondary functions through the use of channelization.

  18. Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA): Analysis of the guidance, navigation, and control subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trahan, W. H.; Odonnell, R. A.; Pietz, K. C.; Hiott, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the Independent Orbiter Assessment (IOA) of the Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL) is presented. The IOA approach features a top-down analysis of the hardware to determine failure modes, criticality, and potential critical items. To preserve independence, this analysis was accomplished without reliance upon the results contained within the NASA FMEA/CIL documentation. The independent analysis results corresponding to the Orbiter Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) Subsystem hardware are documented. The function of the GNC hardware is to respond to guidance, navigation, and control software commands to effect vehicle control and to provide sensor and controller data to GNC software. Some of the GNC hardware for which failure modes analysis was performed includes: hand controllers; Rudder Pedal Transducer Assembly (RPTA); Speed Brake Thrust Controller (SBTC); Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU); Star Tracker (ST); Crew Optical Alignment Site (COAS); Air Data Transducer Assembly (ADTA); Rate Gyro Assemblies; Accelerometer Assembly (AA); Aerosurface Servo Amplifier (ASA); and Ascent Thrust Vector Control (ATVC). The IOA analysis process utilized available GNC hardware drawings, workbooks, specifications, schematics, and systems briefs for defining hardware assemblies, components, and circuits. Each hardware item was evaluated and analyzed for possible failure modes and effects. Criticality was assigned based upon the severity of the effect for each failure mode.

  19. SRS BEDROCK PROBABILISTIC SEISMIC HAZARD ANALYSIS (PSHA) DESIGN BASIS JUSTIFICATION (U)

    SciTech Connect

    , R

    2005-12-14

    This represents an assessment of the available Savannah River Site (SRS) hard-rock probabilistic seismic hazard assessments (PSHAs), including PSHAs recently completed, for incorporation in the SRS seismic hazard update. The prior assessment of the SRS seismic design basis (WSRC, 1997) incorporated the results from two PSHAs that were published in 1988 and 1993. Because of the vintage of these studies, an assessment is necessary to establish the value of these PSHAs considering more recently collected data affecting seismic hazards and the availability of more recent PSHAs. This task is consistent with the Department of Energy (DOE) order, DOE O 420.1B and DOE guidance document DOE G 420.1-2. Following DOE guidance, the National Map Hazard was reviewed and incorporated in this assessment. In addition to the National Map hazard, alternative ground motion attenuation models (GMAMs) are used with the National Map source model to produce alternate hazard assessments for the SRS. These hazard assessments are the basis for the updated hard-rock hazard recommendation made in this report. The development and comparison of hazard based on the National Map models and PSHAs completed using alternate GMAMs provides increased confidence in this hazard recommendation. The alternate GMAMs are the EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and a regional specific model (Silva et al., 2004). Weights of 0.6, 0.3 and 0.1 are recommended for EPRI (2004), USGS (2002) and Silva et al. (2004) respectively. This weighting gives cluster weights of .39, .29, .15, .17 for the 1-corner, 2-corner, hybrid, and Greens-function models, respectively. This assessment is judged to be conservative as compared to WSRC (1997) and incorporates the range of prevailing expert opinion pertinent to the development of seismic hazard at the SRS. The corresponding SRS hard-rock uniform hazard spectra are greater than the design spectra developed in WSRC (1997) that were based on the LLNL (1993) and EPRI (1988) PSHAs. The

  20. Development, analysis, and testing of robust nonlinear guidance algorithms for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibben, Daniel R.

    This work focuses on the analysis and application of various nonlinear, autonomous guidance algorithms that utilize sliding mode control to guarantee system stability and robustness. While the basis for the algorithms has previously been proposed, past efforts barely scratched the surface of the theoretical details and implications of these algorithms. Of the three algorithms that are the subject of this research, two are directly derived from optimal control theory and augmented using sliding mode control. Analysis of the derivation of these algorithms has shown that they are two different representations of the same result, one of which uses a simple error state model (Delta r/Deltav) and the other uses definitions of the zero-effort miss and zero-effort velocity (ZEM/ZEV) values. By investigating the dynamics of the defined sliding surfaces and their impact on the overall system, many implications have been deduced regarding the behavior of these systems which are noted to feature time-varying sliding modes. A formal finite time stability analysis has also been performed to theoretically demonstrate that the algorithms globally stabilize the system in finite time in the presence of perturbations and unmodeled dynamics. The third algorithm that has been subject to analysis is derived from a direct application of higher-order sliding mode control and Lyapunov stability analysis without consideration of optimal control theory and has been named the Multiple Sliding Surface Guidance (MSSG). Via use of reinforcement learning methods an optimal set of gains has been found that make the guidance perform similarly to an open-loop optimal solution. Careful side-by-side inspection of the MSSG and Optimal Sliding Guidance (OSG) algorithms has shown some striking similarities. A detailed comparison of the algorithms has demonstrated that though they are nearly indistinguishable at first glance, there are some key differences between the two algorithms and they are indeed

  1. Statistical modeling of ground motion relations for seismic hazard analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Mathias

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a new approach for ground motion relations (GMR) in the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA), being influenced by the extreme value theory of mathematical statistics. Therein, we understand a GMR as a random function. We derive mathematically the principle of area equivalence, wherein two alternative GMRs have an equivalent influence on the hazard if these GMRs have equivalent area functions. This includes local biases. An interpretation of the difference between these GMRs (an actual and a modeled one) as a random component leads to a general overestimation of residual variance and hazard. Beside this, we discuss important aspects of classical approaches and discover discrepancies with the state of the art of stochastics and statistics (model selection and significance, test of distribution assumptions, extreme value statistics). We criticize especially the assumption of logarithmic normally distributed residuals of maxima like the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The natural distribution of its individual random component (equivalent to exp( ɛ 0) of Joyner and Boore, Bull Seism Soc Am 83(2):469-487, 1993) is the generalized extreme value. We show by numerical researches that the actual distribution can be hidden and a wrong distribution assumption can influence the PSHA negatively as the negligence of area equivalence does. Finally, we suggest an estimation concept for GMRs of PSHA with a regression-free variance estimation of the individual random component. We demonstrate the advantages of event-specific GMRs by analyzing data sets from the PEER strong motion database and estimate event-specific GMRs. Therein, the majority of the best models base on an anisotropic point source approach. The residual variance of logarithmized PGA is significantly smaller than in previous models. We validate the estimations for the event with the largest sample by empirical area functions, which indicate the appropriate modeling of the GMR by an anisotropic

  2. Analysis of hazardous material releases due to natural hazards in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sengul, Hatice; Santella, Nicholas; Steinberg, Laura J; Cruz, Ana Maria

    2012-10-01

    Natural hazards were the cause of approximately 16,600 hazardous material (hazmat) releases reported to the National Response Center (NRC) between 1990 and 2008-three per cent of all reported hazmat releases. Rain-induced releases were most numerous (26 per cent of the total), followed by those associated with hurricanes (20 per cent), many of which resulted from major episodes in 2005 and 2008. Winds, storms or other weather-related phenomena were responsible for another 25 per cent of hazmat releases. Large releases were most frequently due to major natural disasters. For instance, hurricane-induced releases of petroleum from storage tanks account for a large fraction of the total volume of petroleum released during 'natechs' (understood here as a natural hazard and the hazardous materials release that results). Among the most commonly released chemicals were nitrogen oxides, benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Three deaths, 52 injuries, and the evacuation of at least 5,000 persons were recorded as a consequence of natech events. Overall, results suggest that the number of natechs increased over the study period (1990-2008) with potential for serious human and environmental impacts. PMID:22329456

  3. Applying Qualitative Hazard Analysis to Support Quantitative Safety Analysis for Proposed Reduced Wake Separation Conops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortle, John F.; Allocco, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a scenario-driven hazard analysis process to identify, eliminate, and control safety-related risks. Within this process, we develop selective criteria to determine the applicability of applying engineering modeling to hypothesized hazard scenarios. This provides a basis for evaluating and prioritizing the scenarios as candidates for further quantitative analysis. We have applied this methodology to proposed concepts of operations for reduced wake separation for closely spaced parallel runways. For arrivals, the process identified 43 core hazard scenarios. Of these, we classified 12 as appropriate for further quantitative modeling, 24 that should be mitigated through controls, recommendations, and / or procedures (that is, scenarios not appropriate for quantitative modeling), and 7 that have the lowest priority for further analysis.

  4. Hazard function analysis for flood planning under nonstationarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-05-01

    The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) involves a probabilistic assessment of the "time to failure" or "return period," T, of an event of interest. HFA is used in epidemiology, manufacturing, medicine, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. For a stationary process, the probability distribution function (pdf) of the return period always follows an exponential distribution, the same is not true for nonstationary processes. When the process of interest, X, exhibits nonstationary behavior, HFA can provide a complementary approach to risk analysis with analytical tools particularly useful for hydrological applications. After a general introduction to HFA, we describe a new mathematical linkage between the magnitude of the flood event, X, and its return period, T, for nonstationary processes. We derive the probabilistic properties of T for a nonstationary one-parameter exponential model of X, and then use both Monte-Carlo simulation and HFA to generalize the behavior of T when X arises from a nonstationary two-parameter lognormal distribution. For this case, our findings suggest that a two-parameter Weibull distribution provides a reasonable approximation for the pdf of T. We document how HFA can provide an alternative approach to characterize the probabilistic properties of both nonstationary flood series and the resulting pdf of T.

  5. Recent Advances in Launch Vehicle Toxic Hazard and Risk Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    A number of widely used rocket propellants produce toxic combustion byproducts or are themselves toxic in their un-reacted state. In this paper we focus on the methodology used to evaluate early flight catastrophic failures and nominal launch emissions that release large amounts of propellant or combustion products into the planetary boundary layer that pose a potential risk to launch area personnel, spectators, or the general public. The United States has traditionally used the Rocket Exhaust Effluent Diffusion Model (REEDM) [1] to access the hazard zones associated with such releases. REEDM is a 1970's vintage Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model that is limited in its ability to accurately simulate certain aspects of the initial source geometry and dynamics of a vehicle breakup and propellant fragment dispersion. The Launch Area Toxic Risk Analysis 3-Dimensional (LATRA3D) [2] computer program has been developed that addresses many of REEDM's deficiencies. LATRA3D is a probabilistic risk analysis tool that simulates both nominal vehicle flight and in-flight failure emissions.

  6. Extending and automating a Systems-Theoretic hazard analysis for requirements generation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John

    2012-05-01

    Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) is a powerful new hazard analysis method designed to go beyond traditional safety techniques - such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) - that overlook important causes of accidents like flawed requirements, dysfunctional component interactions, and software errors. While proving to be very effective on real systems, no formal structure has been defined for STPA and its application has been ad-hoc with no rigorous procedures or model-based design tools. This report defines a formal mathematical structure underlying STPA and describes a procedure for systematically performing an STPA analysis based on that structure. A method for using the results of the hazard analysis to generate formal safety-critical, model-based system and software requirements is also presented. Techniques to automate both the analysis and the requirements generation are introduced, as well as a method to detect conflicts between the safety and other functional model-based requirements during early development of the system.

  7. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. 120.8 Section 120.8 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP)...

  8. Hazard Analysis and Disaster Preparedness in the Fairbanks North Star Borough, Alaska using Hazard Simulations, GIS, and Network Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Prakash, A.; Witte, W.

    2011-12-01

    The Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB) lies in interior Alaska, an area that is dominated by semiarid, boreal forest climate. FNSB frequently witnesses flooding events, wild land fires, earthquakes, extreme winter storms and other natural and man-made hazards. Being a large 19,065 km2 area, with a population of approximately 97,000 residents, providing emergency services to residents in a timely manner is a challenge. With only four highways going in and out of the borough, and only two of those leading to another city, most residents do not have quick access to a main road. Should a major disaster occur and block one of the two highways, options for evacuating or getting supplies to the area quickly dwindle. We present the design of a Geographic Information System (GIS) and network analysis based decision support tool that we have created for planning and emergency response. This tool will be used by Emergency Service (Fire/EMS), Emergency Management, Hazardous Materials Team, and Law Enforcement Agencies within FNSB to prepare and respond to a variety of potential disasters. The GIS combines available road and address networks from different FNSB agencies with the 2010 census data. We used ESRI's ArcGIS and FEMA's HAZUS-MH software to run multiple disaster scenarios and create several evacuation and response plans. Network analysis resulted in determining response time and classifying the borough by response times to facilitate allocation of emergency resources. The resulting GIS database can be used by any responding agency in FNSB to determine possible evacuation routes, where to open evacuation centers, placement of resources, and emergency response times. We developed a specific emergency response plan for three common scenarios: (i) major wildfire threatening Fairbanks, (ii) a major earthquake, (iii) loss of power during flooding in a flood-prone area. We also combined the network analysis results with high resolution imagery and elevation data to determine

  9. Analysis of rockfall hazards at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G.

    1993-09-01

    In the early years at Los Alamos National Laboratory, rockfall hazards were intuitively recognized and avoided. Hence mesa tops were selected over canyon floors for construction sites, although some canyon bottoms were still used. The Omega West reactor site was located in a narrow portion of Los Alamos Canyon adjacent to 400 foot high vertical cliffs. In 1944, a quarter-mile long rock catcher was installed above the reactor to protect the facility from occasional rockfalls. In addition, an annual rock catcher inspection was initiated. Between 1944 and 1993, 24 separate rockfall events were documented; individual rocks trapped in the catcher ranged in size from 300 to 21,000 pounds. These rockfall inspection data were arranged into an annual exceedance series, and a frequency analysis was performed. This type of analysis is routinely employed in flood studies when stream gaging records are available. Prior to this study, however, such techniques had never been used with rockfall data. This analysis indicates that the annual rockfall series is approximately log-normally distributed, and that the 500-year rockfall event will probably exceed 187 tons. In addition, a Markov generation scheme, which preserves the statistics of observed logarithms from the historical data, was used to generate a synthetic rockfall series. These synthetic data suggest that the cliff face will retreat at an average rate approximating 2 to 3 centimeters per 1000 years. This rate is comparable to independently computed rates that range from 4 to 14 centimeters per 1000 years. These cliff-face erosion processes are important because they affect mesa-top trench burial operations of low-level radioactive wastes.

  10. Comparative risk analysis of technological hazards (a review).

    PubMed Central

    Kates, R W; Kasperson, J X

    1983-01-01

    Hazards are threats to people and what they value and risks are measures of hazards. Comparative analyses of the risks and hazards of technology can be dated to Starr's 1969 paper [Starr, C. (1969) Science 165, 1232-1238] but are rooted in recent trends in the evolution of technology, the identification of hazard, the perception of risk, and the activities of society. These trends have spawned an interdisciplinary quasi profession with new terminology, methodology, and literature. A review of 54 English-language monographs and book-length collections, published between 1970 and 1983, identified seven recurring themes: (i) overviews of the field of risk assessment, (ii) efforts to estimate and quantify risk, (iii) discussions of risk acceptability, (iv) perception, (v) analyses of regulation, (vi) case studies of specific technological hazards, and (vii) agenda for research. Within this field, science occupies a unique niche, for many technological hazards transcend the realm of ordinary experience and require expert study. Scientists can make unique contributions to each area of hazard management but their primary contribution is the practice of basic science. Beyond that, science needs to further risk assessment by understanding the more subtle processes of hazard creation and by establishing conventions for estimating risk and for presenting and handling uncertainty. Scientists can enlighten the discussion of tolerable risk by setting risks into comparative contexts, by studying the process of evaluation, and by participating as knowledgeable individuals, but they cannot decide the issue. Science can inform the hazard management process by broadening the range of alternative control actions and modes of implementation and by devising methods to evaluate their effectiveness. PMID:6580625

  11. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    weighting within the risk concept, this has sufficient implications on the results of risk analyses. Thus, an equal and scale appropriated balance of those risk components is a fundamental key factor for effective natural hazard risk analyses. The results of such analyses inform especially decision makers in the insurance industry, the administration, and politicians on potential consequences and are the basis for appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, results (i) on an annual or probabilistic risk comprehension have to be distinguished from (ii) scenario-based analyses. The first analyses are based on statistics of periodically or episodically occurring events whereas the latter approach is especially applied for extreme, non-linear, stochastic events. Focusing on the needs especially of insurance companies, the first approaches are appropriate for premium pricing and reinsurance strategies with an annual perspective, whereas the latter is focusing on events with extreme loss burdens under worst-case criteria to guarantee accordant reinsurance coverage. Moreover, the demand of adequate loss model approaches and methods is strengthened by the risk-based requirements of the upcoming capital requirement directive Solvency II. The present study estimates the potential elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials and the Probable Maximum Losses (PMLs) of extreme natural hazards events in Tyrol (Austria) and considers adequatly the scale dependency and balanced application of the introduced risk components. Beside the introduced analysis an additionally portfolio analysis of a regional insurance company was executed. The geocoded insurance contracts of this portfolio analysis were the basis to estimate spatial, socio-economical and functional differentiated mean insurance values for the different risk categories of (i) buildings, (ii) contents or inventory, (iii) vehicles, and (iv) persons in the study area. The estimated mean insurance values were

  12. Preparation of waste oil for analysis to determine hazardous metals

    SciTech Connect

    Essling, A.M.; Huff, D.R.; Huff, E.A.; Fox, I.M.; Graczyk, D.G.

    1995-07-01

    Two methods for preparing waste-oil samples to permit measurement of their metals content were evaluated. For this evaluation, metals-in-oil standard reference materials were prepared by each method and the resulting solutions were analyzed for 20 metals, including those (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, and Ag) regulated as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. One preparation method involved combustion of the waste oil under oxygen at 25 atm pressure, as described in the American Society for Testing and Materials test method E926-88. As we applied it, this method gave recoveries well under 90% for most of the metals that we examined and, hence, proved unsatisfactory for routine application to waste-oil analysis. With the other method, nitric acid decomposition in a sealed vessel heated with microwave energy (analogous to US Environmental Protection Agency Method 3051), recoveries of all 20 metal contaminants were within 90 to 110% of the certified values. This microwave digestion procedure was also more efficient since it allowed six samples to be prepared together, whereas the oxygen combustion approach allowed processing of only one sample at a time.

  13. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  14. Hazardous Gas Leak Analysis in the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barile, Ronald G.

    1991-01-01

    Helium tests of the main propulsion system in the Space Shuttle and on hydrogen leaks are examined. The hazardous gas detection system (HGDS) in the mobile launch pad uses mass spectrometers (MS) to monitor the shuttle environment for leaks. The mass spectrometers are fed by long tubes to sample gas from the payload bay, mid-body, aft engine compartment, and external tank. The purpose is to improve the HGDS, especially in its potential for locating cryogen leaks. Pre-existing leak data was analyzed for transient information to determine if the leak location could be pinpointed from test data. A rapid response leak detection experiment was designed, built, and tested. Large eddies and vortices were visually seen with Schlieren imaging, and they were detected in the time plots of the various instruments. The response time of the MS was found in the range of 0.05 to 0.1 sec. Pulsed concentration waves were clearly detected at 25 cycles per sec by spectral analysis of MS data. One conclusion is that the backup HGDS sampling frequency should be increased above the present rate of 1 sample per second.

  15. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, S.; Piatanesi, A.; Romano, F.; Basili, R.; Kastelic, V.; Tiberti, M. M.; Valensise, G.

    2009-12-01

    We applied the method for Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA), first introduced by Rikitake and Aida (1988), to the coasts of eastern Sicily (Italy), and focusing on important cities such as Messina, Catania, and Augusta. The method has been very recently improved by González et al. (2009) to explicitly include inundation. Our approach considers both far- and near-field sources. Based on the approach described by Lorito et al. (2008), we identified a few Source Zones (SZ), each of which is characterized by a Typical Fault (TF) floating within it and capable of generating the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE). Some of the MCE recall historical events such as the 1908 Messina, the 1693 Catania and the 365 AD Crete earthquakes. We calculated the combined probability for all considered SZs by assigning a recurrence interval to each of them and a Poisson distribution of the inter-event times. We performed the PTHA for different damage metrics, such as runup, current speed, momentum and Froude number, with probability of exceedance of given thresholds being evaluated for different time intervals.

  16. Rapid microbiological methods with hazard analysis critical control point.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M W

    1997-01-01

    The proactive approach to ensuring food safety termed hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) was introduced in the 1960s by the Pillsbury Company, in collaboration with the U.S. Army Natick Laboratories and National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to help guarantee that astronauts would not be incapacitated by the trauma of foodborne illness during space flights. The approach has subsequently been adopted as the standard food safety management system world-wide and is seen as forming the basis for harmonization of food inspection regulations necessitated by trade agreements such as General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and North American Free Trade Agreement as the move toward globalization of trade in food products gains momentum. The new U.S. Department of Agriculture Mega-Reg requires mandatory introduction of HACCP, and the Food Safety Enhancement Program of Agriculture and Agri-food Canada, as well as the "due diligence" legislation of the European Union, is centered on HACCP principles. PMID:9419852

  17. Including uncertainty in hazard analysis through fuzzy measures

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents a method for capturing the uncertainty expressed by an Hazard Analysis (HA) expert team when estimating the frequencies and consequences of accident sequences and provides a sound mathematical framework for propagating this uncertainty to the risk estimates for these accident sequences. The uncertainty is readily expressed as distributions that can visually aid the analyst in determining the extent and source of risk uncertainty in HA accident sequences. The results also can be expressed as single statistics of the distribution in a manner analogous to expressing a probabilistic distribution as a point-value statistic such as a mean or median. The study discussed here used data collected during the elicitation portion of an HA on a high-level waste transfer process to demonstrate the techniques for capturing uncertainty. These data came from observations of the uncertainty that HA team members expressed in assigning frequencies and consequences to accident sequences during an actual HA. This uncertainty was captured and manipulated using ideas from possibility theory. The result of this study is a practical method for displaying and assessing the uncertainty in the HA team estimates of the frequency and consequences for accident sequences. This uncertainty provides potentially valuable information about accident sequences that typically is lost in the HA process.

  18. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-03-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique.

  19. Risk assessment and optimization (ALARA) analysis for the environmental remediation of Brookhaven National Laboratory`s hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dionne, B.J.; Morris, S.C. III; Baum, J.W.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environment, Safety, and Health (EH) sought examples of risk-based approaches to environmental restoration to include in their guidance for DOE nuclear facilities. Extensive measurements of radiological contamination in soil and ground water have been made at Brookhaven National Laboratory`s Hazardous Waste Management Facility (HWMF) as part of a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process. This provided an ideal opportunity for a case study. This report provides a risk assessment and an {open_quotes}As Low as Reasonably Achievable{close_quotes} (ALARA) analysis for use at other DOE nuclear facilities as an example of a risk-based decision technique. This document contains the Appendices for the report.

  20. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT ENGINEERED CONTAINER RETRIEVAL AND TRANSFER SYSTEM PRELIMINARY DESIGN HAZARD ANALYSIS SUPPLEMENT 1

    SciTech Connect

    FRANZ GR; MEICHLE RH

    2011-07-18

    This 'What/If' Hazards Analysis addresses hazards affecting the Sludge Treatment Project Engineered Container Retrieval and Transfer System (ECRTS) NPH and external events at the preliminary design stage. In addition, the hazards of the operation sequence steps for the mechanical handling operations in preparation of Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC), disconnect STSC and prepare STSC and Sludge Transport System (STS) for shipping are addressed.

  1. Hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding HWSF, the buildings and structures at HWSF, and the processes used at HWSF are described in this report. All nonradiological hazardous materials at the HWSF were identified (radiological hazardous materials are not stored at HWSF) and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Two of the identified hazardous materials exceeded their specified threshold quantity. This report discusses the potential release scenarios and consequences associated with an accidental release for each of the two identified hazardous materials, lead and mercury. Emergency considerations, such as emergency planning zones, emergency classes, protective actions, and emergency action levels, are also discussed based on the analysis of potential consequences. Evaluation of the potential consequences indicated that the highest emergency class for operational emergencies at the HWSF would be a Site Area Emergency.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  4. Hazard Analysis for the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Used in One-g Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kate; Ross, Amy; Blanco, Raul; Wood, Art

    2012-01-01

    This Hazard Analysis document encompasses the Mark III Space Suit Assembly (SSA) and associated ancillary equipment. It has been prepared using JSC17773, "Preparing Hazard Analyses for JSC Ground Operation", as a guide. The purpose of this document is to present the potential hazards involved in ground (23 % maximum O2, One-g) operations of the Mark III and associated ancillary support equipment system. The hazards listed in this document are specific to suit operations only; each supporting facility (Bldg. 9, etc.) is responsible for test specific Hazard Analyses. A "hazard" is defined as any condition that has the potential for harming personnel or equipment. This analysis was performed to document the safety aspects associated with manned use of the Mark III for pressurized and unpressurized ambient, ground-based, One-g human testing. The hazards identified herein represent generic hazards inherent to all standard JSC test venues for nominal ground test configurations. Non-standard test venues or test specific configurations may warrant consideration of additional hazards analysis prior to test. The cognizant suit engineer is responsible for the safety of the astronaut/test subject, space suit, and suit support personnel. The test requester, for the test supported by the suit test engineer and suited subject, is responsible for overall safety and any necessary Test Readiness Reviews (TRR).

  5. A critical analysis of hazard resilience measures within sustainability assessment frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Elizabeth C.; Sattler, Meredith; Friedland, Carol J.

    2014-11-15

    Today, numerous sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) exist to guide designers in achieving sustainable performance in the design of structures and communities. SAFs are beneficial in educating users and are useful tools for incorporating sustainability strategies into planning, design, and construction; however, there is currently a substantial gap in the ability of existing SAFs to incorporate hazard resistance and hazard mitigation in the broader context of sustainable design. This paper analyzes the incorporation of hazard resistant design and hazard mitigation strategies within SAFs via a multi-level analysis of eleven SAFs. The SAFs analyzed range in scale of application (i.e. building, site, community). Three levels of analysis are presented: (1) macro-level analysis comparing the number of measures strictly addressing resilience versus sustainability, (2) meso-level analysis of the coverage of types of hazards within SAFs (e.g. flood, fire), and (3) micro-level analysis of SAF measures connected to flood-related hazard resilience. The results demonstrate that hazard resistance and hazard mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs and that weaknesses in resilience coverage exist that have the potential to lead to the design of structures and communities that are still highly vulnerable to the impacts of extreme events. - Highlights: • Sustainability assessment frameworks (SAFs) were analyzed for resilience coverage • Hazard resistance and mitigation do not figure prominently in the intent of SAFs • Approximately 75% of SAFs analyzed address three or fewer hazards • Lack of economic measures within SAFs could impact resilience and sustainability • Resilience measures for flood hazards are not consistently included in SAFs.

  6. Job load and hazard analysis: a method for the analysis of workplace conditions for occupational health care.

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, M K

    1985-01-01

    One requirement for successful occupational health care is reliable information on occupational hazards. The aim of this study was to develop a simple, standardised method for workplace investigations for use in occupational health care. The theoretical framework of the method comprises the stress-strain model, the hazard-danger model, and risk behaviour theory. The new method, termed job load and hazard analysis, includes four stages: identification of hazards, their evaluation, conclusions and proposals, and follow up. Different methods are available for hazard identification. The identification starts with a rough analysis of five factors, chemical hazards, physical hazards, physical load, mental stress, and accident risk. Hazards and stress factors are assessed with an ordinal scale. Specialised methods are used if all hazards cannot otherwise be identified. The analytical procedure comprises: detection of hazards through observations and interviews at the workplace and with a questionnaire; assessment of findings as teamwork; and evaluation of the results of these assessments to yield conclusions and proposals made by occupational health care personnel. A data processing system has been developed for data storage and future use. The method has functioned in practice, improving the contents of the occupational health care programme and generating preventive measures. The method offers many new possibilities for controlling occupational hazards and studying relations between working conditions and workers' health. PMID:4041383

  7. Hazard Detection Analysis for a Forward-Looking Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Leanne; Gimmestad, Gary; Herkert, Ralph; Smith, William L.; Kireev, Stanislav; Schaffner, Philip R.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Cornman, Larry B.; Sharman, Robert; Weekley, Andrew; Perram, Glen; Gross, Kevin; Smith, Greg; Feltz, Wayne; Taylor, Joe; Olson, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The Forward-Looking Interferometer (FLI) is a new instrument concept for obtaining the measurements required to alert flight crews to potential weather hazards to safe flight. To meet the needs of the commercial fleet, such a sensor should address multiple hazards to warrant the costs of development, certification, installation, training, and maintenance. The FLI concept is based on high-resolution Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) technologies that have been developed for satellite remote sensing. These technologies have also been applied to the detection of aerosols and gases for other purposes. The FLI concept is being evaluated for its potential to address multiple hazards including clear air turbulence (CAT), volcanic ash, wake vortices, low slant range visibility, dry wind shear, and icing during all phases of flight (takeoff, cruise, and landing). The research accomplished in this second phase of the FLI project was in three major areas: further sensitivity studies to better understand the potential capabilities and requirements for an airborne FLI instrument, field measurements that were conducted in an effort to provide empirical demonstrations of radiometric hazard detection, and theoretical work to support the development of algorithms to determine the severity of detected hazards

  8. The application of emulation techniques in the analysis of highly reliable, guidance and control computer systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migneault, Gerard E.

    1987-01-01

    Emulation techniques can be a solution to a difficulty that arises in the analysis of the reliability of guidance and control computer systems for future commercial aircraft. Described here is the difficulty, the lack of credibility of reliability estimates obtained by analytical modeling techniques. The difficulty is an unavoidable consequence of the following: (1) a reliability requirement so demanding as to make system evaluation by use testing infeasible; (2) a complex system design technique, fault tolerance; (3) system reliability dominated by errors due to flaws in the system definition; and (4) elaborate analytical modeling techniques whose precision outputs are quite sensitive to errors of approximation in their input data. Use of emulation techniques for pseudo-testing systems to evaluate bounds on the parameter values needed for the analytical techniques is then discussed. Finally several examples of the application of emulation techniques are described.

  9. 75 FR 40839 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Hazard Analysis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... 0910-0466)--Extension FDA's regulations in part 120 (21 CFR part 120) mandate the application of HACCP procedures to fruit and vegetable juice processing. HACCP is a preventative system of hazard control that...

  10. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  11. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix I to Part 417 - Methodologies for Toxic Release Hazard Analysis and Operational Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... hazards and each hazard control involved in the process. An analysis that complies with 29 CFR 1910.119(e... physics on the transport and diffusion of each toxicant. (5) Meteorological conditions at the time of..., or for use in any real-time physics models used to ensure compliance with the toxic flight...

  13. Preliminary fire hazard analysis for the PUTDR and TRU trenches in the Solid Waste Burial Ground

    SciTech Connect

    Gaschott, L.J.

    1995-06-16

    This document represents the Preliminary Fire Hazards Analysis for the Pilot Unvented TRU Drum Retrieval effort and for the Transuranic drum trenches in the low level burial grounds. The FHA was developed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.7A to address major hazards inherent in the facility.

  14. Overview of Mars Sample Hazard Analysis (Requirements Workshop Series)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.

    2000-01-01

    Samples returned from Mars should be contained and treated as though potentially hazardous until proven otherwise. If sample containment cannot be verified en route to Earth, the sample and spacecraft should either be sterilized in space or not returned to Earth. Integrity of sample containment should be maintained through reentry and transfer to a receiving facility. Controlled distribution of unsterilized materials should only occur if analyses determine the sample not to contain a biological hazard. Planetary protection measures adopted for the first sample return should not be relaxed for subsequent missions without thorough scientific review and concurrence by an appropriate independent body.

  15. Occupational hazards control of hazardous substances in clean room of semiconductor manufacturing plant using CFD analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhou, Ya-Fei

    2015-02-01

    The manufacturing processes in chip industries are complex, and many kinds of raw materials and solvents of different nature are used, most of which are highly toxic and dangerous. During the machine preventive maintenance period, these toxic and harmful substances will escape from the sealed reaction chamber to the clean workshop environment and endanger the health of the workers on-site, resulting in occupational diseases. From the perspective of prevention, the spread and prediction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) that escaped from the metal-etching chamber during maintenance were studied in this article. The computational fluid dynamics technology was used for a three-dimensional numerical simulation of the indoor air velocity field and the HCl concentration field, and the simulation results were then compared with the on-site monitoring data to verify the correctness and feasibility. The occupational hazards and control measures were analyzed based on the numerical simulation, and the optimal control measure was obtained. In this article, using the method of ambient air to analyze the occupational exposure can provide a new idea to the field of occupational health research in the integrated circuit industry and had theoretical and practical significance. PMID:23293134

  16. National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources. Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers; Guidance for Calculating Emission Credits Resulting from Implementation of Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Papar, Riyaz; Wright, Anthony; Cox, Daryl

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for developing a consistent approach to documenting efficiency credits generated from energy conservation measures in the Implementation Plan for boilers covered by the Boiler MACT rule (i.e., Subpart DDDDD of CFR Part 63).

  17. Hazard analysis for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facilty

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.J.; Brehm, J.R.

    1994-01-25

    This hazard analysis (HA) has been prepared for the 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility (Facility), in compliance with the requirements of Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) controlled manual WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual, and to the direction of WHC-IP-0690, Safety Analysis and Regulation Desk Instructions, (WHC 1992). An HA identifies potentially hazardous conditions in a facility and the associated potential accident scenarios. Unlike the Facility hazard classification documented in WHC-SD-NR-HC-004, Hazard Classification for 300 Area N Reactor Fuel Fabrication and Storage Facility, (Huang 1993), which is based on unmitigated consequences, credit is taken in an HA for administrative controls or engineered safety features planned or in place. The HA is the foundation for the accident analysis. The significant event scenarios identified by this HA will be further evaluated in a subsequent accident analysis.

  18. Reliability analysis of common hazardous waste treatment processes

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, R.D.

    1993-05-01

    Five hazardous waste treatment processes are analyzed probabilistically using Monte Carlo simulation to elucidate the relationships between process safety factors and reliability levels. The treatment processes evaluated are packed tower aeration, reverse osmosis, activated sludge, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, and activated carbon adsorption.

  19. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) seismic hazard analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Savy, J.

    1989-10-01

    New design and evaluation guidelines for department of energy facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazard, are being finalized. Although still in draft form at this time, the document describing those guidelines should be considered to be an update of previously available guidelines. The recommendations in the guidelines document mentioned above, and simply referred to as the guidelines'' thereafter, are based on the best information at the time of its development. In particular, the seismic hazard model for the Princeton site was based on a study performed in 1981 for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which relied heavily on the results of the NRC's Systematic Evaluation Program and was based on a methodology and data sets developed in 1977 and 1978. Considerable advances have been made in the last ten years in the domain of seismic hazard modeling. Thus, it is recommended to update the estimate of the seismic hazard at the DOE sites whenever possible. The major differences between previous estimates and the ones proposed in this study for the PPPL are in the modeling of the strong ground motion at the site, and the treatment of the total uncertainty in the estimates to include knowledge uncertainty, random uncertainty, and expert opinion diversity as well. 28 refs.

  20. 9 CFR 417.2 - Hazard Analysis and HACCP Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HACCP plan shall, at a minimum: (1) List the food safety hazards identified in accordance with paragraph... Section 417.2 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT AND THE POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT...

  1. SOCIOECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVES: METHOLOLOGY AND DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A methodology for analyzing economic and social effects of alternatives in hazardous waste management is presented and demonstrated. The approach includes the use of environmental threat scenarios and evaluation of effects on and responses by parties-at-interest. The methodology ...

  2. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis for Eastern Sicily (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorito, Stefano; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Basili, Roberto; Kastelic, Vanja; Tiberti, Mara Monica; Valensise, Gianluca; Selva, Jacopo

    2010-05-01

    We present preliminary results of a Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) for the coast of eastern Sicily. We only consider earthquake-generated tsunamis. We focus on important cities such as Messina, Catania, and Augusta. We consider different potentially tsunamigenic Source Zones (SZ) in the Mediterranean basin, basing on geological and seismological evidences. Considering many synthetic earthquakes for each SZ, we numerically simulate the entire tsunami propagation, from sea-floor displacement to inundation. We evaluate different tsunami damage metrics, as for example maximum runup, current speed, momentum and Froude number. We use a finite difference scheme in the shallow-water approximation for the tsunami propagation at open sea, and a finite volumes scheme for the inundation phase. For the shoaling and inundation stages, we have built a bathy-topo model by merging GEBCO database, multibeam soundings, and topographic data at 10 m of resolution. Accounting for their relative probability of occurrence, deterministic scenarios are merged together to assess PTHA at the selected target sites, expressed as a probability of exceedance of a given threshold (e.g. 1 m wave height) in a given time (e.g. 100 yr). First order epistemic and aleatory uncertainties are accessed through a logic tree, accounting for changes in the variables judged to have a major impact on PTHA, and for eventual incompleteness of the SZs. The SZs are located at short, intermediate and large distances with respect to the target coastlines. We thus highlight, for different source-target distances, the relative importance of the different source parameters, and/or the role of the uncertainties in the input parameters estimation. Our results suggest that in terms of inundation extent the Hellenic Arc SZ has the highest impact on the selected target coastlines. In terms of exceedance probability instead, there is a larger variability depending not only on location and recurrence but also on

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of Flash Flood Guidance: Topographic Data and Model Parameter Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakakos, K. P.; Ntelekos, A. A.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2004-05-01

    Flash Flood Guidance (FFG) is the volume of rainfall required to generate bankfull flows at the outlet of a basin over a specified time interval and initial soil moisture conditions. Operationally the soil moisture conditions are generated every 6 hours by the execution of the Sacramento - Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC - SMA) model at the River Forecast Centers (RFC's). This guidance is used with actual radar rainfall data over the basin to assist with the production of flash flood warnings. The backbone of the FFG system is the Threshold Runoff (Thresh-R), the calculation of which is done offline as a one time task. Thersh-R is the volume of effective rainfall of a given duration needed to cause bankfull flows at the basin outlet. In this study, bankfull conditions from uniform steady flow and the Geomorphologic Unit Hydrograph theory are used for the calculation of Thresh-R for a basin located in Illinois River at Oklahoma. The uncertainty related with the GIS and channel data for the calculation of thresh-R is introduced and an ensemble of threshold runoff values is produced. Then, the FFG is modeled with the use of a time-continuous approximation of the upper zone of the SAC-SMA hydrologic model and quadratic function approximations. The thresh-R ensemble is fed into the FFG model to study the uncertainty in the FFG values due to the uncertainty in the GIS and channel data that contribute to the uncertainty of threshold runoff. The numerical experiments are then repeated but additional uncertainty in the key parameters of the analytical Sacramento model solution is added, to study the synergistic effect of both uncertainties. The results of analysis are presented and the parameters that affect more the FFG uncertainty are identified. The need of transforming the currently deterministic operational FFG system to a probabilistic or an ensemble one is also discussed.

  4. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    weighting within the risk concept, this has sufficient implications on the results of risk analyses. Thus, an equal and scale appropriated balance of those risk components is a fundamental key factor for effective natural hazard risk analyses. The results of such analyses inform especially decision makers in the insurance industry, the administration, and politicians on potential consequences and are the basis for appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, results (i) on an annual or probabilistic risk comprehension have to be distinguished from (ii) scenario-based analyses. The first analyses are based on statistics of periodically or episodically occurring events whereas the latter approach is especially applied for extreme, non-linear, stochastic events. Focusing on the needs especially of insurance companies, the first approaches are appropriate for premium pricing and reinsurance strategies with an annual perspective, whereas the latter is focusing on events with extreme loss burdens under worst-case criteria to guarantee accordant reinsurance coverage. Moreover, the demand of adequate loss model approaches and methods is strengthened by the risk-based requirements of the upcoming capital requirement directive Solvency II. The present study estimates the potential elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials and the Probable Maximum Losses (PMLs) of extreme natural hazards events in Tyrol (Austria) and considers adequatly the scale dependency and balanced application of the introduced risk components. Beside the introduced analysis an additionally portfolio analysis of a regional insurance company was executed. The geocoded insurance contracts of this portfolio analysis were the basis to estimate spatial, socio-economical and functional differentiated mean insurance values for the different risk categories of (i) buildings, (ii) contents or inventory, (iii) vehicles, and (iv) persons in the study area. The estimated mean insurance values were

  5. An Exploratory Statistical Analysis of a Planet Approach-Phase Guidance Scheme Using Angular Measurements with Significant Error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, Alan L.; Harry, David P., III

    1960-01-01

    An exploratory analysis of vehicle guidance during the approach to a target planet is presented. The objective of the guidance maneuver is to guide the vehicle to a specific perigee distance with a high degree of accuracy and minimum corrective velocity expenditure. The guidance maneuver is simulated by considering the random sampling of real measurements with significant error and reducing this information to prescribe appropriate corrective action. The instrumentation system assumed includes optical and/or infrared devices to indicate range and a reference angle in the trajectory plane. Statistical results are obtained by Monte-Carlo techniques and are shown as the expectation of guidance accuracy and velocity-increment requirements. Results are nondimensional and applicable to any planet within limits of two-body assumptions. The problem of determining how many corrections to make and when to make them is a consequence of the conflicting requirement of accurate trajectory determination and propulsion. Optimum values were found for a vehicle approaching a planet along a parabolic trajectory with an initial perigee distance of 5 radii and a target perigee of 1.02 radii. In this example measurement errors were less than i minute of arc. Results indicate that four corrections applied in the vicinity of 50, 16, 15, and 1.5 radii, respectively, yield minimum velocity-increment requirements. Thrust devices capable of producing a large variation of velocity-increment size are required. For a vehicle approaching the earth, miss distances within 32 miles are obtained with 90-percent probability. Total velocity increments used in guidance are less than 3300 feet per second with 90-percent probability. It is noted that the above representative results are valid only for the particular guidance scheme hypothesized in this analysis. A parametric study is presented which indicates the effects of measurement error size, initial perigee, and initial energy on the guidance

  6. 77 FR 5857 - Common-Cause Failure Analysis in Event and Condition Assessment: Guidance and Research, Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...: On November 2, 2011 (76 FR 67764), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published for public comment Draft NUREG, ``Common- Cause Failure Analysis in Event and Condition Assessment: Guidance and...-2011-0254. Discussion On November 2, 2011 (76 FR 67764), the NRC published for public comment...

  7. Monte Carlo analysis of the Titan III/Transfer Orbit Stage guidance system for the Mars Observer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Stephen C.; Ginsburg, Marc A.; Rao, Prabhakara P.

    1993-01-01

    An important part of space launch vehicle mission planning for a planetary mission is the integrated analysis of guidance and performance dispersions for both booster and upper stage vehicles. For the Mars Observer mission, an integrated trajectory analysis was used to maximize the scientific payload and to minimize injection errors by optimizing the energy management of both vehicles. This was accomplished by designing the Titan III booster vehicle to inject into a hyperbolic departure plane, and the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) to correct any booster dispersions. An integrated Monte Carlo analysis of the performance and guidance dispersions of both vehicles provided sensitivities, an evaluation of their guidance schemes and an injection error covariance matrix. The polynomial guidance schemes used for the Titan III variable flight azimuth computations and the TOS solid rocket motor ignition time and burn direction derivations accounted for a wide variation of launch times, performance dispersions, and target conditions. The Mars Observer spacecraft was launched on 25 September 1992 on the Titan III/TOS vehicle. The post flight analysis indicated that a near perfect park orbit injection was achieved, followed by a trans-Mars injection with less than 2sigma errors.

  8. A cross-hazard analysis of terse message retransmission on Twitter.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C Ben; Phillips, Nolan Edward; Spiro, Emma S; League, Cedar; Johnson, Britta; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Butts, Carter T

    2015-12-01

    For decades, public warning messages have been relayed via broadcast information channels, including radio and television; more recently, risk communication channels have expanded to include social media sites, where messages can be easily amplified by user retransmission. This research examines the factors that predict the extent of retransmission for official hazard communications disseminated via Twitter. Using data from events involving five different hazards, we identity three types of attributes--local network properties, message content, and message style--that jointly amplify and/or attenuate the retransmission of official communications under imminent threat. We find that the use of an agreed-upon hashtag and the number of users following an official account positively influence message retransmission, as does message content describing hazard impacts or emphasizing cohesion among users. By contrast, messages directed at individuals, expressing gratitude, or including a URL were less widely disseminated than similar messages without these features. Our findings suggest that some measures commonly taken to convey additional information to the public (e.g., URL inclusion) may come at a cost in terms of message amplification; on the other hand, some types of content not traditionally emphasized in guidance on hazard communication may enhance retransmission rates. PMID:26627233

  9. A cross-hazard analysis of terse message retransmission on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Jeannette; Gibson, C. Ben; Phillips, Nolan Edward; Spiro, Emma S.; League, Cedar; Johnson, Britta; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Butts, Carter T.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, public warning messages have been relayed via broadcast information channels, including radio and television; more recently, risk communication channels have expanded to include social media sites, where messages can be easily amplified by user retransmission. This research examines the factors that predict the extent of retransmission for official hazard communications disseminated via Twitter. Using data from events involving five different hazards, we identity three types of attributes—local network properties, message content, and message style—that jointly amplify and/or attenuate the retransmission of official communications under imminent threat. We find that the use of an agreed-upon hashtag and the number of users following an official account positively influence message retransmission, as does message content describing hazard impacts or emphasizing cohesion among users. By contrast, messages directed at individuals, expressing gratitude, or including a URL were less widely disseminated than similar messages without these features. Our findings suggest that some measures commonly taken to convey additional information to the public (e.g., URL inclusion) may come at a cost in terms of message amplification; on the other hand, some types of content not traditionally emphasized in guidance on hazard communication may enhance retransmission rates. PMID:26627233

  10. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    PubMed

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk. PMID:12822674